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1

A Comparison of Two Flashcard Drill Methods Targeting Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional drill and practice (TD) and incremental rehearsal (IR) are two flashcard drill instructional methods previously noted to improve word recognition. The current study sought to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of these two methods, as assessed by next day retention assessments, under 2 conditions (i.e., opportunities to respond…

Volpe, Robert J.; Mule, Christina M.; Briesch, Amy M.; Joseph, Laurice M.; Burns, Matthew K.

2011-01-01

2

Word Recognition Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participating in the Word Recognition Experiment. This study involves a series of word recognition trials in which participants are flashed a word either in the left or in the right hemifield and then identify the presented word. Performance is measured as the minimum presentation display time required for an individual to correctly identify the word.

3

Models of Word Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypotheses about the processes involved in word recognition are reviewed and assessed through four experiments. Overall results were compatible with criterion bias models. A version of this model attributes the advantage of words (over pseudowords and nonwords) to interfacilitation among single letter and lexical units in memory. (Author/RD)

Adams, Marilyn Jager

1979-01-01

4

Embedded Words in Visual Word Recognition: Does the Left Hemisphere See the Rain in Brain?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine whether interhemispheric transfer during foveal word recognition entails a discontinuity between the information presented to the left and right of fixation, we presented target words in such a way that participants fixated immediately left or right of an embedded word (as in "gr*apple", "bull*et") or in the middle of an embedded word

McCormick, Samantha F.; Davis, Colin J.; Brysbaert, Marc

2010-01-01

5

Word Recognition Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research on hemispheric specialization in lateralized recognition tasks has examined a range of factors that may influence or interact with the left-right dominance of particular tasks. The divided visual field technique is a valuable strategy for examining hemispheric specialization across a range of abilities. This page offers information about how to use a divided visual field activity to illustrate hemispheric specialization.

6

Sonority contours in word recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrary to the Generativist distinction between competence and performance which asserts that speech or perception errors are due to random, nonlinguistic factors, it seems likely that errors are principled and possibly governed by some of the same constraints as language. A preliminary investigation of errors modeled after the child's ``Chain Whisper'' game (a degraded stimulus task) suggests that a significant number of recognition errors can be characterized as an improvement in syllable sonority contour towards the linguistically least-marked, voiceless-stop-plus-vowel syllable. An independent study of sonority contours showed that approximately half of the English lexicon can be uniquely identified by their contour alone. Additionally, ``sororities'' (groups of words that share a single sonority contour), surprisingly, show no correlation to familiarity or frequency in either size or membership. Together these results imply that sonority contours may be an important factor in word recognition and in defining word ``neighborhoods.'' Moreover, they suggest that linguistic markedness constraints may be more prevalent in performance-related phenomena than previously accepted.

McLennan, Sean

2003-04-01

7

Morphology in Word Recognition: Hindi and Urdu  

E-print Network

The present research examined whether morphology influences word recognition independently of form-level word properties. Prevailing views attribute cross-linguistic differences in morphological processing to variations in morphological structure...

Rao, Chaitra

2011-08-08

8

Adult word recognition and visual sequential memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency\\u000a of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely\\u000a spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from words with internal\\u000a transposed letters. Symbol memory was evaluated in a

V. M. Holmes

9

Neurophysiological correlates of word recognition in dyslexia.  

PubMed

The neurobiological basis of learning word spellings and recognition of recently learned words was assessed in a learning experiment in 9 dyslexics and 9 controls male adolescents. In a recognition paradigm previously learned pseudowords and graphic symbols were presented 50 times each interspersed pseudo-randomly between 3 unlearned items which were repeated 50 times and 150 filler pseudowords. The electrophysiological correlate of recognition of learned pseudowords and graphic symbols was a positivity around 600 ms. For pseudowords the amplitude of this ERP component was significantly attenuated in the dyslexic group, no differences between the groups were found for recognition of graphic material. These data suggest that dyslexic children are able to learn the spelling of simple words, however, the neurophysiological correlate of recognition of these learned words is significantly attenuated. This result strengthens the view that dyslexic children are not generally impaired in recognition memory but specific for linguistic material like words. PMID:15206010

Schulte-Körne, G; Deimel, W; Bartling, J; Remschmidt, H

2004-07-01

10

Infrared target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, three approaches were used for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR). These approaches were shape, moment and Fourier generated features, Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) generated features and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) generated features. The KLT approach was modelled after the face recognition research by Suarez, AFIT, and Turk and Pentland, MIT. A KLT is taken of a reduced covariance matrix, composed all three classes of targets, and the resulting eigenimages are used to reconstruct the original images. The reconstruction coefficients for each original image are found by taking the dot product of the original image with each eigenimage. These reconstruction coefficients were implemented as features into a three layer backprop with momentum network. Using the hold one-cut-out technique of testing data, the net could correctly differentiate the targets 100 percent of the time. Using standard features, the correct classification rate was 99.33 percent. The DCT was also taken of each image, and 16 low frequency Fourier components were kept as features. These recognition rates were compared to FFT results where each set contained the top five feature, as determined by a saliency test. The results proved that the DCT and the FFT were equivalent concerning classification of targets.

Singstock, Brian D.

1991-12-01

11

Developmental, Crosslinguistic Perspectives on Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we argue that a complete understanding of language processing, in this case word-recognition processes, requires consideration both of multiple languages and of developmental processes. To illustrate these goals, we will summarize a 10-year research program exploring word-recognition processes in Korean adults and children. We…

Simpson, Greg B.; Kang, Hyewon

2006-01-01

12

Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition  

PubMed Central

Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task. PMID:21159322

Wilson, Lisa B.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E.; Rojas, Donald C.

2011-01-01

13

Word-Recognition Training: Computer versus Tutor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of tutor- or computer-assisted word recognition were assessed in a sample of third grade children. At pre-test, students' reading accuracy and fluency were evaluated on a training word list, generalization word list, and reading passages. Students were then randomly assigned to one of three group conditions--control (students practiced…

Lewandowski, Lawrence; Begeny, John; Rogers, Cynthia

2006-01-01

14

Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition  

PubMed Central

A method used widely to study the first 250?ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: For example, only word targets show priming in the lexical decision task, but both words and non-words do in the same-different task; semantic priming effects are generally weak in the lexical decision task but are robust in the semantic categorization task. We explain how such task dependence arises within the Bayesian Reader account of masked priming (Norris and Kinoshita, 2008), and how the task dissociations can be used to understand the early processes in lexical access. PMID:22675316

Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

2012-01-01

15

Lexical Competition in Non-Native Spoken-Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name ("pencil," given target "panda") than on less confusable distractors…

Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

2004-01-01

16

Word-Recognition Training: Computer Versus Tutor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of tutor- or computer-assisted word recognition were assessed in a sample of third grade children. At pre-test, students' reading accuracy and fluency were evaluated on a training word list, generalization word list, and reading passages. Students were then randomly assigned to one of three group conditions—control (students practiced word lists alone), tutor-assisted, and computer-assisted—and given three training sessions.

Lawrence Lewandowski; John Begeny; Cynthia Rogers

2006-01-01

17

Individual differences in online spoken word recognition: Implications for SLI  

PubMed Central

Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have important implications for work on language impairment. The present study begins to fill this gap by relating individual differences in overall language ability to variation in online word recognition processes. Using the visual world paradigm, we evaluated online spoken word recognition in adolescents who varied in both basic language abilities and non-verbal cognitive abilities. Eye movements to target, cohort and rhyme objects were monitored during spoken word recognition, as an index of lexical activation. Adolescents with poor language skills showed fewer looks to the target and more fixations to the cohort and rhyme competitors. These results were compared to a number of variants of the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) that were constructed to test a range of theoretical approaches to language impairment: impairments at sensory and phonological levels; vocabulary size, and generalized slowing. None were strongly supported, and variation in lexical decay offered the best fit. Thus, basic word recognition processes like lexical decay may offer a new way to characterize processing differences in language impairment. PMID:19836014

McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

18

Machine Recognition Of Cursive Arabic Words  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the IRAC II (Interactive Recognition of Arabic Characters) and the IRAC III systems, which recognize isolated Arabic words written from right to left on a graphic tablet connected to a mini-computer (MITRA 15125). In the IRAC II version words are recognized following their segmentation into characters. The IRAC III version uses global recognition with no segmentation. It calculates a vector defining the main parameters for each stroke making up the word and uses this information to recognize the word by dictionary consultation. It resolves eventual ambiguities with the help of secondary parameters calculated for each stroke.

Amin, Adnan; Masini, Gerald

1983-03-01

19

Early word recognition and later language skills.  

PubMed

Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of infants who had earlier participated in speech segmentation tasks. Each study extends prior follow-up tests: Study 1 by using a novel follow-up measure that taps into online processing, Study 2 by assessing language performance relationships over a longer time span than previously tested. Results of Study 1 show that brain correlates of speech segmentation ability at 10 months are positively related to 16-month-olds' target fixations in a looking-while-listening task. Results of Study 2 show that infant speech segmentation ability no longer directly predicts language profiles at the age of five. However, a meta-analysis across our results and those of similar studies (Study 3) reveals that age at follow-up does not moderate effect size. Together, the results suggest that infants' ability to recognize words in speech certainly benefits early vocabulary development; further observed relationships of later language skills to early word recognition may be consequent upon this vocabulary size effect. PMID:25347057

Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne

2014-01-01

20

The contribution of morphology to word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence of morphological processing was investigated in three word recognition tasks. In the first study, phonological ambiguity of the base morpheme in morphologically complex words of Serbo-Croatian was exploited in order to evaluate the claim that the base morpheme serves as the unit by which entries in the lexicon are accessed. An interaction of base morpheme ambiguity and affix characteristics

Laurie Beth Feldman

1991-01-01

21

Developmental Spelling and Word Recognition: A Validation of Ehri's Model of Word Recognition Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ehri's developmental model of word recognition outlines early reading development that spans from the use of logos to advanced knowledge of oral and written language to read words. Henderson's developmental spelling theory presents stages of word knowledge that progress in a similar manner to Ehri's phases. The purpose of this research study was…

Ebert, Ashlee A.

2009-01-01

22

Discourse Context and the Recognition of Reduced and Canonical Spoken Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two eye-tracking experiments we examined whether wider discourse information helps the recognition of reduced pronunciations (e.g., "puter") more than the recognition of canonical pronunciations of spoken words (e.g., "computer"). Dutch participants listened to sentences from a casual speech corpus containing canonical and reduced target words.…

Brouwer, Susanne; Mitterer, Holger; Huettig, Falk

2013-01-01

23

Modelling out-of-vocabulary words for robust speech recognition  

E-print Network

This thesis concerns the problem of unknown or out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words in continuous speech recognition. Most of today's state-of-the-art speech recognition systems can recognize only words that belong to some ...

Bazzi, Issam

2002-01-01

24

Studying the Grammatical Aspects of Word Recognition: Lexical Priming, Parsing,  

E-print Network

Studying the Grammatical Aspects of Word Recognition: Lexical Priming, Parsing, and Syntactic similar conclusions about the lexical nature of parsing in spoken language comprehension. They also priming; word recognition; syntactic processing; parsing. INTRODUCTION As part of the process

Kim, Albert.

25

An ERP investigation of visual word recognition in syllabary scripts.  

PubMed

The bimodal interactive-activation model has been successfully applied to understanding the neurocognitive processes involved in reading words in alphabetic scripts, as reflected in the modulation of ERP components in masked repetition priming. In order to test the generalizability of this approach, in the present study we examined word recognition in a different writing system, the Japanese syllabary scripts hiragana and katakana. Native Japanese participants were presented with repeated or unrelated pairs of Japanese words in which the prime and target words were both in the same script (within-script priming, Exp. 1) or were in the opposite script (cross-script priming, Exp. 2). As in previous studies with alphabetic scripts, in both experiments the N250 (sublexical processing) and N400 (lexical-semantic processing) components were modulated by priming, although the time course was somewhat delayed. The earlier N/P150 effect (visual feature processing) was present only in "Experiment 1: Within-script priming", in which the prime and target words shared visual features. Overall, the results provide support for the hypothesis that visual word recognition involves a generalizable set of neurocognitive processes that operate in similar manners across different writing systems and languages, as well as pointing to the viability of the bimodal interactive-activation framework for modeling such processes. PMID:23378278

Okano, Kana; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J

2013-06-01

26

Early use of phonetic information in spoken word recognition: lexical stress drives eye movements immediately.  

PubMed

For optimal word recognition listeners should use all relevant acoustic information as soon as it comes available. Using printed-word eye tracking we investigated when during word processing Dutch listeners use suprasegmental lexical stress information to recognize words. Fixations on targets such as "OCtopus" (capitals indicate stress) were more frequent than fixations on segmentally overlapping but differently stressed competitors ("okTOber") before segmental information could disambiguate the words. Furthermore, prior to segmental disambiguation, initially stressed words were stronger lexical competitors than noninitially stressed words. Listeners recognize words by immediately using all relevant information in the speech signal. PMID:19691004

Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M

2010-04-01

27

The Role of Holistic Paradigms in Handwritten Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The holistic paradigm in handwritten word recognition treats the word as a single, indivisible entity and attempts to recognize words from their overall shape, as opposed to their character contents. In this survey, we have attempted to take a fresh look at the potential role of the holistic paradigm in handwritten word recognition. The survey begins with an overview of

Sriganesh Madhvanath; Venu Govindaraju

2001-01-01

28

Spoken word recognition without a TRACE  

PubMed Central

How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition—including visual word recognition—have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349

Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S.; Grainger, Jonathan

2013-01-01

29

A multistream model of visual word recognition.  

PubMed

Four experiments are reported that test a multistream model of visual word recognition, which associates letter-level and word-level processing channels with three known visual processing streams isolated in macaque monkeys: the magno-dominated (MD) stream, the interblob-dominated (ID) stream, and the blob-dominated (BD) stream (Van Essen & Anderson, 1995). We show that mixing the color of adjacent letters of words does not result in facilitation of response times or error rates when the spatial-frequency pattern of a whole word is familiar. However, facilitation does occur when the spatial-frequency pattern of a whole word is not familiar. This pattern of results is not due to different luminance levels across the different-colored stimuli and the background because isoluminant displays were used. Also, the mixed-case, mixed-hue facilitation occurred when different display distances were used (Experiments 2 and 3), so this suggests that image normalization can adjust independently of object size differences. Finally, we show that this effect persists in both spaced and unspaced conditions (Experiment 4)--suggesting that inappropriate letter grouping by hue cannot account for these results. These data support a model of visual word recognition in which lower spatial frequencies are processed first in the more rapid MD stream. The slower ID and BD streams may process some lower spatial frequency information in addition to processing higher spatial frequency information, but these channels tend to lose the processing race to recognition unless the letter string is unfamiliar to the MD stream--as with mixed-case presentation. PMID:19304618

Allen, Philip A; Smith, Albert F; Lien, Mei-Ching; Kaut, Kevin P; Canfield, Angie

2009-02-01

30

Eye movements during spoken word recognition in Russian children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores incremental processing in spoken word recognition in Russian 5- and 6-year-olds and adults using free-viewing eye-tracking. Participants viewed scenes containing pictures of four familiar objects and clicked on a target embedded in a spoken instruction. In the cohort condition, two object names shared identical three-phoneme onsets. In the noncohort condition, all object names had unique onsets. Coarse-grain

Irina A. Sekerina; Patricia J. Brooks

2007-01-01

31

Coordination of Word Recognition and Oculomotor Control During Reading: The Role of Implicit Lexical Decisions  

PubMed Central

The coordination of word-recognition and oculomotor processes during reading was evaluated in two eye-tracking experiments that examined how word skipping, where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading, is affected by the lexical status of a letter string in the parafovea and ease of recognizing that string. Ease of lexical recognition was manipulated through target-word frequency (Experiment 1) and through repetition priming between prime-target pairs embedded in a sentence (Experiment 2). Using the gaze-contingent boundary technique the target word appeared in the parafovea either with full preview or with transposed-letter (TL) preview. The TL preview strings were nonwords in Experiment 1 (e.g., bilnk created from the target blink), but were words in Experiment 2 (e.g., sacred created from the target scared). Experiment 1 showed greater skipping for high-frequency than low-frequency target words in the full preview condition but not in the TL preview (nonword) condition. Experiment 2 showed greater skipping for target words that repeated an earlier prime word than for those that did not, with this repetition priming occurring both with preview of the full target and with preview of the target’s TL neighbor word. However, time to progress from the word after the target was greater following skips of the TL preview word, whose meaning was anomalous in the sentence context, than following skips of the full preview word whose meaning fit sensibly into the sentence context. Together, the results support the idea that coordination between word-recognition and oculomotor processes occurs at the level of implicit lexical decisions. PMID:23106372

Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C.

2013-01-01

32

Comparison of Word Recognition Strategies of Children and Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A word recognition model involving four processing stages was used, and tests of various word recognition strategies were administered to 25 fourth graders and 25 college students. The model included the following stages: (1) using information in a passage; (2) generating hypotheses from what the next word might be; (3) testing these hypotheses…

Samuels, S. Jay; Chen, C. C.

33

Word Embeddings for Speech Recognition Samy Bengio and Georg Heigold  

E-print Network

Word Embeddings for Speech Recognition Samy Bengio and Georg Heigold Google Inc, Mountain View, CA, USA {bengio,heigold}@google.com Abstract Speech recognition systems have used the concept of states dataset show improvements in word error rate. Index Terms: embeddings, deep learning, speech recognition

Cortes, Corinna

34

Influences of High and Low Variability on Infant Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although infants begin to encode and track novel words in fluent speech by 7.5 months, their ability to recognize words is somewhat limited at this stage. In particular, when the surface form of a word is altered, by changing the gender or affective prosody of the speaker, infants begin to falter at spoken word recognition. Given that natural…

Singh, Leher

2008-01-01

35

Function Words Constrain On-Line Recognition of Verbs and Nouns in French 18-Month-Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this experiment using the conditioned head-turn procedure, 18-month-old French-learning toddlers were trained to respond to either a target noun ("la balle"/"the ball") or a target verb ("je mange"/"I ea"t). They were then tested on target word recognition in two syntactic contexts: the target word was…

Cauvet, Elodie; Limissuri, Rita; Millotte, Severine; Skoruppa, Katrin; Cabrol, Dominique; Christophe, Anne

2014-01-01

36

Foreign language learning, hyperlexia, and early word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with hyperlexia read words spontaneously before the age of five, have impaired comprehension on both listening and\\u000a reading tasks, and have word recognition skill above expectations based on cognitive and linguistic abilities. One student\\u000a with hyperlexia and another student with higher word recognition than comprehension skills who started to read words at a\\u000a very early age were followed over

Richard L. Sparks; Marjorie Artzer

2000-01-01

37

The Influence of the Phonological Neighborhood Clustering-Coefficient on Spoken Word Recognition  

PubMed Central

Clustering coefficient—a measure derived from the new science of networks—refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words bat, hat, and can, all of which are neighbors of the word cat; the words bat and hat are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual identification task, words with a low clustering coefficient (i.e., few neighbors are neighbors of each other) were more accurately identified than words with a high clustering coefficient (i.e., many neighbors are neighbors of each other). In a lexical decision task, words with a low clustering coefficient were responded to more quickly than words with a high clustering coefficient. These findings suggest that the structure of the lexicon, that is the similarity relationships among neighbors of the target word measured by clustering coefficient, influences lexical access in spoken word recognition. Simulations of the TRACE and Shortlist models of spoken word recognition failed to account for the present findings. A framework for a new model of spoken word recognition is proposed. PMID:19968444

Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.

2009-01-01

38

On the role of competing word units in visual word recognition: The neighborhood frequency effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychologie Expérimentale, 28 rue Serpente, 75006 Paris, France. Current models of word recognition generally assume that\\u000a word units orthographically similar to a stimulus word are involved in the visual recognition of this word. We refer to this\\u000a set of orthographically similar words as an orthographic neighborhood. Two experiments are presented that investigate the\\u000a ways in which the composition of this

Jonathan Grainger; J. Kevin O’regan; Arthur M. Jacobs; Juan Segui

1989-01-01

39

Interference of spoken word recognition through phonological priming from visual objects and printed words.  

PubMed

Three cross-modal priming experiments examined the influence of preexposure to pictures and printed words on the speed of spoken word recognition. Targets for auditory lexical decision were spoken Dutch words and nonwords, presented in isolation (Experiments 1 and 2) or after a short phrase (Experiment 3). Auditory stimuli were preceded by primes, which were pictures (Experiments 1 and 3) or those pictures' printed names (Experiment 2). Prime-target pairs were phonologically onset related (e.g., pijl-pijn, arrow-pain), were from the same semantic category (e.g., pijl-zwaard, arrow-sword), or were unrelated on both dimensions. Phonological interference and semantic facilitation were observed in all experiments. Priming magnitude was similar for pictures and printed words and did not vary with picture viewing time or number of pictures in the display (either one or four). These effects arose even though participants were not explicitly instructed to name the pictures and where strategic naming would interfere with lexical decision making. This suggests that, by default, processing of related pictures and printed words influences how quickly we recognize spoken words. PMID:24132709

McQueen, James M; Huettig, Falk

2014-01-01

40

Expectation and Entropy in Spoken Word Recognition: Effects of Age and Hearing Acuity  

PubMed Central

Background/Study Context Older adults, especially those with reduced hearing acuity, can make good use of linguistic context in word recognition. Less is known about the effects of the weighted distribution of probable target and non-target words that fit the sentence context (response entropy). The present study examined the effects of age, hearing acuity, linguistic context, and response entropy on spoken word recognition. Methods Participants were 18 older adults with good hearing acuity (M age = 74.3 years), 18 older adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss (M age = 76.1 years) and 18 young adults with age-normal hearing (M age = 19.6 years). Participants heard sentence-final words using a word-onset gating paradigm, in which words were heard with increasing amounts of onset information until they could be correctly identified. Degrees of context varied from a neutral context to a high context condition. Results Older adults with poor hearing acuity required a greater amount of word onset information for recognition of words when heard in a neutral context compared to older adults with good hearing acuity and young adults. This difference progressively decreased with an increase in words’ contextual probability. Unlike the young adults, both older adult groups’ word recognition thresholds were sensitive to response entropy. Response entropy was not affected by hearing acuity. Conclusions Increasing linguistic context mitigates the negative effect of age and hearing loss on word recognition. The effect of response entropy on older adults’ word recognition is discussed in terms of an age-related inhibition deficit. PMID:23607396

Lash, Amanda; Rogers, Chad S.; Zoller, Amy; Wingfield, Arthur

2013-01-01

41

Space Target Recognition Based on Biomimetic Pattern Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomimetic Pattern Recognition is a new model of Pattern Recognition based on ldquomatter cognitionrdquo instead of ldquomatter classificationrdquo. This new model is much closer to the function of human being, than traditional statistical Pattern Recognition using ldquooptimal separatingrdquo as its main principle.But it has been investigated in 2D sample space, In this paper, we extend to space target Image sample

Wenming Cao; Hao Feng; Lili Hu; Tiancheng He

2009-01-01

42

Time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition: evidence from ERP analyses.  

PubMed

Evidence from event-related potential (ERP) analyses of English spoken words suggests that the time course of English word recognition in monosyllables is cumulative. Different types of phonological competitors (i.e., rhymes and cohorts) modulate the temporal grain of ERP components differentially (Desroches, Newman, & Joanisse, 2009). The time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition could be different from that of English due to the differences in syllable structure between the two languages (e.g., lexical tones). The present study investigated the time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition using ERPs to record brain responses online while subjects listened to spoken words. During the experiment, participants were asked to compare a target picture with a subsequent picture by judging whether or not these two pictures belonged to the same semantic category. The spoken word was presented between the two pictures, and participants were not required to respond during its presentation. We manipulated phonological competition by presenting spoken words that either matched or mismatched the target picture in one of the following four ways: onset mismatch, rime mismatch, tone mismatch, or syllable mismatch. In contrast to the English findings, our findings showed that the three partial mismatches (onset, rime, and tone mismatches) equally modulated the amplitudes and time courses of the N400 (a negative component that peaks about 400ms after the spoken word), whereas, the syllable mismatched words elicited an earlier and stronger N400 than the three partial mismatched words. The results shed light on the important role of syllable-level awareness in Chinese spoken word recognition and also imply that the recognition of Chinese monosyllabic words might rely more on global similarity of the whole syllable structure or syllable-based holistic processing rather than phonemic segment-based processing. We interpret the differences in spoken word processing between Chinese and English listeners as being due to morphosyllabic structural differences between the two languages. PMID:21382389

Zhao, Jingjing; Guo, Jingjing; Zhou, Fengying; Shu, Hua

2011-06-01

43

A structural and relational approach to handwritten word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new off-line word recognition system that is able to recognize unconstrained handwritten words using grey-scale images. This is based on structural and relational information in the handwritten word. We use Gabor filters to extract features from the words, and then use an evidence-based approach for word classification. A solution to the Gabor filter parameter

Richard Buse; Zhi-qiang Liu; Terry Caelli

1997-01-01

44

Using syntactic information to improve large-vocabulary word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global, context-sensitive parsing procedure that aids a large-vocabulary isolated-word speech recognition system is described. Presented with a long sequence of word candidates, the parser identifies likely erroneous words on the basis of a syntactic analysis of the preceding words. The parser suggests likely locations in the word sequence for punctuation marks such as sentence-final periods. It is not as

Douglas O'Shaughnessy

1989-01-01

45

Visual speech primes open-set recognition of spoken words  

PubMed Central

Visual speech perception has become a topic of considerable interest to speech researchers. Previous research has demonstrated that perceivers neurally encode and use speech information from the visual modality, and this information has been found to facilitate spoken word recognition in tasks such as lexical decision (Kim, Davis, & Krins, 2004). In this paper, we used a cross-modality repetition priming paradigm with visual speech lexical primes and auditory lexical targets to explore the nature of this priming effect. First, we report that participants identified spoken words mixed with noise more accurately when the words were preceded by a visual speech prime of the same word compared with a control condition. Second, analyses of the responses indicated that both correct and incorrect responses were constrained by the visual speech information in the prime. These complementary results suggest that the visual speech primes have an effect on lexical access by increasing the likelihood that words with certain phonetic properties are selected. Third, we found that the cross-modality repetition priming effect was maintained even when visual and auditory signals came from different speakers, and thus different instances of the same lexical item. We discuss implications of these results for current theories of speech perception. PMID:21544260

Buchwald, Adam B.; Winters, Stephen J.; Pisoni, David B.

2011-01-01

46

Medication Effects on Word Recognition of ADHD Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared performance on the Word Recognition Inventory of eight students in grades 1-4 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder either receiving medication or not receiving medication. The study found no significant differences between the two groups in word recognition. A review of the literature is attached. Appended are the…

Englebrook, Brian R.

47

The Role of Antibody in Korean Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A subsyllabic phonological unit, the antibody, has received little attention as a potential fundamental processing unit in word recognition. The psychological reality of the antibody in Korean recognition was investigated by looking at the performance of subjects presented with nonwords and words in the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, the…

Lee, Chang Hwan; Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kim, Kyungil

2010-01-01

48

Neural-network based measures of confidence for word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a probabilistic framework to define and evaluate confidence measures for word recognition. We describe a novel method to combine different knowledge sources and estimate the confidence in a word hypothesis, via a neural network. We also propose a measure of the joint performance of the recognition and confidence systems. The definitions and algorithms are illustrated with results

Mitch Weintraub; F. Beaufays; Z. Rivlin; Y. Konig; A. Stolcke

1997-01-01

49

Word frequency effects on recall, recognition, and word fragment completion tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 3 experiments, the effect of word frequency on an indirect word fragment completion test and on direct free-recall and Yes-no recognition tests was investigated. In Experiment 1, priming in word fragment completion was substantially greater for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words, but free recall was unaffected. Experiment 2 replicated the word fragment completion result and showed a corresponding

Colin M. MacLeod; Kristina E. Kampe

1996-01-01

50

See before you jump: full recognition of parafoveal words precedes skips during reading.  

PubMed

Serial attention models of eye-movement control during reading were evaluated in an eye-tracking experiment that examined how lexical activation combines with visual information in the parafovea to affect word skipping (where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading). Lexical activation was manipulated by repetition priming created through prime-target pairs embedded within a sentence. The boundary technique (Rayner, 1975) was used to determine whether the target word was fully available during parafoveal preview or whether it was available with transposed letters (e.g., Herman changed to Hreman). With full parafoveal preview, the target word was skipped more frequently when it matched the earlier prime word (i.e., was repeated) than when it did not match the earlier prime word (i.e., was new). With transposed-letter (TL) preview, repetition had no effect on skipping rates despite the great similarity of the TL preview string to the target word and substantial evidence that TL strings activate the words from which they are derived (Perea & Lupker, 2003). These results show that lexically based skipping is based on full recognition of the letter string in parafoveal preview and does not involve using the contextual constraint to compensate for the reduced information available from the parafovea. These results are consistent with models of eye-movement control during reading in which successive words in a text are processed 1 at a time (serially) and in which word recognition strongly influences eye movements. PMID:22686842

Gordon, Peter C; Plummer, Patrick; Choi, Wonil

2013-03-01

51

Morphological Influences on the Recognition of Monosyllabic Monomorphemic Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Balota et al. [Balota, D., Cortese, M., Sergent-Marshall, S., Spieler, D., & Yap, M. (2004). Visual word recognition for single-syllable words. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133," 283-316] studied lexical processing in word naming and lexical decision using hierarchical multiple regression techniques for a large data set of…

Baayen, R. H.; Feldman, L. B.; Schreuder, R.

2006-01-01

52

From Numbers to Letters: Feedback Regularization in Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word reading in alphabetic languages involves letter identification, independently of the format in which these letters are written. This process of letter "regularization" is sensitive to word context, leading to the recognition of a word even when numbers that resemble letters are inserted among other real letters (e.g., M4TERI4L). The present…

Molinaro, Nicola; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Marin-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

2010-01-01

53

Influences of Spoken Word Planning on Speech Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 4 chronometric experiments, influences of spoken word planning on speech recognition were examined. Participants were shown pictures while hearing a tone or a spoken word presented shortly after picture onset. When a spoken word was presented, participants indicated whether it contained a prespecified phoneme. When the tone was presented, they…

Roelofs, Ardi; Ozdemir, Rebecca; Levelt, Willem J. M.

2007-01-01

54

Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We employ a single-trial correlational MEG analysis technique to investigate early processing in the visual recognition of morphologically complex words. Three classes of affixed words were presented in a lexical decision task: free stems (e.g., taxable), bound roots (e.g., tolerable), and unique root words (e.g., vulnerable, the root of which…

Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

2010-01-01

55

Algorithm research of infrared target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Target recognition is an important content of computer intelligent vision surveillance system. A method of joint transform recognition is proposed for identifying and tracking the target from the infrared thermal image, which based on wavelet packet, Laplace operator and Fourier transform. The experimental result shows that the algorithm has a good performance in real-time, moreover, it can recognize the target

Wenzhe Liu; Wensheng Wang; Yongli Ma

2010-01-01

56

Isolated and Connected Word Recognition--Theory and Selected Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The art and science of speech recognition have been advanced to the state where it is now possible to communicate reliably with a computer by speaking to it in a disciplined manner using a vocabulary of moderate size. It is the purpose of this paper to outline two aspects of speech-recognition research. First, we discuss word recognition as a classical

L. Rabiner; S. Levinson

1981-01-01

57

Foreign language learning, hyperlexia, and early word recognition.  

PubMed

Children with hyperlexia read words spontaneously before the age of five, have impaired comprehension on both listening and reading tasks, and have word recognition skill above expectations based on cognitive and linguistic abilities. One student with hyperlexia and another student with higher word recognition than comprehension skills who started to read words at a very early age were followed over several years from the primary grades through high school when both were completing a second-year Spanish course. The purpose of the present study was to examine the foreign language (FL) word recognition, spelling, reading comprehension, writing, speaking, and listening skills of the two students and another high school student without hyperlexia. Results showed that the student without hyperlexia achieved higher scores than the hyperlexic student and the student with above average word recognition skills on most FL proficiency measures. The student with hyperlexia and the student with above average word recognition skills achieved higher scores on the Spanish proficiency tasks that required the exclusive use of phonological (pronunciation) and phonological/orthographic (word recognition, spelling) skills than on Spanish proficiency tasks that required the use of listening comprehension and speaking and writing skills. The findings provide support for the notion that word recognition and spelling in a FL may be modular processes and exist independently of general cognitive and linguistic skills. Results also suggest that students may have stronger FL learning skills in one language component than in other components of language, and that there may be a weak relationship between FL word recognition and oral proficiency in the FL. PMID:20563785

Sparks, R L; Artzer, M

2000-01-01

58

Machine Intelligence Technology for Automatic Target Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Automatic target recognition (ATR)-the use of computer processing to detect and identify targets (such as tanks, howitzers, and armored personnel carriers) automatically-is becoming critically important in several military applications. ATR systems can re...

J. G. Verly, R. L. Delanoy, D. E. Dudgeon

1989-01-01

59

Sizing down the competition: Speaking style and word recognition.  

PubMed

Identifying words with many phonological neighbors is more challenging for older adults than for younger adults. This difference has been attributed to reductions in inhibitory control associated with aging, which impair older adults' ability to cope with competition from similar-sounding words (Sommers and Danielson, 1999). Many difficulties in speech identification can be alleviated, however, when speech is produced clearly (i.e., the style adopted naturally by speakers when they perceive that their interlocutors are having difficulty understanding them). The current study investigates whether the acoustic-phonetic enhancements of clear speech can also reduce the inhibitory challenge of word recognition. If so, it is predicted that listeners will receive a greater benefit from clear speech when identifying lexically difficult words (i.e., words with many neighbors) vs. lexically easy words (i.e., words with fewer neighbors). Younger and older adults performed a word-recognition task in noise. Results to date show that the clear speech benefit is indeed greater for lexically difficult words than for lexically easy words for both groups of listeners. This pattern of results suggests that clear speech reduces the inhibitory demands associated with word recognition by increasing the perceptual difference between phonological neighbors. PMID:25235341

Van Engen, Kristin

2014-04-01

60

The time course of spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese: A unimodal ERP study.  

PubMed

In the present study, two experiments were carried out to investigate the time course of spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese using both event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral measures. To address the hypothesis that there is an early phonological processing stage independent of semantics during spoken word recognition, a unimodal word-matching paradigm was employed, in which both prime and target words were presented auditorily. Experiment 1 manipulated the phonological relations between disyllabic primes and targets, and found an enhanced P2 (200-270ms post-target onset) as well as a smaller early N400 to word-initial phonological mismatches over fronto-central scalp sites. Experiment 2 manipulated both phonological and semantic relations between monosyllabic primes and targets, and replicated the phonological mismatch-associated P2, which was not modulated by semantic relations. Overall, these results suggest that P2 is a sensitive electrophysiological index of early phonological processing independent of semantics in Mandarin Chinese spoken word recognition. PMID:25172388

Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen; Zhang, Qin; Guo, Chunyan

2014-10-01

61

Individual Differences in Online Spoken Word Recognition: Implications for SLI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have…

McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2010-01-01

62

The Influence of Phonotactic Probability on Word Recognition in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influence of phonotactic probability on word recognition in English-speaking toddlers. Typically developing toddlers completed a preferential looking paradigm using familiar words, which consisted of either high or low phonotactic probability sound sequences. The participants' looking behavior was recorded in response…

MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Marton, Klara

2014-01-01

63

L2 Gender Facilitation and Inhibition in Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates the role of grammatical gender facilitation and inhibition in second language (L2) learners' spoken word recognition. Native speakers of languages that have grammatical gender are sensitive to gender marking when hearing and recognizing a word. Gender facilitation refers to when a given noun that is preceded by an…

Behney, Jennifer N.

2011-01-01

64

Influences of High and Low Variability on Infant Word Recognition  

PubMed Central

Although infants begin to encode and track novel words in fluent speech by 7.5 months, their ability to recognize words is somewhat limited at this stage. In particular, when the surface form of a word is altered, by changing the gender or affective prosody of the speaker, infants begin to falter at spoken word recognition. Given that natural speech is replete with variability, only some of which is determines the meaning of a word, it remains unclear how infants might ever overcome the effects of surface variability without appealing to meaning. In the current set of experiments, consequences of high and low variability are examined in preverbal infants. The source of variability, vocal affect, is a common property of infant-directed speech with which young learners have to contend. Across a series of four experiments, infants' abilities to recognize repeated encounters of words, as well as to reject similar-sounding words, are investigated in the context of high and low affective variation. Results point to positive consequences of affective variation, both in creating generalizable memory representations for words, but also in establishing phonologically precise memories for words. Conversely, low variability appears to degrade word recognition on both fronts, compromising infants' abilities to generalize across different affective forms of a word and to detect similar-sounding items. Findings are discussed in the context of principles of categorization, both of a linguistic and non-linguistic variety, which may potentiate the early growth of a lexicon. PMID:17586482

Singh, Leher

2008-01-01

65

Recognition of function words in 8-month-old French-learning infants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has shown that German-learning 7-9-month-old infants recognize function words (Hoehle and Weissenborn, 2003). English-learning infants recognize function words around 10.5-11 months (Schafer et al. 1998; Shady, 1996; Shi et al., 2003, 2004), and the highly frequent determiner ``the'' at 8 months (Shi et al., 2004). The present study investigates French-learning infants' recognition of function words. As French is a syllable-timing language, the fuller syllabic status may allow infants to recognize function words earlier than English-learning infants. Syntactically and morphologically, functional elements occur more systematically in French than in English, providing reliable statistical cues to functor segmentation. Using a preferential looking procedure, we familiarized 8-month-olds with a target function word (``des,'' ``la,'' ``mes'' or ``ta''), and tested them with phrases containing the target versus a non-target. Results showed that infants' looking time to the phrases containing the targets versus those containing the non-targets differed significantly. Thus, infants recognized the target functors in continuous speech. As the targets included both high-frequency (``des,'' ``la'') and low-frequency (``mes,'' ``ta'') function words, we suggest that infants may begin segmenting high-frequency functors at an even younger age. The implications of early processing of function words to language acquisition will be discussed.

Shi, Rushen; Gauthier, Bruno

2005-04-01

66

Rapid Word Recognition as a Measure of Word-Level Automaticity and Its Relation to Other Measures of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the relationship between rapid recognition of individual words (Word Recognition Test) and two measures of contextual reading: (1) grade-level Passage Reading Test (IRI passage) and (2) performance on standardized STAR Reading Test. To establish if time of presentation on the word recognition test was a factor in…

Frye, Elizabeth M.; Gosky, Ross

2012-01-01

67

Phonetic discrimination and non-native spoken-word recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When phoneme categories of a non-native language do not correspond to those of the native language, non-native categories may be inaccurately perceived. This may impair non-native spoken-word recognition. Weber and Cutler investigated the effect of phonetic discrimination difficulties on competitor activation in non-native listening. They tested whether Dutch listeners use English phonetic contrasts to resolve potential competition. Eye movements of Dutch participants were monitored as they followed spoken English instructions to click on pictures of objects. A target picture (e.g., picture of a paddle) was always presented along with distractor pictures. The name of a distractor picture either shared initial segments with the name of the target picture (e.g., target paddle, /paedl/ and competitor pedal, /pEdl/) or not (e.g., strawberry and duck). Half of the target-competitor pairs contained English vowels that are often confused by Dutch listeners (e.g., /ae/ and /E/ as in ``paddle-pedal''), half contained vowels that are unlikely to be confused (e.g., /ae/ and /aI/ as in ``parrot-pirate''). Dutch listeners fixated distractor pictures with confusable English vowels longer than distractor pictures with distinct vowels. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity of non-native listeners to phonetic contrasts can result in spurious competitors that should not be activated for native listeners.

Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

2002-05-01

68

Visual Word Recognition of Single-Syllable Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speeded visual word naming and lexical decision performance are reported for 2,428 words for young adults and healthy older adults. Hierarchical regression techniques were used to investigate the unique predictive variance of phonological features in the onsets, lexical variables (e.g., measures of consistency, frequency, familiarity, neighborhood…

Balota, David A.; Cortese, Michael J.; Sergent-Marshall, Susan D.; Spieler, Daniel H.; Yap, Melvin J.

2004-01-01

69

Sub-word unit based non-audible speech recognition using surface electromyography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a novel approach for a surface elec- tromyographic speech recognition system based on sub-word units. Rather than using full word models as integrated in our previous work we propose here smaller sub-word units as prereq- uisites for large vocabulary speech recognition. This allows the recognition of words not seen in the training set based on

Matthias Walliczek; Florian Kraft; Szu-Chen Stan Jou; Tanja Schultz; Alex Waibel

2006-01-01

70

Effects of the acoustic properties of infant-directed speech on infant word recognition1  

PubMed Central

A number of studies have examined the acoustic differences between infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech, suggesting that the exaggerated acoustic properties of IDS might facilitate infants’ language development. However, there has been little empirical investigation of the acoustic properties that infants use for word learning. The goal of this study was thus to examine how 19-month-olds’ word recognition is affected by three acoustic properties of IDS: slow speaking rate, vowel hyper-articulation, and wide pitch range. Using the intermodal preferential looking procedure, infants were exposed to half of the test stimuli (e.g., Where’s the book?) in typical IDS style. The other half of the stimuli were digitally altered to remove one of the three properties under investigation. After the target word (e.g., book) was spoken, infants’ gaze toward target and distractor referents was measured frame by frame to examine the time course of word recognition. The results showed that slow speaking rate and vowel hyper-articulation significantly improved infants’ ability to recognize words, whereas wide pitch range did not. These findings suggest that 19-month-olds’ word recognition may be affected only by the linguistically relevant acoustic properties in IDS. PMID:20649233

Song, Jae Yung; Demuth, Katherine; Morgan, James

2010-01-01

71

Phonological Assimilation and Visual Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are the visual word-processing tasks of naming and lexical decision sensitive to systematic phonological properties that may or may not be specified in the spelling? Two experiments with Hangul, the alphabetic orthography of Korea, were directed at the effects of the phonological process of assimilation whereby one articulation changes to conform to a neighboring articulation. Disyllabic words were responded to

Yang Lee; Miguel A. Moreno; Claudia Carello; Michael T. Turvey

2006-01-01

72

Spoken word recognition and lexical representation in very young children.  

PubMed

Although children's knowledge of the sound patterns of words has been a focus of debate for many years, little is known about the lexical representations very young children use in word recognition. In particular, researchers have questioned the degree of specificity encoded in early lexical representations. The current study addressed this issue by presenting 18-23-month-olds with object labels that were either correctly pronounced, or mispronounced. Mispronunciations involved replacement of one segment with a similar segment, as in 'baby-vaby'. Children heard sentences containing these words while viewing two pictures, one of which was the referent of the sentence. Analyses of children's eye movements showed that children recognized the spoken words in both conditions, but that recognition was significantly poorer when words were mispronounced. The effects of mispronunciation on recognition were unrelated to age or to spoken vocabulary size. The results suggest that children's representations of familiar words are phonetically well-specified, and that this specification may not be a consequence of the need to differentiate similar words in production. PMID:10856741

Swingley, D; Aslin, R N

2000-08-14

73

The Effects of Multiple Script Priming on Word Recognition by the Two Cerebral Hemispheres: Implications for Discourse Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined left (LH) and right (RH) hemisphere involvement in discourse processing by testing the ability of each hemisphere to use world knowledge in the form of script contexts for word recognition. Participants made lexical decisions to laterally presented target words preceded by centrally presented script primes (four…

Faust, Miriam; Barak, Ofra; Chiarello, Christine

2006-01-01

74

Visual Word Recognition of Single-Syllable Words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speeded visual word naming and lexical decision performance are reported for 2,428 words for young adults and healthy older adults. Hierarchical regression techniques were used to investigate the unique predictive variance of phonological features in the onsets, lexical variables (e.g., measures of consistency, frequency, familiarity, neighborhood size, and length), and semantic variables (e.g., imageability and semantic connectivity). The influence of

David A. Balota; Michael J. Cortese; Susan D. Sergent-Marshall; Daniel H. Spieler; Melvin J. Yap

2004-01-01

75

Sight Word Recognition among Young Children At-Risk: Picture-Supported vs. Word-Only  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the impact of Picture Communication Symbols (PCS) on sight word recognition by young children identified as "at risk" for academic and social-behavior difficulties. Ten pre-primer and 10 primer Dolch words were presented to 23 students in the intervention group and 8 students in the control group…

Meadan, Hedda; Stoner, Julia B.; Parette, Howard P.

2008-01-01

76

An Activation-Verification Model for Letter and Word Recognition: The Word-Superiority Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An encoding algorithm uses empirically determined confusion matrices to activate units in an alphabetum and a lexicon to predict performance of word, orthographically regular nonword, or irregular nonword recognition. Performance is enhanced when decisions are based on lexical information which constrains test letter identity. Word prediction…

Paap, Kenneth R.; And Others

1982-01-01

77

The what, when, where, and how of visual word recognition.  

PubMed

A long-standing debate in reading research is whether printed words are perceived in a feedforward manner on the basis of orthographic information, with other representations such as semantics and phonology activated subsequently, or whether the system is fully interactive and feedback from these representations shapes early visual word recognition. We review recent evidence from behavioral, functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, and biologically plausible connectionist modeling approaches, focusing on how each approach provides insight into the temporal flow of information in the lexical system. We conclude that, consistent with interactive accounts, higher-order linguistic representations modulate early orthographic processing. We also discuss how biologically plausible interactive frameworks and coordinated empirical and computational work can advance theories of visual word recognition and other domains (e.g., object recognition). PMID:24373885

Carreiras, Manuel; Armstrong, Blair C; Perea, Manuel; Frost, Ram

2014-02-01

78

Configurable computing solutions for automatic target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

FPGAs can be used to build systems for automatic target recognition (ATR) that achieve an order of magnitude increase in performance over systems built using general purpose processors. This improvement is possible because the bit-level operations that comprise much of the ATR computational burden map extremely efficiently into FPGAs, and because the specificity of ATR target templates can be leveraged

John Villasenor; Brian Schoner; Kang-Ngee Chia; Charles Zapata; Hea Joung Kim; Chris Jones; Shane Lansing; Bill Mangione-Smith

1996-01-01

79

Research on Isolated Word Speech Recognition Based on Biomimetic Pattern Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the theories of biomimetic pattern recognition and high-dimension space covering are applied into the isolated word speech recognition. And, based on Hopfield network and RBF network, a new type of neural network model is constructed to realize the coverage of different types of samples which form different geometrical shapes in high-dimension space. Therefore, the purpose of classification

Bin Lu; Jing-jing Xu

2009-01-01

80

Voice reinstatement modulates neural indices of continuous word recognition.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to examine listeners' ability to use voice information incidentally during spoken word recognition. We recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during a continuous recognition paradigm in which participants indicated on each trial whether the spoken word was "new" or "old." Old items were presented at 2, 8 or 16 words following the first presentation. Context congruency was manipulated by having the same word repeated by either the same speaker or a different speaker. The different speaker could share the gender, accent or neither feature with the word presented the first time. Participants' accuracy was greatest when the old word was spoken by the same speaker than by a different speaker. In addition, accuracy decreased with increasing lag. The correct identification of old words was accompanied by an enhanced late positivity over parietal sites, with no difference found between voice congruency conditions. In contrast, an earlier voice reinstatement effect was observed over frontal sites, an index of priming that preceded recollection in this task. Our results provide further evidence that acoustic and semantic information are integrated into a unified trace and that acoustic information facilitates spoken word recollection. PMID:25080187

Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Backer, Kristina C; Alain, Claude

2014-09-01

81

Effects of subphonetic and syllable structure variation on word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored whether natural acoustic variations as exemplified by either subphonetic changes or syllable structure\\u000a changes affect word recognition processes. Subphonetic variations were realized by differences in the voice-onset time (VOT)\\u000a value of initial voiceless stop consonants, and syllable structure variations were realized by vowel deletion in initial unstressed\\u000a syllables in multisyllable words. An auditory identity priming paradigm was

Jennifer Aydelott Utman; Sheila E. Blumstein; Martha W. Burton

2000-01-01

82

Electrophysiological Evidence of Gender differences in Chinese words recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event-related potentials were recorded in order to study gender difference in the brain processes of verbal recognition memory. 15 male and 15 female healthy volunteers received a Chinese words recognition task. Both males and females showed a positive-going parietal old\\/new effect, but females demonstrated larger P500 amplitudes and shorter P500 latency than males. Furthermore, the parietal old\\/new effect of males

Wang Xiang; Yao Shu-qiao; Liu Ding; Wang Xiao-yan; Chen Bin; Wu Da-xing; Cheng Zao-huo

2005-01-01

83

Factors Affecting the Reading of Rimes in Words and Nonwords in Beginning Readers with Cognitive Disabilities and Typically Developing Readers: Explorations in Similarity and Difference in Word Recognition Cue Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploratory research reported in this study was designed to initiate research in reading that includes children who have cognitive disabilities other than learning disabilities. Forty children, whose word recognition level was at the second-grade level, were assessed for knowledge of letter names, letter sounds, and rime recognition for high and low frequency target words and nonwords. Of these children,

J. Anne Calhoon

2001-01-01

84

Artificial neural networks for automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Self Adaptive Hierarchical Target Identification and Recognition Neural Network (SAHTIRNTM), is a unique and powerful combination of state-of-the-art neural network models for automatic target recognition applications. It is a combination of three models: (1) an early vision segmentor based on the Canny edge detector, (2) a hierarchical feature extraction and pattern recognition system based on a modified Neocognitron architecture, and (3) a pattern classifier based on the back-propagation network. Hughes has extensively tested SAHTIRNTM with several ground vehicular targets using terrain board modeled IR imagery under a current neural network program sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. In addition, extensive testing was conducted using several real IR and handwritten character databases. Hughes has demonstrated successful performance with 91 to 100% probability of correct classification over this wide variety of data. End-to-end system results from these experiments are provided and interim results from each stage of the SAHTIRNTM system are discussed.

Daniell, Cindy E.; Kemsley, David; Lincoln, William P.; Tackett, Walter A.; Baraghimian, Gregory A.

1992-12-01

85

Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition  

PubMed Central

It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters) from their eye-centered (i.e., retinal) locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity) was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Word-tuning and location-invariance were found at the level of single neurons, but there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words—which was the model's learning objective—is largely based on letter-level information. PMID:24065939

Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Zorzi, Marco

2013-01-01

86

Foreign Language Learning, Hyperlexia, and Early Word Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving a high-school student with hyperlexia and a student with above average word recognition skills, found they scored higher on Spanish proficiency tasks that required the exclusive use of phonological and phonological/orthographic skills than on Spanish proficiency tasks requiring listening comprehension and speaking and writing…

Sparks, Richard L.; Artzer, Marjorie

2000-01-01

87

The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

Yates, Mark

2012-01-01

88

Relative timing measures of acoustic segments aid automatic word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most template-matching methods of automatic word recognition, putatively corresponding frames of the template and the unknown speech are found by allowing time alignment such that a least cumulative spectral distance is obtained. The resultant time warping allows the best match to the spectrum of each frame, but in doing so it can destroy temporal relations among frames. Therefore, a

Hollis L. Fitch

1982-01-01

89

Context and Spoken Word Recognition in a Novel Lexicon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three eye movement studies with novel lexicons investigated the role of semantic context in spoken word recognition, contrasting 3 models: restrictive access, access-selection, and continuous integration. Actions directed at novel shapes caused changes in motion (e.g., looming, spinning) or state (e.g., color, texture). Across the experiments,…

Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

2008-01-01

90

"Context and Spoken Word Recognition in a Novel Lexicon": Correction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports an error in "Context and spoken word recognition in a novel lexicon" by Kathleen Pirog Revill, Michael K. Tanenhaus and Richard N. Aslin ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 2008[Sep], Vol 34[5], 1207-1223). Figure 9 was inadvertently duplicated as Figure 10. Figure 9 in the original article was correct.…

Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

2009-01-01

91

Influence of Mild Cognitive Impairment on Visual Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the effects of normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on visual word recognition. Madden et al. (1999) reported evidence of general slowing of cognitive processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients relative to younger adults and healthy older adults using a lexical decision task. It was of interest to determine whether similar effects would be observed

Aryn L. H. Bush; Philip A. Allen; Kevin P. Kaut; Paula K. Ogrocki

2007-01-01

92

Auditory and Visual Word Recognition in Beginning Adult Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory investigation was made of cross-modality matching within the context of word recognition skills among beginning adult readers. The specific aim of the study was to assess the possibility that a deficit in cross-modality matching might be potentially useful as a diagnostic and predictive indicator of the rate at which adults learn to…

Johnson, Raymond L.; Cortwright, Richard W.

93

Hyperlexia: precocious word recognition in developmentally delayed children.  

PubMed

Seven children who had unusually precocious word-recognition skills and otherwise had multiple significant developmental deviations were identified. Past findings are reviewed along with psychometric results and clinical observations of the seven hyperlexic children. Implications concerning the syndrome of hyperlexia and how this behavioral pattern may disrupt the acquisition of appropriate modalities of communication are discussed. PMID:7133911

Fontenelle, S; Alarcon, M

1982-08-01

94

Hyperlexia: Precocious Word Recognition in Developmentally Delayed Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past findings were reviewed with psychometric results and clinical observations of seven children with unusually precocious word-recognition skills and otherwise multiple significant developmental deviations. Implications concerning the syndrome of hyperlexia and how the behavior pattern may disrupt the acquisition of appropriate modalities of…

Fontenelle, Scuddy; Alarcon, Mollie

1982-01-01

95

Working memory affects older adults' use of context in spoken-word recognition.  

PubMed

Many older listeners report difficulties in understanding speech in noisy situations. Working memory and other cognitive skills may modulate older listeners' ability to use context information to alleviate the effects of noise on spoken-word recognition. In the present study, we investigated whether verbal working memory predicts older adults' ability to immediately use context information in the recognition of words embedded in sentences, presented in different listening conditions. In a phoneme-monitoring task, older adults were asked to detect as fast and as accurately as possible target phonemes in sentences spoken by a target speaker. Target speech was presented without noise, with fluctuating speech-shaped noise, or with competing speech from a single distractor speaker. The gradient measure of contextual probability (derived from a separate offline rating study) affected the speed of recognition. Contextual facilitation was modulated by older listeners' verbal working memory (measured with a backward digit span task) and age across listening conditions. Working memory and age, as well as hearing loss, were also the most consistent predictors of overall listening performance. Older listeners' immediate benefit from context in spoken-word recognition thus relates to their ability to keep and update a semantic representation of the sentence content in working memory. PMID:24443921

Janse, Esther; Jesse, Alexandra

2014-09-01

96

Skilled Readers Begin Processing Sub-phonemic Features by 80 ms during Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from ERPs  

PubMed Central

Two masked priming experiments investigated the time course of the activation of sub-phonemic information during visual word recognition. EEG was recorded as participants read targets with voiced and unvoiced final consonants (e.g., fad and fat), preceded by nonword primes that were incongruent or congruent in voicing and vowel duration (e.g., fap or faz). Experiment 1 used a long duration mask (100 ms) between prime and target, whereas Experiment 2 used a short mask (22 ms). Phonological feature congruency began modulating the amplitude of brain potentials by 80 ms; the feature incongruent condition evoked greater negativity than the feature congruent condition in both Experiments. The early onset of the congruency effect indicates that skilled readers initially activate sub-phonemic feature information during word identification. Congruency effects also appeared in the middle and late periods of word recognition, suggesting that readers use phonological representations in multiple aspects of visual word recognition. PMID:18456383

Ashby, Jane; Sanders, Lisa D.; Kingston, John

2009-01-01

97

Chinese Unknown Word Recognition for PCFG-LA Parsing  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL), is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness. PMID:24895681

Huang, Qiuping; He, Liangye; Wong, Derek F.; Chao, Lidia S.

2014-01-01

98

Chinese unknown word recognition for PCFG-LA parsing.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL), is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness. PMID:24895681

Huang, Qiuping; He, Liangye; Wong, Derek F; Chao, Lidia S

2014-01-01

99

Automatic target recognition via sparse representations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic target recognition (ATR) based on the emerging technology of Compressed Sensing (CS) can considerably improve accuracy, speed and cost associated with these types of systems. An image based ATR algorithm has been built upon this new theory, which can perform target detection and recognition in a low dimensional space. Compressed dictionaries (A) are formed to include rotational information for a scale of interest. The algorithm seeks to identify y(test sample) as a linear combination of the dictionary elements : y=Ax, where A ? Rnxm(n<target. The algorithm can reject clutter and background, which are part of the input image. The detection and recognition problems are solved by finding the sparse-solution to the undetermined system y=Ax via Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and l1 minimization techniques. Visible and MWIR imagery collected by the Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) was utilized to test the algorithm. Results show an average detection and recognition rates above 95% for targets at ranges up to 3Km for both image modalities.

Estabridis, Katia

2010-04-01

100

Sonar recognition of targets embedded in sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dolphins have biological sonar abilities that exceed those of any man-made system in an aquatic environment. One problem of particular importance, and for which only limited capabilities exist, is the detection and recognition of targets buried under sediment. This paper reviews dolphin echolocation capabilities and describes a system that uses a dolphin-like signal and biomimetic signal processing mechanisms to emulate

Herbert L. Roitblat; Whitlow W. L. Au; Paul E. Nachtigall; Reid H. Shizumura; Gerald C. Moons

1995-01-01

101

Target Recognition and Synapse Formation During Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about neuron/target muscle recognition (page 44 of the PDF), learners arranged in two rows facing away from each other use string to simulate neural development. The lesson guide, part of NASA's "The Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience" includes background information and evaluation strategies.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2012-06-26

102

Multifunction sensor for target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Army has a critical need for the capability provided by a multifunction sensor. This is (in effect) a smart sensor system that can adapt to environmental conditions and adjust its mode of operation to effectively counter any threat it meets. It will have an intelligent signal processor which has all of the system's sensor signals to choose from. The processor chooses the appropriate signal information to rapidly detect, acquire, track, and automatically identify all targets in the vicinity of the sensor under a wide variety of battlefield scenarios and environmental conditions. The multiphenomenology signal information provides the flexibility to overcome the adverse effects of clutter, countermeasures (both active and passive), illumination, obscurants, target orientation, and weather. It should be noted, however, that the types of sensory information required is dependent on the mission and the operating environment. For instance, a strategic defense sensor operating in space can use (and will need) different types of sensor data than the multifunction sensor employed on an attack helicopter. In fact, the sensor configuration on a helicopter operating in Saudi Arabia may be quite different from one that is deployed to Vietnam. For the purpose of this paper we generalize about the technologies desired for an adaptable, `smart' sensor system. We do not specify a particular mission nor define a specific threat. However, in any case, we can assume the need to fuse sensor signal information in an intelligent processor to provide robust performance in the battlefield environment. 12

James, William M.; Lindberg, Perry C.

1993-09-01

103

Sight Word Recognition Among Young Children At-Risk: Picture-Supported vs. Word-Only  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the impact of Picture Communication Symbols (PCS) on sight word recognition by young children identified as 'at risk' for academic and social-behavior difficulties. Ten pre-primer and 10 primer Dolch words were presented to 23 students in the intervention group and 8 students in the control group during interactive games. Assessments occurred at four

Hedda Meadan; Julia B. Stoner; Howard P. Parette

104

THE INFLUENCE OF NOISE ON PHONOLOGICAL COMPETITION DURING SPOKEN WORD RECOGNITION  

PubMed Central

Listeners’ interactions often take place in auditorily challenging conditions. We examined how noise affects phonological competition during spoken word recognition. In a visual-world experiment, which allows us to examine the time-course of recognition, English participants listened to target words in quiet and in noise while they saw four pictures on the screen: a target (e.g. candle), an onset overlap competitor (e.g. candy), an offset overlap competitor (e.g. sandal), and a distractor. The results showed that, while all competitors were relatively quickly suppressed in quiet listening conditions, listeners experienced persistent competition in noise from the offset competitor but not from the onset competitor. This suggests that listeners’ phonological competitor activation persists for longer in noise than in quiet and that listeners are able to deactivate some unwanted competition when listening to speech in noise. The well-attested competition pattern in quiet was not replicated. Possible methodological explanations for this result are discussed.

Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R.

2013-01-01

105

Age-of-Acquisition, Word Frequency, and Neighborhood Density Effects on Spoken Word Recognition by Children and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed how lexical factors associated with vocabulary growth influence spoken word recognition by preschoolers, elementary-school children, and adults. Word frequency effects in gating and word repetition tasks were minimal, whereas age-of-acquisition and neighborhood density effects were found for all listeners. For word repetition, children displayed more of an advantage for the recognition of early-acquired items from sparse vs

Victoria M. Garlock; Amanda C. Walley; Jamie L. Metsala

2001-01-01

106

Robotics control using isolated word recognition of voice input  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A speech input/output system is presented that can be used to communicate with a task oriented system. Human speech commands and synthesized voice output extend conventional information exchange capabilities between man and machine by utilizing audio input and output channels. The speech input facility is comprised of a hardware feature extractor and a microprocessor implemented isolated word or phrase recognition system. The recognizer offers a medium sized (100 commands), syntactically constrained vocabulary, and exhibits close to real time performance. The major portion of the recognition processing required is accomplished through software, minimizing the complexity of the hardware feature extractor.

Weiner, J. M.

1977-01-01

107

(Almost) Word for Word: As Voice Recognition Programs Improve, Students Reap the Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voice recognition software is hardly new--attempts at capturing spoken words and turning them into written text have been available to consumers for about two decades. But what was once an expensive and highly unreliable tool has made great strides in recent years, perhaps most recognized in programs such as Nuance's Dragon NaturallySpeaking…

Smith, Mark

2006-01-01

108

Improvements in beam search for 10000-word continuous speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes the improvements in a time synchronous beam search strategy for a 10000-word continuous speech recognition task. The improvements are based on two measures: a tree-organization of the pronunciation lexicon and a novel look-ahead technique at the phoneme level, both of which interact directly with the detailed search at the state levels of the phoneme models. Experimental tests

H. Ney; R. Haeb-Umbach; B.-H. Tran; M. Oerder

1992-01-01

109

Dynamic programming algorithm optimization for spoken word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an optimum dynamic progxamming (DP) based time-normalization algorithm for spoken word recognition. First, a general principle of time-normalization is given using time-warping function. Then, two time-normalized distance definitions, called symmetric and asymmetric forms, are derived from the principle. These two forms are compared with each other through theoretical discussions and experimental studies. The symmetric form algorithm

HIROAKI SAKOE; SEIBI CHIBA

1978-01-01

110

Human actions recognition using bag of optical flow words  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present an improved approach to recognize human action based on the BOW model and the pLSA model. We propose an improved feature with optical flow to build our bag of words. This feature is able to reduce the high dimension of the pure optical flow template and also has abundant motion information. Then, we use the topic model of pLSA (probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis) to classify human actions in a special way. We find that the existing methods lead to some mismatching of words due to the k-means clustering approach. To reduce the probability of mismatching, we add the spatial information to each word and improve the training and testing approach. Our approach of recognition is tested on two datasets, the KTH datasets and WEIZMANN datasets. The result shows its good performance.

Zhang, Xu; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Lili

2012-04-01

111

Effects of sleep loss on emotion recognition: a dissociation between face and word stimuli.  

PubMed

Short-term sleep deprivation, or extended wakefulness, adversely affects cognitive functions and behavior. However, scarce research has addressed the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on emotional processing. In this study, we investigated the impact of reduced vigilance due to moderate sleep deprivation on the ability to recognize emotional expressions of faces and emotional content of words. Participants remained awake for 24 h and performed the tasks in two sessions, one in which they were not affected by sleep loss (baseline; BSL), and other affected by SD, according to a counterbalanced sequence. Tasks were carried out twice at 10:00 and 4:00 am, or at 12:00 and 6:00 am. In both tasks, participants had to respond to the emotional valence of the target stimulus: negative, positive, or neutral. The results showed that in the word task, sleep deprivation impaired recognition irrespective of the emotional valence of words. However, sleep deprivation impaired recognition of emotional face expressions mainly when they showed a neutral expression. Emotional face expressions were less affected by the sleep loss, but positive faces were more resistant than negative faces to the detrimental effect of sleep deprivation. The differential effects of sleep deprivation on recognition of the different emotional stimuli are indicative of emotional facial expressions being stronger emotional stimuli than emotional laden words. This dissociation may be attributed to the more automatic sensory encoding of emotional facial content. PMID:24913142

Maccari, Lisa; Martella, Diana; Marotta, Andrea; Sebastiani, Mara; Banaj, Nerisa; Fuentes, Luis J; Casagrande, Maria

2014-10-01

112

Electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word recognition  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word reading using a delayed repetition priming paradigm. Participants were asked to passively view lists of two-character compound words containing prime-target pairs separated by a few items. In a Whole Word repetition condition, the prime and target were the same real words (e.g., , manager-manager). In a Constituent repetition condition, the prime and target were swapped in terms of their constituent position (e.g., , the former is a pseudo-word and the later means nurse). Two ERP components including N200 and N400 showed repetition effects. The N200 showed a negative shift upon repetition in the Whole Word condition but this effect was delayed for the Constituent condition. The N400 showed comparable amplitude reduction across the two priming conditions. The results reveal different aspects of morphological processing with an early stage associated with N200 and a late stage with N400. There was also a possibility that the N200 effect reflect general cognitive processing, i.e., the detection of low-probability stimuli. PMID:24068994

Du, Yingchun; Hu, Weiping; Fang, Zhuo; Zhang, John X.

2013-01-01

113

The role of familiarity in associative recognition of unitized compound word pairs.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of unitization and contribution of familiarity in the recognition of word pairs. Compound words were presented as word pairs and were contrasted with noncompound word pairs in an associative recognition task. In Experiments 1 and 2, yes-no recognition hit and false-alarm rates were significantly higher for compound than for noncompound word pairs, with no difference in discrimination in both within- and between-subject comparisons. Experiment 2 also showed that item recognition was reduced for words from compound compared to noncompound word pairs, providing evidence of the unitization of the compound pairs. A two-alternative forced-choice test used in Experiments 3A and 3B provided evidence that the concordant effect for compound word pairs was largely due to familiarity. A discrimination advantage for compound word pairs was also seen in these experiments. Experiment 4A showed that a different pattern of results is seen when repeated noncompound word pairs are compared to compound word pairs. Experiment 4B showed that memory for the individual items of compound word pairs was impaired relative to items in repeated and nonrepeated noncompound word pairs, and Experiment 5 demonstrated that this effect is eliminated when the elements of compound word pairs are not unitized. The concordant pattern seen in yes-no recognition and the discrimination advantage in forced-choice recognition for compound relative to noncompound word pairs is due to greater reliance on familiarity at test when pairs are unitized. PMID:24873736

Ahmad, Fahad N; Hockley, William E

2014-12-01

114

A Neural-Linguistic Approach for the Recognition of a Wide Arabic Word Lexicon  

E-print Network

A Neural-Linguistic Approach for the Recognition of a Wide Arabic Word Lexicon I. Ben Cheikha , A the recognition of wide Arabic word lexicon. A neural-linguistic approach was proposed to mainly deal is to factorize words by their roots and schemes. In this direction, we conceived two neural networks TNN

Belaïd, Abdel

115

False recognition following study of semantically related lists presented in jumbled word form  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments explored a jumbled word effect in false recognition. Lists of theme-related items were presented in word or nonword form. Results indicated that critical lures semantically related to studied items were falsely recognised regardless of whether they were presented as words or nonwords. High false recognition rates to either SLEEP or SELEP following study of an appropriate theme list

Sara H. Halcomb; John P. Taylor; Kara D. Desouza; William P. Wallace

2008-01-01

116

A study of regressive place assimilation in spontaneous speech and its implications for spoken word recognition  

E-print Network

A study of regressive place assimilation in spontaneous speech and its implications for spoken word recognition Laura C. Dilleya and Mark A. Pitt Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, 1835 Neil Ave recover the intended word e.g., green, given greem has been a major focus of spoken word recognition

Liu, Taosheng

117

The Impact of Left and Right Intracranial Tumors on Picture and Word Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of left and right intracranial tumors on picture and word recognition memory. We hypothesized that left hemispheric (LH) patients would exhibit greater word recognition memory impairment than right hemispheric (RH) patients, with no significant hemispheric group picture recognition memory differences. The LH…

Goldstein, Bram; Armstrong, Carol L.; Modestino, Edward; Ledakis, George; John, Cameron; Hunter, Jill V.

2004-01-01

118

Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing  

PubMed Central

Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no meaning); and (3) phonology-to-meaning (no orthography). Following learning, participants made meaning judgments on the learned words, familiar known words, and unpresented (unlearned) rare words while their ERPs were recorded. The behavioral results showed no significant effects of comprehension skill on meaning judgment performance. Contrastingly, the ERP results indicated comprehension skill differences in P600 amplitude; high-skilled readers showed stronger familiarity effects for learned words, whereas less-skilled readers did not distinguish between learned words, familiar words, and unlearned words. Evidence from the P600 and N400 illustrated superior learning of meaning when meaning information was coupled with orthography rather than phonology. These results suggest that the availability of word knowledge (orthography, phonology, and meaning) at learning affects subsequent word identification processes when the words are encountered in a new context. PMID:22399833

Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

2012-01-01

119

Photonics: From target recognition to lesion detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1989, Martin Marietta has invested in the development of an innovative concept for robust real-time pattern recognition for any two-dimensioanal sensor. This concept has been tested in simulation, and in laboratory and field hardware, for a number of DOD and commercial uses from automatic target recognition to manufacturing inspection. We have now joined Rose Health Care Systems in developing its use for medical diagnostics. The concept is based on determining regions of interest by using optical Fourier bandpassing as a scene segmentation technique, enhancing those regions using wavelet filters, passing the enhanced regions to a neural network for analysis and initial pattern identification, and following this initial identification with confirmation by optical correlation. The optical scene segmentation and pattern confirmation are performed by the same optical module. The neural network is a recursive error minimization network with a small number of connections and nodes that rapidly converges to a global minimum.

Henry, E. Michael

1994-01-01

120

Software for Partly Automated Recognition of Targets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Feature Analyst is a computer program for assisted (partially automated) recognition of targets in images. This program was developed to accelerate the processing of high-resolution satellite image data for incorporation into geographic information systems (GIS). This program creates an advanced user interface that embeds proprietary machine-learning algorithms in commercial image-processing and GIS software. A human analyst provides samples of target features from multiple sets of data, then the software develops a data-fusion model that automatically extracts the remaining features from selected sets of data. The program thus leverages the natural ability of humans to recognize objects in complex scenes, without requiring the user to explain the human visual recognition process by means of lengthy software. Two major subprograms are the reactive agent and the thinking agent. The reactive agent strives to quickly learn the user s tendencies while the user is selecting targets and to increase the user s productivity by immediately suggesting the next set of pixels that the user may wish to select. The thinking agent utilizes all available resources, taking as much time as needed, to produce the most accurate autonomous feature-extraction model possible.

Opitz, David; Blundell, Stuart; Bain, William; Morris, Matthew; Carlson, Ian; Mangrich, Mark

2003-01-01

121

Software for Partly Automated Recognition of Targets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Feature Analyst is a computer program for assisted (partially automated) recognition of targets in images. This program was developed to accelerate the processing of high-resolution satellite image data for incorporation into geographic information systems (GIS). This program creates an advanced user interface that embeds proprietary machine-learning algorithms in commercial image-processing and GIS software. A human analyst provides samples of target features from multiple sets of data, then the software develops a data-fusion model that automatically extracts the remaining features from selected sets of data. The program thus leverages the natural ability of humans to recognize objects in complex scenes, without requiring the user to explain the human visual recognition process by means of lengthy software. Two major subprograms are the reactive agent and the thinking agent. The reactive agent strives to quickly learn the user's tendencies while the user is selecting targets and to increase the user's productivity by immediately suggesting the next set of pixels that the user may wish to select. The thinking agent utilizes all available resources, taking as much time as needed, to produce the most accurate autonomous feature-extraction model possible.

Opitz, David; Blundell, Stuart; Bain, William; Morris, Matthew; Carlson, Ian; Mangrich, Mark; Selinsky, T.

2002-01-01

122

A Space Target Recognition Method Based on Compressive Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small sample space target recognition is a difficult problem in applications because the limited training samples cannot lead to satisfactory recognition accuracy. Combined with novel compression perception theory, we propose a new space target recognition method based on compressive sensing. This method avoids the sophisticated image preprocessing and feature extraction process. Firstly, a sparse representation dictionary is constructed according to

Yuemei Ren; Yangning Zhang; Ying Li; Jianyu Huang; Jianjiang Hui

2011-01-01

123

Informative representation learning for automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Informative representations are those representations that do more than reconstruct the data; they have information embedded implicitly in them and are compressive for utilization in real-time Automatic Target Recognition. In this paper we create methods for embedding information in subspace bases through sparsity and information theoretic measures. We present a theory of informative bases and demonstrate some practical examples of basis learning using infrared imagery. We will employ sparsity and entropy measures to drive the learning process to extract the most informative representation and will draw relations between informative representations and the quadratic correlation filter.

Hester, Charles F.; Risko, Kelly K. D.

2011-06-01

124

Initial category cues and recognition memory foils for the Cognistat Verbal Memory alternate word list.  

PubMed

The Cognistat is a widely used screening instrument for the evaluation of higher cerebral functioning. The Verbal Memory subtest contains an alternate word list without the cuing (i.e., category prompts) and recognition stimuli presented with the primary word list. This leaves the examiner responsible for creating nonstandardized category cues and recognition memory foils when the alternate task is employed. We developed a categorization questionnaire to obtain cuing and recognition items for the alternate word list. Two groups of participants were evaluated: a young sample (n = 518) and an elderly sample (n = 43). Data for the cuing and recognition phases of the alternate verbal memory word list are presented. PMID:23373601

Brzezinski, Sara B; Fouty, H Edward; Rennells, Melissa J; Gatto, Melissa S; Kamps, Cristi L; Crespin, Luna M

2012-01-01

125

Recognition of Arabic handwritten words using contextual character models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a system for the off-line recognition of cursive Arabic handwritten words. This system in an enhanced version of our reference system presented in [El-Hajj et al., 05] which is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and uses a sliding window approach. The enhanced version proposed here uses contextual character models. This approach is motivated by the fact that the set of Arabic characters includes a lot of ascending and descending strokes which overlap with one or two neighboring characters. Additional character models are constructed according to characters in their left or right neighborhood. Our experiments on images of the benchmark IFN/ENIT database of handwritten villages/towns names show that using contextual character models improves recognition. For a lexicon of 306 name classes, accuracy is increased by 0.6% in absolute value which corresponds to a 7.8% reduction in error rate.

El-Hajj, Ramy; Mokbel, Chafic; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence

2008-01-01

126

Word recognition and comprehension skills in hyperlexic children.  

PubMed

Five hyperlexic boys (4-5 to 10-1 years), who had been diagnosed with infantile autism or pervasive developmental delay in early childhood, were evaluated. Measures of intelligence, single-word recognition and comprehension, and picture naming were administered to determine the precocity or deficiency of reading recognition and comprehension, the underlying mechanisms of oral reading, and possible parallels with the acquired dyslexia subtypes. The results indicated that hyperlexia may be operationalized as unexpected reading precocity as compared to IQ; however, reading comprehension was not unexpectedly deficient. The phonological route to reading appeared to be preferred to the lexical route, and the overall pattern of performance most closely paralleled that of the surface dyslexic subtype. PMID:3651809

Welsh, M C; Pennington, B F; Rogers, S

1987-09-01

127

Letter visibility and the viewing position effect in visual word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ease with which printed words are recognized depends on the position at which the eyes initially fixate the word. In this\\u000a study, we examined to what extent recognition performance for each fixation position depends on the average visibility of\\u000a the word’s constituent letters. Experiment 1 measured recognition performance to single letters embedded in strings of Xs\\u000a (lengths of 5

Michaël Stevens; Jonathan Grainger

2003-01-01

128

A Novel Word Based Arabic Handwritten Recognition System Using SVM Classifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Every language script has its structure, characteristic, and feature. Character based word recognition depends on the feature\\u000a available to be extracted from character. Word based script recognition overcome the problem of character segmenting and can\\u000a be applied for several languages (Arabic, Urdu, Farsi... est.). In this paper Arabic handwritten is classified as word based system. Firstly, words segmented and normalized in

Mahmoud Khalifa; Yang Bingru

2011-01-01

129

Automatic target recognition based on cross-plot.  

PubMed

Automatic target recognition that relies on rapid feature extraction of real-time target from photo-realistic imaging will enable efficient identification of target patterns. To achieve this objective, Cross-plots of binary patterns are explored as potential signatures for the observed target by high-speed capture of the crucial spatial features using minimal computational resources. Target recognition was implemented based on the proposed pattern recognition concept and tested rigorously for its precision and recall performance. We conclude that Cross-plotting is able to produce a digital fingerprint of a target that correlates efficiently and effectively to signatures of patterns having its identity in a target repository. PMID:21980508

Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Abbott, Derek

2011-01-01

130

Parallel algorithms for isolated and connected word recognition. Volumes I and II  

SciTech Connect

For years researchers have worked toward finding a way to allow people to talk to machines in the same manner a person communicates to another person. This verbal man to machine interface, called speech recognition, can be grouped into three types: isolated word recognition, connected word recognition, and continuous speech recognition. Isolated word recognizers recognize single words with distinctive pauses before and after them. Continuous speech recognizers recognize speech spoken as one person speaks to another, continuously without pauses. Connected word recognition is an extension of isolated word recognition which recognizes groups of words spoken continuously. A group of words must have distinctive pauses before and after it, and the number of words in a group is limited to some small value (typically less than six). If these types of recognition systems are to be successful in the real world, they must be speaker independent and support a large vocabulary. They also must be able to recognize the speech input accurately and in real time. Currently there is no system which can meet all of these criteria because a vast amount of computations are needed. This thesis examines the use of parallel processing to reduce the computation time for speech recognition.

Yoder, M.A.

1984-01-01

131

Word Recognition Reflects Dimension-based Statistical Learning  

PubMed Central

Speech processing requires sensitivity to long-term regularities of the native language yet demands listeners to flexibly adapt to perturbations that arise from talker idiosyncrasies such as nonnative accent. The present experiments investigate whether listeners exhibit dimension-based statistical learning of correlations between acoustic dimensions defining perceptual space for a given speech segment. While engaged in a word recognition task guided by a perceptually unambiguous voice-onset time (VOT) acoustics to signal beer, pier, deer, or tear, listeners were exposed incidentally to an artificial “accent” deviating from English norms in its correlation of the pitch onset of the following vowel (F0) to VOT. Results across four experiments are indicative of rapid, dimension-based statistical learning; reliance on the F0 dimension in word recognition was rapidly down-weighted in response to the perturbation of the correlation between F0 and VOT dimensions. However, listeners did not simply mirror the short-term input statistics. Instead, response patterns were consistent with a lingering influence of sensitivity to the long-term regularities of English. This suggests that the very acoustic dimensions defining perceptual space are not fixed and, rather, are dynamically and rapidly adjusted to the idiosyncrasies of local experience, such as might arise from nonnative-accent, dialect, or dysarthria. The current findings extend demonstrations of “object-based” statistical learning across speech segments to include incidental, online statistical learning of regularities residing within a speech segment. PMID:22004192

Idemaru, Kaori; Holt, Lori L.

2012-01-01

132

Word recognition reflects dimension-based statistical learning.  

PubMed

Speech processing requires sensitivity to long-term regularities of the native language yet demands listeners to flexibly adapt to perturbations that arise from talker idiosyncrasies such as nonnative accent. The present experiments investigate whether listeners exhibit dimension-based statistical learning of correlations between acoustic dimensions defining perceptual space for a given speech segment. While engaged in a word recognition task guided by a perceptually unambiguous voice-onset time (VOT) acoustics to signal beer, pier, deer, or tear, listeners were exposed incidentally to an artificial "accent" deviating from English norms in its correlation of the pitch onset of the following vowel (F0) to VOT. Results across four experiments are indicative of rapid, dimension-based statistical learning; reliance on the F0 dimension in word recognition was rapidly down-weighted in response to the perturbation of the correlation between F0 and VOT dimensions. However, listeners did not simply mirror the short-term input statistics. Instead, response patterns were consistent with a lingering influence of sensitivity to the long-term regularities of English. This suggests that the very acoustic dimensions defining perceptual space are not fixed and, rather, are dynamically and rapidly adjusted to the idiosyncrasies of local experience, such as might arise from nonnative-accent, dialect, or dysarthria. The current findings extend demonstrations of "object-based" statistical learning across speech segments to include incidental, online statistical learning of regularities residing within a speech segment. PMID:22004192

Idemaru, Kaori; Holt, Lori L

2011-12-01

133

Spatiotemporal Brain Maps of Delayed Word Repetition and Recognition  

PubMed Central

Whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to spatiotemporally map the brain response underlying episodic retrieval of words studied a single time following a long delay (~40min.) Recognition following a long delay occurs as a strong, sustained, differential response, within bilateral, ventral and lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior temporal and medial parietal regions from ~500ms onward, as well as ventral occipitotemporal regions from ~700ms onward. In comparison with previous tasks using multiple repetitions at short delays, these effects were centered within the same areas (anteroventral temporal and ventral prefrontal), but were shifted to longer latencies (~500ms vs. ~200ms), were less left-lateralized, and appear more in anterolateral prefrontal regions and less in lateral temporal cortex. Furthermore, comparison of correctly classified words with misclassified, novel and repeated words, suggests that these frontotemporal-parietocingulate responses are sensitive to actual as well as perceived repetition. The results also suggest that lateral prefrontal regions may participate more in controlled, effortful retrieval while left ventral frontal and anterior temporal responses may support sustained lexicosemantic processing. Additionally, left ventromedial temporal sites may be relatively more involved in episodic retrieval, while lateral temporal sites may participate more in automatic priming. PMID:16084111

Dhond, Rupali P.; Witzel, Thomas; Dale, Anders M.; Halgren, Eric

2006-01-01

134

Incremental learning in automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ATR in two dimensional images is valuable for precision guidance, battlefield awareness and surveillance applications. Current ATR methods are largely data-driven and as a result, their recognition accuracy relies on the quality of training dataset. These methods fail to reliably recognize new target types and targets in new backgrounds and/or atmospheric conditions. Thus, there is a need for an ATR solution that can constantly update itself with information from new data samples (samples may belong to existing classes, background clutter or new target classes). In the paper, this problem is addressed in two steps: 1) Incremental learning with Fully Adaptive Approximate Nearest Neighbor Classifier (FAAN) - A novel data structure is designed to allow incremental learning in approximate nearest neighbor classifier. New data samples are assimilated at reduced complexity and memory without retraining on existing data samples, 2) Data Categorization using Data Effectiveness Measure (DEM) - DEM of a data sample is a degree to which each sample belongs to a local cluster of samples. During incremental learning, DEM is used to filter out redundant samples and outliers, thereby reducing computational complexity and avoiding data imbalance issues. The performance of FAAN is compared with proprietary Bagging-based Incremental Decision Tree (ABAFOR) implementation. Tests performed on Army ATR database with over 37,000 samples shows that while classification accuracy of FAAN is comparable to ABAFOR (both close to 95%), the process of incremental learning is significantly quicker.

Raju, Chaitanya; Varadarajan, Karthik Mahesh; Kothari, Aditya; Nguyen, Hieu Tat; Yadegar, Jacob; Mills, Jonathan

2009-05-01

135

Continuous processing in word recognition at 24 months  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech processing in adults is continuous: as acoustic-phonetic information is heard, listeners' interpretation of the speech is updated incrementally. The present studies used a visual fixation technique to examine whether young children also interpret speech continuously. In Experiments 1 and 2, 24-month-old children looked at visual displays while hearing sentences. Sentences each contained a target word labeling one of the

Daniel Swingley; John P. Pinto; Anne Fernald

1999-01-01

136

Relations among Linguistic and Cognitive Skills and Spoken Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined spoken word recognition in adults with cochlear implants (CIs) to determine the extent to which linguistic and cognitive abilities predict variability in speech-perception performance. Both a traditional consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC)-repetition measure and a gated-word recognition measure (F. Grosjean, 1996) were used.…

Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene Earley

2004-01-01

137

Knowledge of a Second Language Influences Auditory Word Recognition in the Native Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies in bilingual visual word recognition have demonstrated that lexical access is not language selective. However, research on bilingual word recognition in the auditory modality has been scarce, and it has yielded mixed results with regard to the degree of this language nonselectivity. In the present study, we investigated whether…

Lagrou, Evelyne; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Duyck, Wouter

2011-01-01

138

Imagery and Verbal Ability and Recognition Memory for Pictures and Words in Males and Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and subjective indices of imagery and verbal ability and their relationship to recognition memory for pictures and concrete words were examined in a large correlational study. Objective spatial tests of imagery proved to be better predictors of picture recognition than were self?assessments, the Flags test excepted. Spatial tests also predicted word memory in males, but not females. Imagery control

Carole h. Ernest

1983-01-01

139

Specifying Theories of Developmental Dyslexia: A Diffusion Model Analysis of Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of word recognition difficulties in developmental dyslexia is still a topic of controversy. We investigated the contribution of phonological processing deficits and uncertainty to the word recognition difficulties of dyslexic children by mathematical diffusion modeling of visual and auditory lexical decision data. The first study showed…

Zeguers, Maaike H. T.; Snellings, Patrick; Tijms, Jurgen; Weeda, Wouter D.; Tamboer, Peter; Bexkens, Anika; Huizenga, Hilde M.

2011-01-01

140

Modeling words with subword units in an articulatorily constrained speech recognition algorithm  

SciTech Connect

The goal of speech recognition is to find the most probable word given the acoustic evidence, i.e. a string of VQ codes or acoustic features. Speech recognition algorithms typically take advantage of the fact that the probability of a word, given a sequence of VQ codes, can be calculated.

Hogden, J.

1997-11-20

141

Efficient Use of the Grammar Scale Factor to Classify Incorrect Words in Speech Recognition Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of verification in speech recognition systems is to detect words in the hypothesized sentence that are likely to have been missrecognized. This decision can be based on the persistence of the different words in the output of the speech recognizer when some recognition parameter is varied. To this end, a parameter that proves particularly adequate is the so

Alberto Sanchís; Enrique Vidal; Víctor M. Jiménez

2000-01-01

142

Distinctive Phonological Features Differ in Relevance for Both Spoken and Written Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses four experiments on Dutch which show that distinctive phonological features differ in their relevance for word recognition. The relevance of a feature for word recognition depends on its phonological stability, that is, the extent to which that feature is generally realized in accordance with its lexical specification in the…

Ernestus, Mirjam; Mak, Willem Marinus

2004-01-01

143

Comparison of parametric representations for monosyllabic word recognition in continuously spoken sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several parametric representations of the acoustic signal were compared with regard to word recognition performance in a syllable-oriented continuous speech recognition system. The vocabulary included many phonetically similar monosyllabic words, therefore the emphasis was on the ability to retain phonetically significant acoustic information in the face of syntactic and duration variations. For each parameter set (based on a mel-frequency cepstrum,

S. B. Davis; P. Mermelstein

1980-01-01

144

Leading Up the Lexical Garden Path: Segmentation and Ambiguity in Spoken Word Recognition  

E-print Network

Leading Up the Lexical Garden Path: Segmentation and Ambiguity in Spoken Word Recognition Matthew H Gaskell University of York Two gating studies, a forced-choice identification study and 2 series of cross-modal repetition priming experiments, traced the time course of recognition of words with onset embeddings (captain

Davis, Matt

145

Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed in the Prediction of Dutch Children's Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Influences of phonological awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. The speed and accuracy of word recognition at the ends of Grades 1 and 2 were predicted by naming speed from both the beginning and end of Grade 1, after control for autoregressive…

Verhagen, W.; Aarnoutse, C.; van Leeuwe, J.

2008-01-01

146

The Predictive Power of Phonemic Awareness and Naming Speed for Early Dutch Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of phonemic awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. Both the speed and accuracy of word recognition at the end of Grade 2 were predicted by naming speed from both kindergarten and Grade 1, after control for autoregressive relations, kindergarten…

Verhagen, Wim G. M.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J.

2009-01-01

147

Cursive word recognition based on interactive activation and early visual processing models.  

PubMed

We present an off-line cursive word recognition system based completely on neural networks: reading models and models of early visual processing. The first stage (normalization) preprocesses the input image in order to reduce letter position uncertainty; the second stage (feature extraction) is based on the feedforward model of orientation selectivity; the third stage (letter pre-recognition) is based on a convolutional neural network, and the last stage (word recognition) is based on the interactive activation model. PMID:18991364

Ruiz-Pinales, Jose; Jaime-Rivas, Rene; Lecolinet, Eric; Castro-Bleda, Maria Jose

2008-10-01

148

The Effect of the Balance of Orthographic Neighborhood Distribution in Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated whether the balance of neighborhood distribution (i.e., the way orthographic neighbors are spread across letter positions) influences visual word recognition. Three word conditions were compared. Word neighbors were either concentrated on one letter position (e.g.,nasse/basse-lasse-tasse-masse) or were unequally…

Robert, Christelle; Mathey, Stephanie; Zagar, Daniel

2007-01-01

149

Neural dynamics of word recognition and recall: Attentional priming, learning, and resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data and models about recognition and recall of words and non words are unified using a real-time network processing theory. Lexical decision and word frequency effect data are analyzed in terms of theoretical concepts that have unified data about development of circular reactions, imitation of novel sounds, the matching of phonetic to articulatory requirements, serial and paired associate verbal learning,

Stephen Grossberg; Gregory Stone

1986-01-01

150

A Lexicon Driven Approach to Handwritten Word Recognition for Real-Time Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast method of handwritten word recognition suitable for real time applications is presented in this paper. Preprocessing, segmentation and feature extraction are implemented using a chain code representation of the word contour. Dynamic matching between characters of a lexicon entry and segment(s) of the input word image is used to rank the lexicon entries in order of best match.

Gyeonghwan Kim; Venu Govindaraju

1997-01-01

151

Additive and Interactive Effects on Response Time Distributions in Visual Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across 3 different word recognition tasks, distributional analyses were used to examine the joint effects of stimulus quality and word frequency on underlying response time distributions. Consistent with the extant literature, stimulus quality and word frequency produced additive effects in lexical decision, not only in the means but also in the shape of the response time distributions, supporting an early

Melvin J. Yap; David A. Balota

2007-01-01

152

Effects of Visual and Auditory Perceptual Aptitudes and Letter Discrimination Pretraining on Word Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated alternate methods of letter discrimination pretraining and word recognition training in young children. Seventy kindergarten children were trained to recognize eight printed words in a vocabulary list by a mixed-list paired-associate method. Four of the stimulus words had visual response choices (pictures) and four had…

Janssen, David Rainsford

153

Using phoneme duration and energy contour information to improve large vocabulary isolated-word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum duration constraints and energy thresholds for phonemes were used to increase the recognition accuracy of an 86000-word speaker-trained isolated word recognizer. Minimum duration constraints force the phoneme models to map to acoustic segments longer than the duration minima for the phonemes. Such constraints result in significant lowering of likelihoods of many incorrect word choices, improving the accuracy of acoustic

V. N. Gupta; M. Lennig; P. Mermelstein; P. Kenny; F. Seitz; D. O'Shaughnessy

1991-01-01

154

Automatic target-recognition system for hyperspectral imagery using ORASIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an automatic target recognition system (ATR) for hyperspectral imagery. The system has been designed to use the output from ORASIS (the Optical Real-time Adaptive Spectral Identification System), a hyperspectral analysis package designed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The ATR system is capable of performing both target recognition (including subpixel identification) and anomaly detection, in near real-time and with

David Gillis; Peter J. Palmadesso; Jeffrey H. Bowles

2001-01-01

155

Specificity of Dimension-Based Statistical Learning in Word Recognition  

PubMed Central

Speech perception flexibly adapts to short-term regularities of ambient speech input. Recent research demonstrates that the function of an acoustic dimension for speech categorization at a given time is relative to its relationship to the evolving distribution of dimensional regularity across time, and not simply to a fixed value along the dimension. Two experiments examine the nature of this dimension-based statistical learning in online word recognition, testing generalization of learning across phonetic categories. While engaged in a word recognition task guided by perceptually unambiguous voice-onset time (VOT) acoustics signaling stop voicing in either bilabial rhymes, beer and pier, or alveolar rhymes, deer and tear, listeners were exposed incidentally to an artificial “accent” deviating from English norms in its correlation of the pitch onset of the following vowel (F0) with VOT (Experiment 1). Exposure to the change in the correlation of F0 with VOT led listeners to down-weight reliance on F0 in voicing categorization, indicating dimension-based statistical learning. This learning was observed only for the “accented” contrast varying in its F0/VOT relationship during exposure; learning did not generalize to the other place of articulation. Another group of listeners experienced competing F0/VOT correlations across place of articulation such that the global correlation for voicing was stable, but locally correlations across voicing pairs were opposing (e.g., “accented” beer and pier, “canonical” deer and tear, Experiment 2). Listeners showed dimension-based learning only for the accented pair, not the canonical pair, indicating that they are able to track separate acoustic statistics across place of articulation, that is, for /b-p/ and /d-t/. This suggests that dimension-based learning does not operate obligatorily at the phonological level of stop voicing. PMID:24364708

Idemaru, Kaori; Holt, Lori L.

2014-01-01

156

Age of Acquisition and Sensitivity to Gender in Spanish Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speakers of gender-agreement languages use gender-marked elements of the noun phrase in spoken-word recognition: A congruent marking on a determiner or adjective facilitates the recognition of a subsequent noun, while an incongruent marking inhibits its recognition. However, while monolinguals and early language learners evidence this…

Foote, Rebecca

2014-01-01

157

Evaluating word representation features in biomedical named entity recognition tasks.  

PubMed

Biomedical Named Entity Recognition (BNER), which extracts important entities such as genes and proteins, is a crucial step of natural language processing in the biomedical domain. Various machine learning-based approaches have been applied to BNER tasks and showed good performance. In this paper, we systematically investigated three different types of word representation (WR) features for BNER, including clustering-based representation, distributional representation, and word embeddings. We selected one algorithm from each of the three types of WR features and applied them to the JNLPBA and BioCreAtIvE II BNER tasks. Our results showed that all the three WR algorithms were beneficial to machine learning-based BNER systems. Moreover, combining these different types of WR features further improved BNER performance, indicating that they are complementary to each other. By combining all the three types of WR features, the improvements in F-measure on the BioCreAtIvE II GM and JNLPBA corpora were 3.75% and 1.39%, respectively, when compared with the systems using baseline features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically evaluate the effect of three different types of WR features for BNER tasks. PMID:24729964

Tang, Buzhou; Cao, Hongxin; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Xu, Hua

2014-01-01

158

Evaluating Word Representation Features in Biomedical Named Entity Recognition Tasks  

PubMed Central

Biomedical Named Entity Recognition (BNER), which extracts important entities such as genes and proteins, is a crucial step of natural language processing in the biomedical domain. Various machine learning-based approaches have been applied to BNER tasks and showed good performance. In this paper, we systematically investigated three different types of word representation (WR) features for BNER, including clustering-based representation, distributional representation, and word embeddings. We selected one algorithm from each of the three types of WR features and applied them to the JNLPBA and BioCreAtIvE II BNER tasks. Our results showed that all the three WR algorithms were beneficial to machine learning-based BNER systems. Moreover, combining these different types of WR features further improved BNER performance, indicating that they are complementary to each other. By combining all the three types of WR features, the improvements in F-measure on the BioCreAtIvE II GM and JNLPBA corpora were 3.75% and 1.39%, respectively, when compared with the systems using baseline features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically evaluate the effect of three different types of WR features for BNER tasks. PMID:24729964

Cao, Hongxin; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Xu, Hua

2014-01-01

159

Hemispheric asymmetries in word recognition as revealed by the orthographic uniqueness point effect  

PubMed Central

The orthographic uniqueness point (OUP) refers to the first letter of a word that, reading from left to right, makes the word unique. It has recently been proposed that OUPs might be relevant in word recognition and their influence could inform the long-lasting debate of whether – and to what extent – printed words are recognized serially or in parallel. The present study represents the first investigation of the neural and behavioral effects of OUP on visual word recognition. Behaviourally, late OUP words were identified faster and more accurately in a lexical decision task. Analysis of event-related potentials demonstrated a hemispheric asymmetry on the N170 component, with the left hemisphere appearing to be more sensitive to the position of the OUP within a word than the right hemisphere. These results suggest that processing of centrally presented words is likely to occur in a partially parallel manner, as an ends-in scanning process. PMID:24711800

Izura, Cristina; Wright, Victoria C.; Fouquet, Nathalie

2014-01-01

160

Redefining automatic target recognition (ATR) performance standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present descriptors for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) performance are inadequate for use in comparing algorithms that are purported to be a solution to the problem. The use of receiver operator characteristic curves (ROCs) is a defacto standard, but they do not communicate several key performance measures, including (i) intrinsic separation between classes in the input space, (ii) the efficacy of the mapping induced by the algorithm, (iii) the complexity of the algorithmic mapping, and (iv) a measure of the generalization of the proposed solution. Previous work by Sims et. al.2,5 has addressed the distortion of the evaluation sets to indicate an algorithm's capability (or lack thereof) for generalization and handling of unspecified cases. This paper addresses the rethinking of the summary statistics used for understanding the performance of a solution. We propose new approaches for solution characterization, allowing algorithm performance comparison in an equitable and insightful manner. This paper proffers some examples and suggests directions for new work from the community in this field.

Waagen, Donald; Hester, Charles; Schmid, Ben; Phillips, Margaret; Thompson, M. Shane; Vanstone, Steven; Risko, Kelly

2011-06-01

161

Word-level recognition of multifont Arabic text using a feature vector matching approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many text recognition systems recognize text imagery at the character level and assemble words from the recognized characters. An alternative approach is to recognize text imagery at the word level, without analyzing individual characters. This approach avoids the problem of individual character segmentation, and can overcome local errors in character recognition. A word-level recognition system for machine-printed Arabic text has been implemented. Arabic is a script language, and is therefore difficult to segment at the character level. Character segmentation has been avoided by recognizing text imagery of complete words. The Arabic recognition system computes a vector of image-morphological features on a query word image. This vector is matched against a precomputed database of vectors from a lexicon of Arabic words. Vectors from the database with the highest match score are returned as hypotheses for the unknown image. Several feature vectors may be stored for each word in the database. Database feature vectors generated using multiple fonts and noise models allow the system to be tuned to its input stream. Used in conjunction with database pruning techniques, this Arabic recognition system has obtained promising word recognition rates on low-quality multifont text imagery.

Erlandson, Erik J.; Trenkle, John M.; Vogt, Robert C., III

1996-03-01

162

Unregistered Biological Words Recognition by Q-Learning with Transfer Learning  

PubMed Central

Unregistered biological words recognition is the process of identification of terms that is out of vocabulary. Although many approaches have been developed, the performance approaches are not satisfactory. As the identification process can be viewed as a Markov process, we put forward a Q-learning with transfer learning algorithm to detect unregistered biological words from texts. With the Q-learning, the recognizer can attain the optimal solution of identification during the interaction with the texts and contexts. During the processing, a transfer learning approach is utilized to fully take advantage of the knowledge gained in a source task to speed up learning in a different but related target task. A mapping, required by many transfer learning, which relates features from the source task to the target task, is carried on automatically under the reinforcement learning framework. We examined the performance of three approaches with GENIA corpus and JNLPBA04 data. The proposed approach improved performance in both experiments. The precision, recall rate, and F score results of our approach surpassed those of conventional unregistered word recognizer as well as those of Q-learning approach without transfer learning. PMID:24701139

Liu, Quan; Wang, Hui; Fu, Yuchen

2014-01-01

163

When word recognition goes wrong: Acquired dyslexia: brain damage (strokes).  

E-print Network

dyslexia: can't read irregular words (yacht). ­ Phonological dyslexia: can't read nonwords (nust). ­ Deep words like "yacht". Can pronounce regular words like "make". Can pronounce nonwords like "nust". 3

O'Reilly, Randall C.

164

Speed and accuracy of dyslexic versus typical word recognition: an eye-movement investigation  

PubMed Central

Developmental dyslexia is often characterized by a dual deficit in both word recognition accuracy and general processing speed. While previous research into dyslexic word recognition may have suffered from speed-accuracy trade-off, the present study employed a novel eye-tracking task that is less prone to such confounds. Participants (10 dyslexics and 12 controls) were asked to look at real word stimuli, and to ignore simultaneously presented non-word stimuli, while their eye-movements were recorded. Improvements in word recognition accuracy over time were modeled in terms of a continuous non-linear function. The words' rhyme consistency and the non-words' lexicality (unpronounceable, pronounceable, pseudohomophone) were manipulated within-subjects. Speed-related measures derived from the model fits confirmed generally slower processing in dyslexics, and showed a rhyme consistency effect in both dyslexics and controls. In terms of overall error rate, dyslexics (but not controls) performed less accurately on rhyme-inconsistent words, suggesting a representational deficit for such words in dyslexics. Interestingly, neither group showed a pseudohomophone effect in speed or accuracy, which might call the task-independent pervasiveness of this effect into question. The present results illustrate the importance of distinguishing between speed- vs. accuracy-related effects for our understanding of dyslexic word recognition.

Kunert, Richard; Scheepers, Christoph

2014-01-01

165

The Influence of the Phonological Neighborhood Clustering Coefficient on Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clustering coefficient--a measure derived from the new science of networks--refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words "bat", "hat", and "can", all of which are neighbors of the word "cat"; the words "bat" and "hat" are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual…

Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.

2009-01-01

166

Spoken word recognition in English by Japanese listeners: A case of Japanese-accented and unaccented English words  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of acoustic mismatch between a listener's phonological representations and speech input on spoken word recognition was examined with Japanese learners of English. Imai, Flege, and Walley (2003) recently found that native-Spanish listeners showed a larger neighborhood density effect for unaccented English words than Spanish-accented English words, whereas native-English listeners showed a larger neighborhood density effect for Spanish-accented than unaccented words. We hypothesized that phonological mismatches would occur when native-Japanese listeners respond to unaccented English words than Japanese-accented English words. Further, the effect of the mismatch would be expected to be greater for words from dense versus sparse neighborhoods because Yoneyama (2002) found that Japanese listeners showed neighborhood density effect when they listen to Japanese. This paper reports the results of the experiment where native-Japanese listeners were asked to write down English words that were presented in noise. The words differed in neighborhood density; half were Japanese-accented words that were produced by a Japanese learner of English at a beginner level, the other half were unaccented words that were produced by a native-English listener. The results replicated Imai et al.'s (2003) finding.

Yoneyama, Kiyoko

2001-05-01

167

Exploitation of target shadows in synthetic aperture radar imagery for automatic target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of target shadows for automatic target recognition (ATR) in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is investigated. Although target shadow, when available, is not a powerful target discriminating feature, it can effectively increase the overall accuracy of the target classification when it is combined with other target discriminating features such as peaks, edges, and corners. A second and more

John A. Saghri; Andrew DeKelaita

2006-01-01

168

Automatic target recognition of time critical moving targets using 1D high range resolution (HRR) radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging and Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) of moving targets pose a significant challenge due to the inherent difficulty of focusing moving targets. As a result, ATR of moving targets has recently received increased interest. High Range Resolution (HRR) radar mode offers an approach for recognizing moving targets by forming focused HRR profiles with significantly enhanced target-to-(clutter+noise)

R. Williams; J. Westerkamp; D. Gross; A. Palomino

2000-01-01

169

Discriminatory Power of Handwritten Words for Writer Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of allographs (characters) and allograph combinations (words) is the key for the identifica- tion\\/verification of a writer's handwriting. While allo- graphs are usually part of words and the segmentation of a word into allographs is a subjective process, analysis of handwritten words is a natural option, complementary to allograph and document-level analysis. We consider four different types of features

Catalin I. Tomai; Bin Zhang; Sargur N. Srihari

2004-01-01

170

Target recognition theory for laser radar imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical communication theory is used to develop the structure and performance of quasi-optimal recognition processors for 3D coherent laser radar range imagery. Generalized likelihood-ratio tests and receiver operating characteristics are presented for detection and recognition scenarios involving a variety of unknown object and background parameters. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts:

Thomas J. Green

1997-01-01

171

Context and spoken word recognition in a novel lexicon.  

PubMed

Three eye movement studies with novel lexicons investigated the role of semantic context in spoken word recognition, contrasting 3 models: restrictive access, access-selection, and continuous integration. Actions directed at novel shapes caused changes in motion (e.g., looming, spinning) or state (e.g., color, texture). Across the experiments, novel names for the actions and the shapes varied in frequency, cohort density, and whether the cohorts referred to actions (Experiment 1) or shapes with action-congruent or action-incongruent affordances (Experiments 2 and 3). Experiment 1 demonstrated effects of frequency and cohort competition from both displayed and non-displayed competitors. In Experiment 2, a biasing context induced an increase in anticipatory eye movements to congruent referents and reduced the probability of looks to incongruent cohorts, without the delay predicted by access-selection models. In Experiment 3, context did not reduce competition from non-displayed incompatible neighbors as predicted by restrictive access models. The authors conclude that the results are most consistent with continuous integration models. PMID:18763901

Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K; Aslin, Richard N

2008-09-01

172

Genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in printed word recognition.  

PubMed

The genetic and environmental etiologies of individual differences in printed word recognition and related skills were explored in 440 identical and fraternal twin pairs between 8 and 18 years of age. A theoretically driven measurement model identified five latent variables: IQ, phoneme awareness, word recognition, phonological decoding, and orthographic coding. Cholesky decomposition models on these five latent constructs revealed the existence of both common and independent genetic effects, as well as non-shared environmental influences. There was evidence for moderate genetic influences common between IQ, phoneme awareness, and word-reading skills, and for stronger IQ-independent genetic influences that were common between phoneme awareness and word-reading skills, particularly phonological decoding. Phonological and orthographic coding skills in word recognition had both significant common and significant independent genetic influences, with implications for "dual-route" and "connectionist" reading models, subtypes of reading disabilities, and the remediation of reading disabilities. PMID:12609495

Gayán, Javier; Olson, Richard K

2003-02-01

173

Pose independent target recognition system using pulsed Ladar imagery  

E-print Network

Although a number of object recognition techniques have been developed to process LADAR scanned terrain scenes, these techniques have had limited success in target discrimination in part due to low-resolution data and ...

Vasile, Alexandru N. (Alexandru Nicolae), 1980-

2004-01-01

174

Effects of study list composition on the word frequency effect and metacognitive attributions in recognition memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments, study-list composition was manipulated and its impact was observed on metacognitive judgements associated with recognition hits (Hs) and false alarms (FAs). Both studies involved recognition of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) words, and focused on the FA portion of the word frequency effect. Our hypothesis was that participants can actively reject items that are distinctive from the

Philip A. Higham; Davide Bruno; Timothy J. Perfect

2010-01-01

175

Gaze Position Reveals Impaired Attentional Shift during Visual Word Recognition in Dysfluent Readers  

PubMed Central

Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level. PMID:25268909

Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

2014-01-01

176

Re-Evaluating Split-Fovea Processing in Word Recognition: A Critical Assessment of Recent Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, some researchers have proposed that a fundamental component of the word recognition process is that each fovea is divided precisely at its vertical midline and that information either side of this midline projects to different, contralateral hemispheres. Thus, when a word is fixated, all letters to the left of the point of…

Jordan, Timothy R.; Paterson, Kevin B.

2009-01-01

177

A developmental perspective on visual word recognition: New evidence and a self-organising model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the developmental trajectory of two marker effects of visual word recognition, word frequency, and orthographic neighbourhood effects, in French primary school children from Grades 1 to 5. Frequency and neighbourhood size were estimated using a realistic developmental database, which also allowed us to control for the effects of age-of-acquisition. A lexical decision task was used because the

Stéphane Dufau; Bernard Lété; Claude Touzet; Hervé Glotin; Johannes C. Ziegler; Jonathan Grainger

2010-01-01

178

Word Recognition Processing Efficiency as a Component of Second Language Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the application of the speeded lexical decision task to L2 aural processing efficiency. One-hundred and twenty Japanese university students completed an aural word/nonword task. When the variation of lexical decision time (CV) was correlated with reaction time (RT), the results suggested that the single-word recognition

Joyce, Paul

2013-01-01

179

Finding consensus in speech recognition: word error minimization and other applications of confusion networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new framework for distilling information from word lat- tices to improve the accuracy of speech recognition and obtain a more perspicuous representation of a set of alternative hypotheses. In the stan- dard MAP decoding approach the recognizer outputs the string of words corresponding to the path with the highest posterior probability given the acoustics and a language

Lidia Mangu; Eric Brill; Andreas Stolcke

2000-01-01

180

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Individual Differences in Printed Word Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored genetic and environmental etiologies of individual differences in printed word recognition and related skills in identical and fraternal twin 8- to 18-year-olds. Found evidence for moderate genetic influences common between IQ, phoneme awareness, and word-reading skills and for stronger IQ-independent genetic influences that were common…

Gayan, Javier; Olson, Richard K.

2003-01-01

181

Perceptual flexibility in word recognition: Strategies affect orthographic computation but not lexical access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four tachistoscopic forced-choice recognition experiments (with 153 paid volunteers) explored the flexibility of processes underlying word perception. Stimuli were words, orthographically regular but unfamiliar pseudowords, and orthographically irregular nonsense strings. In Exps I and II, Ss knew that several kinds of stimuli would occur in each block of trials and that one kind would occur more often than the others.

Thomas H. Carr; Brian J. Davidson; Harold L. Hawkins

1978-01-01

182

Bilingual Word Recognition beyond Orthography: On Meaning, Linguistic Context and Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central questions in psycholinguistic studies on bilingualism are how bilinguals access words in their two languages, and how they control their language systems and solve the problem of cross-language competition. In their excellent paper "The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision", Dijkstra and…

van Hell, Janet G.

2002-01-01

183

Is Syntactic-Category Processing Obligatory in Visual Word Recognition? Evidence from Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments were conducted to investigate how syntactic-category and semantic information is processed in visual word recognition. The stimuli were two-character Chinese words in which semantic and syntactic-category ambiguities were factorially manipulated. A lexical decision task was employed in Experiment 1, whereas a semantic relatedness…

Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

2012-01-01

184

Spoken Word Recognition in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spoken word recognition, during gating, appears intact in specific language impairment (SLI). This study used gating to investigate the process in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders plus language impairment (ALI). Adolescents with ALI, SLI, and typical language development (TLD), matched on nonverbal IQ listened to gated words that varied…

Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony

2013-01-01

185

Age-of-Acquisition Effects in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from Expert Vocabularies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments assessed the contributions of age-of-acquisition (AoA) and frequency to visual word recognition. Three databases were created from electronic journals in chemistry, psychology and geology in order to identify technical words that are extremely frequent in each discipline but acquired late in life. In Experiment 1, psychologists…

Stadthagen-Gonzalez, Hans; Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Damian, Markus F.

2004-01-01

186

NoA's Ark: influence of the number of associates in visual word recognition.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study was to explore the extent to which the number of associates of a word (NoA) influences lexical access, in four tasks that focus on different processes of visual word recognition: lexical decision, reading aloud, progressive demasking, and online sentence reading. Results consistently showed that words with a dense associative neighborhood (high-NoA words) were processed faster than words with a sparse neighborhood (low-NoA words), extending previous findings from English lexical decision and categorization experiments. These results are interpreted in terms of the higher degree of semantic richness of high-NoA words as compared with low-NoA words. PMID:19001569

Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Avilés, Alberto; Carreiras, Manuel

2008-12-01

187

Direct comparison of the neural substrates of recognition memory for words and faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary For the purpose of identifying the relatively specific brain regions related to word and face recognition memory on the one hand and the regions common to both on the other, regional cerebral blood flow associated with different cognitive tasks for recognition memory was examined using (H215O)PET in healthy volunteers. The tasks consisted of recognizing two types of stimuli (faces

J. J. Kim; N. C. Andreasen; A. K. Wiser; L. L. Boles Ponto; G. L. Watkins; R. D. Hichwa

1999-01-01

188

Visual word recognition models should also be constrained by knowledge about the visual system.  

PubMed

Frost's article advocates for universal models of reading and critiques recent models that concentrate in what has been described as "cracking the orthographic code." Although the challenge to develop models that can account for word recognition beyond Indo-European languages is welcomed, we argue that reading models should also be constrained by general principles of visual processing and object recognition. PMID:22929059

Gomez, Pablo; Silins, Sarah

2012-10-01

189

Semi-Supervised Bio-Named Entity Recognition with Word-Codebook Learning Pavel P. Kuksa  

E-print Network

Semi-Supervised Bio-Named Entity Recognition with Word-Codebook Learning Pavel P. Kuksa Yanjun Qi it to the task of bio- named entity recognition (bioNER). Typical bioNER sys- tems can be seen as tasks learning, information extraction, sequence labeling, biomedical natural language processing, named entity

190

Song Recognition among Preschool-Age Children: An Investigation of Words and Music.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeks to discover whether listening to songs over an extended period of time contributes to a greater integration of words and music in memory among preschool children. Finds more accurate recognition of songs performed without text when they had heard them previously with texts and that melodic content influenced song-recognition ability. (DSK)

Feierabend, John M.; Saunders, T. Clark; Getnick, Pamela E.; Holahan, John M.

1998-01-01

191

Speech Recognition of Finite Words Based on Multi-weight Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Under the guide of the novel biomimetics pattern recognition theory that is based on the character of human’s recognition,\\u000a combining the character of traditional neural network, a new multi-weight neural network is constructed to realize the idea\\u000a of that theory. Extraordinary results are obtained with the first use of the new multi-weight neural network in speech recognition\\u000a of finite words.

Yan Wu; Hongbo Wang; Mingxi Jin; Shoujue Wang

2005-01-01

192

Time course analyses of orthographic and phonological priming effects during word recognition in a transparent orthography.  

PubMed

In opaque orthographies, the activation of orthographic and phonological codes follows distinct time courses during visual word recognition. However, it is unclear how orthography and phonology are accessed in more transparent orthographies. Therefore, we conducted time course analyses of masked priming effects in the transparent Dutch orthography. The first study used targets with small phonological differences between phonological and orthographic primes, which are typical in transparent orthographies. Results showed consistent orthographic priming effects, yet phonological priming effects were absent. The second study explicitly manipulated the strength of the phonological difference and revealed that both orthographic and phonological priming effects became identifiable when phonological differences were strong enough. This suggests that, similar to opaque orthographies, strong phonological differences are a prerequisite to separate orthographic and phonological priming effects in transparent orthographies. Orthographic and phonological priming appeared to follow distinct time courses, with orthographic codes being quickly translated into phonological codes and phonology dominating the remainder of the lexical access phase. PMID:24456311

Zeguers, M H T; Snellings, P; Huizenga, H M; van der Molen, M W

2014-10-01

193

Chinese Word Segmentation and Named Entity Recognition: A Pragmatic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a pragmatic approach to Chinese word segmentation. It differs from most previous approaches mainly in three respects. First, while theoretical linguists have defined Chinese words using various linguistic criteria, Chinese words in this study are defined prag- matically as segmentation units whose definition depends on how they are used and processed in realistic computer applications. Second, we

Jianfeng Gao; Mu Li; Chang-Ning Huang; Andi Wu

2005-01-01

194

Target Recognition Using Neural Networks for Model Deformation Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical measurements provide a non-invasive method for measuring deformation of wind tunnel models. Model deformation systems use targets mounted or painted on the surface of the model to identify known positions, and photogrammetric methods are used to calculate 3-D positions of the targets on the model from digital 2-D images. Under ideal conditions, the reflective targets are placed against a dark background and provide high-contrast images, aiding in target recognition. However, glints of light reflecting from the model surface, or reduced contrast caused by light source or model smoothness constraints, can compromise accurate target determination using current algorithmic methods. This paper describes a technique using a neural network and image processing technologies which increases the reliability of target recognition systems. Unlike algorithmic methods, the neural network can be trained to identify the characteristic patterns that distinguish targets from other objects of similar size and appearance and can adapt to changes in lighting and environmental conditions.

Ross, Richard W.; Hibler, David L.

1999-01-01

195

A Novel Word Based Arabic Handwritten Recognition System Using SVM Classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every language script has its structure, characteristic, and feature. Character based word recognition depends on the feature available to be extracted from character. Word based script recognition overcome the problem of character segmenting and can be applied for several languages (Arabic, Urdu, Farsi... est.). In this paper Arabic handwritten is classified as word based system. Firstly, words segmented and normalized in size to fit the DCT input. Then extract feature characteristic by computing the Euclidean distance between pairs of objects in n-by-m data matrix X. Based on the point's operator of extrema, feature was extracted. Then apply one to one-Class Support Vector Machines (SVMs) as a discriminative framework in order to address feature classification. The approach was tested with several public databases and we get high efficiency rate recognition.

Khalifa, Mahmoud; Bingru, Yang

196

Self partitioning backpropagation network for target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for qualifying the degree of noncooperation that exists among the target members of the training set is presented. Both the network architecture and the training algorithm are taken into consideration while computing non-cooperation measures. Based on these measures, the network automatically creates several topologically identical partitions. Each partition learns a subset of the targets. The partitioning takes place

Heggere S. Ranganath; Derek Kerstetter

1995-01-01

197

Kernel generalized neighbor discriminant embedding for SAR automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new supervised feature extraction algorithm in synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition (SAR ATR), called generalized neighbor discriminant embedding (GNDE). Based on manifold learning, GNDE integrates class and neighborhood information to enhance discriminative power of extracted feature. Besides, the kernelized counterpart of this algorithm is also proposed, called kernel-GNDE (KGNDE). The experiment in this paper shows that the proposed algorithms have better recognition performance than PCA and KPCA.

Huang, Yulin; Pei, Jifang; Yang, Jianyu; Wang, Tao; Yang, Haiguang; Wang, Bing

2014-12-01

198

Evidence for the Activation of Sensorimotor Information during Visual Word Recognition: The Body-Object Interaction Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the effects of sensorimotor experience in two visual word recognition tasks. Body-object interaction (BOI) ratings were collected for a large set of words. These ratings assess perceptions of the ease with which a human body can physically interact with a word's referent. A set of high BOI words (e.g., "mask") and a set of low BOI…

Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.; Aguilera, Laura; Owen, William J.; Sears, Christopher R.

2008-01-01

199

Children's Spoken Word Recognition and Contributions to Phonological Awareness and Nonword Repetition: A 1-Year Follow-Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of lexical factors on children's spoken word recognition across a 1-year time span, and contributions to phonological awareness and nonword repetition. Across the year, children identified words based on less input on a speech-gating task. For word repetition, older children improved for the most familiar words. There…

Metsala, Jamie L.; Stavrinos, Despina; Walley, Amanda C.

2009-01-01

200

Which words are hard to recognize? Prosodic, lexical, and disfluency factors that increase speech recognition error rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite years of speech recognition research, little is known about which words tend to be misrecognized and why. Previous work has shown that errors increase for infrequent words, short words, and very loud or fast speech, but many other presumed causes of error (e.g., nearby disfluencies, turn-initial words, phonetic neighborhood density) have never been carefully tested. The reasons for the

Sharon Goldwater; Daniel Jurafsky; Christopher D. Manning

2010-01-01

201

Individual differences in visual word recognition: insights from the English Lexicon Project.  

PubMed

Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences among individuals who contributed to the English Lexicon Project (http://elexicon.wustl.edu), an online behavioral database containing nearly 4 million word recognition (speeded pronunciation and lexical decision) trials from over 1,200 participants. We observed considerable within- and between-session reliability across distinct sets of items, in terms of overall mean response time (RT), RT distributional characteristics, diffusion model parameters (Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, 2004), and sensitivity to underlying lexical dimensions. This indicates reliably detectable individual differences in word recognition performance. In addition, higher vocabulary knowledge was associated with faster, more accurate word recognition performance, attenuated sensitivity to stimuli characteristics, and more efficient accumulation of information. Finally, in contrast to suggestions in the literature, we did not find evidence that individuals were trading-off their utilization of lexical and nonlexical information. PMID:21728459

Yap, Melvin J; Balota, David A; Sibley, Daragh E; Ratcliff, Roger

2012-02-01

202

Automatic Spectral Target Recognition in Hyperspectral  

E-print Network

of targets from image data in an unsupervised manner which will subsequently be classified by the TCP Research Laboratory's HYperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment (HYDICE) sensor and many more

Chang, Chein-I

203

Automatic target recognition of time critical moving targets using 1D high range resolution (HRR) radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging and automatic target recognition (ATR) of moving targets pose a significant challenge due to the inherent difficulty of focusing moving targets. As a result, ATR of moving targets has received increased interest. High range resolution (HRR) radar mode offers an approach for recognizing moving targets by forming focused HRR profiles with significantly enhanced target-to-(clutter+noise) (T\\/(C+N))

R. Williams; J. Westerkamp; D. Gross; A. Palomion; T. Fister

1999-01-01

204

Component-based target recognition inspired by human vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast with machine vision, human can recognize an object from complex background with great flexibility. For example, given the task of finding and circling all cars (no further information) in a picture, you may build a virtual image in mind from the task (or target) description before looking at the picture. Specifically, the virtual car image may be composed of the key components such as driver cabin and wheels. In this paper, we propose a component-based target recognition method by simulating the human recognition process. The component templates (equivalent to the virtual image in mind) of the target (car) are manually decomposed from the target feature image. Meanwhile, the edges of the testing image can be extracted by using a difference of Gaussian (DOG) model that simulates the spatiotemporal response in visual process. A phase correlation matching algorithm is then applied to match the templates with the testing edge image. If all key component templates are matched with the examining object, then this object is recognized as the target. Besides the recognition accuracy, we will also investigate if this method works with part targets (half cars). In our experiments, several natural pictures taken on streets were used to test the proposed method. The preliminary results show that the component-based recognition method is very promising.

Zheng, Yufeng; Agyepong, Kwabena

2009-05-01

205

Word learning under adverse listening conditions: Context-specific recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of word learning have presented the items to listeners under ideal conditions. Here we ask how listeners learn new vocabulary items under adverse listening conditions. Would listeners form acoustically-specific representations that incorporated the noise, base their representations on noise-free language knowledge, or both? To address these questions, listeners learned 16 words as labels for unfamiliar shapes presented on

Sarah C. Creel; Richard N. Aslin; Michael K. Tanenhaus

2012-01-01

206

Word learning under adverse listening conditions: Context-specific recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of word learning have presented the items to listeners under ideal conditions. Here we ask how listeners learn new vocabulary items under adverse listening conditions. Would listeners form acoustically-specific representations that incorporated the noise, base their representations on noise-free language knowledge, or both? To address these questions, listeners learned 16 words as labels for unfamiliar shapes presented on

Sarah C. Creel; Richard N. Aslin; Michael K. Tanenhaus

2011-01-01

207

Recognition Memory for Braille or Spoken Words: An fMRI study in Early Blind  

PubMed Central

We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5 yrs. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied (“old”) compared to novel (“new”) words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified “new” words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken “new” words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with “old”/“new” recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to “old” words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to “new” Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for “new” words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering “old” words. A larger response when identifying “new” words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of “old” words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a “sensory echo” that aids recollection. PMID:22251836

Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J.; Agato, Alvin

2012-01-01

208

Automatic target-recognition system for hyperspectral imagery using ORASIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an automatic target recognition system (ATR) for hyperspectral imagery. The system has been designed to use the output from ORASIS (the Optical Real-time Adaptive Spectral Identification System), a hyperspectral analysis package designed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The ATR system is capable of performing both target recognition (including subpixel identification) and anomaly detection, in near real-time and with no a priori scene knowledge. In this paper we discuss the algorithms we use in the ATR and include experimental results using the HYDICE Forest Radiance data set.

Gillis, David; Palmadesso, Peter J.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.

2001-08-01

209

Aided and automatic target recognition based upon sensory inputs from image forming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper systematically reviews 10 years of research that several Army Laboratories conducted in object recognition algorithms, processors, and evaluation techniques. In the military, object recognition is applied to the discrimination of military targets, ranging from human-aided to autonomous operations, and is called automatic target recognition (ATR). The research described here has been concentrated in human-aided target recognition applications, but

James A. Ratches; C. P. Walters; Rudolf G. Buser; B. D. Guenther

1997-01-01

210

A window of perception when diverting attention? Enhancing recognition for explicitly presented, unattended, and irrelevant stimuli by target alignment.  

PubMed

Research has demonstrated that irrelevant suprathreshold motion stimuli that are aligned with attended targets in a separate task, fail to illicit inhibitory control in a subsequent motion direction discrimination task (Tsushima, Seitz, & Watanabe, 2008). We extended these findings to conditions involving higher exposure levels to a more salient stimulus (written words) in an inattentional blindness paradigm. Across three experiments, participants were required to respond to immediate picture repetitions in a stream of serially presented line drawings, while at the same time ignore a simultaneously presented stream of superimposed words. Immediately following, a surprise test was given that measured recognition for the unattended words. Words that had appeared simultaneously with a repeated picture in the repetition detection task were not inhibited, but instead recognized significantly more often than words that had appeared with nonrepeating pictures. These findings support the notion that when attention is taxed, recognition for target-aligned task-irrelevant semantic items can be enhanced in a subsequent recognition task. This indicates a learning effect for frequently exposed, high-level irrelevant-stimuli that were temporally aligned with a relevant item in a separate task. PMID:23276115

Dewald, Andrew D; Sinnett, Scott; Doumas, Leonidas A A

2013-10-01

211

Influences of Lexical Tone and Pitch on Word Recognition in Bilingual Infants  

PubMed Central

Infants’ abilities to discriminate native and non-native phonemes have been extensively investigated in monolingual learners, demonstrating a transition from language-general to language-specific sensitivities over the first year after birth. However, these studies have mostly been limited to the study of vowels and consonants in monolingual learners. There is relatively little research on other types of phonetic segments, such as lexical tone, even though tone languages are very well represented across languages of the world. The goal of the present study is to investigate how Mandarin Chinese-English bilingual learners contend with non-phonemic pitch variation in English spoken word recognition. This is contrasted with their treatment of phonemic changes in lexical tone in Mandarin spoken word recognition. The experimental design was cross-sectional and three age-groups were sampled (7.5 months, 9 months and 11 months). Results demonstrated limited generalization abilities at 7.5 months, where infants only recognized words in English when matched in pitch and words in Mandarin that were matched in tone. At 9 months, infants recognized words in Mandarin Chinese that matched in tone, but also falsely recognized words that contrasted in tone. At this age, infants also recognized English words whether they were matched or mismatched in pitch. By 11 months, infants correctly recognized pitch-matched and - mismatched words in English but only recognized tonal matches in Mandarin Chinese. PMID:22682766

Singh, Leher; Foong, Joanne

2012-01-01

212

Acquisition of Malay word recognition skills: lessons from low-progress early readers.  

PubMed

Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both syllable awareness and phoneme blending were significant predictors of word recognition, suggesting that both syllable and phonemic grain-sizes are important in Malay word recognition. Item analysis revealed a hierarchical pattern of difficulty based on the syllable and the phonic structure of the words. Error analysis identified the sources of errors to be errors due to inefficient syllable segmentation, oversimplification of syllables, insufficient grapheme-phoneme knowledge and inefficient phonemic code assembly. Evidence also suggests that direct instruction in syllable segmentation, phonemic awareness and grapheme-phoneme correspondence is necessary for low-progress readers to acquire word recognition skills. Finally, a logical sequence to teach grapheme-phoneme decoding in Malay is suggested. PMID:21241030

Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin

2011-02-01

213

Preference and processing: The role of speech affect in early spoken word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants prefer to listen to happy speech. To assess influences of speech affect on early lexical processing, 7.5- and 10.5-month-old infants were familiarized with one word spoken with happy affect and another with neutral affect and then tested on recognition of these words in fluent passages. Infants heard all passages either with happy affect or with neutral affect. Contrary to

Leher Singh; James L. Morgan; Katherine S. Whiteb

2004-01-01

214

The DARPA 1000-word resource management database for continuous speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A database of continuous read speech has been designed and recorded within the DARPA strategic computing speech recognition program. The data is intended for use in designing and evaluating algorithms for speaker-independent, speaker-adaptive and speaker-dependent speech recognition. The data consists of read sentences appropriate to a naval resource management task built around existing interactive database and graphics programs. The 1000-word

Patti Price; William M. Fisher; Jared Bernstein; D. S. Pallett

1988-01-01

215

Statistical Pattern Recognition Techniques for Target Differentiation using Infrared Sensor  

E-print Network

Statistical Pattern Recognition Techniques for Target Differentiation using Infrared Sensor Tayfun features in indoor environments, possibly with different surface properties, using simple infrared (IR window is covered with an IR filter to minimize the effect of ambient light on the intensity mea

Barshan, Billur

216

Automatic Recognition of Air Targets for Future SHORAD Radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

For fulfilling the needs of future SHORAD (SHORt Range Air Defence), new radar concepts are being studied for both forces escort and area defence. NCTR (Non Cooperative Target Recognition) is required for these new systems especially for improving their performances in terms of situation assessment, ECCM (Electronic Counter-Counter Measures) optimisation and weapon assignment. This paper gives an overview of the

Michel MORUZZIS; Nathalie COLIN

1998-01-01

217

Support Vector Machines For Synthetic Aperture Radar Automatic Target Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Algorithms that produce classifiers with large margins, such as support vector machines (SVMs), AdaBoost, etc. are receiving more and more attention in the literature. This paper presents a real application of SVMs for synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition (SAR\\/ATR) and compares the result with conventional classifiers. The SVMs are tested for classification both in closed and open sets

Qun Zhao; Jose C. Principe

218

Piecewise Linear Approach: a New Approach in Automatic Target Recognition  

E-print Network

Recognition (ATR) of moving targets has recently received increased interest . High Range Resolution (HRR' over multiple look angles. To achieve a robust, reliable 1 and cost effective approach for HRR of the training data and the dependence of the HRR signature on the azimuth is considered. The dependence

Starzyk, Janusz A.

219

Wavelet Transformation and Signal Discrimination for HRR Radar Target Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the use of wavelets to improve the selection of discriminant features in the target recognition problem using High Range Resolution (HRR) radar signals in an air to air scenario. We show that there is statistically no difference between four different wavelet families in extracting discriminatory features. Since similar results can be obtained from any of the four

Dale E. Nelson; Janusz A. Starzyk; D. David Ensley

2003-01-01

220

The research of multi-frame target recognition based on laser active imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser active imaging is fit to conditions such as no difference in temperature between target and background, pitch-black night, bad visibility. Also it can be used to detect a faint target in long range or small target in deep space, which has advantage of high definition and good contrast. In one word, it is immune to environment. However, due to the affect of long distance, limited laser energy and atmospheric backscatter, it is impossible to illuminate the whole scene at the same time. It means that the target in every single frame is unevenly or partly illuminated, which make the recognition more difficult. At the same time the speckle noise which is common in laser active imaging blurs the images . In this paper we do some research on laser active imaging and propose a new target recognition method based on multi-frame images . Firstly, multi pulses of laser is used to obtain sub-images for different parts of scene. A denoising method combined homomorphic filter with wavelet domain SURE is used to suppress speckle noise. And blind deconvolution is introduced to obtain low-noise and clear sub-images. Then these sub-images are registered and stitched to combine a completely and uniformly illuminated scene image. After that, a new target recognition method based on contour moments is proposed. Firstly, canny operator is used to obtain contours. For each contour, seven invariant Hu moments are calculated to generate the feature vectors. At last the feature vectors are input into double hidden layers BP neural network for classification . Experiments results indicate that the proposed algorithm could achieve a high recognition rate and satisfactory real-time performance for laser active imaging.

Wang, Can-jin; Sun, Tao; Wang, Tin-feng; Chen, Juan

2013-09-01

221

Reassessing word frequency as a determinant of word recognition for skilled and unskilled readers.  

PubMed

The importance of vocabulary in reading comprehension emphasizes the need to accurately assess an individual's familiarity with words. The present article highlights problems with using occurrence counts in corpora as an index of word familiarity, especially when studying individuals varying in reading experience. We demonstrate via computational simulations and norming studies that corpus-based word frequencies systematically overestimate strengths of word representations, especially in the low-frequency range and in smaller-size vocabularies. Experience-driven differences in word familiarity prove to be faithfully captured by the subjective frequency ratings collected from responders at different experience levels. When matched on those levels, this lexical measure explains more variance than corpus-based frequencies in eye-movement and lexical decision latencies to English words, attested in populations with varied reading experience and skill. Furthermore, the use of subjective frequencies removes the widely reported (corpus) Frequency × Skill interaction, showing that more skilled readers are equally faster in processing any word than the less skilled readers, not disproportionally faster in processing lower frequency words. This finding challenges the view that the more skilled an individual is in generic mechanisms of word processing, the less reliant he or she will be on the actual lexical characteristics of that word. PMID:23339352

Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A

2013-06-01

222

Reassessing word frequency as a determinant of word recognition for skilled and unskilled readers  

PubMed Central

The importance of vocabulary in reading comprehension emphasizes the need to accurately assess an individual’s familiarity with words. The present article highlights problems with using occurrence counts in corpora as an index of word familiarity, especially when studying individuals varying in reading experience. We demonstrate via computational simulations and norming studies that corpus-based word frequencies systematically overestimate strengths of word representations, especially in the low-frequency range and in smaller-size vocabularies. Experience-driven differences in word familiarity prove to be faithfully captured by the subjective frequency ratings collected from responders at different experience levels. When matched on those levels, this lexical measure explains more variance than corpus-based frequencies in eye-movement and lexical decision latencies to English words, attested in populations with varied reading experience and skill. Furthermore, the use of subjective frequencies removes the widely reported (corpus) frequency-by-skill interaction, showing that more skilled readers are equally faster in processing any word than the less skilled readers, not disproportionally faster in processing lower-frequency words. This finding challenges the view that the more skilled an individual is in generic mechanisms of word processing the less reliant he/she will be on the actual lexical characteristics of that word. PMID:23339352

Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.

2013-01-01

223

Broken symmetries in a location-invariant word recognition network.  

PubMed

We studied the feedforward network proposed by Dandurand et al. (2010), which maps location-specific letter inputs to location-invariant word outputs, probing the hidden layer to determine the nature of the code. Hidden patterns for words were densely distributed, and K-means clustering on single letter patterns produced evidence that the network had formed semi-location-invariant letter representations during training. The possible confound with superseding bigram representations was ruled out, and linear regressions showed that any word pattern was well approximated by a linear combination of its constituent letter patterns. Emulating this code using overlapping holographic representations (Plate, 1995) uncovered a surprisingly acute and useful correspondence with the network, stemming from a broken symmetry in the connection weight matrix and related to the group-invariance theorem (Minsky & Papert, 1969). These results also explain how the network can reproduce relative and transposition priming effects found in humans. PMID:20964541

Hannagan, Thomas; Dandurand, Frédéric; Grainger, Jonathan

2011-01-01

224

Multi-class target recognition based on adaptive feature selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new approach of multi-class target recognition is proposed for remote sensing image analysis. A multiclass feature model is built, which is based on sharing features among classes. In order to make the recognition process efficient, we adopted the idea of adaptive feature selection. In each layer of the integrated feature model, the most salient and stable feature are selected first, and then the less ones. Experiments demonstrated the approach proposed is efficient in computation and is adaptive to scene variation.

Wang, Yuehuan; Yao, Wei; Song, Yunfeng; Sang, Nong; Zhang, Tianxu

2010-04-01

225

Proposed technique for aircraft recognition in Intelligent Video Automatic Target Recognition System (IVATRs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research is to automate WEFT (Wings, Engine, Fuselage, Tail) technique as input to aid VATR (Visual Automatic Target Recognition) system. VATR systems are relatively mobile in nature and easy to use in field. Earlier aircrafts have been observed using traditional binocular techniques, which are still in use along with some early warning system. The prime

Syed Faisal Ali; J. Jaafar; A. S. Malik

2010-01-01

226

Automated target recognition and tracking using an optical pattern recognition neural network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The on-going development of an automatic target recognition and tracking system at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is presented. This system is an optical pattern recognition neural network (OPRNN) that is an integration of an innovative optical parallel processor and a feature extraction based neural net training algorithm. The parallel optical processor provides high speed and vast parallelism as well as full shift invariance. The neural network algorithm enables simultaneous discrimination of multiple noisy targets in spite of their scales, rotations, perspectives, and various deformations. This fully developed OPRNN system can be effectively utilized for the automated spacecraft recognition and tracking that will lead to success in the Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) of the unmanned Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV). One of the most powerful optical parallel processors for automatic target recognition is the multichannel correlator. With the inherent advantages of parallel processing capability and shift invariance, multiple objects can be simultaneously recognized and tracked using this multichannel correlator. This target tracking capability can be greatly enhanced by utilizing a powerful feature extraction based neural network training algorithm such as the neocognitron. The OPRNN, currently under investigation at JPL, is constructed with an optical multichannel correlator where holographic filters have been prepared using the neocognitron training algorithm. The computation speed of the neocognitron-type OPRNN is up to 10(exp 14) analog connections/sec that enabling the OPRNN to outperform its state-of-the-art electronics counterpart by at least two orders of magnitude.

Chao, Tien-Hsin

1991-01-01

227

Parafoveal X-masks interfere with foveal word recognition: evidence from fixation-related brain potentials.  

PubMed

The boundary paradigm, in combination with parafoveal masks, is the main technique for studying parafoveal preprocessing during reading. The rationale is that the masks (e.g., strings of X's) prevent parafoveal preprocessing, but do not interfere with foveal processing. A recent study, however, raised doubts about the neutrality of parafoveal masks. In the present study, we explored this issue by means of fixation-related brain potentials (FRPs). Two FRP conditions presented rows of five words. The task of the participant was to judge whether the final word of a list was a "new" word, or whether it was a repeated (i.e., "old") word. The critical manipulation was that the final word was X-masked during parafoveal preview in one condition, whereas another condition presented a valid preview of the word. In two additional event-related brain potential (ERP) conditions, the words were presented serially with no parafoveal preview available; in one of the conditions with a fixed timing, in the other word presentation was self-paced by the participants. Expectedly, the valid-preview FRP condition elicited the shortest processing times. Processing times did not differ between the two ERP conditions indicating that "cognitive readiness" during self-paced processing can be ruled out as an alternative explanation for differences in processing times between the ERP and the FRP conditions. The longest processing times were found in the X-mask FRP condition indicating that parafoveal X-masks interfere with foveal word recognition. PMID:23888130

Hutzler, Florian; Fuchs, Isabella; Gagl, Benjamin; Schuster, Sarah; Richlan, Fabio; Braun, Mario; Hawelka, Stefan

2013-01-01

228

The relationships between anxiety level, perceptual recognition thresholds and response latencies to words varying in affective value  

E-print Network

fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subjects Psychology THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ANXIETY LEVEL, PERCEPTUAL RECOGNITION THRESHOLDS AND RESPONSE LATENCIES TO WORDS VARYING IN AFFECTIVE VALUE A Thesis SIU... Latency l2 l4 INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The conditions that determine the perceptual recognition of words have been the subject cf numerous psychological investiga- tions, especially in the 40s and 50s. The relationships between word...

So, Siu-Wah Christina

2012-06-07

229

Vowel Categorization during Word Recognition in Bilingual Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Toddlers' and preschoolers' knowledge of the phonological forms of words was tested in Spanish-learning, Catalan-learning, and bilingual children. These populations are of particular interest because of differences in the Spanish and Catalan vowel systems: Catalan has two vowels in a phonetic region where Spanish has only one. The proximity of the…

Ramon-Casas, Marta; Swingley, Daniel; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria; Bosch, Laura

2009-01-01

230

Do image descriptions underlie word recognition in reading?  

E-print Network

. Watt and Dakin observed that the response of any particular Gabor filter to an image, when thresholded the transformations from a retinal image of an object (letter, word, face, or other 3D form) to a perceptual decision model, visual encoding begins with response functions (subimages) derived from linear Gabor filters

Tjan, Bosco

231

Word Learning under Adverse Listening Conditions: Context-Specific Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies of word learning have presented the items to listeners under ideal conditions. Here we ask how listeners learn new vocabulary items under adverse listening conditions. Would listeners form acoustically-specific representations that incorporated the noise, base their representations on noise-free language knowledge, or both? To…

Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

2012-01-01

232

Methods for Sight Word Recognition in Kindergarten: Traditional Flashcard Method vs. Multisensory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quasi-experimental action research with a pretest-posttest same subject design was implemented to determine if there is a different effect of the flash card method and the multisensory approach on kindergarteners' achievement in sight word recognition, and which method is more effective if there is any difference. Instrumentation for pretest and…

Phillips, William E.; Feng, Jay

2012-01-01

233

Part IV: Reading and Foreign Language Learning: Individual Differences in Word Recognition Skills of ESL Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-cohorts of Grade 1 English as a Second Language (ESL) (n=200) and English as a First Language (EL1) (n=70) children were followed for two years. By considering differences in phonological awareness and rapid naming, it was possible to predict variance on word recognition performance six months and one year later. (Contains references.)…

Geva, Esther; Yaghoubzadeh, Zoreh; Schuster, Barbara

2000-01-01

234

Acquisition of Malay Word Recognition Skills: Lessons from Low-Progress Early Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both…

Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin

2011-01-01

235

DRC: A Dual Route Cascaded Model of Visual Word Recognition and Reading Aloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the Dual Route Cascaded (DRC) model, a computational model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. The DRC is a computational realization of the dual-route theory of reading, and is the only computational model of reading that can perform the 2 tasks most commonly used to study reading: lexical decision and reading aloud. For both tasks, the

Max Coltheart; Kathleen Rastle; Conrad Perry; Robyn Langdon; Johannes Ziegler

2001-01-01

236

Collaborative Efforts to Promote Emergent Literacy and Efficient Word Recognition Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, 3 models of collaboration between speech-language pathologists and classroom teachers are discussed to promote emergent literacy and accurate and fluent word recognition. These models are demonstration lessons, team teaching, and consultation. A number of instructional principles are presented for emergent literacy and decoding…

Roth, Froma P.; Troia, Gary A.

2006-01-01

237

A Cross-Linguistic Comparison of Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Turkish and English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared speech of kindergartners and first-graders from Turkey and America to investigate how characteristics of their spoken languages affect development of phonological awareness and how the relationship between spoken language and orthography affect phonological awareness and word recognition. Results suggest that characteristics of a spoken…

Oktay, Ayla; Aktan, Ebru

2002-01-01

238

Adaptive Zoning Features for Character and Word Recognition , A. L. Kesidis1,2  

E-print Network

. In this paper, we introduce the idea of adaptive zoning features that are extracted after adjusting the position extraction methods for character and word recognition have been based mainly on three types of features: a [11, 12]. A survey on feature extraction methods can be found in [13]. Moreover, other approaches

Gatos, Basilios

239

Electrophysiological Markers of Syllable Frequency during Written Word Recognition in French  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several empirical lines of investigation support the idea that syllable-sized units may be involved in visual word recognition processes. In this perspective, the present study aimed at investigating further the nature of the process that causes syllabic effects in reading. To do so, the syllable frequency effect was investigated in French using…

Chetail, Fabienne; Colin, Cecile; Content, Alain

2012-01-01

240

Isolated Word Recognition by Neural Network Models with Cross-Correlation Coefficients for Speech Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) for speaker-independent isolated word speech recognition. The network consists of three subnets in concatenation. The static information within one frame of speech signal is processed in the probabilistic mapping subnet that converts an input vector of acoustic features into a probability vector whose components are estimated probabilities of the feature vector belonging

Jian-xiong Wu; Chorkin Chan

1993-01-01

241

The Development of Word Recognition and Its Significance for Comprehension and Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When children start to learn to read English, they benefit from learning grapheme-phoneme correspondences. As they become more skilled, they use larger graphophonic units and morphemes in word recognition and spelling. We hypothesized that these 2 types of units in decoding make independent contributions to children's reading comprehension and…

Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Barros, Rossana

2012-01-01

242

Cochlear dead region and word recognition of Mandarin Chinese in Taiwan.  

PubMed

In a tonal language, the identity of a word depends largely on the tonal identification of the contour of vocal fundamental frequency energy of which usually centers in a low frequency of less than 600 Hz. However, cochlear dead region (DR) is present mostly in the frequency range of 2000 Hz to 4000 Hz, and the effect of DR on a tonal language is worth investigating. Thirty-two native Mandarin speakers with moderate-to-severe degree of sensorineural hearing loss were included in this study. The pure-tone audiometry, speech recognition threshold (SRT) and word recognition score (WRS) were used to evaluate the degree of hearing loss and word recognition. The threshold equalizing noise (TEN) tests were used to identify the presence of DR. The results showed that most DRs were present in high frequencies. The hearing thresholds of the ears with a DR were not significantly different from those without DR. However, the WRS was significantly worse for the DR ears, especially for those whose DR included three or more audiometric frequencies. A DR caused a significantly worse word recognition for the tonal language speakers of Mandarin in Taiwan, although the DR frequency occurred in the high frequency of 2000 Hz to 4000 Hz. PMID:23656214

Tseng, Li-Min; Lee, Guo-She; Yang, Edward; Young, Neo; Hsu, Chien-Yeh

2013-06-30

243

Comparative study of nonlinear time warping techniques in isolated word speech recognition systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the description of an isolated word recognition system and a discussion of various design choices that affect its performance. In particular, we report experimental results aimed at evaluating several methods to optimize the performance of dynamic warping algorithms. Three major aspects that have been suggested have been investigated: relaxation of the boundary conditions to allow

A. Waibel; B. Yegnanarayana

1981-01-01

244

The Architecture of the Bilingual Word Recognition System: From Identification to Decision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the BIA model of bilingual word recognition in the light of recent empirical evidence. Points out problems with the model and proposes a new model, the BIA+. The new model extends the old one by adding phonological and semantic lexical representations to the available orthographic ones, and assigns a different role to the so-called…

Dijkstra, Ton; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

2002-01-01

245

Peer Commentaries on "The Architecture of the Bilingual Word Recognition System: From Identification to Decision."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven peer commentaries focus on an article that evaluated the BIA model of bilingual word recognition in the light of recent empirical evidence, pointed out problems with it, and proposed a new model, the BIA+. Raise several issues of concern. (Author/VWL)

Brysbaert, Marc; van Wijnendaele, Ilse; Duyck, Wouter; Jacquet, Maud; French, Robert M.; Green, David W.; van Hell, Janet G.; Li, Ping; Roelofs, Ardi; Thomas, Michael S. C.

2002-01-01

246

The Reading Process--The Relationship Between Word Recognition and Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between word recognition and comprehension achieved by second and fifth grade students when reading material at various levels of readability. A random sample of twenty-five second and twenty-five fifth graders, taken from three middle class schools, was administered a…

Hays, Warren S.

247

Letter Names: Effect on Letter Saying, Spelling, and Word Recognition in Hebrew.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether letter names, which bridge the gap between oral and written language among English speaking children, have a similar function in Hebrew. In findings from studies of Israeli kindergartners and first graders, children were found to rely on letter names in performing a number of letter saying, spelling, and word recognition tasks.…

Levin, Iris; Patel, Sigal; Margalit, Tamar; Barad, Noa

2002-01-01

248

Learning of Letter Names and Sounds and Their Contribution to Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, their learning, and their contributions to word recognition. Of 123 preschoolers examined on letter knowledge, 65 underwent training on both letter names and letter sounds in a counterbalanced order. Prior to training, children were more advanced in associating letters with their…

Levin, Iris; Shatil-Carmon, Sivan; Asif-Rave, Ornit

2006-01-01

249

Putting It All Together: A Unified Account of Word Recognition and Reaction-Time Distributions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

R. Ratcliff, P. Gomez, and G. McKoon (2004) suggested much of what goes on in lexical decision is attributable to decision processes and may not be particularly informative about word recognition. They proposed that lexical decision should be characterized by a decision process, taking the form of a drift-diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978), that…

Norris, Dennis

2009-01-01

250

The Impact of Orthographic Connectivity on Visual Word Recognition in Arabic: A Cross-Sectional Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at assessing the effects of letters' connectivity in Arabic on visual word recognition. For this purpose, reaction times (RTs) and accuracy scores were collected from ninety-third, sixth and ninth grade native Arabic speakers during a lexical decision task, using fully connected (Cw), partially connected (PCw) and…

Khateb, Asaid; Khateb-Abdelgani, Manal; Taha, Haitham Y.; Ibrahim, Raphiq

2014-01-01

251

The Interaction of Lexical Semantics and Cohort Competition in Spoken Word Recognition: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning…

Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Tyler, Lorraine K.

2011-01-01

252

The utility of the Rey Word Recognition Test in the detection of suspect effort.  

PubMed

The Rey Word Recognition Test potentially represents an underutilized tool for clinicians to use in the detection of suspect effort. The present study examined the predictive accuracy of the test by examining the performance of three groups of participants: (a) 92 noncredible patients (as determined by failed psychometric and behavioral criteria and external motive to feign), (b) 51 general clinical patients with no motive to feign, and (c) 31 learning disabled college students. Results demonstrated gender differences in performance that necessitated separate cutoff scores for men and women. Use of a cutoff score of < or = 7 words correctly recognized identified 80.5% of noncredible female patients while maintaining specificity of > 90%. However, to achieve this level of specificity in male noncredible patients, the cutoff score had to be lowered to < or = 5, with resultant sensitivity of only 62.7%. A combination variable (recognition correct minus false positive errors + number of words recognized from the first 8 words) showed enhanced sensitivity in identifying suspect effort in a subset of the noncredible sample who were claiming cognitive symptoms secondary to traumatic brain injury (i.e., cutoff score of < or = 9 = 81.6% sensitivity with 90% specificity). Results indicate that the Rey Word Recognition Test is an accurate and cost-effective method for the detection of noncredible cognitive performance. PMID:16980268

Nitch, Stephen; Boone, Kyle Brauer; Wen, Johnny; Arnold, Ginger; Alfano, Kimberly

2006-12-01

253

Specifying theories of developmental dyslexia: a diffusion model analysis of word recognition.  

PubMed

The nature of word recognition difficulties in developmental dyslexia is still a topic of controversy. We investigated the contribution of phonological processing deficits and uncertainty to the word recognition difficulties of dyslexic children by mathematical diffusion modeling of visual and auditory lexical decision data. The first study showed that poor visual lexical decision performance of reading disabled children was mainly due to a delay in the evaluation of word characteristics, suggesting impaired phonological processing. The adoption of elevated certainty criteria by the disabled readers suggests that uncertainty contributed to the visual word recognition impairments as well. The second study replicated the outcomes for visual lexical decision with formally diagnosed dyslexic children. In addition, during auditory lexical decision, dyslexics presented with reduced accuracy, which also resulted from delayed evaluation of word characteristics. Since orthographic influences are diminished during auditory lexical decision, this strengthens the phonological processing deficit account. Dyslexic children did not adopt heightened certainty criteria during auditory lexical decision, indicating that uncertainty solely impairs reading and not listening. PMID:22010894

Zeguers, Maaike H T; Snellings, Patrick; Tijms, Jurgen; Weeda, Wouter D; Tamboer, Peter; Bexkens, Anika; Huizenga, Hilde M

2011-11-01

254

Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals  

PubMed Central

Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals’ parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300–500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633–767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

2013-01-01

255

A novel target recognition method based on landmarks dynamic allocation for infrared sequential images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic target recognition (ATR) usually become difficult when target is blocked by clouds, or low image contrast, or target repeat mode in a complex optical imaging environment. The ground target recognition method based on landmarks is a good way for aircraft navigation, which can solve unobvious target recognition problems in a complex wide-field scene. In combination with the characteristics of selective attention in human visual system, this paper systematic study the construction rules for the cluster of landmarks, present a landmarks dynamic allocation method in ground target recognition, which can effectively improve the stability and accuracy of target recognition.

Xu, Jie; Yang, Weidong; Fu, Yi; Xiong, Kang

2013-10-01

256

Is a Fan Always Fun? Phonological and Orthographic Effects in Bilingual Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A visual semantic categorization task in English was performed by native English speakers (Experiment 1) and late bilinguals whose first language was Japanese (Experiment 2) or Spanish (Experiment 3). In the critical conditions, the target word was a homophone of a correct category exemplar (e.g., A BODY OF WATER-SEE; cf. SEA) or a word that…

Ota, Mitsuhiko; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Haywood, Sarah L.

2010-01-01

257

Speech-perception training for older adults with hearing loss impacts word recognition and effort.  

PubMed

The current pupillometry study examined the impact of speech-perception training on word recognition and cognitive effort in older adults with hearing loss. Trainees identified more words at the follow-up than at the baseline session. Training also resulted in an overall larger and faster peaking pupillary response, even when controlling for performance and reaction time. Perceptual and cognitive capacities affected the peak amplitude of the pupil response across participants but did not diminish the impact of training on the other pupil metrics. Thus, we demonstrated that pupillometry can be used to characterize training-related and individual differences in effort during a challenging listening task. Importantly, the results indicate that speech-perception training not only affects overall word recognition, but also a physiological metric of cognitive effort, which has the potential to be a biomarker of hearing loss intervention outcome. PMID:24909603

Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Cute, Stephanie L; Humes, Larry E; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

2014-10-01

258

Variable length and context-dependent HMM letter form models for Arabic handwritten word recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present in this paper an HMM-based recognizer for the recognition of unconstrained Arabic handwritten words. The recognizer is a context-dependent HMM which considers variable topology and contextual information for a better modeling of writing units. We propose an algorithm to adapt the topology of each HMM to the character to be modeled. For modeling the contextual units, a state-tying process based on decision tree clustering is introduced which significantly reduces the number of parameters. Decision trees are built according to a set of expert-based questions on how characters are written. Questions are divided into global questions yielding larger clusters and precise questions yielding smaller ones. We apply this modeling to the recognition of Arabic handwritten words. Experiments conducted on the OpenHaRT2010 database show that variable length topology and contextual information significantly improves the recognition rate.

Bianne-Bernard, Anne-Laure; Menasri, Fares; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence; Mokbel, Chafic; Kermorvant, Christopher

2012-01-01

259

AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF SUB-WORD UNITS FOR SPEECH RECOGNITION Rita Singh 1 , Bhiksha Raj 2 and Richard M. Stern 1 , Member IEEE  

E-print Network

is called a dictionary. The performance of the LVCSR system depends critically on the choice of the sub-word1 AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF SUB-WORD UNITS FOR SPEECH RECOGNITION SYSTEMS Rita Singh 1 , Bhiksha Raj recognition (LVCSR) systems traditionally represent words in terms of smaller sub-word units. Both during

Singh, Rita

260

Automated Target Acquisition, Recognition and Tracking (ATTRACT). Phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of phase 1 of this research project is to conduct multidisciplinary research that will contribute to fundamental scientific knowledge in several of the USAF critical technology areas. Specifically, neural networks, signal processing techniques, and electro-optic capabilities are utilized to solve problems associated with automated target acquisition, recognition, and tracking. To accomplish the stated objective, several tasks have been identified and were executed.

Abdallah, Mahmoud A.

1995-01-01

261

Recognition of Handwritten Arabic words using a neuro-fuzzy network  

SciTech Connect

We present a new method for the recognition of handwritten Arabic words based on neuro-fuzzy hybrid network. As a first step, connected components (CCs) of black pixels are detected. Then the system determines which CCs are sub-words and which are stress marks. The stress marks are then isolated and identified separately and the sub-words are segmented into graphemes. Each grapheme is described by topological and statistical features. Fuzzy rules are extracted from training examples by a hybrid learning scheme comprised of two phases: rule generation phase from data using a fuzzy c-means, and rule parameter tuning phase using gradient descent learning. After learning, the network encodes in its topology the essential design parameters of a fuzzy inference system.The contribution of this technique is shown through the significant tests performed on a handwritten Arabic words database.

Boukharouba, Abdelhak [Departement de Genie electrique, Universite 08 Mai 45 de Guelma (Algeria); Bennia, Abdelhak [Departement d'Electronique, Universite Mentouri de Constantine (Algeria)

2008-06-12

262

Autonomous target recognition using remotely sensed surface vibration measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remotely measured surface vibration signatures of tactical military ground vehicles are investigated for use in target classification and identification friend or foe (IFF) systems. The use of remote surface vibration sensing by a laser radar reduces the effects of partial occlusion, concealment, and camouflage experienced by automatic target recognition systems using traditional imagery in a tactical battlefield environment. Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) efficiently represents the vibration signatures and nearest neighbor classifiers exploit the LPC feature set using a variety of distortion metrics. Nearest neighbor classifiers achieve an 88 percent classification rate in an eight class problem, representing a classification performance increase of thirty percent from previous efforts. A novel confidence figure of merit is implemented to attain a 100 percent classification rate with less than 60 percent rejection. The high classification rates are achieved on a target set which would pose significant problems to traditional image-based recognition systems. The targets are presented to the sensor in a variety of aspects and engine speeds at a range of 1 kilometer. The classification rates achieved demonstrate the benefits of using remote vibration measurement in a ground IFF system. The signature modeling and classification system can also be used to identify rotary and fixed-wing targets.

Geurts, James; Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Oxley, Mark E.; Barr, Dallas N.

1993-09-01

263

Modified backward error propagation for tactical target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explores a new approach to the classification of tactical targets using a new biologically-based neural network. The targets of interest were generated from Doppler imagery and forward looking infrared imagery, and consisted of tanks, trucks, armored personnel carriers, jeeps and petroleum, oil, and lubricant tankers. Each target was described by feature vectors, such as normalized moment invariants. The features were generated from the imagery using a segmenting process. These feature vectors were used as the input to a neural network classifier for tactical target recognition. The neural network consisted of a multilayer perceptron architecture, employing a backward error propagation learning algorithm. The minimization technique used was an approximation to Newton's method. This second order algorithm is a generalized version of well known first order techniques, i.e., gradient of steepest descent and momentum methods. Classification using both first and second order techniques was performed, with comparisons drawn.

Piazza, Charles C.

1988-12-01

264

An Abundance of Riches: Cross-Task Comparisons of Semantic Richness Effects in Visual Word Recognition  

PubMed Central

There is considerable evidence (e.g., Pexman et al., 2008) that semantically rich words, which are associated with relatively more semantic information, are recognized faster across different lexical processing tasks. The present study extends this earlier work by providing the most comprehensive evaluation to date of semantic richness effects on visual word recognition performance. Specifically, using mixed effects analyses to control for the influence of correlated lexical variables, we considered the impact of number of features, number of senses, semantic neighborhood density, imageability, and body–object interaction across five visual word recognition tasks: standard lexical decision, go/no-go lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, progressive demasking, and semantic classification. Semantic richness effects could be reliably detected in all tasks of lexical processing, indicating that semantic representations, particularly their imaginal and featural aspects, play a fundamental role in visual word recognition. However, there was also evidence that the strength of certain richness effects could be flexibly and adaptively modulated by task demands, consistent with an intriguing interplay between task-specific mechanisms and differentiated semantic processing. PMID:22529787

Yap, Melvin J.; Pexman, Penny M.; Wellsby, Michele; Hargreaves, Ian S.; Huff, Mark J.

2012-01-01

265

A word language model based contextual language processing on Chinese character recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The language model design and implementation issue is researched in this paper. Different from previous research, we want to emphasize the importance of n-gram models based on words in the study of language model. We build up a word based language model using the toolkit of SRILM and implement it for contextual language processing on Chinese documents. A modified Absolute Discount smoothing algorithm is proposed to reduce the perplexity of the language model. The word based language model improves the performance of post-processing of online handwritten character recognition system compared with the character based language model, but it also increases computation and storage cost greatly. Besides quantizing the model data non-uniformly, we design a new tree storage structure to compress the model size, which leads to an increase in searching efficiency as well. We illustrate the set of approaches on a test corpus of recognition results of online handwritten Chinese characters, and propose a modified confidence measure for recognition candidate characters to get their accurate posterior probabilities while reducing the complexity. The weighted combination of linguistic knowledge and candidate confidence information proves successful in this paper and can be further developed to achieve improvements in recognition accuracy.

Huang, Chen; Ding, Xiaoqing; Chen, Yan

2010-01-01

266

Word recognition following implantation of conventional and 10-mm hybrid electrodes.  

PubMed

We compared the effectiveness of 2 surgical interventions for improving word recognition ability in a quiet environment among patients who presented with: (1) bilateral, precipitously sloping, high-frequency hearing loss; (2) relatively good auditory thresholds at and below 500 Hz, and (3) poor speech recognition. In 1 intervention (n = 25), a conventional electrode array was inserted into 1 cochlea. As a consequence, hearing was lost in the implanted ear. In the other intervention (n = 22), a Nucleus Hybrid short-electrode array was inserted 10 mm into 1 cochlea with the aim of preserving hearing in that ear. Both groups of patients had similar low-frequency hearing and speech understanding in the ear contralateral to the implant. Following surgery, both groups had significantly higher word recognition scores than before surgery. Between-group comparisons indicated that the conventional electrode array group had higher word recognition scores than the 10-mm group when stimulation was presented to the operated ear and when stimulation was presented to both ears. PMID:19005252

Dorman, Michael F; Gifford, Rene; Lewis, Kristen; McKarns, Sharon; Ratigan, Jennifer; Spahr, Anthony; Shallop, Jon K; Driscoll, Colin L W; Luetje, Charles; Thedinger, Bradley S; Beatty, Charles W; Syms, Mark; Novak, Mike; Barrs, David; Cowdrey, Lisa; Black, Jennifer; Loiselle, Louise

2009-01-01

267

The Role of Native-Language Phonology in the Auditory Word Identification and Visual Word Recognition of Russian–English Bilinguals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does native language phonology influence visual word processing in a second language? This question was investigated in two\\u000a experiments with two groups of Russian-English bilinguals, differing in their English experience, and a monolingual English\\u000a control group. Experiment 1 tested visual word recognition following semantic categorization of words containing four phonological\\u000a vowel contrasts ($${\\/{{\\\\rm i}}\\/-\\/{{\\\\rm u}}\\/, \\/{{\\\\rm I}}\\/-\\/\\\\wedge\\/, \\/{{\\\\rm i}}\\/-\\/{{\\\\rm I}}\\/,

Valeriy Shafiro; Anatoliy V. Kharkhurin

2009-01-01

268

A roommate in cream: Morphological family size effects on interlingual homograph recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In monolingual studies, target word recognition is affected by the number of words that are morphologically related to the target. Larger morphological families lead to faster recognition. We investigated the role of the morphological family size (MFS) effect in bilingual word recognition. First, re-analysis of available English lexical decision data from Dutch–English bilinguals reported by Schulpen, Dijkstra, and Schriefers (2003)

Ton Dijkstra; Fermín Moscoso del Prado Martín; Béryl Schulpen; Robert Schreuder; R. Harald Baayen

2005-01-01

269

AUDITORY-PHONETIC PROJECTION AND LEXICAL STRUCTURE IN THE RECOGNITION OF SINE-WAVE WORDS  

PubMed Central

Speech remains intelligible despite the elimination of canonical acoustic correlates of phonemes from the spectrum. A portion of this perceptual flexibility can be attributed to modulation sensitivity in the auditory-to-phonetic projection, though signal-independent properties of lexical neighborhoods also affect intelligibility in utterances composed of words. Three tests were conducted to estimate the effects of exposure to natural and sine-wave samples of speech in this kind of perceptual versatility. First, sine-wave versions of the easy/hard word sets were created, modeled on the speech samples of a single talker. The performance difference in recognition of easy and hard words was used to index the perceptual reliance on signal-independent properties of lexical contrasts. Second, several kinds of exposure produced familiarity with an aspect of sine-wave speech: 1) sine-wave sentences modeled on the same talker; 2) sine-wave sentences modeled on a different talker, to create familiarity with a sine-wave carrier; and 3) natural sentences spoken by the same talker, to create familiarity with the idiolect expressed in the sine-wave words. Recognition performance with both easy and hard sine-wave words improved after exposure only to sine-wave sentences modeled on the same talker. Third, a control test showed that signal-independent uncertainty is a plausible cause of differences in recognition of easy and hard sine-wave words. The conditions of beneficial exposure reveal the specificity of attention underlying versatility in speech perception. PMID:20865138

Remez, Robert E.; Dubowski, Kathryn R.; Broder, Robin S.; Davids, Morgana L.; Grossman, Yael S.; Moskalenko, Marina; Pardo, Jennifer S.; Hasbun, Sara Maria

2010-01-01

270

Auditory-phonetic projection and lexical structure in the recognition of sine-wave words.  

PubMed

Speech remains intelligible despite the elimination of canonical acoustic correlates of phonemes from the spectrum. A portion of this perceptual flexibility can be attributed to modulation sensitivity in the auditory-to-phonetic projection, although signal-independent properties of lexical neighborhoods also affect intelligibility in utterances composed of words. Three tests were conducted to estimate the effects of exposure to natural and sine-wave samples of speech in this kind of perceptual versatility. First, sine-wave versions of the easy and hard word sets were created, modeled on the speech samples of a single talker. The performance difference in recognition of easy and hard words was used to index the perceptual reliance on signal-independent properties of lexical contrasts. Second, several kinds of exposure produced familiarity with an aspect of sine-wave speech: (a) sine-wave sentences modeled on the same talker; (b) sine-wave sentences modeled on a different talker, to create familiarity with a sine-wave carrier; and (c) natural sentences spoken by the same talker, to create familiarity with the idiolect expressed in the sine-wave words. Recognition performance with both easy and hard sine-wave words improved after exposure only to sine-wave sentences modeled on the same talker. Third, a control test showed that signal-independent uncertainty is a plausible cause of differences in recognition of easy and hard sine-wave words. The conditions of beneficial exposure reveal the specificity of attention underlying versatility in speech perception. PMID:21443384

Remez, Robert E; Dubowski, Kathryn R; Broder, Robin S; Davids, Morgana L; Grossman, Yael S; Moskalenko, Marina; Pardo, Jennifer S; Hasbun, Sara Maria

2011-06-01

271

Motivational mechanisms (BAS) and prefrontal cortical activation contribute to recognition memory for emotional words. rTMS effect on performance and EEG (alpha band) measures.  

PubMed

The present research addressed the question of where memories for emotional words could be represented in the brain. A second main question was related to the effect of personality traits, in terms of the Behavior Activation System (BAS), in emotional word recognition. We tested the role of the left DLPFC (LDLPFC) by performing a memory task in which old (previously encoded targets) and new (previously not encoded distractors) positive or negative emotional words had to be recognized. High-BAS and low-BAS subjects were compared when a repetitive TMS (rTMS) was applied on the LDLPFC. We found significant differences between high-BAS vs. low-BAS subjects, with better performance for high-BAS in response to positive words. In parallel, an increased left cortical activity (alpha desynchronization) was observed for high-BAS in the case of positive words. Thus, we can conclude that the left approach-related hemisphere, underlying BAS, may support faster recognition of positive words. PMID:25190327

Balconi, Michela; Cobelli, Chiara

2014-10-01

272

Context-dependent HMM modeling using tree-based clustering for the recognition of handwritten words  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an HMM-based recognizer for the off-line recognition of handwritten words. Word models are the concatenation of context-dependent character models (trigraphs). The trigraph models we consider are similar to triphone models in speech recognition, where a character adapts its shape according to its adjacent characters. Due to the large number of possible context-dependent models to compute, a top-down clustering is applied on each state position of all models associated with a particular character. This clustering uses decision trees, based on rhetorical questions we designed. Decision trees have the advantage to model untrained trigraphs. Our system is shown to perform better than a baseline context independent system, and reaches an accuracy higher than 74% on the publicly available Rimes database.

Bianne, Anne-Laure; Kermorvant, Christopher; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence

2010-01-01

273

Design and performance of a large vocabulary discrete word recognition system. Volume 2: Appendixes. [flow charts and users manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The users manual for the word recognition computer program contains flow charts of the logical diagram, the memory map for templates, the speech analyzer card arrangement, minicomputer input/output routines, and assembly language program listings.

1973-01-01

274

Phonology as the source of syllable frequency effects in visual word recognition: Evidence from French  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate whether syllable frequency effects in visual word recognition can be attributed to phonologically\\u000a or orthographically defined syllables, we designed one experiment that allowed six critical comparisons. Whereas only a weak\\u000a effect was obtained when both orthographic and phonological syllable frequency were conjointly manipulated in Comparison 1,\\u000a robust effects for phonological and null effects for orthographic syllable

Markus Conrad; Jonathan Grainger; Arthur M. Jacobs

2007-01-01

275

Application of point enhancement technique for ship target recognition by HRR  

E-print Network

Application of point enhancement technique for ship target recognition by HRR Nilufen Cotuka range-resolution (HRR) radar profile reconstruction method on automatic target recognition (ATR) performance. We use several pattern recognition techniques to compare the performance of point-enhanced HRR

Willsky, Alan S.

276

Decomposing encoding and decisional components in visual-word recognition: A diffusion model analysis.  

PubMed

In a diffusion model, performance as measured by latency and accuracy in two-choice tasks is decomposed into different parameters that can be linked to underlying cognitive processes. Although the diffusion model has been utilized to account for lexical decision data, the effects of stimulus manipulations in previous experiments originated from just one parameter: the quality of the evidence. Here we examined whether the diffusion model can be used to effectively decompose the underlying processes during visual-word recognition. We explore this issue in an experiment that features a lexical manipulation (word frequency) that we expected to affect mostly the quality of the evidence (the drift rate parameter), and a perceptual manipulation (stimulus orientation) that presumably affects the nondecisional time (the Ter parameter, time of encoding and response) more than it affects the drift rate. Results showed that although the manipulations do not affect only one parameter, word frequency and stimulus orientation had differential effects on the model's parameters. Thus, the diffusion model is a useful tool to decompose the effects of stimulus manipulations in visual-word recognition. PMID:25192455

Gomez, Pablo; Perea, Manuel

2014-12-01

277

Re-Evaluating Split-Fovea Processing in Word Recognition: Effects of Retinal Eccentricity on Hemispheric Dominance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have claimed that hemispheric asymmetries affect word recognition right up to the point of fixation because each fovea is split precisely at its vertical midline and information presented either side of this midline projects unilaterally to different, contralateral hemispheres. To investigate this claim, four-letter words were presented to the left or right of fixation, either close to fixation

Timothy R. Jordan; Kevin B. Paterson; Marcin Stachurski

2008-01-01

278

Got Rhythm...For Better and for Worse. Cross-Modal Effects of Auditory Rhythm on Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research aimed to investigate whether, as previously observed with pictures, background auditory rhythm would also influence visual word recognition. In a lexical decision task, participants were presented with bisyllabic visual words, segmented into two successive groups of letters, while an irrelevant strongly metric auditory…

Brochard, Renaud; Tassin, Maxime; Zagar, Daniel

2013-01-01

279

The Effects of L1 Orthography on L2 Word Recognition: A Study of American and Chinese Learners of Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effects of a first-language orthographic system on second-language (L2) word recognition strategies. Lexical judgment tests using Japanese syllabic script were given to native English and native Chinese learners of Japanese. Results indicated that Chinese speakers relied more on visual information in L2 Japanese words, whereas the…

Chikamatsu, Nobuko

1996-01-01

280

Colour invariant target recognition in multiple camera CCTV surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People tracking in crowded scene have been a popular, and at the same time a very difficult topic in computer vision. It is mainly because of the difficulty for the acquisition of intrinsic signatures of targets from a single view of the scene. Many factors, such as variable illumination conditions and viewing angles, will induce illusive modification of intrinsic signatures of targets. The objective of this paper is to verify if colour constancy (CC) approach really helps people tracking in CCTV network system. We have testified a number of CC algorithms together with various colour descriptors, to assess the efficiencies of people recognitions from multi-camera i-LIDS data set via receiver operation characteristics (ROC). It is found that when CC is applied together with some form of colour restoration mechanisms such as colour transfer, it does improve people recognition by at least a factor of 2. An elementary luminance based CC coupled with a pixel based colour transfer algorithm have been developed and it is reported in this paper.

Soori, Umair; Yuen, P. W. T.; Ibrahim, I.; Han, J.; Tsitiridis, A.; Hong, K.; Chen, T.; Jackman, J.; James, D.; Richardson, M.

2011-11-01

281

A New Word Clustering Method for Building N-Gram Language Models in Continuous Speech Recognition Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a new method for automatic word clustering is presented. We used this method for building n-gram language models\\u000a for Persian continuous speech recognition (CSR) systems. In this method, each word is specified by a feature vector that represents\\u000a the statistics of parts of speech (POS) of that word. The feature vectors are clustered by k-means algorithm. Using

Mohammad Bahrani; Hossein Sameti; Nazila Hafezi; Saeedeh Momtazi

2008-01-01

282

Modularized reconfigurable system for target recognition with multi-DSP processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modularized reconfigurable system for target recognition with multi-DSP processing is designed to reconfigure the target recognition modules and update the distributed target feature libraries through the serial channel to adapt to the varied application. The system is separated into three independent modules and two work modes running at different time slides based on project switch. The modularized reconfiguration module is designed as a minimum security kernel separated from the target recognition module to decrease their coupling and interrelationship. This kind of multi-project design based on cyclic redundancy check presents a more independent and reliable target recognition system with modularized reconfiguration ability.

Li, Yun; Li, Huili; Xie, Xiaoming

2013-10-01

283

Syllable-sized units in visual word recognition: Evidence from skilled and beginning readers of French  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiments presented here used a visual version of the syllable monitoring technique (Mehler, Dommergues, Frauenfelder, & Segui, 1981) to investigate the role of syllabic units in beginning and adult readers. Participants responded whenever a visually presented target syllable (e.g., BA) appeared at the beginning of a subsequently presented printed word (e.g., BALANCE). The target was either a consonant-vowel (CV)

PASCALE COLÉ; ANNIE MAGNAN; JONATHAN GRAINGER

1999-01-01

284

The Effects of Word Frequency and Similarity on Recognition Judgments: The Role of Recollection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

K. J. Malmberg, J. Holden, and R. M. Shiffrin (2004) reported more false alarms for low- than high-frequency words when the foils were similar to the targets. According to the source of activation confusion (SAC) model of memory, that pattern is based on recollection of an underspecified episodic trace rather than the error-prone familiarity…

Park, Heekyeong; Reder, Lynne M.; Dickison, Daniel

2005-01-01

285

Does N200 Reflect Semantic Processing?--An ERP Study on Chinese Visual Word Recognition  

PubMed Central

Recent event-related potential research has reported a N200 response or a negative deflection peaking around 200 ms following the visual presentation of two-character Chinese words. This N200 shows amplitude enhancement upon immediate repetition and there has been preliminary evidence that it reflects orthographic processing but not semantic processing. The present study tested whether this N200 is indeed unrelated to semantic processing with more sensitive measures, including the use of two tasks engaging semantic processing either implicitly or explicitly and the adoption of a within-trial priming paradigm. In Exp. 1, participants viewed repeated, semantically related and unrelated prime-target word pairs as they performed a lexical decision task judging whether or not each target was a real word. In Exp. 2, participants viewed high-related, low-related and unrelated word pairs as they performed a semantic task judging whether each word pair was related in meaning. In both tasks, semantic priming was found from both the behavioral data and the N400 ERP responses. Critically, while repetition priming elicited a clear and large enhancement on the N200 response, semantic priming did not show any modulation effect on the same response. The results indicate that the N200 repetition enhancement effect cannot be explained with semantic priming and that this specific N200 response is unlikely to reflect semantic processing. PMID:24622389

Du, Yingchun; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, John X.

2014-01-01

286

Multi-Stage System for Automatic Target Recognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feedforward back-propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and to remove false positives. The system parameter optimizations process has been developed to adapt to various targets and datasets. The objective was to design an efficient computer vision system that can learn to detect multiple targets in large images with unknown backgrounds. Because the target size is small relative to the image size in this problem, there are many regions of the image that could potentially contain the target. A cursory analysis of every region can be computationally efficient, but may yield too many false positives. On the other hand, a detailed analysis of every region can yield better results, but may be computationally inefficient. The multi-stage ATR system was designed to achieve an optimal balance between accuracy and computational efficiency by incorporating both models. The detection stage first identifies potential ROIs where the target may be present by performing a fast Fourier domain OT-MACH filter-based correlation. Because threshold for this stage is chosen with the goal of detecting all true positives, a number of false positives are also detected as ROIs. The verification stage then transforms the regions of interest into feature space, and eliminates false positives using an artificial neural network classifier. The multi-stage system allows tuning the detection sensitivity and the identification specificity individually in each stage. It is easier to achieve optimized ATR operation based on its specific goal. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar and video image datasets.

Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas T.; Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Johnson, Oliver

2010-01-01

287

Does viotin activate violin more than viocin? On the use of visual cues during visual-word recognition.  

PubMed

The vast majority of neural and computational models of visual-word recognition assume that lexical access is achieved via the activation of abstract letter identities. Thus, a word's overall shape should play no role in this process. In the present lexical decision experiment, we compared word-like pseudowords like viotín (same shape as its base word: violín) vs. viocín (different shape) in mature (college-aged skilled readers), immature (normally reading children), and immature/impaired (young readers with developmental dyslexia) word-recognition systems. Results revealed similar response times (and error rates) to consistent-shape and inconsistent-shape pseudowords for both adult skilled readers and normally reading children - this is consistent with current models of visual-word recognition. In contrast, young readers with developmental dyslexia made significantly more errors to viotín-like pseudowords than to viocín-like pseudowords. Thus, unlike normally reading children, young readers with developmental dyslexia are sensitive to a word's visual cues, presumably because of poor letter representations. PMID:23948388

Perea, Manuel; Panadero, Victoria

2014-01-01

288

A comparison of machine learning methods for target recognition using ISAR imagery  

E-print Network

recognition (ATR), foliage penetration (FOPEN), and radar absorbing material (RAM) development. Compact ranges of machine learning techniques in classifying ground targets in two- dimensional radar imagery were compared-validation. Keywords: machine learning, target recognition, decision tree, bayes, support vector machine, radar 1

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

289

A pathogenic nematode targets recognition proteins to avoid insect defenses.  

PubMed

Steinernemacarpocapsae is a nematode pathogenic in a wide variety of insect species. The great pathogenicity of this nematode has been ascribed to its ability to overcome the host immune response; however, little is known about the mechanisms involved in this process. The analysis of an expressed sequence tags (EST) library in the nematode during the infective phase was performed and a highly abundant contig homologous to serine protease inhibitors was identified. In this work, we show that this contig is part of a 641-bp cDNA that encodes a BPTI-Kunitz family inhibitor (Sc-KU-4), which is up-regulated in the parasite during invasion and installation. Recombinant Sc-KU-4 protein was produced in Escherichia coli and shown to inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase activities in a dose-dependent manner by a competitive mechanism with Ki values of 1.8 nM and 2.6 nM, respectively. Sc-KU-4 also inhibited trypsin and thrombin activities to a lesser extent. Studies of the mode of action of Sc-KU-4 and its effects on insect defenses suggest that although Sc-KU-4 did not inhibit the activation of hemocytes or the formation of clotting fibers, it did inhibit hemocyte aggregation and the entrapment of foreign particles by fibers. Moreover, Sc-KU-4 avoided encapsulation and the deposition of clotting materials, which usually occurs in response to foreign particles. We show by protein-protein interaction that Sc-KU-4 targets recognition proteins of insect immune system such as masquerade-like and serine protease-like homologs. The interaction of Sc-KU-4 with these proteins explains the ability of the nematode to overcome host reactions and its large pathogenic spectrum, once these immune proteins are well conserved in insects. The discovery of this inhibitor targeting insect recognition proteins opens new avenues for the development of S. carpocapsae as a biological control agent and provides a new tool to study host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24098715

Toubarro, Duarte; Avila, Mónica Martinez; Montiel, Rafael; Simões, Nelson

2013-01-01

290

A Pathogenic Nematode Targets Recognition Proteins to Avoid Insect Defenses  

PubMed Central

Steinernemacarpocapsae is a nematode pathogenic in a wide variety of insect species. The great pathogenicity of this nematode has been ascribed to its ability to overcome the host immune response; however, little is known about the mechanisms involved in this process. The analysis of an expressed sequence tags (EST) library in the nematode during the infective phase was performed and a highly abundant contig homologous to serine protease inhibitors was identified. In this work, we show that this contig is part of a 641-bp cDNA that encodes a BPTI-Kunitz family inhibitor (Sc-KU-4), which is up-regulated in the parasite during invasion and installation. Recombinant Sc-KU-4 protein was produced in Escherichia coli and shown to inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase activities in a dose-dependent manner by a competitive mechanism with Ki values of 1.8 nM and 2.6 nM, respectively. Sc-KU-4 also inhibited trypsin and thrombin activities to a lesser extent. Studies of the mode of action of Sc-KU-4 and its effects on insect defenses suggest that although Sc-KU-4 did not inhibit the activation of hemocytes or the formation of clotting fibers, it did inhibit hemocyte aggregation and the entrapment of foreign particles by fibers. Moreover, Sc-KU-4 avoided encapsulation and the deposition of clotting materials, which usually occurs in response to foreign particles. We show by protein-protein interaction that Sc-KU-4 targets recognition proteins of insect immune system such as masquerade-like and serine protease-like homologs. The interaction of Sc-KU-4 with these proteins explains the ability of the nematode to overcome host reactions and its large pathogenic spectrum, once these immune proteins are well conserved in insects. The discovery of this inhibitor targeting insect recognition proteins opens new avenues for the development of S. carpocapsae as a biological control agent and provides a new tool to study host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24098715

Toubarro, Duarte; Avila, Monica Martinez; Montiel, Rafael; Simoes, Nelson

2013-01-01

291

Word recognition and syntactic attachment in reading: evidence for a staged architecture.  

PubMed

In 3 experiments, the author examined how readers' eye movements are influenced by joint manipulations of a word's frequency and the syntactic fit of the word in its context. In the critical conditions of the first 2 experiments, a high- or low-frequency verb was used to disambiguate a garden-path sentence, while in the last experiment, a high- or low-frequency verb constituted a phrase structure violation. The frequency manipulation always influenced the early eye movement measures of first-fixation duration and gaze duration. The context manipulation had a delayed effect in Experiment 1, influencing only the probability of a regressive eye movement from later in the sentence. However, the context manipulation influenced the same early eye movement measures as the frequency effect in Experiments 2 and 3, though there was no statistical interaction between the effects of these variables. The context manipulation also influenced the probability of a regressive eye movement from the verb, though the frequency manipulation did not. These results are shown to confirm predictions emerging from the serial, staged architecture for lexical and integrative processing of the E-Z Reader 10 model of eye movement control in reading (Reichle, Warren, & McConnell, 2009). It is argued, more generally, that the results provide an important constraint on how the relationship between visual word recognition and syntactic attachment is treated in processing models. PMID:21604914

Staub, Adrian

2011-08-01

292

Lexical access and the brain: anatomical constraints on cognitive models of word recognition.  

PubMed

Recent studies in the cognitive psychology of reading and many other skilled performances have been dominated by models inspired by neural connectivity (e.g., McClelland & Rumelhart, 1986). Such models have not yet begun to consider the accumulating evidence of considerable anatomical localization of component cognitive operations in the human brain (e.g., Posner, Petersen, Fox, & Raichle, 1988). In this article we apply anatomical findings to the job of building computational models of visual word recognition. Brain imaging studies already provide important constraints on how lexical access should be defined in terms of isolable encoding operations that compute the visual form, phonology, and semantics of words. Brain imaging studies also speak to issues of modularity versus interaction between these encoding operations, distribution versus localization of processing within the operations, and orchestration of operations to accomplish different word processing tasks. We conclude that a combined cognitive and anatomical analysis may be of considerable benefit in developing more adequate models of human information processing. PMID:1605322

Posner, M I; Carr, T H

1992-01-01

293

WHERE IS THE LOCUS OF DIFFICULTY IN RECOGNIZING FOREIGN-ACCENTED WORDS? NEIGHBORHOOD DENSITY AND PHONOTACTIC PROBABILITY EFFECTS ON THE RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN-ACCENTED WORDS BY NATIVE ENGLISH LISTENERS  

E-print Network

that foreign accents induce processing costs on word recognition in general, but it has not shed any light on how foreign accents impact the different stages of processing during spoken word recognition. Hence, the goal of the current study is to use...

Chan, Kit Ying

2012-05-31

294

Strategies to Identify Recognition Signals and Targets of SUMOylation  

PubMed Central

SUMOylation contributes to the regulation of many essential cellular factors. Diverse techniques have been used to explore the functional consequences of protein SUMOylation. Most approaches consider the identification of sequences on substrates, adaptors, or receptors regulating the SUMO conjugation, recognition, or deconjugation. The large majority of the studied SUMOylated proteins contain the sequence [IVL]KxE. SUMOylated proteins are recognized by at least 3 types of hydrophobic SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) that contribute to coordinate SUMO-dependent functions. Typically, SIMs are constituted by a hydrophobic core flanked by one or two clusters of negatively charged amino acid residues. Multiple SIMs can integrate SUMO binding domains (SBDs), optimizing binding, and control over SUMO-dependent processes. Here, we present a survey of the methodologies used to study SUMO-regulated functions and provide guidelines for the identification of cis and trans sequences controlling SUMOylation. Furthermore, an integrative analysis of known and putative SUMO substrates illustrates an updated landscape of several SUMO-regulated events. The strategies and analysis presented here should contribute to the understanding of SUMO-controlled functions and provide rational approach to identify biomarkers or choose possible targets for intervention in processes where SUMOylation plays a critical role. PMID:22811915

Da Silva-Ferrada, Elisa; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Lang, Valérie; Rodríguez, Manuel S.; Matthiesen, Rune

2012-01-01

295

Logical metonymy resolution in a words-as-cues framework: evidence from self-paced reading and probe recognition.  

PubMed

Logical metonymy resolution (begin a book ? begin reading a book or begin writing a book) has traditionally been explained either through complex lexical entries (qualia structures) or through the integration of the implicit event via post-lexical access to world knowledge. We propose that recent work within the words-as-cues paradigm can provide a more dynamic model of logical metonymy, accounting for early and dynamic integration of complex event information depending on previous contextual cues (agent and patient). We first present a self-paced reading experiment on German subordinate sentences, where metonymic sentences and their paraphrased version differ only in the presence or absence of the clause-final target verb (Der Konditor begann die Glasur ? Der Konditor begann, die Glasur aufzutragen/The baker began the icing ? The baker began spreading the icing). Longer reading times at the target verb position in a high-typicality condition (baker + icing ? spread ) compared to a low-typicality (but still plausible) condition (child + icing ? spread) suggest that we make use of knowledge activated by lexical cues to build expectations about events. The early and dynamic integration of event knowledge in metonymy interpretation is bolstered by further evidence from a second experiment using the probe recognition paradigm. Presenting covert events as probes following a high-typicality or a low-typicality metonymic sentence (Der Konditor begann die Glasur ? AUFTRAGEN/The baker began the icing ? SPREAD), we obtain an analogous effect of typicality at 100 ms interstimulus interval. PMID:24628505

Zarcone, Alessandra; Padó, Sebastian; Lenci, Alessandro

2014-06-01

296

Joint Effect of Insertion of Spaces and Word Length in Saccade Target Selection in Chinese Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined how insertion of spaces before and after a word affects saccade target selection in Chinese reading. We found that inserting spaces in Chinese text changes the eye movement behaviour of Chinese readers. They are less likely to fixate on the character near the space and will try their best to process the entire word with…

Li, Xingshan; Shen, Wei

2013-01-01

297

Early morphological processing is morphosemantic and not simply morpho-orthographic: A violation of form-then-meaning accounts of word recognition  

PubMed Central

Many studies have suggested that a word’s orthographic form must be processed before its meaning becomes available. Some interpret the (null) finding of equal facilitation after semantically transparent and opaque morphologically related primes in early stages of morphological processing as consistent with this view. Recent literature suggests that morphological facilitation tends to be greater after transparent than after opaque primes, however. To determine whether the degree of semantic transparency influences parsing into a stem and a suffix (morphological decomposition) in the forward masked priming variant of the lexical decision paradigm, we compared patterns of facilitation between semantically transparent (e.g., coolant–cool) and opaque (e.g., rampant–ramp) prime–target pairs. Form properties of the stem (frequency, neighborhood size, and prime–target letter overlap), as well as related–unrelated and transparent–opaque affixes, were matched. Morphological facilitation was significantly greater for semantically transparent pairs than for opaque pairs. Ratings of prime–target relatedness predicted the magnitude of facilitation. The results limit the scope of form-then-meaning models of word recognition and demonstrate that semantic similarity can influence even early stages of morphological processing. PMID:19648453

Feldman, Laurie Beth; O'Connor, Patrick A.; del Prado Martin, Fermin Moscoso

2010-01-01

298

The Influence of Sentence Context and Accented Speech on Lexical Access in Second-Language Auditory Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until now, research on bilingual auditory word recognition has been scarce, and although most studies agree that lexical access is language-nonselective, there is less consensus with respect to the influence of potentially constraining factors. The present study investigated the influence of three possible constraints. We tested whether language…

Lagrou, Evelyne; Harsuiker, Robert J.; Duyck, Wouter

2013-01-01

299

Enhanced Recognition and Recall of New Words in 7- and 12-Year-Olds Following a Period of Offline Consolidation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies of adults have found evidence for consolidation effects in the acquisition of novel words, but little is known about whether such effects are found developmentally. In two experiments, we familiarized children with novel nonwords (e.g., "biscal") and tested their recognition and recall of these items. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds…

Brown, Helen; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

2012-01-01

300

A Not-so-Simple View of Reading: How Oral Vocabulary and Visual-Word Recognition Complicate the Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to clarify the relations amongst serial decoding, irregular word recognition, listening comprehension, facets of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension in two cohorts of children differing in reading level. In the process, the components of the simple view of reading were evaluated. Students in grades 1 (n = 67) and 6…

Ouellette, Gene; Beers, Ashley

2010-01-01

301

Voiced Initial Consonant Perception Deficits in Older Listeners with Hearing Loss and Good and Poor Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined differences in voiced consonant-vowel (CV) perception in older listeners with normal hearing and in 2 groups of older listeners with matched hearing losses: those with good and those with poor word recognition scores. Method: Thirty-six participants identified CVs from an 8-item display from the natural voiced initial…

Phillips, Susan L.; Richter, Scott J.; McPherson, David

2009-01-01

302

How Vocabulary Size in Two Languages Relates to Efficiency in Spoken Word Recognition by Young Spanish-English Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research using online comprehension measures with monolingual children shows that speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition are correlated with lexical development. Here we examined speech processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary development in bilingual children learning both Spanish and English (n=26 ; 2 ; 6). Between-language…

Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda

2010-01-01

303

Use of Context in the Word Recognition Process by Adults with a Significant History of Reading Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether university students who report a significant history of reading difficulties (RD; n=24) differed from university students with no history of reading difficulties (NRD; n=31) in how sentence context affects word recognition. Experiment 1 found no differences in how congruent sentence primes or syntactic manipulations of the…

Corkett, Julie K.; Parrila, Rauno

2008-01-01

304

Exploring the relationship between new word learning and short-term memory for serial order recall, item recall, and item recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reexplored the relationship between new word learning and verbal short-term memory (STM) capacities, by distinguishing STM for serial order information, item recall, and item recognition. STM capacities for order information were estimated via a serial order reconstruction task. A rhyme probe recognition task assessed STM for item recognition. Item recall capacities were derived from the proportion of item errors

Steve Majerus; Martine Poncelet; Bruno Elsen; Martial van der Linden

2006-01-01

305

Wake-up-word speech recognition application for first responder communication enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speech Recognition systems, historically, have proven to be cumbersome and insufficiently accurate for a range of applications. The ultimate goal of our proposed technology is to fundamentally change the way current Speech Recognition (SR) systems interact with humans and develop an application that is extremely hardware efficient. Accurate SR and reasonable hardware requirements will afford the average first responder officer, e.g., police officer, a true break-through technology that will change the way an officer performs his duties. The presented technology provides a cutting-edge solution for human-machine interaction through the utilization of a properly solved Wake-Up-Word (WUW) SR problem. This paradigm-shift provides the basis for development of SR systems with truly "Voice Activated" capabilities, impacting all SR based technologies and the way in which humans interact with computers. This shift is a radical departure from the current "push-to-talk" paradigm currently applied to all speech-to-text or speech-recognition applications. To be able to achieve this goal, a significantly more accurate pattern classification and scoring technique is required, which in turn provides SR systems enhanced performance for correct recognition (i.e., minimization of false rejection) as well as correct rejection (i.e., minimization of false acceptance). A revolutionary and innovative classification and scoring technique is used that is a significant enhancement over an earlier method presented in reference [1]. The solution in reference [1] has been demonstrated to meet the stringent requirements of the WUW-SR task. Advanced solution of [1] is a novel technique that is model and algorithm independent. Therefore, it could be used to significantly improve performance of existing recognition algorithms and systems. Reduction of error rates of over 40% are commonly observed for both false rejections and false acceptance. In this paper the architecture of the WUW-SR based system as interface to current SR applications is presented. In this system WUW-SR is used as a gateway for truly Voice Activated applications utilizing the current solution without "push-to-talk" paradigm. The technique has been developed with hardware optimization in mind and therefore has the ability to run as a "background" application on a standard Windows-based PC platform.

Këpuska, Veton; Breitfeller, Jason

2006-05-01

306

Development of a practical 3D automatic target recognition and pose estimation algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neptec Design Group has developed a 3D automatic target recognition and pose estimation algorithm technology demonstrator in partnership with Canadian DND. This paper discusses the development of the algorithm to work with real sensor data. The recognition approach uses a combination of two algorithms in a multi-step process. The two algorithms provide uncorrelated metrics and are therefore using different characteristics

Chad E. English; Stephane Ruel; Len Melo; Philip M. Church; Jean Maheux

2004-01-01

307

POMDP-based online target detection and recognition for autonomous UAVs  

E-print Network

POMDP-based online target detection and recognition for autonomous UAVs Caroline P. Carvalho Chanel detection and recognition mission by an autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicule (UAV) mod- eled as a Partially-board the UAV to analyze objects in the scene. We also present our "optimize-while-execute" framework, which

308

Re-evaluating split-fovea processing in word recognition: effects of retinal eccentricity on hemispheric dominance.  

PubMed

Several studies have claimed that hemispheric asymmetries affect word recognition right up to the point of fixation because each fovea is split precisely at its vertical midline and information presented either side of this midline projects unilaterally to different, contralateral hemispheres. To investigate this claim, four-letter words were presented to the left or right of fixation, either close to fixation entirely in foveal vision (0.15, 0.25, and 0.35 degrees from fixation) or further from fixation entirely in extrafoveal vision (2.00, 2.10, and 2.20 degrees from fixation). Fixation location and stimulus presentation were controlled using an eye-tracker linked to a fixation-contingent display and performance was assessed using a forced-choice task to suppress confounding effects of guesswork. A left hemisphere advantage was observed for words presented in extrafoveal locations but no hemisphere advantage (left or right) was observed for words presented in any foveal location. These findings support the well-established view that words encountered outside foveal vision project to different, contralateral hemispheres but indicate that this division for word recognition occurs only outside the fovea and provide no support for the claim that a functional split in hemispheric processing exists at the point of fixation. PMID:18999347

Jordan, Timothy R; Paterson, Kevin B; Stachurski, Marcin

2008-11-01

309

TwiNER: Named Entity Recognition in Targeted Twitter Chenliang Li  

E-print Network

TwiNER: Named Entity Recognition in Targeted Twitter Stream Chenliang Li 1 , Jianshu Weng2 , Qi He and monitor targeted Twitter streams to collect and understand users' opinions about the organizations. Targeted Twitter stream is usually constructed by filtering tweets with user-defined selec- tion criteria

Aixin, Sun

310

Position, Scale, and Rotation Invariant Optical Pattern Recognition for Target Extraction and Identification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis investigates the feasibility of optically implementing a real-time, pattern recognition system using correlation techniques in a position, scale, and rotation invariant (PSRI) feature space. Input target templates were optically Fourier transf...

J. T. Walrond, T. G. Childress

1988-01-01

311

Recognition of spoken words by native and non-native listeners: Talker-, listener-, and item-related factors  

PubMed Central

In order to gain insight into the interplay between the talker-, listener-, and item-related factors that influence speech perception, a large multi-talker database of digitally recorded spoken words was developed, and was then submitted to intelligibility tests with multiple listeners. Ten talkers produced two lists of words at three speaking rates. One list contained lexically “easy” words (words with few phonetically similar sounding “neighbors” with which they could be confused), and the other list contained lexically “hard” (wordswords with many phonetically similar sounding “neighbors”). An analysis of the intelligibility data obtained with native speakers of English (experiment 1) showed a strong effect of lexical similarity. Easy words had higher intelligibility scores than hard words. A strong effect of speaking rate was also found whereby slow and medium rate words had higher intelligibility scores than fast rate words. Finally, a relationship was also observed between the various stimulus factors whereby the perceptual difficulties imposed by one factor, such as a hard word spoken at a fast rate, could be overcome by the advantage gained through the listener's experience and familiarity with the speech of a particular talker. In experiment 2, the investigation was extended to another listener population, namely, non-native listeners. Results showed that the ability to take advantage of surface phonetic information, such as a consistent talker across items, is a perceptual skill that transfers easily from first to second language perception. However, non-native listeners had particular difficulty with lexically hard words even when familiarity with the items was controlled, suggesting that non-native word recognition may be compromised when fine phonetic discrimination at the segmental level is required. Taken together, the results of this study provide insight into the signal-dependent and signal-independent factors that influence spoken language processing in native and non-native listeners. PMID:10530030

Bradlow, Ann R.; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

312

Novel Pattern Recognition Techniques for Improved Target Detection in Hyperspectral Imagery  

E-print Network

NOVEL PATTERN RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVED TARGET DETECTION IN HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY A Dissertation by WESAM ADEL SAKLA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2009 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering NOVEL PATTERN RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVED TARGET DETECTION IN HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY A Dissertation by WESAM ADEL SAKLA...

Sakla, Wesam Adel

2011-02-22

313

Application of point enhancement technique for ship target recognition by HRR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an evaluation of the impact of a recently developed point-enhanced high range-resolution (HRR) radar profile reconstruction method on automatic target recognition (ATR) performance. We use several pattern recognition techniques to compare the performance of point-enhanced HRR profiles with conventional Fourier transform-based profiles. We use measured radar data of civilian ships and produce range profiles from such data. We use two types of classifiers to quantify recognition performance. The first type of classifier is based on the nearest neighbor technique. We demonstrate the performance of this classifier using a variety of extracted features, and a number of different distance metrics. The second classifier we use for target recognition involves position specific matrices, which have previously been used in gene sequencing. We compare the classification performance of point-enhanced HRR profiles with conventional profiles, and observe that point enhancement results in higher recognition rates in general.

Cotuk, Nilufen; Ture, Sedat; Cetin, Mujdat

2003-09-01

314

Got rhythm…for better and for worse. Cross-modal effects of auditory rhythm on visual word recognition.  

PubMed

The present research aimed to investigate whether, as previously observed with pictures, background auditory rhythm would also influence visual word recognition. In a lexical decision task, participants were presented with bisyllabic visual words, segmented into two successive groups of letters, while an irrelevant strongly metric auditory sequence was played in a loop. The first group of letters could either be congruent with the syllabic division of the word (e.g. val in val/se) or not (e.g. va in va/lse). In agreement with the Dynamic Attending Theory (DAT), our results confirmed that the presentation of the correct first syllable on-beat (i.e. in synchrony with a peak of covert attention) facilitated visual word recognition compared to when it was presented off-beat. However, when an incongruent first syllable was displayed on-beat, this led to an aggravation of impaired recognition. Thus, our results suggest that oscillatory attention tapped into cognitive processes rather than perceptual or decisional and motor stages. We like to think of our paradigm, which combines background auditory rhythm with segmented visual stimuli, as a sort of temporal magnifying glass which allows for the enlargement of the reaction time differences between beneficial and detrimental processing conditions in human cognition. PMID:23454794

Brochard, Renaud; Tassin, Maxime; Zagar, Daniel

2013-05-01

315

Design and performance of a large vocabulary discrete word recognition system. Volume 1: Technical report. [real time computer technique for voice data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development, construction, and test of a 100-word vocabulary near real time word recognition system are reported. Included are reasonable replacement of any one or all 100 words in the vocabulary, rapid learning of a new speaker, storage and retrieval of training sets, verbal or manual single word deletion, continuous adaptation with verbal or manual error correction, on-line verification of vocabulary as spoken, system modes selectable via verification display keyboard, relationship of classified word to neighboring word, and a versatile input/output interface to accommodate a variety of applications.

1973-01-01

316

Morphological processing during visual word recognition in developing readers: evidence from masked priming.  

PubMed

Masked priming studies with adult readers have provided evidence for a form-based morpho-orthographic segmentation mechanism that "blindly" decomposes any word with the appearance of morphological complexity. The present studies investigated whether evidence for structural morphological decomposition can be obtained with developing readers. We used a masked primed lexical decision design first adopted by Rastle, Davis, and New (2004), comparing truly suffixed (golden-GOLD) and pseudosuffixed (mother-MOTH) prime-target pairs with nonsuffixed controls (spinach-SPIN). Experiment 1 tested adult readers, showing that priming from both pseudo- and truly suffixed primes could be obtained using our own set of high-frequency word materials. Experiment 2 assessed a group of Year 3 and Year 5 children, but priming only occurred when prime and target shared a true morphological relationship, and not when the relationship was pseudomorphological. This pattern of results indicates that morpho-orthographic decomposition mechanisms do not become automatized until a relatively late stage in reading development. PMID:22530670

Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Castles, Anne; Coltheart, Max

2012-01-01

317

Context effects in recognition memory: The role of familiarity and recollectionq  

E-print Network

of recognition. Participants studied a list of word pairs (context + target) followed by a recognition test (inclusion), or to only recognise words that were presented in the same form (exclusion). The standard reliably demonstrated by manipulating the relationship between pairs of words at study and test (e

Dominey, Peter F.

318

Dynamics of Word Comprehension in Infancy: Developments in Timing, Accuracy, and Resistance to Acoustic Degradation  

PubMed Central

Online comprehension of naturally spoken and perceptually degraded words was assessed in 95 children ages 12 to 31 months. The time course of word recognition was measured by monitoring eye movements as children looked at pictures while listening to familiar target words presented in unaltered, time-compressed, and low-pass-filtered forms. Success in word recognition varied with age and level of vocabulary development, and with the perceptual integrity of the word. Recognition was best overall for unaltered words, lower for time-compressed words, and significantly lower in low-pass-filtered words. Reaction times were fastest in compressed, followed by unaltered and filtered words. Results showed that children were able to recognize familiar words in challenging conditions and that productive vocabulary size was more sensitive than chronological age as a predictor of children’s accuracy and speed in word recognition. PMID:22072948

Zangl, Renate; Klarman, Lindsay; Thal, Donna; Fernald, Anne; Bates, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

319

What Do Letter Migration Errors Reveal About Letter Position Coding in Visual Word Recognition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dividing attention across multiple words occasionally results in misidentifications whereby letters apparently migrate between words. Previous studies have found that letter migrations preserve within-word letter position, which has been interpreted as support for position-specific letter coding. To investigate this issue, the authors used word

Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

2004-01-01

320

Short Term Retention and Recognition of Words by Children Aged Seven and Ten.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which children of two age levels use visual or name codes in recognizing similarities and differences between short words was studied. Subjects were presented with a word for .5, 1.0, or 1.5 seconds, followed immediately by a second word, and were instructed to press a key indicating whether or not the two words had the same name.…

Wicklund, David A.; Katz, Leonard

321

Use of 3D ship scatterer models from ISAR image sequences for target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) image frames are classified individually in an automatic target recognition system. When information from dierent image frames is combined, it is usually in the context of time- averaging to remove statistically independent noise fluctuations between images. The sea state induced variability of the ship target projections between frames, however, also provides additional information about

Tristrom Cooke; Marco Martorella; Brett Haywood; Danny Gibbins

2006-01-01

322

Information-theoretic bounds on target recognition performance from laser radar data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser radar systems historically offer rich data sets for automatic target recognition (ATR). ATR algorithm development for laser radar has focused on achieving real-time performance with current hardware. Our work addresses the issue of understanding how much information can be obtain from the data, independent of any particular algorithm. We present Cramer-Rao lower bounds on target pose estimation based on

Jason H. Dixon; Aaron D. Lanterman

2006-01-01

323

jTRACE: A reimplementation and extension of the TRACE model of speech perception and spoken word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes jTRACE, a freely available, cross-platform Java reimplementation of the TRACE model of spoken word\\u000a recognition. The goal of the reimplementation is to facilitate the use of simulations by researchers who may not have the\\u000a skills or time necessary to use or extend the original C implementation. In this article, we report a large-scale validation\\u000a project, in which

Ted J. Strauss; Harlan D. Harris; James S. Magnuson

2007-01-01

324

Does a focus on universals represent a new trend in word recognition? A Commentary on Frost's Universal Model of Reading  

PubMed Central

Comparisons across languages have long been a means to investigate universal properties of the cognitive system. Although differences between languages may be salient, it is the underlying similarities that have advanced our understanding of language processing. Frost is not unique in emphasizing that the interaction among linguistic codes reinforces the inadequacy of constructing a model of word recognition where orthographic processes operate in isolation. PMID:22931560

Feldman, Laurie Beth; Martin, Fermin Moscoso del Prado

2013-01-01

325

A not-so-simple view of reading: how oral vocabulary and visual-word recognition complicate the story  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study sought to clarify the relations amongst serial decoding, irregular word recognition, listening comprehension,\\u000a facets of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension in two cohorts of children differing in reading level. In the process,\\u000a the components of the simple view of reading were evaluated. Students in grades 1 (n = 67) and 6 (n = 56) were assessed on measures of phonological awareness,

Gene Ouellette; Ashley Beers

2010-01-01

326

The word frequency effect for recognition memory and the elevated-attention hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical tests were conducted on theelevated-attention hypothesis that low-frequency (LF) words are better recognized than high-frequency (HF) words because LF words attract more attention\\u000a than do HF words (e.g., Glanzer & Adams, 1990). The elevated-attention hypothesis predicts that the hit rate advantage for\\u000a LF words should be reduced by increases in attentional strain at study. We first tested this prediction

Kenneth J. Malmberg; Thomas O. Nelson

2003-01-01

327

TwiNER: named entity recognition in targeted twitter stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many private and\\/or public organizations have been reported to create and monitor targeted Twitter streams to collect and understand users' opinions about the organizations. Targeted Twitter stream is usually constructed by filtering tweets with user-defined selection criteria e.g. tweets published by users from a selected region, or tweets that match one or more predefined keywords. Targeted Twitter stream is then

Chenliang Li; Jianshu Weng; Qi He; Yuxia Yao; Anwitaman Datta; Aixin Sun; Bu-Sung Lee

2012-01-01

328

An overview of radar-based, automatic, noncooperative target recognition techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar target recognition techniques tend to fall into two principle classes: those that exploit the radar characterization of a platform's physical shape and those that exploit the radar characterization of the dynamic characteristics of the moving parts of the target. The former are based on the platform's (essentially instantaneous) range (time)-amplitude radar signature and are exploited through generation and analysis of the platform's ultrahigh range resolution (UHRR) profile. The latter are based on the platform's frequency-amplitude radar signature as represented in the time evolution of its high-resolution Doppler signature. The methodologies applicable to automatic, noncooperative recognition of platforms based on both these classes of techniques are discussed. The choice and implications of radar parameters, signal processing techniques, and pattern recognition techniques are discussed, compared, and evaluated in terms of their impact on recognition system performance.

Cohen, Marvin N.

329

Target recognitions in multiple-camera closed-circuit television using color constancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People tracking in crowded scenes from closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage has been a popular and challenging task in computer vision. Due to the limited spatial resolution in the CCTV footage, the color of people's dress may offer an alternative feature for their recognition and tracking. However, there are many factors, such as variable illumination conditions, viewing angles, and camera calibration, that may induce illusive modification of intrinsic color signatures of the target. Our objective is to recognize and track targets in multiple camera views using color as the detection feature, and to understand if a color constancy (CC) approach may help to reduce these color illusions due to illumination and camera artifacts and thereby improve target recognition performance. We have tested a number of CC algorithms using various color descriptors to assess the efficiency of target recognition from a real multicamera Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) data set. Various classifiers have been used for target detection, and the figure of merit to assess the efficiency of target recognition is achieved through the area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC). We have proposed two modifications of luminance-based CC algorithms: one with a color transfer mechanism and the other using a pixel-wise sigmoid function for an adaptive dynamic range compression, a method termed enhanced luminance reflectance CC (ELRCC). We found that both algorithms improve the efficiency of target recognitions substantially better than that of the raw data without CC treatment, and in some cases the ELRCC improves target tracking by over 100% within the AUROC assessment metric. The performance of the ELRCC has been assessed over 10 selected targets from three different camera views of the i-LIDS footage, and the averaged target recognition efficiency over all these targets is found to be improved by about 54% in AUROC after the data are processed by the proposed ELRCC algorithm. This amount of improvement represents a reduction of probability of false alarm by about a factor of 5 at the probability of detection of 0.5. Our study concerns mainly the detection of colored targets; and issues for the recognition of white or gray targets will be addressed in a forthcoming study.

Soori, Umair; Yuen, Peter; Han, Ji Wen; Ibrahim, Izzati; Chen, Wentao; Hong, Kan; Merfort, Christian; James, David; Richardson, Mark

2013-04-01

330

Morphological structure processing during word recognition and its relationship to character reading among third-grade chinese children.  

PubMed

In the present study, we explored the characteristics of morphological structure processing during word recognition among third grade Chinese children and its possible relationship with Chinese character reading. By using the modified priming lexical decision paradigm, a significant morphological structure priming effect was found in the subject analysis when reaction time difference was considered as dependent variable. In the regression analyses, the children's implicit morphological structure processing demonstrated a significant effect on Chinese character reading, even though its effect became non-significant when morphological awareness was entered. We achieved this result after controlling for the children's age, non-verbal intelligence, and phonological awareness. These findings indicate that third grade Chinese children are sensitive to morphological structure information in the processing of compound words. Moreover, such sensitivity is, to some extent, a good predictor of Chinese children's word reading performance. PMID:24218054

Liu, Duo; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2014-12-01

331

Microsoft Word - TARGET External roster-2-29-081.doc  

Cancer.gov

Board of Scientific Advisors Ad Hoc Subcommittee for the Childhood Cancer Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatment (TARGET) Initiative CHAIR Joe W. Gray, Ph.D. Director Division of Life Sciences Associate Director,

332

Characterization and recognition of radar targets using multiscale edges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for characterizing radar signatures using the wavelet transform is developed based on the principle of scattering centers. Scattering features represented as multiscale edges can be identified based on their Lipshitz regularity coefficients. The extracted features are directly related to target geometry and can be used for target identification. The denoising algorithm developed by S. Mallet el al. (IEE

Ismail Jouny

1993-01-01

333

Application of point enhancement technique for ship target recognition by HRR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an evaluation of the impact of a recently developed point-enhanced high range-resolution (HRR) radar profile reconstruction method on automatic target recognition (ATR) performance. We use several pattern recognition techniques to compare the performance of point-enhanced HRR profiles with conventional Fourier transform-based profiles. We use measured radar data of civilian ships and produce range profiles from such data. We

Nilufen Cotuk; Sedat Ture; Mujdat Cetin

2003-01-01

334

Factors Affecting the Reading of Rimes in Words and Nonwords in Beginning Readers with Cognitive Disabilities and Typically Developing Readers: Explorations in Similarity and Difference in Word Recognition Cue Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of the reading of rhymes by 20 children with cognitive disabilities (Down syndrome or autism) and 20 typically developing children (all matched for word recognition skills) found both groups were more similar than dissimilar in their rhyme-recognition accuracy, miscues, and grapheme-phoneme knowledge. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

Calhoon, J. Anne

2001-01-01

335

Morphological Family Size Effects in Young First and Second Language Learners: Evidence of Cross-Language Semantic Activation in Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined to what extent young second language (L2) learners showed morphological family size effects in L2 word recognition and whether the effects were grade-level related. Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (L2) and Dutch (first language, L1) children from second, fourth, and sixth grade performed a Dutch lexical decision task on words

de Zeeuw, Marlies; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

2012-01-01

336

Charting the Functional Relevance of Broca's Area for Visual Word Recognition and Picture Naming in Dutch Using fMRI-Guided TMS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has shown pseudohomophone priming effects at Broca's area (specifically pars opercularis of left inferior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus; LIFGpo/PCG) within [approximately]100 ms of viewing a word. This is consistent with Broca's area involvement in fast phonological access during visual word recognition. Here we…

Wheat, Katherine L.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Sack, Alexander T.; Schuhmann, Teresa; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo

2013-01-01

337

The Processing of Consonants and Vowels during Letter Identity and Letter Position Assignment in Visual-Word Recognition: An ERP Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research suggests that there is a processing distinction between consonants and vowels in visual-word recognition. Here we conjointly examine the time course of consonants and vowels in processes of letter identity and letter position assignment. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in…

Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Marin, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

2011-01-01

338

Encoding Specificity: Retrieval in the Recognition Failure Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paradigm producing recognition failure of recallable words was investigated in a series of three experiments. Results indicate that retrieval asymmetry: (a) exists in the recognition failure paradigm directly following list study, (b) increases significantly following a free-association task aimed at generation of the target words from the…

Bartling, Carl A.; Thompson, Charles P.

1977-01-01

339

Field testing of a 3D automatic target recognition and pose estimation algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neptec Design Group Ltd. has developed a 3D Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) and pose estimation technology demonstrator in partnership with the Canadian DND. The system prototype was deployed for field testing at Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC)-Valcartier. This paper discusses the performance of the developed algorithm using 3D scans acquired with an imaging LIDAR. 3D models of civilian and military vehicles were built using scans acquired with a triangulation laser scanner. The models were then used to generate a knowledge base for the recognition algorithm. A commercial imaging LIDAR was used to acquire test scans of the target vehicles with varying range, pose and degree of occlusion. Recognition and pose estimation results are presented for at least 4 different poses of each vehicle at each test range. Results obtained with targets partially occluded by an artificial plane, vegetation and military camouflage netting are also presented. Finally, future operational considerations are discussed.

Ruel, Stephane; English, Chad E.; Melo, Len; Berube, Andrew; Aikman, Doug; Deslauriers, Adam M.; Church, Philip M.; Maheux, Jean

2004-09-01

340

Tracking and recognition of airborne targets via commercial television and FM radio signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate a Bayesian approach to the joint tracking and recognition of airborne targets via reflected commercial television and FM radio signals measured by an array of sensors. Such passive system may remain covert, whereas traditional active systems must reveal their presence and location by their transmissions. Since the number of aircraft in the scene is not known a priori, and targets may enter and leave the scene at unknown times, the parameters space is a union of subspaces of varying dimensions as well as varying target classes. Targets tracks are parameterized via both positions and orientations, with the orientations naturally represented as elements of the special orthogonal group. A prior on target tracks is constructed from Newtonian equations of motion. This prior results in a coupling between the position and orientation estimates, yielding a coupling between the tracking and recognition problems.

Lanterman, Aaron D.

1999-07-01

341

Pattern-Recognition System for Approaching a Known Target  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A closed-loop pattern-recognition system is designed to provide guidance for maneuvering a small exploratory robotic vehicle (rover) on Mars to return to a landed spacecraft to deliver soil and rock samples that the spacecraft would subsequently bring back to Earth. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in guiding mobile robots to approach known structures that humans could not approach safely, for such purposes as reconnaissance in military or law-enforcement applications, terrestrial scientific exploration, and removal of explosive or other hazardous items. The system has been demonstrated in experiments in which the Field Integrated Design and Operations (FIDO) rover (a prototype Mars rover equipped with a video camera for guidance) is made to return to a mockup of Mars-lander spacecraft. The FIDO rover camera autonomously acquires an image of the lander from a distance of 125 m in an outdoor environment. Then under guidance by an algorithm that performs fusion of multiple line and texture features in digitized images acquired by the camera, the rover traverses the intervening terrain, using features derived from images of the lander truss structure. Then by use of precise pattern matching for determining the position and orientation of the rover relative to the lander, the rover aligns itself with the bottom of ramps extending from the lander, in preparation for climbing the ramps to deliver samples to the lander. The most innovative aspect of the system is a set of pattern-recognition algorithms that govern a three-phase visual-guidance sequence for approaching the lander. During the first phase, a multifeature fusion algorithm integrates the outputs of a horizontal-line-detection algorithm and a wavelet-transform-based visual-area-of-interest algorithm for detecting the lander from a significant distance. The horizontal-line-detection algorithm is used to determine candidate lander locations based on detection of a horizontal deck that is part of the lander.

Huntsberger, Terrance; Cheng, Yang

2008-01-01

342

Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children With Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real words (WID) and phonetic decoding of

Cheryl Smith Gabig

2010-01-01

343

Towards investigation of the inhibitor-recognition mechanisms of drug-target proteins by neutron crystallography.  

PubMed

It is generally known that enzymes represent important drug-target proteins. Elucidation of the catalytic function and the molecular-recognition mechanisms of enzymes provides important information for structure-based drug design. Neutron crystallography provides accurate information on the locations of H atoms that are essential in enzymatic function and molecular recognition. Recent examples are described of the structure determination of the drug-target proteins human immunodeficiency virus protease and porcine pancreatic elastase in complex with transition-state analogue inhibitors using the neutron diffractometers for biological crystallography (BIX-3 and BIX-4) installed at the JRR-3 research reactor. PMID:21041926

Kuroki, Ryota; Okazaki, Nobuo; Adachi, Motoyasu; Ohhara, Takashi; Kurihara, Kazuo; Tamada, Taro

2010-11-01

344

Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…

Gabig, Cheryl Smith

2010-01-01

345

Cross-Language Effects in Written Word Recognition: The Case of Bilingual Deaf Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, multiple studies have shown that the languages of a bilingual interact during processing. We investigated sign activation as deaf children read words. In a word-picture verification task, we manipulated the underlying sign equivalents. We presented children with word-picture pairs for which the sign translation equivalents varied…

Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

2012-01-01

346

Automated Target Recognition Using Passive Radar and Coordinated Flight Models  

E-print Network

exploit "illuminators of opportunity" such as commercial television and FM radio signals have been under radar systems rely on illuminators of opportunity, such as TV and FM radio, to illuminate potential targets. These systems are particularly attractive since they allow receivers to operate without emitting

Lanterman, Aaron

347

Perception and recognition memory of words and werds: Two-way mirror effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined associative priming of words (e.g., toad) and pseudohomophones of those words (e.g., tode) in lexical decision.\\u000a In addition to word frequency effects, reliable base-word frequency effects were observed for pseudohomophones: Those based\\u000a on high-frequency words elicited faster and more accurate correct rejections. Associative priming had disparate effects on\\u000a high- and low-frequency items. Whereas priming improved performance to high-frequency

D. Vaughn Becker; Stephen D. Goldinger; Gregory O. Stone

2006-01-01

348

Blocking by word frequency and neighborhood density in visual word recognition: A task-specific response criteria account  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of blocking words by frequency class (high vs. low) and neighborhood density (high vs. low) were examined in two experiments using progressive demasking and lexical decision tasks. The aim was to examine the predictions of a task-specific response criteria account of list-blocking effects. Dis- tinct patterns of blocking effects were obtained in the two tasks. In the progressive demasking

MANUEL PEREA; JONATHAN GRAINGER

2004-01-01

349

Word recognition and word identification: A review of research on effective instructional practices with learning disabled students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review of investigations related to word learning of learning disabled students. The studies described here were located in a literature review covering the last 15 years. These investigations address common instructional concerns of regular classroom teachers who provide reading instruction to learning disabled pupils in inclusion programs and give guidance to special education teachers, as well

Sandra McCormick; Evelyn Z. Becker

1996-01-01

350

Enhanced Recognition of Written Words and Enjoyment of Reading in Struggling Beginner Readers through Whole-Word Multimedia Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of a reading intervention using the whole-word multimedia software "Oxford Reading Tree (ORT) for Clicker" was compared to a reading intervention using traditional ORT Big Books. Developing literacy skills and attitudes towards learning to read were assessed in a group of 17 struggling beginner readers aged 5-6 years. Each child…

Karemaker, Arjette; Pitchford, Nicola J.; O'Malley, Claire

2010-01-01

351

Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.  

PubMed

Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy. PMID:10811469

Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

2000-04-01

352

Hybrid optoelectronic correlator architecture for shift-invariant target recognition.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present theoretical details and the underlying architecture of a hybrid optoelectronic correlator (HOC) that correlates images using spatial light modulators (SLMs), detector arrays, and field programmable gate array (FPGA). The proposed architecture bypasses the need for nonlinear materials such as photorefractive polymer films by using detectors instead, and the phase information is yet conserved by the interference of plane waves with the images. However, the output of such an HOC has four terms: two convolution signals and two cross-correlation signals. By implementing a phase stabilization and scanning circuit, the convolution terms can be eliminated, so that the behavior of an HOC becomes essentially identical to that of a conventional holographic correlator (CHC). To achieve the ultimate speed of such a correlator, we also propose an integrated graphic processing unit, which would perform all the electrical processes in a parallel manner. The HOC architecture along with the phase stabilization technique would thus be as good as a CHC, capable of high-speed image recognition in a translation-invariant manner. PMID:24561938

Monjur, Mehjabin Sultana; Tseng, Shih; Tripathi, Renu; Donoghue, John James; Shahriar, M S

2014-01-01

353

Male Target ( ), CNC Words (10 Lists of 50 words each) 2x Female Masker ( ), IEEE Sentences  

E-print Network

among adult bilateral CI users appears to be affected by the proportion of lifetime with hearing loss · Each SNR tested 30 times per listener · Two target-masker configurations tested: Listeners · 21 adult and years of bilateral CI experience, such that SRM benefits appear to decrease with years of bilateral

Litovsky, Ruth

354

Encoding specificity: retrieval asymmetry in the recognition failure paradigm.  

PubMed

The paradigm producing recognition failure of recallable words was investigated in a series of three experiments. Results indicate that retrieval asymmetry: (a) exists in the recognition failure paradigm directly following list study, (b) increases significantly following a free-association task aimed at generation of the target words from the study list, and (c) can be used as a reasonably good predictor of the magnitude of recognition failure. Retrieval asymmetry and recognition failure are reliably related even when adjusted for the level of recognition probability, which has previously been shown by Tulving and Wiseman to be a good predictor of recognition failure. PMID:915447

Bartling, C A; Thompson, C P

1977-11-01

355

Cueing, feature discovery, and one-class learning for synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exquisite capabilities of biological neural systems for recognizing target patterns subject to large variations have motivated us to investigate neurophysiologically-inspired techniques for automatic target recognition. This paper describes a modular multi-stage architecture for focus-of-attention cueing, feature discovery and extraction, and one-class pattern learning and identification in synthetic aperture radar imagery.To prescreen massive amounts of image data, we apply a

Mark W. Koch; Mary M. Moya; Larry D. Hostetler; R. Joseph Fogler

1995-01-01

356

Development of a practical 3D automatic target recognition and pose estimation algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neptec Design Group has developed a 3D automatic target recognition and pose estimation algorithm technology demonstrator in partnership with Canadian DND. This paper discusses the development of the algorithm to work with real sensor data. The recognition approach uses a combination of two algorithms in a multi-step process. The two algorithms provide uncorrelated metrics and are therefore using different characteristics of the target. This allows the potential target dataset to be reduced before the final selection is made. In a pre-processing phase, the object data is segmented from the surroundings and is re-projected onto an orthogonal grid to make the object shape independent of range. In the second step, a fast recognition algorithm is used to reduce the list of potential targets by removing unlikely cases. Then a more accurate, but slower and more sensitive, algorithm is applied to the remaining cases to provide another recognition metric while simultaneously computing a pose estimation. After passing some self-consistency checks, the metrics from both algorithms are then combined to provide relative probabilities for each database object and a pose estimate. Development of the recognition and pose algorithm relied on processing of real 3D data from civilian and military vehicles. The algorithm evolved to be robust to occlusions and characteristics of real 3D data, including the use of different 3D sensors for generating database and test objects. Robustness also comes from the self-validating abilities and simultaneous pose estimation and recognition, along with the potential for computing error bounds on pose. Performance results are shown for pseudo-synthetic data and preliminary tests with a commercial imaging LIDAR.

English, Chad E.; Ruel, Stephane; Melo, Len; Church, Philip M.; Maheux, Jean

2004-09-01

357

Target recognition using HRR profile-based incoherent SAR (InSAR) image formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feature-aided target verification is a challenging field of research, with the potential to yield significant increases in the confidence of re-established target tracks after kinematic confusion events. Using appropriate control algorithms airborne multi-mode radars can acquire a library of HRR (High Range Resolution) profiles for targets as they are tracked. When a kinematic confusion event occurs, such as a vehicle dropping below MDV (Minimum Detectable Velocity) for some period of time, or two target tracks crossing, it is necessary to utilize feature-aided tracking methods to correctly associate post-confusion tracks with pre-confusion tracks. Many current HRR profile target recognition methods focus on statistical characteristics of either individual profiles or sets of profiles taken over limited viewing angles. These methods have not proven to be very effective when the pre- and post- confusion libraries do not overlap in azimuth angle. To address this issue we propose a new approach to target recognition from HRR profiles. We present an algorithm that generates 2-D imagery of targets from the pre- and post-confusion libraries. These images are subsequently used as the input to a target recognition/classifier process. Since, center-aligned HRR Profiles, while ideal for processing, are not easily computed in field systems, as they require the airborne platform's center of rotation to line up with the geometric center of the moving target (this is impossible when multiple targets are being tracked), our algorithm is designed to work with HRR profiles that are aligned to the leading edge (the first detection above a threshold, commonly referred to as Edge-Aligned HRR profiles). Our simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method for classifying target vehicles based on simulations using both overlapping and non-overlapping HRR profile sets. The algorithm was tested on several test cases using an input set of .28 m resolution XPATCH generated HRR profiles of 20 test vehicles (civilian and military) at various elevation angles.

O'Donoughue, Nicholas A.; Kuklinski, Walter S.; Arabadjis, Constantine

2008-04-01

358

A New Algorithm for Target Recognition and Tracking for Robot Vision System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Target recognition and tracking is the key destination in robot vision system. A new efficient algorithm is introduced in this paper to overcome the contradiction among the complexity of algorithm, tracking precision, and the rapidity in real-time system. Firstly, the algorithm is based on the feature of template cursory matching by lowering resolution and using sequential similarity detection algorithm (SSDA)

Guihua Xia; Zhuoyi Xing

2007-01-01

359

A Parametric Attributed Scattering Center Model for SAR Automatic Target Recognition  

E-print Network

a parametric attributed scattering model for Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery. The model characterizes both describes our research on the use of a parametric scattering model for Synthetic Aper- ture Radar (SARA Parametric Attributed Scattering Center Model for SAR Automatic Target Recognition Randolph L

Moses, Randolph L.

360

A mixture model approach to automatic radar target recognition using WinBUGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the use of the software package WinBUGS for an application to a previously documented technique for automatic radar target recognition. Mixture models under a Bayesian formalism are used to model the probability densities of radar measurements from given classes. WinBUGS is then used to construct a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler that allows implementation of this Bayesian

M. Briers; K. D. Copsey

2002-01-01

361

Radar target recognition based on peak location of HRR profile and HMMs classifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The location information of prominent points backscattering, extracted from the high resolution radar echoes by the Relax algorithm, is used as the feature for radar target recognition. The sensitivity of high range resolution (HRR) profiles to the LOS of radar yields an idea that the multiaspect radar echoes can be modeled by a hidden Markov model (HMM); it gives the

Bingnan Pei; Zheng Bao

2002-01-01

362

High Range Resolution Radar Extensions to Rough Set Theory for Automatic Target Recognition  

E-print Network

to create a classifier capable of acceptable performance on a six target class HRR problem. Our method Classification of High Range Resolution (HRR) radar signals is difficult. A typical HRR signal contains 128 range-3]. Each HRR range bin is called an attribute in rough set theory (a feature in pattern recognition theory

Starzyk, Janusz A.

363

Advanced Feature Selection Methodology for Automatic Target Recognition Dale E. Nelson  

E-print Network

recognition (ATR) is a difficult task. When applied to air-to-air targets using High Range Resolution (HRR) radar, the task becomes even more difficult. Figure 1 shows the typical way the HRR signal is obtained for that time segment. The difficulty of ATR using HRR data lies in the extreme variability in the radar

Starzyk, Janusz A.

364

A Fuzzy-Logic based non cooperative target recognition Thomas Boulay, Julien Lagoutte  

E-print Network

-NCTR, KNN, HRR, RADAR, CLASSIFICA- TION, RECOGNITION, FUZZY LOGIC I. INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXT During major for NCTR (Kinematics, Doppler, ISAR, HRR) but the technique we use for this paper is High Range Resolution (HRR) technique. High Range resolution [5] offers a very simple and rapid way to characterise a target

Boyer, Edmond

365

Iterated wavelet transformation and signal discrimination for HRR radar target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the use of wavelets to improve the selection of discriminant features in the target recognition problem using High Range Resolution (HRR) radar signals in an air to air scenario. We show that there is statistically no difference among four different wavelet families in extracting discriminatory features. Since similar results can be obtained from any of the four

Dale E. Nelson; Janusz A. Starzyk; D. David Ensley

2003-01-01

366

Blocking by word frequency and neighborhood density in visual word recognition: A task-specific response criteria account  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of blocking words by frequency class (high vs. low) and neighborhood density (high vs. low) were examined in two experiments\\u000a using progressive demasking and lexical decision tasks. The aim was to examine the predictions of a task-specific response\\u000a criteria account of list-blocking effects. Distinct patterns of blocking effects were obtained in the two tasks. In the progressive\\u000a demasking task,

Manuel Perea; Manuel Carreiras; Jonathan Grainger

2004-01-01

367

Brain-potential analysis of visual word recognition in dyslexics and typically reading children  

PubMed Central

The specialization of visual brain areas for fast processing of printed words plays an important role in the acquisition of reading skills. Dysregulation of these areas may be among the deficits underlying developmental dyslexia. The present study examines the specificity of word activation in dyslexic children in 3rd grade by comparing early components of brain potentials elicited by visually presented words vs. strings of meaningless letter-like symbols. Results showed a more pronounced N1 component for words compared to symbols for both groups. The dyslexic group revealed larger left-lateralized, word-specific N1 responses than the typically reading group. Furthermore, positive correlations between N1 amplitudes and reading fluency were found in the dyslexic group. Our results support the notion of N1 as a sensitive index of visual word processing involved in reading fluency. PMID:25071507

Fraga Gonzalez, Gorka; Zaric, Gojko; Tijms, Jurgen; Bonte, Milene; Blomert, Leo; van der Molen, Maurits W.

2014-01-01

368

fMRI Evidence for Dual Routes to the Mental Lexicon in Visual Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

& Event-related fMRI was used to investigate lexical decisions to words of high and low frequency of occurrence and to pseudowords. The results obtained strongly support dual-route models of visual word processing. By contrasting words with pseudowords,bilateral occipito-temporal brain areas and posterior left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) were identified as contributing to the successful mapping of orthographic percepts onto visual

Christian J. Fiebach; Angela D. Friederici; D. Yves von Cramon

2002-01-01

369

Combined ERP/fMRI Evidence For Early Word Recognition Effects In The Posterior Inferior Temporal Gyrus  

PubMed Central

Two brain regions with established roles in reading are the posterior middle temporal gyrus and the posterior fusiform gyrus. Lesion studies have also suggested that the region located between them, the posterior inferior temporal gyrus (pITG), plays a central role in word recognition. However, these lesion results could reflect disconnection effects since neuroimaging studies have not reported consistent lexicality effects in pITG. Here we tested whether these reported pITG lesion effects are due to disconnection effects or not using parallel ERP/fMRI studies. We predicted that the Recognition Potential (RP), a left-lateralized ERP negativity that peaks at about 200–250 ms, might be the electrophysiological correlate of pITG activity and that conditions that evoke the RP (perceptual degradation) might therefore also evoke pITG activity. In Experiment 1, twenty-three participants performed a lexical decision task (temporally flanked by supraliminal masks) while having high-density 129-channel ERP data collected. In Experiment 2, a separate group of fifteen participants underwent the same task while having fMRI data collected in a 3T scanner. Examination of the ERP data suggested that a canonical Recognition Potential effect was produced. The strongest corresponding effect in the fMRI data was in the vicinity of the pITG. In addition, results indicated stimulus-dependent functional connectivity between pITG and a region of the posterior fusiform gyrus near the visual word form area (VWFA) during word compared to nonword processing. These results provide convergent spatiotemporal evidence that the pITG contributes to early lexical access through interaction with the VWFA. PMID:23701693

Dien, Joseph; Brian, Eric S.; Molfese, Dennis L.; Gold, Brian T.

2013-01-01

370

The timing and strength of regional brain activation associated with word recognition in children with reading difficulties.  

PubMed

The study investigates the relative degree and timing of cortical activation across parietal, temporal, and frontal regions during performance of a continuous visual-word recognition task in children who experience reading difficulties (N?= 44, RD) and typical readers (N?=?40, NI). Minimum norm estimates of regional neurophysiological activity were obtained from magnetoencephalographic recordings. Children with RD showed bilaterally reduced neurophysiological activity in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and increased activity in rostral middle frontal and ventral occipitotemporal cortices, bilaterally. The temporal profile of activity in the RD group, featured near-simultaneous activity peaks in temporal, inferior parietal, and prefrontal regions, in contrast to a clear temporal progression of activity among these areas in the NI group. These results replicate and extend previous MEG and fMRI results demonstrating atypical, latency-dependent attributes of the brain circuit involved in word reading in children with reading difficulties. PMID:21647211

Rezaie, Roozbeh; Simos, Panagiotis G; Fletcher, Jack M; Juranek, Jenifer; Cirino, Paul T; Li, Zhimin; Passaro, Antony D; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

2011-01-01

371

Applying Error-Correcting Output Coding to Enhance Convolutional Neural Network for Target Detection and Pattern Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper views target detection and pattern recognition as a kind of communications problem and applies error-correcting coding to the outputs of a convolutional neural network to improve the accuracy and reliability of detection and recognition of targets. The outputs of the convolutional neural network are designed according to codewords with maximum Hamming distances. The effects of the codewords on

Huiqun Deng; George Stathopoulos; Ching Y. Suen

2010-01-01

372

[Q:] When would you prefer a SOSSAGE to a SAUSAGE? [A:] At about 100 msec. ERP correlates of orthographic typicality and lexicality in written word recognition.  

PubMed

Using a speeded lexical decision task, event-related potentials (ERPs), and minimum norm current source estimates, we investigated early spatiotemporal aspects of cortical activation elicited by words and pseudo-words that varied in their orthographic typicality, that is, in the frequency of their component letter pairs (bi-grams) and triplets (tri-grams). At around 100 msec after stimulus onset, the ERP pattern revealed a significant typicality effect, where words and pseudo-words with atypical orthography (e.g., yacht, cacht) elicited stronger brain activation than items characterized by typical spelling patterns (cart, yart). At approximately 200 msec, the ERP pattern revealed a significant lexicality effect, with pseudo-words eliciting stronger brain activity than words. The two main factors interacted significantly at around 160 msec, where words showed a typicality effect but pseudo-words did not. The principal cortical sources of the effects of both typicality and lexicality were localized in the inferior temporal cortex. Around 160 msec, atypical words elicited the stronger source currents in the left anterior inferior temporal cortex, whereas the left perisylvian cortex was the site of greater activation to typical words. Our data support distinct but interactive processing stages in word recognition, with surface features of the stimulus being processed before the word as a meaningful lexical entry. The interaction of typicality and lexicality can be explained by integration of information from the early form-based system and lexicosemantic processes. PMID:16768380

Hauk, O; Patterson, K; Woollams, A; Watling, L; Pulvermüller, F; Rogers, T T

2006-05-01

373

Words.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Muses on the power of words and how they shape people's lives. Relates stories from the author's life illustrating this, and relates the author's (a writer of novels for children and young adults) struggles and rewards as she works with words. (SR)

Bauer, Joan

2000-01-01

374

The Mechanisms Underlying the Interhemispheric Integration of Information in Foveal Word Recognition: Evidence for Transcortical Inhibition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Words are processed as units. This is not as evident as it seems, given the division of the human cerebral cortex in two hemispheres and the partial decussation of the optic tract. In two experiments, we investigated what underlies the unity of foveally presented words: A bilateral projection of visual input in foveal vision, or interhemispheric…

Van der Haegen, Lise; Brysbaert, Marc

2011-01-01

375

Effects of Memory Load on Word Recognition: Are There Dual-Routers in Norway?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to replicate the release-from-competition effect (a difficult concurrent memory task speeds pronunciation of low-frequency irregular words but slows pronunciation of other word types) with mature normal readers of Norwegian (undergraduate education students) and thus tested the generalizability of dual-route models to a considerably more…

Lervag, Arne; Braten, Ivar

2002-01-01

376

Word Recognition and Syntactic Attachment in Reading: Evidence for a Staged Architecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 3 experiments, the author examined how readers' eye movements are influenced by joint manipulations of a word's frequency and the syntactic fit of the word in its context. In the critical conditions of the first 2 experiments, a high- or low-frequency verb was used to disambiguate a garden-path sentence, while in the last experiment, a high- or…

Staub, Adrian

2011-01-01

377

Further Analysis of Picture Interference when Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research indicates that pairing pictures with associated words when teaching sight-word reading may hinder acquisition (e.g., Didden, Prinsen, & Sigafoos, 2000; Singh & Solman, 1990; Solman & Singh, 1992). The purpose of the current study was to determine whether this phenomenon was due to a previously learned association between the…

Dittlinger, Laura Harper; Lerman, Dorothea C.

2011-01-01

378

The Role of Saccade Preparation in Lateralized Word Recognition: Evidence for the Attentional Bias Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Words presented to the right visual field (RVF) are recognized more readily than those presented to the left visual field (LVF). Whereas the attentional bias theory proposes an explanation in terms of attentional imbalance between visual fields, the attentional advantage theory assumes that words presented to the RVF are processed automatically…

Perez, Dorine Vergilino; Lemoine, Christelle; Sieroff, Eric; Ergis, Anne-Marie; Bouhired, Redha; Rigault, Emilie; Dore-Mazars, Karine

2012-01-01

379

Effects of Training on Speech Recognition Performance in Noise Using Lexically Hard Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined how repeated presentations of lexically difficult words within a background noise affect a listener's ability to understand both trained (lexically difficult) and untrained (lexically easy) words in isolation and within sentences. Method: In the 1st experiment, 9 young listeners with normal hearing completed a…

Burk, Matthew H.; Humes, Larry E.

2007-01-01

380

See before You Jump: Full Recognition of Parafoveal Words Precedes Skips during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serial attention models of eye-movement control during reading were evaluated in an eye-tracking experiment that examined how lexical activation combines with visual information in the parafovea to affect word skipping (where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading). Lexical activation was manipulated by repetition priming created through…

Gordon, Peter C.; Plummer, Patrick; Choi, Wonil

2013-01-01

381

On pleasure and thrill: the interplay between arousal and valence during visual word recognition.  

PubMed

We investigated the interplay between arousal and valence in the early processing of affective words. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words organized in an orthogonal design with the factors valence (positive, negative, neutral) and arousal (low, medium, high) in a lexical decision task. We observed faster reaction times for words of positive valence and for those of high arousal. Data from ERPs showed increased early posterior negativity (EPN) suggesting improved visual processing of these conditions. Valence effects appeared for medium and low arousal and were absent for high arousal. Arousal effects were obtained for neutral and negative words but were absent for positive words. These results suggest independent contributions of arousal and valence at early attentional stages of processing. Arousal effects preceded valence effects in the ERP data suggesting that arousal serves as an early alert system preparing a subsequent evaluation in terms of valence. PMID:24815948

Recio, Guillermo; Conrad, Markus; Hansen, Laura B; Jacobs, Arthur M

2014-07-01

382

Wavelet feature extraction of HRR radar profiles using generalized Gaussian distributions for automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a WAVELET-based signal classification technique using Generalized Gaussian Distributions for obtaining the smallest set of wavelet bases required to discriminate a set of High Range Resolution (HRR) target class signals. The HRR target recognition approach utilizes a best-bases algorithm that relies on wavelets and local discriminants for feature extraction and for minimizing the dimension of the original target signal. The feature vectors are wavelet bases that capture unique information on each set of target class signals; we examined six target classes in this study. To reduce the feature space and to obtain the most salient features for classification, we used a wavelet-based feature extraction method that relies on generalized Gaussians and Principle Component Analysis techniques. The method involved accurately models the marginal distributions of the wavelet coefficients using a generalized Gaussian density (GGD). Principle Component Analysis was used to obtain the best set of super-wavelet coefficients/features comprising each target class.

Morris, Hedley C.; De Pass, Monica M.

2005-05-01

383

Dichotic Word Recognition in Noise and the Right-Ear Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study sought to compare dichotic right-ear advantages (REAs) of young adults to older adult data (C. M. Roup, T. L. Wiley, & R. H. Wilson, 2006) after matching for overall levels of recognition performance. Specifically, speech-spectrum noise was introduced in order to reduce dichotic recognition performance of young adults to a…

Roup, Christina M.

2011-01-01

384

Optimal-tradeoff circular harmonic function filters for 3D target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D target recognition is of significant interest because representing the object in 3D space couuld essentially provide a solution to pose variation and self-occlusion problems that are big challenges in 2D pattern recognition. Correlation filers have been used in a variety of 2D pattern matching applications and many correlation filter designs have been developed to handle problems such as rotations. Correlation filters also offer other benefits such as shift-invariance, graceful degradation and closed-form solutions. The 3D extension of correlation filter is a natural extension to handle 3D pattern recognition problem. In this paper, we propose a 3D correlation filter design method based on cylindrical circular harmonic function (CCHF) and use LADAR imagery to illustrate the good performance of CCHF filters.

Vijaya Kumar, Bhagavatula V. K.; Xie, Chunyan; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

2003-09-01

385

Developmental changes in word recognition threshold from two to five years of age in children with different middle ear status  

PubMed Central

The aims were to: (1) provide word recognition thresholds (WRTs) at 31, 43, and 61 months of age; (2) investigate developmental changes over time; (3) investigate the relationship between OME and WRT, and (4) investigate the relationship between WRT and hearing thresholds. Around 1000 children were tested longitudinally as part of the ALSPAC study, using an adaptive measure of word recognition in quiet. Mean WRTs were 28, 23, and 23 dB (A) at 31, 43, and 61 months, respectively. Normal auditory development is associated with a mean improvement in WRT of 5 dB between age 31 and 61 months. There was a mean increase in WRT of 5 dB and 15 dB when OME was present in one and two ears, respectively. Thus, both unilateral and bilateral OME results in a detrimental effect on hearing ability for speech. Additionally, early and ‘persistent’ OME is associated with greater disability. However by 61 months, previous OME status was not significant. To our knowledge, this is the largest longitudinal study reporting WRT in preschool children with different middle ear status. PMID:17680467

Hall, Amanda J.; Munro, Kevin J.; Heron, Jon

2007-01-01

386

Linguistically-motivated sub-word modeling with applications to speech recognition  

E-print Network

Despite the proliferation of speech-enabled applications and devices, speech-driven human-machine interaction still faces several challenges. One of theses issues is the new word or the out-of-vocabulary (OOV) problem, ...

Choueiter, Ghinwa F., 1980-

2009-01-01

387

Automatic target detection and recognition in multiband imagery: a unified ML detection and estimation approach.  

PubMed

Multispectral or hyperspectral sensors can facilitate automatic target detection and recognition in clutter since natural clutter from vegetation is characterized by a grey body, and man-made objects, compared with blackbody radiators, emit radiation more strongly at some wavelengths. Various types of data fusion of the spectral-spatial features contained in multiband imagery developed for detecting and recognizing low-contrast targets in clutter appear to have a common framework. A generalized hypothesis test on the observed data is formulated by partitioning the received bands into two groups. In one group, targets exhibit substantial coloring in their signatures but behave either like grey bodies or emit negligible radiant energy in the other group. This general observation about the data generalizes the data models used previously. A unified framework for these problems, which utilizes a maximum likelihood ratio approach to detection, is presented. Within this framework, a performance evaluation and a comparison of the various types of multiband detectors are conducted by finding the gain of the SNR needed for detection as well as the gain required for separability between the target classes used for recognition. Certain multiband detectors become special cases in this framework. The incremental gains in SNR and separability obtained by using what are called target-feature bands plus clutter-reference bands are studied. Certain essential parameters are defined that effect the gains in SNR and target separability. PMID:18282885

Yu, X; Hoff, L E; Reed, I S; Chen, A M; Stotts, L B

1997-01-01

388

The effects of mediated word lists on false recall and recognition.  

PubMed

False memory effects were explored using unrelated list items (e.g., slope, reindeer, corn) that were related to mediators (e.g., ski, sleigh, flake) that all converged upon a single nonpresented critical item (CI; e.g., snow). In Experiment 1, participants completed either an initial recall test or arithmetic problems after study, followed by a final recognition test. Participants did not falsely recall CIs on the initial test; however, false alarms to CIs did occur in recognition, but only following an initial recall test. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to guess the CI, followed by a recognition test. The results replicated Experiment 1, with an increase in CI false alarms. Experiment 3 controlled for item effects by replacing unrelated recognition items from Experiment 1 with both CIs and list items from nonpresented lists. Once again, CI false alarms were found when controlling for lexical characteristics, demonstrating that mediated false memory is not due simply to item differences. PMID:21336675

Huff, Mark J; Hutchison, Keith A

2011-08-01

389

Experiments in the application of isolated-word recognition to secondary driving controls for the disabled.  

PubMed

Adaptive driving controls such as mechanical hand controls or electromechanical contact switches are now available which allow even the most severely impaired to drive. The residual functions, however, are all directed toward primary controls such as steering, braking, and accelerating, limiting the ability to operate secondary controls such as the horn, turn signals, ignition, and headlights, etc. In this paper, we discuss the application of speech recognition technology when operating these secondary controls. The performance of a speech recognition system inside a vehicle is studied, and the types of noise that degrade the recognition accuracy are also identified. Results are presented on the degradation in recognition performance caused by engine noise, fan noise, and interfering speech. PMID:1831857

Quintin, E C; Halan, S K; Abdelhamied, K A

1991-01-01

390

Effect of Stimulation Rate on Cochlear Implant Users' Phoneme, Word and Sentence Recognition in Quiet and in Noise  

PubMed Central

High stimulation rates in cochlear implants (CI) offer better temporal sampling, can induce stochastic-like firing of auditory neurons and can increase the electric dynamic range, all of which could improve CI speech performance. While commercial CI have employed increasingly high stimulation rates, no clear or consistent advantage has been shown for high rates. In this study, speech recognition was acutely measured with experimental processors in 7 CI subjects (Clarion CII users). The stimulation rate varied between (approx.) 600 and 4800 pulses per second per electrode (ppse) and the number of active electrodes varied between 4 and 16. Vowel, consonant, consonant-nucleus-consonant word and IEEE sentence recognition was acutely measured in quiet and in steady noise (+10 dB signal-to-noise ratio). Subjective quality ratings were obtained for each of the experimental processors in quiet and in noise. Except for a small difference for vowel recognition in quiet, there were no significant differences in performance among the experimental stimulation rates for any of the speech measures. There was also a small but significant increase in subjective quality rating as stimulation rates increased from 1200 to 2400 ppse in noise. Consistent with previous studies, performance significantly improved as the number of electrodes was increased from 4 to 8, but no significant difference showed between 8, 12 and 16 electrodes. Altogether, there was little-to-no advantage of high stimulation rates in quiet or in noise, at least for the present speech tests and conditions. PMID:20639631

Shannon, Robert V.; Cruz, Rachel J.; Galvin, John J.

2011-01-01

391

Field testing of a 3D automatic target recognition and pose estimation algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neptec Design Group Ltd. has developed a 3D Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) and pose estimation technology demonstrator in partnership with the Canadian DND. The system prototype was deployed for field testing at Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC)-Valcartier. This paper discusses the performance of the developed algorithm using 3D scans acquired with an imaging LIDAR. 3D models of civilian and

Stephane Ruel; Chad E. English; Len Melo; Andrew Berube; Doug Aikman; Adam M. Deslauriers; Philip M. Church; Jean Maheux

2004-01-01

392

Automatic target recognition (ATR) performance on wavelet-compressed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the large amount of image data that can be produced in real-time by new synthetic aperture radar (SAR) platforms, such as Global Hawk, compression techniques will be needed for both transmission and storage of this data. Also to keep image analysts (IA's) from being overwhelmed, high-speed automatic target cueing and\\/or recognition (ATC, ATR) systems will be needed to help

Michael Hoffelder; Jun Tian

2000-01-01

393

Enhancement of the seed-target recognition step in RNA silencing by a PIWI/MID domain protein.  

PubMed

Target recognition in RNA silencing is governed by the "seed sequence" of a guide RNA strand associated with the PIWI/MID domain of an Argonaute protein in RISC. Using a reconstituted in vitro target recognition system, we show that a model PIWI/MID domain protein confers position-dependent tightening and loosening of guide-strand-target interactions. Over the seed sequence, the interaction affinity is enhanced up to approximately 300-fold. Enhancement is achieved through a reduced entropy penalty for the interaction. In contrast, interactions 3' of the seed are inhibited. We quantified mismatched target recognition inside and outside the seed, revealing amplified discrimination at the third position in the seed mediated by the PIWI/MID domain. Thus, association of the guide strand with the PIWI/MID domain generates an enhanced affinity anchor site over the seed that can promote fidelity in target recognition and stabilize and guide the assembly of the active silencing complex. PMID:19187762

Parker, James S; Parizotto, Eneida A; Wang, Muhan; Roe, S Mark; Barford, David

2009-01-30

394

[Molecular recognition code between pathogenic bacterial TAL-effectors and host target genes: a review].  

PubMed

As the pathogenic bacterial virulence and avirulence factors, transcription activator like (TAL) effectors of Xanthomonas can resulted in the host diseases or resistance responses. TAL effectors can specifically bind the target DNA of host plant with a novel protein-DNA binding pattern in which two amino acids recognize one nucleotide. The complexities of TAL-DNA binding have the feasibility in use of gene therapy through homologous recombination and site-specific mutation. By using the molecular recognition code between TAL-effectors and host target genes, we can exploit both the susceptible and resistance genes; broad spectrum resistance induced by multiple TAL effectors could also be manipulated. Deeper insight in the area of protein-DNA binding mechanism will benefit the application in the biomedical engineering and agricultural engineering. This article reviews the findings and functions of TAL effectors, the binding specificity and recognition code between TAL-effectors and host target genes. The possible applications and future prospects of the molecular recognition code have been discussed. PMID:22097801

Li, Yanqiang; Wang, Chunlian; Zhao, Kaijun

2011-08-01

395

Lipids Trigger a Conformational Switch That Regulates Signal Recognition Particle (SRP)-mediated Protein Targeting*  

PubMed Central

Co-translational protein targeting to the membrane is mediated by the signal recognition particle and its receptor (FtsY). Their homologous GTPase domains interact at the membrane and form a heterodimer in which both GTPases are activated. The prerequisite for protein targeting is the interaction of FtsY with phospholipids. However, the mechanism of FtsY regulation by phospholipids remained unclear. Here we show that the N terminus of FtsY (A domain) is natively unfolded in solution and define the complete membrane-targeting sequence. We show that the membrane-targeting sequence is highly dynamic in solution, independent of nucleotides and directly responds to the density of anionic phospholipids by a random coil-helix transition. This conformational switch is essential for tethering FtsY to membranes and activates the GTPase for its subsequent interaction with the signal recognition particle. Our results underline the dynamics of lipid-protein interactions and their importance in the regulation of protein targeting and translocation across biological membranes. PMID:21543314

Stjepanovic, Goran; Kapp, Katja; Bange, Gert; Graf, Christian; Parlitz, Richard; Wild, Klemens; Mayer, Matthias P.; Sinning, Irmgard

2011-01-01

396

French-Learning Toddlers Use Gender Information on Determiners during Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In gender-marking languages, the gender of the noun determines the form of the preceding article. In this study, we examined whether French-learning toddlers use gender-marking information on determiners to recognize words. In a split-screen preferential looking experiment, 25-month-olds were presented with picture pairs that referred to nouns…

van Heugten, Marieke; Shi, Rushen

2009-01-01

397

Teaching Word Recognition, Spelling, and Vocabulary: Strategies from "The Reading Teacher."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, one of four in the Teaching Reading Collection, presents the "best of the best" classroom-tested ideas, approaches, and practical applications for helping students learn about words. The articles have been drawn from the journal "The Reading Teacher" from 1993-1999. The ideas and strategies are intended to provide possible building…

Rasinski, Timothy V., Ed.; Padak, Nancy D., Ed.; Church, Brenda Weible, Ed.; Fawcett, Gay, Ed.; Hendershot, Judith, Ed.; Henry, Justina M., Ed.; Moss, Barbara G., Ed.; Peck, Jacqueline K., Ed.; Pryor, Elizabeth, Ed.; Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.

398

Continuous speech recognition results of the BYBLOS system on the DARPA 1000-word resource management database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system was trained in a speaker dependent mode on 28 minutes of speech from each of 8 speakers, and was tested on independent test material for each speaker. The system was tested with three artificial grammars spanning a broad perplexity range. The average performance of the system measured in percent word error was: 1.4% for a pattern grammar of

F. Kubala; Y. Chow; A. Derr; M. Feng; O. Kimball; J. Makhoul; P. Price; J. Rohlicek; S. Roucos; R. Schwartz; J. Vandegrift

1988-01-01

399

Effects of Frequency on Visual Word Recognition Tasks: Where Are They?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared the effect of frequency on lexical decision time (LDT) with that on reaction time (RT) in four other tasks, for the same words and subjects. Exp. 1 yielded an effect on semantic categorization RT (person vs. thing) similar in size and form to the effect on LDT. Exp. 2 yielded a substantial effect for syntactic categorization (noun vs. adjective),

S. Monsell; M. C. Doyle; P. N. Haggard

1989-01-01

400

ERP Index of the Morphological Family Size Effect during Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine whether the N400 is affected by the semantic richness of associated neighboring word members or by the density of the orthographic syllable neighborhood. Another purpose of this study was to investigate the source of the different LPC in respect to the semantic richness. To do so, the density of the…

Kwon, Youan; Nam, Kichun; Lee, Yoonhyoung

2012-01-01

401

Is Phonological Context Always Used to Recognize Variant Forms in Spoken Word Recognition? The Role of Variant Frequency and Context Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for how listeners accommodate regular phonological variation in connected speech. Using a corpus analysis and 5 cross-modal priming experiments, the authors investigate phonological variant recognition for the American English word-final flap. The corpus analysis showed that the flap variant occurs relatively frequently compared with the citation form [t] variant and is only probabilistically

Larissa J. Ranbom; Cynthia M. Connine; Elana M. Yudman

2009-01-01

402

The Effects of Modeling and Repeated Taped Reading Instruction on the Learning Disabled Child as Ways To Improve Reading Comprehension Fluency and Word Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practicum focused on the use of repeated taped reading instruction with modeling to improve fluency, comprehension, and automatic word recognition in five students (ages 11-13 years) with learning disabilities for a period of 10 weeks. The instruction also involved the teacher giving corrective feedback and having the students answer story…

Rokicki, Anne L.

403

Cognitive Processes as Predictors of Word Recognition and Reading Comprehension in Learning-Disabled and Skilled Readers: Revisiting the Specificity Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how cognitive processes interrelate as well as predict learning-disabled (LD) readers’ word recognition and reading comprehension performance. Correlations between phonological, orthographic, semantic, metacognitive, and working memory measures with reading performance were examined in LD and skilled readers ages 8 to 12 years. Important results were (a) LD readers were deficient on all cognitive processes compared with skilled

H. Lee Swanson; Joy E. Alexander

1997-01-01

404

Teaching Word Recognition to Young Children Who Are at Risk Using Microsoft[R] Powerpoint[TM] Coupled with Direct Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on use of Microsoft[R] PowerPoint[TM] paired with direct instruction (DI) to teach word recognition to young children at risk. DI has been a widely used teaching method for over 40 years, and is often used to teach emergent literacy skills. Recent DI research with preschoolers at risk has suggested the potential for using…

Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Boeckmann, Nichole M.; Watts, Emily H.

2009-01-01

405

Word Recognition and Cognitive Profiles of Chinese Pre-School Children at Risk for Dyslexia through Language Delay or Familial History of Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese kindergarten children at risk for dyslexia through either language delay or familial history of dyslexia from children who were not at risk and to examine how these abilities were associated with Chinese word recognition. The cognitive skills of…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Doo, Sylvia; Wong, Simpson W. L.; Chow, Yvonne Y. Y.

2008-01-01

406

Effects of An Integrated Format for Reading Instruction on the Comprehension and Word-Recognition Performance of Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Students Who Exhibit Severe Reading Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effectiveness of an integrated language arts instructional format for teaching reading compared with the effectiveness of the typical traditional reading program. The study investigated the effectiveness of approaches that are representative of both viewpoints of the reading process (i.e., word recognition and the construction…

Parmer, Lavada Jacumin; Thames, Dana G.; Kazelskis, Richard

407

The Time Course of the Syllable Frequency Effect in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence for Both Facilitatory and Inhibitory Effects in French  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study tracked the time course of the syllable frequency effect in French visual word recognition, by varying the strength of spreading activation between letters and phonological syllables. The frequency of phonological first syllables and the frequency of orthographic first syllables were conjointly manipulated in two lexical decision…

Mahé, Gwendoline; Bonnefond, Anne; Doignon-Camus, Nadège

2014-01-01

408

How vocabulary size in two languages relates to efficiency in spoken word recognition by young Spanish-English bilinguals  

PubMed Central

Research using online comprehension measures with monolingual children shows that speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition are correlated with lexical development. Here we examined speech processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary development in bilingual children learning both Spanish and English (n=26; 2;6 yrs). Between-language associations were weak: vocabulary size in Spanish was uncorrelated with vocabulary in English, and children’s facility in online comprehension in Spanish was unrelated to their facility in English. Instead, efficiency of online processing in one language was significantly related to vocabulary size in that language, after controlling for processing speed and vocabulary size in the other language. These links between efficiency of lexical access and vocabulary knowledge in bilinguals parallel those previously reported for Spanish and English monolinguals, suggesting that children’s ability to abstract information from the input in building a working lexicon relates fundamentally to mechanisms underlying the construction of language. PMID:19726000

Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda

2010-01-01

409

Combination or Segmentation-based and Wholistic Handwritten Word Recognition Algorithms  

E-print Network

for Document Analysis and Recognition" Department of Computer Science State University of New York at Buffalo in addresses are completely unconStrained by writer, style, instrument, size of text, placement within an image vocabulary. For exam- ple, the name of a city may be one of oVer 30,000 possibilities. Also, if some digits

410

Pose recognition of articulated target based on ladar range image with elastic shape analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic shape analysis is introduced for pose recognition of articulated target which is based on small samples of ladar range images. Shape deformations caused by poses changes represented as closed elastic curves given by the square-root velocity function geodesics are used to quantify shape differences and the Karcher mean is used to build a model library. Three kinds of moments - Hu moment invariants, affine moment invariants, and Zernike moment invariants based on support vector machines (SVMs) - are applied to evaluate this approach. The experiment results show that no matter what the azimuth angles of the testing samples are, this approach is capable of achieving a high recognition rate using only 3 model samples with different carrier to noise ratios (CNR); the performance of this approach is much better than that of three kinds of moments based on SVM, especially under high noise conditions.

Liu, Zheng-Jun; Li, Qi; Wang, Qi

2014-10-01

411

An automated target recognition technique for image segmentation and scene analysis  

SciTech Connect

Automated target recognition software has been designed to perform image segmentation and scene analysis. Specifically, this software was developed as a package for the Army`s Minefield and Reconnaissance and Detector (MIRADOR) program. MIRADOR is an on/off road, remote control, multi-sensor system designed to detect buried and surface-emplaced metallic and non-metallic anti-tank mines. The basic requirements for this ATR software were: (1) an ability to separate target objects from the background in low S/N conditions; (2) an ability to handle a relatively high dynamic range in imaging light levels; (3) the ability to compensate for or remove light source effects such as shadows; and (4) the ability to identify target objects as mines. The image segmentation and target evaluation was performed utilizing an integrated and parallel processing approach. Three basic techniques (texture analysis, edge enhancement, and contrast enhancement) were used collectively to extract all potential mine target shapes from the basic image. Target evaluation was then performed using a combination of size, geometrical, and fractal characteristics which resulted in a calculated probability for each target shape. Overall results with this algorithm were quite good, though there is a trade-off between detection confidence and the number of false alarms. This technology also has applications in the areas of hazardous waste site remediation, archaeology, and law enforcement.

Baumgart, C.W.; Ciarcia, C.A.

1994-02-01

412

Emotion Recognition of Weblog Sentences Based on an Ensemble Algorithm of Multi-label Classification and Word Emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weblogs have greatly changed the communication ways of mankind. Affective analysis of blog posts is found valuable for many applications such as text-to-speech synthesis or computer-assisted recommendation. Traditional emotion recognition in text based on single-label classification can not satisfy higher requirements of affective computing. In this paper, the automatic identification of sentence emotion in weblogs is modeled as a multi-label text categorization task. Experiments are carried out on 12273 blog sentences from the Chinese emotion corpus Ren_CECps with 8-dimension emotion annotation. An ensemble algorithm RAKEL is used to recognize dominant emotions from the writer's perspective. Our emotion feature using detailed intensity representation for word emotions outperforms the other main features such as the word frequency feature and the traditional lexicon-based feature. In order to deal with relatively complex sentences, we integrate grammatical characteristics of punctuations, disjunctive connectives, modification relations and negation into features. It achieves 13.51% and 12.49% increases for Micro-averaged F1 and Macro-averaged F1 respectively compared to the traditional lexicon-based feature. Result shows that multiple-dimension emotion representation with grammatical features can efficiently classify sentence emotion in a multi-label problem.

Li, Ji; Ren, Fuji

413

Form–meaning links in the development of visual word recognition  

PubMed Central

Learning to read takes time and it requires explicit instruction. Three decades of research has taught us a good deal about how children learn about the links between orthography and phonology during word reading development. However, we have learned less about the links that children build between orthographic form and meaning. This is surprising given that the goal of reading development must be for children to develop an orthographic system that allows meanings to be accessed quickly, reliably and efficiently from orthography. This review considers whether meaning-related information is used when children read words aloud, and asks what we know about how and when children make connections between form and meaning during the course of reading development. PMID:19933139

Nation, Kate

2009-01-01

414

Extraction of Linguistic Information from Successive Words during Reading: Evidence for Spatially Distributed Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined whether word recognition progressed from one word to the next during reading, as maintained by sequential attention shift models such as the E-Z Reader model. The boundary technique was used to control the visibility of to-be-identified short target words, so that they were either previewed in the parafovea or masked. The…

Wang, Chin-An; Inhoff, Albrecht W.

2013-01-01

415

Dynamics of Word Comprehension in Infancy: Developments in Timing, Accuracy, and Resistance to Acoustic Degradation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online comprehension of naturally spoken and perceptually degraded words was assessed in 95 children ages 12 to 31 months. The time course of word recognition was measured by monitoring eye movements as children looked at pictures while listening to familiar target words presented in unaltered, time-compressed, and low-pass-filtered forms. Success…

Zangl, Renate; Klarman, Lindsay; Thal, Donna; Fernald, Anne; Bates, Elizabeth

2005-01-01

416

Automatic recognition of multi-word terms: the C-value\\/NC-value method  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Technical terms (henceforth called terms ), are important elements for digital libraries. In this paper we present a domain-independent\\u000a method for the automatic extraction of multi-word terms, from machine-readable special language corpora. The method, (C-value\\/NC-value\\u000a ), combines linguistic and statistical information. The first part, C-value, enhances the common statistical measure of frequency\\u000a of occurrence for term extraction, making it

Katerina T. Frantzi; Sophia Ananiadou; Hideki Mima

2000-01-01

417

The role of lexical tone in spoken word recognition of Chinese  

E-print Network

. Wang, Jongman and Sereno (2001) used a dichotic-listening task to examine Mandarin tones by native speakers of Chinese and native speakers of American English. Sixteen monosyllabic Mandarin words, in which four different syllables, combined with four... tone processing, similar to language processing in other tonal languages. Wang, Behne, Jongman, and Sereno (2004) used a dichotic listening task to investigate whether linguistic experience influences the hemispheric processing of lexical tone. Wang...

Lee, Yu Ju

2008-03-17

418

Semantic similarity influences early morphological priming in Serbian: A challenge to form-then-meaning accounts of word recognition  

PubMed Central

Semantically similar (e.g., coolant-COOL) primes produced greater facilitation than did form similar, semantically dissimilar (e.g., rampant-RAMP) primes when English words appeared in the forward masked primed lexical decision task (Feldman, O'Connor & Moscoso del Prado Martín, 2009). Results challenge claims that form-based semantically blind activation underlies early morphological facilitation. Some have argued that those English materials were not ideally constructed insofar as types of spelling changes to affixed stems in semantically similar and dissimilar pairs differed. The present study exploits Serbian's bialphabetism, rich morphology, and homographic (form-identical) stems to replicate early effects of semantic similarity. Further, it incorporates a within-target manipulation of prime type and of alphabet such that alphabet of prime-target pairs matched in Exp.1a and alternated in Exp.1b. Importantly, no letter or phoneme changes occurred between stems of prime and target. Results reveal significant effects of semantic similarity that are comparable with and without alphabet alternation. Semantic effects in Serbian replicate almost exactly those in English (Feldman et al., 2009) and suggest that even early in the course of processing, morphemes are units of meaning as well as form. Results fail to support models of lexical processing that postulate sequential access to the morphological form and then the semantic aspects of words. PMID:22477336

Kostic, Aleksandar; Gvozdenovic, Vasilije; O'Connor, Patrick A.; Martin, Fermin Moscoso del Prado

2013-01-01

419

Signal processing, sensor fusion, and target recognition; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 20-22, 1992  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration is given to a multiordered mapping technique for target prioritization, a neural network approach to multiple-target-tracking problems, a multisensor fusion algorithm for multitarget multibackground classification, deconvolutiom of multiple images of the same object, neural networks and genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization of sensor data fusion, classification of atmospheric acoustic signals from fixed-wing aircraft, and an optics approach to sensor fusion for target recognition. Also treated are a zoom lens for automatic target recognition, a hybrid model for the analysis of radar sensors, an innovative test bed for developing and assessing air-to-air noncooperative target identification algorithms, SAR imagery scene segmentation using fractal processing, sonar feature-based bandwidth compression, laboratory experiments for a new sonar system, computational algorithms for discrete transform using fixed-size filter matrices, and pattern recognition for power systems.

Libby, Vibeke; Kadar, Ivan

420

Effect of grammatical gender on visual word recognition: Evidence from lexical decision and eye movement experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical decision times and eye movements were recorded to determine whether grammatical gender can influence the visual recognition\\u000a of isolated French nouns. This issue was investigated by assessing the use of two types of regularities between a noun’s form\\u000a and its gender—namely ending-to-gender regularities (e.g., the final letter sequence -at appears only in masculine nouns and, thus, is predictive of

Pascale Colé; Joël Pynte; Pascale Andriamamonjy

2003-01-01

421

Advances in image compression and automatic target recognition; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various papers on image compression and automatic target recognition are presented. Individual topics addressed include: target cluster detection in cluttered SAR imagery, model-based target recognition using laser radar imagery, Smart Sensor front-end processor for feature extraction of images, object attitude estimation and tracking from a single video sensor, symmetry detection in human vision, analysis of high resolution aerial images for object detection, obscured object recognition for an ATR application, neural networks for adaptive shape tracking, statistical mechanics and pattern recognition, detection of cylinders in aerial range images, moving object tracking using local windows, new transform method for image data compression, quad-tree product vector quantization of images, predictive trellis encoding of imagery, reduced generalized chain code for contour description, compact architecture for a real-time vision system, use of human visibility functions in segmentation coding, color texture analysis and synthesis using Gibbs random fields.

Tescher, Andrew G. (editor)

1989-01-01

422

Recognition and discrimination of target mRNAs by Sib RNAs, a cis-encoded sRNA family  

PubMed Central

Five Sib antitoxin RNAs, members of a family of cis-encoded small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) in Escherichia coli, repress their target mRNAs, which encode Ibs toxins. This target repression occurs only between cognate sRNA–mRNA pairs with an exception of ibsA. We performed co-transformation assays to assess the ability of SibC derivatives to repress ibsC expression, thereby revealing the regions of SibC that are essential for ibsC mRNA recognition. SibC has two target recognition domains, TRD1 and TRD2, which function independently. The target site for TRD1 is located within the ORF of ibsC, whereas the target site for TRD2 is located in the translational initiation region. The TRD1 sequence is sufficient to repress ibsC expression. In contrast, TRD2 requires a specific structure in addition to the recognition sequence. An in vitro structural probing analysis showed that the initial interactions at these two recognition sites allowed base-pairing to progress into the flanking sequences. Displacement of the TRD1 and TRD2 domains of SibC by the corresponding domains of SibD changed the target specificity of SibC from ibsC to ibsD, suggesting that these two elements modulate the cognate target recognition of each Sib RNA by discriminating among non-cognate ibs mRNAs. PMID:20453032

Han, Kook; Kim, Kwang-sun; Bak, Geunu; Park, Hongmarn; Lee, Younghoon

2010-01-01

423

GRADIUM for image intensifier night vision systems for long-range target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since the gradient index (GRIN) materials came into existence, there have been continuous efforts by various research groups in the world to improve these materials and explore their potential for designing high-performance and compact optical systems. Recently, with the advent of a commercial gradient index glass such as GRADIUM by LightPath Technologies Inc., Arizona, USA, there has been an increased interest among optical engineers to use these materials for developing realizable GRIN systems. We have previously reported the use of GRADIUM in image intensifier tube based night vision systems such as passive night vision goggles for patrolling and passive night sights for drivers of armored vehicles. These applications generally use systems with unit magnification and large field of view. Derivatives of Double-Gauss configuration are best suited for the front-end objective lens of such systems. In this paper, we discuss the use of GRADIUM in night vision systems for long-range target recognition under low-level of illumination. These applications use image intensifier night vision systems for long-range target recognition under low-level of illumination. These applications use image intensifier night vision telescopes having certain desired magnifications. The front-end objectives used for such telescopes should have large focal lengths and high apertures generally in the range of 80mm to 140mm for meeting the range specifications for target recognition. Petzval type of configuration is typically used for realizing such large-aperture and low f-number objectives with high contrast at lower frequencies throughout the image field. Use of conventional glass elements in such systems often limits the off-axis performance. We demonstrate, in this paper, the potential of GRADIUM in improving the overall performance of a pair of conventional Petzval objectives used in night vision devices for long range observations.

Pande, R. C.; Siva Rama Krishna, K.

2000-10-01

424

Optical implementation of a feature-based neural network with application to automatic target recognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical neural network based on the neocognitron paradigm is introduced. A novel aspect of the architecture design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by feeding back the ouput of the feature correlator interatively to the input spatial light modulator and by updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intraclass fault tolerance and interclass discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstrations of a two-layer neural network for space-object discrimination is also presented.

Chao, Tien-Hsin; Stoner, William W.

1993-01-01

425

Vigilante: Ultrafast Smart Sensor for Target Recognition and Precision Tracking in a Simulated CMD Scenario  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VIGILANTE is an ultrafast smart sensor testbed for generic Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) applications with a series of capability demonstration focussed on cruise missile defense (CMD). VIGILANTE's sensor/processor architecture is based on next-generation UV/visible/IR sensors and a tera-operations per second sugar-cube processor, as well as supporting airborne vehicle. Excellent results of efficient ATR methodologies that use an eigenvectors/neural network combination and feature-based precision tracking have been demonstrated in the laboratory environment.

Uldomkesmalee, Suraphol; Suddarth, Steven C.

1997-01-01

426

The Effects of Cueing Temporal and Spatial Attention on Word Recognition in a Complex Listening Task in Hearing-Impaired Listeners  

PubMed Central

In a complex listening situation such as a multiperson conversation, the demands on an individual's attention are considerable: There will often be many sounds occurring simultaneously, with continual changes in source and direction. A laboratory analog of this was designed to measure the benefit that helping attention (by visual cueing) would have on word identification. These words were presented unpredictably but were sometimes cued with a temporal cue or a temporal-and-spatial cue. Two groups of hearing-impaired, older-adult listeners participated, 57 unaided and 19 aided. There was a small effect of cueing: The cues gave a 2% benefit in word identification. A variety of subsidiary measures were collected, including the Test of Everyday Attention and the Speech, Spatial, & Qualities of Hearing Questionnaire, but their links with the benefits of cueing were few. The results demonstrate the difficulty of cueing attention to improve word recognition in a complex listening situation. PMID:18567595

Gatehouse, Stuart; Akeroyd, Michael A.

2008-01-01

427

Visual Word Recognition: Evidence for Global and Local Control over Semantic Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two lexical decision experiments examined the joint effects of stimulus quality, semantic context, and cue-target associative strength when all factors were intermixed in a block of trials. Both experiments found a three-way interaction. Semantic context and stimulus quality interacted when associative strength between cue-target pairs was strong,…

Robidoux, Serje; Stolz, Jennifer; Besner, Derek

2010-01-01

428

TRIM proteins regulate autophagy and can target autophagic substrates by direct recognition.  

PubMed

Autophagy, a homeostatic process whereby eukaryotic cells target cytoplasmic cargo for degradation, plays a broad role in health and disease states. Here we screened the TRIM family for roles in autophagy and found that half of TRIMs modulated autophagy. In mechanistic studies, we show that TRIMs associate with autophagy factors and act as platforms assembling ULK1 and Beclin 1 in their activated states. Furthermore, TRIM5? acts as a selective autophagy receptor. Based on direct sequence-specific recognition, TRIM5? delivered its cognate cytosolic target, a viral capsid protein, for autophagic degradation. Thus, our study establishes that TRIMs can function both as regulators of autophagy and as autophagic cargo receptors, and reveals a basis for selective autophagy in mammalian cells. PMID:25127057

Mandell, Michael A; Jain, Ashish; Arko-Mensah, John; Chauhan, Santosh; Kimura, Tomonori; Dinkins, Christina; Silvestri, Guido; Münch, Jan; Kirchhoff, Frank; Simonsen, Anne; Wei, Yongjie; Levine, Beth; Johansen, Terje; Deretic, Vojo

2014-08-25

429

New target recognition method based on high-range resolution polarimetric radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For HRR profile identification application, it is of importance to use as few as possible of matched-filters under the restriction of given probability of error and rejection. In this paper, a new method of target recognition called range-polarization multi-dimensional correlation matching classification is presented, which combine the polarization information with high resolution range information to adapt arbitrary pose angle of target, the optimal expressions are designed according to the demand of error an reject probabilities. The prosed method was performed in three steps: First, the theory of range- polarization multi-dimensional correlation matching was introduced. Then, multi-dimensional correlation matching expression were trained. Finally, some experimental results were given. The results of experiments demonstrated that his method has advantages of small operation amount and less matched filters.

Xiao, Huaitie; Fu, Qiang; Hu, Xiangjiang

2001-09-01

430

Increase in Speech Recognition Due to Linguistic Mismatch between Target and Masker Speech: Monolingual and Simultaneous Bilingual Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine whether improved speech recognition during linguistically mismatched target-masker experiments is due to linguistic unfamiliarity of the masker speech or linguistic dissimilarity between the target and masker speech. Method: Monolingual English speakers (n = 20) and English-Greek simultaneous bilinguals (n = 20) listened to…

Calandruccio, Lauren; Zhou, Haibo

2014-01-01

431

Complement C1q-target proteins recognition is inhibited by electric moment effectors.  

PubMed

Classical complement pathway is an important innate immune mechanism, which is usually triggered by binding of C1q to immunoglobulins, pentraxins and other target molecules. Although the activation of the classical pathway is crucial in the host defence, its undesirable and uncontrolled activation can lead to tissue damage. Thus, understanding the molecular basis of complement activation and its inhibition are of great biomedical importance. Recently, we proposed a mechanism for target recognition and classical pathway activation by C1q, which is likely governed by calcium-controlled reorientation of macromolecular electric moment vectors. Here we sought to define the mechanism of C1q inhibition by low molecular weight disulphate compounds that bind to the globular (gC1q) domain, using experimental, computational docking and theoretical modelling approaches. Our experimental results demonstrate that betulin disulphate (B2S) and 9,9-bis(4'-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene disulphate (F2S) inhibit the interaction of C1q and its recombinant globular modules with target molecules IgG1, C-reactive protein (CRP) and long pentraxin 3 (PTX3). In most C1q-inhibitor docked complexes, there is a reduction of electric moment scalar values and similarly altered direction of electric/dipole moment vectors. This could explain the inhibitory effect by impaired electrostatic steering, lacking optimal target recognition and formation of functional complex. In the presence of the inhibitor, the tilt of gC1q domains is likely to be blocked by the altered direction of the electric moment vector. Thus, the transition from the inactive (closed) towards the active (open) conformation of C1q (i.e. the complement activation signal transmission) will be impaired and the cascade initiation disrupted. These results could serve as a starting point for the exploration of a new form of 'electric moment inhibitors/effectors'. PMID:17929239

Roumenina, Lubka; Bureeva, Svetlana; Kantardjiev, Alexander; Karlinsky, David; Andia-Pravdivy, Julian E; Sim, Robert; Kaplun, Alexander; Popov, Michael; Kishore, Uday; Atanasov, Boris

2007-01-01

432

ARTMAP-FTR: a neural network for fusion target recognition with application to sonar classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ART (Adaptive Resonance Theory) neural networks for fast, stable learning and prediction have been applied in a variety of areas. Applications include automatic mapping from satellite remote sensing data, machine tool monitoring, medical prediction, digital circuit design, chemical analysis, and robot vision. Supervised ART architectures, called ARTMAP systems, feature internal control mechanisms that create stable recognition categories of optimal size by maximizing code compression while minimizing predictive error in an on- line setting. Special-purpose requirements of various application domains have led to a number of ARTMAP variants, including fuzzy ARTMAP, ART-EMAP, ARTMAP-IC, Gaussian ARTMAP, and distributed ARTMAP. A new ARTMAP variant, called ARTMAP- FTR (fusion target recognition), has been developed for the problem of multi-ping sonar target classification. The development data set, which lists sonar returns from underwater objects, was provided by the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) Coastal Systems Station (CSS), Dahlgren Division. The ARTMAP-FTR network has proven to be an effective tool for classifying objects from sonar returns. The system also provides a procedure for solving more general sensor fusion problems.

Carpenter, Gail A.; Streilein, William W.

1998-09-01

433

Recognition and Lexical Decision Without Detection: Unconscious Perception?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulus detection and concurrent measures of stimulus recognition were compared to establish whether perception occurs in the absence of detection. The target stimuli were familiar words (Experiments 1 and 2), nonwords (Experiment 3), or both words and nonwords (Experiment 4). On each trial, either a stimulus or a blank field was presented. Ss first decided whether a stimulus had been

Philip M. Merikle; Eyal M. Reingold

1990-01-01

434

Structural basis of PAM-dependent target DNA recognition by the Cas9 endonuclease.  

PubMed

The CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that cleaves double-stranded DNA bearing sequences complementary to a 20-nucleotide segment in the guide RNA. Cas9 has emerged as a versatile molecular tool for genome editing and gene expression control. RNA-guided DNA recognition and cleavage strictly require the presence of a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the target DNA. Here we report a crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 in complex with a single-molecule guide RNA and a target DNA containing a canonical 5'-NGG-3' PAM. The structure reveals that the PAM motif resides in a base-paired DNA duplex. The non-complementary strand GG dinucleotide is read out via major-groove interactions with conserved arginine residues from the carboxy-terminal domain of Cas9. Interactions with the minor groove of the PAM duplex and the phosphodiester group at the +1 position in the target DNA strand contribute to local strand separation immediately upstream of the PAM. These observations suggest a mechanism for PAM-dependent target DNA melting and RNA-DNA hybrid formation. Furthermore, this study establishes a framework for the rational engineering of Cas9 enzymes with novel PAM specificities. PMID:25079318

Anders, Carolin; Niewoehner, Ole; Duerst, Alessia; Jinek, Martin

2014-09-25

435

A comparison of machine learning methods for target recognition using ISAR imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to accurately classify targets is critical to the performance of automated/assisted target recognition (ATR) algorithms. Supervised machine learning methods have been shown to be able to classify data in a variety of disciplines with a high level of accuracy. The performance of machine learning techniques in classifying ground targets in two-dimensional radar imagery were compared. Three machine learning models were compared to determine which model best classifies targets with the highest accuracy: decision tree, Bayes', and support vector machine. X-band signature data acquired in scale-model compact ranges were used. ISAR images were compared using several techniques including two-dimensional cross-correlation and pixel by pixel comparison of the image against a reference image. The highly controlled nature of the collected imagery was ideally suited for the inter-comparison of the machine learning models. The resulting data from the image comparisons were used as the feature space for testing the accuracy of the three types of classifiers. Classifier accuracy was determined using N-fold cross-validation.

Uttecht, Karen D.; Chen, Cindy X.; Dickinson, Jason C.; Goyette, Thomas M.; Giles, Robert H.; Nixon, William E.

2011-06-01

436

Focus on the Forms: Recognition Practice in Chinese Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of recognition-based retrieval practice on vocabulary learning in a university Chinese class. Students (N=26) were given practice retrieving new vocabulary (single or two-character words) in a series of simple form recognition tests administered over four weeks. The test sets consisted of target vocabulary that…

Harrington, Michael; Jiang, Wenying

2013-01-01

437

Analytical derivation of distortion constraints and their verification in a learning vector quantization-based target recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain a novel analytical derivation for distortion-related constraints in a neural network- (NN)-based automatic target recognition (ATR) system. We obtain two types of constraints for a realistic ATR system implementation involving 4-f correlator architecture. The first constraint determines the relative size between the input objects and input correlation filters. The second constraint dictates the limits on amount of rotation, translation, and scale of input objects for system implementation. We exploit these constraints in recognition of targets varying in rotation, translation, scale, occlusion, and the combination of all of these distortions using a learning vector quantization (LVQ) NN. We present the simulation verification of the constraints using both the gray-scale images and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA's) Moving and Stationary Target Recognition (MSTAR) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images with different depression and pose angles.

Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Razzaque, Mohammad A.

2005-06-01

438

A Compact Methodology to Understand, Evaluate, and Predict the Performance of Automatic Target Recognition  

PubMed Central

This paper offers a compacted mechanism to carry out the performance evaluation work for an automatic target recognition (ATR) system: (a) a standard description of the ATR system's output is suggested, a quantity to indicate the operating condition is presented based on the principle of feature extraction in pattern recognition, and a series of indexes to assess the output in different aspects are developed with the application of statistics; (b) performance of the ATR system is interpreted by a quality factor based on knowledge of engineering mathematics; (c) through a novel utility called “context-probability” estimation proposed based on probability, performance prediction for an ATR system is realized. The simulation result shows that the performance of an ATR system can be accounted for and forecasted by the above-mentioned measures. Compared to existing technologies, the novel method can offer more objective performance conclusions for an ATR system. These conclusions may be helpful in knowing the practical capability of the tested ATR system. At the same time, the generalization performance of the proposed method is good. PMID:24967605

Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Chen, Yiping; Zhuang, Zhaowen; Cheng, Yongqiang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Liandong; Zeng, Yonghu; Gao, Lei

2014-01-01

439

Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems (DDDAS) modeling for automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dynamic Data Driven Applications System (DDDAS) concept uses applications modeling, mathematical algorithms, and measurement systems to work with dynamic systems. A dynamic systems such as Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) is subject to sensor, target, and the environment variations over space and time. We use the DDDAS concept to develop an ATR methodology for multiscale-multimodal analysis that seeks to integrated sensing, processing, and exploitation. In the analysis, we use computer vision techniques to explore the capabilities and analogies that DDDAS has with information fusion. The key attribute of coordination is the use of sensor management as a data driven techniques to improve performance. In addition, DDDAS supports the need for modeling from which uncertainty and variations are used within the dynamic models for advanced performance. As an example, we use a Wide-Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) application to draw parallels and contrasts between ATR and DDDAS systems that warrants an integrated perspective. This elementary work is aimed at triggering a sequence of deeper insightful research towards exploiting sparsely sampled piecewise dense WAMI measurements - an application where the challenges of big-data with regards to mathematical fusion relationships and high-performance computations remain significant and will persist. Dynamic data-driven adaptive computations are required to effectively handle the challenges with exponentially increasing data volume for advanced information fusion systems solutions such as simultaneous target tracking and ATR.

Blasch, Erik; Seetharaman, Guna; Darema, Frederica

2013-05-01

440

Multi-resolution approach to automatic target recognition with a hybrid evolutionary algorithm and response analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-resolution approach to automatic target recognition is described that employs a hybrid evolutionary algorithm (HEA) and image transform in a form of image local response. Given images of the targeted area (TA) and the targeted object (TO) located in TA, the proposed method repeatedly applies cross-correlation on different resolution levels (zooming in), in order to find the area TA and the object TO in the large-scale image of the region of interest (ROI). Both images of ROI and TA undergo peculiar transformation called image local response. Given geometric transformation T(V) of the images under specified parameter vector V, image local response is defined as an image transform R(V) that maps an image into itself, with the small perturbation of the parameter vector V. Unit variations of the components of the parameter vector V are applied to the image, and the corresponding variations of the least squared difference of the gray levels of the two images (i.e., before and after the parameter variation) form an image response matrix M(V). Cross-correlation of the response matrices built for ROI and TA outlines a potential range of resolutions of the TA. A hybrid Evolutionary algorithm can be applied then, in order to find the correct parameters V for TA with the reference to ROI.

Maslov, Igor V.; Gertner, Izidor

2005-05-01

441

Using the recognition code to swap homeodomain target specificity in cell culture.  

PubMed

The homeodomain (HD) is a 60 amino acid-long DNA-binding domain. A large fraction of HDs binds with high affinity sequences containing the 5'-TAAT-3' core motif. However, NK-2 class HDs recognizes sequences containing the 5'-CAAG-3' core motif. By using a cell transfection approach, here we show that modification of residues located in the N-terminal arm (at positions 6, 7 and 8) and in the recognition helix (at position 54) is enough to swap the "in vivo" binding specificity of TTF-1 HD (which is a member of the NK-2 class HD) from 5'-CAAG-3' to 5'-TAAT-3'-containing targets. The role of residue at position 54 is also supported by data obtained with the HD of the Drosophila engrailed protein. These data support the notion that DNA-binding specificity "in vivo" is dictated by few critical residues. PMID:21369923

Puppin, Cinzia; Fabbro, Dora; Pellizzari, Lucia; Damante, Giuseppe

2011-11-01

442

User acceptance of intelligent avionics: A study of automatic-aided target recognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

User acceptance of new support systems typically was evaluated after the systems were specified, designed, and built. The current study attempts to assess user acceptance of an Automatic-Aided Target Recognition (ATR) system using an emulation of such a proposed system. The detection accuracy and false alarm level of the ATR system were varied systematically, and subjects rated the tactical value of systems exhibiting different performance levels. Both detection accuracy and false alarm level affected the subjects' ratings. The data from two experiments suggest a cut-off point in ATR performance below which the subjects saw little tactical value in the system. An ATR system seems to have obvious tactical value only if it functions at a correct detection rate of 0.7 or better with a false alarm level of 0.167 false alarms per square degree or fewer.

Becker, Curtis A.; Hayes, Brian C.; Gorman, Patrick C.

1991-01-01

443

Evaluation of an optical correlator automatic target recognition system for acquisition and tracking in densely cluttered natural scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a real-time automatic target recognition (ATR) system that employs a state-of-the-art optical correlator. The system's ability to acquire and track a moving vehicle target against a densely cluttered natural background is investigated using six test image sequences obtained from a scanning IR sensor array mounted on an airborne platform. The approach adopted for the evaluation is to first

Paul C. Miller; Michael Royce; Peter Virgo; Merrilyn Fiebig; Garry K. Hamlyn

1999-01-01

444

Develop and Demonstrate Real-Time Wavelet Based Automatic Target Recognition Using Sonar and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DARPA project, 'Develop and Demonstrate Real-Time Wavelet Based Automatic Target Recognition Using Sonar and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data' was initiated March 30,1998 with a kick-off meeting attended by personnel from Rice University CML, North...

P. Haley

2001-01-01

445

Physiological basis for conservation of the signal recognition particle targeting pathway in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The Escherichia coli signal recognition particle (SRP) is a ribonucleoprotein complex that targets nascent inner membrane proteins (IMPs) to transport sites in the inner membrane (IM). Since SRP depletion only partially inhibits IMP insertion under some growth conditions, however, it is not clear why the particle is absolutely essential for viability. Insights into this question emerged from experiments in which we analyzed the physiological consequences of reducing the intracellular concentration of SRP below the wild-type level. We found that even moderate SRP deficiencies that have little effect on cell growth led to the induction of a heat shock response. Genetic manipulations that suppress the heat shock response were lethal in SRP-deficient cells, indicating that the elevated synthesis of heat shock proteins plays an important role in maintaining cell viability. Although it is conceivable that the heat shock response serves to increase the capacity of cells to target IMPs via chaperone-based mechanisms, SRP-deficient cells did not show an increased dependence on either GroEL or DnaK. By contrast, the heat shock-regulated proteases Lon and ClpQ became essential for viability when SRP levels were reduced. These results suggest that the heat shock response protects SRP-deficient cells by increasing their capacity to degrade mislocalized IMPs. Consistent with this notion, a model IMP that was mislocalized in the cytoplasm as the result of SRP depletion appeared to be more stable in a Deltalon DeltaclpQ strain than in control cells. Taken together, the data provide direct evidence that SRP is essential in E. coli and possibly conserved throughout prokaryotic evolution as well partly because efficient IMP targeting prevents a toxic accumulation of aggregated proteins in the cytoplasm. PMID:11244056

Bernstein, H D; Hyndman, J B

2001-04-01

446

[Effects of elaboration on retrieval of words in incidental memory].  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to investigate the mechanism of retrieval of words in incidental memory. Thirty college students were asked to generate free associates to each target word followed by unexpected free recall and recognition tests. In the free recall test, subjects were instructed to recall both targets and generated associates. The probability of targets which elicited more associates correctly recalled was higher than that of those which did less when their associates previously recalled. The above result was interpreted as showing that the more target words had retrieval route from the generated associates the more they were recalled. False recognition score as an index of between-item elaboration was higher to an associate elicited by three targets than by two or one. No clear effects of between-item elaboration were observed for free recall performance of targets. These results were discussed in term of between-item and within-item elaboration. PMID:2250422

Toyota, H

1990-06-01

447

The role of verbal memory in regressions during reading is modulated by the target word's recency in memory.  

PubMed

During reading, a number of eye movements are made backward, on words that have already been read. Recent evidence suggests that such eye movements, called regressions, are guided by memory. Several studies point to the role of spatial memory, but evidence for the role of verbal memory is more limited. In the present study, we examined the factors that modulate the role of verbal memory in regressions. Participants were required to make regressions on target words located in sentences displayed on one or two lines. Verbal interference was shown to affect regressions, but only when participants executed a regression on a word located in the first part of the sentence, irrespective of the number of lines on which the sentence was displayed. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that the effect of verbal interference on words located in the first part of the sentence disappeared when participants initiated the regression from the middle of the sentence. Our results suggest that verbal memory is recruited to guide regressions, but only for words read a longer time ago. PMID:24879638

Guérard, Katherine; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Maltais, Marilyne; Lavoie, Hugo

2014-10-01

448

A wavelet-based regularization scheme for HRR radar profile enhancement for use in automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cetin has applied non-quadratic optimization methods to produce feature enhanced high range resolution (HRR) radar profiles. This work concerned ground based targets and was carried out in the temporal domain. In this paper, we propose a wavelet-based-half-quadratic technique for ground-to-air target identification. The method is tested on simulated data generated by standard techniques. This analysis shows the ability of the proposed method to recover high-resolution features such as the locations and amplitudes of the dominant scatterers in the HRR profile. This suggests that the technique potentially may help improve the performance of HRR target recognition systems.

Morris, Hedley C.; DePass, Monica M.

2004-08-01

449

Automated detection and recognition of small targets in compressed imagery: background and theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of small targets in uncompressed imagery frequently incurs high computational cost due to area-based filtering and template matching processes. In particular, the convolution of a K-pixel filter with an N-pixel image typically requires work that is bounded below by O(KN). However, we have shown that such image-template operations can be computed in less than O(KN) time if the image is appropriately compressed. We call this technique compressive processing. In this two-art series of papers, we present supporting theory, derivations, and analyses of compressive image-template operations that frequently occur in automated target recognition practice. For example, compression ratios of 30:1 or greater have been reported for imagery when interframe differences are small. Similarly high compression ratios have been reported for video imagery using vector quantization (VQ) or visual pattern image coding (VPIC). We thus derive image operations such as edge detection and target classification that are applicable to VQ- and VPIC-compressed imagery, as well as to a VPIC-like transform, called Adaptive Vector Entropy Coding. In the case of edge detection and target classification over VQ- or VPIC-compressed imagery, we show that computational speedups of O(CR) can be obtained with appropriate data structural manipulation. For example, if VQ is employed with fixed-size, K-pixel encoding blocks, then edge detection can be achieved by entropy-based thresholding of the VQ codebook exemplars, at a cost of N/K block substitution operations. Given a codebook of size M vectors, an additional overhead of 2M comparisons may be required for validation purposes. A similar method is employed for VPIC, which encodes image patterns in terms of the encoding block mean, gradient intensity and orientation, and an index that references a bitmap pattern. In practice, the bitmap is derived from the encoding block's zero crossings about the block mean. Analyses emphasize performance measures such as computational cost, information loss, computational error, and compression ratio. Our algorithms are expressed in terms of image algebra, a rigorous, concise notation that unifies linear and nonlinear mathematics in the image domain. Since image algebra has been implemented on numerous sequential and parallel computers, our algorithms are feasible and widely portable.

Schmalz, Mark S.

1996-05-01

450

Functional signature for the recognition of specific target mRNAs by human Staufen1 protein  

PubMed Central

Cellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are associated to proteins in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. The double-stranded RNA-binding (DRB) proteins play important roles in mRNA synthesis, modification, activity and decay. Staufen is a DRB protein involved in the localized translation of specific mRNAs during Drosophila early development. The human Staufen1 (hStau1) forms RNA granules that contain translation regulation proteins as well as cytoskeleton and motor proteins to allow the movement of the granule on microtubules, but the mechanisms of hStau1-RNA recognition are still unclear. Here we used a combination of affinity chromatography, RNAse-protection, deep-sequencing and bioinformatic analyses to identify mRNAs differentially associated to hStau1 or a mutant protein unable to bind RNA and, in this way, defined a collection of mRNAs specifically associated to wt hStau1. A common sequence signature consisting of two opposite-polarity Alu motifs was present in the hStau1-associated mRNAs and was shown to be sufficient for binding to hStau1 and hStau1-dependent stimulation of protein expression. Our results unravel how hStau1 identifies a wide spectrum of cellular target mRNAs to control their localization, expression and fate. PMID:24470147

de Lucas, Susana; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Chagoyen, Monica; Ortin, Juan

2014-01-01

451

Contextual action recognition and target localization with an active allocation of attention on a humanoid robot.  

PubMed

Exploratory gaze movements are fundamental for gathering the most relevant information regarding the partner during social interactions. Inspired by the cognitive mechanisms underlying human social behaviour, we have designed and implemented a system for a dynamic attention allocation which is able to actively control gaze movements during a visual action recognition task exploiting its own action execution predictions. Our humanoid robot is able, during the observation of a partner's reaching movement, to contextually estimate the goal position of the partner's hand and the location in space of the candidate targets. This is done while actively gazing around the environment, with the purpose of optimizing the gathering of information relevant for the task. Experimental results on a simulated environment show that active gaze control, based on the internal simulation of actions, provides a relevant advantage with respect to other action perception approaches, both in terms of estimation precision and of time required to recognize an action. Moreover, our model reproduces and extends some experimental results on human attention during an action perception. PMID:23981534

Ognibene, Dimitri; Chinellato, Eris; Sarabia, Miguel; Demiris, Yiannis

2013-09-01

452

Combinatorial targeting of ribbon-helix-helix artificial transcription factors to chimeric recognition sites  

PubMed Central

Artificial transcription factors (ATFs) are potent synthetic biology tools for modulating endogenous gene expression and precision genome editing. The ribbon–helix–helix (RHH) superfamily of transcription factors are widespread in bacteria and archaea. The principal DNA binding determinant in this family comprises a two-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet (ribbons) in which a pair of eight-residue motifs insert into the major groove. Here, we demonstrate that ribbons of divergent RHH proteins are compact and portable elements that can be grafted into a common ?-helical scaffold producing active ATFs. Hybrid proteins cooperatively recognize DNA sites possessing core tetramer boxes whose functional spacing is dictated by interactions between the ?-helical backbones. These interactions also promote combinatorial binding of chimeras with different transplanted ribbons, but identical backbones, to synthetic sites bearing cognate boxes for each protein either in vitro or in vivo. The composite assembly of interacting hybrid proteins offers potential advantages associated with combinatorial approaches to DNA recognition compared with ATFs that involve binding of a single protein. Moreover, the new class of RHH ATFs may be utilized to re-engineer transcriptional circuits, or may be enhanced with affinity tags, fluorescent moieties or other elements for targeted genome marking and manipulation in bacteria and archaea. PMID:22492712

Zampini, Massimiliano; Hayes, Finbarr

2012-01-01

453

Target Word Detection and Semantic Role Chunking using Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the automatic labeling of semantic roles in a sentence is considered as a chunking task. We define a semantic chunk as the sequence of words that fills a semantic role defined in a semantic frame. It is straightforward to convert chunking into a tagging task using one of several IOB representations. Using this representation each word is

Kadri Hacioglu; Wayne Ward

2003-01-01

454

Manipulating Word Properties: Targeting Vocabulary Learning for Children with and without Speech Sound Inaccuracies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the relations between speech sound accuracy, vocabulary, and phonological awareness, and (2) to examine the effect of word properties of neighborhood density and phonotactic probability on word learning within a storybook context, for children with and without speech sound inaccuracies. Fifty…

McDowell, Kimberly D.; Carroll, Jeri

2012-01-01

455

Protein structure prediction of CASP5 comparative modeling and fold recognition targets using consensus alignment approach and 3D assessment.  

PubMed

For the fifth round of Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP5) all comparative modeling (CM) and fold recognition (FR) target proteins were modeled using a combination of consensus alignment strategy and 3D assessment. A large number and broad variety of prediction targets, with sequence identity between each modeled domain and the related known structure, ranging from 6 to 49%, represented all difficulty levels in comparative modeling and fold recognition. The critical steps in modeling, selection of template(s) and generation of sequence-to-structure alignment, were based on the results of secondary structure prediction and tertiary fold recognition carried out using the Meta Server coupled with the 3D-Jury system. The main idea behind the modeling procedure was to select the most common alignment variants provided by individual servers, as well as to generate several alternatives for questionable regions and to evaluate them in 3D by building corresponding molecular models. Analysis of fold-specific features and sequence conservation patterns for the target family was also widely used at this stage. For both CM and FR targets remote homologs of known structure were clearly recognized by the 3D-Jury system. In the analogous fold recognition subcategory, the correct fold was identified for five out of eight domains. The average alignment accuracy for FR models (48%) was far less than for CM predictions (80%). These finding, coupled with the observation that in the majority of cases the submitted models were not closer to the experimental structure than their best templates, indicate that, especially for difficult targets, there is still ample room for improvement. PMID:14579329

Ginalski, Krzysztof; Rychlewski, Leszek

2003-01-01

456

Logical metonymy resolution in a words-as-cues framework: Evidence from self-paced reading and probe recognition.  

E-print Network

! 1! Logical metonymy resolution in a words-as-cues framework: Evidence from self-paced reading 81399; fax number: +49 (0) 711 685 81366. SHORT TITLE: Logical metonymy in a words-as-cues framework #12;! 2! Abstract Logical metonymy resolution (begin a book begin reading a book or begin writing a book

Padó, Sebastian

457

Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control Relate to Bilingual Spoken Word Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether individual differences in inhibitory control relate to bilingual spoken word recognition. While their eye movements were monitored, native English and native French English-French bilinguals listened to English words (e.g., "field") and looked at pictures corresponding to the target, a within-language competitor…

Mercier, Julie; Pivneva, Irina; Titone, Debra

2014-01-01

458

The role of spoken and sign languages in the retention of written words by prelingually deafened native signers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and efficiency of the strategies used by prelingually deafened native signers for the temporary retention of written words with reference to a primary language-coding hypothesis (M. A. Shand, 1982). For the gathering of the data, participants were shown lists of serially presented written target words that they were asked to recognize according to their presentation order from within word pools that contained different types of code-specific distracter words. Three performance dimensions were examined: (a) false recognition of target words, (b) correct recognition of target words, and (c) retention of target word presentation order. Participants were prelingually deafened native signers (n=11, average grade level=8.18 [1.17]) and a hearing control group (n=25, average grade level=9.00 [0.76]). Findings from the analysis of the nature of false recognition and the number of correctly recognized words show convincingly that formationally similar distracter words interfered with the memory performance of the native signers and phonologically similar distracter words with that of the hearing control group. It was concluded that the participants decoded written words into a code reflecting their primary language experience for their temporary retention in working memory. PMID:17227792

Miller, Paul

2007-01-01

459

Words, Hemispheres, and Dissociable Subsystems: The Effects of Exposure Duration, Case Alternation, Priming, and Continuity of Form on Word Recognition in the Left and Right Visual Fields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments explore aspects of the dissociable neural subsystems theory of hemispheric specialisation proposed by Marsolek and colleagues, and in particular a study by [Deason, R. G., & Marsolek, C. J. (2005). A critical boundary to the left-hemisphere advantage in word processing. "Brain and Language," 92, 251-261]. Experiment 1A showed…

Ellis, Andrew W.; Ansorge, Lydia; Lavidor, Michal

2007-01-01

460

Error-Correcting Output Coding for the Convolutional Neural Network for Optical Character Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are efficient for optical character recognition (OCR) and many other visual classification tasks. This paper applies error-correcting output coding (ECOC) to the CNN for segmentation-free OCR such that: 1) the CNN target outputs are designed according to code words of length N; 2) the minimum Hamming distance of the code words is

Huiqun Deng; George Stathopoulos; Ching Y. Suen

2009-01-01