These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

A Comparison of Two Flashcard Drill Methods Targeting Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional drill and practice (TD) and incremental rehearsal (IR) are two flashcard drill instructional methods previously noted to improve word recognition. The current study sought to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of these two methods, as assessed by next day retention assessments, under 2 conditions (i.e., opportunities to respond…

Volpe, Robert J.; Mule, Christina M.; Briesch, Amy M.; Joseph, Laurice M.; Burns, Matthew K.

2011-01-01

2

Word Recognition Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participating in the Word Recognition Experiment. This study involves a series of word recognition trials in which participants are flashed a word either in the left or in the right hemifield and then identify the presented word. Performance is measured as the minimum presentation display time required for an individual to correctly identify the word.

3

Units of Word Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both psychologists and reading specialists have been interested in whether words are processed letter by letter or in larger units. A reaction time paradigm was used to evaluate these options with interest focused on potential units of word recognition which might be functional within single syllable words. The basic paradigm involved presenting…

Santa, Carol M.; And Others

4

Teaching Word Recognition Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of articles with the chief emphasis on phonics as a means of analyzing words is presented. Various articles pertain to elementary, secondary, and college level instruction. The first of the five parts into which the volume is divided is comprised of a single article which gives an excellent overview of the field of word recognition. Part…

Dawson, Mildred A., Comp.

5

Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

DeWitt, Iain D. J.

2013-01-01

6

Word recognition using ideal word patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The word shape analysis approach to text recognition is motivated by discoveries in psychological studies of the human reading process. It attempts to describe and compare the shape of the word as a whole object without trying to segment and recognize the individual characters, so it bypasses the errors committed in character segmentation and classification. However, the large number of classes and large variation and distortion expected in all patterns belonging to the same class make it difficult for conventional, accurate, pattern recognition approaches. A word shape analysis approach using ideal word patterns to overcome the difficulty and improve recognition performance is described in this paper. A special word pattern which characterizes a word class is extracted from different sample patterns of the word class and stored in memory. Recognition of a new word pattern is achieved by comparing it with the special pattern of each word class called ideal word pattern. The process of generating the ideal word pattern of each word class is proposed. The algorithm was tested on a set of machine printed gray scale word images which included a wide range of print types and qualities.

Zhao, Sheila X.; Srihari, Sargur N.

1994-03-01

7

Word Recognition Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research on hemispheric specialization in lateralized recognition tasks has examined a range of factors that may influence or interact with the left-right dominance of particular tasks. The divided visual field technique is a valuable strategy for examining hemispheric specialization across a range of abilities. This page offers information about how to use a divided visual field activity to illustrate hemispheric specialization.

8

Adult Word Recognition and Visual Sequential Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from…

Holmes, V. M.

2012-01-01

9

Recognition and verification of unconstrained handwritten words.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel approach for the verification of the word hypotheses generated by a large vocabulary, offline handwritten word recognition system. Given a word image, the recognition system produces a ranked list of the N-best recognition hypotheses consisting of text transcripts, segmentation boundaries of the word hypotheses into characters, and recognition scores. The verification consists of an estimation of the probability of each segment representing a known class of character. Then, character probabilities are combined to produce word confidence scores which are further integrated with the recognition scores produced by the recognition system. The N-best recognition hypothesis list is reranked based on such composite scores. In the end, rejection rules are invoked to either accept the best recognition hypothesis of such a list or to reject the input word image. The use of the verification approach has improved the word recognition rate as well as the reliability of the recognition system, while not causing significant delays in the recognition process. Our approach is described in detail and the experimental results on a large database of unconstrained handwritten words extracted from postal envelopes are presented. PMID:16237988

Koerich, Alessandro L; Sabourin, Robert; Suen, Ching Y

2005-10-01

10

Adult word recognition and visual sequential memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency\\u000a of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely\\u000a spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from words with internal\\u000a transposed letters. Symbol memory was evaluated in a

V. M. Holmes

11

Applying matrix quantization to isolated word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to isolated word recognition is examined. This approach is based on an extension of vector quantization speech coding, called matrix quantization speech coding, that was developed by Tsao and Gray. In this new approach, a codebook containing a set of time-ordered-sequences of speech spectra represents each vocabulary word. A word is recognized by encoding it with each

David K. Burton

1985-01-01

12

Item Effects in Recognition Memory for Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate the effects of word characteristics on episodic recognition memory using analyses that avoid Clark's (1973) "language-as-a-fixed-effect" fallacy. Our results demonstrate the importance of modeling word variability and show that episodic memory for words is strongly affected by item noise (Criss & Shiffrin, 2004), as measured by the…

Freeman, Emily; Heathcote, Andrew; Chalmers, Kerry; Hockley, William

2010-01-01

13

Word-Recognition Training: Computer versus Tutor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of tutor- or computer-assisted word recognition were assessed in a sample of third grade children. At pre-test, students' reading accuracy and fluency were evaluated on a training word list, generalization word list, and reading passages. Students were then randomly assigned to one of three group conditions--control (students practiced…

Lewandowski, Lawrence; Begeny, John; Rogers, Cynthia

2006-01-01

14

Lexical Competition in Non-Native Spoken-Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name ("pencil," given target "panda") than on less confusable distractors…

Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

2004-01-01

15

Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition  

PubMed Central

A method used widely to study the first 250?ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: For example, only word targets show priming in the lexical decision task, but both words and non-words do in the same-different task; semantic priming effects are generally weak in the lexical decision task but are robust in the semantic categorization task. We explain how such task dependence arises within the Bayesian Reader account of masked priming (Norris and Kinoshita, 2008), and how the task dissociations can be used to understand the early processes in lexical access. PMID:22675316

Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

2012-01-01

16

Individual differences in online spoken word recognition: Implications for SLI  

PubMed Central

Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have important implications for work on language impairment. The present study begins to fill this gap by relating individual differences in overall language ability to variation in online word recognition processes. Using the visual world paradigm, we evaluated online spoken word recognition in adolescents who varied in both basic language abilities and non-verbal cognitive abilities. Eye movements to target, cohort and rhyme objects were monitored during spoken word recognition, as an index of lexical activation. Adolescents with poor language skills showed fewer looks to the target and more fixations to the cohort and rhyme competitors. These results were compared to a number of variants of the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) that were constructed to test a range of theoretical approaches to language impairment: impairments at sensory and phonological levels; vocabulary size, and generalized slowing. None were strongly supported, and variation in lexical decay offered the best fit. Thus, basic word recognition processes like lexical decay may offer a new way to characterize processing differences in language impairment. PMID:19836014

McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

17

Immediate effects of anticipatory coarticulation in spoken-word recognition  

PubMed Central

Two visual-world experiments examined listeners’ use of pre word-onset anticipatory coarticulation in spoken-word recognition. Experiment 1 established the shortest lag with which information in the speech signal influences eye-movement control, using stimuli such as “The … ladder is the target”. With a neutral token of the definite article preceding the target word, saccades to the referent were not more likely than saccades to an unrelated distractor until 200–240 ms after the onset of the target word. In Experiment 2, utterances contained definite articles which contained natural anticipatory coarticulation pertaining to the onset of the target word (“ The ladder … is the target”). A simple Gaussian classifier was able to predict the initial sound of the upcoming target word from formant information from the first few pitch periods of the article’s vowel. With these stimuli, effects of speech on eye-movement control began about 70 ms earlier than in Experiment 1, suggesting rapid use of anticipatory coarticulation. The results are interpreted as support for “data explanation” approaches to spoken-word recognition. Methodological implications for visual-world studies are also discussed. PMID:24511179

Salverda, Anne Pier; Kleinschmidt, Dave; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

2014-01-01

18

Famous talker effects in spoken word recognition.  

PubMed

Previous work has demonstrated that talker-specific representations affect spoken word recognition relatively late during processing. However, participants in these studies were listening to unfamiliar talkers. In the present research, we used a long-term repetition-priming paradigm and a speeded-shadowing task and presented listeners with famous talkers. In Experiment 1, half the words were spoken by Barack Obama, and half by Hillary Clinton. Reaction times (RTs) to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words only when repeated by the same talker. However, in Experiment 2, using nonfamous talkers, RTs to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words both when repeated by the same talker and when repeated by a different talker. Taken together, the results demonstrate that talker-specific details can affect the perception of spoken words relatively early during processing when words are spoken by famous talkers. PMID:24366633

Maibauer, Alisa M; Markis, Teresa A; Newell, Jessica; McLennan, Conor T

2014-01-01

19

Eye Movements during Spoken Word Recognition in Russian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores incremental processing in spoken word recognition in Russian 5- and 6-year-olds and adults using free-viewing eye-tracking. Participants viewed scenes containing pictures of four familiar objects and clicked on a target embedded in a spoken instruction. In the cohort condition, two object names shared identical three-phoneme…

Sekerina, Irina A.; Brooks, Patricia J.

2007-01-01

20

Visual word recognition of multisyllabic words Melvin J. Yap a,*, David A. Balota b  

E-print Network

monosyllables to multisyllables The available literature in visual word recognition re- search has beenVisual word recognition of multisyllabic words Melvin J. Yap a,*, David A. Balota b a Department 31 January 2009 Available online xxxx Keywords: Visual word recognition Multisyllabic words

21

Modelling out-of-vocabulary words for robust speech recognition  

E-print Network

This thesis concerns the problem of unknown or out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words in continuous speech recognition. Most of today's state-of-the-art speech recognition systems can recognize only words that belong to some ...

Bazzi, Issam

2002-01-01

22

Contextual Constraints on Ambiguous Word Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two major hypotheses are currently at issue concerning the effects of semantic context on ambiguous word recognition: (1) the selective-retrieval hypothesis (SRH) maintains that a single meaning is retrieved from memory, and (2) the nonselective-retrieval hypothesis maintains that all meanings are retrieved from memory. To help clear up this…

Schvaneveldt, Roger W.; And Others

23

An ERP Investigation of Visual Word Recognition in Syllabary Scripts  

PubMed Central

The bi-modal interactive-activation model has been successfully applied to understanding the neuro-cognitive processes involved in reading words in alphabetic scripts, as reflected in the modulation of ERP components in masked repetition priming. In order to test the generalizability of this approach, the current study examined word recognition in a different writing system, the Japanese syllabary scripts Hiragana and Katakana. Native Japanese participants were presented with repeated or unrelated pairs of Japanese words where the prime and target words were both in the same script (within-script priming, Experiment 1) or were in the opposite script (cross-script priming, Experiment 2). As in previous studies with alphabetic scripts, in both experiments the N250 (sub-lexical processing) and N400 (lexical-semantic processing) components were modulated by priming, although the time-course was somewhat delayed. The earlier N/P150 effect (visual feature processing) was present only in Experiment 1 where prime and target words shared visual features. Overall, the results provide support for the hypothesis that visual word recognition involves a generalizable set of neuro-cognitive processes that operate in a similar manner across different writing systems and languages, as well as pointing to the viability of the bi-modal interactive activation framework for modeling such processes. PMID:23378278

Okano, Kana; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

2013-01-01

24

Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations?  

PubMed Central

The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that there is a symmetry in infant sensitivity to vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words (Mani & Plunkett, 2007). In a second series of simulations, we use TRACE to simulate infants’ graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). An unexpected outcome is that TRACE fails to demonstrate graded sensitivity for White and Morgan’s stimuli unless the inhibitory parameters in TRACE are substantially reduced. We explore the ramifications of this finding for theories of lexical development. Finally, TRACE mimics the impact of phonological neighbourhoods on early word learning reported by Swingley and Aslin (2007). TRACE offers an alternative explanation of these findings in terms of mispronunciations of lexical items rather than imputing word learning to infants. Together these simulations provide an evaluation of Developmental (Jusczyk, 1993) and Familiarity (Metsala, 1999) accounts of word recognition by infants and young children. The findings point to a role for both theoretical approaches whereby vocabulary structure and content constrain infant word recognition in an experience-dependent fashion, and highlight the continuity in the processes and representations involved in lexical development during the second year of life. PMID:24493907

Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

2014-01-01

25

Is Early Word-Form Processing Stress-Full? How Natural Variability Supports Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of studies, we examined how mothers naturally stress words across multiple mentions in speech to their infants and how this marking influences infants' recognition of words in fluent speech. We first collected samples of mothers' infant-directed speech using a technique that induced multiple repetitions of target words. Acoustic…

Bortfeld, Heather; Morgan, James L.

2010-01-01

26

The Role of Holistic Paradigms in Handwritten Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The holistic paradigm in handwritten word recognition treats the word as a single, indivisible entity and attempts to recognize words from their overall shape, as opposed to their character contents. In this survey, we have attempted to take a fresh look at the potential role of the holistic paradigm in handwritten word recognition. The survey begins with an overview of

Sriganesh Madhvanath; Venu Govindaraju

2001-01-01

27

Spoken word recognition without a TRACE  

PubMed Central

How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition—including visual word recognition—have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349

Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S.; Grainger, Jonathan

2013-01-01

28

Coordination of Word Recognition and Oculomotor Control During Reading: The Role of Implicit Lexical Decisions  

PubMed Central

The coordination of word-recognition and oculomotor processes during reading was evaluated in two eye-tracking experiments that examined how word skipping, where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading, is affected by the lexical status of a letter string in the parafovea and ease of recognizing that string. Ease of lexical recognition was manipulated through target-word frequency (Experiment 1) and through repetition priming between prime-target pairs embedded in a sentence (Experiment 2). Using the gaze-contingent boundary technique the target word appeared in the parafovea either with full preview or with transposed-letter (TL) preview. The TL preview strings were nonwords in Experiment 1 (e.g., bilnk created from the target blink), but were words in Experiment 2 (e.g., sacred created from the target scared). Experiment 1 showed greater skipping for high-frequency than low-frequency target words in the full preview condition but not in the TL preview (nonword) condition. Experiment 2 showed greater skipping for target words that repeated an earlier prime word than for those that did not, with this repetition priming occurring both with preview of the full target and with preview of the target’s TL neighbor word. However, time to progress from the word after the target was greater following skips of the TL preview word, whose meaning was anomalous in the sentence context, than following skips of the full preview word whose meaning fit sensibly into the sentence context. Together, the results support the idea that coordination between word-recognition and oculomotor processes occurs at the level of implicit lexical decisions. PMID:23106372

Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C.

2013-01-01

29

Appearance-Based Recognition of Words in American Sign Language  

E-print Network

Appearance-Based Recognition of Words in American Sign Language Morteza Zahedi, Daniel Keysers appearance-based features can be used for the recognition of words in American sign language (ASL) from, systems that translate sign language into spoken language could be helpful. The recognition of the signs

Keysers, Daniel

30

Emotion and language: valence and arousal affect word recognition.  

PubMed

Emotion influences most aspects of cognition and behavior, but emotional factors are conspicuously absent from current models of word recognition. The influence of emotion on word recognition has mostly been reported in prior studies on the automatic vigilance for negative stimuli, but the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. Various models of automatic vigilance have claimed that the effect of valence on response times is categorical, an inverted U, or interactive with arousal. In the present study, we used a sample of 12,658 words and included many lexical and semantic control factors to determine the precise nature of the effects of arousal and valence on word recognition. Converging empirical patterns observed in word-level and trial-level data from lexical decision and naming indicate that valence and arousal exert independent monotonic effects: Negative words are recognized more slowly than positive words, and arousing words are recognized more slowly than calming words. Valence explained about 2% of the variance in word recognition latencies, whereas the effect of arousal was smaller. Valence and arousal do not interact, but both interact with word frequency, such that valence and arousal exert larger effects among low-frequency words than among high-frequency words. These results necessitate a new model of affective word processing whereby the degree of negativity monotonically and independently predicts the speed of responding. This research also demonstrates that incorporating emotional factors, especially valence, improves the performance of models of word recognition. PMID:24490848

Kuperman, Victor; Estes, Zachary; Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth

2014-06-01

31

Function Words Constrain On-Line Recognition of Verbs and Nouns in French 18-Month-Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this experiment using the conditioned head-turn procedure, 18-month-old French-learning toddlers were trained to respond to either a target noun ("la balle"/"the ball") or a target verb ("je mange"/"I ea"t). They were then tested on target word recognition in two syntactic contexts: the target word was…

Cauvet, Elodie; Limissuri, Rita; Millotte, Severine; Skoruppa, Katrin; Cabrol, Dominique; Christophe, Anne

2014-01-01

32

Recognition of Words from the EEG Laplacian  

E-print Network

Recent works on the relationship between the electro-encephalogram (EEG) data and psychological stimuli show that EEG recordings can be used to recognize an auditory stimulus presented to a subject. The recognition rate is, however, strongly affected by technical and physiological artifacts. In this work, subjects were presented seven auditory simuli in the form of English words (first, second, third, left, right, yes, and no), and the time-locked electric field was recorded with a 64 channel Neuroscan EEG system. We used the surface Laplacian operator to eliminate artifacts due to sources located at regions far from the electrode. Our intent with the Laplacian was to improve the recognition rates of auditory stimuli from the electric field. To compute the Laplacian, we used a spline interpolation from spherical harmonics. The EEG Laplacian of the electric field were average over trials for the same auditory stimulus, and with those averages we constructed prototypes and test samples. In addition to the Lapla...

de Barros, J Acacio; de Mendonça, J P R F; Suppes, P

2012-01-01

33

Brain wave recognition of?words  

PubMed Central

Electrical and magnetic brain waves of seven subjects under three experimental conditions were recorded for the purpose of recognizing which one of seven words was processed. The analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to both of which Fourier transforms were applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. The filters used were optimal predictive filters, selected for each subject and condition. Recognition rates, based on a least-squares criterion, varied widely, but all but one of 24 were significantly different from chance. The two best were above 90%. These results show that brain waves carry substantial information about the word being processed under experimental conditions of conscious awareness. PMID:9405722

Suppes, Patrick; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Han, Bing

1997-01-01

34

Visual speech primes open-set recognition of spoken words  

PubMed Central

Visual speech perception has become a topic of considerable interest to speech researchers. Previous research has demonstrated that perceivers neurally encode and use speech information from the visual modality, and this information has been found to facilitate spoken word recognition in tasks such as lexical decision (Kim, Davis, & Krins, 2004). In this paper, we used a cross-modality repetition priming paradigm with visual speech lexical primes and auditory lexical targets to explore the nature of this priming effect. First, we report that participants identified spoken words mixed with noise more accurately when the words were preceded by a visual speech prime of the same word compared with a control condition. Second, analyses of the responses indicated that both correct and incorrect responses were constrained by the visual speech information in the prime. These complementary results suggest that the visual speech primes have an effect on lexical access by increasing the likelihood that words with certain phonetic properties are selected. Third, we found that the cross-modality repetition priming effect was maintained even when visual and auditory signals came from different speakers, and thus different instances of the same lexical item. We discuss implications of these results for current theories of speech perception. PMID:21544260

Buchwald, Adam B.; Winters, Stephen J.; Pisoni, David B.

2011-01-01

35

The Role of Antibody in Korean Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A subsyllabic phonological unit, the antibody, has received little attention as a potential fundamental processing unit in word recognition. The psychological reality of the antibody in Korean recognition was investigated by looking at the performance of subjects presented with nonwords and words in the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, the…

Lee, Chang Hwan; Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kim, Kyungil

2010-01-01

36

Orthographic Facilitation in Chinese Spoken Word Recognition: An ERP Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…

Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua

2012-01-01

37

A Distributed, Developmental Model of Word Recognition and Naming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A parallel distributed processing model of visual word recognition and pronunciation is described. A key feature is the assumption that there is a simple, uniform procedure for computing a phonological representation from an orthographic representation for irregular words as well as regular words. (SLD)

Seidenberg, Mark S.; McClelland, James L.

1989-01-01

38

Modelling the Effects of Semantic Ambiguity in Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most words in English are ambiguous between different interpretations; words can mean different things in different contexts. We investigate the implications of different types of semantic ambiguity for connectionist models of word recognition. We present a model in which there is competition to activate distributed semantic representations. The…

Rodd, Jennifer M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

2004-01-01

39

Influences of Spoken Word Planning on Speech Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 4 chronometric experiments, influences of spoken word planning on speech recognition were examined. Participants were shown pictures while hearing a tone or a spoken word presented shortly after picture onset. When a spoken word was presented, participants indicated whether it contained a prespecified phoneme. When the tone was presented, they…

Roelofs, Ardi; Ozdemir, Rebecca; Levelt, Willem J. M.

2007-01-01

40

Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Word Processing, Recognition and Context Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the paper the lexical ambiguity resolution is presented. The paper is specifically focused on the processing of words, models of word recognition, context effect, trying to find an answer to how the reader-listener determines the contextually appropriate meaning of a word. Ambiguity resolution is analyzed and explored in two perspectives: the…

Kilickaya, Ferit

2007-01-01

41

Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We employ a single-trial correlational MEG analysis technique to investigate early processing in the visual recognition of morphologically complex words. Three classes of affixed words were presented in a lexical decision task: free stems (e.g., taxable), bound roots (e.g., tolerable), and unique root words (e.g., vulnerable, the root of which…

Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

2010-01-01

42

Effects of Age and Hearing Sensitivity on the Use of Prosodic Information in Spoken Word Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, younger and older adults heard either just word onsets, word onsets followed by white noise indicating word duration, or word onsets followed by signals indicating word prosody. Older adults required longer stimulus durations for word recognition with hearing sensitivity a significant factor. Word recognition was facilitated equally…

Wingfield, Arthur; Lindfield, Kimberly C.; Goodglass, Harold

2000-01-01

43

Visual Word Recognition during Reading Is Followed by Subvocal Articulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments examined whether the identification of a visual word is followed by its subvocal articulation during reading. An irrelevant spoken word (ISW) that was identical, phonologically similar, or dissimilar to a visual target word was presented when the eyes moved to the target in the course of sentence reading. Sentence reading was…

Eiter, Brianna M.; Inhoff, Albrecht W.

2010-01-01

44

Manifold knowledge extraction and target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced mammalian target identification derived from the perception of target's manifold and measurement manifolddistance. It does not rely on object's segmented accuracy, not depend on target's variety model, and adapt to a range of changes on targets. In this paper, based on the existed manifold learning algorithm, set up a new bionic automatic target recognition model, discussed the targets manifold knowledge acquisition and the knowledge expression architecture, gave a manifold knowledge-based new method for automatic target recognition. Experiments show that the new method has a strong adaptability to targets various transform, and has a very high correctly identification probability.

Chao, Cai; Hua, Zhou

2009-10-01

45

Tracking the time course of orthographic information in spoken-word recognition  

PubMed Central

Two experiments evaluated the time course and use of orthographic information in spoken-word recognition in a visual world eye-tracking experiment using printed words as referents. Participants saw four words on a computer screen and listened to spoken sentences instructing them to click on one of the words (e.g., Click on the word bead). The printed words appeared 200 ms before the onset of the spoken target word. In Experiment 1, the display included the target word and a competitor with either a lower degree of phonological overlap with the target (bear) or a higher degree of phonological overlap with the target (bean). Both competitors had the same degree of orthographic overlap with the target. There were more fixations to the competitors than to unrelated distracters. Crucially, the likelihood of fixating a competitor did not vary as a function of the amount of phonological overlap between target and competitor. In Experiment 2, the display included the target word and a competitor with either a lower degree of orthographic overlap with the target (bare) or a higher degree of orthographic overlap with the target (bear). Competitors were homophonous and thus had the same degree of phonological overlap with the target. There were more fixations to higher-overlap competitors than to lower-overlap competitors, beginning during the temporal interval where initial fixations driven by the vowel are expected to occur. The authors conclude that orthographic information is rapidly activated as a spoken word unfolds and is immediately used in mapping spoken words onto potential printed referents. PMID:20804288

Salverda, Anne Pier; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

2010-01-01

46

The Cingulo-Opercular Network Provides Word-Recognition Benefit  

PubMed Central

Recognizing speech in difficult listening conditions requires considerable focus of attention that is often demonstrated by elevated activity in putative attention systems, including the cingulo-opercular network. We tested the prediction that elevated cingulo-opercular activity provides word-recognition benefit on a subsequent trial. Eighteen healthy, normal-hearing adults (10 females; aged 20–38 years) performed word recognition (120 trials) in multi-talker babble at +3 and +10 dB signal-to-noise ratios during a sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast was elevated in the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and frontal operculum in response to poorer speech intelligibility and response errors. These brain regions exhibited significantly greater correlated activity during word recognition compared with rest, supporting the premise that word-recognition demands increased the coherence of cingulo-opercular network activity. Consistent with an adaptive control network explanation, general linear mixed model analyses demonstrated that increased magnitude and extent of cingulo-opercular network activity was significantly associated with correct word recognition on subsequent trials. These results indicate that elevated cingulo-opercular network activity is not simply a reflection of poor performance or error but also supports word recognition in difficult listening conditions. PMID:24285902

Kuchinsky, Stefanie E.; Cute, Stephanie L.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Dubno, Judy R.

2013-01-01

47

Short-term recognition memory for words: Why search?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulated frequency of alternatives and presentation method in an attempt to obviate search in short-term recognition memory. In 2 experiments, 24 undergraduates in each of 4 groups, formed by the combination of presentation method (serial or random) and frequency of negative test words (old or new), were tested for recognition from 2 list lengths (3 and 5). Exp. I measured

Eugene B. Zechmeister

1971-01-01

48

BIMODAL COMBINATION OF SPEECH AND HANDWRITING FOR IMPROVED WORD RECOGNITION  

E-print Network

BIMODAL COMBINATION OF SPEECH AND HANDWRITING FOR IMPROVED WORD RECOGNITION Pascale Woodruff and St@multitel.be ABSTRACT This paper presents a multimodal interface combining the use of speech and handwriting modali- ties can improve the recognition performance. Handwriting is a modality that is natural to use

Dupont, Stéphane

49

Handprinted word recognition on a NIST data set  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to handprinted word recognition is described. The approach is based on the use of generating multiple possible segmentations of a word image into characters and matching these segmentations to a lexicon of candidate strings. The segmentation process uses a combination of connected component analysis and distance transform-based, connected character splitting. Neural networks are used to assign character confidence

Paul D. Gader; Michael W. Whalen; Margaret Ganzberger; Dan Hepp

1995-01-01

50

The Influence of Phonotactic Probability on Word Recognition in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influence of phonotactic probability on word recognition in English-speaking toddlers. Typically developing toddlers completed a preferential looking paradigm using familiar words, which consisted of either high or low phonotactic probability sound sequences. The participants' looking behavior was recorded in response…

MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Marton, Klara

2014-01-01

51

When word recognition goes wrong: Acquired dyslexia: brain damage (strokes).  

E-print Network

1 Dyslexia When word recognition goes wrong: Acquired dyslexia: brain damage (strokes). ­ Surface dyslexia: can't read irregular words (yacht). ­ Phonological dyslexia: can't read nonwords (nust). ­ Deep dyslexia: semantic errors (orchestra = symphony) Developmental dyslexia: this is most common and poorly

O'Reilly, Randall C.

52

Reading Habits, Perceptual Learning, and Recognition of Printed Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present work aims at demonstrating that visual training associated with the act of reading modifies the way we perceive printed words. As reading does not train all parts of the retina in the same way but favors regions on the side in the direction of scanning, visual word recognition should be better at retinal locations that are frequently…

Nazir, Tatjana A.; Ben-Boutayab, Nadia; Decoppet, Nathalie; Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram

2004-01-01

53

Influences of High and Low Variability on Infant Word Recognition  

PubMed Central

Although infants begin to encode and track novel words in fluent speech by 7.5 months, their ability to recognize words is somewhat limited at this stage. In particular, when the surface form of a word is altered, by changing the gender or affective prosody of the speaker, infants begin to falter at spoken word recognition. Given that natural speech is replete with variability, only some of which is determines the meaning of a word, it remains unclear how infants might ever overcome the effects of surface variability without appealing to meaning. In the current set of experiments, consequences of high and low variability are examined in preverbal infants. The source of variability, vocal affect, is a common property of infant-directed speech with which young learners have to contend. Across a series of four experiments, infants' abilities to recognize repeated encounters of words, as well as to reject similar-sounding words, are investigated in the context of high and low affective variation. Results point to positive consequences of affective variation, both in creating generalizable memory representations for words, but also in establishing phonologically precise memories for words. Conversely, low variability appears to degrade word recognition on both fronts, compromising infants' abilities to generalize across different affective forms of a word and to detect similar-sounding items. Findings are discussed in the context of principles of categorization, both of a linguistic and non-linguistic variety, which may potentiate the early growth of a lexicon. PMID:17586482

Singh, Leher

2008-01-01

54

The study of orthographic processing has broadened research in visual word recognition.  

PubMed

Interest in orthographic processing reflects an expansion, not constriction, of the scope of research in visual word recognition (VWR). Transposition effects are merely one aspect of investigations into orthographic encoding, while open bigrams can accommodate differences across languages. The target article's inaccurate characterization of the study of orthographic processing is not conducive to the advancement of VWR research. PMID:22929756

Whitney, Carol

2012-10-01

55

Visual Word Recognition of Single-Syllable Words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speeded visual word naming and lexical decision performance are reported for 2,428 words for young adults and healthy older adults. Hierarchical regression techniques were used to investigate the unique predictive variance of phonological features in the onsets, lexical variables (e.g., measures of consistency, frequency, familiarity, neighborhood size, and length), and semantic variables (e.g., imageability and semantic connectivity). The influence of

David A. Balota; Michael J. Cortese; Susan D. Sergent-Marshall; Daniel H. Spieler; Melvin J. Yap

2004-01-01

56

Tracking the Emergence of the Consonant Bias in Visual-Word Recognition: Evidence with Developing Readers  

PubMed Central

Recent research with skilled adult readers has consistently revealed an advantage of consonants over vowels in visual-word recognition (i.e., the so-called “consonant bias”). Nevertheless, little is known about how early in development the consonant bias emerges. This work aims to address this issue by studying the relative contribution of consonants and vowels at the early stages of visual-word recognition in developing readers (2nd and 4th Grade children) and skilled adult readers (college students) using a masked priming lexical decision task. Target words starting either with a consonant or a vowel were preceded by a briefly presented masked prime (50 ms) that could be the same as the target (e.g., pirata-PIRATA [pirate-PIRATE]), a consonant-preserving prime (e.g., pureto-PIRATA), a vowel-preserving prime (e.g., gicala-PIRATA), or an unrelated prime (e.g., bocelo -PIRATA). Results revealed significant priming effects for the identity and consonant-preserving conditions in adult readers and 4th Grade children, whereas 2nd graders only showed priming for the identity condition. In adult readers, the advantage of consonants was observed both for words starting with a consonant or a vowel, while in 4th graders this advantage was restricted to words with an initial consonant. Thus, the present findings suggest that a Consonant/Vowel skeleton should be included in future (developmental) models of visual-word recognition and reading. PMID:24523917

Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel; Comesaña, Montserrat

2014-01-01

57

Word Recognition Error Analysis: Comparing Isolated Word List and Oral Passage Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between word recognition errors made at a letter-sound pattern level on a word list and on a curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency measure (CBM-ORF) for typical and struggling elementary readers. The participants were second, third, and fourth grade typical and struggling readers…

Flynn, Lindsay J.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.; Robbins, Kelly P.

2011-01-01

58

Sight Word Recognition among Young Children At-Risk: Picture-Supported vs. Word-Only  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the impact of Picture Communication Symbols (PCS) on sight word recognition by young children identified as "at risk" for academic and social-behavior difficulties. Ten pre-primer and 10 primer Dolch words were presented to 23 students in the intervention group and 8 students in the control group…

Meadan, Hedda; Stoner, Julia B.; Parette, Howard P.

2008-01-01

59

Recognition of Hits in a Target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes two possible ways of hit recognition in a target. First method is based on frame differencing with use of a stabilization algorithm to eliminate movements of a target. Second method uses flood fill with random seed point definition to find hits in the target scene.

Semerak, Vojtech; Drahansky, Martin

60

A mega recognition memory study of 2897 disyllabic words.  

PubMed

Following the studies by Cortese, Khanna, and Hacker (2010) on recognition memory for monosyllabic words, recognition memory estimates (e.g., hits, false alarms, hits minus false alarms) for 3000 disyllabic words were obtained from 120 subjects and 2897 of these words were analysed via multiple regression. Participants studied 30 lists of 50 words and were tested on 30 lists of 100 words. Of the subjects, 60 received a constant study time of 2000?ms per item and 60 studied items at their own pace. Specific predictor variables included log word frequency, word length, imageability, age of acquisition, orthographic similarity, and phonological similarity. The results were similar to those of Cortese et al. (2010). Specifically, in the analysis of hits minus false alarms, the entire set of predictor variables accounted for 34.9% of the variance. All predictor variables except phonological similarity were related to performance, with imageability, length, orthographic similarity and frequency all being strong predictors. These results are mostly compatible with the predictions made by single- and dual-process theories. However, across items hit rates were not correlated with false alarms. Given that most variables produced the standard mirror pattern, this latter outcome poses a major challenge for recognition memory theories. PMID:25220011

Cortese, Michael J; McCarty, Daniel P; Schock, Jocelyn

2014-09-15

61

A neuroimaging study of conflict during word recognition.  

PubMed

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging the neural activity associated with error commission and conflict monitoring in a lexical decision task was assessed. In a cohort of 20 native speakers of Spanish conflict was introduced by presenting words with high and low lexical frequency and pseudo-words with high and low syllabic frequency for the first syllable. Erroneous versus correct responses showed activation in the frontomedial and left inferior frontal cortex. A similar pattern was found for correctly classified words of low versus high lexical frequency and for correctly classified pseudo-words of high versus low syllabic frequency. Conflict-related activations for language materials largely overlapped with error-induced activations. The effect of syllabic frequency underscores the role of sublexical processing in visual word recognition and supports the view that the initial syllable mediates between the letter and word level. PMID:20562657

Riba, Jordi; Heldmann, Marcus; Carreiras, Manuel; Münte, Thomas F

2010-08-01

62

A familiar font drives early emotional effects in word recognition.  

PubMed

The emotional connotation of a word is known to shift the process of word recognition. Using the electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs) approach it has been documented that early attentional processing of high-arousing negative words is shifted at a stage of processing where a presented word cannot have been fully identified. Contextual learning has been discussed to contribute to these effects. The present study shows that a manipulation of the familiarity with a word's shape interferes with these earliest emotional ERP effects. Presenting high-arousing negative and neutral words in a familiar or an unfamiliar font results in very early emotion differences only in case of familiar shapes, whereas later processing stages reveal similar emotional effects in both font conditions. Because these early emotion-related differences predict later behavioral differences, it is suggested that contextual learning of emotional valence comprises more visual features than previously expected to guide early visual-sensory processing. PMID:25226214

Kuchinke, Lars; Krause, Beatrix; Fritsch, Nathalie; Briesemeister, Benny B

2014-10-01

63

Word-Search Strategies and Stages of Word Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word-search strategies were studied in a longitudinal design with 56 Swiss children from kindergarten through grade two. Results show clear developmental trends from logographic, to assembled alphabetic, to alphabetic/orthographic addressed strategies. Differences in progression through the phases were linked to reading and spelling. (SLD)

Rieben, Laurence; And Others

1997-01-01

64

Word-search strategies and stages of word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Word-search strategies were studied within a longitudinal design from Kindergarten 2 to Grade 1 (children aged 5–7). Results showed clear developmental trends from logographic, to assembled alphabetic, to alphabetic\\/orthographic addressed strategies, and differences in the speed of progression through the phases were linked to reading and spelling in Grade 2. However, results also showed a strong individual variability in strategy

Laurence Rieben; Madelon Saada-Robert; Christiane Moro

1997-01-01

65

Brain signatures of meaning access in action word recognition.  

PubMed

The brain basis of action words may be neuron ensembles binding language- and action-related information that are dispersed over both language- and action-related cortical areas. This predicts fast spreading of neuronal activity from language areas to specific sensorimotor areas when action words semantically related to different parts of the body are being perceived. To test this, fast neurophysiological imaging was applied to reveal spatiotemporal activity patterns elicited by words with different action-related meaning. Spoken words referring to actions involving the face or leg were presented while subjects engaged in a distraction task and their brain activity was recorded using high-density magnetoencephalography. Shortly after the words could be recognized as unique lexical items, objective source localization using minimum norm current estimates revealed activation in superior temporal (130 msec) and inferior frontocentral areas (142-146 msec). Face-word stimuli activated inferior frontocentral areas more strongly than leg words, whereas the reverse was found at superior central sites (170 msec), thus reflecting the cortical somatotopy of motor actions signified by the words. Significant correlations were found between local source strengths in the frontocentral cortex calculated for all participants and their semantic ratings of the stimulus words, thus further establishing a close relationship between word meaning access and neurophysiology. These results show that meaning access in action word recognition is an early automatic process ref lected by spatiotemporal signatures of word-evoked activity. Word-related distributed neuronal assemblies with specific cortical topographies can explain the observed spatiotemporal dynamics reflecting word meaning access. PMID:15969907

Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Ilmoniemi, Risto

2005-06-01

66

Fusion of FLIR automatic target recognition algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate several fusion techniques for designing a composite classifier to improve the performance (probability of correct classification) of forward-looking infrared (FLIR) automatic target recognition (ATR). The motivation behind the fusion of ATR algorithms is that if each contributing technique in a fusion algorithm (composite classifier) emphasizes on learning at least some features of the targets that

Syed A. Rizvi; Nasser M. Nasrabadi

2003-01-01

67

"Context and Spoken Word Recognition in a Novel Lexicon": Correction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports an error in "Context and spoken word recognition in a novel lexicon" by Kathleen Pirog Revill, Michael K. Tanenhaus and Richard N. Aslin ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 2008[Sep], Vol 34[5], 1207-1223). Figure 9 was inadvertently duplicated as Figure 10. Figure 9 in the original article was correct.…

Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

2009-01-01

68

Context and Spoken Word Recognition in a Novel Lexicon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three eye movement studies with novel lexicons investigated the role of semantic context in spoken word recognition, contrasting 3 models: restrictive access, access-selection, and continuous integration. Actions directed at novel shapes caused changes in motion (e.g., looming, spinning) or state (e.g., color, texture). Across the experiments,…

Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

2008-01-01

69

Cross-Modal Source Information and Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a cross-modal matching task, participants were asked to match visual and auditory displays of speech based on the identity of the speaker. The present investigation used this task with acoustically transformed speech to examine the properties of sound that can convey cross-modal information. Word recognition performance was also measured under…

Lachs, Lorin; Pisoni, David B.

2004-01-01

70

The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

Yates, Mark

2012-01-01

71

ERP Evidence of Hemispheric Independence in Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the capability of the left hemisphere (LH) and the right hemisphere (RH) to perform a visual recognition task independently as formulated by the Direct Access Model (Fernandino, Iacoboni, & Zaidel, 2007). Healthy native Hebrew speakers were asked to categorize nouns and non-words (created from nouns by transposing two middle…

Nemrodov, Dan; Harpaz, Yuval; Javitt, Daniel C.; Lavidor, Michal

2011-01-01

72

Constructing isoluminant stimuli for word recognition research: a precautionary study.  

PubMed

Isoluminant stimuli are used increasingly often to investigate processes underlying visual word recognition. However, construction of isoluminant stimuli is not straightforward, and inappropriate construction may have the result of misinforming theories that relate word recognition to neurological function. To inform the use of isoluminant stimuli in studies of word recognition, the present article details two experiments in which isoluminant stimuli were constructed using physical onscreen luminance matching and heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) with four different stimulus types: disks, squares, rectangles, and letter strings. The findings reveal (1) substantial differences between isoluminance determined by physical onscreen luminance matching and HFP, (2) substantial differences in HFP isoluminance across stimulus types, and (3) substantial differences in HFP isoluminance across participants. These findings indicate that, in contrast to common practice in word recognition research, HFP provides a better indication of isoluminance than physical onscreen matching; but HFP stimuli should match those used in the experiment proper and should be used to assess isoluminance individually for each participant. PMID:17958160

Jordan, Timothy R; Sherman, Susan M; Tonkin, Richard P

2007-08-01

73

Auditory and Visual Word Recognition in Beginning Adult Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory investigation was made of cross-modality matching within the context of word recognition skills among beginning adult readers. The specific aim of the study was to assess the possibility that a deficit in cross-modality matching might be potentially useful as a diagnostic and predictive indicator of the rate at which adults learn to…

Johnson, Raymond L.; Cortwright, Richard W.

74

Visual Speech Primes Open-Set Recognition of Spoken Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual speech perception has become a topic of considerable interest to speech researchers. Previous research has demonstrated that perceivers neurally encode and use speech information from the visual modality, and this information has been found to facilitate spoken word recognition in tasks such as lexical decision (Kim, Davis, & Krins, 2004).…

Buchwald, Adam B.; Winters, Stephen J.; Pisoni, David B.

2009-01-01

75

Prosodic Phonological Representations Early in Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the nature of the phonological representations used during visual word recognition. We tested whether a minimality constraint (R. Frost, 1998) limits the complexity of early representations to a simple string of phonemes. Alternatively, readers might activate elaborated representations that include prosodic syllable…

Ashby, Jane; Martin, Andrea E.

2008-01-01

76

Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition  

PubMed Central

It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters) from their eye-centered (i.e., retinal) locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity) was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Word-tuning and location-invariance were found at the level of single neurons, but there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words—which was the model's learning objective—is largely based on letter-level information. PMID:24065939

Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Zorzi, Marco

2013-01-01

77

Inferior parietal lobule contributions to visual word recognition.  

PubMed

This study investigated how the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) contributes to visual word recognition. We used repetitive TMS to temporarily disrupt neural information processing in two anatomical fields of the IPL, namely, the angular (ANG) and supramarginal (SMG) gyri, and observed the effects on reading tasks that focused attention on either the meaning or sounds of written words. Relative to no TMS, stimulation of the left ANG selectively slowed responses in the meaning, but not sound, task, whereas stimulation of the left SMG affected responses in the sound, but not meaning, task. These results demonstrate that ANG and SMG doubly dissociate in their contributions to visual word recognition. We suggest that this functional division of labor may be understood in terms of the distinct patterns of cortico-cortical connectivity resulting in separable functional circuits. PMID:25244114

Sliwinska, Magdalena W; James, Alyson; Devlin, Joseph T

2015-03-01

78

Off-Line Handwritten Word Recognition Using a Hidden Markov Model Type Stochastic Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of large variations involved in handwritten words, the recognition problem is very difficult. Hidden Markov models (HMM) have been widely and successfully used in speech processing and recognition. Recently HMM has also been used with some success in recognizing handwritten words with presegmented letters. In this paper, a complete scheme for totally unconstrained handwritten word recognition based on a

Mou-yen Chen; Amlan Kundu; Jian Zhou

1994-01-01

79

Conditions of directed attention inhibit recognition performance for explicitly presented target-aligned irrelevant stimuli.  

PubMed

The fate of irrelevant and overtly presented stimuli that was temporally aligned with an attended target in a separate task was explored. Seitz and Watanabe (2003) demonstrated that if an irrelevant motion stimulus was implicit (i.e., subthreshold), a later facilitation for the same motion direction was observed if the previously presented implicit motion (of the same direction) was temporally aligned with the presence of an attended target. Later research, however, demonstrated that if the motion stimulus aligned with the attended target was explicit (i.e., suprathreshold), a later inhibition was observed (Tsushima, Seitz, & Watanabe, 2008). The current study expands on this by using more salient stimuli (words and pictures) in an inattentional blindness paradigm, and suggests that when attention is depleted, recognition for target-aligned task-irrelevant items is impaired in a subsequent recognition task. Participants were required to respond to either immediate picture, or word, repetitions in a stream of simultaneously presented line drawings and written words, and later given a surprise recognition test that measured recognition for the words or the pictures. When analyzing word recognition performance after attention had been directed to the pictures, words that had appeared simultaneously with a picture repetition in the repetition detection task were recognized at levels significantly below chance. The same inhibition was mirrored when testing for picture recognition after having attended to the words in the repetition detection task. These data suggest an inhibitory mechanism that is exhibited in later recognition tests for salient information that was previously unattended and had been simultaneously being presented with an attended target in a different task. PMID:21679910

Dewald, Andrew D; Sinnett, Scott; Doumas, Leonidas A A

2011-09-01

80

Robust automatic target recognition in second generation FLIR images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a system for the detection and recognition of targets in second generation forward looking infrared (FLIR) images. The system uses new algorithms for target detection and segmentation of the targets. Recognition is based on a methodology far target recognition by parts. A diffusion based approach for determining the parts of a target is also presented

Dinesh Nair; J. K. Aggarwal

1996-01-01

81

Chinese Unknown Word Recognition for PCFG-LA Parsing  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL), is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness. PMID:24895681

Huang, Qiuping; He, Liangye; Wong, Derek F.; Chao, Lidia S.

2014-01-01

82

Italians Use Abstract Knowledge about Lexical Stress during Spoken-Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two eye-tracking experiments in Italian, we investigated how acoustic information and stored knowledge about lexical stress are used during the recognition of tri-syllabic spoken words. Experiment 1 showed that Italians use acoustic cues to a word's stress pattern rapidly in word recognition, but only for words with antepenultimate stress.…

Sulpizio, Simone; McQueen, James M.

2012-01-01

83

Age-of-Acquisition, Word Frequency, and Neighborhood Density Effects on Spoken Word Recognition by Children and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed how lexical factors associated with vocabulary growth influence spoken word recognition by preschoolers, elementary-school children, and adults. Word frequency effects in gating and word repetition tasks were minimal, whereas age-of-acquisition and neighborhood density effects were found for all listeners. For word repetition, children displayed more of an advantage for the recognition of early-acquired items from sparse vs

Victoria M. Garlock; Amanda C. Walley; Jamie L. Metsala

2001-01-01

84

Automatic target recognition of slow moving ground targets using stap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach is proposed which will allow air-to-ground target identification of slow moving vehicles in clutter. A wideband space-time adaptive (STAP) filter for clutter suppression is developed which preserves the target amplitude integrity of returns from multiple range bins within the automatic target recognition (ATR) high range resolution (HRR) approach. The wideband STAP processor utilizes narrowband STAP principles to

John A. Malas; Krishna M. Pasala; John J. Westerkamp

2003-01-01

85

Extended Target Recognition in Cognitive Radar Networks  

PubMed Central

We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS). Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches. PMID:22163464

Wei, Yimin; Meng, Huadong; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Xiqin

2010-01-01

86

Robotics control using isolated word recognition of voice input  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A speech input/output system is presented that can be used to communicate with a task oriented system. Human speech commands and synthesized voice output extend conventional information exchange capabilities between man and machine by utilizing audio input and output channels. The speech input facility is comprised of a hardware feature extractor and a microprocessor implemented isolated word or phrase recognition system. The recognizer offers a medium sized (100 commands), syntactically constrained vocabulary, and exhibits close to real time performance. The major portion of the recognition processing required is accomplished through software, minimizing the complexity of the hardware feature extractor.

Weiner, J. M.

1977-01-01

87

(Almost) Word for Word: As Voice Recognition Programs Improve, Students Reap the Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voice recognition software is hardly new--attempts at capturing spoken words and turning them into written text have been available to consumers for about two decades. But what was once an expensive and highly unreliable tool has made great strides in recent years, perhaps most recognized in programs such as Nuance's Dragon NaturallySpeaking…

Smith, Mark

2006-01-01

88

Sonar recognition of targets embedded in sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dolphins have biological sonar abilities that exceed those of any man-made system in an aquatic environment. One problem of particular importance, and for which only limited capabilities exist, is the detection and recognition of targets buried under sediment. This paper reviews dolphin echolocation capabilities and describes a system that uses a dolphin-like signal and biomimetic signal processing mechanisms to emulate

Herbert L. Roitblat; Whitlow W. L. Au; Paul E. Nachtigall; Reid H. Shizumura; Gerald C. Moons

1995-01-01

89

Target Recognition and Synapse Formation During Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about neuron/target muscle recognition (page 44 of the PDF), learners arranged in two rows facing away from each other use string to simulate neural development. The lesson guide, part of NASA's "The Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience" includes background information and evaluation strategies.

Marlene Y. MacLeish

2012-06-26

90

Automatic target recognition via sparse representations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic target recognition (ATR) based on the emerging technology of Compressed Sensing (CS) can considerably improve accuracy, speed and cost associated with these types of systems. An image based ATR algorithm has been built upon this new theory, which can perform target detection and recognition in a low dimensional space. Compressed dictionaries (A) are formed to include rotational information for a scale of interest. The algorithm seeks to identify y(test sample) as a linear combination of the dictionary elements : y=Ax, where A ? Rnxm(n<target. The algorithm can reject clutter and background, which are part of the input image. The detection and recognition problems are solved by finding the sparse-solution to the undetermined system y=Ax via Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and l1 minimization techniques. Visible and MWIR imagery collected by the Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) was utilized to test the algorithm. Results show an average detection and recognition rates above 95% for targets at ranges up to 3Km for both image modalities.

Estabridis, Katia

2010-04-01

91

Magnetic stimulation of the left visual cortex impairs expert word recognition.  

PubMed

One of the hallmarks of expert reading is the ability to identify arrays of several letters quickly and in parallel. Such length-independent reading has only been found for word stimuli appearing in the right visual hemifield (RVF). With left hemifield presentation (LVF), response times increase as a function of word length. Here we investigated the comparative efficiency with which the two hemispheres are able to recognize visually presented words, as measured by word length effects. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left occipital cortex disrupted expert processing of the RVF such that a length effect was created (Experiment 1). Right occipital rTMS, on the other hand, had no such effect on RVF words and nor did it modulate the length effect already present in the LVF. Experiment 2 explored the time course of these TMS-induced effects by applying single pulses of TMS at various stimulus-onset asynchronies for the same task. We replicated the TMS-induced length effect for RVF words, but only when a single pulse was applied to the left visual cortex 80 msec after target presentation. This is the first demonstration of TMS-induced impairment producing a word length effect, and as such confirms the specialization of the left hemisphere in word recognition. It is likely that anatomical differences in the pathway linking retinal input to higher level cortical processing drive this effect. PMID:17014378

Skarratt, Paul A; Lavidor, Michal

2006-10-01

92

A Demonstration of Improved Precision of Word Recognition Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate improved precision of word recognition scores (WRSs) by increasing list length and analyzing phonemic errors. Method: Pure-tone thresholds (frequencies between 0.25 and 8.0 kHz) and WRSs were measured in 3 levels of speech-shaped noise (50, 52, and 54 dB HL) for 24 listeners with normal…

Schlauch, Robert S.; Anderson, Elizabeth S.; Micheyl, Christophe

2014-01-01

93

Dynamic programming algorithm optimization for spoken word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an optimum dynamic progxamming (DP) based time-normalization algorithm for spoken word recognition. First, a general principle of time-normalization is given using time-warping function. Then, two time-normalized distance definitions, called symmetric and asymmetric forms, are derived from the principle. These two forms are compared with each other through theoretical discussions and experimental studies. The symmetric form algorithm

HIROAKI SAKOE; SEIBI CHIBA

1978-01-01

94

Combining open vocabulary recognition and word confusion networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A limitation of most speech recognizers is that they only rec- ognize words from a fixed vocabulary. In this paper, we ex- plore a technique for addressing this deficiency using auto- matically derived units made up of letters and phones. We show how these units can be used for letter-to-phone conver- sion and open-vocabulary recognition. We further show how these

Keith Vertanen

2008-01-01

95

Code-switching effects in bilingual word recognition  

PubMed Central

Two experiments tested language switching effects with bilingual participants in a priming paradigm with masked primes (duration of 50 ms in Experiment 1 and 100 ms in Experiment 2). Participants had to monitor target words for animal names, and ERPs were recorded to critical (non-animal) words in L1 and L2 primed by unrelated words from the same or the other language. Both experiments revealed language priming (switching) effects that depended on target language. For target words in L1, most of the language switch effect appeared in the N400 ERP component, with L2 primes generating a more negative going wave than L1 primes. For L2 target words, on the other hand, the effects of a language switch appeared mainly in an earlier ERP component (N250) peaking at approximately 250 ms post-target onset, and showing greater negativity following an L1 prime than an L2 prime. This is the first evidence for fast-acting language-switching effects occurring in the absence of overt task switching. PMID:18191445

Chauncey, Krysta; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

2009-01-01

96

Morphology in Word Recognition: Hindi and Urdu  

E-print Network

an ge me n t ? s to r y ) or in Arabic (e.g., 23 /kamaal/ ? /Zamaal/, perf ec ti on ? be au ty ) . In contrast, Boudelaa and Marslen-Wilson (2005) used a prime-target SOA of 80ms, and found consistent priming among Arabic nouns as well as verbs... transcriptions of Hindi/Urdu sentences illustrating gender derivations (?boy? vs. ?girl?), as well as number (?boy? vs. ?boys?) and case inflections (direct vs. of oblique forms ?boys?) of a single noun, as also noun ? verb agreement in Hindi/Urdu (the...

Rao, Chaitra

2011-08-08

97

Effects of sleep loss on emotion recognition: a dissociation between face and word stimuli.  

PubMed

Short-term sleep deprivation, or extended wakefulness, adversely affects cognitive functions and behavior. However, scarce research has addressed the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on emotional processing. In this study, we investigated the impact of reduced vigilance due to moderate sleep deprivation on the ability to recognize emotional expressions of faces and emotional content of words. Participants remained awake for 24 h and performed the tasks in two sessions, one in which they were not affected by sleep loss (baseline; BSL), and other affected by SD, according to a counterbalanced sequence. Tasks were carried out twice at 10:00 and 4:00 am, or at 12:00 and 6:00 am. In both tasks, participants had to respond to the emotional valence of the target stimulus: negative, positive, or neutral. The results showed that in the word task, sleep deprivation impaired recognition irrespective of the emotional valence of words. However, sleep deprivation impaired recognition of emotional face expressions mainly when they showed a neutral expression. Emotional face expressions were less affected by the sleep loss, but positive faces were more resistant than negative faces to the detrimental effect of sleep deprivation. The differential effects of sleep deprivation on recognition of the different emotional stimuli are indicative of emotional facial expressions being stronger emotional stimuli than emotional laden words. This dissociation may be attributed to the more automatic sensory encoding of emotional facial content. PMID:24913142

Maccari, Lisa; Martella, Diana; Marotta, Andrea; Sebastiani, Mara; Banaj, Nerisa; Fuentes, Luis J; Casagrande, Maria

2014-10-01

98

Real-time functional architecture of visual word recognition.  

PubMed

Despite a century of research into visual word recognition, basic questions remain unresolved about the functional architecture of the process that maps visual inputs from orthographic analysis onto lexical form and meaning and about the units of analysis in terms of which these processes are conducted. Here we use magnetoencephalography, supported by a masked priming behavioral study, to address these questions using contrasting sets of simple (walk), complex (swimmer), and pseudo-complex (corner) forms. Early analyses of orthographic structure, detectable in bilateral posterior temporal regions within a 150-230 msec time frame, are shown to segment the visual input into linguistic substrings (words and morphemes) that trigger lexical access in left middle temporal locations from 300 msec. These are primarily feedforward processes and are not initially constrained by lexical-level variables. Lexical constraints become significant from 390 msec, in both simple and complex words, with increased processing of pseudowords and pseudo-complex forms. These results, consistent with morpho-orthographic models based on masked priming data, map out the real-time functional architecture of visual word recognition, establishing basic feedforward processing relationships between orthographic form, morphological structure, and lexical meaning. PMID:25208741

Whiting, Caroline; Shtyrov, Yury; Marslen-Wilson, William

2015-02-01

99

Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing  

PubMed Central

Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no meaning); and (3) phonology-to-meaning (no orthography). Following learning, participants made meaning judgments on the learned words, familiar known words, and unpresented (unlearned) rare words while their ERPs were recorded. The behavioral results showed no significant effects of comprehension skill on meaning judgment performance. Contrastingly, the ERP results indicated comprehension skill differences in P600 amplitude; high-skilled readers showed stronger familiarity effects for learned words, whereas less-skilled readers did not distinguish between learned words, familiar words, and unlearned words. Evidence from the P600 and N400 illustrated superior learning of meaning when meaning information was coupled with orthography rather than phonology. These results suggest that the availability of word knowledge (orthography, phonology, and meaning) at learning affects subsequent word identification processes when the words are encountered in a new context. PMID:22399833

Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

2012-01-01

100

The Impact of Left and Right Intracranial Tumors on Picture and Word Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of left and right intracranial tumors on picture and word recognition memory. We hypothesized that left hemispheric (LH) patients would exhibit greater word recognition memory impairment than right hemispheric (RH) patients, with no significant hemispheric group picture recognition memory differences. The LH…

Goldstein, Bram; Armstrong, Carol L.; Modestino, Edward; Ledakis, George; John, Cameron; Hunter, Jill V.

2004-01-01

101

Semi-Supervised Bio-Named Entity Recognition with Word-Codebook Learning Pavel P. Kuksa  

E-print Network

Semi-Supervised Bio-Named Entity Recognition with Word-Codebook Learning Pavel P. Kuksa Yanjun Qi it to the task of bio- named entity recognition (bioNER). Typical bioNER sys- tems can be seen as tasks of assigning labels to words in bio- literature text. To improve supervised tagging, WCL learns a class of word

102

Automatic Recognition of Fingerspelled Words in British Sign Language Stephan Liwicki and Mark Everingham  

E-print Network

Automatic Recognition of Fingerspelled Words in British Sign Language Stephan Liwicki and Mark the problem of recognizing words from video, fingerspelled using the British Sign Language (BSL achieves a word recognition accuracy of 98.9%. 1. Introduction British Sign Language (BSL) is a visual

Everingham, Mark

103

Asymmetries in Early Word Recognition: The Case of Stops and Fricatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Toddlers' discrimination of native phonemic contrasts is generally unproblematic. Yet using those native contrasts in word learning and word recognition can be more challenging. In this article, we investigate perceptual versus phonological explanations for asymmetrical patterns found in early word recognition. We systematically investigated…

Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; van der Feest, Suzanne V. H.; Fikkert, Paula

2014-01-01

104

Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT?ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

Schachter, Bruce J.

2014-06-01

105

Large-Corpus Phoneme and Word Recognition and the Generality of Lexical Context in CVC Word Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Speech recognition may be analyzed in terms of recognition probabilities for perceptual wholes (e.g., words) and parts (e.g., phonemes), where j or the j-factor reveals the number of independent perceptual units required for recognition of the whole (Boothroyd, 1968b; Boothroyd & Nittrouer, 1988; Nittrouer & Boothroyd, 1990). For…

Gelfand, Jessica T.; Christie, Robert E.; Gelfand, Stanley A.

2014-01-01

106

A connectionist model of visual-word recognition that accounts for interactions between mask size and word length  

Microsoft Academic Search

A connectionist model is described, which accounts for data showing a “mask appropriateness” effect in word and letter recognition. In a backward-masking paradigm, if the letter fragment masks that are used are of a similar size to the word or word fragment they are masking, performance is better than if the masks are longer or discontinuous (Jordan, 1990). The model

Philip T. Smithl; Timothy R. Jordan; Dinkar Sharma

1991-01-01

107

Lexico-Semantic Structure and the Word-Frequency Effect in Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The word-frequency effect (WFE) in recognition memory refers to the finding that more rare words are better recognized than more common words. We demonstrate that a familiarity-discrimination model operating on data from a semantic word-association space yields a robust WFE in data on both hit rates and false-alarm rates. Our modeling results…

Monaco, Joseph D.; Abbott, L. F.; Kahana, Michael J.

2007-01-01

108

HMM-based Offline Recognition of Handwritten Words Crossed Out with Different Kinds of Strokes  

E-print Network

HMM-based Offline Recognition of Handwritten Words Crossed Out with Different Kinds of Strokes L. The degradation consists of one or more ink strokes that span the whole word length and simu- late the signs that writers use to cross out the words. The simulated strokes are superimposed to the original clean word

Likforman-Sulem, Laurence

109

Photonics: From target recognition to lesion detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1989, Martin Marietta has invested in the development of an innovative concept for robust real-time pattern recognition for any two-dimensioanal sensor. This concept has been tested in simulation, and in laboratory and field hardware, for a number of DOD and commercial uses from automatic target recognition to manufacturing inspection. We have now joined Rose Health Care Systems in developing its use for medical diagnostics. The concept is based on determining regions of interest by using optical Fourier bandpassing as a scene segmentation technique, enhancing those regions using wavelet filters, passing the enhanced regions to a neural network for analysis and initial pattern identification, and following this initial identification with confirmation by optical correlation. The optical scene segmentation and pattern confirmation are performed by the same optical module. The neural network is a recursive error minimization network with a small number of connections and nodes that rapidly converges to a global minimum.

Henry, E. Michael

1994-01-01

110

Robust automatic target recognition in FLIR imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a robust automatic target recognition algorithm in FLIR imagery is proposed. Target is first segmented out from the background using wavelet transform. Segmentation process is accomplished by parametric Gabor wavelet transformation. Invariant features that belong to the target, which is segmented out from the background, are then extracted via moments. Higher-order moments, while providing better quality for identifying the image, are more sensitive to noise. A trade-off study is then performed on a few moments that provide effective performance. Bayes method is used for classification, using Mahalanobis distance as the Bayes' classifier. Results are assessed based on false alarm rates. The proposed method is shown to be robust against rotations, translations and scale effects. Moreover, it is shown to effectively perform under low-contrast objects in FLIR images. Performance comparisons are also performed on both GPU and CPU. Results indicate that GPU has superior performance over CPU.

Soyman, Yusuf

2012-05-01

111

Conformational frustration in calmodulin-target recognition.  

PubMed

Calmodulin (CaM) is a primary calcium (Ca(2+) )-signaling protein that specifically recognizes and activates highly diverse target proteins. We explored the molecular basis of target recognition of CaM with peptides representing the CaM-binding domains from two Ca(2+) -CaM-dependent kinases, CaMKI and CaMKII, by employing experimentally constrained molecular simulations. Detailed binding route analysis revealed that the two CaM target peptides, although similar in length and net charge, follow distinct routes that lead to a higher binding frustration in the CaM-CaMKII complex than in the CaM-CaMKI complex. We discovered that the molecular origin of the binding frustration is caused by intermolecular contacts formed with the C-domain of CaM that need to be broken before the formation of intermolecular contacts with the N-domain of CaM. We argue that the binding frustration is important for determining the kinetics of the recognition process of proteins involving large structural fluctuations. PMID:25622562

Tripathi, Swarnendu; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Pengzhi; Hoffman, Laurel; Waxham, M Neal; Cheung, Margaret S

2015-02-01

112

Parallel algorithms for isolated and connected word recognition. Volumes I and II  

SciTech Connect

For years researchers have worked toward finding a way to allow people to talk to machines in the same manner a person communicates to another person. This verbal man to machine interface, called speech recognition, can be grouped into three types: isolated word recognition, connected word recognition, and continuous speech recognition. Isolated word recognizers recognize single words with distinctive pauses before and after them. Continuous speech recognizers recognize speech spoken as one person speaks to another, continuously without pauses. Connected word recognition is an extension of isolated word recognition which recognizes groups of words spoken continuously. A group of words must have distinctive pauses before and after it, and the number of words in a group is limited to some small value (typically less than six). If these types of recognition systems are to be successful in the real world, they must be speaker independent and support a large vocabulary. They also must be able to recognize the speech input accurately and in real time. Currently there is no system which can meet all of these criteria because a vast amount of computations are needed. This thesis examines the use of parallel processing to reduce the computation time for speech recognition.

Yoder, M.A.

1984-01-01

113

Radar target recognition based on micro-Doppler effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical vibration of target structures will modulate the phase function of radar backscattering, and will induce the frequency modulation of returned signals from the target. It generates a side bands of the target body Doppler frequency shift, which is helpful for target recognition. Based on this, a micro-Doppler atomic storehouse is built for the target recognition, and four kinds of common classifiers are used separately to perform the classified recognition. The simulation experimental results show that this method has high recognition rate above 90%.

Dong, Wei-Guang; Li, Yan-Jun

2008-11-01

114

Offline handwritten word recognition using MQDF-HMMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an improved HMM formulation for offline handwriting recognition (HWR). The main contribution of this work is using modified quadratic discriminant function (MQDF) [1] within HMM framework. In an MQDF-HMM the state observation likelihood is calculated by a weighted combination of MQDF likelihoods of individual Gaussians of GMM (Gaussian Mixture Model). The quadratic discriminant function (QDF) of a multivariate Gaussian can be rewritten by avoiding the inverse of covariance matrix by using the Eigen values and Eigen vectors of it. The MQDF is derived from QDF by substituting few of badly estimated lower-most Eigen values by an appropriate constant. The estimation errors of non-dominant Eigen vectors and Eigen values of covariance matrix for which the training data is insufficient can be controlled by this approach. MQDF has been successfully shown to improve the character recognition performance [1]. The usage of MQDF in HMM improves the computation, storage and modeling power of HMM when there is limited training data. We have got encouraging results on offline handwritten character (NIST database) and word recognition in English using MQDF HMMs.

Ramachandrula, Sitaram; Hambarde, Mangesh; Patial, Ajay; Sahoo, Dushyant; Kochar, Shaivi

2015-01-01

115

Integration of Pragmatic and Phonetic Cues in Spoken Word Recognition  

PubMed Central

Although previous research has established that multiple top-down factors guide the identification of words during speech processing, the ultimate range of information sources that listeners integrate from different levels of linguistic structure is still unknown. In a set of experiments, we investigate whether comprehenders can integrate information from the two most disparate domains: pragmatic inference and phonetic perception. Using contexts that trigger pragmatic expectations regarding upcoming coreference (expectations for either he or she), we test listeners' identification of phonetic category boundaries (using acoustically ambiguous words on the/hi/?/?i/continuum). The results indicate that, in addition to phonetic cues, word recognition also reflects pragmatic inference. These findings are consistent with evidence for top-down contextual effects from lexical, syntactic, and semantic cues, but they extend this previous work by testing cues at the pragmatic level and by eliminating a statistical-frequency confound that might otherwise explain the previously reported results. We conclude by exploring the time-course of this interaction and discussing how different models of cue integration could be adapted to account for our results. PMID:22250908

Rohde, Hannah; Ettlinger, Marc

2015-01-01

116

Integration of pragmatic and phonetic cues in spoken word recognition.  

PubMed

Although previous research has established that multiple top-down factors guide the identification of words during speech processing, the ultimate range of information sources that listeners integrate from different levels of linguistic structure is still unknown. In a set of experiments, we investigate whether comprehenders can integrate information from the 2 most disparate domains: pragmatic inference and phonetic perception. Using contexts that trigger pragmatic expectations regarding upcoming coreference (expectations for either he or she), we test listeners' identification of phonetic category boundaries (using acoustically ambiguous words on the /hi/?/?i/ continuum). The results indicate that, in addition to phonetic cues, word recognition also reflects pragmatic inference. These findings are consistent with evidence for top-down contextual effects from lexical, syntactic, and semantic cues, but they extend this previous work by testing cues at the pragmatic level and by eliminating a statistical-frequency confound that might otherwise explain the previously reported results. We conclude by exploring the time course of this interaction and discussing how different models of cue integration could be adapted to account for our results. PMID:22250908

Rohde, Hannah; Ettlinger, Marc

2012-07-01

117

Pathway control in visual word processing: converging evidence from recognition memory.  

PubMed

The extent to which readers can exert strategic control over oral reading processes is a matter of debate. According to the pathway control hypothesis, the relative contributions of the lexical and nonlexical pathways can be modulated by the characteristics of the context stimuli being read, but an alternative time criterion model is also a viable explanation of past results. In Experiment 1, subjects named high- and low-frequency regular words in the context of either low-frequency exception words (e.g., pint) or nonwords (e.g., flirp). Frequency effects (faster pronunciation latencies for high-frequency words) were attenuated in the nonword context, consistent with the notion that nonwords emphasize the characteristics of the frequency-insensitive nonlexical pathway. Importantly, we also assessed memory for targets, and a similar attenuation of the frequency effect in recognition memory was observed in the nonword condition. Converging evidence was obtained in a second experiment in which a variable that was more sensitive to the nonlexical pathway (orthographic neighborhood size) was manipulated. The results indicated that both speeded pronunciation performance and memory performance were relatively attenuated in the low-frequency exception word context in comparision with the nonword context. The opposing influences of list context type for word frequency and orthographic neighborhood size effects in speeded pronunciation and memory performance provide strong support for the pathway control model, as opposed to the time criterion model. PMID:19648454

Kang, Sean H K; Balota, David A; Yap, Melvin J

2009-08-01

118

Rapid interactions between lexical semantic and word form analysis during word recognition in context: evidence from ERPs.  

PubMed

We used ERPs to investigate the time course of interactions between lexical semantic and sublexical visual word form processing during word recognition. Participants read sentence-embedded pseudowords that orthographically resembled a contextually supported real word (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a ceke…") or did not (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a tont…") along with nonword consonant strings (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a srdt…"). Pseudowords that resembled a contextually supported real word ("ceke") elicited an enhanced positivity at 130 msec (P130), relative to real words (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a cake…"). Pseudowords that did not resemble a plausible real word ("tont") enhanced the N170 component, as did nonword consonant strings ("srdt"). The effect pattern shows that the visual word recognition system is, perhaps, counterintuitively, more rapidly sensitive to minor than to flagrant deviations from contextually predicted inputs. The findings are consistent with rapid interactions between lexical and sublexical representations during word recognition, in which rapid lexical access of a contextually supported word (CAKE) provides top-down excitation of form features ("cake"), highlighting the anomaly of an unexpected word "ceke." PMID:21981670

Kim, Albert; Lai, Vicky

2012-05-01

119

Comparison of parametric representations for monosyllabic word recognition in continuously spoken sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several parametric representations of the acoustic signal were compared with regard to word recognition performance in a syllable-oriented continuous speech recognition system. The vocabulary included many phonetically similar monosyllabic words, therefore the emphasis was on the ability to retain phonetically significant acoustic information in the face of syntactic and duration variations. For each parameter set (based on a mel-frequency cepstrum,

S. B. Davis; P. Mermelstein

1980-01-01

120

Knowledge of a Second Language Influences Auditory Word Recognition in the Native Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies in bilingual visual word recognition have demonstrated that lexical access is not language selective. However, research on bilingual word recognition in the auditory modality has been scarce, and it has yielded mixed results with regard to the degree of this language nonselectivity. In the present study, we investigated whether…

Lagrou, Evelyne; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Duyck, Wouter

2011-01-01

121

Processing Interactions and Lexical Access during Word Recognition in Continuous Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments, a shadowing task and a mispronunciation-detection task, were performed to investigate the interactions between the data-driven primary speech perception process and the knowledge-driven word recognition process in the comprehension of continuous speech. Results are applied to an active direct access model of word recognition.…

Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Welsh, Alan

1978-01-01

122

Word Recognition Subcomponents and Passage Level Reading in a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the growing number of studies highlighting the complex process of acquiring second language (L2) word recognition skills, comparatively little research has examined the relationship between word recognition and passage-level reading ability in L2 learners; further, the existing results are inconclusive. This study aims to help fill the…

Yamashita, Junko

2013-01-01

123

Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed in the Prediction of Dutch Children's Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Influences of phonological awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. The speed and accuracy of word recognition at the ends of Grades 1 and 2 were predicted by naming speed from both the beginning and end of Grade 1, after control for autoregressive…

Verhagen, W.; Aarnoutse, C.; van Leeuwe, J.

2008-01-01

124

Relations among Linguistic and Cognitive Skills and Spoken Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined spoken word recognition in adults with cochlear implants (CIs) to determine the extent to which linguistic and cognitive abilities predict variability in speech-perception performance. Both a traditional consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC)-repetition measure and a gated-word recognition measure (F. Grosjean, 1996) were used.…

Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene Earley

2004-01-01

125

Modeling words with subword units in an articulatorily constrained speech recognition algorithm  

SciTech Connect

The goal of speech recognition is to find the most probable word given the acoustic evidence, i.e. a string of VQ codes or acoustic features. Speech recognition algorithms typically take advantage of the fact that the probability of a word, given a sequence of VQ codes, can be calculated.

Hogden, J.

1997-11-20

126

Does bold emphasis facilitate the process of visual-word recognition?  

PubMed

The study of the effects of typographical factors on lexical access has been rather neglected in the literature on visual-word recognition. Indeed, current computational models of visual-word recognition employ an unrefined letter feature level in their coding schemes. In a letter recognition experiment, Pelli, Burns, Farell, and Moore-Page (2006), letters in Bookman boldface produced more efficiency (i.e., a higher ratio of thresholds of an ideal observer versus a human observer) than the letters in Bookman regular under visual noise. Here we examined whether the effect of bold emphasis can be generalized to a common visual-word recognition task (lexical decision: "is the item a word?") under standard viewing conditions. Each stimulus was presented either with or without bold emphasis (e.g., actor vs. actor). To help determine the locus of the effect of bold emphasis, word-frequency (low vs. high) was also manipulated. Results revealed that responses to words in boldface were faster than the responses to the words without emphasis -this advantage was restricted to low-frequency words. Thus, typographical features play a non-negligible role during visual-word recognition and, hence, the letter feature level of current models of visual-word recognition should be amended. PMID:25012276

Macaya, María; Perea, Manuel

2014-01-01

127

Concurrent Correlates of Chinese Word Recognition in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the relative contributions of phonological, semantic radical, and morphological awareness to Chinese word recognition in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Measures of word recognition, general intelligence, phonological, semantic radical, and morphological awareness were administered to 32 DHH and 35 hearing children in Hong Kong. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that tone, semantic radical, and morphological awareness made independent contributions to word recognition in DHH children after the effects of age and intelligence were statistically controlled for. Semantic radical and morphological awareness was found to explain significantly more variance than tone awareness in predicting word recognition in DHH children. This study has replicated previous evidence regarding the importance of semantic radical and morphological awareness in Chinese word recognition in hearing children and extended its significance to DHH children. PMID:25749634

Ching, Boby Ho-Hong; Nunes, Terezinha

2015-04-01

128

Extraction of words from the national ID cards for automated recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The government of Bangladesh introduced national ID cards in 2008 for all peoples of age 18 years and above. This card is now a de-facto identity document and finds diverse applications in vote casting, bank account opening, telephone subscribing as well as in many real life transactions and security checking. To get real fruits of this versatile ID card, automated retrieving and recognition of an independent person from this extra large national database is an ultimate necessity. This work is the first step to fill this gap in making the recognition in automated fashion. Here we have investigated an image analysis technique to extract the words that will be used in subsequent recognition steps. At first scanned ID card image is used as an input into the computer system and then the target text region is separated from the picture region. The text region is used for separation of lines and words on the basis of the vertical and horizontal projections of image intensity, respectively. Experimentation using real national ID cards confirms the effectiveness of our technique.

Akhter, Md. Rezwan; Bhuiyan, Md. Hasanuzzaman; Uddin, Mohammad Shorif

2011-10-01

129

Emotion word recognition: discrete information effects first, continuous later?  

PubMed

Manipulations of either discrete emotions (e.g. happiness) or affective dimensions (e.g. positivity) have a long tradition in emotion research, but interactive effects have never been studied, based on the assumption that the two underlying theories are incompatible. Recent theorizing suggests, however, that the human brain relies on two affective processing systems, one working on the basis of discrete emotion categories, and the other working along affective dimensions. Presenting participants with an orthogonal manipulation of happiness and positivity in a lexical decision task, the present study meant to test the appropriateness of this assumption in emotion word recognition. Behavioral and electroencephalographic data revealed independent effects for both variables, with happiness affecting the early visual N1 component, while positivity affected an N400-like component and the late positive complex. These results are interpreted as evidence for a sequential processing of affective information, with discrete emotions being the basis for later dimensional appraisal processes. PMID:24713350

Briesemeister, Benny B; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M

2014-05-20

130

Age of Acquisition and Sensitivity to Gender in Spanish Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speakers of gender-agreement languages use gender-marked elements of the noun phrase in spoken-word recognition: A congruent marking on a determiner or adjective facilitates the recognition of a subsequent noun, while an incongruent marking inhibits its recognition. However, while monolinguals and early language learners evidence this…

Foote, Rebecca

2014-01-01

131

Additive and Interactive Effects on Response Time Distributions in Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across 3 different word recognition tasks, distributional analyses were used to examine the joint effects of stimulus quality and word frequency on underlying response time distributions. Consistent with the extant literature, stimulus quality and word frequency produced additive effects in lexical decision, not only in the means but also in the…

Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.

2007-01-01

132

A Lexicon Driven Approach to Handwritten Word Recognition for Real-Time Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast method of handwritten word recognition suitable for real time applications is presented in this paper. Preprocessing, segmentation and feature extraction are implemented using a chain code representation of the word contour. Dynamic matching between characters of a lexicon entry and segment(s) of the input word image is used to rank the lexicon entries in order of best match.

Gyeonghwan Kim; Venu Govindaraju

1997-01-01

133

A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

2015-01-01

134

HMM-based Offline Recognition of Handwritten Words Crossed out with Different Kinds of Strokes  

E-print Network

HMM-based Offline Recognition of Handwritten Words Crossed out with Different Kinds of Strokes L and are thus degraded. The degradation consists of one or more ink strokes that span the whole word length and simu- late the signs that writers use to cross out the words. The simulated strokes are superimposed

Vinciarelli, Alessandro

135

The Effect of the Balance of Orthographic Neighborhood Distribution in Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated whether the balance of neighborhood distribution (i.e., the way orthographic neighbors are spread across letter positions) influences visual word recognition. Three word conditions were compared. Word neighbors were either concentrated on one letter position (e.g.,nasse/basse-lasse-tasse-masse) or were unequally…

Robert, Christelle; Mathey, Stephanie; Zagar, Daniel

2007-01-01

136

Recognition of categorised words: repetition effects in rote study.  

PubMed

In the recognition-memory mirror effect one stimulus class exhibits both more hits and fewer false alarms than a contrasting class. This outcome is frequently detected when strong (e.g., repeated, long-duration study) and weak items have appeared in different lists but less so within lists. The mirror effect may reflect people's assignment of a more lenient recognition criterion to the weak than the strong class. The present study asked whether a paradigm that has yielded within-list mirror effects when participants make gist ratings during study (Singer, 2009, 2011) likewise obtains in rote study. In Experiments 1 and 2 people studied words from category pairs such that the stimuli from one category only were repeated three times. Both hits and false alarms were consistently higher for the repeated than the unrepeated condition, a pattern labelled "concordant" (rather than mirror). This might reflect the either a positive "distribution shift" of the repeated-category lures or a metacognitive strategy. Experiment 3 coupled the same study procedure with two-alternative forced-choice testing (2AFC) to deny the distribution shift explanation. The sorts of strategy that might favour repeated over unrepeated lures are considered. PMID:23170839

Singer, Murray; Fazaluddin, Anjum; Andrew, Kathy N

2013-01-01

137

Evaluating Word Representation Features in Biomedical Named Entity Recognition Tasks  

PubMed Central

Biomedical Named Entity Recognition (BNER), which extracts important entities such as genes and proteins, is a crucial step of natural language processing in the biomedical domain. Various machine learning-based approaches have been applied to BNER tasks and showed good performance. In this paper, we systematically investigated three different types of word representation (WR) features for BNER, including clustering-based representation, distributional representation, and word embeddings. We selected one algorithm from each of the three types of WR features and applied them to the JNLPBA and BioCreAtIvE II BNER tasks. Our results showed that all the three WR algorithms were beneficial to machine learning-based BNER systems. Moreover, combining these different types of WR features further improved BNER performance, indicating that they are complementary to each other. By combining all the three types of WR features, the improvements in F-measure on the BioCreAtIvE II GM and JNLPBA corpora were 3.75% and 1.39%, respectively, when compared with the systems using baseline features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically evaluate the effect of three different types of WR features for BNER tasks. PMID:24729964

Cao, Hongxin; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Xu, Hua

2014-01-01

138

The nature of phoneme representation in spoken word recognition.  

PubMed

Four experiments used the psychological refractory period logic to examine whether integration of multiple sources of phonemic information has a decisional locus. All experiments made use of a dual-task paradigm in which participants made forced-choice color categorization (Task 1) and phoneme categorization (Task 2) decisions at varying stimulus onset asynchronies. In Experiment 1, Task 2 difficulty was manipulated using words containing matching or mismatching coarticulatory cues to the final consonant. The results showed that difficulty and onset asynchrony combined in an underadditive way, suggesting that the phonemic mismatch was resolved prior to a central decisional bottleneck. Similar results were found in Experiment 2 using nonwords. In Experiment 3, the manipulation of task difficulty involved lexical status, which once again revealed an underadditive pattern of response times. Finally, Experiment 4 compared this prebottleneck variable with a decisional variable: response key bias. The latter showed an additive pattern of responses. The experiments show that resolution of phonemic ambiguity can take advantage of cognitive slack time at short asynchronies, indicating that phonemic integration takes place at a relatively early stage of spoken word recognition. PMID:18473660

Gaskell, M Gareth; Quinlan, Philip T; Tamminen, Jakke; Cleland, Alexandra A

2008-05-01

139

Image Super-Resolution for Improved Automatic Target Recognition  

E-print Network

Image Super-Resolution for Improved Automatic Target Recognition Raymond S. Wagnera and Donald Infrared imagers used to acquire data for automatic target recognition are inherently limited by the physical properties of their components. Fortunately, image super-resolution techniques can be applied

140

AUTOMATIC TARGET RECOGNITION BASED ON SIMULTANEOUS SPARSE REPRESENTATION  

E-print Network

orientations. Index Terms-- Automatic Target Recognition, Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) Imagery, Simultaneous on the last two stages. Target recognition using forward-looking in- frared (FLIR) imagery of different ATR algorithms have been proposed for FLIR imagery. In [1], an ATR algorithm for FLIR imagery based

Chellappa, Rama

141

Hardware implementation method for air target recognition and location  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present an air-to-air real-time target recognition and location system. There are three parts in the system: real-time online segmentation and labelling circuit; parallel feature extraction circuit and main board based on TMS32020 digital signal processor. Experimental results show that this system can realize real-time target recognition and location

Furonng Zhao; Yihe Yang; Jianyong Xiang; Weizhen Zhou

1991-01-01

142

Hemispheric asymmetries in word recognition as revealed by the orthographic uniqueness point effect  

PubMed Central

The orthographic uniqueness point (OUP) refers to the first letter of a word that, reading from left to right, makes the word unique. It has recently been proposed that OUPs might be relevant in word recognition and their influence could inform the long-lasting debate of whether – and to what extent – printed words are recognized serially or in parallel. The present study represents the first investigation of the neural and behavioral effects of OUP on visual word recognition. Behaviourally, late OUP words were identified faster and more accurately in a lexical decision task. Analysis of event-related potentials demonstrated a hemispheric asymmetry on the N170 component, with the left hemisphere appearing to be more sensitive to the position of the OUP within a word than the right hemisphere. These results suggest that processing of centrally presented words is likely to occur in a partially parallel manner, as an ends-in scanning process. PMID:24711800

Izura, Cristina; Wright, Victoria C.; Fouquet, Nathalie

2014-01-01

143

Parameter adaptation for target recognition in LADAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms are extremely sensitive to differences between the operating conditions under which they are trained and the extended operating conditions in which the fielded algorithms operate. For ATR algorithms to robustly recognize targets while retaining low false alarm rates, they must be able to identify the conditions under which they are operating and tune their parameters on the fly. In this paper, we present a method for tuning the parameters of a model based ATR algorithm using estimates of the current operating conditions. The problem has two components: 1) identifying the current operating conditions and 2) using that information to tune parameters to improve performance. In this paper, we explore the use of a reinforcement learning technique called tile coding for parameter adaptation. In tile coding, we first define a set of valid states describing the world (the operating conditions of interest, such as the level of obscuration). Next, actions (or parameter settings used by the ATR) are defined that are applied when in that state. Parameter settings for each operating condition are learned using an off-line reinforcement learning feedback loop. The result is a lookup table to select the optimal parameter settings for each operation condition. We present results on real LADAR imagery based on parameter tuning learned off-line using synthetic imagery.

Stevens, Mark R.; Monnier, Camille; Snorrason, Magnus S.

2005-05-01

144

Comparison of crisp and fuzzy character networks in handwritten word recognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments involving handwritten word recognition on words taken from images of handwritten address blocks from the United States Postal Service mailstream are described. The word recognition algorithm relies on the use of neural networks at the character level. The neural networks are trained using crisp and fuzzy desired outputs. The fuzzy outputs were defined using a fuzzy k-nearest neighbor algorithm. The crisp networks slightly outperformed the fuzzy networks at the character level but the fuzzy networks outperformed the crisp networks at the word level.

Gader, Paul; Mohamed, Magdi; Chiang, Jung-Hsien

1992-01-01

145

The Influence of the Phonological Neighborhood Clustering Coefficient on Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clustering coefficient--a measure derived from the new science of networks--refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words "bat", "hat", and "can", all of which are neighbors of the word "cat"; the words "bat" and "hat" are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual…

Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.

2009-01-01

146

Spoken word recognition in English by Japanese listeners: A case of Japanese-accented and unaccented English words  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of acoustic mismatch between a listener's phonological representations and speech input on spoken word recognition was examined with Japanese learners of English. Imai, Flege, and Walley (2003) recently found that native-Spanish listeners showed a larger neighborhood density effect for unaccented English words than Spanish-accented English words, whereas native-English listeners showed a larger neighborhood density effect for Spanish-accented than unaccented words. We hypothesized that phonological mismatches would occur when native-Japanese listeners respond to unaccented English words than Japanese-accented English words. Further, the effect of the mismatch would be expected to be greater for words from dense versus sparse neighborhoods because Yoneyama (2002) found that Japanese listeners showed neighborhood density effect when they listen to Japanese. This paper reports the results of the experiment where native-Japanese listeners were asked to write down English words that were presented in noise. The words differed in neighborhood density; half were Japanese-accented words that were produced by a Japanese learner of English at a beginner level, the other half were unaccented words that were produced by a native-English listener. The results replicated Imai et al.'s (2003) finding.

Yoneyama, Kiyoko

2001-05-01

147

Early decomposition in visual word recognition: Dissociating morphology, form, and meaning  

PubMed Central

The role of morphological, semantic, and form-based factors in the early stages of visual word recognition was investigated across different SOAs in a masked priming paradigm, focusing on English derivational morphology. In a first set of experiments, stimulus pairs co-varying in morphological decomposability and in semantic and orthographic relatedness were presented at three SOAs (36, 48, and 72 ms). No effects of orthographic relatedness were found at any SOA. Semantic relatedness did not interact with effects of morphological decomposability, which came through strongly at all SOAs, even for pseudo-suffixed pairs such as archer-arch. Derivational morphological effects in masked priming seem to be primarily driven by morphological decomposability at an early stage of visual word recognition, and are independent of semantic factors. A second experiment reversed the order of prime and target (stem-derived rather than derived-stem), and again found that morphological priming did not interact with semantic relatedness. This points to an early segmentation process that is driven by morphological decomposability and not by the structure or content of central lexical representations. PMID:18923643

Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Bozic, Mirjana; Randall, Billi

2008-01-01

148

Effects of audio-visual presentation of target words in word translation training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Komaki and Akahane-Yamada (Proc. ICA2004) used 2AFC translation task in vocabulary training, in which the target word is presented visually in orthographic form of one language, and the appropriate meaning in another language has to be chosen between two choices. Present paper examined the effect of audio-visual presentation of target word when native speakers of Japanese learn to translate English words into Japanese. Pairs of English words contrasted in several phonemic distinctions (e.g., /r/-/l/, /b/-/v/, etc.) were used as word materials, and presented in three conditions; visual-only (V), audio-only (A), and audio-visual (AV) presentations. Identification accuracy of those words produced by two talkers was also assessed. During pretest, the accuracy for A stimuli was lowest, implying that insufficient translation ability and listening ability interact with each other when aurally presented word has to be translated. However, there was no difference in accuracy between V and AV stimuli, suggesting that participants translate the words depending on visual information only. The effect of translation training using AV stimuli did not transfer to identification ability, showing that additional audio information during translation does not help improve speech perception. Further examination is necessary to determine the effective L2 training method. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.

Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Komaki, Ryo; Kubo, Rieko

2001-05-01

149

Automatic target recognition apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An automatic target recognition apparatus (10) is provided, having a video camera/digitizer (12) for producing a digitized image signal (20) representing an image containing therein objects which objects are to be recognized if they meet predefined criteria. The digitized image signal (20) is processed within a video analysis subroutine (22) residing in a computer (14) in a plurality of parallel analysis chains such that the objects are presumed to be lighter in shading than the background in the image in three of the chains and further such that the objects are presumed to be darker than the background in the other three chains. In two of the chains the objects are defined by surface texture analysis using texture filter operations. In another two of the chains the objects are defined by background subtraction operations. In yet another two of the chains the objects are defined by edge enhancement processes. In each of the analysis chains a calculation operation independently determines an error factor relating to the probability that the objects are of the type which should be recognized, and a probability calculation operation combines the results of the analysis chains.

Baumgart, Chris W. (Santa Fe, NM); Ciarcia, Christopher A. (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01

150

Visual Discrimination: Implications for Reading Readiness and Word Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted with children to determine the units of word perception used in recognizing isolated words. In the first experiment, kindergarten children practiced visually discriminating whole words (big, pig, dig), single letters (b, p, d), or geometric forms (triangle, circle, square) before learning to read three words (big,…

Santa, Carol M.

151

The Visual Word Recognition and Orthography Depth in Second Language Acquisition   

E-print Network

The study investigated whether the orthographic depth of first language (L1) affects the word recognition in second language (L2) learning. Fifteen native Chinese speakers and fifteen Greek native speakers were recruited ...

Chao, Yunchun

2011-10-01

152

Gaze Position Reveals Impaired Attentional Shift during Visual Word Recognition in Dysfluent Readers  

PubMed Central

Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level. PMID:25268909

Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

2014-01-01

153

Speaker-independent isolated word recognition using dynamic features of speech spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new isolated word recognition technique based on a combination of instantaneous and dynamic features of the speech spectrum. This technique is shown to be highly effective in speaker-independent speech recognition. Spoken utterances are represented by time sequences of cepstrum coefficients and energy. Regression coefficients for these time functions are extracted for every frame over an approximately

S. Furui

1986-01-01

154

MODELING CHARACTERS VERSUS WORDS FOR MANDARIN SPEECH RECOGNITION Jun Luo, Lori Lamel, Jean-Luc Gauvain  

E-print Network

MODELING CHARACTERS VERSUS WORDS FOR MANDARIN SPEECH RECOGNITION Jun Luo, Lori Lamel, Jean-based model warrants being for the Mandarin Chinese language. Since Chinese is written without any spaces Mandarin speech-to-text task. Index Terms: Speech recognition, language modeling, Mandarin Chinese, speech

155

Visual Word based Location Recognition in 3D models using Distance Augmented Weighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

For visual word based location recognition in 3D mod- els we propose a novel distance-weighted scoring scheme. Matching visual words are not treated as perfect matches anymore but are weighted with the distance of the origi- nal SIFT feature vectors before quantization. To maintain the scalability and efficiency of vocabulary tree based ap- proaches PCA compressed SIFT feature vectors are

Friedrich Fraundorfer; Changchang Wu; Jan-Michael Frahm; Marc Pollefeys

2008-01-01

156

Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words

Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

2006-01-01

157

Preference and Processing: The Role of Speech Affect in Early Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants prefer to listen to happy speech. To assess influences of speech affect on early lexical processing, 7.5- and 10.5-month-old infants were familiarized with one word spoken with happy affect and another with neutral affect and then tested on recognition of these words in fluent passages. Infants heard all passages either with happy affect…

Singh, Leher; Morgan, James L.; White, Katherine S.

2004-01-01

158

Is Syntactic-Category Processing Obligatory in Visual Word Recognition? Evidence from Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments were conducted to investigate how syntactic-category and semantic information is processed in visual word recognition. The stimuli were two-character Chinese words in which semantic and syntactic-category ambiguities were factorially manipulated. A lexical decision task was employed in Experiment 1, whereas a semantic relatedness…

Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

2012-01-01

159

Re-Evaluating Split-Fovea Processing in Word Recognition: A Critical Assessment of Recent Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, some researchers have proposed that a fundamental component of the word recognition process is that each fovea is divided precisely at its vertical midline and that information either side of this midline projects to different, contralateral hemispheres. Thus, when a word is fixated, all letters to the left of the point of…

Jordan, Timothy R.; Paterson, Kevin B.

2009-01-01

160

The Temporal Dynamics of Ambiguity Resolution: Evidence from Spoken-Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the dynamics of lexical activation in spoken-word recognition. In both, the key materials were pairs of onset-matched picturable nouns varying in frequency. Pictures associated with these words, plus two distractor pictures were displayed. A gating task, in which participants identified the picture associated with…

Dahan, Delphine; Gaskell, M. Gareth

2007-01-01

161

Age-of-Acquisition Effects in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from Expert Vocabularies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments assessed the contributions of age-of-acquisition (AoA) and frequency to visual word recognition. Three databases were created from electronic journals in chemistry, psychology and geology in order to identify technical words that are extremely frequent in each discipline but acquired late in life. In Experiment 1, psychologists…

Stadthagen-Gonzalez, Hans; Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Damian, Markus F.

2004-01-01

162

Pose independent target recognition system using pulsed Ladar imagery  

E-print Network

Although a number of object recognition techniques have been developed to process LADAR scanned terrain scenes, these techniques have had limited success in target discrimination in part due to low-resolution data and ...

Vasile, Alexandru N. (Alexandru Nicolae), 1980-

2004-01-01

163

A comparison of time conditioned and word conditioned search techniques for large vocabulary speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we compare the search effort of the word conditioned and the time conditioned tree search methods. Both methods are based on a time-synchronous, left-to-right beam search using a tree- organized lexicon. Whereas the word conditioned method is well known and widely used, the time conditioned method is novel in the context of -word vocabulary recognition. We extend

Stefan Ortmanns; Hermann Ney; Frank Seide; I. Lindam

1996-01-01

164

Recognition without Identification for Words, Pseudowords and Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments examined whether the representations underlying recognition memory familiarity can be episodic in nature. Recognition without identification [Cleary, A. M., & Greene, R. L. (2000). Recognition without identification. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 26, 1063-1069; Peynircioglu, Z. F. (1990).…

Arndt, Jason; Lee, Karen; Flora, David B.

2008-01-01

165

A Novel Word Based Arabic Handwritten Recognition System Using SVM Classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every language script has its structure, characteristic, and feature. Character based word recognition depends on the feature available to be extracted from character. Word based script recognition overcome the problem of character segmenting and can be applied for several languages (Arabic, Urdu, Farsi... est.). In this paper Arabic handwritten is classified as word based system. Firstly, words segmented and normalized in size to fit the DCT input. Then extract feature characteristic by computing the Euclidean distance between pairs of objects in n-by-m data matrix X. Based on the point's operator of extrema, feature was extracted. Then apply one to one-Class Support Vector Machines (SVMs) as a discriminative framework in order to address feature classification. The approach was tested with several public databases and we get high efficiency rate recognition.

Khalifa, Mahmoud; Bingru, Yang

166

Distributional structure in language: contributions to noun-verb difficulty differences in infant word recognition.  

PubMed

What makes some words easy for infants to recognize, and other words difficult? We addressed this issue in the context of prior results suggesting that infants have difficulty recognizing verbs relative to nouns. In this work, we highlight the role played by the distributional contexts in which nouns and verbs occur. Distributional statistics predict that English nouns should generally be easier to recognize than verbs in fluent speech. However, there are situations in which distributional statistics provide similar support for verbs. The statistics for verbs that occur with the English morpheme -ing, for example, should facilitate verb recognition. In two experiments with 7.5- and 9.5-month-old infants, we tested the importance of distributional statistics for word recognition by varying the frequency of the contextual frames in which verbs occur. The results support the conclusion that distributional statistics are utilized by infant language learners and contribute to noun-verb differences in word recognition. PMID:24908342

Willits, Jon A; Seidenberg, Mark S; Saffran, Jenny R

2014-09-01

167

Distributional structure in language: Contributions to noun–verb difficulty differences in infant word recognition  

PubMed Central

What makes some words easy for infants to recognize, and other words difficult? We addressed this issue in the context of prior results suggesting that infants have difficulty recognizing verbs relative to nouns. In this work, we highlight the role played by the distributional contexts in which nouns and verbs occur. Distributional statistics predict that English nouns should generally be easier to recognize than verbs in fluent speech. However, there are situations in which distributional statistics provide similar support for verbs. The statistics for verbs that occur with the English morpheme –ing, for example, should facilitate verb recognition. In two experiments with 7.5- and 9.5-month-old infants, we tested the importance of distributional statistics for word recognition by varying the frequency of the contextual frames in which verbs occur. The results support the conclusion that distributional statistics are utilized by infant language learners and contribute to noun–verb differences in word recognition. PMID:24908342

Willits, Jon A.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Saffran, Jenny R.

2014-01-01

168

Children with ASD can use gaze in support of word recognition and learning  

PubMed Central

Background Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) struggle to understand familiar words and learn unfamiliar words. We explored the extent to which these problems reflect deficient use of probabilistic gaze in the extra-linguistic context. Method Thirty children with ASD and 43 with typical development (TD) participated in a spoken word recognition and mapping task. They viewed photographs of a woman behind three objects and simultaneously heard a word. For word recognition, the objects and words were familiar and the woman gazed ahead (neutral), toward the named object (facilitative), or toward an un-named object (contradictory). For word mapping, the objects and words were unfamiliar and only the neutral and facilitative conditions were employed. The children clicked on the named object, registering accuracy and reaction time. Results Speed of word recognition did not differ between groups but varied with gaze such that responses were fastest in the facilitative condition and slowest in the contradictory condition. Only the ASD group responded slower to low frequency than high-frequency words. Accuracy of word mapping did not differ between groups, but accuracy varied with gaze with higher performance in the facilitative than neutral condition. Both groups scored above single-trial chance levels in the neutral condition by tracking cross-situational information. Only in the ASD group did mapping vary with receptive vocabulary. Conclusions Under laboratory conditions, children with ASD can monitor gaze and judge its reliability as a cue to word meaning as well as typical peers. The use of cross-situational statistics to support word learning may be problematic for those who have weak language abilities. PMID:23574387

McGregor, Karla K.; Rost, Gwyneth; Arenas, Rick; Farris-Trimble, Ashley; Stiles, Derek

2014-01-01

169

Context affects L1 but not L2 during bilingual word recognition: An MEG study.  

PubMed

How do bilinguals manage the activation levels of the two languages and prevent interference from the irrelevant language? Using magnetoencephalography, we studied the effect of context on the activation levels of languages by manipulating the composition of word lists (the probability of the languages) presented auditorily to late Finnish-English bilinguals. We first determined the upper limit time-window for semantic access, and then focused on the preceding responses during which the actual word recognition processes were assumedly ongoing. Between 300 and 500ms in the temporal cortices (in the N400m response) we found an asymmetric language switching effect: the responses to L1 Finnish words were affected by the presentation context unlike the responses to L2 English words. This finding suggests that the stronger language is suppressed in an L2 context, supporting models that allow auditory word recognition to be affected by contextual factors and the language system to be subject to inhibitory influence. PMID:25656318

Pellikka, Janne; Helenius, Päivi; Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Lehtonen, Minna

2015-03-01

170

Recognition memory for 2,578 monosyllabic words  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two studies, participants studied 30 lists of 50 words and were tested on 30 lists of 100 words. Item-level multiple regression analyses were conducted on hits, false alarms, hits minus false alarms, d?, and C. The predictor variables were objective frequency, subjective frequency, imageability, orthographic similarity, phonological similarity, phonological-to-orthographic N (PON), age of acquisition (AoA), and word length. The

Michael J. Cortese; Maya M. Khanna; Sarah Hacker

2010-01-01

171

Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

Zheng, Yufeng

2014-12-23

172

Target Recognition Using Neural Networks for Model Deformation Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical measurements provide a non-invasive method for measuring deformation of wind tunnel models. Model deformation systems use targets mounted or painted on the surface of the model to identify known positions, and photogrammetric methods are used to calculate 3-D positions of the targets on the model from digital 2-D images. Under ideal conditions, the reflective targets are placed against a dark background and provide high-contrast images, aiding in target recognition. However, glints of light reflecting from the model surface, or reduced contrast caused by light source or model smoothness constraints, can compromise accurate target determination using current algorithmic methods. This paper describes a technique using a neural network and image processing technologies which increases the reliability of target recognition systems. Unlike algorithmic methods, the neural network can be trained to identify the characteristic patterns that distinguish targets from other objects of similar size and appearance and can adapt to changes in lighting and environmental conditions.

Ross, Richard W.; Hibler, David L.

1999-01-01

173

Children's Spoken Word Recognition and Contributions to Phonological Awareness and Nonword Repetition: A 1-Year Follow-Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of lexical factors on children's spoken word recognition across a 1-year time span, and contributions to phonological awareness and nonword repetition. Across the year, children identified words based on less input on a speech-gating task. For word repetition, older children improved for the most familiar words. There…

Metsala, Jamie L.; Stavrinos, Despina; Walley, Amanda C.

2009-01-01

174

Evidence for the Activation of Sensorimotor Information during Visual Word Recognition: The Body-Object Interaction Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the effects of sensorimotor experience in two visual word recognition tasks. Body-object interaction (BOI) ratings were collected for a large set of words. These ratings assess perceptions of the ease with which a human body can physically interact with a word's referent. A set of high BOI words (e.g., "mask") and a set of low BOI…

Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.; Aguilera, Laura; Owen, William J.; Sears, Christopher R.

2008-01-01

175

Individual Differences in Visual Word Recognition: Insights from the English Lexicon Project  

PubMed Central

Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences between individuals who contributed to the English Lexicon Project (http://elexicon.wustl.edu), an online behavioral database containing nearly four million word recognition (speeded pronunciation and lexical decision) trials from over 1,200 participants. We observed considerable within- and between-session reliability across distinct sets of items, in terms of overall mean response time (RT), RT distributional characteristics, diffusion model parameters (Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, 2004), and sensitivity to underlying lexical dimensions. This indicates reliably detectable individual differences in word recognition performance. In addition, higher vocabulary knowledge was associated with faster, more accurate word recognition performance, attenuated sensitivity to stimuli characteristics, and more efficient accumulation of information. Finally, in contrast to suggestions in the literature, we did not find evidence that individuals were trading-off in their utilization of lexical and nonlexical information. PMID:21728459

Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Ratcliff, Roger

2011-01-01

176

Automatic target recognition organized via jump-diffusion algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a framework for simultaneous detection, tracking, and recognition of objects via data fused from multiple sensors. Complex dynamic scenes are represented via the concatenation of simple rigid templates. The variability of the infinity of pose is accommodated via the actions of matrix Lie groups extending the templates to individual instances. The variability of target number and target identity is

Michael I. Miller; Ulf Grenander; Joseph A. O'sullivan; Donald L. Snyder

1997-01-01

177

Effects of pair collaboration and word-frequency in recognition memory: a study with the remember-know procedure.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effects of pair collaboration and word-frequency on recognition memory, using the "remember-know" procedure. The aim was to test the predictions of the information-exchange hypothesis (Clark, Hori, Putnam & Martin, 2000), which states that collaborative facilitation occurs when participants are able to share their recollective memories with other members of the group. Results showed that recognition performance was significantly better in the collaborative than in the individual condition, and better for low-frequency than for high-frequency words. The advantage of collaborating dyads was produced by an increase of correct hits, coupled with a significant reduction of false alarms. Furthermore, the analysis of the "remember" (R) and "know" (K) responses indicated that the effects of both pair collaboration and word-frequency were larger on recollection than on familiarity processes. It is concluded that, in a collaborative condition, arguments based on the retrieval of the contextual details associated with the target words are more effective than those based on familiarity in increasing the proportions of correct hits. In addition, it is proposed that collaboration may lead to a reduction of the probability to accept new items on the basis of familiarity (K) responses. PMID:21923647

Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Pieroni, Laura; Spataro, Pietro; Cestari, Vincenzo

2011-12-01

178

Hemispheric Differences in Bilingual Word and Language Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The linguistic role of the right hemisphere in bilingual language processing was examined. Ten right-handed Spanish-English bilinguals were tachistoscopically presented with mixed lists of Spanish and English words to either the right or left visual field and asked to identify the language and the word presented. Five of the subjects identified…

Roberts, William T.; And Others

179

Reading Front to Back: MEG Evidence for Early Feedback Effects During Word Recognition  

PubMed Central

Magnetoencephalography studies in humans have shown word-selective activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) approximately 130 ms after word presentation ( Pammer et al. 2004; Cornelissen et al. 2009; Wheat et al. 2010). The role of this early frontal response is currently not known. We tested the hypothesis that the IFG provides top-down constraints on word recognition using dynamic causal modeling of magnetoencephalography data collected, while subjects viewed written words and false font stimuli. Subject-specific dipoles in left and right occipital, ventral occipitotemporal and frontal cortices were identified using Variational Bayesian Equivalent Current Dipole source reconstruction. A connectivity analysis tested how words and false font stimuli differentially modulated activity between these regions within the first 300 ms after stimulus presentation. We found that left inferior frontal activity showed stronger sensitivity to words than false font and a stronger feedback connection onto the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) in the first 200 ms. Subsequently, the effect of words relative to false font was observed on feedforward connections from left occipital to ventral occipitotemporal and frontal regions. These findings demonstrate that left inferior frontal activity modulates vOT in the early stages of word processing and provides a mechanistic account of top-down effects during word recognition. PMID:23172772

Woodhead, Z.V.J.; Barnes, G.R.; Penny, W.; Moran, R.; Teki, S.; Price, C.J.; Leff, A.P.

2014-01-01

180

Reading front to back: MEG evidence for early feedback effects during word recognition.  

PubMed

Magnetoencephalography studies in humans have shown word-selective activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) approximately 130 ms after word presentation ( Pammer et al. 2004; Cornelissen et al. 2009; Wheat et al. 2010). The role of this early frontal response is currently not known. We tested the hypothesis that the IFG provides top-down constraints on word recognition using dynamic causal modeling of magnetoencephalography data collected, while subjects viewed written words and false font stimuli. Subject-specific dipoles in left and right occipital, ventral occipitotemporal and frontal cortices were identified using Variational Bayesian Equivalent Current Dipole source reconstruction. A connectivity analysis tested how words and false font stimuli differentially modulated activity between these regions within the first 300 ms after stimulus presentation. We found that left inferior frontal activity showed stronger sensitivity to words than false font and a stronger feedback connection onto the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) in the first 200 ms. Subsequently, the effect of words relative to false font was observed on feedforward connections from left occipital to ventral occipitotemporal and frontal regions. These findings demonstrate that left inferior frontal activity modulates vOT in the early stages of word processing and provides a mechanistic account of top-down effects during word recognition. PMID:23172772

Woodhead, Z V J; Barnes, G R; Penny, W; Moran, R; Teki, S; Price, C J; Leff, A P

2014-03-01

181

Recognition Memory for Braille or Spoken Words: An fMRI study in Early Blind  

PubMed Central

We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5 yrs. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied (“old”) compared to novel (“new”) words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified “new” words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken “new” words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with “old”/“new” recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to “old” words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to “new” Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for “new” words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering “old” words. A larger response when identifying “new” words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of “old” words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a “sensory echo” that aids recollection. PMID:22251836

Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J.; Agato, Alvin

2012-01-01

182

Kernel generalized neighbor discriminant embedding for SAR automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new supervised feature extraction algorithm in synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition (SAR ATR), called generalized neighbor discriminant embedding (GNDE). Based on manifold learning, GNDE integrates class and neighborhood information to enhance discriminative power of extracted feature. Besides, the kernelized counterpart of this algorithm is also proposed, called kernel-GNDE (KGNDE). The experiment in this paper shows that the proposed algorithms have better recognition performance than PCA and KPCA.

Huang, Yulin; Pei, Jifang; Yang, Jianyu; Wang, Tao; Yang, Haiguang; Wang, Bing

2014-12-01

183

Decomposition, lookup, and recombination: MEG evidence for the Full Decomposition model of complex visual word recognition.  

PubMed

There is much evidence that visual recognition of morphologically complex words (e.g., teacher) proceeds via a decompositional route, first involving recognition of their component morphemes (teach+-er). According to the Full Decomposition model, after the visual decomposition stage, followed by morpheme lookup, there is a final "recombination" stage, in which the decomposed morphemes are combined and the well-formedness of the complex form is evaluated. Here, we use MEG to provide evidence for the temporally-differentiated stages of this model. First, we demonstrate an early effect of derivational family entropy, corresponding to the stem lookup stage; this is followed by a surface frequency effect, corresponding to the later recombination stage. We also demonstrate a late effect of a novel statistical measure, semantic coherence, which quantifies the gradient semantic well-formedness of complex words. Our findings illustrate the usefulness of corpus measures in investigating the component processes within visual word recognition. PMID:25797098

Fruchter, Joseph; Marantz, Alec

2015-04-01

184

Reading component skills in dyslexia: word recognition, comprehension and processing speed  

PubMed Central

The cognitive model of reading comprehension (RC) posits that RC is a result of the interaction between decoding and linguistic comprehension. Recently, the notion of decoding skill was expanded to include word recognition. In addition, some studies suggest that other skills could be integrated into this model, like processing speed, and have consistently indicated that this skill influences and is an important predictor of the main components of the model, such as vocabulary for comprehension and phonological awareness of word recognition. The following study evaluated the components of the RC model and predictive skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. 40 children and adolescents (8–13 years) were divided in a Dyslexic Group (DG; 18 children, MA = 10.78, SD = 1.66) and control group (CG 22 children, MA = 10.59, SD = 1.86). All were students from the 2nd to 8th grade of elementary school and groups were equivalent in school grade, age, gender, and IQ. Oral and RC, word recognition, processing speed, picture naming, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were assessed. There were no group differences regarding the accuracy in oral and RC, phonological awareness, naming, and vocabulary scores. DG performed worse than the CG in word recognition (general score and orthographic confusion items) and were slower in naming. Results corroborated the literature regarding word recognition and processing speed deficits in dyslexia. However, dyslexics can achieve normal scores on RC test. Data supports the importance of delimitation of different reading strategies embedded in the word recognition component. The role of processing speed in reading problems remain unclear. PMID:25506331

de Oliveira, Darlene G.; da Silva, Patrícia B.; Dias, Natália M.; Seabra, Alessandra G.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

2014-01-01

185

Reading component skills in dyslexia: word recognition, comprehension and processing speed.  

PubMed

The cognitive model of reading comprehension (RC) posits that RC is a result of the interaction between decoding and linguistic comprehension. Recently, the notion of decoding skill was expanded to include word recognition. In addition, some studies suggest that other skills could be integrated into this model, like processing speed, and have consistently indicated that this skill influences and is an important predictor of the main components of the model, such as vocabulary for comprehension and phonological awareness of word recognition. The following study evaluated the components of the RC model and predictive skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. 40 children and adolescents (8-13 years) were divided in a Dyslexic Group (DG; 18 children, MA = 10.78, SD = 1.66) and control group (CG 22 children, MA = 10.59, SD = 1.86). All were students from the 2nd to 8th grade of elementary school and groups were equivalent in school grade, age, gender, and IQ. Oral and RC, word recognition, processing speed, picture naming, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were assessed. There were no group differences regarding the accuracy in oral and RC, phonological awareness, naming, and vocabulary scores. DG performed worse than the CG in word recognition (general score and orthographic confusion items) and were slower in naming. Results corroborated the literature regarding word recognition and processing speed deficits in dyslexia. However, dyslexics can achieve normal scores on RC test. Data supports the importance of delimitation of different reading strategies embedded in the word recognition component. The role of processing speed in reading problems remain unclear. PMID:25506331

de Oliveira, Darlene G; da Silva, Patrícia B; Dias, Natália M; Seabra, Alessandra G; Macedo, Elizeu C

2014-01-01

186

Composite Wavelet Filters for Enhanced Automated Target Recognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated Target Recognition (ATR) systems aim to automate target detection, recognition, and tracking. The current project applies a JPL ATR system to low-resolution sonar and camera videos taken from unmanned vehicles. These sonar images are inherently noisy and difficult to interpret, and pictures taken underwater are unreliable due to murkiness and inconsistent lighting. The ATR system breaks target recognition into three stages: 1) Videos of both sonar and camera footage are broken into frames and preprocessed to enhance images and detect Regions of Interest (ROIs). 2) Features are extracted from these ROIs in preparation for classification. 3) ROIs are classified as true or false positives using a standard Neural Network based on the extracted features. Several preprocessing, feature extraction, and training methods are tested and discussed in this paper.

Chiang, Jeffrey N.; Zhang, Yuhan; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

2012-01-01

187

SAR target recognition based on improved joint sparse representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a SAR target recognition method is proposed based on the improved joint sparse representation (IJSR) model. The IJSR model can effectively combine multiple-view SAR images from the same physical target to improve the recognition performance. The classification process contains two stages. Convex relaxation is used to obtain support sample candidates with the ? 1-norm minimization in the first stage. The low-rank matrix recovery strategy is introduced to explore the final support samples and its corresponding sparse representation coefficient matrix in the second stage. Finally, with the minimal reconstruction residual strategy, we can make the SAR target classification. The experimental results on the MSTAR database show the recognition performance outperforms state-of-the-art methods, such as the joint sparse representation classification (JSRC) method and the sparse representation classification (SRC) method.

Cheng, Jian; Li, Lan; Li, Hongsheng; Wang, Feng

2014-12-01

188

Dualband FLIR fusion for automatic target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the potential benefits of fusing two bands of forward-looking infrared (FLIR) data for target detection and clutter rejection. We propose a similar set of neural-based clutter rejecters and target detectors, each of which consists of an eigenspace transformation and a simple multilayer perceptron. The same architecture is used to operate on either single band or dualband FLIR input

Lipchen Alex Chan; Sandor Z. Der; Nasser M. Nasrabadi

2003-01-01

189

Bayesian recognition of targets by parts in second generation forward looking infrared images  

E-print Network

of targets in second generation forward looking infrared images (FLIR). The recognition of targets is based into its parts and results obtained for target recognition in second generation FLIR images are also

Aggarwal, J. K.

190

Random Word Recognition Chart Helps Scotoma Assessment in Low Vision  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate the use of SKread, a vision test based on random word sequences that prevents the prediction of upcoming words by linguistic criteria and is simple to score in a clinical setting. Methods SKread combines the standardized format of the MNread test with sequences of random words and letters like the Pepper Visual Skills for Reading test. A total of 231 subjects (aged 16 to 97 years) participated. We report data from 136 eyes of subjects with a maculopathy and 65 with normal or near-normal vision. Test reliability was investigated on an additional 30 eye-healthy subjects. We tested visual acuity and reading performance for continuous text and random words monocularly. Reading speed and all errors made are reported. Results Reading speed was always higher for continuous text than for random word sequences, even in normally sighted subjects for whom the median reading times per paragraph were 2.4 s (MNread) vs. 6.8 s (SKread). In patients with maculopathies, the medians were 4.2 s vs. 12.25 s. These differences were statistically significant. Number and type of errors made depended only negligibly on age and visual acuity. Patients with a dense scotoma right of fixation made more “right errors” by missing letters at the end of words, whereas those with a scotoma left of fixation made more “left errors” by missing letters at the beginning of words. The SKread test showed good test-retest repeatability. Conclusions The unpredictability of random word and letter sequences renders reading performance highly dependent on eyesight and less dependent on reading skill and educational level. Recurrent right or left errors can indicate the presence and location of a scotoma without expensive equipment. This knowledge can be used to teach patients about how the scotoma can interfere with their vision.

MacKeben, Manfred; Nair, Unni K.W.; Walker, Laura L.; Fletcher, Donald C.

2015-01-01

191

Acquisition of Malay word recognition skills: lessons from low-progress early readers.  

PubMed

Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both syllable awareness and phoneme blending were significant predictors of word recognition, suggesting that both syllable and phonemic grain-sizes are important in Malay word recognition. Item analysis revealed a hierarchical pattern of difficulty based on the syllable and the phonic structure of the words. Error analysis identified the sources of errors to be errors due to inefficient syllable segmentation, oversimplification of syllables, insufficient grapheme-phoneme knowledge and inefficient phonemic code assembly. Evidence also suggests that direct instruction in syllable segmentation, phonemic awareness and grapheme-phoneme correspondence is necessary for low-progress readers to acquire word recognition skills. Finally, a logical sequence to teach grapheme-phoneme decoding in Malay is suggested. PMID:21241030

Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin

2011-02-01

192

The DARPA 1000-word resource management database for continuous speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A database of continuous read speech has been designed and recorded within the DARPA strategic computing speech recognition program. The data is intended for use in designing and evaluating algorithms for speaker-independent, speaker-adaptive and speaker-dependent speech recognition. The data consists of read sentences appropriate to a naval resource management task built around existing interactive database and graphics programs. The 1000-word

Patti Price; William M. Fisher; Jared Bernstein; D. S. Pallett

1988-01-01

193

Finding words in alphabet soup: Inference on freeform character recognition for historical scripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops word recognition methods for historical handwritten cursive and printed documents. It employs a powerful segmentation-free letter detection method based upon joint boosting with histogram-of-gradients features. Ecient inference on an ensemble of hidden Markov models can select the most probable se- quence of candidate character detections to recognize complete words in ambiguous handwritten text, drawing on character n-gram

Nicholas R. Howe; Shaolei Feng; R. Manmatha

2009-01-01

194

Reevaluating split-fovea processing in word recognition: hemispheric dominance, retinal location, and the word-nonword effect.  

PubMed

Many studies have claimed that hemispheric projections are split precisely at the foveal midline and so hemispheric asymmetry affects word recognition right up to the point of fixation. To investigate this claim, four-letter words and nonwords were presented to the left or right of fixation, either close to fixation in foveal vision or farther from fixation in extrafoveal vision. Presentation accuracy was controlled using an eyetracker linked to a fixation-contingent display. Words presented foveally produced identical performance on each side of fixation, but words presented extrafoveally showed a clear left-hemisphere (LH) advantage. Nonwords produced no evidence of hemispheric asymmetry in any location. Foveal stimuli also produced an identical word-nonword effect on each side of fixation, whereas extrafoveal stimuli produced a word-nonword effect only for LH (not right-hemisphere) displays. These findings indicate that functional unilateral projections to contralateral hemispheres exist in extrafoveal locations but provide no evidence of a functional division in hemispheric processing at fixation. PMID:19246332

Jordan, Timothy R; Paterson, Kevin B; Kurtev, Stoyan

2009-03-01

195

Reassessing word frequency as a determinant of word recognition for skilled and unskilled readers  

PubMed Central

The importance of vocabulary in reading comprehension emphasizes the need to accurately assess an individual’s familiarity with words. The present article highlights problems with using occurrence counts in corpora as an index of word familiarity, especially when studying individuals varying in reading experience. We demonstrate via computational simulations and norming studies that corpus-based word frequencies systematically overestimate strengths of word representations, especially in the low-frequency range and in smaller-size vocabularies. Experience-driven differences in word familiarity prove to be faithfully captured by the subjective frequency ratings collected from responders at different experience levels. When matched on those levels, this lexical measure explains more variance than corpus-based frequencies in eye-movement and lexical decision latencies to English words, attested in populations with varied reading experience and skill. Furthermore, the use of subjective frequencies removes the widely reported (corpus) frequency-by-skill interaction, showing that more skilled readers are equally faster in processing any word than the less skilled readers, not disproportionally faster in processing lower-frequency words. This finding challenges the view that the more skilled an individual is in generic mechanisms of word processing the less reliant he/she will be on the actual lexical characteristics of that word. PMID:23339352

Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.

2013-01-01

196

Hybrid Off-Line Cursive Handwriting Word Recognition B. Gatos, I. Pratikakis and S.J. Perantonis  

E-print Network

Hybrid Off-Line Cursive Handwriting Word Recognition B. Gatos, I. Pratikakis and S.J. Perantonis,ipratika,sper}@iit.demokritos.gr Abstract In this paper, we present an off-line cursive word handwriting recognition methodology testing with the reference IAM cursive handwriting database. 1. Introduction Off-line cursive handwriting

Gatos, Basilios

197

Efficient Off-Line Cursive Handwriting Word Recognition B. Gatos, I. Pratikakis, A.L. Kesidis, S.J. Perantonis  

E-print Network

Efficient Off-Line Cursive Handwriting Word Recognition B. Gatos, I. Pratikakis, A.L. Kesidis, S word handwriting recognition methodology. This is based on a novel combination of two different modes of the proposed methodology is demonstrated after testing with the reference IAM cursive handwriting database

Gatos, Basilios

198

A window of perception when diverting attention? Enhancing recognition for explicitly presented, unattended, and irrelevant stimuli by target alignment.  

PubMed

Research has demonstrated that irrelevant suprathreshold motion stimuli that are aligned with attended targets in a separate task, fail to illicit inhibitory control in a subsequent motion direction discrimination task (Tsushima, Seitz, & Watanabe, 2008). We extended these findings to conditions involving higher exposure levels to a more salient stimulus (written words) in an inattentional blindness paradigm. Across three experiments, participants were required to respond to immediate picture repetitions in a stream of serially presented line drawings, while at the same time ignore a simultaneously presented stream of superimposed words. Immediately following, a surprise test was given that measured recognition for the unattended words. Words that had appeared simultaneously with a repeated picture in the repetition detection task were not inhibited, but instead recognized significantly more often than words that had appeared with nonrepeating pictures. These findings support the notion that when attention is taxed, recognition for target-aligned task-irrelevant semantic items can be enhanced in a subsequent recognition task. This indicates a learning effect for frequently exposed, high-level irrelevant-stimuli that were temporally aligned with a relevant item in a separate task. PMID:23276115

Dewald, Andrew D; Sinnett, Scott; Doumas, Leonidas A A

2013-10-01

199

Cascaded automatic target recognition (Cascaded ATR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global war on terror has plunged US and coalition forces into a battle space requiring the continuous adaptation of tactics and technologies to cope with an elusive enemy. As a result, technologies that enhance the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) mission making the warfighter more effective are experiencing increased interest. In this paper we show how a new generation of smart cameras built around foveated sensing makes possible a powerful ISR technique termed Cascaded ATR. Foveated sensing is an innovative optical concept in which a single aperture captures two distinct fields of view. In Cascaded ATR, foveated sensing is used to provide a coarse resolution, persistent surveillance, wide field of view (WFOV) detector to accomplish detection level perception. At the same time, within the foveated sensor, these detection locations are passed as a cue to a steerable, high fidelity, narrow field of view (NFOV) detector to perform recognition level perception. Two new ISR mission scenarios, utilizing Cascaded ATR, are proposed.

Walls, Bradley

2010-04-01

200

Handwritten word recognition with character and inter-character neural networks.  

PubMed

An off-line handwritten word recognition system is described. Images of handwritten words are matched to lexicons of candidate strings. A word image is segmented into primitives. The best match between sequences of unions of primitives and a lexicon string is found using dynamic programming. Neural networks assign match scores between characters and segments. Two particularly unique features are that neural networks assign confidence that pairs of segments are compatible with character confidence assignments and that this confidence is integrated into the dynamic programming. Experimental results are provided on data from the U.S. Postal Service. PMID:18255853

Gader, P D; Mohamed, M; Chiang, J H

1997-01-01

201

An ERP investigation of the co-development of hemispheric lateralization of face and word recognition.  

PubMed

The adult human brain would appear to have specialized and independent neural systems for the visual processing of words and faces. Extensive evidence has demonstrated greater selectivity for written words in the left over right hemisphere, and, conversely, greater selectivity for faces in the right over left hemisphere. This study examines the emergence of these complementary neural profiles, as well as the possible relationship between them. Using behavioral and neurophysiological measures, in adults, we observed the standard finding of greater accuracy and a larger N170 ERP component in the left over right hemisphere for words, and conversely, greater accuracy and a larger N170 in the right over the left hemisphere for faces. We also found that although children aged 7-12 years revealed the adult hemispheric pattern for words, they showed neither a behavioral nor a neural hemispheric superiority for faces. Of particular interest, the magnitude of their N170 for faces in the right hemisphere was related to that of the N170 for words in their left hemisphere. These findings suggest that the hemispheric organization of face recognition and of word recognition does not develop independently, and that word lateralization may precede and drive later face lateralization. A theoretical account for the findings, in which competition for visual representations unfolds over the course of development, is discussed. PMID:24933662

Dundas, Eva M; Plaut, David C; Behrmann, Marlene

2014-08-01

202

Lexical Representation of Phonological Variation in Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been a number of mechanisms proposed to account for recognition of phonological variation in spoken language. Five of these mechanisms were considered here, including underspecification, inference, feature parsing, tolerance, and a frequency-based representational account. A corpus analysis and five experiments using the nasal flap…

Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

203

Piecewise Linear Approach: a New Approach in Automatic Target Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) of moving targets has recently received increased interest . High Range Resolution (HRR) radar mode provides a promising approach which relies on processing high-resolution 'range profiles' over multiple look angles. To achieve a robust, reliable 1 and cost effective approach for HRR-ATR, a model-based approach is investigated in this paper. A subset of the Moving and

Janusz Starzyk

204

Extraction of Hand Features for Recognition of Sign Language Words  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method to obtain hand features from sequences of images, where a person is performing the Japanese Sign Language (JSL) in a complex background and to recognize the JSL word. At the first frame, we find a person's region, and then search for a face, hands in order to determine a range of skin color and search

Nobuhiko Tanibata; Nobutaka Shimada; Yoshiaki Shirai

2002-01-01

205

Word Learning under Adverse Listening Conditions: Context-Specific Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies of word learning have presented the items to listeners under ideal conditions. Here we ask how listeners learn new vocabulary items under adverse listening conditions. Would listeners form acoustically-specific representations that incorporated the noise, base their representations on noise-free language knowledge, or both? To…

Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

2012-01-01

206

Integration of Pragmatic and Phonetic Cues in Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous research has established that multiple top-down factors guide the identification of words during speech processing, the ultimate range of information sources that listeners integrate from different levels of linguistic structure is still unknown. In a set of experiments, we investigate whether comprehenders can integrate…

Rohde, Hannah; Ettlinger, Marc

2012-01-01

207

Practical target recognition in infrared imagery using a neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes work undertaken by British Aerospace (BAe) on the development of a neural network classifier for automatic recognition of land based targets in infrared imagery. The classifier used a histogram segmentation process to extract regions from the infrared imagery. A set of features were calculated for each region to form a feature vector describing the region. These feature

Alistair A. Crowe; A. Patel; W. Andrew Wright; Michael A. Green; Andrew D. Hughes

1992-01-01

208

Building Fluency, Word-Recognition Ability, and Confidence in Struggling Readers: The Poetry Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to describe a strategy called the Poetry Academy used to boost reading skills in elementary school students. The Poetry Academy paired struggling readers with a community volunteer to read poetry on a weekly schedule to practice fluency, work on word recognition abilities, and build confidence. A research study took…

Wilfong, Lori G.

2008-01-01

209

The use of a one-stage dynamic programming algorithm for connected word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is of tutorial nature and describes a one-stage dynamic programming algorithm for file problem of connected word recognition. The algorithm to be developed is essentially identical to one presented by Vintsyuk [1] and later by Bridle and Brown [2] ; but the notation and the presentation have been clarified. The derivation used for optimally time synchronizing a test

HERMANN NEY

1984-01-01

210

The Influence of Semantic Constraints on Bilingual Word Recognition during Sentence Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates how semantic constraint of a sentence context modulates language-non-selective activation in bilingual visual word recognition. We recorded Dutch-English bilinguals' eye movements while they read cognates and controls in low and high semantically constraining sentences in their second language. Early and late…

Van Assche, Eva; Drieghe, Denis; Duyck, Wouter; Welvaert, Marijke; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2011-01-01

211

Electrophysiological Markers of Syllable Frequency during Written Word Recognition in French  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several empirical lines of investigation support the idea that syllable-sized units may be involved in visual word recognition processes. In this perspective, the present study aimed at investigating further the nature of the process that causes syllabic effects in reading. To do so, the syllable frequency effect was investigated in French using…

Chetail, Fabienne; Colin, Cecile; Content, Alain

2012-01-01

212

Electrophysiological Evidence for Early Contextual Influences during Spoken-Word Recognition  

E-print Network

in isolation, a number of spoken-word recognition models converge on the idea that multiple lexical candidates process is a matter of debate, with several models assuming a high degree of interactivity between at the scalp as small voltage fluctua- tions in the electroencephalogram. A central finding in the ERP

Coulson, Seana

213

Methods for Sight Word Recognition in Kindergarten: Traditional Flashcard Method vs. Multisensory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quasi-experimental action research with a pretest-posttest same subject design was implemented to determine if there is a different effect of the flash card method and the multisensory approach on kindergarteners' achievement in sight word recognition, and which method is more effective if there is any difference. Instrumentation for pretest and…

Phillips, William E.; Feng, Jay

2012-01-01

214

The Effects of K-ABC-Based Remedial Teaching Strategies on Word Recognition Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aptitude treatment interaction hypothesis of Kaufman and Kaufman was investigated by examining the effects of matching teaching strategies with cognitive processing strength to increase disabled readers' (N=57) word recognition skills. Although results indicated a pattern supporting the predicted aptitude-treatment interaction, differences…

Fisher, Gary L.; And Others

1988-01-01

215

Processing Strategy and PI Effects in Recognition Memory of Word Lists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research by A. I. Schulman argued that an observed systematic decline in recognition memory in long word lists was due to the build-up of input and output proactive interference (PI). It also suggested that input PI resulted from process automatization; that is, each list item was processed or encoded in much the same way, producing a set…

Hodge, Milton H.; Britton, Bruce K.

216

False recognition production indexes in Spanish for 60 DRM lists with three critical words.  

PubMed

A normative study was conducted using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm (DRM) to obtain false recognition for 60 six-word lists in Spanish, designed with a completely new methodology. For the first time, lists included words (e.g., bridal, newlyweds, bond, commitment, couple, to marry) simultaneously associated with three critical words (e.g., love, wedding, marriage). Backward associative strength between lists and critical words was taken into account when creating the lists. The results showed that all lists produced false recognition. Moreover, some lists had a high false recognition rate (e.g., 65%; jail, inmate, prison: bars, prisoner, cell, offender, penitentiary, imprisonment). This is an aspect of special interest for those DRM experiments that, for example, record brain electrical activity. This type of list will enable researchers to raise the signal-to-noise ratio in false recognition event-related potential studies as they increase the number of critical trials per list, and it will be especially useful for the design of future research. PMID:21298572

Beato, Maria Soledad; Díez, Emiliano

2011-06-01

217

Putting It All Together: A Unified Account of Word Recognition and Reaction-Time Distributions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

R. Ratcliff, P. Gomez, and G. McKoon (2004) suggested much of what goes on in lexical decision is attributable to decision processes and may not be particularly informative about word recognition. They proposed that lexical decision should be characterized by a decision process, taking the form of a drift-diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978), that…

Norris, Dennis

2009-01-01

218

Item-Specific and Relational Encoding Effects in Children's Recall and Recognition Memory for Words.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests the hypothesis that children's inability to encode item-specific and relational information in episodic events contributes to age differences in recall and recognition. In two experiments, grade school children and college adults were presented with word triplets varying in categorical relatedness. Processing of the item-specific and…

Ackerman, Brian P.

1984-01-01

219

Phonological Processing in Printed Word Recognition: Effects of Age and Writing System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates whether readers of Turkish (which has a simple relation between spelling and sound) depend more on decoding for word recognition than readers of English (which has an "opaque" orthography). Suggests that readers become less dependent on phonological mediation with experience and that this reduction is more rapid for readers of opaque…

Oney, Banu; And Others

1997-01-01

220

The relationships between anxiety level, perceptual recognition thresholds and response latencies to words varying in affective value  

E-print Network

fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subjects Psychology THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ANXIETY LEVEL, PERCEPTUAL RECOGNITION THRESHOLDS AND RESPONSE LATENCIES TO WORDS VARYING IN AFFECTIVE VALUE A Thesis SIU... Latency l2 l4 INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The conditions that determine the perceptual recognition of words have been the subject cf numerous psychological investiga- tions, especially in the 40s and 50s. The relationships between word...

So, Siu-Wah Christina

1979-01-01

221

Psychometric Functions for Shortened Administrations of a Speech Recognition Approach Using Tri-Word Presentations and Phonemic Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Method: Complete psychometric functions for phoneme and word recognition scores at 8 signal-to-noise ratios from -15 dB to 20 dB were generated for the first 10, 20, and 25, as well as all 50, three-word presentations of the Tri-Word or Computer Assisted Speech Recognition Assessment (CASRA) Test (Gelfand, 1998) based on the results of 12…

Gelfand, Stanley A.; Gelfand, Jessica T.

2012-01-01

222

Clustering of Farsi sub-word images for whole-book recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Redundancy of word and sub-word occurrences in large documents can be effectively utilized in an OCR system to improve recognition results. Most OCR systems employ language modeling techniques as a post-processing step; however these techniques do not use important pictorial information that exist in the text image. In case of large-scale recognition of degraded documents, this information is even more valuable. In our previous work, we proposed a subword image clustering method for the applications dealing with large printed documents. In our clustering method, the ideal case is when all equivalent sub-word images lie in one cluster. To overcome the issues of low print quality, the clustering method uses an image matching algorithm for measuring the distance between two sub-word images. The measured distance with a set of simple shape features were used to cluster all sub-word images. In this paper, we analyze the effects of adding more shape features on processing time, purity of clustering, and the final recognition rate. Previously published experiments have shown the efficiency of our method on a book. Here we present extended experimental results and evaluate our method on another book with totally different font face. Also we show that the number of the new created clusters in a page can be used as a criteria for assessing the quality of print and evaluating preprocessing phases.

Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Kabir, Ehsanollah; Stricker, Didier

2015-01-01

223

Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals  

PubMed Central

Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals’ parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300–500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633–767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

2013-01-01

224

Artificial neural networks for acoustic target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic sensors can be used to detect, track and identify non-line-of-sight targets passively. Attempts to alter acoustic emissions often result in an undesirable performance degradation. This research project investigates the use of neural networks for differentiating between features extracted from the acoustic signatures of sources. Acoustic data were filtered and digitized using a commercially available analog-digital convertor. The digital data

James A. Robertson; John C. Mossing; Bruce Weber

1995-01-01

225

The Syllable Frequency Effect in Visual Recognition of French Words: A Study in Skilled and Beginning Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study addressed the issue of syllable activation during visual recognition of French words. In addition, it was investigated whether word orthographic information underlies syllable effects. To do so, words were selected according to the frequency of their first syllable (high versus low) and the frequency of the orthographic…

Chetail, Fabienne; Mathey, Stephanie

2009-01-01

226

The Interaction of Lexical Semantics and Cohort Competition in Spoken Word Recognition: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning…

Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Tyler, Lorraine K.

2011-01-01

227

Dynamic and Contextual Information in HMM Modeling for Handwritten Word Recognition.  

PubMed

This study aims at building an efficient word recognition system resulting from the combination of three handwriting recognizers. The main component of this combined system is an HMM-based recognizer which includes dynamic and contextual information for a better modeling of writing units. For modeling the contextual units, a state-tying process based on a decision tree clustering is introduced. Decision trees are built according to a set of 90 expert-based questions on how characters are written. Questions are divided into global questions yielding larger clusters and precise questions yielding smaller ones. Such clustering enables us to reduce by ten the total number of models and Gaussians densities. We apply this modeling to the recognition of handwritten words. Experiments are conducted on the publicly available Rimes database of handwritten mails. Experiments show that contextual information, embedded with dynamic modeling, drastically improves recognition. PMID:21282849

Bianne-Bernard, Anne-Laure; Menasri, Fares; Al-Hajj Mohamad, Rami; Mokbel, Chafic; Kermorvant, Christopher; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence

2011-01-28

228

Speech-perception training for older adults with hearing loss impacts word recognition and effort.  

PubMed

The current pupillometry study examined the impact of speech-perception training on word recognition and cognitive effort in older adults with hearing loss. Trainees identified more words at the follow-up than at the baseline session. Training also resulted in an overall larger and faster peaking pupillary response, even when controlling for performance and reaction time. Perceptual and cognitive capacities affected the peak amplitude of the pupil response across participants but did not diminish the impact of training on the other pupil metrics. Thus, we demonstrated that pupillometry can be used to characterize training-related and individual differences in effort during a challenging listening task. Importantly, the results indicate that speech-perception training not only affects overall word recognition, but also a physiological metric of cognitive effort, which has the potential to be a biomarker of hearing loss intervention outcome. PMID:24909603

Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Cute, Stephanie L; Humes, Larry E; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

2014-10-01

229

Examining the effects of variation in emotional tone of voice on spoken word recognition.  

PubMed

Emotional tone of voice (ETV) is essential for optimal verbal communication. Research has found that the impact of variation in nonlinguistic features of speech on spoken word recognition differs according to a time course. In the current study, we investigated whether intratalker variation in ETV follows the same time course in two long-term repetition priming experiments. We found that intratalker variability in ETVs affected reaction times to spoken words only when processing was relatively slow and difficult, not when processing was relatively fast and easy. These results provide evidence for the use of both abstract and episodic lexical representations for processing within-talker variability in ETV, depending on the time course of spoken word recognition. PMID:23405913

Krestar, Maura L; McLennan, Conor T

2013-09-01

230

Is a Fan Always Fun? Phonological and Orthographic Effects in Bilingual Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A visual semantic categorization task in English was performed by native English speakers (Experiment 1) and late bilinguals whose first language was Japanese (Experiment 2) or Spanish (Experiment 3). In the critical conditions, the target word was a homophone of a correct category exemplar (e.g., A BODY OF WATER-SEE; cf. SEA) or a word that…

Ota, Mitsuhiko; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Haywood, Sarah L.

2010-01-01

231

Automatic target recognition using group-structured sparse representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sparse representation classification method has been increasingly used in the fields of computer vision and pattern analysis, due to its high recognition rate, little dependence on the features, robustness to corruption and occlusion, and etc. However, most of these existing methods aim to find the sparsest representations of the test sample y in an overcomplete dictionary, which do not particularly consider the relevant structure between the atoms in the dictionary. Moreover, sufficient training samples are always required by the sparse representation method for effective recognition. In this paper we formulate the classification as a group-structured sparse representation problem using a sparsity-inducing norm minimization optimization and propose a novel sparse representation-based automatic target recognition (ATR) framework for the practical applications in which the training samples are drawn from the simulation models of real targets. The experimental results show that the proposed approach improves the recognition rate of standard sparse models, and our system can effectively and efficiently recognize targets under real environments, especially, where the good characteristics of the sparse representation based classification method are kept.

Sun, Bo; Wu, Xuewen; He, Jun; Zhu, Xiaoming; Chen, Chao

2014-06-01

232

A neural-linguistic approach for the recognition of a wide Arabic word lexicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we have investigated the use of Arabic linguistic knowledge to improve the recognition of wide Arabic word lexicon. A neural-linguistic approach was proposed to mainly deal with canonical vocabulary of decomposable words derived from tri-consonant healthy roots. The basic idea is to factorize words by their roots and schemes. In this direction, we conceived two neural networks TNN_R and TNN_S to respectively recognize roots and schemes from structural primitives of words. The proposal approach achieved promising results. In this paper, we will focus on how to reach better results in terms of accuracy and recognition rate. Current improvements concern especially the training stage. It is about 1) to benefit from word letters order 2) to consider "sisters letters" (letters having same features), 3) to supervise networks behaviors, 4) to split up neurons to save letter occurrences and 5) to solve observed ambiguities. Considering theses improvements, experiments carried on 1500 sized vocabulary show a significant enhancement: TNN_R (resp. TNN_S) top4 has gone up from 77% to 85.8% (resp. from 65% to 97.9%). Enlarging the vocabulary from 1000 to 1700, adding 100 words each time, again confirmed the results without altering the networks stability.

Ben Cheikh, I.; Kacem, A.; Belaïd, A.

2010-01-01

233

Image characterization and target recognition in the surf zone environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surf zone environment represents a very difficult challenge for electro-optic surveillance programs. Data from these programs have been shown to contain dense clutter from vegetation, biological factors (fish), and man-made objects, and is further complicated by the water to land transition which has a significant impact on target signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Also, targets can be geometrically warped from the sea surface and by occlusion from sand and breaking waves. The Program Executive Office Mine Warfare (PMO-210) recently sponsored a test under the Magic Lantern Adaptation (MLA) program to collect surf zone data. Analysis of the data revealed a dilemma for automatic target recognition algorithms; threshold target features high enough to reduce high false alarm rates from land clutter or low enough to detect and classify underwater targets. Land image typically have high SNR clutter with crisp edges while underwater images have lower SNR clutter with blurred edges. In an attempt to help distinguish between land and underwater images, target feature thresholds were made to vary as a function of the SNR of image features within images and as a function of a measure of the edge crispness of the image features. The feasibility of varying target feature thresholds to reduce false alarm rates was demonstrated on a target recognition program using a small set of MLA data. Four features were developed based on expected target shape and resolution: a contrast difference measure between circular targets and their local backgrounds, a signal-to-noise ratio, a normalized correlation, and a target circularity measure. Results showed a target probability of detection and classification (Pdc) of 50 - 78% with false alarms per frame of less than 4%.

Nevis, Andrew J.

1996-05-01

234

Automated target recognition and tracking using an optical pattern recognition neural network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The on-going development of an automatic target recognition and tracking system at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is presented. This system is an optical pattern recognition neural network (OPRNN) that is an integration of an innovative optical parallel processor and a feature extraction based neural net training algorithm. The parallel optical processor provides high speed and vast parallelism as well as full shift invariance. The neural network algorithm enables simultaneous discrimination of multiple noisy targets in spite of their scales, rotations, perspectives, and various deformations. This fully developed OPRNN system can be effectively utilized for the automated spacecraft recognition and tracking that will lead to success in the Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) of the unmanned Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV). One of the most powerful optical parallel processors for automatic target recognition is the multichannel correlator. With the inherent advantages of parallel processing capability and shift invariance, multiple objects can be simultaneously recognized and tracked using this multichannel correlator. This target tracking capability can be greatly enhanced by utilizing a powerful feature extraction based neural network training algorithm such as the neocognitron. The OPRNN, currently under investigation at JPL, is constructed with an optical multichannel correlator where holographic filters have been prepared using the neocognitron training algorithm. The computation speed of the neocognitron-type OPRNN is up to 10(exp 14) analog connections/sec that enabling the OPRNN to outperform its state-of-the-art electronics counterpart by at least two orders of magnitude.

Chao, Tien-Hsin

1991-01-01

235

Spatial distorted target recognition based on improved MACH filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joint transform correlator (JTC) can make targets recognized and located accurately, but the bottleneck technique of JTC is how to recognize spatial distorted targets in cluttered scene. This has restricted the development of the pattern recognition with JTC to a great extent. In order to solve the problem, improved maximum average correlation height (MACH) filter algorithm is presented in this paper. The MACH algorithm has powerful capability of recognition for spatial distorted targets (rotation and scale changed etc.). The controlling parameters of the synthesized filter are optimized in this paper, which makes the filter have higher distortion tolerance and can suppress cluttered noise effectively. When improved MACH filter algorithm in frequency domain is projected to space domain, the MACH reference template image can be obtained which includes various forms of distorted target image. Based on amounts of computer simulation and optical experiments, MACH reference template is proved to have the capability of sharpening the correlation peaks and expanding recognizing scope for distorted targets in cluttered scene. MATLAB software is applied to produce MACH reference image for the detected target images and conduct simulation experiments for its powerful calculation capability of matrix. In order to prove the feasibility of MACH reference in JTC and determine the recognition scope, experiments for an aircraft target in the sky are carried out. After the original image is processed by edge extraction, a MACH filter reference template is obtained in space domain from improved MACH filter in frequency domain. From simulation experiments, the improved MACH filter is proved to have the feasibility of sharpening correlation peaks for distorted targets. Optical experiments are given to verify the effectiveness further. The experiments show the angular distortion tolerance can reach up to +/-15 degrees and scale distortion tolerance can reach up to +/-23%. Within this scope, the spatial distorted aircraft can be recognized effectively. The actual effect of the improved MACH filter algorithm has been confirmed very well.

Chen, Yu; Huo, Furong; Zheng, Liqin

2014-11-01

236

Evidence for the activation of sensorimotor information during visual word recognition: the body-object interaction effect.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of sensorimotor experience in two visual word recognition tasks. Body-object interaction (BOI) ratings were collected for a large set of words. These ratings assess perceptions of the ease with which a human body can physically interact with a word's referent. A set of high BOI words (e.g., mask) and a set of low BOI words (e.g., ship) were created, matched on imageability and concreteness. Facilitatory BOI effects were observed in lexical decision and phonological lexical decision tasks: responses were faster for high BOI words than for low BOI words. We discuss how our findings may be accounted for by (a) semantic feedback within the visual word recognition system, and (b) an embodied view of cognition (e.g., Barsalou's perceptual symbol systems theory), which proposes that semantic knowledge is grounded in sensorimotor interactions with the environment. PMID:17258186

Siakaluk, Paul D; Pexman, Penny M; Aguilera, Laura; Owen, William J; Sears, Christopher R

2008-01-01

237

Recognition of Handwritten Arabic words using a neuro-fuzzy network  

SciTech Connect

We present a new method for the recognition of handwritten Arabic words based on neuro-fuzzy hybrid network. As a first step, connected components (CCs) of black pixels are detected. Then the system determines which CCs are sub-words and which are stress marks. The stress marks are then isolated and identified separately and the sub-words are segmented into graphemes. Each grapheme is described by topological and statistical features. Fuzzy rules are extracted from training examples by a hybrid learning scheme comprised of two phases: rule generation phase from data using a fuzzy c-means, and rule parameter tuning phase using gradient descent learning. After learning, the network encodes in its topology the essential design parameters of a fuzzy inference system.The contribution of this technique is shown through the significant tests performed on a handwritten Arabic words database.

Boukharouba, Abdelhak [Departement de Genie electrique, Universite 08 Mai 45 de Guelma (Algeria); Bennia, Abdelhak [Departement d'Electronique, Universite Mentouri de Constantine (Algeria)

2008-06-12

238

Alpha and theta brain oscillations index dissociable processes in spoken word recognition.  

PubMed

Slow neural oscillations (~1-15 Hz) are thought to orchestrate the neural processes of spoken language comprehension. However, functional subdivisions within this broad range of frequencies are disputed, with most studies hypothesizing only about single frequency bands. The present study utilizes an established paradigm of spoken word recognition (lexical decision) to test the hypothesis that within the slow neural oscillatory frequency range, distinct functional signatures and cortical networks can be identified at least for theta- (~3-7 Hz) and alpha-frequencies (~8-12 Hz). Listeners performed an auditory lexical decision task on a set of items that formed a word-pseudoword continuum: ranging from (1) real words over (2) ambiguous pseudowords (deviating from real words only in one vowel; comparable to natural mispronunciations in speech) to (3) pseudowords (clearly deviating from real words by randomized syllables). By means of time-frequency analysis and spatial filtering, we observed a dissociation into distinct but simultaneous patterns of alpha power suppression and theta power enhancement. Alpha exhibited a parametric suppression as items increasingly matched real words, in line with lowered functional inhibition in a left-dominant lexical processing network for more word-like input. Simultaneously, theta power in a bilateral fronto-temporal network was selectively enhanced for ambiguous pseudowords only. Thus, enhanced alpha power can neurally 'gate' lexical integration, while enhanced theta power might index functionally more specific ambiguity-resolution processes. To this end, a joint analysis of both frequency bands provides neural evidence for parallel processes in achieving spoken word recognition. PMID:24747736

Strauß, Antje; Kotz, Sonja A; Scharinger, Mathias; Obleser, Jonas

2014-08-15

239

Optical-digital-neural network system for aided target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many military systems have a critical need for aided target recognition, or cuing. This includes several systems with wide field-of-view search missions such as the UAV, EFOG-M, and Comanche. This report discusses one new approach: a multiple region of interest processor based on diffraction pattern sampling and digital neural network processing. In this concept an optical system segments the image into multiple, rectangular regions of interest and in parallel converts each ROI, be it visible, IR, or radar, to a spatial frequency power spectrum and samples that spectrum for 64 features. A neural network learns to correlate those features with target classes or identifications. A digital system uses the network weights to recognize unknown targets. The research discussed in this report using a single ROI processor showed a very high level of performance. Out of 1024 trials with models of five targets of F- 14, F-18, HIND, SCUD, and M1 tanks, there were 1023 correct classifications and 1 incorrect classification. Out of 1514 trials with those images plus 490 real clutter scenes, there were 1514 correct decisions between target or no-target. Of the 1024 target detections, there were 1023 correct classifications. Out of 60 trials with low resolution IR images of real scenes, there were 60 correct decisions between target and no-target. Of the 40 target detections, there were 40 correct classifications.

Farr, Keith B.; Hartman, Richard L.

1995-07-01

240

Relational template-matching algorithm for FLIR automatic target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Army Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate and the Army Research Laboratory (S3I) sponsored ATR Relational Template Matching (ARTM) program, we have developed a novel model-based forward-looking infrared (FLIR) automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm with superior performance over other model-based and template matching algorithms. The ARTM algorithm represents a significant advance over other approaches because its performance is

Andrew P. Kramer; David Perschbacher; Randy S. Johnston; Teresa A. Kipp

1993-01-01

241

Automated Target Acquisition, Recognition and Tracking (ATTRACT). Phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of phase 1 of this research project is to conduct multidisciplinary research that will contribute to fundamental scientific knowledge in several of the USAF critical technology areas. Specifically, neural networks, signal processing techniques, and electro-optic capabilities are utilized to solve problems associated with automated target acquisition, recognition, and tracking. To accomplish the stated objective, several tasks have been identified and were executed.

Abdallah, Mahmoud A.

1995-01-01

242

Motivational mechanisms (BAS) and prefrontal cortical activation contribute to recognition memory for emotional words. rTMS effect on performance and EEG (alpha band) measures.  

PubMed

The present research addressed the question of where memories for emotional words could be represented in the brain. A second main question was related to the effect of personality traits, in terms of the Behavior Activation System (BAS), in emotional word recognition. We tested the role of the left DLPFC (LDLPFC) by performing a memory task in which old (previously encoded targets) and new (previously not encoded distractors) positive or negative emotional words had to be recognized. High-BAS and low-BAS subjects were compared when a repetitive TMS (rTMS) was applied on the LDLPFC. We found significant differences between high-BAS vs. low-BAS subjects, with better performance for high-BAS in response to positive words. In parallel, an increased left cortical activity (alpha desynchronization) was observed for high-BAS in the case of positive words. Thus, we can conclude that the left approach-related hemisphere, underlying BAS, may support faster recognition of positive words. PMID:25190327

Balconi, Michela; Cobelli, Chiara

2014-10-01

243

Practical target recognition in infrared imagery using a neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes work undertaken by British Aerospace (BAe) on the development of a neural network classifier for automatic recognition of land based targets in infrared imagery. The classifier used a histogram segmentation process to extract regions from the infrared imagery. A set of features were calculated for each region to form a feature vector describing the region. These feature vectors were then used as the input to the neural classifier. Two neural classifiers were investigated based upon the multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function networks. In order to assess the merits of a neural network approach, the neural classifiers were compared with a conventional classifier originally developed by British Aerospace (Systems and Equipment) Ltd., under contract to RARDE (Chertsey), for the purpose of infrared target recognition. This conventional system was based upon a Schurman classifier which operates on data transformed using a Hotelling Trace Transform. The ability of the classifiers to perform practical recognition of real-world targets was evaluated by training and testing the classifiers on real imagery obtained from mock land battles and military vehicle trials.

Crowe, Alistair A.; Patel, A.; Wright, William A.; Green, Michael A.; Hughes, Andrew D.

1992-07-01

244

Piecewise linear approach: a new approach in automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) of moving targets has recently received increased interests. High Range Resolution (HRR) radar mode provides a promising approach which relies on processing high-resolution 'range profiles' over multiple look angles. To achieve a robust, reliable and cost effective approach for HRR-ATR, a model-based approach is investigated in this paper. A subset of the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) data set was used to study robustness and sensitivity issues related to 1D model-based ATR development and performance. The model is built based on the statistic analysis of the training data and the dependence of the HRR signature on the azimuth is considered. The dependence is approximated by a linear regression algorithm to construct the templates of targets, which gives this approach the name of piecewise linear approach (PWL). Compared with the 1D model-based ATR approach developed by the Wright Laboratory, results are presented demonstrating an increase of about 10% in the correct identification probability of known targets when declaration probability Pdec is above 85% while maintaining a low time-cost.

Zeng, YuJing; Starzyk, Janusz A.

2000-08-01

245

Planting the seed: target recognition of short guide RNAs.  

PubMed

Small guide RNAs play important roles in cellular processes such as regulation of gene expression and host defense against invading nucleic acids. The mode of action of small RNAs relies on protein-assisted base pairing of the guide RNA with target mRNA or DNA to interfere with their transcription, translation, or replication. Several unrelated classes of small noncoding RNAs have been identified including eukaryotic RNA silencing-associated small RNAs, prokaryotic small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs), and prokaryotic CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) RNAs (crRNAs). All three groups identify their target sequence by base pairing after finding it in a pool of millions of other nucleotide sequences in the cell. In this complicated target search process, a region of 6-12 nucleotides (nt) of the small RNA termed the 'seed' plays a critical role. We review the concept of seed sequences and discuss its importance for initial target recognition and interference. PMID:24440013

Künne, Tim; Swarts, Daan C; Brouns, Stan J J

2014-02-01

246

Modified backward error propagation for tactical target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explores a new approach to the classification of tactical targets using a new biologically-based neural network. The targets of interest were generated from Doppler imagery and forward looking infrared imagery, and consisted of tanks, trucks, armored personnel carriers, jeeps and petroleum, oil, and lubricant tankers. Each target was described by feature vectors, such as normalized moment invariants. The features were generated from the imagery using a segmenting process. These feature vectors were used as the input to a neural network classifier for tactical target recognition. The neural network consisted of a multilayer perceptron architecture, employing a backward error propagation learning algorithm. The minimization technique used was an approximation to Newton's method. This second order algorithm is a generalized version of well known first order techniques, i.e., gradient of steepest descent and momentum methods. Classification using both first and second order techniques was performed, with comparisons drawn.

Piazza, Charles C.

1988-12-01

247

Manipulating letter fluency for words alters electrophysiological correlates of recognition memory  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms that give rise to familiarity memory have received intense research interest. One current topic of debate concerns the extent to which familiarity is driven by the same fluency sources that give rise to certain implicit memory phenomena. Familiarity may be tied to conceptual fluency, given that familiarity and conceptual implicit memory can exhibit similar neurocognitive properties. However, familiarity can also be driven by perceptual factors, and its neural basis under these circumstances has received less attention. Here we recorded brain potentials during recognition testing using a procedure that has previously been shown to encourage a reliance on letter information when assessing familiarity for words. Studied and unstudied words were derived either from two separate letter pools or a single letter pool (“letter-segregated” and “normal” conditions, respectively) in a within-subjects contrast. As predicted, recognition accuracy was higher in the letter-segregated relative to the normal condition. Electrophysiological analyses revealed parietal old-new effects from 500–700 ms in both conditions. In addition, a topographically dissociable occipital old-new effect from 300–700 ms was present in the letter-segregated condition only. In a second experiment, we found that similar occipital brain potentials were associated with confident false recognition of words that shared letters with studied words but were not themselves studied. These findings indicate that familiarity is a multiply determined phenomenon, and that the stimulus dimensions on which familiarity is based can moderate its neural correlates. Conceptual and perceptual contributions to familiarity vary across testing circumstances, and both must be accounted for in theories of recognition memory and its neural basis. PMID:23871869

Lucas, Heather D.; Paller, Ken A.

2013-01-01

248

An evaluation of bags-of-words and spatio-temporal shapes for action recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bags-of-visual-Words (BoW) and Spatio-Temporal Shapes (STS) are two very popular approaches for action recognition from video. The former (BoW) is an un-structured global representation of videos which is built using a large set of local features. The latter (STS) uses a single feature located on a region of interest (where the actor is) in the video. Despite the popularity of

Teofilo de Campos; Mark Barnard; Krystian Mikolajczyk; Josef Kittler; Fei Yan; William Christmas; David Windridge

2011-01-01

249

Design and performance of a large vocabulary discrete word recognition system. Volume 2: Appendixes. [flow charts and users manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The users manual for the word recognition computer program contains flow charts of the logical diagram, the memory map for templates, the speech analyzer card arrangement, minicomputer input/output routines, and assembly language program listings.

1973-01-01

250

Two-level DP-matching--A dynamic programming-based pattern matching algorithm for connected word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a pattern matching approach to connected word recognition. First, a general principle of connected word recognition is given based on pattern matching between unknown continuous speech and artificially synthesized connected reference patterns. Time-normalization capability is allowed by use of dynamic programming-based time-warping technique (DP-matching). Then, it is shown that the matching process is efficiently carried out by

HIROAKI SAKOE

1979-01-01

251

The influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction effect in visual word recognition  

PubMed Central

We examined the influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction (BOI) effect in visual word recognition. High print exposure readers and low print exposure readers either made semantic categorizations (“Is the word easily imageable?”; Experiment 1) or phonological lexical decisions (“Does the item sound like a real English word?”; Experiment 2). The results from Experiment 1 showed that there was a larger BOI effect for the low print exposure readers than for the high print exposure readers in semantic categorization, though an effect was observed for both print exposure groups. However, the results from Experiment 2 showed that the BOI effect was observed only for the high print exposure readers in phonological lexical decision. The results of the present study suggest that print exposure does influence the BOI effect, and that this influence varies as a function of task demands. PMID:22563312

Hansen, Dana; Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.

2012-01-01

252

Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

2013-01-01

253

Text Line Segmentation and Word Recognition in a System for General Writer Independent Handwriting Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a system for recognizing unconstrai ned English hand- written text based on a large vocabulary. We describe the thr ee main components of the system, which are preprocessing, feature extraction and recognition. In the preprocessing phase the handwritten texts are first se gmented into lines. Then each line of text is normalized with respect to

Urs-viktor Marti; Horst Bunke

2001-01-01

254

Assessing multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children with normal hearing and children with cochlear implants  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children. Method Two experiments were undertaken. In Experiment I, the youngest age with which the multimodal sentence recognition materials could be used was evaluated. In Experiment II, lexical difficulty and presentation modality effects were examined, along with test-retest reliability and validity in normal-hearing children and those with cochlear implants. Results Normal-hearing children as young as 3.25 years and those with cochlear implants just under 4 years who have used their device for at least 1 year were able to complete the multimodal sentence testing. Both groups identified lexically easy words in sentences more accurately than lexically hard words across modalities, although the largest effects occurred in the auditory-only modality. Both groups displayed audiovisual integration with the highest scores achieved in the audiovisual modality, followed sequentially by auditory-only and visual-only modalities. Recognition of words in sentences was correlated with recognition of words in isolation. Preliminary results suggest fair to good test-retest reliability. Conclusions The results suggest that children’s audiovisual word-in-sentence recognition can be assessed using the materials developed for this investigation. With further development, the materials hold promise for becoming a test of multimodal sentence recognition for children with hearing loss. PMID:20689028

Holt, Rachael Frush; Kirk, Karen Iler; Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia

2010-01-01

255

POMDP-based online target detection and recognition for autonomous UAVs  

E-print Network

POMDP-based online target detection and recognition for autonomous UAVs Caroline P. Carvalho Chanel detection and recognition mission by an autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicule (UAV) mod- eled as a Partially for complex time-constrained UAV missions. 1 INTRODUCTION Target detection and recognition by autonomous

256

Assessing Multimodal Spoken Word-in-Sentence Recognition in Children with Normal Hearing and Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children. Method: Two experiments were undertaken. In Experiment 1, the youngest age with which the multimodal sentence recognition materials could be used was evaluated. In Experiment 2, lexical difficulty and presentation modality effects were examined, along with test-retest…

Holt, Rachael Frush; Kirk, Karen Iler; Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia

2011-01-01

257

Handwritten Word Recognition Using Segmentation-Free Hidden Markov Modeling and Segmentation-Based Dynamic Programming Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lexicon-based, handwritten word recognition system combining segmentation-free and segmentation-based techniques is described. The segmentation-free technique constructs a continuous density hidden Markov model for each lexicon string. The segmentation-based technique uses dynamic programming to match word images and strings. The combination module uses differences in classifier capabilities to achieve significantly better performance

Magdi A. Mohamed; Paul D. Gader

1996-01-01

258

Automated target recognition in hyperspectral imagery using subpixel spatial information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral Imagery is characterized by its wealth of spectral information, which makes it ideal for spectral classification. High spectral resolution comes at the cost of spatial resolution, however, making spatial classification difficult. As part of a thrust to develop a more optimal approach that uses both spatial and spectral information, we examine how high spectral resolution can be used to enhance spatial pattern recognition. We focus on targets made up of less than about five pixels, and thus have little shape or orientation information in individual bands. We then use an "Adaptive Spectral Unmixing" (ASU) operator on the hyperspectral data to estimate sub-pixel abundances as accurately as possible. Noting that vehicles of interest are often symmetric shapes, we demonstrate that geometric moments can be useful tools for rotationally-invariant shape discrimination of small targets. We use a pattern-matching strategy for spatial pattern recognition, and use the moments to guide our search of potential target templates. This approach avoids the under-constrained problem of trying to distill source shape characteristics, in all of their possible variations, from the abundance space. We describe the software testing package used, and present the results of preliminary tests on hyperspectral data.

Sentlinger, G. I.; Davenport, M. R.; Ardouin, J. P.

2003-09-01

259

The process of spoken word recognition in the face of signal degradation.  

PubMed

Though much is known about how words are recognized, little research has focused on how a degraded signal affects the fine-grained temporal aspects of real-time word recognition. The perception of degraded speech was examined in two populations with the goal of describing the time course of word recognition and lexical competition. Thirty-three postlingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) users and 57 normal hearing (NH) adults (16 in a CI-simulation condition) participated in a visual world paradigm eye-tracking task in which their fixations to a set of phonologically related items were monitored as they heard one item being named. Each degraded-speech group was compared with a set of age-matched NH participants listening to unfiltered speech. CI users and the simulation group showed a delay in activation relative to the NH listeners, and there is weak evidence that the CI users showed differences in the degree of peak and late competitor activation. In general, though, the degraded-speech groups behaved statistically similarly with respect to activation levels. PMID:24041330

Farris-Trimble, Ashley; McMurray, Bob; Cigrand, Nicole; Tomblin, J Bruce

2014-02-01

260

The process of spoken word recognition in the face of signal degradation  

PubMed Central

Though much is known about how words are recognized, little research has focused on how a degraded signal affects the fine-grained temporal aspects of real-time word recognition. The perception of degraded speech was examined in two populations with the goal of describing the time course of word recognition and lexical competition. Thirty-three postlingually-deafened cochlear implant (CI) users and 57 normal hearing (NH) adults (16 in a CI-simulation condition) participated in a visual world paradigm eye-tracking task in which their fixations to a set of phonologically related items were monitored as they heard one item being named. Each degraded-speech group was compared to a set of age-matched NH participants listening to unfiltered speech. CI users and the simulation group showed a delay in activation relative to the NH listeners, and there is weak evidence that the CI users showed differences in the degree of peak and late competitor activation. In general, though, the degraded-speech groups behaved statistically similarly with respect to activation levels. PMID:24041330

Farris-Trimble, Ashley; McMurray, Bob; Cigrand, Nicole; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2013-01-01

261

Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

Burt, Jennifer S.

2009-01-01

262

The effects of phonological awareness instruction on beginning word recognition and spelling.  

PubMed

This investigation examined the effects of phonological awareness instruction on four children, aged 8-9 years, with complex communication needs (CCN) who used augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). During Experiment 1 all four children acquired letter/sound correspondence and phoneme awareness at varying levels. One child reached criterion. Three children maintained their skills and one child generalized to 10 untaught letters/sounds. During Experiment 2 one of four children reached criterion in beginning word recognition and improved her post-intervention word identification. Three children increased their spelling ability. The results are interpreted within the framework of current theory and are suggestive of the skills children with complex communication needs may need in order to acquire early decoding skills. PMID:17487629

Truxler, Joan E; O'Keefe, Bernard M

2007-06-01

263

Reading as Active Sensing: A Computational Model of Gaze Planning in Word Recognition  

PubMed Central

We offer a computational model of gaze planning during reading that consists of two main components: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database), and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting. PMID:20577589

Ferro, Marcello; Ognibene, Dimitri; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

2010-01-01

264

Does N200 Reflect Semantic Processing?—An ERP Study on Chinese Visual Word Recognition  

PubMed Central

Recent event-related potential research has reported a N200 response or a negative deflection peaking around 200 ms following the visual presentation of two-character Chinese words. This N200 shows amplitude enhancement upon immediate repetition and there has been preliminary evidence that it reflects orthographic processing but not semantic processing. The present study tested whether this N200 is indeed unrelated to semantic processing with more sensitive measures, including the use of two tasks engaging semantic processing either implicitly or explicitly and the adoption of a within-trial priming paradigm. In Exp. 1, participants viewed repeated, semantically related and unrelated prime-target word pairs as they performed a lexical decision task judging whether or not each target was a real word. In Exp. 2, participants viewed high-related, low-related and unrelated word pairs as they performed a semantic task judging whether each word pair was related in meaning. In both tasks, semantic priming was found from both the behavioral data and the N400 ERP responses. Critically, while repetition priming elicited a clear and large enhancement on the N200 response, semantic priming did not show any modulation effect on the same response. The results indicate that the N200 repetition enhancement effect cannot be explained with semantic priming and that this specific N200 response is unlikely to reflect semantic processing. PMID:24622389

Du, Yingchun; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, John X.

2014-01-01

265

Novel automatic target recognition approach for multispectral data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automating the detection and identification of significant threats using multispectral (MS) imagery is a critical issue in remote sensing. Unlike previous multispectral target recognition approaches, we utilize a three-stage process that not only takes into account the spectral content, but also the spatial information. The first stage applies a matched filter to the calibrated MS data. Here, the matched filter is tuned to the spectral components of a given target and produces an image intensity map of where the best matches occur. The second stage represents a novel detection algorithm, known as the focus of attention (FOA) stage. The FOA performs an initial screening of the data based on intensity and size checks on the matched filter output. Next, using the target's pure components, the third stage performs constrained linear unmixing on MS pixels within the FOA detected regions. Knowledge sources derived from this process are combined using a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). The SPRT can fuse contaminated, uncertain and disparate information from multiple sources. We demonstrate our approach on identifying a specific target using actual data collected in ideal conditions and also use approximately 35 square kilometers of urban clutter as false alarm data.

Salazar, Jose S.; Koch, Mark W.; Yocky, David A.

2002-11-01

266

Does viotin activate violin more than viocin? On the use of visual cues during visual-word recognition.  

PubMed

The vast majority of neural and computational models of visual-word recognition assume that lexical access is achieved via the activation of abstract letter identities. Thus, a word's overall shape should play no role in this process. In the present lexical decision experiment, we compared word-like pseudowords like viotín (same shape as its base word: violín) vs. viocín (different shape) in mature (college-aged skilled readers), immature (normally reading children), and immature/impaired (young readers with developmental dyslexia) word-recognition systems. Results revealed similar response times (and error rates) to consistent-shape and inconsistent-shape pseudowords for both adult skilled readers and normally reading children - this is consistent with current models of visual-word recognition. In contrast, young readers with developmental dyslexia made significantly more errors to viotín-like pseudowords than to viocín-like pseudowords. Thus, unlike normally reading children, young readers with developmental dyslexia are sensitive to a word's visual cues, presumably because of poor letter representations. PMID:23948388

Perea, Manuel; Panadero, Victoria

2014-01-01

267

SAR automatic target recognition via non-negative matrix approximations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The set of orthogonal eigen-vectors built via principal component analysis (PCA), while very effective for com- pression, can often lead to loss of crucial discriminative information in signals. In this work, we build a new basis set using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) target images via non-negative matrix approximations (NNMAs). Owing to the underlying physics, we expect a non-negative basis and an accompanying non-negative coecient set to be a more accurate generative model for SAR proles than the PCA basis which lacks direct physical interpretation. The NNMA basis vectors while not orthogonal capture discriminative local components of SAR target images. We test the merits of the NNMA basis representation for the problem of automatic target recognition using SAR images with a support vector machine (SVM) classier. Experiments on the benchmark MSTAR database reveal the merits of basis selection techniques that can model imaging physics more closely and can capture inter-class variability, in addition to identifying a trade-off between classication performance and availability of training.

Riasati, Vahid; Srinivas, Umamahesh; Monga, Vishal

2012-05-01

268

A Corpus-Based Approach for Automatic Thai Unknown Word Recognition Using Boosting Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While classification techniques can be applied for automatic unknown word recognition in a language without word boundary, it faces with the problem of unbalanced datasets where the number of positive unknown word candidates is dominantly smaller than that of negative candidates. To solve this problem, this paper presents a corpus-based approach that introduces a so-called group-based ranking evaluation technique into ensemble learning in order to generate a sequence of classification models that later collaborate to select the most probable unknown word from multiple candidates. Given a classification model, the group-based ranking evaluation (GRE) is applied to construct a training dataset for learning the succeeding model, by weighing each of its candidates according to their ranks and correctness when the candidates of an unknown word are considered as one group. A number of experiments have been conducted on a large Thai medical text to evaluate performance of the proposed group-based ranking evaluation approach, namely V-GRE, compared to the conventional naïve Bayes classifier and our vanilla version without ensemble learning. As the result, the proposed method achieves an accuracy of 90.93±0.50% when the first rank is selected while it gains 97.26±0.26% when the top-ten candidates are considered, that is 8.45% and 6.79% improvement over the conventional record-based naïve Bayes classifier and the vanilla version. Another result on applying only best features show 93.93±0.22% and up to 98.85±0.15% accuracy for top-1 and top-10, respectively. They are 3.97% and 9.78% improvement over naive Bayes and the vanilla version. Finally, an error analysis is given.

Techo, Jakkrit; Nattee, Cholwich; Theeramunkong, Thanaruk

269

Lexical inhibition of neighbors during visual word recognition: An unmasked priming investigation.  

PubMed

Two experiments investigated the lexical inhibitory effect of orthographic neighbors relative to identity priming effects in an unmasked priming paradigm combined with a lexical decision task on word targets. Targets were preceded either by the same word, by a lower frequency orthographic word neighbor, by an orthographic pseudoword neighbor or by an unrelated prime. Experiment 1 showed a standard facilitatory effect from identity primes, whereas inhibitory priming effects were observed for both types of neighbor primes. Experiment 2 examined the time-course of these effects by using event-related potential recordings. A generalized relatedness effect was found in the 200-400ms time-window, with smaller negativities generated by related primes than unrelated primes regardless of prime type. In contrast, at 400ms, while identity primes were associated with smaller negativities than unrelated primes, word neighbor primes were associated with greater negativities than unrelated primes. Additionally, pseudoword neighbor primes produce null effects as compared to unrelated primes. These results are discussed in terms of competition between activated lexical representations and revealed that such a mechanism is modulated by the lexical status of the prime. PMID:25665529

Massol, Stéphanie; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel

2015-04-16

270

Joint Effect of Insertion of Spaces and Word Length in Saccade Target Selection in Chinese Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined how insertion of spaces before and after a word affects saccade target selection in Chinese reading. We found that inserting spaces in Chinese text changes the eye movement behaviour of Chinese readers. They are less likely to fixate on the character near the space and will try their best to process the entire word with…

Li, Xingshan; Shen, Wei

2013-01-01

271

Multi-Stage System for Automatic Target Recognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feedforward back-propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and to remove false positives. The system parameter optimizations process has been developed to adapt to various targets and datasets. The objective was to design an efficient computer vision system that can learn to detect multiple targets in large images with unknown backgrounds. Because the target size is small relative to the image size in this problem, there are many regions of the image that could potentially contain the target. A cursory analysis of every region can be computationally efficient, but may yield too many false positives. On the other hand, a detailed analysis of every region can yield better results, but may be computationally inefficient. The multi-stage ATR system was designed to achieve an optimal balance between accuracy and computational efficiency by incorporating both models. The detection stage first identifies potential ROIs where the target may be present by performing a fast Fourier domain OT-MACH filter-based correlation. Because threshold for this stage is chosen with the goal of detecting all true positives, a number of false positives are also detected as ROIs. The verification stage then transforms the regions of interest into feature space, and eliminates false positives using an artificial neural network classifier. The multi-stage system allows tuning the detection sensitivity and the identification specificity individually in each stage. It is easier to achieve optimized ATR operation based on its specific goal. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar and video image datasets.

Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas T.; Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Johnson, Oliver

2010-01-01

272

Lexical Neighborhood Density Effects on Spoken Word Recognition and Production in Healthy Aging  

PubMed Central

We examined the effects of lexical competition and word frequency on spoken word recognition and production in healthy aging. Older (n = 16) and younger adults (n = 21) heard and repeated meaningful English sentences presented in the presence of multitalker babble at two signal-to-noise ratios, +10 and ?3 dB. Each sentence contained three keywords of high or low word frequency and phonological neighborhood density (ND). Both participant groups responded less accurately to high- than low-ND stimuli; response latencies (from stimulus offset to response onset) were longer for high- than low-ND sentences, whereas response durations—time from response onset to response offset—were longer for low- than high-ND stimuli. ND effects were strongest for older adults in the most difficult conditions, and ND effects in accuracy were related to inhibitory function. The results suggest that the sentence repetition task described here taps the effects of lexical competition in both perception and production and that these effects are similar across the life span, but that accuracy in the lexical discrimination process is affected by declining inhibitory function in older adults. PMID:20542997

Aaron, Geoffrey P.; Steinmetz, Lauren G.; Pisoni, David B.

2010-01-01

273

Target detection and recognition improvements by use of spatiotemporal fusion.  

PubMed

We developed spatiotemporal fusion techniques for improving target detection and automatic target recognition. We also investigated real IR (infrared) sensor clutter noise. The sensor noise was collected by an IR (256 x 256) sensor looking at various scenes (trees, grass, roads, buildings, etc.). More than 95% of the sensor pixels showed near-stationary sensor clutter noise that was uncorrelated between pixels as well as across time frames. However, in a few pixels (covering the grass near the road) the sensor noise showed nonstationary properties (with increasing or decreasing mean across time frames). The natural noise extracted from the IR sensor, as well as the computer-generated noise with Gaussian and Rayleigh distributions, was used to test and compare different spatiotemporal fusion strategies. Finally, we proposed two advanced detection schemes: the double-thresholding the reverse-thresholding techniques. These techniques may be applied to complicated clutter situations (e.g., very-high clutter or nonstationary clutter situations) where the traditional constant-false-alarm-ratio technique may fail. PMID:14735959

Chen, Hai-Wen; Sutha, Surachai; Olson, Teresa

2004-01-10

274

Logical metonymy resolution in a words-as-cues framework: evidence from self-paced reading and probe recognition.  

PubMed

Logical metonymy resolution (begin a book ? begin reading a book or begin writing a book) has traditionally been explained either through complex lexical entries (qualia structures) or through the integration of the implicit event via post-lexical access to world knowledge. We propose that recent work within the words-as-cues paradigm can provide a more dynamic model of logical metonymy, accounting for early and dynamic integration of complex event information depending on previous contextual cues (agent and patient). We first present a self-paced reading experiment on German subordinate sentences, where metonymic sentences and their paraphrased version differ only in the presence or absence of the clause-final target verb (Der Konditor begann die Glasur ? Der Konditor begann, die Glasur aufzutragen/The baker began the icing ? The baker began spreading the icing). Longer reading times at the target verb position in a high-typicality condition (baker + icing ? spread ) compared to a low-typicality (but still plausible) condition (child + icing ? spread) suggest that we make use of knowledge activated by lexical cues to build expectations about events. The early and dynamic integration of event knowledge in metonymy interpretation is bolstered by further evidence from a second experiment using the probe recognition paradigm. Presenting covert events as probes following a high-typicality or a low-typicality metonymic sentence (Der Konditor begann die Glasur ? AUFTRAGEN/The baker began the icing ? SPREAD), we obtain an analogous effect of typicality at 100 ms interstimulus interval. PMID:24628505

Zarcone, Alessandra; Padó, Sebastian; Lenci, Alessandro

2014-06-01

275

HMM-based lexicon-driven and lexicon-free word recognition for online handwritten Indic scripts.  

PubMed

Research for recognizing online handwritten words in Indic scripts is at its early stages when compared to Latin and Oriental scripts. In this paper, we address this problem specifically for two major Indic scripts--Devanagari and Tamil. In contrast to previous approaches, the techniques we propose are largely data driven and script independent. We propose two different techniques for word recognition based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM): lexicon driven and lexicon free. The lexicon-driven technique models each word in the lexicon as a sequence of symbol HMMs according to a standard symbol writing order derived from the phonetic representation. The lexicon-free technique uses a novel Bag-of-Symbols representation of the handwritten word that is independent of symbol order and allows rapid pruning of the lexicon. On handwritten Devanagari word samples featuring both standard and nonstandard symbol writing orders, a combination of lexicon-driven and lexicon-free recognizers significantly outperforms either of them used in isolation. In contrast, most Tamil word samples feature the standard symbol order, and the lexicon-driven recognizer outperforms the lexicon free one as well as their combination. The best recognition accuracies obtained for 20,000 word lexicons are 87.13 percent for Devanagari when the two recognizers are combined, and 91.8 percent for Tamil using the lexicon-driven technique. PMID:22156094

Bharath, A; Madhvanath, Sriganesh

2012-04-01

276

A Pathogenic Nematode Targets Recognition Proteins to Avoid Insect Defenses  

PubMed Central

Steinernemacarpocapsae is a nematode pathogenic in a wide variety of insect species. The great pathogenicity of this nematode has been ascribed to its ability to overcome the host immune response; however, little is known about the mechanisms involved in this process. The analysis of an expressed sequence tags (EST) library in the nematode during the infective phase was performed and a highly abundant contig homologous to serine protease inhibitors was identified. In this work, we show that this contig is part of a 641-bp cDNA that encodes a BPTI-Kunitz family inhibitor (Sc-KU-4), which is up-regulated in the parasite during invasion and installation. Recombinant Sc-KU-4 protein was produced in Escherichia coli and shown to inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase activities in a dose-dependent manner by a competitive mechanism with Ki values of 1.8 nM and 2.6 nM, respectively. Sc-KU-4 also inhibited trypsin and thrombin activities to a lesser extent. Studies of the mode of action of Sc-KU-4 and its effects on insect defenses suggest that although Sc-KU-4 did not inhibit the activation of hemocytes or the formation of clotting fibers, it did inhibit hemocyte aggregation and the entrapment of foreign particles by fibers. Moreover, Sc-KU-4 avoided encapsulation and the deposition of clotting materials, which usually occurs in response to foreign particles. We show by protein-protein interaction that Sc-KU-4 targets recognition proteins of insect immune system such as masquerade-like and serine protease-like homologs. The interaction of Sc-KU-4 with these proteins explains the ability of the nematode to overcome host reactions and its large pathogenic spectrum, once these immune proteins are well conserved in insects. The discovery of this inhibitor targeting insect recognition proteins opens new avenues for the development of S. carpocapsae as a biological control agent and provides a new tool to study host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24098715

Toubarro, Duarte; Avila, Mónica Martinez; Montiel, Rafael; Simões, Nelson

2013-01-01

277

Conditional-mean estimation via jump-diffusion processes in multiple target tracking\\/recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new algorithm is presented for generating the conditional mean estimates of functions of target positions, orientations and type in recognition, and tracking of an unknown number of targets and target types. Taking a Bayesian approach, a posterior measure is defined on the tracking\\/target parameter space by combining a narrowband sensor array manifold model with a high resolution imaging model,

M. I. Miller; A. Srivastava; U. Grenander

1995-01-01

278

The Influence of Sentence Context and Accented Speech on Lexical Access in Second-Language Auditory Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until now, research on bilingual auditory word recognition has been scarce, and although most studies agree that lexical access is language-nonselective, there is less consensus with respect to the influence of potentially constraining factors. The present study investigated the influence of three possible constraints. We tested whether language…

Lagrou, Evelyne; Harsuiker, Robert J.; Duyck, Wouter

2013-01-01

279

Use of Context in the Word Recognition Process by Adults with a Significant History of Reading Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether university students who report a significant history of reading difficulties (RD; n=24) differed from university students with no history of reading difficulties (NRD; n=31) in how sentence context affects word recognition. Experiment 1 found no differences in how congruent sentence primes or syntactic manipulations of the…

Corkett, Julie K.; Parrila, Rauno

2008-01-01

280

The Effects of Inter-Letter Spacing in Visual-Word Recognition: Evidence with Young Normal Readers and Developmental Dyslexics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has demonstrated that slight increases of inter-letter spacing have a positive impact on skilled readers' recognition of visually presented words. In the present study, we examined whether this effect generalises to young normal readers and readers with developmental dyslexia, and whether increased inter-letter spacing affects the…

Perea, Manuel; Panadero, Victoria; Moret-Tatay, Carmen; Gomez, Pablo

2012-01-01

281

The Syllable as a Source of Error in Multisyllable Word Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-syllable words were presented singly for study followed by a two-alternative, forced-choice test to 120 college students divided into four groups of 30 each. Half of the new words on the test ("I" words) were constructed by combining two syllables taken from two different study words, and half were neutral words ("C" words). If, as a…

Underwood, Benton J.; Zimmerman, Joel

282

Wake-up-word speech recognition application for first responder communication enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speech Recognition systems, historically, have proven to be cumbersome and insufficiently accurate for a range of applications. The ultimate goal of our proposed technology is to fundamentally change the way current Speech Recognition (SR) systems interact with humans and develop an application that is extremely hardware efficient. Accurate SR and reasonable hardware requirements will afford the average first responder officer, e.g., police officer, a true break-through technology that will change the way an officer performs his duties. The presented technology provides a cutting-edge solution for human-machine interaction through the utilization of a properly solved Wake-Up-Word (WUW) SR problem. This paradigm-shift provides the basis for development of SR systems with truly "Voice Activated" capabilities, impacting all SR based technologies and the way in which humans interact with computers. This shift is a radical departure from the current "push-to-talk" paradigm currently applied to all speech-to-text or speech-recognition applications. To be able to achieve this goal, a significantly more accurate pattern classification and scoring technique is required, which in turn provides SR systems enhanced performance for correct recognition (i.e., minimization of false rejection) as well as correct rejection (i.e., minimization of false acceptance). A revolutionary and innovative classification and scoring technique is used that is a significant enhancement over an earlier method presented in reference [1]. The solution in reference [1] has been demonstrated to meet the stringent requirements of the WUW-SR task. Advanced solution of [1] is a novel technique that is model and algorithm independent. Therefore, it could be used to significantly improve performance of existing recognition algorithms and systems. Reduction of error rates of over 40% are commonly observed for both false rejections and false acceptance. In this paper the architecture of the WUW-SR based system as interface to current SR applications is presented. In this system WUW-SR is used as a gateway for truly Voice Activated applications utilizing the current solution without "push-to-talk" paradigm. The technique has been developed with hardware optimization in mind and therefore has the ability to run as a "background" application on a standard Windows-based PC platform.

Këpuska, Veton; Breitfeller, Jason

2006-05-01

283

Orthographic Consistency and Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition: New Evidence from Lexical Decision and Rime Detection  

PubMed Central

Many studies have repeatedly shown an orthographic consistency effect in the auditory lexical decision task. Words with phonological rimes that could be spelled in multiple ways (i.e., inconsistent words) typically produce longer auditory lexical decision latencies and more errors than do words with rimes that could be spelled in only one way (i.e., consistent words). These results have been extended to different languages and tasks, suggesting that the effect is quite general and robust. Despite this growing body of evidence, some psycholinguists believe that orthographic effects on spoken language are exclusively strategic, post-lexical, or restricted to peculiar (low-frequency) words. In the present study, we manipulated consistency and word-frequency orthogonally in order to explore whether the orthographic consistency effect extends to high-frequency words. Two different tasks were used: lexical decision and rime detection. Both tasks produced reliable consistency effects for both low- and high-frequency words. Furthermore, in Experiment 1 (lexical decision), an interaction revealed a stronger consistency effect for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words, as initially predicted by Ziegler and Ferrand (1998), whereas no interaction was found in Experiment 2 (rime detection). Our results extend previous findings by showing that the orthographic consistency effect is obtained not only for low-frequency words but also for high-frequency words. Furthermore, these effects were also obtained in a rime detection task, which does not require the explicit processing of orthographic structure. Globally, our results suggest that literacy changes the way people process spoken words, even for frequent words. PMID:22025916

Petrova, Ana; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Ferrand, Ludovic

2011-01-01

284

Re-evaluating split-fovea processing in word recognition: effects of retinal eccentricity on hemispheric dominance.  

PubMed

Several studies have claimed that hemispheric asymmetries affect word recognition right up to the point of fixation because each fovea is split precisely at its vertical midline and information presented either side of this midline projects unilaterally to different, contralateral hemispheres. To investigate this claim, four-letter words were presented to the left or right of fixation, either close to fixation entirely in foveal vision (0.15, 0.25, and 0.35 degrees from fixation) or further from fixation entirely in extrafoveal vision (2.00, 2.10, and 2.20 degrees from fixation). Fixation location and stimulus presentation were controlled using an eye-tracker linked to a fixation-contingent display and performance was assessed using a forced-choice task to suppress confounding effects of guesswork. A left hemisphere advantage was observed for words presented in extrafoveal locations but no hemisphere advantage (left or right) was observed for words presented in any foveal location. These findings support the well-established view that words encountered outside foveal vision project to different, contralateral hemispheres but indicate that this division for word recognition occurs only outside the fovea and provide no support for the claim that a functional split in hemispheric processing exists at the point of fixation. PMID:18999347

Jordan, Timothy R; Paterson, Kevin B; Stachurski, Marcin

2008-11-01

285

Robust automatic target detection\\/recognition system for second generation FLIR imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic target detection and recognition (ATD\\/R) is of crucial interest to the defense community. We present a robust ATD\\/R system developed at the CVRC at UT-Austin for recognition in second generation forward looking infrared (FLIR) images. An experiment conducted on 1930 FLIR images shows that this ATR system can achieve recognition with a high degree of accuracy and a low

Huaibin Zhao; Shishir Shah; Jae Hun Choi; Dinesh Nair; J. K. Aggarwal

1998-01-01

286

From within-word model search to across-word model search in large vocabulary continuous speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on the application of across-word context dependent acoustic phoneme models in a single-pass large vocabulary continuous speech recognizer.Although across-word models are used by many groups today, only an outline of the recognizers is usually given in the publications. Implementation details are often missing.We present both a formal derivation of across-word model search and a detailed

Achim Sixtus; Hermann Ney

2002-01-01

287

Microsoft Word - TARGET External roster-2-29-081.doc  

Cancer.gov

Board of Scientific Advisors Ad Hoc Subcommittee for the Childhood Cancer Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatment (TARGET) Initiative CHAIR Joe W. Gray, Ph.D. Director Division of Life Sciences Associate Director,

288

Recognition of spoken words by native and non-native listeners: Talker-, listener-, and item-related factors  

PubMed Central

In order to gain insight into the interplay between the talker-, listener-, and item-related factors that influence speech perception, a large multi-talker database of digitally recorded spoken words was developed, and was then submitted to intelligibility tests with multiple listeners. Ten talkers produced two lists of words at three speaking rates. One list contained lexically “easy” words (words with few phonetically similar sounding “neighbors” with which they could be confused), and the other list contained lexically “hard” (wordswords with many phonetically similar sounding “neighbors”). An analysis of the intelligibility data obtained with native speakers of English (experiment 1) showed a strong effect of lexical similarity. Easy words had higher intelligibility scores than hard words. A strong effect of speaking rate was also found whereby slow and medium rate words had higher intelligibility scores than fast rate words. Finally, a relationship was also observed between the various stimulus factors whereby the perceptual difficulties imposed by one factor, such as a hard word spoken at a fast rate, could be overcome by the advantage gained through the listener's experience and familiarity with the speech of a particular talker. In experiment 2, the investigation was extended to another listener population, namely, non-native listeners. Results showed that the ability to take advantage of surface phonetic information, such as a consistent talker across items, is a perceptual skill that transfers easily from first to second language perception. However, non-native listeners had particular difficulty with lexically hard words even when familiarity with the items was controlled, suggesting that non-native word recognition may be compromised when fine phonetic discrimination at the segmental level is required. Taken together, the results of this study provide insight into the signal-dependent and signal-independent factors that influence spoken language processing in native and non-native listeners. PMID:10530030

Bradlow, Ann R.; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

289

Energetics of target peptide recognition by calmodulin: a calorimetric study.  

PubMed

Calmodulin is a small protein involved in the regulation of a wide variety of intracellular processes. The cooperative binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin's two Ca2+ binding domains induces conformational changes which allow calmodulin to activate specific target enzymes. The association of calmodulin with a peptide corresponding to the calmodulin binding site of rabbit smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCKp) was studied using isothermal titration microcalorimetry. The dependence of the binding energetics on temperature, pH, Ca2+ concentration, and NaCl concentration were determined. It is found that the binding of calmodulin to smMLCKp proceeds with negative changes in enthalpy (deltaH), heat capacity (deltaCp), and entropy (deltaS) near room temperature, indicating that it is an enthalpically driven process that is entropically unfavorable. From these results it is concluded that the hydrophobic effect, an entropic effect which favors the removal of non-polar protein groups from water, is not a major driving force in calmodulin-smMLCKp recognition. Although a large number of non-polar side-chains are buried upon binding, these stabilize the complex primarily by forming tightly packed van der Waals interactions with one another. Binding at acidic pH was studied in order to assess the contribution of electrostatic interactions to binding. It is found that moving to acidic pH results in a large decrease in the Gibbs free energy of binding but no change in the enthalpy, indicating that electrostatic interactions contribute only entropically to the binding energetics. The accessible surface area and atomic packing density of the calmodulin-smMLCKp crystal structure are analyzed, and the results discussed in relation to the experimental data. PMID:9086281

Wintrode, P L; Privalov, P L

1997-03-14

290

Evaluating the developmental trajectory of the episodic buffer component of working memory and its relation to word recognition in children.  

PubMed

The creation of temporary bound representation of information from different sources is one of the key abilities attributed to the episodic buffer component of working memory. Whereas the role of working memory in word learning has received substantial attention, very little is known about the link between the development of word recognition skills and the ability to bind information in the episodic buffer of working memory and how it may develop with age. This study examined the performance of Grade 2 children (8years old), Grade 3 children (9years old), and young adults on a task designed to measure their ability to bind visual and auditory-verbal information in working memory. Children's performance on this task significantly correlated with their word recognition skills even when chronological age, memory for individual elements, and other possible reading-related factors were taken into account. In addition, clear developmental trajectories were observed, with improvements in the ability to hold temporary bound information in working memory between Grades 2 and 3, and between the child and adult groups, that were independent from memory for the individual elements. These findings suggest that the capacity to temporarily bind novel auditory-verbal information to visual form in working memory is linked to the development of word recognition in children and improves with age. PMID:25725456

Wang, Shinmin; Allen, Richard J; Lee, Jun Ren; Hsieh, Chia-En

2015-05-01

291

Morphological processing during visual word recognition in developing readers: evidence from masked priming.  

PubMed

Masked priming studies with adult readers have provided evidence for a form-based morpho-orthographic segmentation mechanism that "blindly" decomposes any word with the appearance of morphological complexity. The present studies investigated whether evidence for structural morphological decomposition can be obtained with developing readers. We used a masked primed lexical decision design first adopted by Rastle, Davis, and New (2004), comparing truly suffixed (golden-GOLD) and pseudosuffixed (mother-MOTH) prime-target pairs with nonsuffixed controls (spinach-SPIN). Experiment 1 tested adult readers, showing that priming from both pseudo- and truly suffixed primes could be obtained using our own set of high-frequency word materials. Experiment 2 assessed a group of Year 3 and Year 5 children, but priming only occurred when prime and target shared a true morphological relationship, and not when the relationship was pseudomorphological. This pattern of results indicates that morpho-orthographic decomposition mechanisms do not become automatized until a relatively late stage in reading development. PMID:22530670

Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Castles, Anne; Coltheart, Max

2012-01-01

292

Design and performance of a large vocabulary discrete word recognition system. Volume 1: Technical report. [real time computer technique for voice data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development, construction, and test of a 100-word vocabulary near real time word recognition system are reported. Included are reasonable replacement of any one or all 100 words in the vocabulary, rapid learning of a new speaker, storage and retrieval of training sets, verbal or manual single word deletion, continuous adaptation with verbal or manual error correction, on-line verification of vocabulary as spoken, system modes selectable via verification display keyboard, relationship of classified word to neighboring word, and a versatile input/output interface to accommodate a variety of applications.

1973-01-01

293

ERP profiles for face and word recognition are based on their status in semantic memory not their stimulus category.  

PubMed

Previous research has suggested that faces and words are processed and remembered differently as reflected by different ERP patterns for the two types of stimuli. Specifically, face stimuli produced greater late positive deflections for old items in anterior compared to posterior regions, while word stimuli produced greater late positive deflections in posterior compared to anterior regions. Given that words have existing representations in subjects? long-term memories (LTM) and that face stimuli used in prior experiments were of unknown individuals, we conducted an ERP study that crossed face and letter stimuli with the presence or absence of a prior (stable or existing) memory representation. During encoding, subjects judged whether stimuli were known (famous face or real word) or not known (unknown person or pseudo-word). A surprise recognition memory test required subjects to distinguish between stimuli that appeared during the encoding phase and stimuli that did not. ERP results were consistent with previous research when comparing unknown faces and words; however, the late ERP pattern for famous faces was more similar to that for words than for unknown faces. This suggests that the critical ERP difference is mediated by whether there is a prior representation in LTM, and not whether the stimulus involves letters or faces. PMID:24530268

Nie, Aiqing; Griffin, Michael; Keinath, Alexander; Walsh, Matthew; Dittmann, Andrea; Reder, Lynne

2014-04-01

294

I see/hear what you mean: semantic activation in visual word recognition depends on perceptual attention.  

PubMed

How does the meaning of a word affect how quickly we can recognize it? Accounts of visual word recognition allow semantic information to facilitate performance but have neglected the role of modality-specific perceptual attention in activating meaning. We predicted that modality-specific semantic information would differentially facilitate lexical decision and reading aloud, depending on how perceptual attention is implicitly directed by each task. Large-scale regression analyses showed the perceptual modalities involved in representing a word's referent concept influence how easily that word is recognized. Both lexical decision and reading-aloud tasks direct attention toward vision, and are faster and more accurate for strongly visual words. Reading aloud additionally directs attention toward audition and is faster and more accurate for strongly auditory words. Furthermore, the overall semantic effects are as large for reading aloud as lexical decision and are separable from age-of-acquisition effects. These findings suggest that implicitly directing perceptual attention toward a particular modality facilitates representing modality-specific perceptual information in the meaning of a word, which in turn contributes to the lexical decision or reading-aloud response. PMID:24099578

Connell, Louise; Lynott, Dermot

2014-04-01

295

Distorted target recognition based on canny operator enhancing OT-MACH filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The image pattern recognition can accurately identify and locate the target, but image pattern recognition is unable to accurately recognize the distorted targets (the targets rotated in plane or scale changed), which has restricted the development of the image pattern recognition. In order to solve the problem of inaccurate recognition for distorted target in cluttered background among the image pattern recognition, the distorted target images and the training images are edge extracted by canny operator. The Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter is synthesized with the edge extracted training images. The low frequency information of the distorted target images and the filter is enhanced. Then the edge extracted distorted target image is filtered by the OT-MACH filter. Thereby, the distortion tolerance of the OT-MACH filter is expanded. It can respond higher correlation peaks and have higher distortion tolerance to recognize various types of distorted targets in cluttered background. By this method, which the space edge extraction combines with frequency domain filtering, the scale distortion tolerance is 0.72~1.42 times; the rotation distortion tolerance can reach up to 70 degrees. In order to prove the feasibility of this method, a lot of computer simulation experiments have been done with the canny operator and the OT-MACH filter.

Shang, Jiyang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Qibo; Wang, Wensheng

2012-11-01

296

Incorporating domain knowledge in chemical and biomedical named entity recognition with word representations  

PubMed Central

Background Chemical and biomedical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is an essential prerequisite task before effective text mining can begin for biochemical-text data. Exploiting unlabeled text data to leverage system performance has been an active and challenging research topic in text mining due to the recent growth in the amount of biomedical literature. We present a semi-supervised learning method that efficiently exploits unlabeled data in order to incorporate domain knowledge into a named entity recognition model and to leverage system performance. The proposed method includes Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks for text preprocessing, learning word representation features from a large amount of text data for feature extraction, and conditional random fields for token classification. Other than the free text in the domain, the proposed method does not rely on any lexicon nor any dictionary in order to keep the system applicable to other NER tasks in bio-text data. Results We extended BANNER, a biomedical NER system, with the proposed method. This yields an integrated system that can be applied to chemical and drug NER or biomedical NER. We call our branch of the BANNER system BANNER-CHEMDNER, which is scalable over millions of documents, processing about 530 documents per minute, is configurable via XML, and can be plugged into other systems by using the BANNER Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) interface. BANNER-CHEMDNER achieved an 85.68% and an 86.47% F-measure on the testing sets of CHEMDNER Chemical Entity Mention (CEM) and Chemical Document Indexing (CDI) subtasks, respectively, and achieved an 87.04% F-measure on the official testing set of the BioCreative II gene mention task, showing remarkable performance in both chemical and biomedical NER. BANNER-CHEMDNER system is available at: https://bitbucket.org/tsendeemts/banner-chemdner.

2015-01-01

297

Gaussian process classification using automatic relevance determination for SAR target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a Synthetic Aperture Radar Automatic Target Recognition approach based on Gaussian process (GP) classification is proposed. It adopts kernel principal component analysis to extract sample features and implements target recognition by using GP classification with automatic relevance determination (ARD) function. Compared with k-Nearest Neighbor, Naïve Bayes classifier and Support Vector Machine, GP with ARD has the advantage of automatic model selection and hyper-parameter optimization. The experiments on UCI datasets and MSTAR database show that our algorithm is self-tuning and has better recognition accuracy as well.

Zhang, Xiangrong; Gou, Limin; Hou, Biao; Jiao, Licheng

2010-10-01

298

Using Procrustes distance and shape space for automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equating objects based on shape similarity (for example scaled Euclidean transformations) is often desirable to solve the Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) problem. The Procrustes distance is a metric that captures the shape of an object independent of the following transformations: translation, rotation, and scale. The Procrustes metric assumes that all objects can be represented by a set of landmarks (i.e. points), that they have the same number of points, and that the points are ordered (i.e., the exact correspondence between the points is known from one object to the next). Although this correspondence is not known for many ATR problems, computationally feasible methods for examining all possible combinations are being explored. Additionally, most objects can be mapped to a shape space where translation, rotation, and scaling are removed, and distances between object points in this space can then form another useful metric. To establish a decision boundary in any classification problem, it is essential to know the a prior probabilities in the appropriate space. This paper analyzes basic objects (triangles) in two-dimensional space to assess how a known distribution in Euclidean space maps to the shape space. Any triangles whose three coordinate points are uniformly distributed within a two-dimensional box transforms to a bivariate independent normal distribution with mean (0,0) and standard deviations of 2 in Kendall shape space (two points of the triangle are mapped to {-1/2,0} and {1/2,0}). The Central Limit Theorem proves that the limit of sums of finite variance distributions approaches the normal distribution. This is a reasonable model of the relationship between the three Euclidean coordinates relative to the single Kendall shape space coordinate. This paper establishes the relationship between different objects in the shape space and the Procrustes distance, which is an established shape metric, between these objects. Ignoring reflections (because it is a special case), the Procrustes distance is isometric to the shape space coordinates. This result demonstrates that both Kendall coordinates and Procrustes distance are useful features for ATR.

Meyer, Gregory J.; Gustafson, Steven C.; Arnold, Gregory D.

2002-05-01

299

Application of automatic threshold in dynamic target recognition with low contrast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid photoelectric joint transform correlator can realize automatic real-time recognition with high precision through the combination of optical devices and electronic devices. When recognizing targets with low contrast using photoelectric joint transform correlator, because of the difference of attitude, brightness and grayscale between target and template, only four to five frames of dynamic targets can be recognized without any processing. CCD camera is used to capture the dynamic target images and the capturing speed of CCD is 25 frames per second. Automatic threshold has many advantages like fast processing speed, effectively shielding noise interference, enhancing diffraction energy of useful information and better reserving outline of target and template, so this method plays a very important role in target recognition with optical correlation method. However, the automatic obtained threshold by program can not achieve the best recognition results for dynamic targets. The reason is that outline information is broken to some extent. Optimal threshold is obtained by manual intervention in most cases. Aiming at the characteristics of dynamic targets, the processing program of improved automatic threshold is finished by multiplying OTSU threshold of target and template by scale coefficient of the processed image, and combining with mathematical morphology. The optimal threshold can be achieved automatically by improved automatic threshold processing for dynamic low contrast target images. The recognition rate of dynamic targets is improved through decreased background noise effect and increased correlation information. A series of dynamic tank images with the speed about 70 km/h are adapted as target images. The 1st frame of this series of tanks can correlate only with the 3rd frame without any processing. Through OTSU threshold, the 80th frame can be recognized. By automatic threshold processing of the joint images, this number can be increased to 89 frames. Experimental results show that the improved automatic threshold processing has special application value for the recognition of dynamic target with low contrast.

Miao, Hua; Guo, Xiaoming; Chen, Yu

2014-11-01

300

Theories of Spoken Word Recognition Deficits in Aphasia: Evidence from Eye-Tracking and Computational Modeling  

PubMed Central

We used eye tracking to investigate lexical processing in aphasic participants by examining the fixation time course for rhyme (e.g., carrot – parrot) and cohort (e.g., beaker – beetle) competitors. Broca’s aphasic participants exhibited larger rhyme competition effects than age-matched controls. A reanalysis of previously reported data (Yee, Blumstein, & Sedivy, 2008) confirmed that Wernicke’s aphasic participants exhibited larger cohort competition effects. Individual-level analyses revealed a negative correlation between rhyme and cohort competition effect size across both groups of aphasic participants. Computational model simulations were performed to examine which of several accounts of lexical processing deficits in aphasia might account for the observed effects. Simulation results revealed that slower deactivation of lexical competitors could account for increased cohort competition in Wernicke’s aphasic participants; auditory perceptual impairment could account for increased rhyme competition in Broca's aphasic participants; and a perturbation of a parameter controlling selection among competing alternatives could account for both patterns, as well as the correlation between the effects. In light of these simulation results, we discuss theoretical accounts that have the potential to explain the dynamics of spoken word recognition in aphasia and the possible roles of anterior and posterior brain regions in lexical processing and cognitive control. PMID:21371743

Mirman, Daniel; Yee, Eiling; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Magnuson, James S.

2011-01-01

301

Hemispheric Specialization and Independence for Word Recognition: A Comparison of Three Computational Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two findings serve as the hallmark for hemispheric specialization during lateralized lexical decision. First is an overall word advantage, with words being recognized more quickly and accurately than non-words (the effect being stronger in response latency). Second, a right visual field advantage is observed for words, with little or no…

Weems, Scott A.; Reggia, James A.

2004-01-01

302

What Do Letter Migration Errors Reveal About Letter Position Coding in Visual Word Recognition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dividing attention across multiple words occasionally results in misidentifications whereby letters apparently migrate between words. Previous studies have found that letter migrations preserve within-word letter position, which has been interpreted as support for position-specific letter coding. To investigate this issue, the authors used word

Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

2004-01-01

303

Increased activation of the left hippocampus region in Complex PTSD during encoding and recognition of emotional words: a pilot study.  

PubMed

To gain insight into memory disturbances in Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD), we investigated declarative memory function and medial temporal lobe activity in patients and healthy non-traumatized controls. A case-control study was performed in nine patients with Complex PTSD and nine controls. All respondents performed a declarative memory task with neutral and emotional, negative words during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Memory performance of neutral words was impaired in Complex PTSD with a relative conservation of recall of negative words. Deep encoding of later remembered negative words, as well as correct recognition of negative words and false alarms, was associated with an enhanced Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) response in the left hippocampus extending into the parahippocampal gyrus of Complex PTSD patients compared with controls. Post-hoc volumetric comparisons did not reveal significant anatomical differences in the medial temporal lobe between Complex PTSD patients and controls. We conclude that in Complex PTSD preferential recall of negative words is associated with increased activation in the left hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus during both successful and false recall. These findings support a model of an abnormally functioning hippocampus in Complex PTSD. PMID:19081708

Thomaes, Kathleen; Dorrepaal, Ethy; Draijer, Nel P J; de Ruiter, Michiel B; Elzinga, Bernet M; van Balkom, Anton J; Smoor, Paulien L M; Smit, Johannes; Veltman, Dick J

2009-01-30

304

Recognition memory of neutral words can be impaired by task-irrelevant emotional encoding contexts: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on the effects of emotional context on memory for centrally presented neutral items have obtained inconsistent results. And in most of those studies subjects were asked to either make a connection between the item and the context at study or retrieve both the item and the context. When no response for the contexts is required, how emotional contexts influence memory for neutral items is still unclear. Thus, the present study attempted to investigate the influences of four types of emotional picture contexts on recognition memory of neutral words using both behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measurements. During study, words were superimposed centrally onto emotional contexts, and subjects were asked to just remember the words. During test, both studied and new words were presented without the emotional contexts and subjects had to make “old/new” judgments for those words. The results revealed that, compared with the neutral context, the negative contexts and positive high-arousing context impaired recognition of words. ERP results at encoding demonstrated that, compared with items presented in the neutral context, items in the positive and negative high-arousing contexts elicited more positive ERPs, which probably reflects an automatic process of attention capturing of high-arousing context as well as a conscious and effortful process of overcoming the interference of high-arousing context. During retrieval, significant FN400 old/new effects occurred in conditions of the negative low-arousing, positive, and neutral contexts but not in the negative high-arousing condition. Significant LPC old/new effects occurred in all conditions of context. However, the LPC old/new effect in the negative high-arousing condition was smaller than that in the positive high-arousing and low-arousing conditions. These results suggest that emotional context might influence both the familiarity and recollection processes.

Zhang, Qin; Liu, Xuan; An, Wei; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yinan

2015-01-01

305

Morphological Family Size Effects in Young First and Second Language Learners: Evidence of Cross-Language Semantic Activation in Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined to what extent young second language (L2) learners showed morphological family size effects in L2 word recognition and whether the effects were grade-level related. Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (L2) and Dutch (first language, L1) children from second, fourth, and sixth grade performed a Dutch lexical decision task on words

de Zeeuw, Marlies; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

2012-01-01

306

Charting the Functional Relevance of Broca's Area for Visual Word Recognition and Picture Naming in Dutch Using fMRI-Guided TMS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has shown pseudohomophone priming effects at Broca's area (specifically pars opercularis of left inferior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus; LIFGpo/PCG) within [approximately]100 ms of viewing a word. This is consistent with Broca's area involvement in fast phonological access during visual word recognition. Here we…

Wheat, Katherine L.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Sack, Alexander T.; Schuhmann, Teresa; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo

2013-01-01

307

Mapping orthographic and phonological neighborhood density effects in visual word recognition in two distinct orthographies  

E-print Network

possess unique vs. shared letters or sounds relative to other words, that is, whether the words have few or several neighbors. Research on so-called neighborhood density effects advances understanding of the organization and operation of the mental lexicon...

Chen, Hsin-Chin

2009-05-15

308

Target Recognition of FLIR Images on Radial Basis Function Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of small target recognition in low SNR (Signal Noise Ratio) is the key problem about processing of forward-looking\\u000a infrared (FLIR) images information. Eight features of objects based on IR radiation characteristics and wavelet-based are\\u000a presented. These features are used to a radial basis function (RBF) network as input for learning and classification. The\\u000a propose recognition algorithm is invariant

Jun Liu; Xiyue Huang; Yong Chen; Naishuai He

2007-01-01

309

A study of regressive place assimilation in spontaneous speech and its implications for spoken word recognition  

E-print Network

assimilation is a form of pronunciation variation in which a word-final alveolar sound takes the place, when a word-final alveolar stop /t/, /d/, or /n/ was followed by a velar or labial consonant in connected speech is regressive place assimilation, in which the final alveolar segment of a word is produced

Liu, Taosheng

310

Cross-Language Effects in Written Word Recognition: The Case of Bilingual Deaf Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, multiple studies have shown that the languages of a bilingual interact during processing. We investigated sign activation as deaf children read words. In a word-picture verification task, we manipulated the underlying sign equivalents. We presented children with word-picture pairs for which the sign translation equivalents varied…

Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

2012-01-01

311

Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…

Gabig, Cheryl Smith

2010-01-01

312

Feature extraction for SAR target recognition based on supervised manifold learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of manifold learning theory, a new feature extraction method for Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) target recognition is proposed. First, the proposed algorithm estimates the within-class and between-class local neighbourhood surrounding each SAR sample. After computing the local tangent space for each neighbourhood, the proposed algorithm seeks for the optimal projecting matrix by preserving the local within-class property and simultaneously maximizing the local between-class separability. The use of uncorrelated constraint can also enhance the discriminating power of the optimal projecting matrix. Finally, the nearest neighbour classifier is applied to recognize SAR targets in the projected feature subspace. Experimental results on MSTAR datasets demonstrate that the proposed method can provide a higher recognition rate than traditional feature extraction algorithms in SAR target recognition.

Du, C.; Zhou, S.; Sun, J.; Zhao, J.

2014-03-01

313

SAR target feature extraction and recognition based multilinear principal component analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA) algorithm is applied to dimensionality reduction in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images target feature extraction. Firstly, the MPCA algorithm is used to find the projection matrices in each mode and perform dimensionality reduction in all tensor modes. And then the distances of the feature tensors of the testing and training are computed for classification. Experimental results based on the moving and stationary target recognition (MSTAR) data indicate that compared with the existing methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA), 2-dimensional PCA (2DPCA), and generalized low rank approximations of matrices (GLRAM), the MPCA algorithm achieves the best recognition performance with acceptable feature dimensionality.

Hu, Liping; Xing, Xiaoyu

2014-11-01

314

Superconducting gravity gradiometers for underground target recognition. Final report  

SciTech Connect

One of the most formidable intelligence challenges existing in the non-proliferation community is the detection of buried targets. The physical parameter that all buried targets share, whether the target is buried armaments, a tunnel or a bunker, is mass. In the case of buried armaments, there is an excess mass (higher density) compared to the surrounding area; for a tunnel or bunker, the mass is missing. In either case, this difference in mass generates a distinct gravitational signature. The Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer project at Sandia worked toward developing an airborne device for the detection of these underground structures.

Adriaans, M.J.

1998-01-01

315

Wavelet-Based Signal and Image Processing for Target Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PI visited NSWC Dahlgren, VA, for six weeks in May-June 2002 and collaborated with scientists in the G33 TEAMS facility, and with Marilyn Rudzinsky of T44 Technology and Photonic Systems Branch. During this visit the PI also presented six educational seminars to NSWC scientists on various aspects of signal processing. Several items from the grant proposal were completed, including (1) wavelet-based algorithms for interpolation of 1-d signals and 2-d images; (2) Discrete Wavelet Transform domain based algorithms for filtering of image data; (3) wavelet-based smoothing of image sequence data originally obtained for the CRITTIR (Clutter Rejection Involving Temporal Techniques in the Infra-Red) project. The PI visited the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa to collaborate with colleagues Prof. B.M. Herbst and Prof. J. du Preez on the use of wavelet image processing in conjunction with pattern recognition techniques. The University of Stellenbosch has offered the PI partial funding to support a sabbatical visit in Fall 2003, the primary purpose of which is to enable the PI to develop and enhance his expertise in Pattern Recognition. During the first year, the grant supported publication of 3 referred papers, presentation of 9 seminars and an intensive two-day course on wavelet theory. The grant supported the work of two students who functioned as research assistants.

Sherlock, Barry G.

2002-11-01

316

Brain-potential analysis of visual word recognition in dyslexics and typically reading children  

PubMed Central

The specialization of visual brain areas for fast processing of printed words plays an important role in the acquisition of reading skills. Dysregulation of these areas may be among the deficits underlying developmental dyslexia. The present study examines the specificity of word activation in dyslexic children in 3rd grade by comparing early components of brain potentials elicited by visually presented words vs. strings of meaningless letter-like symbols. Results showed a more pronounced N1 component for words compared to symbols for both groups. The dyslexic group revealed larger left-lateralized, word-specific N1 responses than the typically reading group. Furthermore, positive correlations between N1 amplitudes and reading fluency were found in the dyslexic group. Our results support the notion of N1 as a sensitive index of visual word processing involved in reading fluency. PMID:25071507

Fraga González, Gorka; Žari?, Gojko; Tijms, Jurgen; Bonte, Milene; Blomert, Leo; van der Molen, Maurits W.

2014-01-01

317

Deficits in audiovisual speech perception in normal aging emerge at the level of whole-word recognition.  

PubMed

Over the next 2 decades, a dramatic shift in the demographics of society will take place, with a rapid growth in the population of older adults. One of the most common complaints with healthy aging is a decreased ability to successfully perceive speech, particularly in noisy environments. In such noisy environments, the presence of visual speech cues (i.e., lip movements) provide striking benefits for speech perception and comprehension, but previous research suggests that older adults gain less from such audiovisual integration than their younger peers. To determine at what processing level these behavioral differences arise in healthy-aging populations, we administered a speech-in-noise task to younger and older adults. We compared the perceptual benefits of having speech information available in both the auditory and visual modalities and examined both phoneme and whole-word recognition across varying levels of signal-to-noise ratio. For whole-word recognition, older adults relative to younger adults showed greater multisensory gains at intermediate SNRs but reduced benefit at low SNRs. By contrast, at the phoneme level both younger and older adults showed approximately equivalent increases in multisensory gain as signal-to-noise ratio decreased. Collectively, the results provide important insights into both the similarities and differences in how older and younger adults integrate auditory and visual speech cues in noisy environments and help explain some of the conflicting findings in previous studies of multisensory speech perception in healthy aging. These novel findings suggest that audiovisual processing is intact at more elementary levels of speech perception in healthy-aging populations and that deficits begin to emerge only at the more complex word-recognition level of speech signals. PMID:25282337

Stevenson, Ryan A; Nelms, Caitlin E; Baum, Sarah H; Zurkovsky, Lilia; Barense, Morgan D; Newhouse, Paul A; Wallace, Mark T

2015-01-01

318

Intelligent target recognition using micro-Doppler radar signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an effective quadratic time-frequency S-method based approach in conjunction with the Viterbi algorithm to extract m-D features. The effectiveness of the S-method in extracting m-D features is demonstrated through the application to indoor and outdoor experimental data sets such as rotating fan and human gait. The Viterbi algorithm for the instantaneous frequency estimation is used to enhance the weak human micro-Doppler features in relatively high noise environments. As such, this paper contributes additional experimental micro-Doppler data and analysis, which should help in developing a better picture of the human gait micro-Doppler research and its applications to indoor and outdoor imaging and automatic gait recognition systems.

Thayaparan, Thayananthan; Stankovic, Ljubisa; Djurovic, Igor; Penamati, Suresh; Venkataramaniah, Kamisetti

2009-05-01

319

fMRI Evidence for Dual Routes to the Mental Lexicon in Visual Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

& Event-related fMRI was used to investigate lexical decisions to words of high and low frequency of occurrence and to pseudowords. The results obtained strongly support dual-route models of visual word processing. By contrasting words with pseudowords,bilateral occipito-temporal brain areas and posterior left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) were identified as contributing to the successful mapping of orthographic percepts onto visual

Christian J. Fiebach; Angela D. Friederici; D. Yves von Cramon

2002-01-01

320

Target recognition in passive terahertz image of human body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THz radiation can penetrate through many nonpolar dielectric materials and can be used for nondestructive/noninvasive sensing and imaging of targets under nonpolar, nonmetallic covers or containers. Thus using THz systems to "see through" concealing barriers (i.e. packaging, corrugated cardboard, clothing) has been proposed as a new security screening method. Objects that can be detected by THz include concealed weapons, explosives, and chemical agents under clothing. Passive THz imaging system can detect THz wave from human body without transmit any electromagnetic wave, and the suspicious objects will become visible because the THz wave is blocked by this items. We can find out whether or not someone is carrying dangerous objects through this image. In this paper, the THz image enhancement, segmentation and contour extraction algorithms were studied to achieve effective target image detection. First, the terahertz images are enhanced and their grayscales are stretched. Then we apply global threshold segmentation to extract the target, and finally the targets are marked on the image. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper can extract and mark targets effectively, so that people can identify suspicious objects under clothing quickly. The algorithm can significantly improve the usefulness of the terahertz security apparatus.

Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cun-lin; Li, Yue

2014-11-01

321

Pattern-Recognition System for Approaching a Known Target  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A closed-loop pattern-recognition system is designed to provide guidance for maneuvering a small exploratory robotic vehicle (rover) on Mars to return to a landed spacecraft to deliver soil and rock samples that the spacecraft would subsequently bring back to Earth. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in guiding mobile robots to approach known structures that humans could not approach safely, for such purposes as reconnaissance in military or law-enforcement applications, terrestrial scientific exploration, and removal of explosive or other hazardous items. The system has been demonstrated in experiments in which the Field Integrated Design and Operations (FIDO) rover (a prototype Mars rover equipped with a video camera for guidance) is made to return to a mockup of Mars-lander spacecraft. The FIDO rover camera autonomously acquires an image of the lander from a distance of 125 m in an outdoor environment. Then under guidance by an algorithm that performs fusion of multiple line and texture features in digitized images acquired by the camera, the rover traverses the intervening terrain, using features derived from images of the lander truss structure. Then by use of precise pattern matching for determining the position and orientation of the rover relative to the lander, the rover aligns itself with the bottom of ramps extending from the lander, in preparation for climbing the ramps to deliver samples to the lander. The most innovative aspect of the system is a set of pattern-recognition algorithms that govern a three-phase visual-guidance sequence for approaching the lander. During the first phase, a multifeature fusion algorithm integrates the outputs of a horizontal-line-detection algorithm and a wavelet-transform-based visual-area-of-interest algorithm for detecting the lander from a significant distance. The horizontal-line-detection algorithm is used to determine candidate lander locations based on detection of a horizontal deck that is part of the lander.

Huntsberger, Terrance; Cheng, Yang

2008-01-01

322

Lip-Reading Aids Word Recognition Most in Moderate Noise: A Bayesian Explanation Using High-Dimensional Feature Space  

PubMed Central

Watching a speaker's facial movements can dramatically enhance our ability to comprehend words, especially in noisy environments. From a general doctrine of combining information from different sensory modalities (the principle of inverse effectiveness), one would expect that the visual signals would be most effective at the highest levels of auditory noise. In contrast, we find, in accord with a recent paper, that visual information improves performance more at intermediate levels of auditory noise than at the highest levels, and we show that a novel visual stimulus containing only temporal information does the same. We present a Bayesian model of optimal cue integration that can explain these conflicts. In this model, words are regarded as points in a multidimensional space and word recognition is a probabilistic inference process. When the dimensionality of the feature space is low, the Bayesian model predicts inverse effectiveness; when the dimensionality is high, the enhancement is maximal at intermediate auditory noise levels. When the auditory and visual stimuli differ slightly in high noise, the model makes a counterintuitive prediction: as sound quality increases, the proportion of reported words corresponding to the visual stimulus should first increase and then decrease. We confirm this prediction in a behavioral experiment. We conclude that auditory-visual speech perception obeys the same notion of optimality previously observed only for simple multisensory stimuli. PMID:19259259

Ross, Lars A.; Foxe, John J.; Parra, Lucas C.

2009-01-01

323

In situ recognition of cell-surface glycans and targeted imaging of cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Fluorescent sensors capable of recognizing cancer-associated glycans, such as sialyl Lewis X (sLex) tetrasaccharide, have great potential for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Studies on water-soluble and biocompatible sensors for in situ recognition of cancer-associated glycans in live cells and targeted imaging of cancer cells are very limited at present. Here we report boronic acid-functionalized peptide-based fluorescent sensors (BPFSs) for in situ recognition and differentiation of cancer-associated glycans, as well as targeted imaging of cancer cells. By screening BPFSs with different structures, it was demonstrated that BPFS1 with a FRGDF peptide could recognize cell-surface glycan of sLex with high specificity and thereafter fluorescently label and discriminate cancer cells through the cooperation with the specific recognition between RGD and integrins. The newly developed peptide-based sensor will find great potential as a fluorescent probe for cancer diagnosis. PMID:24042097

Xu, Xiao-Ding; Cheng, Han; Chen, Wei-Hai; Cheng, Si-Xue; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

2013-01-01

324

Structural basis of diverse membrane target recognitions by ankyrins  

PubMed Central

Ankyrin adaptors together with their spectrin partners coordinate diverse ion channels and cell adhesion molecules within plasma membrane domains and thereby promote physiological activities including fast signaling in the heart and nervous system. Ankyrins specifically bind to numerous membrane targets through their 24 ankyrin repeats (ANK repeats), although the mechanism for the facile and independent evolution of these interactions has not been resolved. Here we report the structures of ANK repeats in complex with an inhibitory segment from the C-terminal regulatory domain and with a sodium channel Nav1.2 peptide, respectively, showing that the extended, extremely conserved inner groove spanning the entire ANK repeat solenoid contains multiple target binding sites capable of accommodating target proteins with very diverse sequences via combinatorial usage of these sites. These structures establish a framework for understanding the evolution of ankyrins' membrane targets, with implications for other proteins containing extended ANK repeat domains. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04353.001 PMID:25383926

Wang, Chao; Wei, Zhiyi; Chen, Keyu; Ye, Fei; Yu, Cong; Bennett, Vann; Zhang, Mingjie

2014-01-01

325

Target detection and recognition techniques of line imaging ladar sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A line imaging ladar sensor using linear diode laser array and linear avalanche photodiode (APD) array is developed for precise terminal guidance and intelligent proximity fuzing applications. The detection principle of line imaging ladar is discussed in detail, and design method of the line imaging ladar sensor system is given. Taking military tank target as example, simulated tank height and

Zhi-Hui Sun; Jia-Hao Deng; Xiao-Wei Yan

2009-01-01

326

FUSE attitude control: target recognition and ne guidance performance  

E-print Network

acquisitions and #12;ne pointing control. One of two Fine Error Sensors, incorporated in the optical path. If desired, further #12;ne alignment of the science apertures is performed by a target peakup using the FUV while inertial pointing is maintained by the spacecraft. Fine guidance is performed using one of two

327

Target recognition using HRR profile-based incoherent SAR (InSAR) image formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feature-aided target verification is a challenging field of research, with the potential to yield significant increases in the confidence of re-established target tracks after kinematic confusion events. Using appropriate control algorithms airborne multi-mode radars can acquire a library of HRR (High Range Resolution) profiles for targets as they are tracked. When a kinematic confusion event occurs, such as a vehicle dropping below MDV (Minimum Detectable Velocity) for some period of time, or two target tracks crossing, it is necessary to utilize feature-aided tracking methods to correctly associate post-confusion tracks with pre-confusion tracks. Many current HRR profile target recognition methods focus on statistical characteristics of either individual profiles or sets of profiles taken over limited viewing angles. These methods have not proven to be very effective when the pre- and post- confusion libraries do not overlap in azimuth angle. To address this issue we propose a new approach to target recognition from HRR profiles. We present an algorithm that generates 2-D imagery of targets from the pre- and post-confusion libraries. These images are subsequently used as the input to a target recognition/classifier process. Since, center-aligned HRR Profiles, while ideal for processing, are not easily computed in field systems, as they require the airborne platform's center of rotation to line up with the geometric center of the moving target (this is impossible when multiple targets are being tracked), our algorithm is designed to work with HRR profiles that are aligned to the leading edge (the first detection above a threshold, commonly referred to as Edge-Aligned HRR profiles). Our simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method for classifying target vehicles based on simulations using both overlapping and non-overlapping HRR profile sets. The algorithm was tested on several test cases using an input set of .28 m resolution XPATCH generated HRR profiles of 20 test vehicles (civilian and military) at various elevation angles.

O'Donoughue, Nicholas A.; Kuklinski, Walter S.; Arabadjis, Constantine

2008-04-01

328

Two-touch type parking slot marking recognition for target parking position designation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a target parking position designation method based on parking slot marking recognition for automatic parking system. To reduce the search range and memory requirement, the driver designates two seed-points which are the end-point of two line-segments separating the target parking slot from adjacent parking slots. As the method does not require marking line separating parking area from

Ho Gi Jung; Dong Suk Kim; Pal Joo Yoon; Jaihie Kim

2008-01-01

329

Dichotic Word Recognition in Noise and the Right-Ear Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study sought to compare dichotic right-ear advantages (REAs) of young adults to older adult data (C. M. Roup, T. L. Wiley, & R. H. Wilson, 2006) after matching for overall levels of recognition performance. Specifically, speech-spectrum noise was introduced in order to reduce dichotic recognition performance of young adults to a…

Roup, Christina M.

2011-01-01

330

Iterated wavelet transformation and signal discrimination for HRR radar target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the use of wavelets to improve the selection of discriminant features in the target recognition problem using High Range Resolution (HRR) radar signals in an air to air scenario. We show that there is statistically no difference among four different wavelet families in extracting discriminatory features. Since similar results can be obtained from any of the four

Dale E. Nelson; Janusz A. Starzyk; D. David Ensley

2003-01-01

331

A Multiagent Swarming System for Distributed Automatic Target Recognition Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, automatic target recognition (ATR) has emerged as an essential image analysis tool to identify objects from temporally and spatially disjoint possibly noisy image data. For many current applications, ATR is performed by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that fly within a reconnaissance area to collect image data through sensors and upload the data to a central

Prithviraj Dasgupta

2008-01-01

332

Evaluation of Edge Detection Techniques towards Implementation of Automatic Target Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vision of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) is through an integrated command identification architecture that combines non-cooperative and cooperative identification sensors and systems. The ATR implemented shall support development of situational awareness i.e., overall, general knowledge of the tactical battlefield environment, including the location of friendly, neutral, and enemy forces and plan of action for battle. The required operational capability

J. Manikandan; B. Venkataramani; M. Jayachandran

2007-01-01

333

The role of site accessibility in microRNA target recognition  

E-print Network

developed a quantitative luciferase assay in Drosophila melanogaster tissue culture (S2) cells for measuring-pairing interactions within the mRNA, in microRNA target recognition. We experimentally show that mutations diminishing comparable to those of mutations that disrupt sequence complementarity. We devise a parameter-free model

334

Artificial bee colony (ABC) optimized edge potential function (EPF) approach to target recognition for low-altitude aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel shape-matching approach to visual target recognition for aircraft at low alti- tude. An artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm with edge potential function (EPF) is proposed to accom- plish the target recognition task for aircraft. EPF is adopted to provide a type of attractive pattern for a matching contour, which can be exploited by ABC algorithm

Chunfang Xu; Haibin Duan

2010-01-01

335

2.Segmentation in lexical access The literature on spoken word recognition frequently states that connected speech  

E-print Network

). If words were written on the printed page as they sound the result would be something like (1) below: (1 of ambiguity created by onset-embedded words. 2.1. Acoustic cues to segmentation Since connected speech of the resulting speech waves, attempting to relate measured acoustic differences between pairs of stimuli

Davis, Matt

336

Word Recognition and Syntactic Attachment in Reading: Evidence for a Staged Architecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 3 experiments, the author examined how readers' eye movements are influenced by joint manipulations of a word's frequency and the syntactic fit of the word in its context. In the critical conditions of the first 2 experiments, a high- or low-frequency verb was used to disambiguate a garden-path sentence, while in the last experiment, a high- or…

Staub, Adrian

2011-01-01

337

Integrating natural language into the word graph search for simultaneous speech recognition and understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes work aimed towards replacing traditional N-gram language models in a recognizer with a more linguistically motivated language model. We report on experiments involving an A* search through a large word graph of candidate hypotheses, within the ARPA atis domain. We show that the tina natural language system, when properly trained, can compete favorably with a traditional word

Stephanie Seneff; Michael K. McCandless; Victor Zue

1995-01-01

338

The Mechanisms Underlying the Interhemispheric Integration of Information in Foveal Word Recognition: Evidence for Transcortical Inhibition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Words are processed as units. This is not as evident as it seems, given the division of the human cerebral cortex in two hemispheres and the partial decussation of the optic tract. In two experiments, we investigated what underlies the unity of foveally presented words: A bilateral projection of visual input in foveal vision, or interhemispheric…

Van der Haegen, Lise; Brysbaert, Marc

2011-01-01

339

The Role of Saccade Preparation in Lateralized Word Recognition: Evidence for the Attentional Bias Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Words presented to the right visual field (RVF) are recognized more readily than those presented to the left visual field (LVF). Whereas the attentional bias theory proposes an explanation in terms of attentional imbalance between visual fields, the attentional advantage theory assumes that words presented to the RVF are processed automatically…

Perez, Dorine Vergilino; Lemoine, Christelle; Sieroff, Eric; Ergis, Anne-Marie; Bouhired, Redha; Rigault, Emilie; Dore-Mazars, Karine

2012-01-01

340

Morphological processing in word recognition: A review with particular reference to Spanish data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to review the main results offered by some experimental paradigms to support morphological processing of visual isolated words. Three theoretical hypotheses proposing different solutions to the role of word morphological structure in lexical access and representation are described: a) full parsing, b) full listing and c) mixed models. Data from morphologically structured nonwords, comparison

Alberto Domínguez; Fernando Cuetos; Juan Segui

2000-01-01

341

Word recognition and basic cognitive processes among reading-disabled and normal readers in Arabic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated word identification inArabic and basic cognitive processes inreading-disabled (RD) and normal readers of thesame chronological age, and in younger normalreaders at the same reading level. The studyfocused on the word identification processes ofphonological decoding and orthographicprocessing and the cognitive processes ofsyntactic and morphological awareness, workingmemory, and visual processing. RD children werecompared with normal readers on a battery

Salim Abu-Rabia; David Share; Maysaloon Said Mansour

2003-01-01

342

Hybrid optoelectronic correlator architecture for shift-invariant target recognition.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present theoretical details and the underlying architecture of a hybrid optoelectronic correlator (HOC) that correlates images using spatial light modulators (SLMs), detector arrays, and field programmable gate array (FPGA). The proposed architecture bypasses the need for nonlinear materials such as photorefractive polymer films by using detectors instead, and the phase information is yet conserved by the interference of plane waves with the images. However, the output of such an HOC has four terms: two convolution signals and two cross-correlation signals. By implementing a phase stabilization and scanning circuit, the convolution terms can be eliminated, so that the behavior of an HOC becomes essentially identical to that of a conventional holographic correlator (CHC). To achieve the ultimate speed of such a correlator, we also propose an integrated graphic processing unit, which would perform all the electrical processes in a parallel manner. The HOC architecture along with the phase stabilization technique would thus be as good as a CHC, capable of high-speed image recognition in a translation-invariant manner. PMID:24561938

Monjur, Mehjabin Sultana; Tseng, Shih; Tripathi, Renu; Donoghue, John James; Shahriar, M S

2014-01-01

343

An improved cortex-like neuromorphic system for target recognitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the enhancement of biologically-inspired machine vision through a rotation invariance mechanism. Research over the years has suggested that rotation invariance is one of the fundamental generic elements of object constancy, a known generic visual ability of the human brain. Cortex-like vision unlike conventional pixel based machine vision is achieved by mimicking neuromorphic mechanisms of the primates' brain. In this preliminary study, rotation invariance is implemented through histograms from Gabor features of an object. The performance of rotation invariance in the neuromorphic algorithm is assessed by the classification accuracies of a test data set which consists of image objects in five different orientations. It is found that a much more consistent classification result over these five different oriented data sets has been achieved by the integrated rotation invariance neuromorphic algorithm compared to the one without. In addition, the issue of varying aspect ratios of input images to these models is also addressed, in an attempt to create a robust algorithm against a wider variability of input data. The extension of the present achievement is to improve the recognition accuracies while incorporating it to a series of different real-world scenarios which would challenge the approach accordingly.

Tsitiridis, Aristeidis; Yuen, Peter; Hong, Kan; Chen, Tong; Ibrahim, Izzati; Jackman, James; James, David; Richardson, Mark

2010-10-01

344

Inherently electroactive graphene oxide nanoplatelets as labels for specific protein-target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene related materials have been widely employed as highly efficient transducers for biorecognition. Here we show a conceptually new approach of using graphene oxide nanoplatelets (50 × 50 nm) as voltammetric inherently active labels for specific protein-target molecule recognition. This proof-of-principle is demonstrated by biotin-avidin recognition, which displays that graphene oxide nanoplatelet labels show excellent selectivity. Therefore, it is expected that inherently electroactive graphene oxide nanoplatelet labels will play a similar role as electroactive gold nanoparticle labels which were developed more than a decade ago.

Loo, Adeline Huiling; Bonanni, Alessandra; Pumera, Martin

2013-08-01

345

The effects of mediated word lists on false recall and recognition.  

PubMed

False memory effects were explored using unrelated list items (e.g., slope, reindeer, corn) that were related to mediators (e.g., ski, sleigh, flake) that all converged upon a single nonpresented critical item (CI; e.g., snow). In Experiment 1, participants completed either an initial recall test or arithmetic problems after study, followed by a final recognition test. Participants did not falsely recall CIs on the initial test; however, false alarms to CIs did occur in recognition, but only following an initial recall test. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to guess the CI, followed by a recognition test. The results replicated Experiment 1, with an increase in CI false alarms. Experiment 3 controlled for item effects by replacing unrelated recognition items from Experiment 1 with both CIs and list items from nonpresented lists. Once again, CI false alarms were found when controlling for lexical characteristics, demonstrating that mediated false memory is not due simply to item differences. PMID:21336675

Huff, Mark J; Hutchison, Keith A

2011-08-01

346

Linguistically-motivated sub-word modeling with applications to speech recognition  

E-print Network

Despite the proliferation of speech-enabled applications and devices, speech-driven human-machine interaction still faces several challenges. One of theses issues is the new word or the out-of-vocabulary (OOV) problem, ...

Choueiter, Ghinwa F., 1980-

2009-01-01

347

Effect of Stimulation Rate on Cochlear Implant Users’ Phoneme, Word and Sentence Recognition in Quiet and in Noise  

PubMed Central

High stimulation rates in cochlear implants (CI) offer better temporal sampling, can induce stochastic-like firing of auditory neurons and can increase the electric dynamic range, all of which could improve CI speech performance. While commercial CI have employed increasingly high stimulation rates, no clear or consistent advantage has been shown for high rates. In this study, speech recognition was acutely measured with experimental processors in 7 CI subjects (Clarion CII users). The stimulation rate varied between (approx.) 600 and 4800 pulses per second per electrode (ppse) and the number of active electrodes varied between 4 and 16. Vowel, consonant, consonant-nucleus-consonant word and IEEE sentence recognition was acutely measured in quiet and in steady noise (+10 dB signal-to-noise ratio). Subjective quality ratings were obtained for each of the experimental processors in quiet and in noise. Except for a small difference for vowel recognition in quiet, there were no significant differences in performance among the experimental stimulation rates for any of the speech measures. There was also a small but significant increase in subjective quality rating as stimulation rates increased from 1200 to 2400 ppse in noise. Consistent with previous studies, performance significantly improved as the number of electrodes was increased from 4 to 8, but no significant difference showed between 8, 12 and 16 electrodes. Altogether, there was little-to-no advantage of high stimulation rates in quiet or in noise, at least for the present speech tests and conditions. PMID:20639631

Shannon, Robert V.; Cruz, Rachel J.; Galvin, John J.

2011-01-01

348

The different P200 effects of phonological and orthographic syllable frequency in visual word recognition in Korean.  

PubMed

The principal purpose of this study was to examine whether event-related potential (ERP) waveform amplitudes at around 200 ms are affected by first-syllable frequency. Another purpose of this study was to investigate whether the source of the amplitude at around 200 ms is phonological syllable frequency or orthographic syllable frequency. The phonological first-syllable frequency and the orthographic first-syllable frequency of Korean pseudo-words were manipulated, and ERPs were collected during a go/no-go lexical decision task. The results of this study showed that the P200 waveform is sensitive to the frequency of the first phonological syllable; specifically, pseudo-words with higher phonological first-syllable frequency produced a lower P200 amplitude than those with lower phonological first-syllable frequency. The orthographic syllable frequency did not affect the P200 waveform. The present result implies that there may be different routes by which phonological syllables and orthographic syllables are processed during the early stage of the visual word recognition process. PMID:21782003

Kwon, Youan; Lee, Yoonhyoung; Nam, Kichun

2011-08-26

349

To cite this document: Ponzoni Carvalho Chanel, Caroline and Teichteil-Knigsbuch, Florent and Lesire, Charles Multi-target detection and recognition by UAVs using online  

E-print Network

and Lesire, Charles Multi-target detection and recognition by UAVs using online POMDPs. (2013) In: 27th AAAI-Target Detection and Recognition by UAVs Using Online POMDPs Caroline P. Carvalho Chanel and Florent Teichteil by an autonomous UAV. The POMDP model of the multi- target detection and recognition problem is generated online

Mailhes, Corinne

350

False memory in aging: effects of emotional valence on word recognition accuracy.  

PubMed

Memory is susceptible to distortions. Valence and increasing age are variables known to affect memory accuracy and may increase false alarm production. Interaction between these variables and their impact on false memory was investigated in 36 young (18-28 years) and 36 older (61-83 years) healthy adults. At study, participants viewed lists of neutral words orthographically related to negative, neutral, or positive critical lures (not presented). Memory for these words was subsequently tested with a remember-know procedure. At test, items included the words seen at study and their associated critical lures, as well as sets of orthographically related neutral words not seen at study and their associated unstudied lures. Positive valence was shown to have two opposite effects on older adults' discrimination of the lures: It improved correct rejection of unstudied lures but increased false memory for critical lures (i.e., lures associated with words studied previously). Thus, increased salience triggered by positive valence may disrupt memory accuracy in older adults when discriminating among similar events. These findings likely reflect a source memory deficit due to decreased efficiency in cognitive control processes with aging. PMID:18573005

Piguet, Olivier; Connally, Emily; Krendl, Anne C; Huot, Jessica R; Corkin, Suzanne

2008-06-01

351

Evaluation of target acquisition difficulty using recognition distance to measure required retinal area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The psychophysical method of limits was used to measure the distance at which observers could distinguish military vehicles photographed in natural landscapes. Obtained from the TNO-TM Search_2 dataset, these pictures either were rear-projected 35-mm slides or were presented on a computer monitor. Based on the rationale that more difficult vehicle targets would require more visual pathways for recognition, difficult of acquisition was defined in terms of the relative retinal area required for recognition. Relative retinal area was derived from the inverse square of the recognition distance of a particular vehicle relative to the distance of the vehicle that could be seen furthest away. Results are compared with data on the time required to find the vehicles in these pictures. These comparison indicate recognition distance thresholds can be a suitable means of defining standards for the effectiveness of vital graphic information; and the two methods are complementary with respect to distinguishing different degrees of acquisition difficulty, and together may provide a means to measure the total information processing required for recognition.

Nilsson, Thomy H.

2001-09-01

352

A biological cortex like target recognition and tracking in cluttered background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports how objects in street scenes, such as pedestrians and cars, can be spotted, recognised and then subsequently tracked in cluttered background using a cortex like vision approach. Unlike the conventional pixel based machine vision, tracking is achieved by recognition of the target implemented in neuromorphic ways. In this preliminary study the region of interest (ROI) of the image is spotted according to the salience and relevance of the scene and subsequently target recognition and tracking of the object in the ROI have been performed using a mixture of feed forward cortex like neuromorphic algorithms together with statistical classifier & tracker. Object recognitions for four categories (bike, people, car & background) using only one set of ventral visual like features have achieved a max of ~70% accuracy and the present system is quite effective for tracking prominent objects relatively independent of background types. The extension of the present achievement to improve the recognition accuracy as well as the identification of occluded objects from a crowd formulates the next stage of work.

Tsitiridis, Aristeidis; Yuen, Peter; Hong, Kan; Chen, Tong; Kam, Firmin; Jackman, James; James, David; Richardson, Mark

2009-09-01

353

Integrated approach for automatic target recognition using a network of collaborative sensors.  

PubMed

We introduce what is believed to be a novel concept by which several sensors with automatic target recognition (ATR) capability collaborate to recognize objects. Such an approach would be suitable for netted systems in which the sensors and platforms can coordinate to optimize end-to-end performance. We use correlation filtering techniques to facilitate the development of the concept, although other ATR algorithms may be easily substituted. Essentially, a self-configuring geometry of netted platforms is proposed that positions the sensors optimally with respect to each other, and takes into account the interactions among the sensor, the recognition algorithms, and the classes of the objects to be recognized. We show how such a paradigm optimizes overall performance, and illustrate the collaborative ATR scheme for recognizing targets in synthetic aperture radar imagery by using viewing position as a sensor parameter. PMID:16983426

Mahalanobis, Abhijit; Van Nevel, Alan

2006-10-01

354

Automatic target recognition (ATR) performance on wavelet-compressed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the large amount of image data that can be produced in real-time by new synthetic aperture radar (SAR) platforms, such as Global Hawk, compression techniques will be needed for both transmission and storage of this data. Also to keep image analysts (IA's) from being overwhelmed, high-speed automatic target cueing and\\/or recognition (ATC, ATR) systems will be needed to help

Michael Hoffelder; Jun Tian

2000-01-01

355

Neuronal Spoken Word Recognition: The Time Course of Processing Variation in the Speech Signal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent neurobiological studies revealed evidence for lexical representations that are not specified for the coronal place of articulation (PLACE; Friedrich, Eulitz, & Lahiri, 2006; Friedrich, Lahiri, & Eulitz, 2008). Here we tested when these types of underspecified representations influence neuronal speech recognition. In a unimodal…

Schild, Ulrike; Roder, Brigitte; Friedrich, Claudia K.

2012-01-01

356

Recognition Time for Words in Short-Term, Long-Term, or Both Memory Stores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present experiment was designed to investigate recognition memory processes in a task in which the items to be recognized were stored in long-term memory (LTM), in short-term memory (STM), or in both memory stores. (Author/RK)

Mohs, Richard C.; Atkinson, Richard C.

1974-01-01

357

[High-speed target recognition positioning system based on multi-spectral radiation characteristics].  

PubMed

In order to achieve quick recognition and positioning of the high-speed target, using multi-spectral radiation combined with acoustic positioning technology, in the passive state, the blast wave spectral characteristics and acoustic characteristics of the measured target were rapidly obtained, thus analysis was performed to determine the type, location and other important parameters. Multi-spectral radiation detection target recognition formula was deduced. The accuracy of the optical path length and the logical integration time was calculated by shock acoustic positioning method. Experiments used 5.56 mm NATO bullets, 7.62 mm 56-rifle bullets, 12.7 mm 54 type machine-gun bullets as a target identified projectile. Interference fringes were collected by the static Fourier transform interferometer system and ICX387AL type CCD, and the peak of sound pressure was collected using 2209 pulse sound pressure meter made by B & K Company from Denmark Experimental results show that for the 5.56 mm NATO bullets, the three characteristic wavelengths position amplitudes are close to each other, with the maximum amplitude at 966 nm; For the 7.62 mm 56-rifle bullets, 935 nm is the maximum amplitude position, while for 966 and 997 nm position the magnitudes are sunukar; For 12.7 mm 54 type machine-gun bullets, the three wavelengths show a ladder-like distribution. With the increase in the detection distance spectral radiation energy decreased. Meanwhile, with the decrease in the total radiation spectrum, the spectrum of target was affected strongly by background noise, and the SNR of system was decreased. But the spectral characteristics of different target still exist, the target species can be identified by the system with the ratio algorithm of characteristic peaks. Through spectral calibration and characteristic wavelengths extraction, the target can successfully identify the type of projectile and target position, and it meets the design requirements. PMID:25752076

Li, Jian-Min; Wang, Gao

2014-11-01

358

The DNMT1 target recognition domain resides in the N terminus.  

PubMed

DNA-cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is the enzyme believed to be responsible for maintaining the epigenetic information encoded by DNA methylation patterns. The target recognition domain of DNMT1, the domain responsible for recognizing hemimethylated CGs, is unknown. However, based on homology with bacterial cytosine DNA methyltransferases it has been postulated that the entire catalytic domain, including the target recognition domain, is localized to 500 amino acids at the C terminus of the protein. The N-terminal domain has been postulated to have a regulatory role, and it has been suggested that the mammalian DNMT1 is a fusion of a prokaryotic methyltransferase and a mammalian DNA-binding protein. Using a combination of in vitro translation of different DNMT1 deletion mutant peptides and a solid-state hemimethylated substrate, we show that the target recognition domain of DNMT1 resides in the N terminus (amino acids 122-417) in proximity to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen binding site. Hemimethylated CGs were not recognized specifically by the postulated catalytic domain. We have previously shown that the hemimethylated substrates utilized here act as DNMT1 antagonists and inhibit DNA replication. Our results now indicate that the DNMT1-PCNA interaction can be disrupted by substrate binding to the DNMT1 N terminus. These results point toward new directions in our understanding of the structure-function of DNMT1. PMID:11104769

Araujo, F D; Croteau, S; Slack, A D; Milutinovic, S; Bigey, P; Price, G B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, M; Zannis-Hajopoulos, M; Szyf, M

2001-03-01

359

Syllable Frequency Effects in Visual Word Recognition: Developmental Approach in French Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the syllable's role in the normal reading acquisition of French children at three grade levels (1st, 3rd, and 5th), using a modified version of Cole, Magnan, and Grainger's (1999) paradigm. We focused on the effects of syllable frequency and word frequency. The results suggest that from the first to third years of reading…

Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean

2010-01-01

360

Continuous speech recognition results of the BYBLOS system on the DARPA 1000-word resource management database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system was trained in a speaker dependent mode on 28 minutes of speech from each of 8 speakers, and was tested on independent test material for each speaker. The system was tested with three artificial grammars spanning a broad perplexity range. The average performance of the system measured in percent word error was: 1.4% for a pattern grammar of

F. Kubala; Y. Chow; A. Derr; M. Feng; O. Kimball; J. Makhoul; P. Price; J. Rohlicek; S. Roucos; R. Schwartz; J. Vandegrift

1988-01-01

361

Semantic Radical Knowledge and Word Recognition in Chinese for Chinese as Foreign Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we examined the relation of knowledge of semantic radicals to students' language proficiency and word reading for adult Chinese-as-a-foreign language students. Ninety-seven college students rated their proficiency in speaking, listening, reading, and writing in Chinese, and were administered measures of receptive and…

Su, Xiaoxiang; Kim, Young-Suk

2014-01-01

362

Visual Constraints in Written Word Recognition: Evidence from the Optimal Viewing-Position Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we review the literature on visual constraints in written word processing. We notice that not all letters are equally visible to the reader. The letter that is most visible is the letter that is fixated. The visibility of the other letters depends on the distance between the letters and the fixation location, whether the letters are…

Brysbaert, Marc; Nazir, Tatjana

2005-01-01

363

Effects of Frequency on Visual Word Recognition Tasks: Where Are They?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared the effect of frequency on lexical decision time (LDT) with that on reaction time (RT) in four other tasks, for the same words and subjects. Exp. 1 yielded an effect on semantic categorization RT (person vs. thing) similar in size and form to the effect on LDT. Exp. 2 yielded a substantial effect for syntactic categorization (noun vs. adjective),

S. Monsell; M. C. Doyle; P. N. Haggard

1989-01-01

364

Attentional Modulation of Word Recognition by Children in a Dual-Task Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated an account of limited short-term memory capacity for children's speech perception in noise using a dual-task paradigm. Method: Sixty-four normal-hearing children (7-14 years of age) participated in this study. Dual tasks were repeating monosyllabic words presented in noise at 8 dB signal-to-noise ratio and…

Choi, Sangsook; Lotto, Andrew; Lewis, Dawna; Hoover, Brenda; Stelmachowicz, Patricia

2008-01-01

365

Teaching Word Recognition, Spelling, and Vocabulary: Strategies from "The Reading Teacher."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, one of four in the Teaching Reading Collection, presents the "best of the best" classroom-tested ideas, approaches, and practical applications for helping students learn about words. The articles have been drawn from the journal "The Reading Teacher" from 1993-1999. The ideas and strategies are intended to provide possible building…

Rasinski, Timothy V., Ed.; Padak, Nancy D., Ed.; Church, Brenda Weible, Ed.; Fawcett, Gay, Ed.; Hendershot, Judith, Ed.; Henry, Justina M., Ed.; Moss, Barbara G., Ed.; Peck, Jacqueline K., Ed.; Pryor, Elizabeth, Ed.; Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.

366

Recognition memory across the lifespan: the impact of word frequency and study-test interval on estimates of familiarity and recollection  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to investigate recognition memory performance across the lifespan and to determine how estimates of recollection and familiarity contribute to performance. In each of three experiments, participants from five groups from 14 up to 85 years of age (children, young adults, middle-aged adults, young-old adults, and old-old adults) were presented with high- and low-frequency words in a study phase and were tested immediately afterwards and/or after a one day retention interval. The results showed that word frequency and retention interval affected recognition memory performance as well as estimates of recollection and familiarity. Across the lifespan, the trajectory of recognition memory followed an inverse u-shape function that was neither affected by word frequency nor by retention interval. The trajectory of estimates of recollection also followed an inverse u-shape function, and was especially pronounced for low-frequency words. In contrast, estimates of familiarity did not differ across the lifespan. The results indicate that age differences in recognition memory are mainly due to differences in processes related to recollection while the contribution of familiarity-based processes seems to be age-invariant. PMID:24198796

Meier, Beat; Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Rothen, Nicolas; Graf, Peter

2013-01-01

367

Effects of An Integrated Format for Reading Instruction on the Comprehension and Word-Recognition Performance of Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Students Who Exhibit Severe Reading Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effectiveness of an integrated language arts instructional format for teaching reading compared with the effectiveness of the typical traditional reading program. The study investigated the effectiveness of approaches that are representative of both viewpoints of the reading process (i.e., word recognition and the construction…

Parmer, Lavada Jacumin; Thames, Dana G.; Kazelskis, Richard

368

The Time Course of the Syllable Frequency Effect in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence for Both Facilitatory and Inhibitory Effects in French  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study tracked the time course of the syllable frequency effect in French visual word recognition, by varying the strength of spreading activation between letters and phonological syllables. The frequency of phonological first syllables and the frequency of orthographic first syllables were conjointly manipulated in two lexical decision…

Mahé, Gwendoline; Bonnefond, Anne; Doignon-Camus, Nadège

2014-01-01

369

Effects of Oxazepam and an Extract of Kava Roots (Piper methysticum) on Event-Related Potentials in a Word Recognition Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve healthy volunteers were tested in a double-blind crossover study to assess the effects of oxazepam and an extract of kava roots (Piper methysticum) on behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) in a recognition memory task. The subjects’ task was to identify within a list of visually presented words those that were shown for the first time and those that were

T. F. Münte; H. J. Heinze; M. Matzke; J. Steitz

1993-01-01

370

The Modulation of Visual and Task Characteristics of a Writing System on Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Recognition--A Computational Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through computational modeling, here we examine whether visual and task characteristics of writing systems alone can account for lateralization differences in visual word recognition between different languages without assuming influence from left hemisphere (LH) lateralized language processes. We apply a hemispheric processing model of face…

Hsiao, Janet H.; Lam, Sze Man

2013-01-01

371

Word Recognition and Cognitive Profiles of Chinese Pre-School Children at Risk for Dyslexia through Language Delay or Familial History of Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese kindergarten children at risk for dyslexia through either language delay or familial history of dyslexia from children who were not at risk and to examine how these abilities were associated with Chinese word recognition. The cognitive skills of…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Doo, Sylvia; Wong, Simpson W. L.; Chow, Yvonne Y. Y.

2008-01-01

372

Teaching Word Recognition to Young Children Who Are at Risk Using Microsoft[R] Powerpoint[TM] Coupled with Direct Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on use of Microsoft[R] PowerPoint[TM] paired with direct instruction (DI) to teach word recognition to young children at risk. DI has been a widely used teaching method for over 40 years, and is often used to teach emergent literacy skills. Recent DI research with preschoolers at risk has suggested the potential for using…

Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Boeckmann, Nichole M.; Watts, Emily H.

2009-01-01

373

Research on target recognition techniques of radar networking based on fuzzy mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays there are more and more targets, so it is more difficult for radar networking to track the important targets. To reduce the pressure on radar networking and the waste of ammunition, it is very necessary for radar networking to recognize the targets. Two target recognition approaches of radar networking based on fuzzy mathematics are proposed in this paper, which are multi-level fuzzy synthetical evaluation technique and lattice approaching degree technique. By analyzing the principles, the application techniques are given, the merits and shortcomings are also analyzed, and applying environments are advised. Another emphasis is the compare between the multiple mono-level fuzzy synthetical evaluation and the multi-level fuzzy synthetical evaluation, an instance is carried out to illuminate the problem, then the results are analyzed in theory, the conclusions are gotten which can be instructions for application in engineering.

Guan, Chengbin; Wang, Guohong; Guan, Chengzhun; Pan, Jinshan

2007-11-01

374

Automated target tracking and recognition using coupled view and identity manifolds for shape representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new couplet of identity and view manifolds for multi-view shape modeling that is applied to automated target tracking and recognition (ATR). The identity manifold captures both inter-class and intra-class variability of target shapes, while a hemispherical view manifold is involved to account for the variability of viewpoints. Combining these two manifolds via a non-linear tensor decomposition gives rise to a new target generative model that can be learned from a small training set. Not only can this model deal with arbitrary view/pose variations by traveling along the view manifold, it can also interpolate the shape of an unknown target along the identity manifold. The proposed model is tested against the recently released SENSIAC ATR database and the experimental results validate its efficacy both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Venkataraman, Vijay; Fan, Guoliang; Yu, Liangjiang; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Weiguang; Havlicek, Joseph P.

2011-12-01

375

Bayesian Inference of Thermodynamic State Incorporating Schwarz-Rissanen Complexity for Infrared Target Recognition  

E-print Network

The recognition of targets in infrared scenes is complicated by the wide variety of appearances associated with di#erent thermodynamic states. We represent variability in the thermal signatures of targets via an expansion in terms of "eigentanks" derived from a principal component analysis performed over the target's surface. Employing a Poisson sensor likelihood, or equivalently a likelihood based on Csiszar's I-divergence (a natural discrepancy measure for nonnegative images), yields a coupled set of nonlinear equations which must be solved to compute maximum a posteriori estimates of the thermodynamic expansion coe#cients. We propose a weighted least-squares approximation to the Poisson loglikelihood for which the MAP estimates are solutions of linear equations. Bayesian model order estimation techniques are employed to choose the number of expansion coe#cients; this prevents target models with numerous eigentanks in their representation from having an unfair advantage over simple ...

Aaron D. Lanterman

376

Dynamics of Word Comprehension in Infancy: Developments in Timing, Accuracy, and Resistance to Acoustic Degradation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online comprehension of naturally spoken and perceptually degraded words was assessed in 95 children ages 12 to 31 months. The time course of word recognition was measured by monitoring eye movements as children looked at pictures while listening to familiar target words presented in unaltered, time-compressed, and low-pass-filtered forms. Success…

Zangl, Renate; Klarman, Lindsay; Thal, Donna; Fernald, Anne; Bates, Elizabeth

2005-01-01

377

Emotion Recognition of Weblog Sentences Based on an Ensemble Algorithm of Multi-label Classification and Word Emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weblogs have greatly changed the communication ways of mankind. Affective analysis of blog posts is found valuable for many applications such as text-to-speech synthesis or computer-assisted recommendation. Traditional emotion recognition in text based on single-label classification can not satisfy higher requirements of affective computing. In this paper, the automatic identification of sentence emotion in weblogs is modeled as a multi-label text categorization task. Experiments are carried out on 12273 blog sentences from the Chinese emotion corpus Ren_CECps with 8-dimension emotion annotation. An ensemble algorithm RAKEL is used to recognize dominant emotions from the writer's perspective. Our emotion feature using detailed intensity representation for word emotions outperforms the other main features such as the word frequency feature and the traditional lexicon-based feature. In order to deal with relatively complex sentences, we integrate grammatical characteristics of punctuations, disjunctive connectives, modification relations and negation into features. It achieves 13.51% and 12.49% increases for Micro-averaged F1 and Macro-averaged F1 respectively compared to the traditional lexicon-based feature. Result shows that multiple-dimension emotion representation with grammatical features can efficiently classify sentence emotion in a multi-label problem.

Li, Ji; Ren, Fuji

378

Evaluation of lexicon size variations on a verification and rejection system based on SVM, for accurate and robust recognition of handwritten words  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transcription of handwritten words remains a still challenging and difficult task. When processing full pages, approaches are limited by the trade-off between automatic recognition errors and the tedious aspect of human user verification. In this article, we present our investigations to improve the capabilities of an automatic recognizer, so as to be able to reject unknown words (not to take wrong decisions) while correctly rejecting (i.e. to recognize as much as possible from the lexicon of known words). This is the active research topic of developing a verification system that optimize the trade-off between performance and reliability. To minimize the recognition errors, a verification system is usually used to accept or reject the hypotheses produced by an existing recognition system. Thus, we re-use our novel verification architecture1 here: the recognition hypotheses are re-scored by a set of support vector machines, and validated by a verification mechanism based on multiple rejection thresholds. In order to tune these (class-dependent) rejection thresholds, an algorithm based on dynamic programming has been proposed which focus on maximizing the recognition rate for a given error rate. Experiments have been carried out on the RIMES database in three steps. The first two showed that this approach results in a performance superior or equal to other state-of-the-art rejection methods. We focus here on the third one showing that this verification system also greatly improves results of keywords extraction in a set of handwritten words, with a strong robustness to lexicon size variations (21 lexicons have been tested from 167 entries up to 5,600 entries) which is particularly relevant to our application context cooperating with humans, and only made possible thanks to the rejection ability of this proposed system. The proposed verification system, compared to a HMM with simple rejection, improves on average the recognition rate by 57% (resp. 33% and 21%) for a given error rate of 1% (resp. 5% and 10%).

Ricquebourg, Yann; Coüasnon, Bertrand; Guichard, Laurent

2013-01-01

379

Semantic similarity influences early morphological priming in Serbian: A challenge to form-then-meaning accounts of word recognition  

PubMed Central

Semantically similar (e.g., coolant-COOL) primes produced greater facilitation than did form similar, semantically dissimilar (e.g., rampant-RAMP) primes when English words appeared in the forward masked primed lexical decision task (Feldman, O'Connor & Moscoso del Prado Martín, 2009). Results challenge claims that form-based semantically blind activation underlies early morphological facilitation. Some have argued that those English materials were not ideally constructed insofar as types of spelling changes to affixed stems in semantically similar and dissimilar pairs differed. The present study exploits Serbian's bialphabetism, rich morphology, and homographic (form-identical) stems to replicate early effects of semantic similarity. Further, it incorporates a within-target manipulation of prime type and of alphabet such that alphabet of prime-target pairs matched in Exp.1a and alternated in Exp.1b. Importantly, no letter or phoneme changes occurred between stems of prime and target. Results reveal significant effects of semantic similarity that are comparable with and without alphabet alternation. Semantic effects in Serbian replicate almost exactly those in English (Feldman et al., 2009) and suggest that even early in the course of processing, morphemes are units of meaning as well as form. Results fail to support models of lexical processing that postulate sequential access to the morphological form and then the semantic aspects of words. PMID:22477336

Kosti?, Aleksandar; Gvozdenovi?, Vasilije; O'Connor, Patrick A.; Martín, Fermín Moscoso del Prado

2013-01-01

380

Understanding Molecular Recognition by G protein ?? Subunits on the Path to Pharmacological Targeting  

PubMed Central

Heterotrimeric G proteins, composed of G? and G?? subunits, transduce extracellular signals via G-protein-coupled receptors to modulate many important intracellular responses. The G?? subunits hold a central position in this signaling system and have been implicated in multiple aspects of physiology and the pathophysiology of disease. The G? subunit belongs to a large family of WD40 repeat proteins with a circular ?-bladed propeller structure. This structure allows G?? to interact with a broad range of proteins to play diverse roles. How G?? interacts with and regulates such a wide variety of partners yet maintains specificity is an interesting problem in protein-protein molecular recognition in signal transduction, where signal transfer by proteins is often driven by modular conserved recognition motifs. Evidence has accumulated that one mechanism for G?? multitarget recognition is through an intrinsically flexible protein surface or “hot spot” that accommodates multiple modes of binding. Because each target has a unique recognition mode for G?? subunits, it suggests that these interactions could be selectively manipulated with small molecules, which could have significant therapeutic potential. PMID:21737569

Lin, Yuan

2011-01-01

381

Mixed state models for automatic target recognition and behavior analysis in video sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixed state or hybrid state space systems are useful tools for various problems in computer vision. These systems model complicated system dynamics as a mixture of inherently simple sub-systems, with an additional mechanism to switch between the sub-systems. This approach of modeling using simpler systems allows for ease in learning the parameters of the system and in solving the inference problem. In this paper, we study the use of such mixed state space systems for problems in recognition and behavior analysis in video sequences. We begin with a dynamical system formulation for recognition of faces from a video. This system is used to introduce the simultaneous tracking and recognition paradigm that allows for improved performance in both tracking and recognition. We extend this framework to design a second system for verification of vehicles across non-overlapping views using structural and textural fingerprints for characterizing the identity of the target. Finally, we show the use of such modeling for tracking and behavior analysis of bees from video.

Chellappa, Rama; Sankaranarayanan, Aswin C.; Veeraraghavan, Ashok

2008-04-01

382

Exploring the role of lexical stress in lexical recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cross-modal priming experiments examined the role of suprasegmental information in the processing of spoken words. All primes consisted of truncated spoken Dutch words. Recognition of visually presented word targets was facilitated by prior auditory presentation of the first two syllables of the same words as primes, but only if they were appropriately stressed (e.g., OKTOBER preceded by okTO-); inappropriate

Wilma van Donselaar; Mariëtte Koster; Anne Cutler

2005-01-01

383

Potential therapeutic targets in the process of nucleic acid recognition: opportunities and challenges.  

PubMed

Nucleic acid recognition or sensing (NAS) is accepted as a fundamental function in the host defense against self or foreign genetic elements. Abnormal recognition or interpretation of microbial-origin pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) can lead to infections or autoimmune diseases (ADs). Modulation of the NAS process represents a path toward the development of novel vaccines or drugs, through targets such as myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 3 and 6 in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling pathways. DNA helicases can be targeted by arresting replication and the breakage of DNA double strands. Stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) may act as a therapeutic target by upregulation of the STING-dependent pathway or vaccination with cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS)-catalyzed reaction products. Several challenges are faced before and during clinical therapy. NAS can be an important breakthrough for molecular targets and therapies. The specificity of drug delivery, potential of long-term genotoxicity, risk of tumorigenesis, duration of drug efficacy, and drug metabolism should be further validated. PMID:25479797

He, Shaoheng; Mao, Xiaoquan; Sun, Hongzhi; Shirakawa, Taro; Zhang, Huiyun; Wang, Xiangdong

2015-01-01

384

Raltegravir flexibility and its impact on recognition by the HIV-1 IN targets.  

PubMed

HIV-1 IN is a pertinent target for the development of AIDS chemotherapy. The first IN-specific inhibitor approved for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, RAL, was designed to block the ST reaction. We characterized the structural and conformational features of RAL and its recognition by putative HIV-1 targets - the unbound IN, the vDNA, and the IN•vDNA complex - mimicking the IN states over the integration process. RAL binding to the targets was studied by performing an extensive sampling of the inhibitor conformational landscape and by using four different docking algorithms: Glide, Autodock, VINA, and SurFlex. The obtained data evidenced that: (i) a large binding pocket delineated by the active site and an extended loop in the unbound IN accommodates RAL in distinct conformational states all lacking specific interactions with the target; (ii) a well-defined cavity formed by the active site, the vDNA, and the shortened loop in the IN•vDNA complex provide a more optimized inhibitor binding site in which RAL chelates Mg(2+) cations; (iii) a specific recognition between RAL and the unpaired cytosine of the processed DNA is governed by a pair of strong H-bonds similar to those observed in DNA base pair G-C. The identified RAL pose at the cleaved vDNA shed light on a putative step of RAL inhibition mechanism. This modeling study indicates that the inhibition process may include as a first step RAL recognition by the processed vDNA bound to a transient intermediate IN state, and thus provides a potentially promising route to the design of IN inhibitors with improved affinity and selectivity. PMID:23836466

Arora, Rohit; de Beauchene, Isaure Chauvot; Polanski, Jaroslaw; Laine, Elodie; Tchertanov, Luba

2013-09-01

385

Visual Word Recognition: Evidence for Global and Local Control over Semantic Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two lexical decision experiments examined the joint effects of stimulus quality, semantic context, and cue-target associative strength when all factors were intermixed in a block of trials. Both experiments found a three-way interaction. Semantic context and stimulus quality interacted when associative strength between cue-target pairs was strong,…

Robidoux, Serje; Stolz, Jennifer; Besner, Derek

2010-01-01

386

An automated target recognition technique for image segmentation and scene analysis  

SciTech Connect

Automated target recognition software has been designed to perform image segmentation and scene analysis. Specifically, this software was developed as a package for the Army`s Minefield and Reconnaissance and Detector (MIRADOR) program. MIRADOR is an on/off road, remote control, multi-sensor system designed to detect buried and surface-emplaced metallic and non-metallic anti-tank mines. The basic requirements for this ATR software were: (1) an ability to separate target objects from the background in low S/N conditions; (2) an ability to handle a relatively high dynamic range in imaging light levels; (3) the ability to compensate for or remove light source effects such as shadows; and (4) the ability to identify target objects as mines. The image segmentation and target evaluation was performed utilizing an integrated and parallel processing approach. Three basic techniques (texture analysis, edge enhancement, and contrast enhancement) were used collectively to extract all potential mine target shapes from the basic image. Target evaluation was then performed using a combination of size, geometrical, and fractal characteristics which resulted in a calculated probability for each target shape. Overall results with this algorithm were quite good, though there is a trade-off between detection confidence and the number of false alarms. This technology also has applications in the areas of hazardous waste site remediation, archaeology, and law enforcement.

Baumgart, C.W.; Ciarcia, C.A.

1994-02-01

387

A new technique of recognition for coded targets in optical 3D measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique for coded targets recognition in optical 3D-measurement application is proposed in this paper. Traditionally, point cloud registration is based on homologous features, such as the curvature, which is time-consuming and not reliable. For this, we paste some coded targets onto the surface of the object to be measured to improve the optimum target location and accurate correspondence among multi-source images. Circular coded targets are used, and an algorithm to automatically detecting them is proposed. This algorithm extracts targets with intensive bimodal histogram features from complex background, and filters noise according to their size, shape and intensity. In addition, the coded targets' identification is conducted out by their ring codes. We affine them around the circle inversely, set foreground and background respectively as 1 and 0 to constitute a binary number, and finally shift one bit every time to calculate a decimal one of the binary number to determine a minimum decimal number as its code. In this 3Dmeasurement application, we build a mutual relationship between different viewpoints containing three or more coded targets with different codes. Experiments show that it is of efficiency to obtain global surface data of an object to be measured and is robust to the projection angles and noise.

Guo, Changye; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Cui, Haihua; Dai, Ning; Weng, Jinping

2014-11-01

388

Pose recognition of articulated target based on ladar range image with elastic shape analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic shape analysis is introduced for pose recognition of articulated target which is based on small samples of ladar range images. Shape deformations caused by poses changes represented as closed elastic curves given by the square-root velocity function geodesics are used to quantify shape differences and the Karcher mean is used to build a model library. Three kinds of moments - Hu moment invariants, affine moment invariants, and Zernike moment invariants based on support vector machines (SVMs) - are applied to evaluate this approach. The experiment results show that no matter what the azimuth angles of the testing samples are, this approach is capable of achieving a high recognition rate using only 3 model samples with different carrier to noise ratios (CNR); the performance of this approach is much better than that of three kinds of moments based on SVM, especially under high noise conditions.

Liu, Zheng-Jun; Li, Qi; Wang, Qi

2014-10-01

389

Visual real-time detection, recognition and tracking of ground and airborne targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents methods and algorithms for real-time visual target detection, recognition and tracking, both in the case of ground-based objects (surveyed from a moving airborne imaging sensor) and flying targets (observed from a ground-based or vehicle mounted sensor). The methods are highly parallelized and partially implemented on GPU, with the goal of real-time speeds even in the case of multiple target observations. Real-time applicability is in focus. The methods use single camera observations, providing a passive and expendable alternative for expensive and/or active sensors. Use cases involve perimeter defense and surveillance situations, where passive detection and observation is a priority (e.g. aerial surveillance of a compound, detection of reconnaissance drones, etc.).

Kovács, Levente; Benedek, Csaba

2011-03-01

390

Advances in image compression and automatic target recognition; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various papers on image compression and automatic target recognition are presented. Individual topics addressed include: target cluster detection in cluttered SAR imagery, model-based target recognition using laser radar imagery, Smart Sensor front-end processor for feature extraction of images, object attitude estimation and tracking from a single video sensor, symmetry detection in human vision, analysis of high resolution aerial images for object detection, obscured object recognition for an ATR application, neural networks for adaptive shape tracking, statistical mechanics and pattern recognition, detection of cylinders in aerial range images, moving object tracking using local windows, new transform method for image data compression, quad-tree product vector quantization of images, predictive trellis encoding of imagery, reduced generalized chain code for contour description, compact architecture for a real-time vision system, use of human visibility functions in segmentation coding, color texture analysis and synthesis using Gibbs random fields.

Tescher, Andrew G. (editor)

1989-01-01

391

Effects of different stimulus manipulations of the acquisition of word recognition in trainable mentally retarded children.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to assess the efficacy of different procedures for establishing transfer of stimulus control from pictorial representations to printed words in trainable mentally retarded school children. The study consisted of two experiments. In experiment 1, four training conditions were used, i.e. two conditions (stimulus shaping and stimulus connected prompt fading) in which the subjects' attention was guided to the training stimuli, and two conditions (stimulus disconnected prompt fading and no fading) in which the subjects were allowed to respond only to the prompts. The results showed that stimulus shaping and stimulus connected prompt fading were far more effective than either one of the other procedures. Subsequent analyses revealed that 1 the stimulus control of the trained words was restricted to one or two letters, and 2 in case it was restricted to one letter, this was frequently a letter other than the one used for training. Furthermore, it was noted that the learned discriminations deteriorated as time or training progressed. Experiment 2 was designed to replicate some of the findings of experiment 1, and to control for one of the variables contributing to the superior efficiency of stimulus shaping over stimulus connected prompt fading. In general, the results of this experiment confirmed those obtained in experiment 1. PMID:6748056

Smeets, P M; Lancioni, G E; Hoogeveen, F R

1984-06-01

392

Current source density (CSD) old/new effects during recognition memory for words and faces in schizophrenia and in healthy adults.  

PubMed

We previously reported a preserved 'old-new effect' (enhanced parietal positivity 300-800 ms following correctly-recognized repeated words) in schizophrenia over mid-parietal sites using 31-channel nose-referenced event-related potentials (ERP) and reference-free current source densities (CSD). However, patients showed poorer word recognition memory and reduced left lateral-parietal P3 sources. The present study investigated whether these abnormalities are specific to words. High-density ERPs (67 channels) were recorded from 57 schizophrenic (24 females) and 44 healthy (26 females) right-handed adults during parallel visual continuous recognition memory tasks using common words or unknown faces. To identify and measure neuronal generator patterns underlying ERPs, unrestricted Varimax-PCA was performed using CSD estimates (spherical spline surface Laplacian). Two late source factors peaking at 442 ms (lateral parietal maximum) and 723 ms (centroparietal maximum) accounted for most of the variance between 250 and 850 ms. Poorer (76.6+/-20.0% vs. 85.7+/-12.4% correct) and slower (824+/-170 vs. 755+/-147 ms) performance in patients was accompanied by reduced stimulus-locked parietal sources. However, both controls and patients showed mid-frontal (442 ms) and left parietal (723 ms) old/new effects in both tasks. Whereas mid-frontal old/new effects were comparable across groups and tasks, later left parietal old/new effects were markedly reduced in patients over lateral temporoparietal but not mid-parietal sites, particularly for words, implicating impaired phonological processing. In agreement with prior results, ERP correlates of recognition memory deficits in schizophrenia suggest functional impairments of lateral posterior cortex (stimulus representation) associated with conscious recollection. This deficit was more pronounced for common words despite a greater difficulty to recall unknown faces, indicating that it is not due to a generalized cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. PMID:19995583

Kayser, Jürgen; Tenke, Craig E; Kroppmann, Christopher J; Fekri, Shiva; Alschuler, Daniel M; Gates, Nathan A; Gil, Roberto; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Jarskog, Lars F; Bruder, Gerard E

2010-02-01

393

Current source density (CSD) old/new effects during recognition memory for words and faces in schizophrenia and in healthy adults  

PubMed Central

We previously reported a preserved ‘old-new effect’ (enhanced parietal positivity 300–800 ms following correctly-recognized repeated words) in schizophrenia over mid-parietal sites using 31-channel nose-referenced event-related potentials (ERP) and reference-free current source densities (CSD). However, patients showed poorer word recognition memory and reduced left lateral-parietal P3 sources. The present study investigated whether these abnormalities are specific to words. High-density ERPs (67 channels) were recorded from 57 schizophrenic (24 female) and 44 healthy (26 female) right-handed adults during parallel visual continuous recognition memory tasks using common words or unknown faces. To identify and measure neuronal generator patterns underlying ERPs, unrestricted Varimax-PCA was performed using CSD estimates (spherical spline surface Laplacian). Two late source factors peaking at 442 ms (lateral parietal maximum) and 723 ms (centroparietal maximum) accounted for most of the variance between 250 and 850 ms. Poorer (76.6±20.0% vs. 85.7±12.4% correct) and slower (824±170 vs. 755±147 ms) performance in patients was accompanied by reduced stimulus-locked parietal sources. However, both controls and patients showed mid-frontal (442 ms) and left parietal (723 ms) old/new effects in both tasks. Whereas mid-frontal old/new effects were comparable across groups and tasks, later left parietal old/new effects were markedly reduced in patients over lateral temporoparietal but not mid-parietal sites, particularly for words, implicating impaired phonological processing. In agreement with prior results, ERP correlates of recognition memory deficits in schizophrenia suggest functional impairments of lateral posterior cortex (stimulus representation) associated with conscious recollection. This deficit was more pronounced for common words despite a greater difficulty to recall unknown faces, indicating that it is not due to a generalized cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. PMID:19995583

Kayser, Jürgen; Tenke, Craig E.; Kroppmann, Christopher J.; Fekri, Shiva; Alschuler, Daniel M.; Gates, Nathan A.; Gil, Roberto; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Jarskog, Lars F.; Bruder, Gerard E.

2009-01-01

394

Receptor architecture of visual areas in the face and word-form recognition region of the posterior fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

Recently, two extrastriate visual areas on the posterior fusiform gyrus, areas FG1 and FG2, were identified based on cytoarchitectonical criteria (Caspers et al. in Brain Struct Funct 218:511-526, 2013a). They are located within the object-related ventral visual stream at the transition between early and higher-order (category-specific) visual areas. FG2 has a topographical position which is best comparable to the face or visual word-form recognition area. However, the precise function of FG2 is presently unknown. Since transmitter receptors are key molecules of neurotransmission, we analysed the regional and laminar distribution of 15 different receptor binding sites by means of quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. Significant differences between receptor densities of both areas were found for NMDA, GABAB, M3, nicotinic ?4/?2 and 5-HT1A receptors as well as for GABAA associated benzodiazepine binding sites. These results support the cytoarchitectonic segregation of FG1 and FG2 into two distinct cortical areas. In addition, principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses of the multireceptor data of both fusiform areas and 24 visual, auditory, somatosensory and multimodal association areas not only revealed the typical receptor architectonic characteristics of visual areas for FG1 and FG2, but also suggest their putative function as object recognition regions due to the similarity of their receptor fingerprints with those of areas of the ventral visual stream. Furthermore, FG1 and FG2 build a cluster with the multimodal association areas of the inferior parietal lobule. This underlines their hierarchically high position in the visual system of the human cerebral cortex. PMID:24126835

Caspers, Julian; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Caspers, Svenja; Schleicher, Axel; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

2015-01-01

395

Recognition of virus-infected cells by natural killer cell clones is controlled by polymorphic target cell elements  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells provide a first line of defense against viral infections. The mechanisms by which NK cells recognize and eliminate infected cells are still largely unknown. To test whether target cell elements contribute to NK cell recognition of virus-infected cells, human NK cells were cloned from two unrelated donors and assayed for their ability to kill normal autologous or allogeneic cells before and after infection by human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), a T-lymphotropic herpesvirus. Of 132 NK clones isolated from donor 1, all displayed strong cytolytic activity against the NK-sensitive cell line K562, none killed uninfected autologous T cells, and 65 (49%) killed autologous T cells infected with HHV-6. A panel of representative NK clones from donors 1 and 2 was tested on targets obtained from four donors. A wide heterogeneity was observed in the specificity of lysis of infected target cells among the NK clones. Some clones killed none, some killed only one, and others killed more than one of the different HHV-6- infected target cells. Killing of infected targets was not due to complete absence of class I molecules because class I surface levels were only partially affected by HHV-6 infection. Thus, target cell recognition is not controlled by the effector NK cell alone, but also by polymorphic elements on the target cell that restrict NK cell recognition. Furthermore, NK clones from different donors display a variable range of specificities in their recognition of infected target cells. PMID:8394407

1993-01-01

396

Increase in Speech Recognition Due to Linguistic Mismatch between Target and Masker Speech: Monolingual and Simultaneous Bilingual Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine whether improved speech recognition during linguistically mismatched target-masker experiments is due to linguistic unfamiliarity of the masker speech or linguistic dissimilarity between the target and masker speech. Method: Monolingual English speakers (n = 20) and English-Greek simultaneous bilinguals (n = 20) listened to…

Calandruccio, Lauren; Zhou, Haibo

2014-01-01

397

Invariant-feature-based adaptive automatic target recognition in obscured 3D point clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Target recognition and classification in a 3D point cloud is a non-trivial process due to the nature of the data collected from a sensor system. The signal can be corrupted by noise from the environment, electronic system, A/D converter, etc. Therefore, an adaptive system with a desired tolerance is required to perform classification and recognition optimally. The feature-based pattern recognition algorithm architecture as described below is particularly devised for solving a single-sensor classification non-parametrically. Feature set is extracted from an input point cloud, normalized, and classifier a neural network classifier. For instance, automatic target recognition in an urban area would require different feature sets from one in a dense foliage area. The figure above (see manuscript) illustrates the architecture of the feature based adaptive signature extraction of 3D point cloud including LIDAR, RADAR, and electro-optical data. This network takes a 3D cluster and classifies it into a specific class. The algorithm is a supervised and adaptive classifier with two modes: the training mode and the performing mode. For the training mode, a number of novel patterns are selected from actual or artificial data. A particular 3D cluster is input to the network as shown above for the decision class output. The network consists of three sequential functional modules. The first module is for feature extraction that extracts the input cluster into a set of singular value features or feature vector. Then the feature vector is input into the feature normalization module to normalize and balance it before being fed to the neural net classifier for the classification. The neural net can be trained by actual or artificial novel data until each trained output reaches the declared output within the defined tolerance. In case new novel data is added after the neural net has been learned, the training is then resumed until the neural net has incrementally learned with the new novel data. The associative memory capability of the neural net enables the incremental learning. The back propagation algorithm or support vector machine can be utilized for the classification and recognition.

Khuon, Timothy; Kershner, Charles; Mattei, Enrico; Alverio, Arnel; Rand, Robert

2014-06-01

398

Bayesian inference of thermodynamic state incorporating Schwarz-Rissanen complexity for infrared target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recognition of targets in IR scenes is complicated by the wide variety of appearances associated with different thermodynamic states. We represent variability in the thermal signatures of targets via an expansion in terms of `eigentanks' derived from a principal component analysis performed over the target's surface. Employing a Poisson sensor likelihood, or equivalently a likelihood based on Csiszar's l-divergence (a natural discrepancy measure for nonnegative images), yields a coupled set of nonlinear equations which must be solved to compute maximum a posteriori estimates of the thermodynamic expansion coefficients. We propose a weighted least-squares approximation to the Poisson loglikelihood for which the MAP estimates are solutions of linear equations. Bayesian model order estimation techniques are employed to choose the number of expansion coefficients; this prevents target models with numerous eigentanks in their representation from having an unfair advantage over simple target models. The Bayesian integral is approximated by Schwarz's application of Laplace's method of integration; this technique is closely related to Rissanen's minimum description length criteria. Our implementation of these techniques on Silicon Graphics computers exploits the flexible nature of their rendering engines. The implementation is illustrated in estimating the orientation of a tank and the optimum number of representative eigentanks for both simulated and real data.

Lanterman, Aaron D.

2000-05-01

399

Regulation and Recognition of SCFGrr1 Targets in the Glucose and Amino Acid Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

SCFGrr1, one of several members of the SCF family of E3 ubiquitin ligases in budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is required for both regulation of the cell cycle and nutritionally controlled transcription. In addition to its role in degradation of Gic2 and the CDK targets Cln1 and Cln2, Grr1 is also required for induction of glucose- and amino acid-regulated genes. Induction of HXT genes by glucose requires the Grr1-dependent degradation of Mth1. We show that Mth1 is ubiquitinated in vivo and degraded via the proteasome. Furthermore, phosphorylated Mth1, targeted by the casein kinases Yck1/2, binds to Grr1. That binding depends upon the Grr1 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain but not upon the F-box or basic residues within the LRR that are required for recognition of Cln2 and Gic2. Those observations extend to a large number of Grr1-dependent genes, some targets of the amino acid-regulated SPS signaling system, which are properly regulated in the absence of those basic LRR residues. Finally, we show that regulation of the SPS targets requires the Yck1/2 casein kinases. We propose that casein kinase I plays a similar role in both nutritional signaling pathways by phosphorylating pathway components and targeting them for ubiquitination by SCFGrr1. PMID:15456873

Spielewoy, Nathalie; Flick, Karin; Kalashnikova, Tatyana I.; Walker, John R.; Wittenberg, Curt

2004-01-01

400

Automatic target recognition using a feature-decomposition and data-decomposition modular neural network.  

PubMed

A modular neural network classifier has been applied to the problem of automatic target recognition using forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagery. The classifier consists of several independently trained neural networks. Each neural network makes a decision based on local features extracted from a specific portion of a target image. The classification decisions of the individual networks are combined to determine the final classification. Experiments show that decomposition of the input features results in performance superior to a fully connected network in terms of both network complexity and probability of classification. Performance of the classifier is further improved by the use of multiresolution features and by the introduction of a higher level neural network on the top of the individual networks, a method known as stacked generalization. In addition to feature decomposition, we implemented a data-decomposition classifier network and demonstrated improved performance. Experimental results are reported on a large set of real FLIR images. PMID:18276328

Wang, L C; Der, S Z; Nasrabadi, N M

1998-01-01

401

Laser radar range profile, Doppler spectra and range resolved Doppler imaging technologies for the target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of laser range profile, Doppler spectra and Range Resolved Doppler imaging technologies including the experiments, simulations and engineering applications have been summarized and reviewed in this paper. It was analyzed the problems of the laser radar imaging system which need to solve in experiments and models. The achievements and the key technologies of Range profile, Doppler spectra and Range Doppler imaging laser radar are reported in detail. Different typically theoretical simulated models have been built to show the last technologies of target recognition for laser radar in order to be based on the further studying on designing the laser radar imaging systems in many applications and offering the precise data of the detected target.

Wu, Pengfei; Wang, Ming-Jun; Ke, Xi-zheng; Gong, Yan-jun; Teng, Yang

2014-11-01

402

Natural killer cell recognition of target cells expressing different antigens of vesicular stomatitis virus.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells have the capability of lysing virus-infected, transformed, and embryonal cells, yet the nature of the target structure(s) recognized remains unclear. The availability of well-characterized temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus, defective in expression of individual viral-encoded polypeptides at the nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees C), offered an approach to elucidating NK-cell recognition of virus-infected cells. Target cells were infected with ts mutants in three functions: the viral surface glycoprotein (G protein; ts 045); the matrix (M) protein (ts G31, ts G33), and the polymerase (ts G11). Cells infected with wild-type virus and all ts mutants at the permissive temperature (31 degrees C) were killed by murine spleen cells. Similar to results on cytotoxic T lymphocytes, target cells infected by ts 045 defective in expression of G protein at 39 degrees C were not killed by NK cells. Unexpectedly, cells infected at 39 degrees C with the M-protein mutants also were not killed, although G protein was expressed at the cell surface. Target binding studies indicated that conjugates were not formed by cells infected with the ts mutants at the nonpermissive temperature. That expression of G protein was not sufficient for NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity was established in experiments in which a plasmid (pSVGL) containing the gene for vesicular stomatitis virus G protein was transfected into COS cells. Although G antigen was expressed on the plasma membrane, the cells were not lysed. These results suggest either that recognition of virus-infected cells depends on an appropriate conformation imparted to the viral G protein by association with the M protein or that NK cells can recognize alterations in the structure of the cell membrane induced by insertion of viral M and G molecules. PMID:2986117

Moller, J R; Rager-Zisman, B; Quan, P C; Schattner, A; Panush, D; Rose, J K; Bloom, B R

1985-04-01

403

The TCF C-clamp DNA binding domain expands the Wnt transcriptome via alternative target recognition  

PubMed Central

LEF/TCFs direct the final step in Wnt/?-catenin signalling by recruiting ?-catenin to genes for activation of transcription. Ancient, non-vertebrate TCFs contain two DNA binding domains, a High Mobility Group box for recognition of the Wnt Response Element (WRE; 5?-CTTTGWWS-3?) and the C-clamp domain for recognition of the GC-rich Helper motif (5?-RCCGCC-3?). Two vertebrate TCFs (TCF-1/TCF7 and TCF-4/TCF7L2) use the C-clamp as an alternatively spliced domain to regulate cell-cycle progression, but how the C-clamp influences TCF binding and activity genome-wide is not known. Here, we used a doxycycline inducible system with ChIP-seq to assess how the C-clamp influences human TCF1 binding genome-wide. Metabolic pulse-labeling of nascent RNA with 4?Thiouridine was used with RNA-seq to connect binding to the Wnt transcriptome. We find that the C-clamp enables targeting to a greater number of gene loci for stronger occupancy and transcription regulation. The C-clamp uses Helper sites concurrently with WREs for gene targeting, but it also targets TCF1 to sites that do not have readily identifiable canonical WREs. The coupled ChIP-seq/4?Thiouridine-seq analysis identified new Wnt target genes, including additional regulators of cell proliferation. Thus, C-clamp containing isoforms of TCFs are potent transcriptional regulators with an expanded transcriptome directed by C-clamp-Helper site interactions. PMID:25414359

Hoverter, Nate P.; Zeller, Michael D.; McQuade, Miriam M.; Garibaldi, Angela; Busch, Anke; Selwan, Elizabeth M.; Hertel, Klemens J.; Baldi, Pierre; Waterman, Marian L.

2014-01-01

404

Authorship recognition via fluctuation analysis of network topology and word intermittency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical methods have been widely employed in many practical natural language processing applications. More specifically, complex network concepts and methods from dynamical systems theory have been successfully applied to recognize stylistic patterns in written texts. Despite the large number of studies devoted to representing texts with physical models, only a few studies have assessed the relevance of attributes derived from the analysis of stylistic fluctuations. Because fluctuations represent a pivotal factor for characterizing a myriad of real systems, this study focused on the analysis of the properties of stylistic fluctuations in texts via topological analysis of complex networks and intermittency measurements. The results showed that different authors display distinct fluctuation patterns. In particular, it was found that it is possible to identify the authorship of books using the intermittency of specific words. Taken together, the results described here suggest that the patterns found in stylistic fluctuations could be used to analyze other related complex systems. Furthermore, the discovery of novel patterns related to textual stylistic fluctuations indicates that these patterns could be useful to improve the state of the art of many stylistic-based natural language processing tasks.

Amancio, Diego R.

2015-03-01

405

Focus on the Forms: Recognition Practice in Chinese Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of recognition-based retrieval practice on vocabulary learning in a university Chinese class. Students (N=26) were given practice retrieving new vocabulary (single or two-character words) in a series of simple form recognition tests administered over four weeks. The test sets consisted of target vocabulary that…

Harrington, Michael; Jiang, Wenying

2013-01-01

406

CRISPR RNA binding and DNA target recognition by purified Cascade complexes from Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated Cas proteins comprise a prokaryotic RNA-guided adaptive immune system that interferes with mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids and phages. The type I-E CRISPR interference complex Cascade from Escherichia coli is composed of five different Cas proteins and a 61-nt-long guide RNA (crRNA). crRNAs contain a unique 32-nt spacer flanked by a repeat-derived 5? handle (8 nt) and a 3? handle (21 nt). The spacer part of crRNA directs Cascade to DNA targets. Here, we show that the E. coli Cascade can be expressed and purified from cells lacking crRNAs and loaded in vitro with synthetic crRNAs, which direct it to targets complementary to crRNA spacer. The deletion of even one nucleotide from the crRNA 5? handle disrupted its binding to Cascade and target DNA recognition. In contrast, crRNA variants with just a single nucleotide downstream of the spacer part bound Cascade and the resulting ribonucleotide complex containing a 41-nt-long crRNA specifically recognized DNA targets. Thus, the E. coli Cascade-crRNA system exhibits significant flexibility suggesting that this complex can be engineered for applications in genome editing and opening the way for incorporation of site-specific labels in crRNA. PMID:25488810

Beloglazova, Natalia; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Flick, Robert; Datsenko, Kirill A.; Brown, Greg; Popovic, Ana; Lemak, Sofia; Semenova, Ekaterina; Severinov, Konstantin; Yakunin, Alexander F.

2015-01-01

407

CRISPR RNA binding and DNA target recognition by purified Cascade complexes from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated Cas proteins comprise a prokaryotic RNA-guided adaptive immune system that interferes with mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids and phages. The type I-E CRISPR interference complex Cascade from Escherichia coli is composed of five different Cas proteins and a 61-nt-long guide RNA (crRNA). crRNAs contain a unique 32-nt spacer flanked by a repeat-derived 5' handle (8 nt) and a 3' handle (21 nt). The spacer part of crRNA directs Cascade to DNA targets. Here, we show that the E. coli Cascade can be expressed and purified from cells lacking crRNAs and loaded in vitro with synthetic crRNAs, which direct it to targets complementary to crRNA spacer. The deletion of even one nucleotide from the crRNA 5' handle disrupted its binding to Cascade and target DNA recognition. In contrast, crRNA variants with just a single nucleotide downstream of the spacer part bound Cascade and the resulting ribonucleotide complex containing a 41-nt-long crRNA specifically recognized DNA targets. Thus, the E. coli Cascade-crRNA system exhibits significant flexibility suggesting that this complex can be engineered for applications in genome editing and opening the way for incorporation of site-specific labels in crRNA. PMID:25488810

Beloglazova, Natalia; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Flick, Robert; Datsenko, Kirill A; Brown, Greg; Popovic, Ana; Lemak, Sofia; Semenova, Ekaterina; Severinov, Konstantin; Yakunin, Alexander F

2015-01-01

408

Regulation of cargo recognition, commitment, and unloading drives cotranslational protein targeting  

PubMed Central

Efficient and accurate protein localization is essential to cells and requires protein-targeting machineries to both effectively capture the cargo in the cytosol and productively unload the cargo at the membrane. To understand how these challenges are met, we followed the interaction of translating ribosomes during their targeting by the signal recognition particle (SRP) using a site-specific fluorescent probe in the nascent protein. We show that initial recruitment of SRP receptor (SR) selectively enhances the affinity of SRP for correct cargos, thus committing SRP-dependent substrates to the pathway. Real-time measurement of cargo transfer from the targeting to translocation machinery revealed multiple factors that drive this event, including GTPase rearrangement in the SRP–SR complex, stepwise displacement of SRP from the ribosome and signal sequence by SecYEG, and elongation of the nascent polypeptide. Our results elucidate how active and sequential regulation of the SRP–cargo interaction drives efficient and faithful protein targeting. PMID:24914238

Akopian, David

2014-01-01

409

Analytical derivation of distortion constraints and their verification in a learning vector quantization-based target recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain a novel analytical derivation for distortion-related constraints in a neural network- (NN)-based automatic target recognition (ATR) system. We obtain two types of constraints for a realistic ATR system implementation involving 4-f correlator architecture. The first constraint determines the relative size between the input objects and input correlation filters. The second constraint dictates the limits on amount of rotation, translation, and scale of input objects for system implementation. We exploit these constraints in recognition of targets varying in rotation, translation, scale, occlusion, and the combination of all of these distortions using a learning vector quantization (LVQ) NN. We present the simulation verification of the constraints using both the gray-scale images and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA's) Moving and Stationary Target Recognition (MSTAR) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images with different depression and pose angles.

Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Razzaque, Mohammad A.

2005-06-01

410

A Compact Methodology to Understand, Evaluate, and Predict the Performance of Automatic Target Recognition  

PubMed Central

This paper offers a compacted mechanism to carry out the performance evaluation work for an automatic target recognition (ATR) system: (a) a standard description of the ATR system's output is suggested, a quantity to indicate the operating condition is presented based on the principle of feature extraction in pattern recognition, and a series of indexes to assess the output in different aspects are developed with the application of statistics; (b) performance of the ATR system is interpreted by a quality factor based on knowledge of engineering mathematics; (c) through a novel utility called “context-probability” estimation proposed based on probability, performance prediction for an ATR system is realized. The simulation result shows that the performance of an ATR system can be accounted for and forecasted by the above-mentioned measures. Compared to existing technologies, the novel method can offer more objective performance conclusions for an ATR system. These conclusions may be helpful in knowing the practical capability of the tested ATR system. At the same time, the generalization performance of the proposed method is good. PMID:24967605

Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Chen, Yiping; Zhuang, Zhaowen; Cheng, Yongqiang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Liandong; Zeng, Yonghu; Gao, Lei

2014-01-01

411

A compact methodology to understand, evaluate, and predict the performance of automatic target recognition.  

PubMed

This paper offers a compacted mechanism to carry out the performance evaluation work for an automatic target recognition (ATR) system: (a) a standard description of the ATR system's output is suggested, a quantity to indicate the operating condition is presented based on the principle of feature extraction in pattern recognition, and a series of indexes to assess the output in different aspects are developed with the application of statistics; (b) performance of the ATR system is interpreted by a quality factor based on knowledge of engineering mathematics; (c) through a novel utility called "context-probability" estimation proposed based on probability, performance prediction for an ATR system is realized. The simulation result shows that the performance of an ATR system can be accounted for and forecasted by the above-mentioned measures. Compared to existing technologies, the novel method can offer more objective performance conclusions for an ATR system. These conclusions may be helpful in knowing the practical capability of the tested ATR system. At the same time, the generalization performance of the proposed method is good. PMID:24967605

Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Chen, Yiping; Zhuang, Zhaowen; Cheng, Yongqiang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Liandong; Zeng, Yonghu; Gao, Lei

2014-01-01

412

Structural Code for DNA Recognition Revealed in Crystal Structures of Papillomavirus E2-DNA Targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transcriptional regulation in papillomaviruses depends on sequence-specific binding of the regulatory protein E2 to several sites in the viral genome. Crystal structures of bovine papillomavirus E2 DNA targets reveal a conformational variant of B-DNA characterized by a roll-induced writhe and helical repeat of 10.5 bp per turn. A comparison between the free and the protein-bound DNA demonstrates that the intrinsic structure of the DNA regions contacted directly by the protein and the deformability of the DNA region that is not contacted by the protein are critical for sequence-specific protein/DNA recognition and hence for gene-regulatory signals in the viral system. We show that the selection of dinucleotide or longer segments with appropriate conformational characteristics, when positioned at correct intervals along the DNA helix, can constitute a structural code for DNA recognition by regulatory proteins. This structural code facilitates the formation of a complementary protein-DNA interface that can be further specified by hydrogen bonds and nonpolar interactions between the protein amino acids and the DNA bases.

Rozenberg, Haim; Rabinovich, Dov; Frolow, Felix; Hegde, Rashmi S.; Shakked, Zippora

1998-12-01

413

Programmable and Multiparameter DNA-Based Logic Platform For Cancer Recognition and Targeted Therapy  

PubMed Central

The specific inventory of molecules on diseased cell surfaces (e.g., cancer cells) provides clinicians an opportunity for accurate diagnosis and intervention. With the discovery of panels of cancer markers, carrying out analyses of multiple cell-surface markers is conceivable. As a trial to accomplish this, we have recently designed a DNA-based device that is capable of performing autonomous logic-based analysis of two or three cancer cell-surface markers. Combining the specific target-recognition properties of DNA aptamers with toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions, multicellular marker-based cancer analysis can be realized based on modular AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic gates. Specifically, we report here a general approach for assembling these modular logic gates to execute programmable and higher-order profiling of multiple coexisting cell-surface markers, including several found on cancer cells, with the capacity to report a diagnostic signal and/or deliver targeted photodynamic therapy. The success of this strategy demonstrates the potential of DNA nanotechnology in facilitating targeted disease diagnosis and effective therapy. PMID:25361164

2014-01-01

414

Automatic target recognition (ATR) performance on wavelet-compressed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the large amount of image data that can be produced in real-time by new synthetic aperture radar (SAR) platforms, such as Global Hawk, compression techniques will be needed for both transmission and storage of this data. Also to keep image analysts (IA's) from being overwhelmed, high-speed automatic target cueing and/or recognition (ATC, ATR) systems will be needed to help exploit this large amount of data in real-time. Past SAR image compression studies have used subjective visual ratings and/or statistical measures such as mean-squared-error (MSE) to compare compression performance. Statistical metrics are much more appealing than unreproducible biased visual interpretations. However, the use of statistical metrics, such as MSE, has practical limitations on SAR imagery due to the high frequency speckle noise that is characteristic. In this case, the MSE metric is dominated by how well the noise speckle is preserved -- a statistic that is of no consequence. Since the large amount of data that dictates the need for compression also dictates the need for ATR, a meaningful statistic would be ATR performance. This ATR performance metric would emphasize how well pixels on target are preserved. Therefore, we have investigated ATR performance using a wavelet compression technique, since this technique has achieved very high compression on other types of imagery. We have used the Rice University Computational Mathematics Laboratory's wavelet compression algorithm in conjunction with a 'synthetic discriminant function' (SDF) based ATR algorithm. The SDF technique was developed at Carnegie Mellon University and successfully applied to SAR imagery by the Northrop Grumman Science & Technology Center. This combination allows ATR performance to be parameterized as a function of compression rate. The SAR data used for this research was taken from the public-released MSTAR target and clutter data set. We show results for both target detection and target identification versus false alarms for varying compression rates.

Hoffelder, Michael; Tian, Jun

2000-08-01

415

Improving Learners' Vocabulary through Strategy Training and Recycling the Target Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether an approach combining creating strategy awareness and recycling words will result in better vocabulary learning (delayed recall) of selected words than teaching vocabulary following the course book alone, for intermediate level English language learners. Two English language classes, a total of 51…

Akin, Ayse; Seferoglu, Golge

2004-01-01

416

Manipulating Word Properties: Targeting Vocabulary Learning for Children with and without Speech Sound Inaccuracies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the relations between speech sound accuracy, vocabulary, and phonological awareness, and (2) to examine the effect of word properties of neighborhood density and phonotactic probability on word learning within a storybook context, for children with and without speech sound inaccuracies. Fifty…

McDowell, Kimberly D.; Carroll, Jeri

2012-01-01

417

User acceptance of intelligent avionics: A study of automatic-aided target recognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

User acceptance of new support systems typically was evaluated after the systems were specified, designed, and built. The current study attempts to assess user acceptance of an Automatic-Aided Target Recognition (ATR) system using an emulation of such a proposed system. The detection accuracy and false alarm level of the ATR system were varied systematically, and subjects rated the tactical value of systems exhibiting different performance levels. Both detection accuracy and false alarm level affected the subjects' ratings. The data from two experiments suggest a cut-off point in ATR performance below which the subjects saw little tactical value in the system. An ATR system seems to have obvious tactical value only if it functions at a correct detection rate of 0.7 or better with a false alarm level of 0.167 false alarms per square degree or fewer.

Becker, Curtis A.; Hayes, Brian C.; Gorman, Patrick C.

1991-01-01

418

Proposed docking interface between peptidoglycan and the target recognition domain of zoocin A.  

PubMed

A docking model is proposed for the target recognition domain of the lytic exoenzyme zoocin A with the peptidoglycan on the outer cell surface of sensitive bacterial strains. Solubilized fragments from such peptidoglycans perturb specific backbone and side chain amide resonances in the recombinant form of the domain designated rTRD as detected in two-dimensional (1)H-(15)N correlation NMR spectra. The affected residues comprise a shallow surface cleft on the protein surface near W115, N53, N117, and Q105 among others, which interacts with the peptide portion of the peptidoglycan. Calculations with AutoDock Vina provide models of the docking interface. There is approximate homology between the rTDR-peptidoglycan docking site and the antigen binding site of Fab antibodies with the immunoglobin fold. EDTA was also found to bind to rTRD, but at a site distinct from the proposed peptidoglycan docking site. PMID:24076386

Chen, Yinghua; Simmonds, Robin S; Timkovich, Russell

2013-11-15

419

The Impact of Perinatal HIV Infection on Older School-Aged Children's and Adolescents' Receptive Language and Word Recognition Skills  

PubMed Central

Abstract Perinatally HIV-infected youths are reaching adolescence in large numbers. Little is known about their cognitive functioning. This study aims to describe and compare the receptive language ability, word recognition skills, and school functioning of older school-aged children and adolescents perinatally HIV infected (HIV-positive) and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (seroreverters; HIV-negative). Participants included 340 youths (206 HIV-positive, 134 HIV-negative), 9–16 years old, and their caregivers. Youths completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition (PPVT-III) and the Reading Subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test, Third Edition (WRAT-3). Caregivers were interviewed regarding demographic characteristics and school placement of youths. Medical information was abstracted from medical charts. Both groups of youths scored poorly on the PPVT-III and WRAT-3 with about one third of youths scoring in less than the 10th percentile. The HIV-positive youths scored lower than the seroreverters (M?=?83.8 versus 87.6, t?=?2.21, p?=?0.028) on the PPVT-III and on the WRAT-3 (M?=?88.2 versus 93.8, t?=?2.69, p?=?0.008). Among the HIV-positive youths, neither CD4+ cell count, HIV RNA viral load or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classification were significantly associated with either PPVT-III or WRAT-3 scores. However, youths who were taking antiretroviral medication had lower WRAT-3 scores than youths not taking medication (M?=?95.03 versus 86.89, t?=?2.38, p?=?0.018). HIV status remained significantly associated with PPVT-III and WRAT-3 standard scores after adjusting for demographic variables. Many youths had been retained in school and attended special education classes. Findings highlight poor language ability among youths infected with and affected by HIV, and the importance of educational interventions that address this emerging need. PMID:19415986

Kang, Ezer; Dolezal, Curtis; Abrams, Elaine J.; Mellins, Claude Ann

2009-01-01

420

Structural Insights Into the Recognition of Peroxisomal Targeting Signal 1 By Trypanosoma Brucei Peroxin 5  

SciTech Connect

Glycosomes are peroxisome-like organelles essential for trypanosomatid parasites. Glycosome biogenesis is mediated by proteins called 'peroxins,' which are considered to be promising drug targets in pathogenic Trypanosomatidae. The first step during protein translocation across the glycosomal membrane of peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1)-harboring proteins is signal recognition by the cytosolic receptor peroxin 5 (PEX5). The C-terminal PTS1 motifs interact with the PTS1 binding domain (P1BD) of PEX5, which is made up of seven tetratricopeptide repeats. Obtaining diffraction-quality crystals of the P1BD of Trypanosoma brucei PEX5 (TbPEX5) required surface entropy reduction mutagenesis. Each of the seven tetratricopeptide repeats appears to have a residue in the alpha(L) conformation in the loop connecting helices A and B. Five crystal structures of the P1BD of TbPEX5 were determined, each in complex with a hepta- or decapeptide corresponding to a natural or nonnatural PTS1 sequence. The PTS1 peptides are bound between the two subdomains of the P1BD. These structures indicate precise recognition of the C-terminal Leu of the PTS1 motif and important interactions between the PTS1 peptide main chain and up to five invariant Asn side chains of PEX5. The TbPEX5 structures reported here reveal a unique hydrophobic pocket in the subdomain interface that might be explored to obtain compounds that prevent relative motions of the subdomains and interfere selectively with PTS1 motif binding or release in trypanosomatids, and would therefore disrupt glycosome biogenesis and prevent parasite growth.

Sampathkumar, P.; Roach, C.; Michels, P.A.M.; Hol, W.G.J.

2009-05-27

421

Setting the Tone: An ERP Investigation of the Influences of Phonological Similarity on Spoken Word Recognition in Mandarin Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the influences of phonological similarity on the time course of spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese. Event related potentials were recorded while adult native speakers of Mandarin ("N" = 19) judged whether auditory words matched or mismatched visually presented pictures. Mismatching words were of the following nature:…

Malins, Jeffrey G.; Joanisse, Marc F.

2012-01-01

422

Increase in Speech Recognition due to Linguistic Mismatch Between Target and Masker Speech: Monolingual and Simultaneous Bilingual Performance  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine whether improved speech recognition during linguistically mismatched target–masker experiments is due to linguistic unfamiliarity of the masker speech or linguistic dissimilarity between the target and masker speech. Method Monolingual English speakers (n = 20) and English–Greek simultaneous bilinguals (n = 20) listened to English sentences in the presence of competing English and Greek speech. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects regression models to determine differences in English recogition performance between the 2 groups and 2 masker conditions. Results Results indicated that English sentence recognition for monolinguals and simultaneous English–Greek bilinguals improved when the masker speech changed from competing English to competing Greek speech. Conclusion The improvement in speech recognition that has been observed for linguistically mismatched target–masker experiments cannot be simply explained by the masker language being linguistically unknown or unfamiliar to the listeners. Listeners can improve their speech recognition in linguistically mismatched target–masker experiments even when the listener is able to obtain meaningful linguistic information from the masker speech. PMID:24167230

Calandruccio, Lauren; Zhou, Haibo

2014-01-01

423

Morphological shared-weight networks with applications to automatic target recognition.  

PubMed

A shared-weight neural network based on mathematical morphology is introduced. The feature extraction process is learned by interaction with the classification process. Feature extraction is performed using gray-scale hit-miss transforms that are independent of gray-level shifts. The morphological shared-weight neural network (MSNN) is applied to automatic target recognition. Two sets of images of outdoor scenes are considered. The first set consists of two subsets of infrared images of tracked vehicles. The goal in this set is to reject the background and to detect tracked vehicles. The second set consists of visible images of cars in a parking lot. The goal in this set is to detect the Chevrolet Blazers with various degrees of occlusion. A training method that is effective in reducing false alarms and a target aim point selection algorithm are introduced. The MSNN is compared to the standard shared-weight neural network. The MSNN trains relatively quickly and exhibits better generalization. PMID:18255721

Won, Y; Gader, P D; Coffield, P C

1997-01-01

424

Effects of Three Comprehensive Models of Vocabulary Instruction during Shared Storybook Read Alouds on Kindergartener's Tier Two Target Word Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of three researcher-designed experimental models of vocabulary instruction during shared storybook read alouds on kindergarten children's Tier Two target word learning and maintenance of word knowledge. The Integrated Model consisted of two readings of the same storybook, direct…

Steuber, Julie Ann

2013-01-01

425

Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control Relate to Bilingual Spoken Word Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether individual differences in inhibitory control relate to bilingual spoken word recognition. While their eye movements were monitored, native English and native French English-French bilinguals listened to English words (e.g., "field") and looked at pictures corresponding to the target, a within-language competitor…

Mercier, Julie; Pivneva, Irina; Titone, Debra

2014-01-01

426

ERP Manifestations of Processing Printed Words at Different Psycholinguistic Levels: Time Course and Scalp Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine the time course and scalp distribution of electrophysiological manifestations of the visual word recognition mechanism. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by visually presented lists of words were recorded while subjects were involved in a series of oddball tasks. The distinction between the designated target and nontarget stimuli was manipulated to induce a

S. Bentin; Y. Mouchetant-Rostaing; M. H. Giard; J. F. Echallier; J. Pernier

1999-01-01

427

Joint Target Tracking, Recognition and Segmentation for Infrared Imagery Using a Shape Manifold-Based Level Set  

PubMed Central

We propose a new integrated target tracking, recognition and segmentation algorithm, called ATR-Seg, for infrared imagery. ATR-Seg is formulated in a probabilistic shape-aware level set framework that incorporates a joint view-identity manifold (JVIM) for target shape modeling. As a shape generative model, JVIM features a unified manifold structure in the latent space that is embedded with one view-independent identity manifold and infinite identity-dependent view manifolds. In the ATR-Seg algorithm, the ATR problem formulated as a sequential level-set optimization process over the latent space of JVIM, so that tracking and recognition can be jointly optimized via implicit shape matching where target segmentation is achieved as a by-product without any pre-processing or feature extraction. Experimental results on the recently released SENSIAC ATR database demonstrate the advantages and effectiveness of ATR-Seg over two recent ATR algorithms that involve explicit shape matching. PMID:24919014

Gong, Jiulu; Fan, Guoliang; Yu, Liangjiang; Havlicek, Joseph P.; Chen, Derong; Fan, Ningjun

2014-01-01

428

Letter Position Information and Printed Word Perception: The Relative-Position Priming Constraint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six experiments apply the masked priming paradigm to investigate how letter position information is computed during printed word perception. Primes formed by a subset of the target's letters facilitated target recognition as long as the relative position of letters was respected across prime and target (e.g., "arict" vs. "acirt" as primes for the…

Grainger, Jonathan; Granier, Jean-Pierre; Farioli, Fernand; Van Assche, Eva; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

2006-01-01

429

Non-cooperative target recognition by means of singular value decomposition applied to radar high resolution range profiles.  

PubMed

Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising. PMID:25551484

López-Rodríguez, Patricia; Escot-Bocanegra, David; Fernández-Recio, Raúl; Bravo, Ignacio

2015-01-01

430

Non-Cooperative Target Recognition by Means of Singular Value Decomposition Applied to Radar High Resolution Range Profiles †  

PubMed Central

Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising. PMID:25551484

López-Rodríguez, Patricia; Escot-Bocanegra, David; Fernández-Recio, Raúl; Bravo, Ignacio

2015-01-01

431

Words, Hemispheres, and Dissociable Subsystems: The Effects of Exposure Duration, Case Alternation, Priming, and Continuity of Form on Word Recognition in the Left and Right Visual Fields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments explore aspects of the dissociable neural subsystems theory of hemispheric specialisation proposed by Marsolek and colleagues, and in particular a study by [Deason, R. G., & Marsolek, C. J. (2005). A critical boundary to the left-hemisphere advantage in word processing. "Brain and Language," 92, 251-261]. Experiment 1A showed…

Ellis, Andrew W.; Ansorge, Lydia; Lavidor, Michal

2007-01-01

432

Teaching Word Recognition: Effective Strategies for Students with Learning Difficulties. What Works for Special-Needs Learners Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most struggling readers, including those with reading disabilities, have difficulties recognizing printed words. This unique, lucidly written book synthesizes the research on how children learn to read words skillfully and translates it into step-by-step strategies for the classroom. The author demonstrates how to plan and implement a coordinated…

O'Connor, Rollanda E.

2006-01-01

433

PDZ Domain Recognition: Insight from Human Tax-Interacting Protein 1 (TIP-1) Interaction with Target Proteins.  

PubMed

Cellular signaling is primarily directed via protein-protein interactions. PDZ (PSD-95/Discs large/ZO-1 homologous) domains are well known protein-protein interaction modules involved in various key signaling pathways. Human Tax-interacting protein 1 (TIP-1), also known as glutaminase interaction protein (GIP), is a Class I PDZ domain protein that recognizes the consensus binding motif X-S/T-X-V/I/L-COOH of the C-terminus of its target proteins. We recently reported that TIP-1 not only interacts via the C-terminus of its target partner proteins but also recognizes an internal motif defined by the consensus sequence S/T-X-V/L-D in the target protein. Identification of new target partners containing either a C-terminal or internal recognition motif has rapidly expanded the TIP-1 protein interaction network. TIP-1 being composed solely of a single PDZ domain is unique among PDZ containing proteins. Since it is involved in many important signaling pathways, it is a possible target for drug design. In this mini review, we have discussed human TIP-1, its structure, mechanism of function, its interactions with target proteins containing different recognition motifs, and its involvement in human diseases. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of TIP-1 interactions with distinct target partners and their role in human diseases will be useful for designing novel therapeutics. PMID:25665168

Mohanty, Smita; Ovee, Mohiuddin; Banerjee, Monimoy

2015-01-01

434

Synthetic heterovalent inhibitors targeting recognition E3 components of the N-end rule pathway  

PubMed Central

Multivalent binding allows high selectivity and affinity in a ligand–protein interaction. The N-end rule pathway is a ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent proteolytic system in which specific E3s, called N-recognins, mediate ubiquitylation through the recognition of types 1 and 2, destabilizing N-terminal residues of substrates. We recently identified a set of E3 Ub ligases (named UBR1–UBR7) containing the 70-residue UBR box, and we demonstrated that UBR1, UBR2, UBR4, and UBR5 can bind to destabilizing N-terminal residues. To explore a model of heterovalent interaction to the N-recognin family, we synthesized the small-molecule compound RF-C11, which bears two heterovalent ligands designed to target N-recognins, together with control molecules with two homovalent ligands. We demonstrate that heterovalent ligands of RF-C11 selectively and cooperatively bind cognate-binding sites of multiple N-recognins and thereby inhibit both types 1 and 2 N-end rule activities. Furthermore, the efficacy of heterovalent RF-C11 was substantially higher than homovalent inhibitors, which can target either a type 1 or type 2 site, providing the molecular basis of designing multivalent inhibitors for the control of specific intracellular pathways. In addition, RF-C11 exhibited higher efficacy and stability, compared with dipeptides bearing destabilizing N-terminal residues, which are known competitive inhibitors of the pathway. We also used the heterovalent compound to study the function of N-recognins in cardiac signaling. Using mouse and rat cardiomyocytes, we demonstrate that the N-end rule pathway has a cell-autonomous function in cardiac proliferation and hypertrophy, explaining our earlier results implicating the pathway in cardiac development and proteolysis of multiple cardiovascular regulators. PMID:18162545

Lee, Min Jae; Pal, Krishnendu; Tasaki, Takafumi; Roy, Sayantani; Jiang, Yonghua; An, Jee Young; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Kwon, Yong Tae

2008-01-01

435

Recognition-dependent Signaling Events in Response to Apoptotic Targets Inhibit Epithelial Cell Viability by Multiple Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis allows for the removal of damaged, aged, and/or excess cells without harm to surrounding tissue. To accomplish this, cells undergoing apoptosis acquire new activities that enable them to modulate the fate and function of nearby cells. We have shown that receptor-mediated recognition of apoptotic versus necrotic target cells by viable kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) modulates the activity of several signaling pathways critically involved in regulation of proliferation and survival. Generally, apoptotic and necrotic targets have opposite effects with apoptotic targets inhibiting and necrotic targets stimulating the activity of these pathways. Here we explore the consequences of these signaling differences. We show that recognition of apoptotic targets induces a profound decrease in PTEC viability through increased responder cell death and decreased proliferation. In contrast, necrotic targets promote viability through decreased death and increased proliferation. Both target types mediate their effects through a network of Akt-dependent and -independent events. Apoptotic targets modulate Akt-dependent viability in part through a reduction in cellular ?-catenin and decreased inactivation of Bad. In contrast, Akt-independent modulation of viability occurs through activation of caspase-8, suggesting that death receptor-dependent pathways are involved. Apoptotic targets also activate p38, which partially protects responders from target-induced death. The response of epithelial cells varies depending on their tissue origin. Some cell lines, like PTEC, demonstrate decreased viability, whereas others (e.g. breast-derived) show increased viability. By acting as sentinels of environmental change, apoptotic targets allow neighboring cells, especially non-migratory epithelial cells, to monitor and potentially adapt to local stresses. PMID:22396534

Patel, Vimal A.; Feng, Lanfei; Lee, Daniel J.; Massenburg, Donald; Pattabiraman, Goutham; Antoni, Angelika; Schwartz, John H.; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Rauch, Joyce; Ucker, David S.; Levine, Jerrold S.

2012-01-01

436

Improved local ternary patterns for automatic target recognition in infrared imagery.  

PubMed

This paper presents an improved local ternary pattern (LTP) for automatic target recognition (ATR) in infrared imagery. Firstly, a robust LTP (RLTP) scheme is proposed to overcome the limitation of the original LTP for achieving the invariance with respect to the illumination transformation. Then, a soft concave-convex partition (SCCP) is introduced to add some flexibility to the original concave-convex partition (CCP) scheme. Referring to the orthogonal combination of local binary patterns (OC_LBP), the orthogonal combination of LTP (OC_LTP) is adopted to reduce the dimensionality of the LTP histogram. Further, a novel operator, called the soft concave-convex orthogonal combination of robust LTP (SCC_OC_RLTP), is proposed by combing RLTP, SCCP and OC_LTP. Finally, the new operator is used for ATR along with a blocking schedule to improve its discriminability and a feature selection technique to enhance its efficiency. Experimental results on infrared imagery show that the proposed features can achieve competitive ATR results compared with the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25785311

Wu, Xiaosheng; Sun, Junding; Fan, Guoliang; Wang, Zhiheng

2015-01-01

437

Proposed docking interface between peptidoglycan and the target recognition domain of zoocin A  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Peptidoglycan added to zoocin rTRD perturbs NMR resonances around W115. •Simulations predict docking to a shallow surface groove near W115. •The docking interface is similar to mammalian antibody–antigen sites. •EDTA binds to a distinct surface site. -- Abstract: A docking model is proposed for the target recognition domain of the lytic exoenzyme zoocin A with the peptidoglycan on the outer cell surface of sensitive bacterial strains. Solubilized fragments from such peptidoglycans perturb specific backbone and side chain amide resonances in the recombinant form of the domain designated rTRD as detected in two-dimensional {sup 1}H–{sup 15}N correlation NMR spectra. The affected residues comprise a shallow surface cleft on the protein surface near W115, N53, N117, and Q105 among others, which interacts with the peptide portion of the peptidoglycan. Calculations with AutoDock Vina provide models of the docking interface. There is approximate homology between the rTDR-peptidoglycan docking site and the antigen binding site of Fab antibodies with the immunoglobin fold. EDTA was also found to bind to rTRD, but at a site distinct from the proposed peptidoglycan docking site.

Chen, Yinghua [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Simmonds, Robin S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)] [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Timkovich, Russell, E-mail: rtimkovi@bama.ua.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

2013-11-15

438

Comparative analysis of the narrowband and wideband methods of target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of comparative study of radar recognition with the use of narrowband and wideband signals as well as various recognition signatures are presented. The advantage of wideband radar signals is emphasized. The results show that use of wideband signals allow increasing the accuracy of radar measurements and radar immunity against interference providing the same detection range.

S. P. Leshchenko

2004-01-01

439

Type I-E CRISPR-Cas Systems Discriminate Target from Non-Target DNA through Base Pairing-Independent PAM Recognition  

PubMed Central

Discriminating self and non-self is a universal requirement of immune systems. Adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes are centered around repetitive loci called CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat), into which invader DNA fragments are incorporated. CRISPR transcripts are processed into small RNAs that guide CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to invading nucleic acids by complementary base pairing. However, to avoid autoimmunity it is essential that these RNA-guides exclusively target invading DNA and not complementary DNA sequences (i.e., self-sequences) located in the host's own CRISPR locus. Previous work on the Type III-A CRISPR system from Staphylococcus epidermidis has demonstrated that a portion of the CRISPR RNA-guide sequence is involved in self versus non-self discrimination. This self-avoidance mechanism relies on sensing base pairing between the RNA-guide and sequences flanking the target DNA. To determine if the RNA-guide participates in self versus non-self discrimination in the Type I-E system from Escherichia coli we altered base pairing potential between the RNA-guide and the flanks of DNA targets. Here we demonstrate that Type I-E systems discriminate self from non-self through a base pairing-independent mechanism that strictly relies on the recognition of four unchangeable PAM sequences. In addition, this work reveals that the first base pair between the guide RNA and the PAM nucleotide immediately flanking the target sequence can be disrupted without affecting the interference phenotype. Remarkably, this indicates that base pairing at this position is not involved in foreign DNA recognition. Results in this paper reveal that the Type I-E mechanism of avoiding self sequences and preventing autoimmunity is fundamentally different from that employed by Type III-A systems. We propose the exclusive targeting of PAM-flanked sequences to be termed a target versus non-target discrimination mechanism. PMID:24039596

Datsenko, Kirill A.; Jackson, Ryan N.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Severinov, Konstantin; Brouns, Stan J. J.

2013-01-01

440

Assessing the Role of Hemispheric Specialisation, Serial-Position Processing, and Retinal Eccentricity in Lateralised Word RecognitioN.  

PubMed

The advantage for words in the right visual hemifield (RVF) has been assigned parallel orthographic processing by the left hemisphere and sequential by the right. However, an examination of previous studies of serial position performance suggests that orthographic processing in each hemifield is modulated by retinal eccentricity. To investigate this issue, we presented words at eccentricities of 1, 2, 3, and 4 degrees. Serial position performance was measured using the Reicher-Wheeler task to suppress influences of guesswork and an eye-tracker controlled fixation location. Greater eccentricities produced lower overall levels of performance in each hemifield although RVF advantages for words obtained at each eccentricity (Experiments 1 and 2). However, performance in both hemifields revealed similar U-shaped serial position performance at all eccentricities. Moreover, this performance was not influenced by lexical constraint (high, low; Experiment 2) or status (word, nonword; Experiment 3), although only words (not nonwords) produced an RVF advantage. These findings suggest that although each RVF advantage was produced by left-hemisphere function, the same pattern of orthographic analysis was used by each hemisphere at each eccentricity. PMID:20957564

Jordan, Timothy R; Patching, Geoffrey R; Thomas, Sharon M

2003-01-01

441

Ease of identifying words degraded by visual noise.  

PubMed

A technique is described for investigating word recognition involving the superimposition of 'noise' on the visual target word. For this task a word is printed in the form of letters made up of separate elements; noise consists of additional elements which serve to reduce the ease whereby the words may be recognized, and a threshold-like measure can be obtained in terms of the amount of noise. A word frequency effect was obtained for the noise task, and for words presented tachistoscopically but in conventional typography. For the tachistoscope task, however, the frequency effect depended on the method of presentation. A second study showed no effect of inspection interval on performance on the noise task. A word-frequency effect was also found in a third experiment with tachistoscopic exposure of the noise task stimuli in undegraded form. The question of whether common processes are drawn on by tasks entailing different ways of varying ease of recognition is addressed, and the suitability of different tasks for word recognition research is discussed. PMID:7116083

Barber, P; de la Mahotière, C

1982-08-01

442

Journal of Insect Behavior, Vol. 14, No. 5, September 2001 ( C 2001) Pursuit of Heterospecific Targets by Territorial  

E-print Network

Targets by Territorial Amberwing Dragonflies (Perithemis tenera Say): A Case of Mistaken Identity Jaime K that has such heterospecific pursuits is the Eastern amberwing dragonfly (Perithemis tenera Say- taken pursuits. KEY WORDS: Odonata; dragonfly; territory defense; species recognition; mating behavior

Switzer, Paul

443

Target Achievement Control Test: evaluating real-time myoelectric pattern-recognition control of multifunctional upper-limb prostheses.  

PubMed

Despite high classification accuracies (~95%) of myoelectric control systems based on pattern recognition, how well offline measures translate to real-time closed-loop control is unclear. Recently, a real-time virtual test analyzed how well subjects completed arm motions using a multiple-degree of freedom (DOF) classifier. Although this test provided real-time performance metrics, the required task was oversimplified: motion speeds were normalized and unintended movements were ignored. We included these considerations in a new, more challenging virtual test called the Target Achievement Control Test (TAC Test). Five subjects with transradial amputation attempted to move a virtual arm into a target posture using myoelectric pattern recognition, performing the test with various classifier (1- vs 3-DOF) and task complexities (one vs three required motions per posture). We found no significant difference in classification accuracy between the 1- and 3-DOF classifiers (97.2% +/- 2.0% and 94.1% +/- 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.14). Subjects completed 31% fewer trials in significantly more time using the 3-DOF classifier and took 3.6 +/- 0.8 times longer to reach a three-motion posture compared with a one-motion posture. These results highlight the need for closed-loop performance measures and demonstrate that the TAC Test is a useful and more challenging tool to test real-time pattern-recognition performance. PMID:21938650

Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J; Lock, Blair A; Kuiken, Todd A

2011-01-01

444

Robust speaker-independent word recognition using static, dynamic and acceleration features: experiments with Lombard and noisy speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speaker-independent recognition of Lombard and noisy speech by a recognizer trained with normal speech is discussed. Speech was represented by static, dynamic (first difference), and acceleration (second difference) features. Strong interaction was found between these temporal features, the frequency differentiation due to cepstral weighting, and the degree of smoothing in the spectral analysis. When combined with the other features, acceleration

B. A. Hanson; T. H. Applebaum

1990-01-01

445

Experiments on mixture-density phoneme-modelling for the speaker-independent 1000-word speech recognition DARPA task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modifications and improvements of the acoustic recognition component of the SPICOS system for the DARPA naval resource management task are described. These modifications and improvements include: the modeling of the continuous mixture densities of the acoustic vectors, the choice of suitable context-dependent phoneme units and the construction of generalized context phoneme units, and the modeling of transitional information in

H. Ney

1990-01-01

446

Comparison of the Effects of SMART Board Technology and Flash Card Instruction on Sight Word Recognition and Observational Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effectiveness of SMART Board, interactive whiteboard technology and traditional flash cards in teaching reading in a small-group instructional arrangement. Three students with moderate intellectual disabilities were taught to read grocery store aisle marker words under each condition. Observational learning (students…

Mechling, Linda C.; Gast, David L.; Thompson, Kimberly L.

2009-01-01

447

Effectiveness and Efficiency of Flashcard Drill Instructional Methods on Urban First-Graders' Word Recognition, Acquisition, Maintenance, and Generalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation built upon previous studies that compared effectiveness and efficiency among instructional methods. Instructional effectiveness and efficiency were compared among three conditions: an incremental rehearsal, a more challenging ratio of known to unknown interspersal word procedure, and a traditional drill and practice flashcard…

Nist, Lindsay; Joseph, Laurice M.

2008-01-01

448

Interhemispheric Cooperation and Non-Cooperation during Word Recognition: Evidence for Callosal Transfer Dysfunction in Dyslexic Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants report briefly-presented words more accurately when two copies are presented, one in the left visual field (LVF) and another in the right visual field (RVF), than when only a single copy is presented. This effect is known as the "redundant bilateral advantage" and has been interpreted as evidence for interhemispheric cooperation. We…

Henderson, Lisa; Barca, Laura; Ellis, Andrew W.

2007-01-01

449

A speaker-independent, syntax-directed, connected word recognition system based on hidden Markov models and level building  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last several years, a wide variety of techniques have been developed which make practical the implementation and development of large networks for recognizing connected sequences of words. Included among these techniques are efficient and accurate speech modeling methods (e.g., vector quantization, hidden Markov models) and efficient, optimal network search procedures (i.e., level building). In this paper we show

L. Rabiner; S. Levinson

1985-01-01

450

Word-Initial Letters Influence Fixation Durations during Fluent Reading  

PubMed Central

The present study examined how word-initial letters influence lexical access during reading. Eye movements were monitored as participants read sentences containing target words. Three factors were independently manipulated. First, target words had either high or low constraining word-initial letter sequences (e.g., dwarf or clown, respectively). Second, targets were either high or low in frequency of occurrence (e.g., train or stain, respectively). Third, targets were embedded in either biasing or neutral contexts (i.e., targets were high or low in their predictability). This 2 (constraint)?×?2 (frequency)?×?2 (context) design allowed us to examine the conditions under which a word’s initial letter sequence could facilitate processing. Analyses of fixation duration data revealed significant main effects of constraint, frequency, and context. Moreover, in measures taken to reflect “early” lexical processing (i.e., first and single fixation duration), there was a significant interaction between constraint and context. The overall pattern of findings suggests lexical access is facilitated by highly constraining word-initial letters. Results are discussed in comparison to recent studies of lexical features involved in word recognition during reading. PMID:22485100

Hand, Christopher J.; O’Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

2012-01-01

451

Words: What Goes with What?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Techniques for teaching collocation and word-association recognition as applied to the English as a second language class are suggested. Collocations are defined as phrases made of words which usually occur together, like "for the time being." Collocations and word associations are treated as synonymous. It is suggested that some words ought to be…

Murphy, Joseph A.

452

Whole CMV Proteome Pattern Recognition Analysis after HSCT Identifies Unique Epitope Targets Associated with the CMV Status  

PubMed Central

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection represents a vital complication after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). We screened the entire CMV proteome to visualize the humoral target epitope-focus profile in serum after HSCT. IgG profiling from four patient groups (donor and/or recipient +/? for CMV) was performed at 6, 12 and 24 months after HSCT using microarray slides containing 17174 of 15mer-peptides overlapping by 4 aa covering 214 proteins from CMV. Data were analyzed using maSigPro, PAM and the ‘exclusive recognition analysis (ERA)’ to identify unique CMV epitope responses for each patient group. The ‘exclusive recognition analysis’ of serum epitope patterns segregated best 12 months after HSCT for the D+/R+ group (versus D?/R?). Epitopes were derived from UL123 (IE1), UL99 (pp28), UL32 (pp150), this changed at 24 months to 2 strongly recognized peptides provided from UL123 and UL100. Strongly (IgG) recognized CMV targets elicited also robust cytokine production in T-cells from patients after HSCT defined by intracellular cytokine staining (IL-2, TNF, IFN and IL-17). High-content peptide microarrays allow epitope profiling of entire viral proteomes; this approach can be useful to map relevant targets for diagnostics and therapy in patients with well defined clinical endpoints. Peptide microarray analysis visualizes the breadth of B-cell immune reconstitution after HSCT and provides a useful tool to gauge immune reconstitution. PMID:24740411

Pérez-Bercoff, Lena; Valentini, Davide; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Mahdavifar, Shahnaz; Schutkowski, Mike; Poiret, Thomas; Pérez-Bercoff, Åsa; Ljungman, Per; Maeurer, Markus J.

2014-01-01

453

Molecularly imprinted polymer based on MWCNT-QDs as fluorescent biomimetic sensor for specific recognition of target protein.  

PubMed

A novel molecularly imprinted optosensing material based on multi-walled carbon nanotube-quantum dots (MWCNT-QDs) has been designed and synthesized for its high selectivity, sensitivity and specificity in the recognition of a target protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). Molecularly imprinted polymer coated MWCNT-QDs using BSA as the template (BMIP-coated MWCNT-QDs) exhibits a fast mass-transfer speed with a response time of 25min. It is found that the BSA as a target protein can significantly quench the luminescence of BMIP-coated MWCNT-QDs in a concentration-dependent manner that is best described by a Stern-Volmer equation. The KSV for BSA is much higher than bovine hemoglobin and lysozyme, implying a highly selective recognition of the BMIP-coated MWCNT-QDs to BSA. Under optimal conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity of BMIP-coated MWCNT-QDs decreases linearly with the increasing target protein BSA in the concentration range of 5.0×10(-7)-35.0×10(-7)M with a detection limit of 80nM. PMID:25579948

Ding, Zhaoqiang; Annie Bligh, S W; Tao, Lei; Quan, Jing; Nie, Huali; Zhu, Limin; Gong, Xiao

2015-03-01

454

Object-based auditory facilitation of visual search for pictures and words with frequent and rare targets  

PubMed Central

Auditory and visual processes demonstrably enhance each other based on spatial and temporal coincidence. Our recent results on visual search have shown that auditory signals also enhance visual salience of specific objects based on multimodal experience. For example, we tend to see an object (e.g., a cat) and simultaneously hear its characteristic sound (e.g., “meow”), to name an object when we see it, and to vocalize a