Sample records for target word recognition

  1. Word Recognition Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the entry page for participating in the Word Recognition Experiment. This study involves a series of word recognition trials in which participants are flashed a word either in the left or in the right hemifield and then identify the presented word. Performance is measured as the minimum presentation display time required for an individual to correctly identify the word.

  2. Word recognition and morphemic structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham A. Murrell; John Morton

    1974-01-01

    After learning a word list, 16 male undergraduates were tested on recognition of words presented tachistoscopically. When a test word was identical to 1 of the learned words, recognition was facilitated in the usual way. Pretraining with a word that was a different derivative of the same root morpheme as the test word gave significant facilitation of recognition of that

  3. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  4. Orthographic Neighborhood Effects in Bilingual Word Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter J. B. van Heuven; Ton Dijkstra; Jonathan Grainger

    1998-01-01

    A series of progressive demasking and lexical decision experiments investigated how the recognition of target words exclusively belonging to one language is affected by the existence of orthographic neighbors from the same or the other language of bilingual participants. Increasing the number of orthographic neighbors in Dutch systematically slowed response times to English target words in Dutch\\/English bilinguals, while an

  5. Anticipatory coarticulation facilitates word recognition in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Tristan; McMillan, Brianna T M; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Edwards, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Children learn from their environments and their caregivers. To capitalize on learning opportunities, young children have to recognize familiar words efficiently by integrating contextual cues across word boundaries. Previous research has shown that adults can use phonetic cues from anticipatory coarticulation during word recognition. We asked whether 18-24month-olds (n=29) used coarticulatory cues on the word "the" when recognizing the following noun. We performed a looking-while-listening eyetracking experiment to examine word recognition in neutral vs. facilitating coarticulatory conditions. Participants looked to the target image significantly sooner when the determiner contained facilitating coarticulatory cues. These results provide the first evidence that novice word-learners can take advantage of anticipatory sub-phonemic cues during word recognition. PMID:26072992

  6. Facilitation of auditory word recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Jackson; John Morton

    1984-01-01

    An experiment that investigated facilitation of recognition of spoken words presented in noise IS described, Prior to the\\u000a test session, the subjects either read words or heard them spoken in one of two. voices while making a semantic judgment upon\\u000a them. There was a large effect of auditory priming on word recognition that did not depend upon the voice (male

  7. Spelling, Word, and Concept Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenczar, Paul J.; Golden, William M.

    Human words must be rapidly recognized by a computer system designed to maintain an interactive dialogue with humans. This paper discusses features of the PLATO IV-TUTOR system which facilitates the matching of words and concepts offered by students to those proposed by lesson authors. The first section examines a word recognition algorithm that…

  8. Word Recognition Explanation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Research on hemispheric specialization in lateralized recognition tasks has examined a range of factors that may influence or interact with the left-right dominance of particular tasks. The divided visual field technique is a valuable strategy for examining hemispheric specialization across a range of abilities. This page offers information about how to use a divided visual field activity to illustrate hemispheric specialization.

  9. Dialect Pronunciation Comparison and Spoken Word Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martijn Wieling; John Nerbonne

    Two adaptations of the regular Levenshtein dis- tance algorithm are proposed based on psy- cholinguistic work on spoken word recognition. The first adaptation is inspired by the Cohort model which assumes that the word-initial part is more important for word recognition than the word-final part. The second adaptation is based on the notion that stressed syllables contain more information and

  10. Models of visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Reading is a complex process that draws on a remarkable number of diverse perceptual and cognitive processes. In this review, I provide an overview of computational models of reading, focussing on models of visual word recognition–how we recognise individual words. Early computational models had ‘toy’ lexicons, could simulate only a narrow range of phenomena, and frequently had fundamental limitations, such as being able to handle only four-letter words. The most recent models can use realistic lexicons, can simulate data from a range of tasks, and can process words of different lengths. These models are the driving force behind much of the empirical work on reading. I discuss how the data have guided model development and, importantly, I also provide guidelines to help interpret and evaluate the contribution the models make to our understanding of how we read. PMID:24012145

  11. Lexicon-based word recognition without word segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.K.; Chen, C.H. [Advanced Automation Technology Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    We present a word recognition approach that does not rely on explicit word segmentation. It treats the character recognition output as a continuous string of characters instead of first dividing it into words before word-level contextual knowledge is applied. This technique is useful in degraded document images, in which isolation of individual words by purely image- or character-based means is difficult or unreliable. We use a hypothesis generation and verification approach, in which word identities and their positions are hypothesized based on {open_quotes}seed features{close_quotes} (character substrings) extracted from the output of the character recognizer. Verification of the hypotheses consists of comparing the characters in the hypothesized word with candidate characters near the position of the seed feature in the text, and selecting the set of consecutive word hypotheses that are the most mutually consistent. Hence, word segmentation and word recognition are effectively performed in parallel.

  12. Orthographic and phonological activation in auditory and visual word recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael K. Tanenhaus; Helen P. Flanigan; Mark S. Seidenberg

    1980-01-01

    A discrete-trials color naming (Stroop)’paradigm was used to examine activation along orthographic and phonological dimensions\\u000a in visual and auditory word recognition. Subjects were presented a prime word, either auditorily or visually, followed 200\\u000a msec later by a target word printed in a color. The orthographic and phonological similarity of prime-target pairs varied.\\u000a Color naming latencies were longer when the primes

  13. Adult word recognition and visual sequential memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Holmes

    Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency\\u000a of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely\\u000a spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from words with internal\\u000a transposed letters. Symbol memory was evaluated in a

  14. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  15. Cross modality facilitation in tachistoscopic word recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Clarke; John Morton

    1983-01-01

    In its old form, the logogen model (Morton, 1969) would have predicted extensive cross-model facilitation of tachistoscopic word recognition. An experiment by Winnick and Daniel (1970) violated this prediction by showing no effects on subsequent visual word recognition of naming a picture or filling a definition. The latter results was replicated, and it was also found that pretraining with handwritten

  16. Speaker-independent mandarin polysyllabic word recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung-Yuan Chang; Berlin Chen; Chia-shyan Chou; Chi-Min Liu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we consider tlie design of speaker-independent Mandarin polysyllabic word recognition system from two viewpoints: the phonetical modeling aed the recognition speeds. For phonetical modeling, we consider the accurate acoustic models that can increase the recognition rate. This paper experiments three phonetical models: context- independent INITULs, right-context-dependent null- INITULs models, and right-context-dependent INITLILs and null-INITULs models. The recognition

  17. Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A method used widely to study the first 250?ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: For example, only word targets show priming in the lexical decision task, but both words and non-words do in the same-different task; semantic priming effects are generally weak in the lexical decision task but are robust in the semantic categorization task. We explain how such task dependence arises within the Bayesian Reader account of masked priming (Norris and Kinoshita, 2008), and how the task dissociations can be used to understand the early processes in lexical access. PMID:22675316

  18. Syllable transposition effects in korean word recognition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang H; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for syllable-transposed Korean nonwords were delayed as compared with matched Korean nonwords without syllable transpositions. These findings bolster the case that the syllable provides an important functional unit in Korean word recognition, and suggest a degree of position invariance in syllable representations. PMID:25694048

  19. Immediate effects of anticipatory coarticulation in spoken-word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Salverda, Anne Pier; Kleinschmidt, Dave; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments examined listeners’ use of pre word-onset anticipatory coarticulation in spoken-word recognition. Experiment 1 established the shortest lag with which information in the speech signal influences eye-movement control, using stimuli such as “The … ladder is the target”. With a neutral token of the definite article preceding the target word, saccades to the referent were not more likely than saccades to an unrelated distractor until 200–240 ms after the onset of the target word. In Experiment 2, utterances contained definite articles which contained natural anticipatory coarticulation pertaining to the onset of the target word (“ The ladder … is the target”). A simple Gaussian classifier was able to predict the initial sound of the upcoming target word from formant information from the first few pitch periods of the article’s vowel. With these stimuli, effects of speech on eye-movement control began about 70 ms earlier than in Experiment 1, suggesting rapid use of anticipatory coarticulation. The results are interpreted as support for “data explanation” approaches to spoken-word recognition. Methodological implications for visual-world studies are also discussed. PMID:24511179

  20. Morphological and semantic effects in visual word recognition: A time-course study

    E-print Network

    Davis, Matt

    that there is a level of processing or representation at which morphemes are treated differently from whole words of morphology on language processing. It has been shown across languages that recognition of a target word (eMorphological and semantic effects in visual word recognition: A time-course study Kathleen Rastle

  1. Strategies for Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Reading Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aina, Olaiya E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of word recognition in reading comprehension. Defines seven strategies for word recognition--configuration, dictionary analysis, syllabication, structural analysis, sight words, context clues, and phonetic analysis--and provides activities for teaching each. (JPB)

  2. A multistream model of visual word recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip A. Allen; Albert F. Smith; Mei-Ching Lien; Kevin P. Kaut; Angie Canfield

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments are reported that test a multistream model of visual word recognition, which associates letter-level and\\u000a word-level processing channels with three known visual processing streams isolated in macaque monkeys: the magno-dominated\\u000a (MD) stream, the interblob-dominated (ID) stream, and the blob-dominated (BD) stream (Van Essen & Anderson, 1995). We show\\u000a that mixing the color of adjacent letters of words does

  3. Famous talker effects in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Maibauer, Alisa M; Markis, Teresa A; Newell, Jessica; McLennan, Conor T

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that talker-specific representations affect spoken word recognition relatively late during processing. However, participants in these studies were listening to unfamiliar talkers. In the present research, we used a long-term repetition-priming paradigm and a speeded-shadowing task and presented listeners with famous talkers. In Experiment 1, half the words were spoken by Barack Obama, and half by Hillary Clinton. Reaction times (RTs) to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words only when repeated by the same talker. However, in Experiment 2, using nonfamous talkers, RTs to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words both when repeated by the same talker and when repeated by a different talker. Taken together, the results demonstrate that talker-specific details can affect the perception of spoken words relatively early during processing when words are spoken by famous talkers. PMID:24366633

  4. Spoken Word Recognition in Toddlers Who Use Cochlear Implants

    E-print Network

    Litovsky, Ruth

    was to assess the time course of spoken word recognition in 2-year-old children who use cochlear implants (CIs, regardless of their hearing status. KEY WORDS: cochlear implants, spoken word recognition, children C hildrenSpoken Word Recognition in Toddlers Who Use Cochlear Implants Purpose: The purpose of this study

  5. Developmental Spelling and Word Recognition: A Validation of Ehri's Model of Word Recognition Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Ashlee A.

    2009-01-01

    Ehri's developmental model of word recognition outlines early reading development that spans from the use of logos to advanced knowledge of oral and written language to read words. Henderson's developmental spelling theory presents stages of word knowledge that progress in a similar manner to Ehri's phases. The purpose of this research study was…

  6. A cohort model of visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N F; Pugh, K R

    1994-06-01

    A model of word recognition is proposed which assumes that when a word is encountered, the first available orthographic code activates all lexical entries that are positionally consistent with that information (i.e., the word's cohort). As subsequently encoded orthographic information becomes available, activation is withdrawn from lexical entries with which it is inconsistent, and the cohort is resolved when only a single candidate remains. The model is intended to characterize: (1) The initial encoding of the graphic information; (2) the recording of that information into an abstract orthographic form; (3) the manner in which the appropriate lexical entries are then activated; (4) the process whereby subsequent orthographic encoding resolves those activated entries to a single candidate; and finally (5) the way in which subjects use information for making decisions as it emerges during this processing. The model includes two critical points. The first is that letter identity information is encoded in the form of a complex orthographic unit termed a wickelgraph. A wickelgraph includes an encoding of the target letter's identity information as its core, plus, as a context, the identity of its two immediately adjacent letters. The set of possible wickelgraphs is assumed to instantiate the rules of orthography. The second point is that once a cohort is established, the perceiver can sample its status at any point during resolution and base a decision on the outcome of that sample. Some tasks (e.g., naming) may allow for a decision based on the initial status of the cohort, while others (e.g., lexical decision) can require its complete resolution. Six experiments are reported that illustrate some of these cohort effects in lexical access. PMID:8033536

  7. Rapid Interactions between Lexical Semantic and Word Form Analysis during Word Recognition in Context

    E-print Network

    Kim, Albert.

    very early stages of word recognition, within the initial 200 msec of processing the word. Here, weRapid Interactions between Lexical Semantic and Word Form Analysis during Word Recognition course of interactions between lexical semantic and sublexical visual word form pro- cessing during word

  8. Discourse Context and the Recognition of Reduced and Canonical Spoken Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Susanne; Mitterer, Holger; Huettig, Falk

    2013-01-01

    In two eye-tracking experiments we examined whether wider discourse information helps the recognition of reduced pronunciations (e.g., "puter") more than the recognition of canonical pronunciations of spoken words (e.g., "computer"). Dutch participants listened to sentences from a casual speech corpus containing canonical and reduced target words.…

  9. Modelling out-of-vocabulary words for robust speech recognition

    E-print Network

    Bazzi, Issam

    2002-01-01

    This thesis concerns the problem of unknown or out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words in continuous speech recognition. Most of today's state-of-the-art speech recognition systems can recognize only words that belong to some ...

  10. Nonword pronunciation and models of word recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Seidenberg; David C. Plaut; Alan S. Petersen; James L. McClelland; Ken McRae

    1994-01-01

    Nonword pronunciation is a form of generalization behavior that has been at the center of debates about models of word recognition, the role of rules in explaining behavior, and the adequacy of the parallel distributed processing approach. An experiment yielded data concerning the pronunciation of a large corpus of nonwords. The data were then used to assess 2 models of

  11. Word Recognition: Theoretical Issues and Instructional Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward E.; Kleiman, Glenn M.

    Research on adult readers' word recognition skills is used in this paper to develop a general information processing model of reading. Stages of the model include feature extraction, interpretation, lexical access, working memory, and integration. Of those stages, particular attention is given to the units of interpretation, speech recoding and…

  12. An ERP Investigation of Visual Word Recognition in Syllabary Scripts

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Kana; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    The bi-modal interactive-activation model has been successfully applied to understanding the neuro-cognitive processes involved in reading words in alphabetic scripts, as reflected in the modulation of ERP components in masked repetition priming. In order to test the generalizability of this approach, the current study examined word recognition in a different writing system, the Japanese syllabary scripts Hiragana and Katakana. Native Japanese participants were presented with repeated or unrelated pairs of Japanese words where the prime and target words were both in the same script (within-script priming, Experiment 1) or were in the opposite script (cross-script priming, Experiment 2). As in previous studies with alphabetic scripts, in both experiments the N250 (sub-lexical processing) and N400 (lexical-semantic processing) components were modulated by priming, although the time-course was somewhat delayed. The earlier N/P150 effect (visual feature processing) was present only in Experiment 1 where prime and target words shared visual features. Overall, the results provide support for the hypothesis that visual word recognition involves a generalizable set of neuro-cognitive processes that operate in a similar manner across different writing systems and languages, as well as pointing to the viability of the bi-modal interactive activation framework for modeling such processes. PMID:23378278

  13. Vowel Categorization during Word Recognition in Bilingual Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Ramon-Casas, Marta; Swingley, Daniel; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Bosch, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Toddlers’ and preschoolers’ knowledge of the phonological forms of words was tested in Spanish-learning, Catalan-learning, and bilingual children. These populations are of particular interest because of differences in the Spanish and Catalan vowel systems: Catalan has two vowels in a phonetic region where Spanish has only one. The proximity of the Spanish vowel to the Catalan ones might pose special learning problems. Children were shown picture pairs; the target picture’s name was spoken correctly, or a vowel in the target word was altered. Altered vowels either contrasted with the usual vowel in Spanish and Catalan, or only in Catalan. Children’s looking to the target picture was used as a measure of word recognition. Monolinguals’ word recognition was hindered by within-language, but not non-native, vowel changes. Surprisingly, bilingual toddlers did not show sensitivity to changes in vowels contrastive only in Catalan. Among preschoolers, Catalan-dominant bilinguals but not Spanish-dominant bilinguals revealed mispronunciation sensitivity for the Catalan-only contrast. These studies reveal monolingual children’s robust knowledge of native-language vowel categories in words, and show that bilingual children whose two languages contain phonetically overlapping vowel categories may not treat those categories as separate in language comprehension. PMID:19338984

  14. Spoken Word Recognition in Toddlers Who Use Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M.; Saffran, Jenny R.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the time course of spoken word recognition in 2-year-old children who use cochlear implants (CIs) in quiet and in the presence of speech competitors. Method Children who use CIs and age-matched peers with normal acoustic hearing listened to familiar auditory labels, in quiet or in the presence of speech competitors, while their eye movements to target objects were digitally recorded. Word recognition performance was quantified by measuring each child’s reaction time (i.e., the latency between the spoken auditory label and the first look at the target object) and accuracy (i.e., the amount of time that children looked at target objects within 367 ms to 2,000 ms after the label onset). Results Children with CIs were less accurate and took longer to fixate target objects than did age-matched children without hearing loss. Both groups of children showed reduced performance in the presence of the speech competitors, although many children continued to recognize labels at above-chance levels. Conclusion The results suggest that the unique auditory experience of young CI users slows the time course of spoken word recognition abilities. In addition, real-world listening environments may slow language processing in young language learners, regardless of their hearing status. PMID:19951921

  15. Children's literacy environments and early word recognition subskills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne E. Cunningham; Keith E. Stanovich

    1993-01-01

    First-grade children completed a battery of tasks that included standardized measures of word recognition and spelling, measures of phonological and orthographic processing skill, and a short indicator of exposure to print via home literacy experiences. Phonological and orthographic processing skill were separable components of variance in word recognition. Orthographic processing ability accounted for variance in word recognition ability even after

  16. A word graph algorithm for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Ortmanns; Hermann Ney; Xavier Aubert

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the construction of a word graph (or lattice) for large vocabulary, continuous speech recognition. The advantage of a word graph is that a fairly good degree of decoupling between acoustic recognition at the 10-ms level and the final search at the word level using a complicated language model can be achieved. The word graph

  17. The Role of Holistic Paradigms in Handwritten Word Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sriganesh Madhvanath; Venu Govindaraju

    2001-01-01

    The holistic paradigm in handwritten word recognition treats the word as a single, indivisible entity and attempts to recognize words from their overall shape, as opposed to their character contents. In this survey, we have attempted to take a fresh look at the potential role of the holistic paradigm in handwritten word recognition. The survey begins with an overview of

  18. Visual word recognition during reading is followed by subvocal articulation.

    PubMed

    Eiter, Brianna M; Inhoff, Albrecht W

    2010-03-01

    Three experiments examined whether the identification of a visual word is followed by its subvocal articulation during reading. An irrelevant spoken word (ISW) that was identical, phonologically similar, or dissimilar to a visual target word was presented when the eyes moved to the target in the course of sentence reading. Sentence reading was further accompanied by either a sequential finger tapping task (Experiment 1) or an articulatory suppression task (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 revealed sound-specific interference from a phonologically similar ISW during posttarget viewing. This interference was absent in Experiment 2, where similar and dissimilar ISWs impeded target and posttarget reading equally. Experiment 3 showed that articulatory suppression left the lexical processing of visual words intact and that it did not diminish the influence of visual word recognition on eye guidance. The presence of sound-specific interference during posttarget reading in Experiment 1 is attributed to deleterious effects of a phonologically similar ISW on the subvocal articulation of a target. Its absence in Experiment 2 is attributed to the suppression of a target's subvocal articulation. PMID:20192542

  19. Decoding and sight-word naming: Are they independent components of word recognition skill?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Aaron; R. M. Joshi; Mahboobeh Ayotollah; Annie Ellsberry; Janet Henderson; Kim Lindsey

    1999-01-01

    Word recognition skill is the foundation of the reading process. Word recognition could be accomplished by two major strategies: phonological decoding and sight-word reading, the latter being a marker for proficient reading. There is, however, a controversy regarding the relationship between decoding and sight-word reading, whether the two are independent or the latter is built on the foundations of the

  20. Comparison of Word Recognition Strategies of Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, S. Jay; Chen, C. C.

    A word recognition model involving four processing stages was used, and tests of various word recognition strategies were administered to 25 fourth graders and 25 college students. The model included the following stages: (1) using information in a passage; (2) generating hypotheses from what the next word might be; (3) testing these hypotheses…

  1. Emotion and language: Valence and arousal affect word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth

    2014-01-01

    Emotion influences most aspects of cognition and behavior, but emotional factors are conspicuously absent from current models of word recognition. The influence of emotion on word recognition has mostly been reported in prior studies on the automatic vigilance for negative stimuli, but the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. Various models of automatic vigilance have claimed that the effect of valence on response times is categorical, an inverted-U, or interactive with arousal. The present study used a sample of 12,658 words, and included many lexical and semantic control factors, to determine the precise nature of the effects of arousal and valence on word recognition. Converging empirical patterns observed in word-level and trial-level data from lexical decision and naming indicate that valence and arousal exert independent monotonic effects: Negative words are recognized more slowly than positive words, and arousing words are recognized more slowly than calming words. Valence explained about 2% of the variance in word recognition latencies, whereas the effect of arousal was smaller. Valence and arousal do not interact, but both interact with word frequency, such that valence and arousal exert larger effects among low-frequency words than among high-frequency words. These results necessitate a new model of affective word processing whereby the degree of negativity monotonically and independently predicts the speed of responding. This research also demonstrates that incorporating emotional factors, especially valence, improves the performance of models of word recognition. PMID:24490848

  2. Rapid Interactions between Lexical Semantic and Word Form Analysis during Word Recognition in Context

    E-print Network

    Kim, Albert.

    very early stages of word recognition, within the initial 200 msec of processing the word. Here, weU ncorrected Proof Rapid Interactions between Lexical Semantic and Word Form Analysis during Word the time course of interactions between lexical semantic and sublexical visual word form pro- cessing

  3. Influences of High and Low Variability on Infant Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Leher

    2008-01-01

    Although infants begin to encode and track novel words in fluent speech by 7.5 months, their ability to recognize words is somewhat limited at this stage. In particular, when the surface form of a word is altered, by changing the gender or affective prosody of the speaker, infants begin to falter at spoken word recognition. Given that natural…

  4. The Influence of the Phonological Neighborhood Clustering-Coefficient on Spoken Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Clustering coefficient—a measure derived from the new science of networks—refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words bat, hat, and can, all of which are neighbors of the word cat; the words bat and hat are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual identification task, words with a low clustering coefficient (i.e., few neighbors are neighbors of each other) were more accurately identified than words with a high clustering coefficient (i.e., many neighbors are neighbors of each other). In a lexical decision task, words with a low clustering coefficient were responded to more quickly than words with a high clustering coefficient. These findings suggest that the structure of the lexicon, that is the similarity relationships among neighbors of the target word measured by clustering coefficient, influences lexical access in spoken word recognition. Simulations of the TRACE and Shortlist models of spoken word recognition failed to account for the present findings. A framework for a new model of spoken word recognition is proposed. PMID:19968444

  5. GENERALIZATION OF DIMENSION-BASED STATISTICAL LEARNING IN WORD RECOGNITION

    E-print Network

    Holt, Lori L.

    speakers learning Korean, for instance, use the canonical English relationship of voice onset time (VOTGENERALIZATION OF DIMENSION-BASED STATISTICAL LEARNING IN WORD RECOGNITION Lori L. Holt and Kaori-based statistical learning in online word recognition, testing generalization of learning across talkers and across

  6. Handwritten Word Recognition using Conditional Random Fields Shravya Shetty Harish Srinivasan

    E-print Network

    Handwritten Word Recognition using Conditional Random Fields Shravya Shetty Harish Srinivasan The paper describes a lexicon driven approach for word recognition on handwritten documents using Introduction Recognition of handwritten words from unconstrained scanned documents remains to be an open

  7. Scalable architecture for word HMM-based speech recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shingo Yoshizawa; Naoya Wada; Noboru Hayasaka; Yoshikazu Miyanaga

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a scalable architecture for realizing real-time speech recognizers based on a word HMM (hidden Markov model). HMM-based recognition algorithms are classified into two acoustic models, i.e., phenome-level model and word-level model. The phenome-level HMM has been widely used in current speech recognition systems which permit large-sized vocabularies. Whereas the word-level HMM has been constrained to small-sized vocabularies

  8. Isolated and Connected Word Recognition--Theory and Selected Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Rabiner; S. Levinson

    1981-01-01

    The art and science of speech recognition have been advanced to the state where it is now possible to communicate reliably with a computer by speaking to it in a disciplined manner using a vocabulary of moderate size. It is the purpose of this paper to outline two aspects of speech-recognition research. First, we discuss word recognition as a classical

  9. The Effects of Articulatory Suppression on Word Recognition in Serbian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenjovic, Lazar; Lalovic, Dejan

    2005-01-01

    The relatedness of phonological coding to the articulatory mechanisms in visual word recognition vary in different writing systems. While articulatory suppression (i.e., continuous verbalising during a visual word processing task) has a detrimental effect on the processing of Japanese words printed in regular syllabic Khana script, it has no such…

  10. Neural network system for continuous hand-written words recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Kussul; L. M. Kasatkina

    1999-01-01

    A method of continuous hand-written word recognition is proposed. The method is based on segmentation of the word onto triplets. Each triplet contains 3 letters. Two subsequent triplets have 2 common letters. Such overlapping gives powerful means for correction of recognised triplets and points of word segmentation. The proposed method could be used for creation the systems of automatic input

  11. Word Embeddings for Speech Recognition Samy Bengio and Georg Heigold

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    dataset show improvements in word error rate. Index Terms: embeddings, deep learning, speech recognition then construct a graph where the nodes are states of these phonetic units, connected to form proper words, such that the best path in the graph (according to some metric) corresponds to the best sequence of words uttered

  12. Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Word Processing, Recognition and Context Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit

    2007-01-01

    In the paper the lexical ambiguity resolution is presented. The paper is specifically focused on the processing of words, models of word recognition, context effect, trying to find an answer to how the reader-listener determines the contextually appropriate meaning of a word. Ambiguity resolution is analyzed and explored in two perspectives: the…

  13. Modelling the Effects of Semantic Ambiguity in Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    2004-01-01

    Most words in English are ambiguous between different interpretations; words can mean different things in different contexts. We investigate the implications of different types of semantic ambiguity for connectionist models of word recognition. We present a model in which there is competition to activate distributed semantic representations. The…

  14. Elements of the Word Recognition Process: A Two Part Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; DiStefano, Philip

    There are basically two different models for the word recognition process. One model postulates that a reader primarily uses sound/symbol cues to recognize a word; a second model states that a reader focuses mainly on whole-word characteristics. To determine which model best fits beginning and adult readers, a multiple regression analysis was…

  15. Influences of Spoken Word Planning on Speech Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Ardi; Ozdemir, Rebecca; Levelt, Willem J. M.

    2007-01-01

    In 4 chronometric experiments, influences of spoken word planning on speech recognition were examined. Participants were shown pictures while hearing a tone or a spoken word presented shortly after picture onset. When a spoken word was presented, participants indicated whether it contained a prespecified phoneme. When the tone was presented, they…

  16. Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2010-01-01

    We employ a single-trial correlational MEG analysis technique to investigate early processing in the visual recognition of morphologically complex words. Three classes of affixed words were presented in a lexical decision task: free stems (e.g., taxable), bound roots (e.g., tolerable), and unique root words (e.g., vulnerable, the root of which…

  17. A Robust Analytical Approach for Handwritten Word Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Congedo; Giovanni Dimauro; Sebastiano Impedovo; Giuseppe Pirlo; D. Sfregola

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a system for handwritten word recognition based on an analytical approach. Through a fast segmentation procedure, basic strokes are detected and used to recognize the word by a bottom-up approach. The system has been tested on the worded amounts on bankchecks. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the approach.

  18. A Similarity in Word-Recognition Procedures among Second Language Readers with Different First Language Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akamatsu, Nobuhiko

    2002-01-01

    Investigated word recognition among fluent readers of English as a Second Language (ESL), specifically whether ESL readers' first language (L1) affects the procedures underlying second language word recognition, with respect to the effects of word frequency and regularity on word recognition. Results revealed a similarity in word-recognition

  19. The Effects of Training on Automatization of Word Recognition in English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akamatsu, Nobuhiko

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of word-recognition training on the word-recognition processing of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Providing 7-week word-recognition training, the study examined whether such training improves EFL learners' word-recognition performance. The main aspects of this study concerned word

  20. Role of syllable segmentation processes in peripheral word recognition.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Calabrèse, Aurélie; Castet, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies of foveal visual word recognition provide evidence for a low-level syllable decomposition mechanism occurring during the recognition of a word. We investigated if such a decomposition mechanism also exists in peripheral word recognition. Single words were visually presented to subjects in the peripheral field using a 6° square gaze-contingent simulated central scotoma. In the first experiment, words were either unicolor or had their adjacent syllables segmented with two different colors (color/syllable congruent condition). Reaction times for correct word identification were measured for the two different conditions and for two different print sizes. Results show a significant decrease in reaction time for the color/syllable congruent condition compared with the unicolor condition. A second experiment suggests that this effect is specific to syllable decomposition and results from strategic, presumably involving attentional factors, rather than stimulus-driven control. PMID:25449165

  1. Target recognition: Conventional and neural network approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Ruck; S. K. Rogers; M. Kabrisky; J. P. Mills

    1989-01-01

    Summary form only given. The application of both conventional and neural network methods to actual sensor data for target recognition is addressed. The problem of interest is the detection and classification of objects in multisensor images. The types of images used are forward looking infrared (FLIR), absolute and relative range, and doppler. First, conventional approaches to target recognition used at

  2. Word Recognition with a Hierarchical Neural Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Domont; Martin Heckmann; Heiko Wersing; Frank Joublin; Stefan Menzel; Bernhard Sendhoff; Christian Goerick

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose a feedforward neural network for syl- lable recognition. The core of the recognition system is based on a hierarchical architecture initially developed for visual ob- ject recognition. We show that, given the similarities between the primary auditory and visual cortexes, such a system can suc- cessfully be used for speech recognition. Syllables are used as

  3. Auditory Word Recognition: Extrinsic and Intrinsic Effects of Word Frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia M. Connine; Debra Titone; Jian Wang

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of word frequency in a phoneme identification task. Speech voicing continua were constructed so that one endpoint was a high-frequency word and the other endpoint was a low-frequency word (e.g., best–pest). Experiment 1 demonstrated that ambiguous tokens were labeled such that a high-frequency word was formed (intrinsic frequency effect). Experiment 2 manipulated the frequency composition

  4. Connectionism and the Role of Morphology in Visual Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Rueckl, Jay G

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the connectionist perspective on the role of morphology in visual word recognition. Several computational models of morphological effects in reading are described and relationships between these models, models of past tense production, and models of other aspects of word recognition are traced. Limitations of extant models are noted, as are some of the technical challenges that must be solved to develop the next generation of models. Finally, some directions for future research are identified. PMID:22934123

  5. Artificial neural network fusion: Application to Arabic words recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadir Farah; Tarek Khadir; Mokhtar Sellami

    2005-01-01

    The study of multiple classifler systems has become recently an area of intensive research in pattern recognition in order to improve the results of single classiflers. In this work, two types of features com- bination for handwritten Arabic literal words amount recognition, using neural network classiflers are discussed. Difierent parallel combination schemes are presented and their results compared with a

  6. Benefit of multiclassifier systems for Arabic handwritten words recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadir Farah; ENNAJI Abdelatif; Tarek Khadir; Mokhtar Sellami

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the results of single classifiers, the study of multiple classifier systems has become an area of intensive research in pattern recognition. In this paper, two types of features are fed to a number of artificial neural networks (ANN). Then, their respective responses are combined for the recognition of handwritten Arabic literal words. Different parallel combination schemes

  7. Reading Habits, Perceptual Learning, and Recognition of Printed Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Tatjana A.; Ben-Boutayab, Nadia; Decoppet, Nathalie; Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram

    2004-01-01

    The present work aims at demonstrating that visual training associated with the act of reading modifies the way we perceive printed words. As reading does not train all parts of the retina in the same way but favors regions on the side in the direction of scanning, visual word recognition should be better at retinal locations that are frequently…

  8. Attractor dynamics in word recognition: converging evidence from errors by

    E-print Network

    Plaut, David C.

    and a connectionist model. This type of three-way link was ®rst established by Mozer, Behrmann, and collea- gues model of word and object recognition (Mozer, 1991) reproduced the pattern of word reading errors exhibited by neglect dyslexic patients (Mozer & Behrmann, 1990), and a lateral bias on attention

  9. Individual Differences in Online Spoken Word Recognition: Implications for SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have…

  10. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline…

  11. Keyword selection from word recognition results using definitional overlap

    SciTech Connect

    Filipski, P.; Hull, J.J. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A method is presented to locate a set of potential keywords for a given document in the output of a word recognition algorithm. A clustering step locates words of significant length that occur several times. A word recognition algorithm is applied to these words to generate groups of visually similar alternatives for each image. A simulated annealing algorithm is then used to choose a st of keywords that contains at most one representative from each neighborhood such that an inter-word compatibility measurement is maximized. The compatibility measure is based on the similarity of subject and the definitional overlap of two words as measured by a dictionary. Experimental results are presented that illustrate the ability of the technique to operate in the presence of noise.

  12. Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olla Solomyak; Alec Marantz

    2010-01-01

    We employ a single-trial correlational MEG analysis technique to investigate early processing in the visual recognition of mor- phologically complex words. Three classes of affixed words were presented in a lexical decision task: free stems (e.g., taxable), bound roots (e.g., tolerable), and unique root words (e.g., vulner- able, the root of which does not appear elsewhere). Analysis was focused on

  13. Phonetic discrimination and non-native spoken-word recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

    2002-05-01

    When phoneme categories of a non-native language do not correspond to those of the native language, non-native categories may be inaccurately perceived. This may impair non-native spoken-word recognition. Weber and Cutler investigated the effect of phonetic discrimination difficulties on competitor activation in non-native listening. They tested whether Dutch listeners use English phonetic contrasts to resolve potential competition. Eye movements of Dutch participants were monitored as they followed spoken English instructions to click on pictures of objects. A target picture (e.g., picture of a paddle) was always presented along with distractor pictures. The name of a distractor picture either shared initial segments with the name of the target picture (e.g., target paddle, /paedl/ and competitor pedal, /pEdl/) or not (e.g., strawberry and duck). Half of the target-competitor pairs contained English vowels that are often confused by Dutch listeners (e.g., /ae/ and /E/ as in ``paddle-pedal''), half contained vowels that are unlikely to be confused (e.g., /ae/ and /aI/ as in ``parrot-pirate''). Dutch listeners fixated distractor pictures with confusable English vowels longer than distractor pictures with distinct vowels. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity of non-native listeners to phonetic contrasts can result in spurious competitors that should not be activated for native listeners.

  14. Morphological and Semantic Effects in Visual Word Recognition: A Time-Course Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastle, Kathleen; Davis, Matt H.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2000-01-01

    Reports two sets of lexical priming experiments in which the morphological, semantic, and orthographic relationships between primes and targets are varied in three SOA conditions. Results showed that morphological structure plays a significant role in early visual recognition of English words that is independent of both semantic and orthographic…

  15. The study of orthographic processing has broadened research in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Carol

    2012-10-01

    Interest in orthographic processing reflects an expansion, not constriction, of the scope of research in visual word recognition (VWR). Transposition effects are merely one aspect of investigations into orthographic encoding, while open bigrams can accommodate differences across languages. The target article's inaccurate characterization of the study of orthographic processing is not conducive to the advancement of VWR research. PMID:22929756

  16. Rapid Word Recognition as a Measure of Word-Level Automaticity and Its Relation to Other Measures of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Elizabeth M.; Gosky, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between rapid recognition of individual words (Word Recognition Test) and two measures of contextual reading: (1) grade-level Passage Reading Test (IRI passage) and (2) performance on standardized STAR Reading Test. To establish if time of presentation on the word recognition test was a factor in…

  17. Recognition of Hits in a Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerak, Vojtech; Drahansky, Martin

    This paper describes two possible ways of hit recognition in a target. First method is based on frame differencing with use of a stabilization algorithm to eliminate movements of a target. Second method uses flood fill with random seed point definition to find hits in the target scene.

  18. Visual Word Recognition of Single-Syllable Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, David A.; Cortese, Michael J.; Sergent-Marshall, Susan D.; Spieler, Daniel H.; Yap, Melvin J.

    2004-01-01

    Speeded visual word naming and lexical decision performance are reported for 2,428 words for young adults and healthy older adults. Hierarchical regression techniques were used to investigate the unique predictive variance of phonological features in the onsets, lexical variables (e.g., measures of consistency, frequency, familiarity, neighborhood…

  19. Visual Word Recognition of Single-Syllable Words

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Balota; Michael J. Cortese; Susan D. Sergent-Marshall; Daniel H. Spieler; Melvin J. Yap

    2004-01-01

    Speeded visual word naming and lexical decision performance are reported for 2,428 words for young adults and healthy older adults. Hierarchical regression techniques were used to investigate the unique predictive variance of phonological features in the onsets, lexical variables (e.g., measures of consistency, frequency, familiarity, neighborhood size, and length), and semantic variables (e.g., imageability and semantic connectivity). The influence of

  20. Tracking the Emergence of the Consonant Bias in Visual-Word Recognition: Evidence with Developing Readers

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel; Comesaña, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with skilled adult readers has consistently revealed an advantage of consonants over vowels in visual-word recognition (i.e., the so-called “consonant bias”). Nevertheless, little is known about how early in development the consonant bias emerges. This work aims to address this issue by studying the relative contribution of consonants and vowels at the early stages of visual-word recognition in developing readers (2nd and 4th Grade children) and skilled adult readers (college students) using a masked priming lexical decision task. Target words starting either with a consonant or a vowel were preceded by a briefly presented masked prime (50 ms) that could be the same as the target (e.g., pirata-PIRATA [pirate-PIRATE]), a consonant-preserving prime (e.g., pureto-PIRATA), a vowel-preserving prime (e.g., gicala-PIRATA), or an unrelated prime (e.g., bocelo -PIRATA). Results revealed significant priming effects for the identity and consonant-preserving conditions in adult readers and 4th Grade children, whereas 2nd graders only showed priming for the identity condition. In adult readers, the advantage of consonants was observed both for words starting with a consonant or a vowel, while in 4th graders this advantage was restricted to words with an initial consonant. Thus, the present findings suggest that a Consonant/Vowel skeleton should be included in future (developmental) models of visual-word recognition and reading. PMID:24523917

  1. A mega recognition memory study of 2897 disyllabic words.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Michael J; McCarty, Daniel P; Schock, Jocelyn

    2015-08-01

    Following the studies by Cortese, Khanna, and Hacker (2010) on recognition memory for monosyllabic words, recognition memory estimates (e.g., hits, false alarms, hits minus false alarms) for 3000 disyllabic words were obtained from 120 subjects and 2897 of these words were analysed via multiple regression. Participants studied 30 lists of 50 words and were tested on 30 lists of 100 words. Of the subjects, 60 received a constant study time of 2000?ms per item and 60 studied items at their own pace. Specific predictor variables included log word frequency, word length, imageability, age of acquisition, orthographic similarity, and phonological similarity. The results were similar to those of Cortese et al. (2010). Specifically, in the analysis of hits minus false alarms, the entire set of predictor variables accounted for 34.9% of the variance. All predictor variables except phonological similarity were related to performance, with imageability, length, orthographic similarity and frequency all being strong predictors. These results are mostly compatible with the predictions made by single- and dual-process theories. However, across items hit rates were not correlated with false alarms. Given that most variables produced the standard mirror pattern, this latter outcome poses a major challenge for recognition memory theories. PMID:25220011

  2. Factors Affecting the Reading of Rimes in Words and Nonwords in Beginning Readers with Cognitive Disabilities and Typically Developing Readers: Explorations in Similarity and Difference in Word Recognition Cue Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Anne Calhoon

    2001-01-01

    The exploratory research reported in this study was designed to initiate research in reading that includes children who have cognitive disabilities other than learning disabilities. Forty children, whose word recognition level was at the second-grade level, were assessed for knowledge of letter names, letter sounds, and rime recognition for high and low frequency target words and nonwords. Of these children,

  3. A familiar font drives early emotional effects in word recognition.

    PubMed

    Kuchinke, Lars; Krause, Beatrix; Fritsch, Nathalie; Briesemeister, Benny B

    2014-10-01

    The emotional connotation of a word is known to shift the process of word recognition. Using the electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs) approach it has been documented that early attentional processing of high-arousing negative words is shifted at a stage of processing where a presented word cannot have been fully identified. Contextual learning has been discussed to contribute to these effects. The present study shows that a manipulation of the familiarity with a word's shape interferes with these earliest emotional ERP effects. Presenting high-arousing negative and neutral words in a familiar or an unfamiliar font results in very early emotion differences only in case of familiar shapes, whereas later processing stages reveal similar emotional effects in both font conditions. Because these early emotion-related differences predict later behavioral differences, it is suggested that contextual learning of emotional valence comprises more visual features than previously expected to guide early visual-sensory processing. PMID:25226214

  4. Morphology in Word Recognition: Hindi and Urdu 

    E-print Network

    Rao, Chaitra

    2011-08-08

    . Specifically, morphological priming was differently affected in Hindi vs. Urdu by prim presentation conditions (Exps. 1-3): very briefly exposed (48ms), forward masked morphological primes facilitated word naming in Hindi but not in Urdu. Neither briefly...

  5. Speaker-independent word recognition using dynamic programming neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Sakoe; Ryosuke Isotani; K. Yoshida; K.-I. Iso; T. Watanabe

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of speaker-independent word recognition based on a new neural network model called the dynamic programming neural network (DNN), which can treat time-sequence patterns. DNN is based on the integration of a multilayer neural network and dynamic-programming-based matching. Speaker-independent isolated Japanese digit recognition experiments were carried out using data uttered by 107 speakers (50 speakers for training

  6. Voice reinstatement modulates neural indices of continuous word recognition.

    PubMed

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Backer, Kristina C; Alain, Claude

    2014-09-01

    The present study was designed to examine listeners' ability to use voice information incidentally during spoken word recognition. We recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during a continuous recognition paradigm in which participants indicated on each trial whether the spoken word was "new" or "old." Old items were presented at 2, 8 or 16 words following the first presentation. Context congruency was manipulated by having the same word repeated by either the same speaker or a different speaker. The different speaker could share the gender, accent or neither feature with the word presented the first time. Participants' accuracy was greatest when the old word was spoken by the same speaker than by a different speaker. In addition, accuracy decreased with increasing lag. The correct identification of old words was accompanied by an enhanced late positivity over parietal sites, with no difference found between voice congruency conditions. In contrast, an earlier voice reinstatement effect was observed over frontal sites, an index of priming that preceded recollection in this task. Our results provide further evidence that acoustic and semantic information are integrated into a unified trace and that acoustic information facilitates spoken word recollection. PMID:25080187

  7. Learning Sub-Word Units for Open Vocabulary Speech Recognition Carolina Parada1

    E-print Network

    Dredze, Mark

    Learning Sub-Word Units for Open Vocabulary Speech Recognition Carolina Parada1 , Mark Dredze1 are information rich terms, like named entities or foreign words. Hybrid word/sub-word systems solve this problem by adding sub-word units to large vo- cabulary word based systems; new words can then be represented

  8. Simulation of a word recognition system on two parallel architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder, M.A.; Jamieson, L.H. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1989-09-01

    When designing a parallel architecture it is advantageous to consider the applications for which the architecture will be used. This paper examines the use of two parallel architectures, a single instruction stream multiple data stream (SIMD) machine and a VLSI processor array, to implement an isolated word recognition system. SIMD and VLSI processor array algorithms were written for each of the components of the recognition system. The component parallel algorithms were simulated along with two complete recognition systems, one composed of SIMD algorithms and the other composed of VLSI processor array algorithms.

  9. The impact of task demand on visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Zevin, J

    2014-07-11

    The left occipitotemporal cortex has been found sensitive to the hierarchy of increasingly complex features in visually presented words, from individual letters to bigrams and morphemes. However, whether this sensitivity is a stable property of the brain regions engaged by word recognition is still unclear. To address the issue, the current study investigated whether different task demands modify this sensitivity. Participants viewed real English words and stimuli with hierarchical word-likeness while performing a lexical decision task (i.e., to decide whether each presented stimulus is a real word) and a symbol detection task. General linear model and independent component analysis indicated strong activation in the fronto-parietal and temporal regions during the two tasks. Furthermore, the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and insula showed significant interaction effects between task demand and stimulus type in the pseudoword condition. The occipitotemporal cortex showed strong main effects for task demand and stimulus type, but no sensitivity to the hierarchical word-likeness was found. These results suggest that different task demands on semantic, phonological and orthographic processes can influence the involvement of the relevant regions during visual word recognition. PMID:24814725

  10. Individual differences in involvement of the visual object recognition system during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, Sarah; Sacchi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with dyslexia often evince reduced activation during reading in left hemisphere (LH) language regions. This can be observed along with increased activation in the right hemisphere (RH), especially in areas associated with object recognition - a pattern referred to as RH compensation. The mechanisms of RH compensation are relatively unclear. We hypothesize that RH compensation occurs when the RH object recognition system is called upon to supplement an underperforming LH visual word form recognition system. We tested this by collecting ERPs while participants with a range of reading abilities viewed words, objects, and word/object ambiguous items (e.g., "SMILE" shaped like a smile). Less experienced readers differentiate words, objects, and ambiguous items less strongly, especially over the RH. We suggest that this lack of differentiation may have negative consequences for dyslexic individuals demonstrating RH compensation. PMID:25957504

  11. Prosodic Phonological Representations Early in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Jane; Martin, Andrea E.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the nature of the phonological representations used during visual word recognition. We tested whether a minimality constraint (R. Frost, 1998) limits the complexity of early representations to a simple string of phonemes. Alternatively, readers might activate elaborated representations that include prosodic syllable…

  12. A novel approach for Persian\\/Arabic intelligent word recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reza Ravani; Amir Sadegh Amani

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach for offline Persian\\/Arabic intelligent word recognition based on the fast and customized dynamic time warping method. The main focus of paper is on Persian language but considering the common character sets and writing styles in both Persian and Arabic, our system could be easily extended to Arabic language. Recent advances in this

  13. Auditory and Visual Word Recognition in Beginning Adult Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Raymond L.; Cortwright, Richard W.

    An exploratory investigation was made of cross-modality matching within the context of word recognition skills among beginning adult readers. The specific aim of the study was to assess the possibility that a deficit in cross-modality matching might be potentially useful as a diagnostic and predictive indicator of the rate at which adults learn to…

  14. ARMA lattice modeling for isolated word speech recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Kwan; Tracy X. Li

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) lattice model for speech modeling. The speech characteristics are modeled and expressed in the form of lattice reflection coefficients for classification. Self Organization Map (SOM) is used to build codebooks for classification and recognition of the lattice reflection coefficients. Experimental results based on an isolated word speech database of 10

  15. Analysis of the Word-Frequency Effect in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanzer, Murray; Bowles, Nancy

    1976-01-01

    A general decision-theory analysis of the word-frequency effect in recognition memory is carried out. On the basis of the analysis and data from a forced-choice experiment two distinct causes of the frequency effect are defined. (Editor)

  16. Cross-Modal Source Information and Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachs, Lorin; Pisoni, David B.

    2004-01-01

    In a cross-modal matching task, participants were asked to match visual and auditory displays of speech based on the identity of the speaker. The present investigation used this task with acoustically transformed speech to examine the properties of sound that can convey cross-modal information. Word recognition performance was also measured under…

  17. Skilled Readers Begin Processing Sub-phonemic Features by 80 ms during Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, Jane; Sanders, Lisa D.; Kingston, John

    2009-01-01

    Two masked priming experiments investigated the time course of the activation of sub-phonemic information during visual word recognition. EEG was recorded as participants read targets with voiced and unvoiced final consonants (e.g., fad and fat), preceded by nonword primes that were incongruent or congruent in voicing and vowel duration (e.g., fap or faz). Experiment 1 used a long duration mask (100 ms) between prime and target, whereas Experiment 2 used a short mask (22 ms). Phonological feature congruency began modulating the amplitude of brain potentials by 80 ms; the feature incongruent condition evoked greater negativity than the feature congruent condition in both Experiments. The early onset of the congruency effect indicates that skilled readers initially activate sub-phonemic feature information during word identification. Congruency effects also appeared in the middle and late periods of word recognition, suggesting that readers use phonological representations in multiple aspects of visual word recognition. PMID:18456383

  18. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Zorzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters) from their eye-centered (i.e., retinal) locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity) was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Word-tuning and location-invariance were found at the level of single neurons, but there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words-which was the model's learning objective-is largely based on letter-level information. PMID:24065939

  19. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Zorzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters) from their eye-centered (i.e., retinal) locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity) was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Word-tuning and location-invariance were found at the level of single neurons, but there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words—which was the model's learning objective—is largely based on letter-level information. PMID:24065939

  20. An Investigation of the Role of Grapheme Units in Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupker, Stephen J.; Acha, Joana; Davis, Colin J.; Perea, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    In most current models of word recognition, the word recognition process is assumed to be driven by the activation of letter units (i.e., that letters are the perceptual units in reading). An alternative possibility is that the word recognition process is driven by the activation of grapheme units, that is, that graphemes, rather than letters, are…

  1. Offline Handwritten Arabic Word Recognition Using HMM -a Character Based Approach without Explicit Segmentation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Offline Handwritten Arabic Word Recognition Using HMM - a Character Based Approach without Explicit presents the IfN's Offline Hand- written Arabic Word Recognition System. The system uses Hidden Markov, Arabic Word Recognition, Segmentation, Hidden Markov Models, Competition, Database. Résumé : Cet article

  2. Home Grown for Reading: Parental Contributions to Young Children's Emergent Literacy and Word Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ann Evans; Deborah Shaw

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an integrative review of key aspects of emergent literacy and specific home activities that empirical research has shown to support their development. Given the importance of word recognition in reading development, home contributions to word recognition as well as to four areas of emergent literacy that contribute to word recognition are highlighted. These include phonological awareness, letter

  3. Target Recognition and Synapse Formation During Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marlene Y. MacLeish

    2012-06-26

    In this activity about neuron/target muscle recognition (page 44 of the PDF), learners arranged in two rows facing away from each other use string to simulate neural development. The lesson guide, part of NASA's "The Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience" includes background information and evaluation strategies.

  4. Attentional Control and Flexible Lexical Processing: Explorations of the Magic Moment of Word Recognition

    E-print Network

    1 Attentional Control and Flexible Lexical Processing: Explorations of the Magic Moment of Word in this volume, the processes involved in visual word recognition are remarkably complex. This should underlying models of visual word recognition is that there is a magic moment in word processing (Balota, 1990

  5. Robotics control using isolated word recognition of voice input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A speech input/output system is presented that can be used to communicate with a task oriented system. Human speech commands and synthesized voice output extend conventional information exchange capabilities between man and machine by utilizing audio input and output channels. The speech input facility is comprised of a hardware feature extractor and a microprocessor implemented isolated word or phrase recognition system. The recognizer offers a medium sized (100 commands), syntactically constrained vocabulary, and exhibits close to real time performance. The major portion of the recognition processing required is accomplished through software, minimizing the complexity of the hardware feature extractor.

  6. (Almost) Word for Word: As Voice Recognition Programs Improve, Students Reap the Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Voice recognition software is hardly new--attempts at capturing spoken words and turning them into written text have been available to consumers for about two decades. But what was once an expensive and highly unreliable tool has made great strides in recent years, perhaps most recognized in programs such as Nuance's Dragon NaturallySpeaking…

  7. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT?ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  8. A Demonstration of Improved Precision of Word Recognition Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Anderson, Elizabeth S.; Micheyl, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate improved precision of word recognition scores (WRSs) by increasing list length and analyzing phonemic errors. Method: Pure-tone thresholds (frequencies between 0.25 and 8.0 kHz) and WRSs were measured in 3 levels of speech-shaped noise (50, 52, and 54 dB HL) for 24 listeners with normal…

  9. Evaluating NN and HMM Classifiers for Handwritten Word Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSÉ J. DE OLIVEIRA JÚNIOR; M. DE CARVALHO; O. DE A. FREITAS; Robert Sabourin

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. This paper evaluates NN and HMM classifiers applied to the handwritten word recognition problem. The goal is analyse the individual and combined,performance,of these classifiers. They are evaluated considering two different combination strategies and the experiments are performed with the same database and similar feature sets. The strategy proposed takes advantage of the different but complementary,mechanisms,of NN and HMM to

  10. Improvements in beam search for 10000-word continuous speech recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ney; R. Haeb-Umbach; B.-H. Tran; M. Oerder

    1992-01-01

    The author describes the improvements in a time synchronous beam search strategy for a 10000-word continuous speech recognition task. The improvements are based on two measures: a tree-organization of the pronunciation lexicon and a novel look-ahead technique at the phoneme level, both of which interact directly with the detailed search at the state levels of the phoneme models. Experimental tests

  11. Combining open vocabulary recognition and word confusion networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Vertanen

    2008-01-01

    A limitation of most speech recognizers is that they only rec- ognize words from a fixed vocabulary. In this paper, we ex- plore a technique for addressing this deficiency using auto- matically derived units made up of letters and phones. We show how these units can be used for letter-to-phone conver- sion and open-vocabulary recognition. We further show how these

  12. Dynamic programming algorithm optimization for spoken word recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROAKI SAKOE; SEIBI CHIBA

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on an optimum dynamic progxamming (DP) based time-normalization algorithm for spoken word recognition. First, a general principle of time-normalization is given using time-warping function. Then, two time-normalized distance definitions, called symmetric and asymmetric forms, are derived from the principle. These two forms are compared with each other through theoretical discussions and experimental studies. The symmetric form algorithm

  13. Protein targeting by the signal recognition particle.

    PubMed

    Grudnik, Przemyslaw; Bange, Gert; Sinning, Irmgard

    2009-08-01

    Protein targeting by the signal recognition particle (SRP) is universally conserved and starts with the recognition of a signal sequence in the context of a translating ribosome. SRP54 and FtsY, two multidomain proteins with guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity, are the central elements of the SRP system. They have to coordinate the presence of a signal sequence with the presence of a vacant translocation channel in the membrane. For coordination the two GTPases form a unique, nearly symmetric heterodimeric complex in which the activation of GTP hydrolysis plays a key role for membrane insertion of substrate proteins. Recent results are integrated in an updated perception of the order of events in SRP-mediated protein targeting. PMID:19558326

  14. Automatic target recognition on the connection machine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.R. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) is a computationally intensive problem that benefits from the abilities of the Connection Machine (CM), a massively parallel computer used for data-level parallel computing. The large computational resources of the CM can efficiently handle an approach to ATR that uses parallel stereo-matching and neural-network algorithms. Such an approach shows promise as an ATR system of satisfactory performance. 13 refs.

  15. Modified target recognition based on rough sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianpei; Chen, Yalin; Dai, Zheng Y.; Zhu, Wenqi

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we present a modified target recognition data fusion module. Knowledge filter and knowledge reconstruction based on Rough sets optimize the knowledge acquisition, simplify the following inference machine's structure and reduce the complexity of calculation. The blackboard frame makes the mutual expert systems cooperate well. The method had been used in fault diagnosis of water turbogenerator in fire-power-plant and wined the satisfactory effect.

  16. Cross-linguistic experiments in word-form recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vihman, Marilyn

    2001-05-01

    When do children first represent word forms without experimental training or contextual support? Both English- and Welsh-learning children were tested, replicating Halle and Boysson-Bardies (1994: French, 11 months.). Twelve children acquiring English showed word-form recognition by 11 months (Vihman et al., in press); 12 Welsh children showed the effect at 12 months but a separate sample of 12 tested at 11 months did not (Vihman and DePaolis, 1999). A subsequent study of 16 children using event-related potentials (ERPs) showed word-form recognition within 250 ms for English at 11 months (Thierry et al., 2003). Attempts to locate the age of onset longitudinally proved problematic: Repeated tests of single samples of English and Welsh monolingual children (12 each) at 9, 10, 11, and 12 months showed that infant episodic memory interferes sufficiently with longitudinal observation based on a single set of stimuli to preclude drawing any conclusions. Cross-sectional samples of monolingual English and Welsh children (24 each) are currently being tested at 9 to12 months, using both head turn and ERPs, as are English/Welsh bilingual children at 11 months. These studies should yield solid information as to the age of onset of spontaneous word form representation. [ESRC support is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Real-time functional architecture of visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Caroline; Shtyrov, Yury; Marslen-Wilson, William

    2015-02-01

    Despite a century of research into visual word recognition, basic questions remain unresolved about the functional architecture of the process that maps visual inputs from orthographic analysis onto lexical form and meaning and about the units of analysis in terms of which these processes are conducted. Here we use magnetoencephalography, supported by a masked priming behavioral study, to address these questions using contrasting sets of simple (walk), complex (swimmer), and pseudo-complex (corner) forms. Early analyses of orthographic structure, detectable in bilateral posterior temporal regions within a 150-230 msec time frame, are shown to segment the visual input into linguistic substrings (words and morphemes) that trigger lexical access in left middle temporal locations from 300 msec. These are primarily feedforward processes and are not initially constrained by lexical-level variables. Lexical constraints become significant from 390 msec, in both simple and complex words, with increased processing of pseudowords and pseudo-complex forms. These results, consistent with morpho-orthographic models based on masked priming data, map out the real-time functional architecture of visual word recognition, establishing basic feedforward processing relationships between orthographic form, morphological structure, and lexical meaning. PMID:25208741

  18. Morphing Images: A Potential Tool for Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2005-01-01

    Children with severe learning difficulties who fail to begin word recognition can learn to recognise pictures and symbols relatively easily. However, finding an effective means of using pictures to teach word recognition has proved problematic. This research explores the use of morphing software to support the transition from picture to word

  19. Semi-Supervised Bio-Named Entity Recognition with Word-Codebook Learning Pavel P. Kuksa

    E-print Network

    Semi-Supervised Bio-Named Entity Recognition with Word-Codebook Learning Pavel P. Kuksa Yanjun Qi it to the task of bio- named entity recognition (bioNER). Typical bioNER sys- tems can be seen as tasks of assigning labels to words in bio- literature text. To improve supervised tagging, WCL learns a class of word

  20. Large-Corpus Phoneme and Word Recognition and the Generality of Lexical Context in CVC Word Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, Jessica T.; Christie, Robert E.; Gelfand, Stanley A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech recognition may be analyzed in terms of recognition probabilities for perceptual wholes (e.g., words) and parts (e.g., phonemes), where j or the j-factor reveals the number of independent perceptual units required for recognition of the whole (Boothroyd, 1968b; Boothroyd & Nittrouer, 1988; Nittrouer & Boothroyd, 1990). For…

  1. Pitch modulates lexical identification in spoken word recognition: ERP and behavioral evidence.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Claudia K; Kotz, Sonja A; Friederici, Angela D; Alter, Kai

    2004-07-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in cross-modal word fragment priming (CMWP) to address the function of pitch for the identification of spoken words. In CMWP fragments of spoken words (e.g., re taken from Regal [Engl. shelves]) are immediately followed by visual targets. Together with reduced reaction times (RTs), an ERP deflection named P350 has been found to be reduced for targets, which match the primes (e.g., in the prime-target pair re-REGAL) as compared to unrelated targets (e.g., re-WIRBEL [Engl. burble]). The P350 has been related to facilitated lexical identification [Friedrich, Kotz, Friederici and Gunter (in press), ERPs reflect lexical identification in word fragment priming, JOCN]. In the present study, we presented syllable primes with different pitch contours. One version of each prime bore a stressed pitch contour (e.g., re_1), the other an unstressed pitch contour (e.g., re_2). Primes were combined with targets being either stressed on the first syllable (e.g., REgel [Engl. rule]) or on the second syllable (e.g., reGAL [Engl. shelves]). We found a reduced amplitude of the P350 and slightly faster reactions for targets with a stress pattern that matched the pitch of the primes (e.g., re_1-REgel) as compared to targets with a stress pattern that did not match the pitch of the primes (e.g., re_1-reGAL). The present study replicates the P350 effect with different material, and indicates that pitch is used for lexical identification in spoken word recognition. PMID:15183401

  2. Tracking the Time Course of Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition with Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Sophie; Brunelliere, Angele; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the word-frequency effect is one of the most established findings in spoken-word recognition, the precise processing locus of this effect is still a topic of debate. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to track the time course of the word-frequency effect. In addition, the neighborhood density effect, which is known to…

  3. Timed neural nets for moving target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Dipak; Lucci, Stephen; Gertner, Izidor; Finz, Harold R.

    1994-06-01

    We propose a timed neural net (TNN) approach to the problem of recognition of moving targets. We consider a synchronous timed Petri net (TPN) as a model for this timed neural net. In a TPN the transitions are enabled and fired by using a 'time' token. A group of place nodes and their corresponding transition nodes model a neuron in a TNN. In order to classify the type of motion that a moving target is executing, we look upon an image sequence as a single image evolving in time. The reachability set, R(t) at any instant of time represents a snapshot of the weight matrix of a static neural net recognizing the target. The motion classification is achieved by analyzing R(t). An example illustrating the approach is constructed.

  4. Recognition of word and nonsense syllables in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkí, José R.

    2002-05-01

    In the recognition of human speech, listeners use sensory information from the speech signal as well as signal-independent information, such that acoustic-phonetic salience, lexical status, frequency of usage, and neighborhood density interact in speech recognition. This paper presents detailed results from a replication of a study of context effects reported by Boothroyd and Nittrouer [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 101-108 (1988)]. 240 phonetically matched word and nonsense CVC syllables at different SNRs were presented to 32 listeners for identification. The results are consistent with the original study, with greater accuracy for words than nonsense items as quantified by a j-factor analysis according to lexical status. Online response collection enabled detailed analyses not reported in the original study. Values for the j-factor according to usage frequency and phonetic confusability are presented. Confusion matrices of the phonemes are presented, and are largely consistent with previous studies for the initial consonants and vowels. Accuracy in the final consonants of nonsense syllables is substantially lower than the corresponding phonemes of words or than the initial consonants of nonsense syllables. Final nasals were particularly difficult to identify.

  5. Levels-Of-Processing Effect on Word Recognition in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ragland, J. Daniel; Moelter, Stephen T.; McGrath, Claire; Hill, S. Kristian; Gur, Raquel E.; Bilker, Warren B.; Siegel, Steven J.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with schizophrenia have difficulty organizing words semantically to facilitate encoding. This is commonly attributed to organizational rather than semantic processing limitations. By requiring participants to classify and encode words on either a shallow (e.g., uppercase/lowercase) or deep level (e.g., concrete/abstract), the levels-of-processing paradigm eliminates the need to generate organizational strategies. Methods This paradigm was administered to 30 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy comparison subjects to test whether providing a strategy would improve patient performance. Results Word classification during shallow and deep encoding was slower and less accurate in patients. Patients also responded slowly during recognition testing and maintained a more conservative response bias following deep encoding; however, both groups showed a robust levels-of-processing effect on recognition accuracy, with unimpaired patient performance following both shallow and deep encoding. Conclusions This normal levels-of-processing effect in the patient sample suggests that semantic processing is sufficiently intact for patients to benefit from organizational cues. Memory remediation efforts may therefore be most successful if they focus on teaching patients to form organizational strategies during initial encoding. PMID:14643082

  6. Automatic determination of sub-word units for automatic speech recognition 

    E-print Network

    Couper Kenney, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    Current automatic speech recognition (ASR) research is focused on recognition of continuous, spontaneous speech. Spontaneous speech contains a lot of variability in the way words are pronounced, and canonical pronunciations ...

  7. The Contribution of the Magnocellular Visual Pathway to the Process of Visual Word Recognition 

    E-print Network

    Thomson, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Previous research on visual word recognition has uncovered a variety of factors which influence how easily this process is achieved. Some factors are intrinsic to the word itself (e.g., length, frequency, regularity) and ...

  8. Automatic Target Recognition Based on Cross-Plot

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Abbott, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Automatic target recognition that relies on rapid feature extraction of real-time target from photo-realistic imaging will enable efficient identification of target patterns. To achieve this objective, Cross-plots of binary patterns are explored as potential signatures for the observed target by high-speed capture of the crucial spatial features using minimal computational resources. Target recognition was implemented based on the proposed pattern recognition concept and tested rigorously for its precision and recall performance. We conclude that Cross-plotting is able to produce a digital fingerprint of a target that correlates efficiently and effectively to signatures of patterns having its identity in a target repository. PMID:21980508

  9. Automatic target recognition based on cross-plot.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Abbott, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Automatic target recognition that relies on rapid feature extraction of real-time target from photo-realistic imaging will enable efficient identification of target patterns. To achieve this objective, Cross-plots of binary patterns are explored as potential signatures for the observed target by high-speed capture of the crucial spatial features using minimal computational resources. Target recognition was implemented based on the proposed pattern recognition concept and tested rigorously for its precision and recall performance. We conclude that Cross-plotting is able to produce a digital fingerprint of a target that correlates efficiently and effectively to signatures of patterns having its identity in a target repository. PMID:21980508

  10. The Time Course of Spoken Word Learning and Recognition: Studies With Artificial Lexicons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James S. Magnuson; Michael K. Tanenhaus; Richard N. Aslin; Delphine Dahan

    2003-01-01

    The time course of spoken word recognition depends largely on the frequencies of a word and its competitors, or neighbors (similar-sounding words). However, variability in natural lexicons makes systematic analysis of frequency and neighbor similarity difficult. Artificial lexicons were used to achieve precise control over word frequency and phonological similarity. Eye tracking provided time course measures of lexical activation and

  11. High range resolution MMW radar target recognition approaches with application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songhua He; Wenfeng Zhang; Guirong Guo

    1996-01-01

    In our work summarized in this paper, a systematic study is performed about theoretical approaches and techniques for high resolution radar target recognition in guidance application. The method of Doppler compensation for moving target discrimination and the method of rule-based pattern recognition for vehicle-sized target identification are firstly introduced. Then the pattern recognition approach based on adaptive matched-filters is studied

  12. Parallel algorithms for isolated and connected word recognition. Volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    For years researchers have worked toward finding a way to allow people to talk to machines in the same manner a person communicates to another person. This verbal man to machine interface, called speech recognition, can be grouped into three types: isolated word recognition, connected word recognition, and continuous speech recognition. Isolated word recognizers recognize single words with distinctive pauses before and after them. Continuous speech recognizers recognize speech spoken as one person speaks to another, continuously without pauses. Connected word recognition is an extension of isolated word recognition which recognizes groups of words spoken continuously. A group of words must have distinctive pauses before and after it, and the number of words in a group is limited to some small value (typically less than six). If these types of recognition systems are to be successful in the real world, they must be speaker independent and support a large vocabulary. They also must be able to recognize the speech input accurately and in real time. Currently there is no system which can meet all of these criteria because a vast amount of computations are needed. This thesis examines the use of parallel processing to reduce the computation time for speech recognition.

  13. Automatic Target Recognition Based on Cross-Plot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelvin Kian Loong Wong; Derek Abbott; Teresa Serrano-Gotarredona

    2011-01-01

    Automatic target recognition that relies on rapid feature extraction of real-time target from photo-realistic imaging will enable efficient identification of target patterns. To achieve this objective, Cross-plots of binary patterns are explored as potential signatures for the observed target by high-speed capture of the crucial spatial features using minimal computational resources. Target recognition was implemented based on the proposed pattern

  14. Applying Improved BP Neural Network In Underwater Targets Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shen Zhihe; Liu Feng

    2006-01-01

    Underwater targets recognition has always been a difficulty in anti-submarine warfare. The current recognition methods are either applying underwater signal processing technology or depending on the sonar operator's experience. But due to the complexity of the marine circumstances, it usually fails to meet the need of anti-submarine warfare when using single recognition method. Then we need to combine above two

  15. Words Jump-Start Vision: A Label Advantage in Object Recognition.

    PubMed

    Boutonnet, Bastien; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-06-24

    People use language to shape each other's behavior in highly flexible ways. Effects of language are often assumed to be "high-level" in that, whereas language clearly influences reasoning, decision making, and memory, it does not influence low-level visual processes. Here, we test the prediction that words are able to provide top-down guidance at the very earliest stages of visual processing by acting as powerful categorical cues. We investigated whether visual processing of images of familiar animals and artifacts was enhanced after hearing their name (e.g., "dog") compared with hearing an equally familiar and unambiguous nonverbal sound (e.g., a dog bark) in 14 English monolingual speakers. Because the relationship between words and their referents is categorical, we expected words to deploy more effective categorical templates, allowing for more rapid visual recognition. By recording EEGs, we were able to determine whether this label advantage stemmed from changes to early visual processing or later semantic decision processes. The results showed that hearing a word affected early visual processes and that this modulation was specific to the named category. An analysis of ERPs showed that the P1 was larger when people were cued by labels compared with equally informative nonverbal cues-an enhancement occurring within 100 ms of image onset, which also predicted behavioral responses occurring almost 500 ms later. Hearing labels modulated the P1 such that it distinguished between target and nontarget images, showing that words rapidly guide early visual processing. PMID:26109657

  16. The role of orthographic neighborhood size effects in chinese word recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Feng; Lin, Wei-Chun; Chou, Tai-Li; Yang, Fu-Ling; Wu, Jei-Tun

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies about the orthographic neighborhood size (NS) in Chinese have overlooked the morphological processing, and the co-variation between the character frequency and the the NS. The present study manipulated the word frequency and the NS simultaneously, with the leading character frequency controlled, to explore their influences on word lexical decision (Experiment 1) and naming (Experiment 2). The results showed a robust effect that words with a larger NS produced shorter reaction time than those with a smaller NS, irrespective of the word frequency and the tasks. This facilitative effect may occur due to a semantic network formed by neighbor words, resulting in the semantic activation to accelerate the word recognition. Moreover, the comparison of the effect sizes of word frequency between the two tasks showed that lexical decision responses demonstrated a larger word frequency effect, indicating that the sub-word processing was involved in the multi-character word recognition. PMID:25451553

  17. Locus of Orthographic Effects in Spoken Word Recognition: Novel Insights from the Neighbour Generation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muneaux, Mathilde; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has found that orthographic information can influence auditory word recognition. However, there is still debate about the locus of this effect (lexical versus nonlexical, strategic versus automatic). In the present study, we explored whether orthographic effects in auditory word recognition could be structural-residual effects…

  18. Author's personal copy Theories of spoken word recognition deficits in Aphasia

    E-print Network

    Author's personal copy Theories of spoken word recognition deficits in Aphasia: Evidence from eye, Providence, RI 02908, USA e Boston University Harold Goodglass Aphasia Research Center at the VA Boston Available online 2 March 2011 Keywords: Spoken word recognition Aphasia Eye-tracking Computational models

  19. The Predictive Power of Phonemic Awareness and Naming Speed for Early Dutch Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Wim G. M.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of phonemic awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. Both the speed and accuracy of word recognition at the end of Grade 2 were predicted by naming speed from both kindergarten and Grade 1, after control for autoregressive relations, kindergarten…

  20. Relations among Linguistic and Cognitive Skills and Spoken Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene Earley

    2004-01-01

    This study examined spoken word recognition in adults with cochlear implants (CIs) to determine the extent to which linguistic and cognitive abilities predict variability in speech-perception performance. Both a traditional consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC)-repetition measure and a gated-word recognition measure (F. Grosjean, 1996) were used.…

  1. Talker and Lexical Effects on Audiovisual Word Recognition by Adults with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Adam R.; Kirk, Karen Iler; Lachs, Lorin; Pisoni, David B.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined how 20 adults with postlingual deafness with cochlear implants combined visual information from lip reading with auditory cues in an open-set word recognition task. Word recognition performance was highest for audiovisual presentation followed by auditory-only and then visual-only stimulus presentation, and for single-talker…

  2. HMM Based Approach for Handwritten Arabic Word Recognition Using the IFN\\/ENIT- Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Pechwitz; Volker Maergner

    2003-01-01

    An offline recognition system for Arabic handwritten words is presented. The recognition system is based on a semi-continuous 1-dimensional HMM. From each binary word image normalization parameters were estimated. First height, length, and baseline skew are normalized, then fea- tures are collected using a sliding window approach. This paper presents these methods in more detail. Some parame- ters were modified

  3. Physiological evidence of gender differences in word recognition: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Walla; Bernd Hufnagl; Gerald Lindinger; Lüder Deecke; Wilfried Lang

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic field recordings were made in order to describe brain processes during a word recognition experiment. We investigated 26 healthy young subjects (14 females) and focused on gender differences related to recognition performance and brain activity. From about 200 ms to 350 ms after word onset the event-related field (ERF) patterns differed significantly between women and men, although the mean

  4. Individual Differences in Visual Word Recognition: Insights from the English Lexicon Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences among individuals who contributed to the English…

  5. Concurrent correlates of Chinese word recognition in deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

    PubMed

    Ching, Boby Ho-Hong; Nunes, Terezinha

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relative contributions of phonological, semantic radical, and morphological awareness to Chinese word recognition in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Measures of word recognition, general intelligence, phonological, semantic radical, and morphological awareness were administered to 32 DHH and 35 hearing children in Hong Kong. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that tone, semantic radical, and morphological awareness made independent contributions to word recognition in DHH children after the effects of age and intelligence were statistically controlled for. Semantic radical and morphological awareness was found to explain significantly more variance than tone awareness in predicting word recognition in DHH children. This study has replicated previous evidence regarding the importance of semantic radical and morphological awareness in Chinese word recognition in hearing children and extended its significance to DHH children. PMID:25749634

  6. Noisy image moving point target recognition by using neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Min; Sun Zhong-Kang; Ji Shu-Long

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of noisy image moving point target recognition is discussed. A recognition method is proposed. This method is composed of the three processes in cascade which are: process A, preprocessing of the noisy image moving point target sequence; process B, choice and extraction of features; and process C, classification of the extracted features by using a

  7. The role of word-dependent coarticulatory effects in a phoneme-based speech recognition system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yen-Lu Chow; Richard Schwartz; Salim Roucos; Owen Kimball; P. Price; F. Kubala; M. Dunham; M. Krasner; J. Makhoul

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the results of our work in designing a system for large-vocabulary word recognition of continuous speech. We generalize the use of context-dependent Hidden Markov Models (HMM) of phonemes to take into account word-dependent coarticulatory effects, Robustness is assured by smoothing the detailed word-dependent models with less detailed but more robust models. We describe training and recognition algorithms

  8. Machine learning and tubercular drug target recognition.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li M

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains to be a global major public-health threat, causing millions of deaths each year. A major difficulty in dealing with TB is that the causative bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, can persist in host tissue for a long period of time even after treatment. Mycobacterial persistence has become a central research focus for developing next-generation TB drugs. Latest genomic technology has enabled a high-throughput approach for identifying potential TB drug targets. Each gene product can be screened for its uniqueness to the TB metabolism, host-pathogen discrimination, essentiality for survival, and potential for chemical binding, among other properties. However, the exhaustive search for useful drug targets over the entire genome would not be productive as expected in practice. On the other hand, the problem can be formulated as pattern recognition or inductive learning and tackled with rule-based or statistically based learning algorithms. Here we review the perspective that combines machine learning and genomics for drug discovery in tuberculosis. PMID:24245763

  9. Lexico-semantic structure and the word-frequency effect in recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Joseph D.; Abbott, L. F.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The word-frequency effect (WFE) in recognition memory refers to the finding that more rare words are better recognized than more common words. We demonstrate that a familiarity-discrimination model operating on data from a semantic word-association space yields a robust WFE in data on both hit rates and false-alarm rates. Our modeling results suggest that word frequency is encoded in the semantic structure of language, and that this encoding contributes to the WFE observed in item-recognition experiments. PMID:17351146

  10. A novel thermal face recognition approach using face pattern words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    A reliable thermal face recognition system can enhance the national security applications such as prevention against terrorism, surveillance, monitoring and tracking, especially at nighttime. The system can be applied at airports, customs or high-alert facilities (e.g., nuclear power plant) for 24 hours a day. In this paper, we propose a novel face recognition approach utilizing thermal (long wave infrared) face images that can automatically identify a subject at both daytime and nighttime. With a properly acquired thermal image (as a query image) in monitoring zone, the following processes will be employed: normalization and denoising, face detection, face alignment, face masking, Gabor wavelet transform, face pattern words (FPWs) creation, face identification by similarity measure (Hamming distance). If eyeglasses are present on a subject's face, an eyeglasses mask will be automatically extracted from the querying face image, and then masked with all comparing FPWs (no more transforms). A high identification rate (97.44% with Top-1 match) has been achieved upon our preliminary face dataset (of 39 subjects) from the proposed approach regardless operating time and glasses-wearing condition.e

  11. Orthographic Consistency Affects Spoken Word Recognition at Different Grain-Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dich, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous studies demonstrated this by manipulating…

  12. A Lexicon Driven Approach to Handwritten Word Recognition for Real-Time Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyeonghwan Kim; Venu Govindaraju

    1997-01-01

    A fast method of handwritten word recognition suitable for real time applications is presented in this paper. Preprocessing, segmentation and feature extraction are implemented using a chain code representation of the word contour. Dynamic matching between characters of a lexicon entry and segment(s) of the input word image is used to rank the lexicon entries in order of best match.

  13. A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

  14. Effects of Visual and Auditory Perceptual Aptitudes and Letter Discrimination Pretraining on Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, David Rainsford

    This study investigated alternate methods of letter discrimination pretraining and word recognition training in young children. Seventy kindergarten children were trained to recognize eight printed words in a vocabulary list by a mixed-list paired-associate method. Four of the stimulus words had visual response choices (pictures) and four had…

  15. Evaluating word representation features in biomedical named entity recognition tasks.

    PubMed

    Tang, Buzhou; Cao, Hongxin; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Xu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Named Entity Recognition (BNER), which extracts important entities such as genes and proteins, is a crucial step of natural language processing in the biomedical domain. Various machine learning-based approaches have been applied to BNER tasks and showed good performance. In this paper, we systematically investigated three different types of word representation (WR) features for BNER, including clustering-based representation, distributional representation, and word embeddings. We selected one algorithm from each of the three types of WR features and applied them to the JNLPBA and BioCreAtIvE II BNER tasks. Our results showed that all the three WR algorithms were beneficial to machine learning-based BNER systems. Moreover, combining these different types of WR features further improved BNER performance, indicating that they are complementary to each other. By combining all the three types of WR features, the improvements in F-measure on the BioCreAtIvE II GM and JNLPBA corpora were 3.75% and 1.39%, respectively, when compared with the systems using baseline features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically evaluate the effect of three different types of WR features for BNER tasks. PMID:24729964

  16. Unregistered Biological Words Recognition by Q-Learning with Transfer Learning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quan; Wang, Hui; Fu, Yuchen

    2014-01-01

    Unregistered biological words recognition is the process of identification of terms that is out of vocabulary. Although many approaches have been developed, the performance approaches are not satisfactory. As the identification process can be viewed as a Markov process, we put forward a Q-learning with transfer learning algorithm to detect unregistered biological words from texts. With the Q-learning, the recognizer can attain the optimal solution of identification during the interaction with the texts and contexts. During the processing, a transfer learning approach is utilized to fully take advantage of the knowledge gained in a source task to speed up learning in a different but related target task. A mapping, required by many transfer learning, which relates features from the source task to the target task, is carried on automatically under the reinforcement learning framework. We examined the performance of three approaches with GENIA corpus and JNLPBA04 data. The proposed approach improved performance in both experiments. The precision, recall rate, and F score results of our approach surpassed those of conventional unregistered word recognizer as well as those of Q-learning approach without transfer learning. PMID:24701139

  17. Does Imitation Facilitate Word Recognition in a Non-Native Regional Accent?

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Noël; Dufour, Sophie; Brunellière, Angèle

    2012-01-01

    We asked to what extent phonetic convergence across speakers may facilitate later word recognition. Northern-French participants showed both a clear phonetic convergence effect toward Southern French in a word repetition task, and a bias toward the phonemic system of their own variety in the recognition of single words. Perceptual adaptation to a non-native accent may be difficult when the native accent has a phonemic contrast that is associated with a single phonemic category in the non-native accent. Convergence toward a speaker of a non-native accent in production may not prevent each speaker’s native variety to prevail in word identification. Imitation has been found in previous studies to contribute to predicting upcoming words in sentences in adverse listening conditions, but may play a more limited role in the recognition of single words. PMID:23162514

  18. Speed and accuracy of dyslexic versus typical word recognition: an eye-movement investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kunert, Richard; Scheepers, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is often characterized by a dual deficit in both word recognition accuracy and general processing speed. While previous research into dyslexic word recognition may have suffered from speed-accuracy trade-off, the present study employed a novel eye-tracking task that is less prone to such confounds. Participants (10 dyslexics and 12 controls) were asked to look at real word stimuli, and to ignore simultaneously presented non-word stimuli, while their eye-movements were recorded. Improvements in word recognition accuracy over time were modeled in terms of a continuous non-linear function. The words' rhyme consistency and the non-words' lexicality (unpronounceable, pronounceable, pseudohomophone) were manipulated within-subjects. Speed-related measures derived from the model fits confirmed generally slower processing in dyslexics, and showed a rhyme consistency effect in both dyslexics and controls. In terms of overall error rate, dyslexics (but not controls) performed less accurately on rhyme-inconsistent words, suggesting a representational deficit for such words in dyslexics. Interestingly, neither group showed a pseudohomophone effect in speed or accuracy, which might call the task-independent pervasiveness of this effect into question. The present results illustrate the importance of distinguishing between speed- vs. accuracy-related effects for our understanding of dyslexic word recognition. PMID:25346708

  19. Joint sparse representation based automatic target recognition in SAR images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haichao Zhang; Nasser M. Nasrabadi; Thomas S. Huang; Yanning Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel joint sparse representation based automatic target recognition (ATR) method using multiple views, which can not only handle multi-view ATR without knowing the pose but also has the advantage of exploiting the correlations among the multiple views for a single joint recognition decision. We cast the problem as a multi-variate regression model and recover

  20. Design method of ARM based infrared camouflage target recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan-bo; Shen, Hong-bin; Li, Gang

    2013-09-01

    With the advantages of stealthiness, all weather effectiveness, visible target recognition and long affect distance, infrared thermal imaging system play important role in scouting, aiming and tracking. In order to eliminate influences of thermal camouflage to traditional intensity infrared thermal imaging system, we proposed design method of ARM based infrared camouflage target recognition system. Considering the measurement of Stokes parameters, we analyzed design method of polarized image acquisition module, designed ARM core board and its data connection with other devices, adopted LCD to display polarization image computed out by ARM. We also studied embedded Linux platform and polarized image processing program based on this platform, finally actualized the design method of ARM based infrared camouflage target recognition system. Results of our experiment show that data stream can be successfully transmitted between modules of the system and the platform we used is fast enough to run polarized image processing program. It's an effective method of using ARM to actualize infrared camouflage target recognition system.

  1. Sequence comparison techniques for multisensor data fusion and target recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. W. Libby; P. S. Maybeck

    1996-01-01

    A new class of techniques for multisensor fusion and target recognition is proposed using sequence comparison by dynamic programming and multiple model estimation. The objective is to fuse information on the kinematic state and \\

  2. Mapping orthographic and phonological neighborhood density effects in visual word recognition in two distinct orthographies 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Hsin-Chin

    2009-05-15

    . Orthographic neighborhood effects have been claimed to be facilitative, but recent studies of visual word recognition have led to a revised understanding of the nature of the orthographic neighborhood density effect. Through a reexamination of orthographic...

  3. Practice Effects on the Unit of Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, S. Jay; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Mirror-image animal and nonanimal words of three to six letters were presented to subjects in a reaction time categorization task. A significant interaction of Word Length X Block was found for words presented over all four blocks. A shift from component to holistic processing was found for the repeated words. (Author/RD)

  4. Interpretation of Orthographic Uniqueness Point Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberts, Koen

    2005-01-01

    The orthographic uniqueness point (OUP) of a word is the position of the first letter from the left that distinguishes a word from all other words. In 2 recent studies (P. J. Kwantes & D. J. K. Mewhort, 1999a; A. K. Lindell, M. E. R. Nicholls, & A. E. Castles, 2003), it has been observed that words with an early OUP were processed more quickly…

  5. Modelling fine-phonetic detail in a computational model of word recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Odette Scharenborg

    2008-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence that fine-grained acoustic-phonetic detail in the speech signal helps listeners to segment a speech signal into syllables and words. In this paper, we compare two computational models of word recognition on their ability to capture and use this fine- phonetic detail during speech recognition. One model, SpeM, is phoneme-based, whereas the other, newly developed Fine-

  6. A neural system for automatic target learning and recognition applied to bare and camouflaged SAR targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Marie Bernardon; James E. Carrick

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a neural based approach to target learning and recognition in synthetic-aperture radar imagery. Targets consist of a variety of camouflaged and uncamouflaged military vehicles taken at different radar view and depression angles in both spotlight and stripmap radar collection modes. Results from a variety of recognition experiments are reported.

  7. Time course analyses of orthographic and phonological priming effects during word recognition in a transparent orthography.

    PubMed

    Zeguers, M H T; Snellings, P; Huizenga, H M; van der Molen, M W

    2014-10-01

    In opaque orthographies, the activation of orthographic and phonological codes follows distinct time courses during visual word recognition. However, it is unclear how orthography and phonology are accessed in more transparent orthographies. Therefore, we conducted time course analyses of masked priming effects in the transparent Dutch orthography. The first study used targets with small phonological differences between phonological and orthographic primes, which are typical in transparent orthographies. Results showed consistent orthographic priming effects, yet phonological priming effects were absent. The second study explicitly manipulated the strength of the phonological difference and revealed that both orthographic and phonological priming effects became identifiable when phonological differences were strong enough. This suggests that, similar to opaque orthographies, strong phonological differences are a prerequisite to separate orthographic and phonological priming effects in transparent orthographies. Orthographic and phonological priming appeared to follow distinct time courses, with orthographic codes being quickly translated into phonological codes and phonology dominating the remainder of the lexical access phase. PMID:24456311

  8. Human Reading Based Strategies for Off-Line Arabic Word Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdel Belaïd; Christophe Choisy

    This paper summarizes techniques proposed for off-line Arabic word recognition. This point of view concerns the human reading\\u000a favoring an interactive mechanism between global memorization and local verification sim- plifying the recognition of complex\\u000a scripts such as Arabic. According to this consideration, specific papers are analyzed with comments on strategies.

  9. Speaker-independent isolated word recognition using dynamic features of speech spectrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Furui

    1986-01-01

    This paper proposes a new isolated word recognition technique based on a combination of instantaneous and dynamic features of the speech spectrum. This technique is shown to be highly effective in speaker-independent speech recognition. Spoken utterances are represented by time sequences of cepstrum coefficients and energy. Regression coefficients for these time functions are extracted for every frame over an approximately

  10. Third and fifth graders' processing of parafoveal information in reading: A study in single-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Khelifi, Rachid; Sparrow, Laurent; Casalis, Séverine

    2015-11-01

    We assessed third and fifth graders' processing of parafoveal word information using a lexical decision task. On each trial, a preview word was first briefly presented parafoveally in the left or right visual field before a target word was displayed. Preview and target words could be identical, share the first three letters, or have no letters in common. Experiment 1 showed that developing readers receive the same word recognition benefit from parafoveal previews as expert readers. The impact of a change of case between preview and target in Experiment 2 showed that in all groups of readers, the preview benefit resulted from the identification of letters at an abstract level rather than from facilitation at a purely visual level. Fifth graders identified more letters from the preview than third graders. The results are interpreted within the framework of the interactive activation model. In particular, we suggest that although the processing of parafoveal information led to letter identification in developing readers, the processes involved may differ from those in expert readers. Although expert readers' processing of parafoveal information led to activation at the level of lexical representations, no such activation was observed in developing readers. PMID:26057197

  11. Gaze position reveals impaired attentional shift during visual word recognition in dysfluent readers.

    PubMed

    Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level. PMID:25268909

  12. Syllable, Phoneme, and Tone: Psycholinguistic Units in Early Chinese and English Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tong, Xiuli; Shu, Hua; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Leung, Ka-wai; Tardif, Twila

    2008-01-01

    Tasks of word reading in Chinese and English; nonverbal IQ; speeded naming; and units of syllable onset (a phoneme measure), syllable, and tone detection awareness were administered to 211 Hong Kong Chinese children ages 4 and 5. In separate regression equations, syllable awareness was equally associated with Chinese and English word recognition.…

  13. Finding consensus in speech recognition: word error minimization and other applications of confusion networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lidia Mangu; Eric Brill; Andreas Stolcke

    2000-01-01

    We describe a new framework for distilling information from word lat- tices to improve the accuracy of speech recognition and obtain a more perspicuous representation of a set of alternative hypotheses. In the stan- dard MAP decoding approach the recognizer outputs the string of words corresponding to the path with the highest posterior probability given the acoustics and a language

  14. Spoken Word Recognition in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Spoken word recognition, during gating, appears intact in specific language impairment (SLI). This study used gating to investigate the process in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders plus language impairment (ALI). Adolescents with ALI, SLI, and typical language development (TLD), matched on nonverbal IQ listened to gated words that varied…

  15. Measuring word recognition in reading: eye movements and event-related potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara C. Sereno; Keith Rayner

    2003-01-01

    The investigation of visual word recognition has been a major accomplishment of cognitive science. Two on-line methodologies, eye movements and event-related potentials, stand out in the search for the holy grail – an absolute time measure of when, how and why we recognize visual words while reading. Although each technique has its own experimental limitations, we suggest, by means of

  16. Re-Evaluating Split-Fovea Processing in Word Recognition: A Critical Assessment of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Paterson, Kevin B.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have proposed that a fundamental component of the word recognition process is that each fovea is divided precisely at its vertical midline and that information either side of this midline projects to different, contralateral hemispheres. Thus, when a word is fixated, all letters to the left of the point of…

  17. Is Syntactic-Category Processing Obligatory in Visual Word Recognition? Evidence from Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate how syntactic-category and semantic information is processed in visual word recognition. The stimuli were two-character Chinese words in which semantic and syntactic-category ambiguities were factorially manipulated. A lexical decision task was employed in Experiment 1, whereas a semantic relatedness…

  18. Bilingual Word Recognition beyond Orthography: On Meaning, Linguistic Context and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hell, Janet G.

    2002-01-01

    Central questions in psycholinguistic studies on bilingualism are how bilinguals access words in their two languages, and how they control their language systems and solve the problem of cross-language competition. In their excellent paper "The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision", Dijkstra and…

  19. A comparison of time conditioned and word conditioned search techniques for large vocabulary speech recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Ortmanns; Hermann Ney; Frank Seide; I. Lindam

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the search effort of the word conditioned and the time conditioned tree search methods. Both methods are based on a time-synchronous, left-to-right beam search using a tree- organized lexicon. Whereas the word conditioned method is well known and widely used, the time conditioned method is novel in the context of -word vocabulary recognition. We extend

  20. Sensitivity to orthotactic rules in visual word recognition by below average readers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Che Kan Leong; Mary E. Parkinson

    1992-01-01

    The study reports 2 lexical decision experiments on below average readers' sensitivity to Basic Orthographic Syllabic Structure (BOSS) of Taft in visual word recognition. In Experiment 1, 20 words and 20 pseudo words with BOSS and non-BOSS conditions (e.g., tractOR, tracTOR; BLUNDin, BLUNdin) were presented on a microcomputer screen to 75 grades 4, 5, and 6 poor readers divided into

  1. Handwritten Arabic word recognition based on Ridgelet transform and support vector machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassiba Nemmour; Youcef Chibani

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method for handwritten Arabic word recognition based on the combination of the Ridgelet transform and SVMs. Ridgelets are used for generating pertinent features of handwritten words while the classification stage is based on the One-Against-All multiclass implementation of SVMs. The experimental investigation is conducted on a vocabulary of twenty-four words extracted from the IFN\\/ENIT database. The Ridgelet

  2. Silent Letters Are Activated in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments are reported that investigate processing of mispronounced words for which the phonological form is inconsistent with the graphemic form (words spelled with silent letters). Words produced as mispronunciations that are consistent with their spelling were more confusable with their citation form counterpart than mispronunciations…

  3. The effects of semantic transparency and base frequency on the recognition of English complex words.

    PubMed

    Xu, Joe; Taft, Marcus

    2015-05-01

    A visual lexical decision task was used to examine the interaction between base frequency (i.e., the cumulative frequencies of morphologically related forms) and semantic transparency for a list of derived words. Linear mixed effects models revealed that high base frequency facilitates the recognition of the complex word (i.e., a base frequency effect), but the magnitude of this declines with semantic transparency. These results suggest that the extent to which the constituents of a complex word contribute to its recognition is dictated by semantic transparency. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of localist-connectionist models of morphological processing. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25151246

  4. Radar target recognition system using 3D mathematical model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yosuke Nakano; Yoshihisa Hara; Jun Saito; Yoshio Inasawa

    1998-01-01

    A target recognition system is described using 3-D mathematical models which simulate radar images. The simulated radar images are created from radar cross section (RCS) responses of the 3-D models and compared with measured target radar images. The 3-D models consist of several thousands facets, and one facet size is less than the radar resolution. An RCS response of each

  5. NESP: Nonlinear enhancement and selection of plane for optimal segmentation and recognition of scene word images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deepak; Anil Prasad, M. N.; Ramakrishnan, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report a breakthrough result on the difficult task of segmentation and recognition of coloured text from the word image dataset of ICDAR robust reading competition challenge 2: reading text in scene images. We split the word image into individual colour, gray and lightness planes and enhance the contrast of each of these planes independently by a power-law transform. The discrimination factor of each plane is computed as the maximum between-class variance used in Otsu thresholding. The plane that has maximum discrimination factor is selected for segmentation. The trial version of Omnipage OCR is then used on the binarized words for recognition. Our recognition results on ICDAR 2011 and ICDAR 2003 word datasets are compared with those reported in the literature. As baseline, the images binarized by simple global and local thresholding techniques were also recognized. The word recognition rate obtained by our non-linear enhancement and selection of plance method is 72.8% and 66.2% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 word datasets, respectively. We have created ground-truth for each image at the pixel level to benchmark these datasets using a toolkit developed by us. The recognition rate of benchmarked images is 86.7% and 83.9% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 datasets, respectively.

  6. Distributional structure in language: Contributions to noun–verb difficulty differences in infant word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Willits, Jon A.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2014-01-01

    What makes some words easy for infants to recognize, and other words difficult? We addressed this issue in the context of prior results suggesting that infants have difficulty recognizing verbs relative to nouns. In this work, we highlight the role played by the distributional contexts in which nouns and verbs occur. Distributional statistics predict that English nouns should generally be easier to recognize than verbs in fluent speech. However, there are situations in which distributional statistics provide similar support for verbs. The statistics for verbs that occur with the English morpheme –ing, for example, should facilitate verb recognition. In two experiments with 7.5- and 9.5-month-old infants, we tested the importance of distributional statistics for word recognition by varying the frequency of the contextual frames in which verbs occur. The results support the conclusion that distributional statistics are utilized by infant language learners and contribute to noun–verb differences in word recognition. PMID:24908342

  7. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    DOEpatents

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  8. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kevin J Y; Dijkstra, Ton; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information) contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1) action features, (2) visual features, or (3) semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100, 250, 400, and 1000 ms) to determine the relative time course of the different features. Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100, 250, and 1000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1) demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2) provides new evidence for embodied theories of language. PMID:26074836

  9. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kevin J. Y.; Dijkstra, Ton; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information) contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1) action features, (2) visual features, or (3) semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100, 250, 400, and 1000 ms) to determine the relative time course of the different features. Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100, 250, and 1000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1) demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2) provides new evidence for embodied theories of language. PMID:26074836

  10. Individual Differences in Visual Word Recognition: Insights from the English Lexicon Project

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences between individuals who contributed to the English Lexicon Project (http://elexicon.wustl.edu), an online behavioral database containing nearly four million word recognition (speeded pronunciation and lexical decision) trials from over 1,200 participants. We observed considerable within- and between-session reliability across distinct sets of items, in terms of overall mean response time (RT), RT distributional characteristics, diffusion model parameters (Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, 2004), and sensitivity to underlying lexical dimensions. This indicates reliably detectable individual differences in word recognition performance. In addition, higher vocabulary knowledge was associated with faster, more accurate word recognition performance, attenuated sensitivity to stimuli characteristics, and more efficient accumulation of information. Finally, in contrast to suggestions in the literature, we did not find evidence that individuals were trading-off in their utilization of lexical and nonlexical information. PMID:21728459

  11. Recognition memory for Braille or spoken words: an fMRI study in early blind.

    PubMed

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Agato, Alvin

    2012-02-15

    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5years. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied ("old") compared to novel ("new") words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified "new" words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken "new" words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with "old"/"new" recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to "old" words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to "new" Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for "new" words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering "old" words. A larger response when identifying "new" words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of "old" words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a "sensory echo" that aids recollection. PMID:22251836

  12. Cascaded automatic target recognition (Cascaded ATR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Bradley

    2010-04-01

    The global war on terror has plunged US and coalition forces into a battle space requiring the continuous adaptation of tactics and technologies to cope with an elusive enemy. As a result, technologies that enhance the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) mission making the warfighter more effective are experiencing increased interest. In this paper we show how a new generation of smart cameras built around foveated sensing makes possible a powerful ISR technique termed Cascaded ATR. Foveated sensing is an innovative optical concept in which a single aperture captures two distinct fields of view. In Cascaded ATR, foveated sensing is used to provide a coarse resolution, persistent surveillance, wide field of view (WFOV) detector to accomplish detection level perception. At the same time, within the foveated sensor, these detection locations are passed as a cue to a steerable, high fidelity, narrow field of view (NFOV) detector to perform recognition level perception. Two new ISR mission scenarios, utilizing Cascaded ATR, are proposed.

  13. Synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition based on curvelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; Liu, Zhuo; Jiao, Licheng; He, Jun

    2009-10-01

    A novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR) approach based on Curvelet Transform is proposed. However, the existing approaches can not extract the more effective feature. In this paper, our method is concentrated on a new effective representation of the moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition (MSTAR) database to obtain a more accurate target region and reduce feature dimension. Firstly, MSTAR database can be extracted feature through the optimal sparse representation by curvelets to obtain a clear target region. However, considering the loss of part of edges of image. We extract coarse feature, which is to compensate fine feature error brought by segmentation. The final features consisting of fine and coarse feature are classified by SVM with Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) kernel. The experiments show that our proposed algorithm can achieve a better correct classification rate.

  14. Phonological Variation and Its Consequences for the Word Recognition System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2001-01-01

    Examines possible solutions to the problem of form variation in the perception of speech. Asks whether sentential context can influence the identification of potentially assimilated forms of words. (Author/VWL)

  15. The DARPA 1000-word resource management database for continuous speech recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patti Price; William M. Fisher; Jared Bernstein; D. S. Pallett

    1988-01-01

    A database of continuous read speech has been designed and recorded within the DARPA strategic computing speech recognition program. The data is intended for use in designing and evaluating algorithms for speaker-independent, speaker-adaptive and speaker-dependent speech recognition. The data consists of read sentences appropriate to a naval resource management task built around existing interactive database and graphics programs. The 1000-word

  16. The research of multi-frame target recognition based on laser active imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Can-jin; Sun, Tao; Wang, Tin-feng; Chen, Juan

    2013-09-01

    Laser active imaging is fit to conditions such as no difference in temperature between target and background, pitch-black night, bad visibility. Also it can be used to detect a faint target in long range or small target in deep space, which has advantage of high definition and good contrast. In one word, it is immune to environment. However, due to the affect of long distance, limited laser energy and atmospheric backscatter, it is impossible to illuminate the whole scene at the same time. It means that the target in every single frame is unevenly or partly illuminated, which make the recognition more difficult. At the same time the speckle noise which is common in laser active imaging blurs the images . In this paper we do some research on laser active imaging and propose a new target recognition method based on multi-frame images . Firstly, multi pulses of laser is used to obtain sub-images for different parts of scene. A denoising method combined homomorphic filter with wavelet domain SURE is used to suppress speckle noise. And blind deconvolution is introduced to obtain low-noise and clear sub-images. Then these sub-images are registered and stitched to combine a completely and uniformly illuminated scene image. After that, a new target recognition method based on contour moments is proposed. Firstly, canny operator is used to obtain contours. For each contour, seven invariant Hu moments are calculated to generate the feature vectors. At last the feature vectors are input into double hidden layers BP neural network for classification . Experiments results indicate that the proposed algorithm could achieve a high recognition rate and satisfactory real-time performance for laser active imaging.

  17. Microbial recognition of target-cell glycoconjugates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Anders Karlsson

    1995-01-01

    Attachment of microbial protein to host cell-surface carbohydrate is considered essential for successful infection. Information of conceptual interest, including crystal structures of protein—saccharide complexes and convincing models of target membrane penetration, continues to emerge for viruses and bacterial toxins. Other important data relate to therapeutic receptor blockade, through the use of saccharide analogs or vaccines directed against the microbial adhesin.

  18. Infrared target simulation environment for pattern recognition applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas E. Savakis; Nicholas George

    1994-01-01

    The generation of complete databases of IR data is extremely useful for training human observers and testing automatic pattern recognition algorithms. Field data may be used for realism, but require expensive and time-consuming procedures. IR scene simulation methods have emerged as a more economical and efficient alternative for the generation of IR databases. A novel approach to IR target simulation

  19. Image Super-Resolution for Improved Automatic Target Recognition

    E-print Network

    Image Super-Resolution for Improved Automatic Target Recognition Raymond S. Wagnera and Donald by the physical properties of their components. Fortunately, image super-resolution techniques can be applied to overcome the limits of these imaging systems. This increase in resolution can have potentially dramatic

  20. Hidden Markov models for multi-perspective radar target recognition

    E-print Network

    Brookes, Mike

    Hidden Markov models for multi-perspective radar target recognition Jingjing Cui, Jon Gudnason College London {jingjing.cui02,jon.gudnason,mike.brookes}@imperial.ac.uk Abstract-This paper presents investigated in [1], [2]; the Bayesian classifier, the K-nearest neighbour algorithm and the artificial neural

  1. Application of Bidirectional Probabilistic Character Language Model in Handwritten Words Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerzy Sas

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a This paper presents a concept of bidirectional probabilistic character language model and its application to handwriting recognition.\\u000a Character language model describes probability distribution of adjacent character combinations in words. Bidirectional model\\u000a applies word analysis from left to right and in reversed order, i.e. it uses conditional probabilities of character succession\\u000a and character precedence. Character model is used for HMM creation,

  2. Reassessing word frequency as a determinant of word recognition for skilled and unskilled readers.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A

    2013-06-01

    The importance of vocabulary in reading comprehension emphasizes the need to accurately assess an individual's familiarity with words. The present article highlights problems with using occurrence counts in corpora as an index of word familiarity, especially when studying individuals varying in reading experience. We demonstrate via computational simulations and norming studies that corpus-based word frequencies systematically overestimate strengths of word representations, especially in the low-frequency range and in smaller-size vocabularies. Experience-driven differences in word familiarity prove to be faithfully captured by the subjective frequency ratings collected from responders at different experience levels. When matched on those levels, this lexical measure explains more variance than corpus-based frequencies in eye-movement and lexical decision latencies to English words, attested in populations with varied reading experience and skill. Furthermore, the use of subjective frequencies removes the widely reported (corpus) Frequency × Skill interaction, showing that more skilled readers are equally faster in processing any word than the less skilled readers, not disproportionally faster in processing lower frequency words. This finding challenges the view that the more skilled an individual is in generic mechanisms of word processing, the less reliant he or she will be on the actual lexical characteristics of that word. PMID:23339352

  3. Reassessing word frequency as a determinant of word recognition for skilled and unskilled readers

    PubMed Central

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of vocabulary in reading comprehension emphasizes the need to accurately assess an individual’s familiarity with words. The present article highlights problems with using occurrence counts in corpora as an index of word familiarity, especially when studying individuals varying in reading experience. We demonstrate via computational simulations and norming studies that corpus-based word frequencies systematically overestimate strengths of word representations, especially in the low-frequency range and in smaller-size vocabularies. Experience-driven differences in word familiarity prove to be faithfully captured by the subjective frequency ratings collected from responders at different experience levels. When matched on those levels, this lexical measure explains more variance than corpus-based frequencies in eye-movement and lexical decision latencies to English words, attested in populations with varied reading experience and skill. Furthermore, the use of subjective frequencies removes the widely reported (corpus) frequency-by-skill interaction, showing that more skilled readers are equally faster in processing any word than the less skilled readers, not disproportionally faster in processing lower-frequency words. This finding challenges the view that the more skilled an individual is in generic mechanisms of word processing the less reliant he/she will be on the actual lexical characteristics of that word. PMID:23339352

  4. Artificial neural networks for acoustic target recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Robertson; John C. Mossing; Bruce Weber

    1995-01-01

    Acoustic sensors can be used to detect, track and identify non-line-of-sight targets passively. Attempts to alter acoustic emissions often result in an undesirable performance degradation. This research project investigates the use of neural networks for differentiating between features extracted from the acoustic signatures of sources. Acoustic data were filtered and digitized using a commercially available analog-digital convertor. The digital data

  5. Speech Perception, Word Recognition and the Structure of the Lexicon. Research on Speech Perception Progress Report No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.; And Others

    The results of three projects concerned with auditory word recognition and the structure of the lexicon are reported in this paper. The first project described was designed to test experimentally several specific predictions derived from MACS, a simulation model of the Cohort Theory of word recognition. The second project description provides the…

  6. Human interaction recognition based on the co-occurence of visual words K. Nour el houda SLIMANI

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of human activity recognition methods using bag-of-words, this paradigm is extended. A 3-D XYT spatio works are presented in section 2, then the human inter- action representation is described in section 3Human interaction recognition based on the co-occurence of visual words K. Nour el houda SLIMANI

  7. The resolution of visual noise in word recognition.

    PubMed

    Pae, Hye K; Lee, Yong-Won

    2015-06-01

    This study examined lexical processing in English by native speakers of Korean and Chinese, compared to that of native speakers of English, using normal, alternated, and inverse fonts. Sixty four adult students participated in a lexical decision task. The findings demonstrated similarities and differences in accuracy and latency among the three L1 groups. The participants, regardless of L1, had a greater advantage in nonwords than words for the normal fonts because they were able to efficiently detect the illegal letter strings. However, word advantages were observed in the visually distorted stimuli (i.e., alternated and inverse fonts). These results were explained from the perspectives of the theory of psycholinguistic grain size, L1-L2 distance, and the mechanism of familiarity discrimination. The native speakers of Chinese were more sensitive to visual distortions than the Korean counterpart, suggesting that the linguistic template established in L1 might play a role in word processing in English. PMID:25283377

  8. Automatic target recognition using group-structured sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Wu, Xuewen; He, Jun; Zhu, Xiaoming; Chen, Chao

    2014-06-01

    Sparse representation classification method has been increasingly used in the fields of computer vision and pattern analysis, due to its high recognition rate, little dependence on the features, robustness to corruption and occlusion, and etc. However, most of these existing methods aim to find the sparsest representations of the test sample y in an overcomplete dictionary, which do not particularly consider the relevant structure between the atoms in the dictionary. Moreover, sufficient training samples are always required by the sparse representation method for effective recognition. In this paper we formulate the classification as a group-structured sparse representation problem using a sparsity-inducing norm minimization optimization and propose a novel sparse representation-based automatic target recognition (ATR) framework for the practical applications in which the training samples are drawn from the simulation models of real targets. The experimental results show that the proposed approach improves the recognition rate of standard sparse models, and our system can effectively and efficiently recognize targets under real environments, especially, where the good characteristics of the sparse representation based classification method are kept.

  9. Lexical Representation of Phonological Variation in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    There have been a number of mechanisms proposed to account for recognition of phonological variation in spoken language. Five of these mechanisms were considered here, including underspecification, inference, feature parsing, tolerance, and a frequency-based representational account. A corpus analysis and five experiments using the nasal flap…

  10. Functions of graphemic and phonemic codes in visual word-recognition.

    PubMed

    Meyer, D E; Schvaneveldt, R W; Ruddy, M G

    1974-03-01

    Previous investigators have argued that printed words are recognized directly from visual representations and/or phonological representations obtained through phonemic recoding. The present research tested these hypotheses by manipulating graphemic and phonemic relations within various pairs of letter strings. Ss in two experiments classified the pairs as words or nonwords. Reaction times and error rates were relatively small for word pairs (e.g., BRIBE-TRIBE) that were both graphemically, and phonemically similar. Graphemic similarity alone inhibited performance on other word pairs (e.g., COUCH-TOUCH). These and other results suggest that phonological representations play a significant role in visual word recognition and that there is a dependence between successive phonemic-encoding operations. An encoding-bias model is proposed to explain the data. PMID:24214761

  11. Reassessing Word Frequency as a Determinant of Word Recognition for Skilled and Unskilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of vocabulary in reading comprehension emphasizes the need to accurately assess an individual's familiarity with words. The present article highlights problems with using occurrence counts in corpora as an index of word familiarity, especially when studying individuals varying in reading experience. We demonstrate via computational…

  12. Word Learning under Adverse Listening Conditions: Context-Specific Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of word learning have presented the items to listeners under ideal conditions. Here we ask how listeners learn new vocabulary items under adverse listening conditions. Would listeners form acoustically-specific representations that incorporated the noise, base their representations on noise-free language knowledge, or both? To…

  13. Integration of Pragmatic and Phonetic Cues in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Hannah; Ettlinger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Although previous research has established that multiple top-down factors guide the identification of words during speech processing, the ultimate range of information sources that listeners integrate from different levels of linguistic structure is still unknown. In a set of experiments, we investigate whether comprehenders can integrate…

  14. Vowel Categorization during Word Recognition in Bilingual Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramon-Casas, Marta; Swingley, Daniel; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria; Bosch, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Toddlers' and preschoolers' knowledge of the phonological forms of words was tested in Spanish-learning, Catalan-learning, and bilingual children. These populations are of particular interest because of differences in the Spanish and Catalan vowel systems: Catalan has two vowels in a phonetic region where Spanish has only one. The proximity of the…

  15. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  16. Peer Commentaries on "The Architecture of the Bilingual Word Recognition System: From Identification to Decision."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brysbaert, Marc; van Wijnendaele, Ilse; Duyck, Wouter; Jacquet, Maud; French, Robert M.; Green, David W.; van Hell, Janet G.; Li, Ping; Roelofs, Ardi; Thomas, Michael S. C.

    2002-01-01

    Seven peer commentaries focus on an article that evaluated the BIA model of bilingual word recognition in the light of recent empirical evidence, pointed out problems with it, and proposed a new model, the BIA+. Raise several issues of concern. (Author/VWL)

  17. The Utility of the Rey Word Recognition Test in the Detection of Suspect Effort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Nitch; Kyle Brauer Boone; Johnny Wen; Ginger Arnold; Kimberly Alfano

    2006-01-01

    The Rey Word Recognition Test potentially represents an underutilized tool for clinicians to use in the detection of suspect effort. The present study examined the predictive accuracy of the test by examining the performance of three groups of participants: (a) 92 noncredible patients (as determined by failed psychometric and behavioral criteria and external motive to feign), (b) 51 general clinical

  18. Developmental Changes in the Allocation of Semantic Feedback during Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Jason F.

    2006-01-01

    The present study used a mediated priming paradigm to examine whether developmental differences exist in the integration of semantic information with orthographic and phonological information during visual word recognition. In Experiment 1, we found that the integration of semantics with phonology and orthography differed among third-grade,…

  19. Putting It All Together: A Unified Account of Word Recognition and Reaction-Time Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    R. Ratcliff, P. Gomez, and G. McKoon (2004) suggested much of what goes on in lexical decision is attributable to decision processes and may not be particularly informative about word recognition. They proposed that lexical decision should be characterized by a decision process, taking the form of a drift-diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978), that…

  20. Visual Word Recognition in Two Facial Motion Conditions: Full-Face versus Lips-plus-Mandible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marassa, Lynn K.; Lansing, Charissa R.

    1995-01-01

    This study compared visual word recognition (speechreading) in video sequences showing either full face or lips plus mandible to 26 normal hearing college students and 4 adults with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Percent phoneme correct scores were similar in the two conditions and scores significantly improved for the repeated measure in…

  1. Methods for Sight Word Recognition in Kindergarten: Traditional Flashcard Method vs. Multisensory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, William E.; Feng, Jay

    2012-01-01

    A quasi-experimental action research with a pretest-posttest same subject design was implemented to determine if there is a different effect of the flash card method and the multisensory approach on kindergarteners' achievement in sight word recognition, and which method is more effective if there is any difference. Instrumentation for pretest and…

  2. Neural Dynamics of Word Recognition and Recall: Attentional Priming, Learning, and Resonance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossberg, Stephen; Stone, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    Data and models about recognition and recall of words and nonwords are unified using a real-time network processing theory. Adaptive resonance theory arose from an analysis of how a language system self-organizes in real time in response to its complex input environment. (Author/LMO)

  3. Visual Word Recognition by Bilinguals in a Sentence Context: Evidence for Nonselective Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duyck, Wouter; Van Assche, Eva; Drieghe, Denis; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research on bilingualism has shown that lexical access in visual word recognition by bilinguals is not selective with respect to language. In the present study, the authors investigated language-independent lexical access in bilinguals reading sentences, which constitutes a strong unilingual linguistic context. In the first experiment,…

  4. Validating Models of Clinical Word Recognition Tests for Spanish/English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Shi and Sánchez (2010) developed models to predict the optimal test language for evaluating Spanish/English (S/E) bilinguals' word recognition. The current study intended to validate their conclusions in a separate bilingual listener sample. Method: Seventy normal-hearing S/E bilinguals varying in language profile were included.…

  5. Cortex, 2002, in press A case study of a spoken word recognition deficit

    E-print Network

    Pallier, Christophe

    with phone- mic identification or discrimination tasks, but are impaired in word recognition. Interestingly mandatorily trans- late into corresponding problems in lexical identification. In this paper, we describe voice. Pairs of stimuli were presented over headphones and the patient had to indicate whether

  6. An Evaluation of Project iRead: A Program Created to Improve Sight Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Theresa Meade

    2014-01-01

    This program evaluation was undertaken to examine the relationship between participation in Project iRead and student gains in word recognition, fluency, and comprehension as measured by the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS) Test. Linear regressions compared the 2012-13 PALS results from 5,140 first and second grade students at…

  7. DRC: A Dual Route Cascaded Model of Visual Word Recognition and Reading Aloud

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max Coltheart; Kathleen Rastle; Conrad Perry; Robyn Langdon; Johannes Ziegler

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the Dual Route Cascaded (DRC) model, a computational model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. The DRC is a computational realization of the dual-route theory of reading, and is the only computational model of reading that can perform the 2 tasks most commonly used to study reading: lexical decision and reading aloud. For both tasks, the

  8. Learning of Letter Names and Sounds and Their Contribution to Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Iris; Shatil-Carmon, Sivan; Asif-Rave, Ornit

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, their learning, and their contributions to word recognition. Of 123 preschoolers examined on letter knowledge, 65 underwent training on both letter names and letter sounds in a counterbalanced order. Prior to training, children were more advanced in associating letters with their…

  9. The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. J. Dijkstra; Walter J. B. van Heuven

    2002-01-01

    The paper opens with an evaluation of the BIA model of bilingual word recognition in the light of recent empirical evidence. After pointing out problems and omissions, a new model, called the BIA+, is proposed. Structurally, this new model extends the old one by adding phonological and semantic lexical representations to the available orthographic ones, and assigns a different role

  10. Pitch modulates lexical identification in spoken word recognition: ERP and behavioral evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia K Friedrich; Sonja A Kotz; Angela D Friederici; Kai Alter

    2004-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in cross-modal word fragment priming (CMWP) to address the function of pitch for the identification of spoken words. In CMWP fragments of spoken words (e.g., re taken from Regal [Engl. shelves]) are immediately followed by visual targets. Together with reduced reaction times (RTs), an ERP deflection named P350 has been found to be reduced for

  11. Automated target recognition and tracking using an optical pattern recognition neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1991-01-01

    The on-going development of an automatic target recognition and tracking system at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is presented. This system is an optical pattern recognition neural network (OPRNN) that is an integration of an innovative optical parallel processor and a feature extraction based neural net training algorithm. The parallel optical processor provides high speed and vast parallelism as well as full shift invariance. The neural network algorithm enables simultaneous discrimination of multiple noisy targets in spite of their scales, rotations, perspectives, and various deformations. This fully developed OPRNN system can be effectively utilized for the automated spacecraft recognition and tracking that will lead to success in the Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) of the unmanned Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV). One of the most powerful optical parallel processors for automatic target recognition is the multichannel correlator. With the inherent advantages of parallel processing capability and shift invariance, multiple objects can be simultaneously recognized and tracked using this multichannel correlator. This target tracking capability can be greatly enhanced by utilizing a powerful feature extraction based neural network training algorithm such as the neocognitron. The OPRNN, currently under investigation at JPL, is constructed with an optical multichannel correlator where holographic filters have been prepared using the neocognitron training algorithm. The computation speed of the neocognitron-type OPRNN is up to 10(exp 14) analog connections/sec that enabling the OPRNN to outperform its state-of-the-art electronics counterpart by at least two orders of magnitude.

  12. Psychometric Functions for Shortened Administrations of a Speech Recognition Approach Using Tri-Word Presentations and Phonemic Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, Stanley A.; Gelfand, Jessica T.

    2012-01-01

    Method: Complete psychometric functions for phoneme and word recognition scores at 8 signal-to-noise ratios from -15 dB to 20 dB were generated for the first 10, 20, and 25, as well as all 50, three-word presentations of the Tri-Word or Computer Assisted Speech Recognition Assessment (CASRA) Test (Gelfand, 1998) based on the results of 12…

  13. Parafoveal X-masks interfere with foveal word recognition: evidence from fixation-related brain potentials

    PubMed Central

    Hutzler, Florian; Fuchs, Isabella; Gagl, Benjamin; Schuster, Sarah; Richlan, Fabio; Braun, Mario; Hawelka, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The boundary paradigm, in combination with parafoveal masks, is the main technique for studying parafoveal preprocessing during reading. The rationale is that the masks (e.g., strings of X's) prevent parafoveal preprocessing, but do not interfere with foveal processing. A recent study, however, raised doubts about the neutrality of parafoveal masks. In the present study, we explored this issue by means of fixation-related brain potentials (FRPs). Two FRP conditions presented rows of five words. The task of the participant was to judge whether the final word of a list was a “new” word, or whether it was a repeated (i.e., “old”) word. The critical manipulation was that the final word was X-masked during parafoveal preview in one condition, whereas another condition presented a valid preview of the word. In two additional event-related brain potential (ERP) conditions, the words were presented serially with no parafoveal preview available; in one of the conditions with a fixed timing, in the other word presentation was self-paced by the participants. Expectedly, the valid-preview FRP condition elicited the shortest processing times. Processing times did not differ between the two ERP conditions indicating that “cognitive readiness” during self-paced processing can be ruled out as an alternative explanation for differences in processing times between the ERP and the FRP conditions. The longest processing times were found in the X-mask FRP condition indicating that parafoveal X-masks interfere with foveal word recognition. PMID:23888130

  14. Relationships among vocabulary size, nonverbal cognition, and spoken word recognition in adults with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene E.

    2002-05-01

    Recent research has attempted to identify the factors that predict speech perception performance among users of cochlear implants (CIs). Studies have found that approximately 20%-60% of the variance in speech perception scores can be accounted for by factors including duration of deafness, etiology, type of device, and length of implant use, leaving approximately 50% of the variance unaccounted for. The current study examines the extent to which vocabulary size and nonverbal cognitive ability predict CI listeners' spoken word recognition. Fifteen postlingually deafened adults with nucleus or clarion CIs were given standardized assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive vocabulary size: the Expressive Vocabulary Test, the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-III, and the Woodcock-Johnson-III Test of Cognitive Ability, Verbal Comprehension subtest. Two spoken word recognition tasks were administered. In the first, listeners identified isophonemic CVC words. In the second, listeners identified gated words varying in lexical frequency and neighborhood density. Analyses will examine the influence of lexical frequency and neighborhood density on the uniqueness point in the gating task, as well as relationships among nonverbal cognitive ability, vocabulary size, and the two spoken word recognition measures. [Work supported by NIH Grant P01 DC00110 and by the Lions 3M Hearing Foundation.

  15. Clustering of Farsi sub-word images for whole-book recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Kabir, Ehsanollah; Stricker, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Redundancy of word and sub-word occurrences in large documents can be effectively utilized in an OCR system to improve recognition results. Most OCR systems employ language modeling techniques as a post-processing step; however these techniques do not use important pictorial information that exist in the text image. In case of large-scale recognition of degraded documents, this information is even more valuable. In our previous work, we proposed a subword image clustering method for the applications dealing with large printed documents. In our clustering method, the ideal case is when all equivalent sub-word images lie in one cluster. To overcome the issues of low print quality, the clustering method uses an image matching algorithm for measuring the distance between two sub-word images. The measured distance with a set of simple shape features were used to cluster all sub-word images. In this paper, we analyze the effects of adding more shape features on processing time, purity of clustering, and the final recognition rate. Previously published experiments have shown the efficiency of our method on a book. Here we present extended experimental results and evaluate our method on another book with totally different font face. Also we show that the number of the new created clusters in a page can be used as a criteria for assessing the quality of print and evaluating preprocessing phases.

  16. Specifying theories of developmental dyslexia: a diffusion model analysis of word recognition.

    PubMed

    Zeguers, Maaike H T; Snellings, Patrick; Tijms, Jurgen; Weeda, Wouter D; Tamboer, Peter; Bexkens, Anika; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2011-11-01

    The nature of word recognition difficulties in developmental dyslexia is still a topic of controversy. We investigated the contribution of phonological processing deficits and uncertainty to the word recognition difficulties of dyslexic children by mathematical diffusion modeling of visual and auditory lexical decision data. The first study showed that poor visual lexical decision performance of reading disabled children was mainly due to a delay in the evaluation of word characteristics, suggesting impaired phonological processing. The adoption of elevated certainty criteria by the disabled readers suggests that uncertainty contributed to the visual word recognition impairments as well. The second study replicated the outcomes for visual lexical decision with formally diagnosed dyslexic children. In addition, during auditory lexical decision, dyslexics presented with reduced accuracy, which also resulted from delayed evaluation of word characteristics. Since orthographic influences are diminished during auditory lexical decision, this strengthens the phonological processing deficit account. Dyslexic children did not adopt heightened certainty criteria during auditory lexical decision, indicating that uncertainty solely impairs reading and not listening. PMID:22010894

  17. The Syllable Frequency Effect in Visual Recognition of French Words: A Study in Skilled and Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetail, Fabienne; Mathey, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of syllable activation during visual recognition of French words. In addition, it was investigated whether word orthographic information underlies syllable effects. To do so, words were selected according to the frequency of their first syllable (high versus low) and the frequency of the orthographic…

  18. Effective connectivity of visual word recognition and homophone orthographic errors

    PubMed Central

    Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel; Zarabozo-Hurtado, Daniel; González-Garrido, Andrés A.; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    The study of orthographic errors in a transparent language like Spanish is an important topic in relation to writing acquisition. The development of neuroimaging techniques, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has enabled the study of such relationships between brain areas. The main objective of the present study was to explore the patterns of effective connectivity by processing pseudohomophone orthographic errors among subjects with high and low spelling skills. Two groups of 12 Mexican subjects each, matched by age, were formed based on their results in a series of ad hoc spelling-related out-scanner tests: a high spelling skills (HSSs) group and a low spelling skills (LSSs) group. During the f MRI session, two experimental tasks were applied (spelling recognition task and visuoperceptual recognition task). Regions of Interest and their signal values were obtained for both tasks. Based on these values, structural equation models (SEMs) were obtained for each group of spelling competence (HSS and LSS) and task through maximum likelihood estimation, and the model with the best fit was chosen in each case. Likewise, dynamic causal models (DCMs) were estimated for all the conditions across tasks and groups. The HSS group’s SEM results suggest that, in the spelling recognition task, the right middle temporal gyrus, and, to a lesser extent, the left parahippocampal gyrus receive most of the significant effects, whereas the DCM results in the visuoperceptual recognition task show less complex effects, but still congruent with the previous results, with an important role in several areas. In general, these results are consistent with the major findings in partial studies about linguistic activities but they are the first analyses of statistical effective brain connectivity in transparent languages. PMID:26042070

  19. Nanostructured materials for selective recognition and targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrotsiou, O.; Kotti, K.; Dini, E.; Kammona, O.; Kiparissides, C.

    2005-01-01

    Selective recognition requires the introduction of a molecular memory into a polymer matrix in order to make it capable of rebinding an analyte with a very high specificity. In addition, targeted drug delivery requires drug-loaded vesicles which preferentially localize to the sites of injury and avoid uptake into uninvolved tissues. The rapid evolution of nanotechnology is aiming to fulfill the goal of selective recognition and optimal drug delivery through the development of molecularly imprinted polymeric (MIP) nanoparticles, tailor-made for a diverse range of analytes (e.g., pharmaceuticals, pesticides, amino acids, etc.) and of nanostructured targeted drug carriers (e.g., liposomes and micelles) with increased circulation lifetimes. In the present study, PLGA microparticles containing multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), and MIP nanoparticles were synthesized to be employed as drug carriers and synthetic receptors respectively.

  20. A neural-linguistic approach for the recognition of a wide Arabic word lexicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Cheikh, I.; Kacem, A.; Belaïd, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we have investigated the use of Arabic linguistic knowledge to improve the recognition of wide Arabic word lexicon. A neural-linguistic approach was proposed to mainly deal with canonical vocabulary of decomposable words derived from tri-consonant healthy roots. The basic idea is to factorize words by their roots and schemes. In this direction, we conceived two neural networks TNN_R and TNN_S to respectively recognize roots and schemes from structural primitives of words. The proposal approach achieved promising results. In this paper, we will focus on how to reach better results in terms of accuracy and recognition rate. Current improvements concern especially the training stage. It is about 1) to benefit from word letters order 2) to consider "sisters letters" (letters having same features), 3) to supervise networks behaviors, 4) to split up neurons to save letter occurrences and 5) to solve observed ambiguities. Considering theses improvements, experiments carried on 1500 sized vocabulary show a significant enhancement: TNN_R (resp. TNN_S) top4 has gone up from 77% to 85.8% (resp. from 65% to 97.9%). Enlarging the vocabulary from 1000 to 1700, adding 100 words each time, again confirmed the results without altering the networks stability.

  1. More on Recognition Failure of Recallable Words: Implications for Generation Recognition Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintsch, Walter

    1978-01-01

    It is sometimes possible to recall an item, but not to recognize it. Traditional generation-recognition models view recall as a two-stage process. Such models can account for the recognition failure of recallable items if it is admitted that subjects employ less stringent criteria for editing implicitly retrieved responses in recall than in a…

  2. Physiologically motivated computational visual target recognition beta selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik P. Blasch; Randy P. Broussard

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of a beta value derived from a receiver operator characteristic curve for target recognition. Using a physiologically-motivated sensor-fusion algorithm, lower-level data is filtered and fused using a pulse-coupled neural network (PCNN) to represent the feature processing of the parvocellular and magnetocellular pathways. High level decision making includes feature association from the PCNN filter, information fusion,

  3. Watching the Word Go by: On the Time-course of Component Processes in Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a functional architecture for word recognition that focuses on how orthographic and phonological information cooperates in initial form-based processing of printed word stimuli prior to accessing semantic information. Component processes of orthographic processing and orthography-to-phonology translation are described, and the behavioral evidence in favor of such mechanisms is briefly summarized. Our theoretical framework is then used to interpret the results of a large number of recent experiments that have combined the masked priming paradigm with electrophysiological recordings. These experiments revealed a series of components in the event-related potential (ERP), thought to reflect the cascade of underlying processes involved in the transition from visual feature extraction to semantic activation. We provide a tentative mapping of ERP components onto component processes in the model, hence specifying the relative time-course of these processes and their functional significance. PMID:19750025

  4. AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF SUB-WORD UNITS FOR SPEECH RECOGNITION Rita Singh 1 , Bhiksha Raj 2 and Richard M. Stern 1 , Member IEEE

    E-print Network

    Singh, Rita

    1 AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF SUB-WORD UNITS FOR SPEECH RECOGNITION SYSTEMS Rita Singh 1 , Bhiksha Raj recognition (LVCSR) systems traditionally represent words in terms of smaller sub-word units. Both during into sequences of these sub-word units. The performance of the LVCSR system depends critically on the de#12

  5. Reconsidering the role of orthographic redundancy in visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Chetail, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Humans are known to continuously extract regularities from the flow of stimulation. This occurs in many facets of behavior, including reading. In spite of the ubiquitous evidence that readers become sensitive to orthographic regularities after very little exposure to print, the role of orthographic regularities receives at best a peripheral status in current theories of orthographic processing. In the present article, after the presentation of previous evidence on orthographic redundancy, the hypothesis that orthographic regularities may play a prominent role in word perception is developed.

  6. Autonomous target recognition using remotely sensed surface vibration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geurts, James; Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Oxley, Mark E.; Barr, Dallas N.

    1993-09-01

    The remotely measured surface vibration signatures of tactical military ground vehicles are investigated for use in target classification and identification friend or foe (IFF) systems. The use of remote surface vibration sensing by a laser radar reduces the effects of partial occlusion, concealment, and camouflage experienced by automatic target recognition systems using traditional imagery in a tactical battlefield environment. Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) efficiently represents the vibration signatures and nearest neighbor classifiers exploit the LPC feature set using a variety of distortion metrics. Nearest neighbor classifiers achieve an 88 percent classification rate in an eight class problem, representing a classification performance increase of thirty percent from previous efforts. A novel confidence figure of merit is implemented to attain a 100 percent classification rate with less than 60 percent rejection. The high classification rates are achieved on a target set which would pose significant problems to traditional image-based recognition systems. The targets are presented to the sensor in a variety of aspects and engine speeds at a range of 1 kilometer. The classification rates achieved demonstrate the benefits of using remote vibration measurement in a ground IFF system. The signature modeling and classification system can also be used to identify rotary and fixed-wing targets.

  7. Recognition of Handwritten Arabic words using a neuro-fuzzy network

    SciTech Connect

    Boukharouba, Abdelhak [Departement de Genie electrique, Universite 08 Mai 45 de Guelma (Algeria); Bennia, Abdelhak [Departement d'Electronique, Universite Mentouri de Constantine (Algeria)

    2008-06-12

    We present a new method for the recognition of handwritten Arabic words based on neuro-fuzzy hybrid network. As a first step, connected components (CCs) of black pixels are detected. Then the system determines which CCs are sub-words and which are stress marks. The stress marks are then isolated and identified separately and the sub-words are segmented into graphemes. Each grapheme is described by topological and statistical features. Fuzzy rules are extracted from training examples by a hybrid learning scheme comprised of two phases: rule generation phase from data using a fuzzy c-means, and rule parameter tuning phase using gradient descent learning. After learning, the network encodes in its topology the essential design parameters of a fuzzy inference system.The contribution of this technique is shown through the significant tests performed on a handwritten Arabic words database.

  8. Structural flexibility of intrinsically disordered proteins induces stepwise target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Nobu C.; Kikuchi, Macoto

    2013-12-01

    An intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) lacks a stable three-dimensional structure, while it folds into a specific structure when it binds to a target molecule. In some IDP-target complexes, not all target binding surfaces are exposed on the outside, and intermediate states are observed in their binding processes. We consider that stepwise target recognition via intermediate states is a characteristic of IDP binding to targets with "hidden" binding sites. To investigate IDP binding to hidden target binding sites, we constructed an IDP lattice model based on the HP model. In our model, the IDP is modeled as a chain and the target is modeled as a highly coarse-grained object. We introduced motion and internal interactions to the target to hide its binding sites. In the case of unhidden binding sites, a two-state transition between the free states and a bound state is observed, and we consider that this represents coupled folding and binding. Introducing hidden binding sites, we found an intermediate bound state in which the IDP forms various structures to temporarily stabilize the complex. The intermediate state provides a scaffold for the IDP to access the hidden binding site. We call this process multiform binding. We conclude that structural flexibility of IDPs enables them to access hidden binding sites and this is a functional advantage of IDPs.

  9. Feature parsing: feature cue mapping in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Gow, David W

    2003-05-01

    For listeners to recognize words, they must map temporally distributed phonetic feature cues onto higher order phonological representations. Three experiments are reported that were performed to examine what information listeners extract from assimilated segments (e.g., place-assimilated tokens of cone that resemble comb) and how they interpret it. Experiment 1 employed form priming to demonstrate that listeners activate the underlying form of CONE, but not of its neighbor (COMB). Experiment 2 employed phoneme monitoring to show that the same assimilated tokens facilitate the perception of postassimilation context. Together, the results of these two experiments suggest that listeners recover both the underlying place of the modified item and information about the subsequent item from the same modified segment. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 1, using different postassimilation contexts to demonstrate that context effects do not reflect familiarity with a given assimilation process. The results are discussed in the context of general auditory grouping mechanisms. PMID:12812280

  10. Taxi vs. Taksi: On orthographic word recognition in the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kronbichler, Martin; Bergmann, Jürgen; Hutzler, Florian; Staffen, Wolfgang; Mair, Alois; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    The importance of the left occipitotemporal cortex for visual word processing is highlighted by numerous functional neuroimaging studies, but the precise function of the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in this brain region is still under debate. The present fMRI study varied orthographic familiarity independent from phonological-semantic familiarity by presenting orthographically familiar and orthographically unfamiliar forms (pseudohomophones) of the same words in a phonological lexical decision task. Consistent with orthographic word recognition in the VWFA, we found lower activation for familiar compared to unfamiliar forms, but no difference between pseudohomophones and pseudowords. This orthographic familiarity effect in the VWFA differed from the phonological familiarity effect in left frontal regions, where phonologically unfamiliar pseudowords led to higher activation than phonologically familiar pseudohomophones. We suggest that the VWFA not only computes letter string representations but also hosts word specific orthographic representations. These representations function as recognition units with the effect that letter strings, which readily match with stored representations lead to less activation than letter strings which do not. PMID:17933023

  11. Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

    2013-01-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

  12. Scaly artificial neural networks for speaker-independent recognition of isolated words

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Krause; H. Hackbarth

    1989-01-01

    Artificial neural networks were investigated as an approach to speaker-independent recognition of isolated words from a variable-size vocabulary. A scaly pattern of connecting links between the input and hidden layer was established within a strict feed-forward wiring structure. The amount of training material and vocabulary size as well as the choice of network dimensions, such as the number of layers

  13. Manipulating letter fluency for words alters electrophysiological correlates of recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Heather D.; Paller, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms that give rise to familiarity memory have received intense research interest. One current topic of debate concerns the extent to which familiarity is driven by the same fluency sources that give rise to certain implicit memory phenomena. Familiarity may be tied to conceptual fluency, given that familiarity and conceptual implicit memory can exhibit similar neurocognitive properties. However, familiarity can also be driven by perceptual factors, and its neural basis under these circumstances has received less attention. Here we recorded brain potentials during recognition testing using a procedure that has previously been shown to encourage a reliance on letter information when assessing familiarity for words. Studied and unstudied words were derived either from two separate letter pools or a single letter pool (“letter-segregated” and “normal” conditions, respectively) in a within-subjects contrast. As predicted, recognition accuracy was higher in the letter-segregated relative to the normal condition. Electrophysiological analyses revealed parietal old-new effects from 500–700 ms in both conditions. In addition, a topographically dissociable occipital old-new effect from 300–700 ms was present in the letter-segregated condition only. In a second experiment, we found that similar occipital brain potentials were associated with confident false recognition of words that shared letters with studied words but were not themselves studied. These findings indicate that familiarity is a multiply determined phenomenon, and that the stimulus dimensions on which familiarity is based can moderate its neural correlates. Conceptual and perceptual contributions to familiarity vary across testing circumstances, and both must be accounted for in theories of recognition memory and its neural basis. PMID:23871869

  14. Handwritten Farsi (Arabic) word recognition: a holistic approach using discrete HMM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehdi Dehghan; Karim Faez; Majid Ahmadi; Malayappan Shridhar

    2001-01-01

    A holistic system for the recognition of handwritten Farsi\\/Arabic words using right}left discrete hidden Markov models (HMM) and Kohonen self-organizing vector quantization is presented. The histogram of chain-code directions of the image strips, scanned from right to left by a sliding window, is used as feature vectors. The neighborhood information preserved in the self-organizing feature map (SOFM), is used for

  15. Design and performance of a large vocabulary discrete word recognition system. Volume 2: Appendixes. [flow charts and users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The users manual for the word recognition computer program contains flow charts of the logical diagram, the memory map for templates, the speech analyzer card arrangement, minicomputer input/output routines, and assembly language program listings.

  16. Embedded knowledge-based system for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboutalib, A. O.

    1990-10-01

    The development of a reliable Automatic Target Recognition (ATE) system is considered a very critical and challenging problem. Existing ATE Systems have inherent limitations in terms of recognition performance and the ability to learn and adapt. Artificial Intelligence Techniques have the potential to improve the performance of ATh Systems. In this paper, we presented a novel Knowledge-Engineering tool, termed, the Automatic Reasoning Process (ARP) , that can be used to automatically develop and maintain a Knowledge-Base (K-B) for the ATR Systems. In its learning mode, the ARP utilizes Learning samples to automatically develop the ATR K-B, which consists of minimum size sets of necessary and sufficient conditions for each target class. In its operational mode, the ARP infers the target class from sensor data using the ATh K-B System. The ARP also has the capability to reason under uncertainty, and can support both statistical and model-based approaches for ATR development. The capabilities of the ARP are compared and contrasted to those of another Knowledge-Engineering tool, termed, the Automatic Rule Induction (ARI) which is based on maximizing the mutual information. The AR? has been implemented in LISP on a VAX-GPX workstation.

  17. Target detection and recognition techniques of line imaging ladar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhi-hui; Deng, Jia-hao; Yan, Xiao-wei

    2009-07-01

    A line imaging ladar sensor using linear diode laser array and linear avalanche photodiode (APD) array is developed for precise terminal guidance and intelligent proximity fuzing applications. The detection principle of line imaging ladar is discussed in detail, and design method of the line imaging ladar sensor system is given. Taking military tank target as example, simulated tank height and intensity images are obtained by the line imaging ladar simulation system. The subsystems of line imaging ladar sensor including transmitter and receiver are designed. Multi-pulse coherent algorithm and correlation detection method are adopted to improve the SNR of echo and to estimate time-of-flight, respectively. Experiment results show that the power SNR can be improved by N (number of coherent average) times and the maximum range error is 0.25 m. A few of joint transform correlation (JTC) techniques are discussed to improve noncooperative target recognition capability in height image with complex background. Simulation results show that binary JTC, non-zero-order modified fringe-adjusted JTC and non-zero-order amplitude-modulated JTC can improve the target recognition performance effectively.

  18. APPLICATION OF THE MULTIRESOLUTION WAVELET REPRESENTATION TO NON-COOPERATIVE TARGET RECOGNITION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    APPLICATION OF THE MULTIRESOLUTION WAVELET REPRESENTATION TO NON- COOPERATIVE TARGET RECOGNITION parameters. Criteria used to determine the efficiency of multiresolution representations are compression recognition, radar cross section, wavelet, multiresolution representation. I. INTRODUCTION Requirements

  19. Exploiting vibration-based spectral signatures for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, Lauren; Kangas, Scott

    2014-06-01

    Feature extraction algorithms for vehicle classification techniques represent a large branch of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) efforts. Traditionally, vehicle ATR techniques have assumed time series vibration data collected from multiple accelerometers are a function of direct path, engine driven signal energy. If data, however, is highly dependent on measurement location these pre-established feature extraction algorithms are ineffective. In this paper, we examine the consequences of analyzing vibration data potentially contingent upon transfer path effects by exploring the sensitivity of sensor location. We summarize our analysis of spectral signatures from each accelerometer and investigate similarities within the data.

  20. The influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction effect in visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Dana; Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction (BOI) effect in visual word recognition. High print exposure readers and low print exposure readers either made semantic categorizations (“Is the word easily imageable?”; Experiment 1) or phonological lexical decisions (“Does the item sound like a real English word?”; Experiment 2). The results from Experiment 1 showed that there was a larger BOI effect for the low print exposure readers than for the high print exposure readers in semantic categorization, though an effect was observed for both print exposure groups. However, the results from Experiment 2 showed that the BOI effect was observed only for the high print exposure readers in phonological lexical decision. The results of the present study suggest that print exposure does influence the BOI effect, and that this influence varies as a function of task demands. PMID:22563312

  1. Assessing multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children with normal hearing and children with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Rachael Frush; Kirk, Karen Iler; Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children. Method Two experiments were undertaken. In Experiment I, the youngest age with which the multimodal sentence recognition materials could be used was evaluated. In Experiment II, lexical difficulty and presentation modality effects were examined, along with test-retest reliability and validity in normal-hearing children and those with cochlear implants. Results Normal-hearing children as young as 3.25 years and those with cochlear implants just under 4 years who have used their device for at least 1 year were able to complete the multimodal sentence testing. Both groups identified lexically easy words in sentences more accurately than lexically hard words across modalities, although the largest effects occurred in the auditory-only modality. Both groups displayed audiovisual integration with the highest scores achieved in the audiovisual modality, followed sequentially by auditory-only and visual-only modalities. Recognition of words in sentences was correlated with recognition of words in isolation. Preliminary results suggest fair to good test-retest reliability. Conclusions The results suggest that children’s audiovisual word-in-sentence recognition can be assessed using the materials developed for this investigation. With further development, the materials hold promise for becoming a test of multimodal sentence recognition for children with hearing loss. PMID:20689028

  2. Aerial target recognition using MRA, GVF snakes, and polygon approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhen Z.; Zhang, Taiyi; Xu, Jian

    2003-04-01

    The traditional method to extract target contour from aerial target image is changing the aerial image into a gray level image with multiple thresholds or binary image with single threshold. From the edge of target, contour can be extracted according to the changed value. The traditional method is useful only when contrast between target and background is in the proper degree. Snakes are curves defined within an image domain that can move under the influence of internal force coming from within the curve itself and external forces are defined so that the snake will conform to an object boundary or other desired features within an image. Snakes have been proved an effective method and widely used in image processing and computer vision. Snakes synthesize parametric curves within an image domain and allow them to move toward desired edges. Particular advantages of the GVF(Gradient Vector Flow) snakes over a traditional snakes are its insensitivity to initialization and its ability to move into boundary concavities. Its initializations can be inside, outside, or across the object"s boundary. The GVF snake does not need prior knowledge about whether to shrink or expand toward the boundary. This increased capture range is achieved through a diffusion process that does not blur the edges of themselves. Affected by the light from different incident angle, the brightness of aerial target surface changed greatly in a complicate mode. So the GVF snakes is not fast, accurate and effective all the time for this kind of images. A new contour extracting method, GVF Snakes Combined with wavelet multi-resolution Analysis is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, bubble wavelet is used iteratively to do the multi resolution analysis in the order of degressive scale before GVF Snakes is used every time to extract accurate contour of target. After accurate contour is extracted, polygon approximation is used to extract characteristics to realize the recognition of aerial target. The process is in the following: Step 1: use bubble wavelet filter to cut big part of the noises, weakening false edges. Step 2: initialize active contour and control the contour"s move according to GVF to get a new contour. Step 3: decrease the scale of filter, and use the new contour as the initial contour and control the contour"s move to get new contour again. Step 4: repeat step 3 till the set scale is reached. The last new contour is the final contour. Step 5: find the center determine an axis by calculate distance between every point on the final contour to the center. Step 6: adjust the distance threshold and combine the points until the contour is changed into a polygon with fixed angle number which is best fit the target recognition demand. Step 7: use the polygon to match the target plate to recognize target. Applied the new algorithm to aerial target images of a helicopter and a F22 battleplan, the contour extraction and polygon approximation results show that targets can be matched and recognized successfully. This paper mainly focuses on contour extraction and polygon approximation in the recognition area.

  3. Generating Example Contexts to Illustrate a Target Word Sense Jack Mostow Weisi Duan

    E-print Network

    Mostow, Jack

    word sense when they co-occur with a target word. For example, retreat can mean a place of pri- vacy for target sense), include retreat, yoga, place, retreats, day, home, center, church, spiritual, life, city, time, lake, year, room, prayer, years, school, dog, park, beautiful, area, and stay. Generated contexts

  4. Novel Blind Recognition Algorithm of Frame Synchronization Words Based on Soft-Decision in Digital Communication Systems

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jiangyi; Huang, Zhiping; Liu, Chunwu; Su, Shaojing; Zhou, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A novel blind recognition algorithm of frame synchronization words is proposed to recognize the frame synchronization words parameters in digital communication systems. In this paper, a blind recognition method of frame synchronization words based on the hard-decision is deduced in detail. And the standards of parameter recognition are given. Comparing with the blind recognition based on the hard-decision, utilizing the soft-decision can improve the accuracy of blind recognition. Therefore, combining with the characteristics of Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) signal, an improved blind recognition algorithm based on the soft-decision is proposed. Meanwhile, the improved algorithm can be extended to other signal modulation forms. Then, the complete blind recognition steps of the hard-decision algorithm and the soft-decision algorithm are given in detail. Finally, the simulation results show that both the hard-decision algorithm and the soft-decision algorithm can recognize the parameters of frame synchronization words blindly. What’s more, the improved algorithm can enhance the accuracy of blind recognition obviously. PMID:26154439

  5. Assessing Multimodal Spoken Word-in-Sentence Recognition in Children with Normal Hearing and Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Rachael Frush; Kirk, Karen Iler; Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children. Method: Two experiments were undertaken. In Experiment 1, the youngest age with which the multimodal sentence recognition materials could be used was evaluated. In Experiment 2, lexical difficulty and presentation modality effects were examined, along with test-retest…

  6. Signal Recognition Particle: An essential protein targeting machine

    PubMed Central

    Akopian, David; Shen, Kuang; Zhang, Xin; Shan, Shu-ou

    2013-01-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) and its receptor comprise a universally conserved and essential cellular machinery that couples the synthesis of nascent proteins to their proper membrane localization. The past decade has witnessed an explosion in in-depth mechanistic investigations of this targeting machine at increasingly higher resolution. In this review, we summarize recent work that elucidates how the SRP and SRP receptor interact with the cargo protein and the target membrane, respectively, and how these interactions are coupled to a novel GTPase cycle in the SRP•SRP receptor complex to provide the driving force and enhance the fidelity of this fundamental cellular pathway. We also discuss emerging frontiers where important questions remain to be addressed. PMID:23414305

  7. Sequential Processing in Hemispheric Word Recognition: The Impact of Initial Letter Discriminability on the Oup Naming Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, A.K.; Nicholls, M.E.R.; Kwantes, P.J.; Castles, A.

    2005-01-01

    The cerebral hemispheres have been proposed to engage different word recognition strategies: the left hemisphere implementing a parallel, and the right hemisphere, a sequential, analysis. To investigate this notion, we asked participants to name words with an early or late orthographic uniqueness point (OUP), presented horizontally to their left…

  8. Got Rhythm...For Better and for Worse. Cross-Modal Effects of Auditory Rhythm on Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brochard, Renaud; Tassin, Maxime; Zagar, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The present research aimed to investigate whether, as previously observed with pictures, background auditory rhythm would also influence visual word recognition. In a lexical decision task, participants were presented with bisyllabic visual words, segmented into two successive groups of letters, while an irrelevant strongly metric auditory…

  9. Target recognition and tracking based on data fusion and data mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Yang; Ying Hu; Guozheng Li

    2001-01-01

    A system for target recognition and tracking based on radar and infrared image sensors is presented, which can make use of the complement and redundancy of data from different sensors to improve the precision of target recognition and tracking and the robustness and reliability. For data fusion at characteristic level, characteristics of a target obtained from radar can be used

  10. Colour invariant target recognition in multiple camera CCTV surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soori, Umair; Yuen, P. W. T.; Ibrahim, I.; Han, J.; Tsitiridis, A.; Hong, K.; Chen, T.; Jackman, J.; James, D.; Richardson, M.

    2011-11-01

    People tracking in crowded scene have been a popular, and at the same time a very difficult topic in computer vision. It is mainly because of the difficulty for the acquisition of intrinsic signatures of targets from a single view of the scene. Many factors, such as variable illumination conditions and viewing angles, will induce illusive modification of intrinsic signatures of targets. The objective of this paper is to verify if colour constancy (CC) approach really helps people tracking in CCTV network system. We have testified a number of CC algorithms together with various colour descriptors, to assess the efficiencies of people recognitions from multi-camera i-LIDS data set via receiver operation characteristics (ROC). It is found that when CC is applied together with some form of colour restoration mechanisms such as colour transfer, it does improve people recognition by at least a factor of 2. An elementary luminance based CC coupled with a pixel based colour transfer algorithm have been developed and it is reported in this paper.

  11. Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

  12. The process of spoken word recognition in the face of signal degradation

    PubMed Central

    Farris-Trimble, Ashley; McMurray, Bob; Cigrand, Nicole; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Though much is known about how words are recognized, little research has focused on how a degraded signal affects the fine-grained temporal aspects of real-time word recognition. The perception of degraded speech was examined in two populations with the goal of describing the time course of word recognition and lexical competition. Thirty-three postlingually-deafened cochlear implant (CI) users and 57 normal hearing (NH) adults (16 in a CI-simulation condition) participated in a visual world paradigm eye-tracking task in which their fixations to a set of phonologically related items were monitored as they heard one item being named. Each degraded-speech group was compared to a set of age-matched NH participants listening to unfiltered speech. CI users and the simulation group showed a delay in activation relative to the NH listeners, and there is weak evidence that the CI users showed differences in the degree of peak and late competitor activation. In general, though, the degraded-speech groups behaved statistically similarly with respect to activation levels. PMID:24041330

  13. Infant Word Segmentation Revisited: Edge Alignment Facilitates Target Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidl, Amanda; Johnson, Elizabeth K.

    2006-01-01

    In a landmark study, Jusczyk and Aslin (1995 ) demonstrated that English-learning infants are able to segment words from continuous speech at 7.5 months of age. In the current study, we explored the possibility that infants segment words from the edges of utterances more readily than the middle of utterances. The same procedure was used as in…

  14. Adaptive waveform design based on LSSVM for moving target recognition in cognitive radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meimei Fan; Dongping Liao; Xiaofeng Ding; Xiang Li

    2012-01-01

    The optimal waveform for extended target recognition is directly affected by the target impulse response, which is sensitive to the target aspect. Hence, the variation of target aspect needs to be considered when the target is moving. Aiming at this problem, a new framework of cognitive radar is proposed. It predicts the new aspect via least square support vector machines

  15. Visual Word Recognition in Deaf Readers: Lexicality Is Modulated by Communication Mode

    PubMed Central

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castrataro, Marianna; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals) and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language) performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements) and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects. PMID:23554976

  16. Visual word recognition in deaf readers: lexicality is modulated by communication mode.

    PubMed

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castrataro, Marianna; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals) and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language) performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements) and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects. PMID:23554976

  17. Does richness lose its luster? Effects of extensive practice on semantic richness in visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Ian S.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported facilitatory effects of semantic richness on word recognition (e.g., Yap et al., 2012). These effects suggest that word meaning is an important contributor to lexical decision task (LDT) performance, but what are the effects of repeated LDT practice on these semantic contributions? The current study utilized data from the British Lexicon Project (BLP) in which 78 participants made lexical decision judgments for 28,730 words over 16 h. We used linear mixed effects to detect practice-driven changes in the explanatory variance accounted for by a set of lexical predictors that included numerous indices of relative semantic richness, including imageability, the number of senses and average radius of co-occurrence (ARC). Results showed that practice was associated with decreasing effects of predictors such as word frequency and imageability. In contrast, ARC effects were only slightly diminished with repeated practice, and effects of the number of senses and the age of acquisition were unaffected by practice. We interpret our results within a framework in which variables may dynamically influence lexical processing and the post-lexical decision making mechanisms that also contribute to LDT performance. PMID:22912610

  18. Specificity data for the b Test, Dot Counting Test, Rey-15 Item Plus Recognition, and Rey Word Recognition Test in monolingual Spanish-speakers.

    PubMed

    Robles, Luz; López, Enrique; Salazar, Xavier; Boone, Kyle B; Glaser, Debra F

    2015-08-01

    The current study provides specificity data on a large sample (n = 115) of young to middle-aged, male, monolingual Spanish speakers of lower educational level and low acculturation to mainstream US culture for four neurocognitive performance validity tests (PVTs): the Dot Counting, the b Test, Rey Word Recognition, and Rey 15-Item Plus Recognition. Individuals with 0 to 6 years of education performed more poorly than did participants with 7 to 10 years of education on several Rey 15-Item scores (combination equation, recall intrusion errors, and recognition false positives), Rey Word Recognition total correct, and E-score and omission errors on the b Test, but no effect of educational level was observed for Dot Counting Test scores. Cutoff scores are provided that maintain approximately 90% specificity for the education subgroups separately. Some of these cutoffs match, or are even more stringent than, those recommended for use in US test takers who are primarily Caucasian, are tested in English, and have a higher educational level (i.e., Rey Word Recognition correct false-positive errors; Rey 15-Item recall intrusions and recognition false-positive errors; b Test total time; and Dot Counting E-score and grouped dot counting time). Thus, performance on these PVT variables in particular appears relatively robust to cultural/language/educational factors. PMID:25969922

  19. Resolving the locus of cAsE aLtErNaTiOn effects in visual word recognition: Evidence from masked priming.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Gomez, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    Determining the factors that modulate the early access of abstract lexical representations is imperative for the formulation of a comprehensive neural account of visual-word identification. There is a current debate on whether the effects of case alternation (e.g., tRaIn vs. train) have an early or late locus in the word-processing stream. Here we report a lexical decision experiment using a technique that taps the early stages of visual-word recognition (i.e., masked priming). In the design, uppercase targets could be preceded by an identity/unrelated prime that could be in lowercase or alternating case (e.g., table-TABLE vs. crash-TABLE; tAbLe-TABLE vs. cRaSh-TABLE). Results revealed that the lowercase and alternating case primes were equally effective at producing an identity priming effect. This finding demonstrates that case alternation does not hinder the initial access to the abstract lexical representations during visual-word recognition. PMID:26010560

  20. Multi-Stage System for Automatic Target Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas T.; Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Johnson, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feedforward back-propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and to remove false positives. The system parameter optimizations process has been developed to adapt to various targets and datasets. The objective was to design an efficient computer vision system that can learn to detect multiple targets in large images with unknown backgrounds. Because the target size is small relative to the image size in this problem, there are many regions of the image that could potentially contain the target. A cursory analysis of every region can be computationally efficient, but may yield too many false positives. On the other hand, a detailed analysis of every region can yield better results, but may be computationally inefficient. The multi-stage ATR system was designed to achieve an optimal balance between accuracy and computational efficiency by incorporating both models. The detection stage first identifies potential ROIs where the target may be present by performing a fast Fourier domain OT-MACH filter-based correlation. Because threshold for this stage is chosen with the goal of detecting all true positives, a number of false positives are also detected as ROIs. The verification stage then transforms the regions of interest into feature space, and eliminates false positives using an artificial neural network classifier. The multi-stage system allows tuning the detection sensitivity and the identification specificity individually in each stage. It is easier to achieve optimized ATR operation based on its specific goal. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar and video image datasets.

  1. Automatic Recognition of MSTAR Targets Using Radar Shadow and Superresolution Features

    E-print Network

    Brookes, Mike

    -set identification task using targets from the MSTAR database and show that it results in lower recognition errorAutomatic Recognition of MSTAR Targets Using Radar Shadow and Superresolution Features Jingjing Cui, Jon Gudnason and MikeBrookes Proc IEEE International Conf on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing

  2. Design and implementation of knowledge base for target recognition in remote sensing images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaobin Chen; Chao Cai; Erlang Li; Mingyue Ding

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the knowledge modeling, architecture design and detailed implementation of an ontology-based knowledge base for target recognition in remote sensing images is presented. Knowledge base is a critical component of a large ground target recognition system which is a hybrid system that combines knowledge base with remote sensing image processing module. The knowledge base provides necessary knowledge for

  3. Target detection and recognition improvements by use of spatiotemporal fusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Wen; Sutha, Surachai; Olson, Teresa

    2004-01-10

    We developed spatiotemporal fusion techniques for improving target detection and automatic target recognition. We also investigated real IR (infrared) sensor clutter noise. The sensor noise was collected by an IR (256 x 256) sensor looking at various scenes (trees, grass, roads, buildings, etc.). More than 95% of the sensor pixels showed near-stationary sensor clutter noise that was uncorrelated between pixels as well as across time frames. However, in a few pixels (covering the grass near the road) the sensor noise showed nonstationary properties (with increasing or decreasing mean across time frames). The natural noise extracted from the IR sensor, as well as the computer-generated noise with Gaussian and Rayleigh distributions, was used to test and compare different spatiotemporal fusion strategies. Finally, we proposed two advanced detection schemes: the double-thresholding the reverse-thresholding techniques. These techniques may be applied to complicated clutter situations (e.g., very-high clutter or nonstationary clutter situations) where the traditional constant-false-alarm-ratio technique may fail. PMID:14735959

  4. Improved automatic target recognition (ATR) value through enhancements and accommodations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Timothy D.; Goodwon, Lloyd C.

    2006-05-01

    There is a strong and growing need for automatic target recognition (ATR) technologies. Those technologies have made great strides; however, there is a general sense that they are not having the full impact desired. This paper develops a value-based framework for considering how ATR technology can be made more relevant and then introduces and expands on two elements within that framework: 'enhancements' and 'accommodations'. Value is used here as the degree to which a technology's benefits exceed the technology's costs. Value may be improved by increasing benefits or decreasing costs; but it may be as important that the uncertainty about benefits and costs be reduced. Enhancements and accommodations are distinguished here from the 'core ATR'. While it is generally appreciated that improved core ATR performance could improve value, enhancements and accommodations might be overlooked by those focused on ATRs. Enhancements are ways of making the overall system, inclusive of a core ATR, more capable. Accommodations are ways of making the problem easier for the core ATR. An example enhancement is technology to fuse the output of the core ATR with other sources. An example accommodation is for the user to agree to limit the target set to large, and therefore more easily recognized, objects. This paper encourages the consideration of this framework and outlines a number of candidates for enhancements and accommodations for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ATR, including humans-in-the-loop, change detection, fusion, modeling confusers, group detection, adaptive algorithms, class make-up, and scene-based decisions.

  5. Does viotin activate violin more than viocin? On the use of visual cues during visual-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Panadero, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of neural and computational models of visual-word recognition assume that lexical access is achieved via the activation of abstract letter identities. Thus, a word's overall shape should play no role in this process. In the present lexical decision experiment, we compared word-like pseudowords like viotín (same shape as its base word: violín) vs. viocín (different shape) in mature (college-aged skilled readers), immature (normally reading children), and immature/impaired (young readers with developmental dyslexia) word-recognition systems. Results revealed similar response times (and error rates) to consistent-shape and inconsistent-shape pseudowords for both adult skilled readers and normally reading children - this is consistent with current models of visual-word recognition. In contrast, young readers with developmental dyslexia made significantly more errors to viotín-like pseudowords than to viocín-like pseudowords. Thus, unlike normally reading children, young readers with developmental dyslexia are sensitive to a word's visual cues, presumably because of poor letter representations. PMID:23948388

  6. Tracking and recognition of airborne targets via commercial television and FM radio signals

    E-print Network

    Lanterman, Aaron

    the advantages of general multistatic radar systems; in particular, a target which may have a low radar cross reflectance of the particular target types, and the energy loss predicted by the radar equation nonlinear filters. Keywords: passive radar, target tracking, automatic target recognition, random sampling

  7. Conditional-mean estimation via jump-diffusion processes in multiple target tracking\\/recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Miller; A. Srivastava; U. Grenander

    1995-01-01

    A new algorithm is presented for generating the conditional mean estimates of functions of target positions, orientations and type in recognition, and tracking of an unknown number of targets and target types. Taking a Bayesian approach, a posterior measure is defined on the tracking\\/target parameter space by combining a narrowband sensor array manifold model with a high resolution imaging model,

  8. The Effects of Linguistic Context on Word Recognition in Noise by Elderly Listeners Using Spanish Sentence Lists (SSL).

    PubMed

    Cervera, Teresa; Rosell, Vicente

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the linguistic context on the recognition of words in noise in older listeners using the Spanish Sentence Lists. These sentences were developed based on the approach of the SPIN test for the English language, which contains high and low predictability (HP and LP) sentences. In addition, the relative contribution of peripheral hearing sensitivity, measured by pure-tone hearing thresholds (PTA), to the performance on both types of sentences was assessed in a regression analysis. The results showed that older listeners obtained benefits on word recognition from the linguistic context. PTA contributed significantly to explaining the variance in performance on both HP and LP sentences. PMID:25274285

  9. Effect of Schizophrenia on Frontotemporal Activity During Word Encoding and Recognition: A PET Cerebral Blood Flow Study

    PubMed Central

    Ragland, J. Daniel; Gur, Ruben C.; Raz, Jonathan; Schroeder, Lee; Kohler, Christian G.; Smith, Robin J.; Alavi, Abass; Gur, Raquel E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neuropsychological studies have shown that deficits in verbal episodic memory in schizophrenia occur primarily during encoding and retrieval stages of information processing. The current study used positron emission tomography to examine the effect of schizophrenia on change in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during these memory stages. Method CBF was measured in 23 healthy comparison subjects and 23 patients with schizophrenia during four conditions: resting baseline, motor baseline, word encoding, and word recognition. The motor baseline was used as a reference that was subtracted from encoding and recognition conditions by using statistical parametric mapping. Results Patients’ performance was similar to that of healthy comparison subjects. During word encoding, patients showed reduced activation of left prefrontal and superior temporal regions. Reduced left prefrontal activation in patients was also seen during word recognition, and additional differences were found in the left anterior cingulate, left mesial temporal lobe, and right thalamus. Although patients’ performance was similar to that of healthy comparison subjects, left inferior prefrontal activation was associated with better performance only in the comparison subjects. Conclusions Left frontotemporal activation during episodic encoding and retrieval, which is associated with better recognition in healthy people, is disrupted in schizophrenia despite relatively intact recognition performance and right prefrontal function. This may reflect impaired strategic use of semantic information to organize encoding and facilitate retrieval. PMID:11431234

  10. Lexical Neighborhood Density Effects on Spoken Word Recognition and Production in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Geoffrey P.; Steinmetz, Lauren G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of lexical competition and word frequency on spoken word recognition and production in healthy aging. Older (n = 16) and younger adults (n = 21) heard and repeated meaningful English sentences presented in the presence of multitalker babble at two signal-to-noise ratios, +10 and ?3 dB. Each sentence contained three keywords of high or low word frequency and phonological neighborhood density (ND). Both participant groups responded less accurately to high- than low-ND stimuli; response latencies (from stimulus offset to response onset) were longer for high- than low-ND sentences, whereas response durations—time from response onset to response offset—were longer for low- than high-ND stimuli. ND effects were strongest for older adults in the most difficult conditions, and ND effects in accuracy were related to inhibitory function. The results suggest that the sentence repetition task described here taps the effects of lexical competition in both perception and production and that these effects are similar across the life span, but that accuracy in the lexical discrimination process is affected by declining inhibitory function in older adults. PMID:20542997

  11. Strategies to Identify Recognition Signals and Targets of SUMOylation

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva-Ferrada, Elisa; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Lang, Valérie; Rodríguez, Manuel S.; Matthiesen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    SUMOylation contributes to the regulation of many essential cellular factors. Diverse techniques have been used to explore the functional consequences of protein SUMOylation. Most approaches consider the identification of sequences on substrates, adaptors, or receptors regulating the SUMO conjugation, recognition, or deconjugation. The large majority of the studied SUMOylated proteins contain the sequence [IVL]KxE. SUMOylated proteins are recognized by at least 3 types of hydrophobic SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) that contribute to coordinate SUMO-dependent functions. Typically, SIMs are constituted by a hydrophobic core flanked by one or two clusters of negatively charged amino acid residues. Multiple SIMs can integrate SUMO binding domains (SBDs), optimizing binding, and control over SUMO-dependent processes. Here, we present a survey of the methodologies used to study SUMO-regulated functions and provide guidelines for the identification of cis and trans sequences controlling SUMOylation. Furthermore, an integrative analysis of known and putative SUMO substrates illustrates an updated landscape of several SUMO-regulated events. The strategies and analysis presented here should contribute to the understanding of SUMO-controlled functions and provide rational approach to identify biomarkers or choose possible targets for intervention in processes where SUMOylation plays a critical role. PMID:22811915

  12. Statistical analysis of target language corpus for word sense disambiguation in a machine translation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tayebeh Mosavi

    This article studies different aspects of a new approach for word sense disambiguation using statistical information gains from a target language monolingual corpus. Here, the source language is English and the target one is Persian, and this disambiguation method in those aspects which gives desirable results can be directly applied in the system of English-to-Persian machine translation for solving lexical

  13. Visual and Acoustic Confusability of Target Letters and the Word Superiority Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Garvin; And Others

    The hypothesis that word context reduces visual rather than acoustic confusion between possible targets was tested in a series of experiments. All involved tachistoscopic presentation of letter strings followed by a pattern mask. Data from eight college students showed that target letters that are confusable only visually and acoustically ("b" and…

  14. Emotion effects during reading: Influence of an emotion target word on eye movements and processing.

    PubMed

    Knickerbocker, Hugh; Johnson, Rebecca L; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2015-08-01

    Recently, Scott, O'Donnell and Sereno reported that words of high valence and arousal are processed with greater ease than neutral words during sentence reading. However, this study unsystematically intermixed emotion (label a state of mind, e.g., terrified or happy) and emotion-laden words (refer to a concept that is associated with an emotional state, e.g., debt or marriage). We compared the eye-movement record while participants read sentences that contained a neutral target word (e.g., chair) or an emotion word (no emotion-laden words were included). Readers were able to process both positive (e.g., happy) and negative emotion words (e.g., distressed) faster than neutral words. This was true across a wide range of early (e.g., first fixation durations) and late (e.g., total times on the post-target region) measures. Additional analyses revealed that State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores interacted with the emotion effect and that the emotion effect was not due to arousal alone. PMID:25034443

  15. Spoken word recognition in early childhood: Comparative effects of vowel, consonant and lexical tone variation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Leher; Goh, Hwee Hwee; Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D

    2015-09-01

    The majority of the world's languages exploit consonants, vowels and lexical tones to contrast the meanings of individual words. However, the majority of experimental research on early language development focuses on consonant-vowel languages. In the present study, the role of consonants, vowels and lexical tones in emergent word knowledge are directly compared in toddlers (2.5-3.5years) and preschoolers (4-5years) who were bilingual native learners of a consonant-vowel-tone language (Mandarin Chinese). Using a preferential looking paradigm, participants were presented with correct pronunciations and consonantal, vowel, and tonal variations of known words. Responses to each type of variation were assessed via gaze fixations to a visual target. When their labels were correctly pronounced, visual targets were reliably identified at both age groups. However, in toddlers, there was a high degree of sensitivity to mispronunciations due to variation in lexical tones relative to those due to consonants and vowels. This pattern was reversed in preschoolers, who were more sensitive to consonant and vowel variation than to tone variation. Findings are discussed in terms of properties of tones, vowels and consonants and the respective role of each source of variation in tone languages. PMID:26010558

  16. Studying the grammatical aspects of word recognition: lexical priming, parsing, and syntactic ambiguity resolution.

    PubMed

    Novick, Jared M; Kim, Albert; Trueswell, John C

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments are reported examining the relationship between lexical and syntactic processing during language comprehension, combining techniques common to the on-line study of syntactic ambiguity resolution with priming techniques common to the study of lexical processing. By manipulating grammatical properties of lexical primes, we explore how lexically based knowledge is activated and guides combinatory sentence processing. Particularly, we find that nouns (like verbs, see Trueswell & Kim, 1998) can activate detailed lexically specific syntactic information and that these representations guide the resolution of relevant syntactic ambiguities pertaining to verb argument structure. These findings suggest that certain principles of knowledge representation common to theories of lexical knowledge--such as overlapping and distributed representations--also characterize grammatical knowledge. Additionally, observations from an auditory comprehension study suggest similar conclusions about the lexical nature of parsing in spoken language comprehension. They also suggest that thematic role and syntactic preferences are activated during word recognition and that both influence combinatory processing. PMID:12647563

  17. From Perception to Recognition Memory: Time Course and Lateralization of Neural Substrates of Word and Abstract Picture Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maillard, Louis; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Baumann, Cedric; Koessler, Laurent; Benar, Christian; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Through study of clinical cases with brain lesions as well as neuroimaging studies of cognitive processing of words and pictures, it has been established that material-specific hemispheric specialization exists. It remains however unclear whether such specialization holds true for all processes involved in complex tasks, such as recognition

  18. The Effects of Inter-Letter Spacing in Visual-Word Recognition: Evidence with Young Normal Readers and Developmental Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perea, Manuel; Panadero, Victoria; Moret-Tatay, Carmen; Gomez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that slight increases of inter-letter spacing have a positive impact on skilled readers' recognition of visually presented words. In the present study, we examined whether this effect generalises to young normal readers and readers with developmental dyslexia, and whether increased inter-letter spacing affects the…

  19. Morphological Structure Processing during Word Recognition and Its Relationship to Character Reading among Third-Grade Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Duo; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the characteristics of morphological structure processing during word recognition among third grade Chinese children and its possible relationship with Chinese character reading. By using the modified priming lexical decision paradigm, a significant morphological structure priming effect was found in the subject…

  20. Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

  1. On the use of a metric-space search algorithm (AESA) for fast DTW-based recognition of isolated words

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ENRIQUE VIDAL; HECTOR M. RULOT; FRANCISCO CASACUBERTA; J.-M. Benedi

    1988-01-01

    The approximating and eliminating search algorithm (AESA) presented was recently introduced for finding nearest neighbors in metric spaces. Although the AESA was originally developed for reducing the time complexity of dynamic time-warping isolated word recognition (DTW-IWR), only rather limited experiments had been previously carried out to check its performance in this task. A set of experiments aimed at filling this

  2. TwiNER: Named Entity Recognition in Targeted Twitter Chenliang Li

    E-print Network

    Aixin, Sun

    TwiNER: Named Entity Recognition in Targeted Twitter Stream Chenliang Li 1 , Jianshu Weng2 , Qi He and monitor targeted Twitter streams to collect and understand users' opinions about the organizations. Targeted Twitter stream is usually constructed by filtering tweets with user-defined selec- tion criteria

  3. Development of Multiresolution Hierarchical Trees to Non-cooperative Target Recognition

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    and the obtained performances are presented. Keywords-radar, target recognition, wavelet, clustering. I methods to decrease the size of high resolution data of radar targets. One way to compress these data.brousseau@univ-rennes1.fr Abstract--In this paper, problem of efficient representation of large database of target radar

  4. Rat-inspired Model of Robot Target Learning and Place Recognition

    E-print Network

    Weitzenfeld, Alfredo

    Rat-inspired Model of Robot Target Learning and Place Recognition Alejandra Barrera1 and Alfredo, Tampa, USA Abstract-- We present a model designed on the basis of the rat's brain neurophysiology learning and place recognition processes in rats as basis for topological map building and exploitation

  5. On the Limits of Target Recognition in the Presence of Atmospheric Effects

    E-print Network

    Schmid, Natalia A.

    On the Limits of Target Recognition in the Presence of Atmospheric Effects Xiaohan Chen and Natalia payload these networks are traditionally equipped with lightweight, low-cost sensors such as Electro and illumination effects. The recognition method is based on Bessel K forms. The dataset collected outdoors

  6. POMDP-based online target detection and recognition for autonomous UAVs

    E-print Network

    POMDP-based online target detection and recognition for autonomous UAVs Caroline P. Carvalho Chanel detection and recognition mission by an autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicule (UAV) mod- eled as a Partially-board the UAV to analyze objects in the scene. We also present our "optimize-while-execute" framework, which

  7. Gaussian process classification using automatic relevance determination for SAR target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangrong; Gou, Limin; Hou, Biao; Jiao, Licheng

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a Synthetic Aperture Radar Automatic Target Recognition approach based on Gaussian process (GP) classification is proposed. It adopts kernel principal component analysis to extract sample features and implements target recognition by using GP classification with automatic relevance determination (ARD) function. Compared with k-Nearest Neighbor, Naïve Bayes classifier and Support Vector Machine, GP with ARD has the advantage of automatic model selection and hyper-parameter optimization. The experiments on UCI datasets and MSTAR database show that our algorithm is self-tuning and has better recognition accuracy as well.

  8. Evaluating the developmental trajectory of the episodic buffer component of working memory and its relation to word recognition in children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shinmin; Allen, Richard J; Lee, Jun Ren; Hsieh, Chia-En

    2015-05-01

    The creation of temporary bound representation of information from different sources is one of the key abilities attributed to the episodic buffer component of working memory. Whereas the role of working memory in word learning has received substantial attention, very little is known about the link between the development of word recognition skills and the ability to bind information in the episodic buffer of working memory and how it may develop with age. This study examined the performance of Grade 2 children (8 years old), Grade 3 children (9 years old), and young adults on a task designed to measure their ability to bind visual and auditory-verbal information in working memory. Children's performance on this task significantly correlated with their word recognition skills even when chronological age, memory for individual elements, and other possible reading-related factors were taken into account. In addition, clear developmental trajectories were observed, with improvements in the ability to hold temporary bound information in working memory between Grades 2 and 3, and between the child and adult groups, that were independent from memory for the individual elements. These findings suggest that the capacity to temporarily bind novel auditory-verbal information to visual form in working memory is linked to the development of word recognition in children and improves with age. PMID:25725456

  9. Aerial target recognition using MRA, GVF snakes, and polygon approximation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen Z. Lu; Taiyi Zhang; Jian Xu

    2003-01-01

    The traditional method to extract target contour from aerial target image is changing the aerial image into a gray level image with multiple thresholds or binary image with single threshold. From the edge of target, contour can be extracted according to the changed value. The traditional method is useful only when contrast between target and background is in the proper

  10. Male Target ( ), CNC Words (10 Lists of 50 words each) 2x Female Masker ( ), IEEE Sentences

    E-print Network

    Litovsky, Ruth

    in children with normal hearing and with bilateral cochlear implants: Effect of interferer asymmetry", J threshold (SRT) when target and maskers are spatially separated. · Bilateral cochlear implant (CI) users. M43 Age at onset of hearing loss, bilateral cochlear implant experience and spatial release from

  11. I see/hear what you mean: semantic activation in visual word recognition depends on perceptual attention.

    PubMed

    Connell, Louise; Lynott, Dermot

    2014-04-01

    How does the meaning of a word affect how quickly we can recognize it? Accounts of visual word recognition allow semantic information to facilitate performance but have neglected the role of modality-specific perceptual attention in activating meaning. We predicted that modality-specific semantic information would differentially facilitate lexical decision and reading aloud, depending on how perceptual attention is implicitly directed by each task. Large-scale regression analyses showed the perceptual modalities involved in representing a word's referent concept influence how easily that word is recognized. Both lexical decision and reading-aloud tasks direct attention toward vision, and are faster and more accurate for strongly visual words. Reading aloud additionally directs attention toward audition and is faster and more accurate for strongly auditory words. Furthermore, the overall semantic effects are as large for reading aloud as lexical decision and are separable from age-of-acquisition effects. These findings suggest that implicitly directing perceptual attention toward a particular modality facilitates representing modality-specific perceptual information in the meaning of a word, which in turn contributes to the lexical decision or reading-aloud response. PMID:24099578

  12. Data and Decision Level Fusion of Temporal Information for Automatic Target Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kieron Messer; Josef Kittler

    2000-01-01

    Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) is a demanding application that re- quires separation of targets from a noisy background in a sequence of images. In our previous work (5) the background was adaptively described using two- dimensional filters designed by Principle Component Analysis on sampled two-dimensional image patches. Significant improvements in performance have been obtained by decision level fusion over time.

  13. Grey target theory based equipment condition monitoring and wear mode recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiwei Chen; Zhuguo Li; Qisheng Xu

    2006-01-01

    Grey target theory is a newly developed method in grey system theory. Calculating with grey target theory, pattern recognition, mode gradation and optimal mode selection can be performed. Oil samples from one auto press line and one 16V280ZJA diesel engine were analyzed by analytical ferrograph. For every wear particle in every analytical result, the size and quantity were quantified together.

  14. Physical Feature Encoding and Word Recognition Abilities Are Altered in Children with Intractable Epilepsy: Preliminary Neuromagnetic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pardos, Maria; Korostenskaja, Milena; Xiang, Jing; Fujiwara, Hisako; Lee, Ki H.; Horn, Paul S.; Byars, Anna; Vannest, Jennifer; Wang, Yingying; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective evaluation of language function is critical for children with intractable epilepsy under consideration for epilepsy surgery. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate word recognition in children with intractable epilepsy by using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Ten children with intractable epilepsy (M/F 6/4, mean ± SD 13.4 ± 2.2 years) were matched on age and sex to healthy controls. Common nouns were presented simultaneously from visual and auditory sensory inputs in “match” and “mismatch” conditions. Neuromagnetic responses M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 with latencies of ~100?ms, ~150?ms, ~250?ms, ~350?ms, and ~450?ms, respectively, elicited during the “match” condition were identified. Compared to healthy children, epilepsy patients had both significantly delayed latency of the M1 and reduced amplitudes of M3 and M5 responses. These results provide neurophysiologic evidence of altered word recognition in children with intractable epilepsy. PMID:26146459

  15. Spoken word recognition by Latino children learning Spanish as their first language*

    PubMed Central

    HURTADO, NEREYDA; MARCHMAN, VIRGINIA A.; FERNALD, ANNE

    2010-01-01

    Research on the development of efficiency in spoken language understanding has focused largely on middle-class children learning English. Here we extend this research to Spanish-learning children (n=49; M=2;0; range=1;3–3;1) living in the USA in Latino families from primarily low socioeconomic backgrounds. Children looked at pictures of familiar objects while listening to speech naming one of the objects. Analyses of eye movements revealed developmental increases in the efficiency of speech processing. Older children and children with larger vocabularies were more efficient at processing spoken language as it unfolds in real time, as previously documented with English learners. Children whose mothers had less education tended to be slower and less accurate than children of comparable age and vocabulary size whose mothers had more schooling, consistent with previous findings of slower rates of language learning in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. These results add to the cross-linguistic literature on the development of spoken word recognition and to the study of the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) factors on early language development. PMID:17542157

  16. Based on momentum method BP neural network in the target recognition research and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue-feng; Gao, Yu-bin

    2011-08-01

    Target recognition is measured by treating target existing knowledge to judge, analyze, and thus the process of target identification. Using anti-vibration lateral shearing interferometer to get the interference fringe for the spectrum information of measurement target, and the system can get the target by spectrum identification algorithm. By the condition that interferometer's length isn't changed, the system was optimized by momentum BP Neural Network algorithm in the separating mixed spectrum process, therefore it could improve the probability of camouflage target recognition. The spectrum information was calculated by the fringes, to getting the mixed spectrum data. The absorption spectrum was in the hidden layer, and the system obtained every kinds of characteristic spectrum from mixed spectrum by the momentum BP Neural Network. Experiments showed that it collected mixed spectrum of background form different distances and different surface, and made them to the initial spectrum information. The test target was a board that it's surface was made to four kinds, and there was no paint (A), brushing camouflage paint of military green (B), brushing camouflage paint of irregular shape (C) and brushing camouflage paint of irregular box (D). The mixed spectrum was obtained from the anti-vibration lateral shearing interferometer, while the recognition probability for non-camouflage target were above 90.0% by the traditional algorithm and the momentum BP neural network algorithm, but the recognition probability for camouflage target was 85.6% by momentum BP neural network algorithm, better than 41.5% by the traditional algorithm, so it proved that the algorithm could improve the recognition probability for camouflage target effectively.

  17. Time Course of Target Recognition in Visual Search

    PubMed Central

    Kotowicz, Andreas; Rutishauser, Ueli; Koch, Christof

    2009-01-01

    Visual search is a ubiquitous task of great importance: it allows us to quickly find the objects that we are looking for. During active search for an object (target), eye movements are made to different parts of the scene. Fixation locations are chosen based on a combination of information about the target and the visual input. At the end of a successful search, the eyes typically fixate on the target. But does this imply that target identification occurs while looking at it? The duration of a typical fixation (?170?ms) and neuronal latencies of both the oculomotor system and the visual stream indicate that there might not be enough time to do so. Previous studies have suggested the following solution to this dilemma: the target is identified extrafoveally and this event will trigger a saccade towards the target location. However this has not been experimentally verified. Here we test the hypothesis that subjects recognize the target before they look at it using a search display of oriented colored bars. Using a gaze-contingent real-time technique, we prematurely stopped search shortly after subjects fixated the target. Afterwards, we asked subjects to identify the target location. We find that subjects can identify the target location even when fixating on the target for less than 10?ms. Longer fixations on the target do not increase detection performance but increase confidence. In contrast, subjects cannot perform this task if they are not allowed to move their eyes. Thus, information about the target during conjunction search for colored oriented bars can, in some circumstances, be acquired at least one fixation ahead of reaching the target. The final fixation serves to increase confidence rather then performance, illustrating a distinct role of the final fixation for the subjective judgment of confidence rather than accuracy. PMID:20428512

  18. What is the cause of left hemisphere lateralization of English visual word recognition? Pre-existing language lateralization, or task characteristics?

    E-print Network

    Cottrell, Garrison W.

    bias. Through computational modeling, here we test the hypothesis that English word recognition, especially in the RH (e.g., Rossion et al., 2003). Neuropsychological data also suggest a link between RH

  19. Stimulus Onset Asynchrony and the Timeline of Word Recognition: Event-Related Potentials during Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dambacher, Michael; Dimigen, Olaf; Braun, Mario; Wille, Kristin; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    Three ERP experiments examined the effect of word presentation rate (i.e., stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA) on the time course of word frequency and predictability effects in sentence reading. In Experiments 1 and 2, sentences were presented word-by-word in the screen center at an SOA of 700 and 490ms, respectively. While these rates are typical…

  20. MODELING CHARACTERS VERSUS WORDS FOR MANDARIN SPEECH RECOGNITION Jun Luo, Lori Lamel, Jean-Luc Gauvain

    E-print Network

    or word delimiters, a word segmentation algorithm is applied in a pre-processing step prior to training are not delimited by blank spaces. A word seg- mentation algorithm is therefore required, and is applied in pre-processing of word language models for Chinese is therefore highly dependent on this text pre-processing pro- cedure

  1. Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Muses on the power of words and how they shape people's lives. Relates stories from the author's life illustrating this, and relates the author's (a writer of novels for children and young adults) struggles and rewards as she works with words. (SR)

  2. Morphological structure processing during word recognition and its relationship to character reading among third-grade chinese children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Duo; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we explored the characteristics of morphological structure processing during word recognition among third grade Chinese children and its possible relationship with Chinese character reading. By using the modified priming lexical decision paradigm, a significant morphological structure priming effect was found in the subject analysis when reaction time difference was considered as dependent variable. In the regression analyses, the children's implicit morphological structure processing demonstrated a significant effect on Chinese character reading, even though its effect became non-significant when morphological awareness was entered. We achieved this result after controlling for the children's age, non-verbal intelligence, and phonological awareness. These findings indicate that third grade Chinese children are sensitive to morphological structure information in the processing of compound words. Moreover, such sensitivity is, to some extent, a good predictor of Chinese children's word reading performance. PMID:24218054

  3. Characterization and recognition of radar targets using multiscale edges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ismail Jouny

    1993-01-01

    A method for characterizing radar signatures using the wavelet transform is developed based on the principle of scattering centers. Scattering features represented as multiscale edges can be identified based on their Lipshitz regularity coefficients. The extracted features are directly related to target geometry and can be used for target identification. The denoising algorithm developed by S. Mallet el al. (IEE

  4. Words

    E-print Network

    Mellor, David Hugh

    1978-01-01

    to sell or a worthy cause to promote. The product might be a paint stripper, the cause might be racial harmony. So, I write a television advert for the product, and perhaps an anti-National-Front play for the cause. In each case I realise that the merits... of common words jargon, and so, wrong? Common words are not sacrosanct, after all. I've been talking about how philosophers - and others - may need to extend, refine or alter the meanings of common words, either to cope with new discoveries or to help weed...

  5. The Processing of Consonants and Vowels during Letter Identity and Letter Position Assignment in Visual-Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Marin, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that there is a processing distinction between consonants and vowels in visual-word recognition. Here we conjointly examine the time course of consonants and vowels in processes of letter identity and letter position assignment. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in…

  6. Charting the Functional Relevance of Broca's Area for Visual Word Recognition and Picture Naming in Dutch Using fMRI-Guided TMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheat, Katherine L.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Sack, Alexander T.; Schuhmann, Teresa; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has shown pseudohomophone priming effects at Broca's area (specifically pars opercularis of left inferior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus; LIFGpo/PCG) within [approximately]100 ms of viewing a word. This is consistent with Broca's area involvement in fast phonological access during visual word recognition. Here we…

  7. Superconducting gravity gradiometers for underground target recognition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaans, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most formidable intelligence challenges existing in the non-proliferation community is the detection of buried targets. The physical parameter that all buried targets share, whether the target is buried armaments, a tunnel or a bunker, is mass. In the case of buried armaments, there is an excess mass (higher density) compared to the surrounding area; for a tunnel or bunker, the mass is missing. In either case, this difference in mass generates a distinct gravitational signature. The Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer project at Sandia worked toward developing an airborne device for the detection of these underground structures.

  8. 1 Real-time Sign Language Letter and Word Recognition from Depth Data -Supplemental Material

    E-print Network

    Gall, Juergen

    similar due to the low resolution of the depth sensor. 2 #12;1.2 Tested Words and Lexicon of Known Words bone book boot bottle bottom box boy brain brake branch brass bravo bread breath brick bridge bright

  9. Advances in Doppler recognition for ground moving target indication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kealey, Paul G.; Jahangir, Mohammed

    2006-05-01

    Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) radar provides a day/night, all-weather, wide-area surveillance capability to detect moving vehicles and personnel. Current GMTI radar sensors are limited to only detecting and tracking targets. The exploitation of GMTI data would be greatly enhanced by a capability to recognize accurately the detections as significant classes of target. Doppler classification exploits the differential internal motion of targets, e.g. due to the tracks, limbs and rotors. Recently, the QinetiQ Bayesian Doppler classifier has been extended to include a helicopter class in addition to wheeled, tracked and personnel classes. This paper presents the performance for these four classes using a traditional low-resolution GMTI surveillance waveform with an experimental radar system. We have determined the utility of an "unknown output decision" for enhancing the accuracy of the declared target classes. A confidence method has been derived, using a threshold of the difference in certainties, to assign uncertain classifications into an "unknown class". The trade-off between fraction of targets declared and accuracy of the classifier has been measured. To determine the operating envelope of a Doppler classification algorithm requires a detailed understanding of the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) performance of the algorithm. In this study the SNR dependence of the QinetiQ classifier has been determined.

  10. Encoding Specificity: Retrieval in the Recognition Failure Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartling, Carl A.; Thompson, Charles P.

    1977-01-01

    The paradigm producing recognition failure of recallable words was investigated in a series of three experiments. Results indicate that retrieval asymmetry: (a) exists in the recognition failure paradigm directly following list study, (b) increases significantly following a free-association task aimed at generation of the target words from the…

  11. A Word Graph Based N-Best Search in Continuous Speech Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bach-Hiep Tran; Frank Seide; Volker Steinbiss

    1996-01-01

    The authors introduce an efficient algorithm for the exhaustive search of N-best sentence hypotheses in a word graph. The search procedure is based on a two-pass algorithm. In the first pass, a word graph is constructed with standard time-synchronous beam search. The actual extraction of N-best word sequences from the word graph takes place during the second pass. With the

  12. An ERP investigation of the co-development of hemispheric lateralization of face and word recognition

    E-print Network

    Plaut, David C.

    : Hemispheric specialization Lateralization Face processing Word processing Event-related potentials a b s t r for the visual processing of words and faces. Extensive evidence has demonstrated greater selectivity for written and seemingly independent neural systems for the visual processing of words and faces. Extensive evidence has

  13. Effect of prior knowledge of the stimulus on word-recognition processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Norman Haber

    1965-01-01

    Giving S knowledge of the stimulus word immediately prior to its exposure increased the probability of S being able to perceive all of the letters of the word (p < .001). While a difference in probability of perception of the letters was found for rare as compared to frequent words (p < .001), this difference completely disappeared when S had

  14. Cross-Language Effects in Written Word Recognition: The Case of Bilingual Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, multiple studies have shown that the languages of a bilingual interact during processing. We investigated sign activation as deaf children read words. In a word-picture verification task, we manipulated the underlying sign equivalents. We presented children with word-picture pairs for which the sign translation equivalents varied…

  15. Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith

    2010-01-01

    This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…

  16. Word Recognition and Vocabulary Understanding Strategies for Literacy Success. Bill Harp Professional Teachers Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Richard

    This book lets readers see how children and youth learn words in the oral and written languages--and how teachers can best assist learners in the understanding, reading, and writing of words for successful literacy development. In the book teachers learn the differing rationales for using sound/symbol or phonics approaches in word learning, for…

  17. Early Morphological Effects in Word Recognition in Hebrew: Evidence from Parafoveal Preview Benefit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram; Pollatsek, Alexander; Rayner, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Hebrew words are composed of two interwoven morphemes: a triconsonantal root and a word pattern. Two experiments examined the effect of the root morpheme on word identification by assessing parafoveal preview benefit effects. Although the information of the preview was not consciously perceived, preview of the root's letters facilitated both…

  18. Performance of an optimum receiver designed for pattern recognition with nonoverlapping target and scene noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, Bahram; Fazlollahi, Amir; Willett, Peter; Réfrégier, Philippe

    1995-07-01

    The design of an optimum receiver for pattern recognition is based on multiple-alternative hypothesis testing with unknown parameters for detecting and locating a noisy target or a noise-free target in scene noise that is spatially nonoverlapping with this target. The optimum receiver designed for a noise-free target has the interesting property of detecting, without error, a noise-free target that has unknown illumination by using operations that are independent of the scene-noise statistics. We investigate the performance of the optimum receiver designed for nonoverlapping target and scene noise in terms of rotation and scale sensitivity of the input targets and discrimination against similar objects. Because it is not possible in practical systems to have a completely noise-free target, we examine how the performance of the optimum receiver designed for a noise-free target is affected when there is some overlapping noise on the target. The application of the optimum receiver to binary character recognition is described. Computer simulation results are provided.

  19. Perception and recognition memory of words and werds: Two-way mirror effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Vaughn Becker; Stephen D. Goldinger; Gregory O. Stone

    2006-01-01

    We examined associative priming of words (e.g., toad) and pseudohomophones of those words (e.g., tode) in lexical decision.\\u000a In addition to word frequency effects, reliable base-word frequency effects were observed for pseudohomophones: Those based\\u000a on high-frequency words elicited faster and more accurate correct rejections. Associative priming had disparate effects on\\u000a high- and low-frequency items. Whereas priming improved performance to high-frequency

  20. In situ recognition of cell-surface glycans and targeted imaging of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-Ding; Cheng, Han; Chen, Wei-Hai; Cheng, Si-Xue; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent sensors capable of recognizing cancer-associated glycans, such as sialyl Lewis X (sLex) tetrasaccharide, have great potential for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Studies on water-soluble and biocompatible sensors for in situ recognition of cancer-associated glycans in live cells and targeted imaging of cancer cells are very limited at present. Here we report boronic acid-functionalized peptide-based fluorescent sensors (BPFSs) for in situ recognition and differentiation of cancer-associated glycans, as well as targeted imaging of cancer cells. By screening BPFSs with different structures, it was demonstrated that BPFS1 with a FRGDF peptide could recognize cell-surface glycan of sLex with high specificity and thereafter fluorescently label and discriminate cancer cells through the cooperation with the specific recognition between RGD and integrins. The newly developed peptide-based sensor will find great potential as a fluorescent probe for cancer diagnosis. PMID:24042097

  1. Physiological Basis for Conservation of the Signal Recognition Particle Targeting Pathway in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HARRIS D. BERNSTEIN; JANINE B. HYNDMAN

    2001-01-01

    The Escherichia coli signal recognition particle (SRP) is a ribonucleoprotein complex that targets nascent inner membrane proteins (IMPs) to transport sites in the inner membrane (IM). Since SRP depletion only partially inhibits IMP insertion under some growth conditions, however, it is not clear why the particle is absolutely essential for viability. Insights into this question emerged from experiments in which

  2. A Multiagent Swarming System for Distributed Automatic Target Recognition Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prithviraj Dasgupta

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, automatic target recognition (ATR) has emerged as an essential image analysis tool to identify objects from temporally and spatially disjoint possibly noisy image data. For many current applications, ATR is performed by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that fly within a reconnaissance area to collect image data through sensors and upload the data to a central

  3. JOINT VIEW-IDENTITY MANIFOLD FOR TARGET TRACKING AND RECOGNITION Jiulu Gong

    E-print Network

    Havlicek, Joebob

    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, USA § ABSTRACT A new joint view-identityJOINT VIEW-IDENTITY MANIFOLD FOR TARGET TRACKING AND RECOGNITION Jiulu Gong , Guoliang Fan , Liangjiang Yu , Joseph P. Havlicek § and Derong Chen . School of Mechatronical Engineering, Beijing

  4. Joint View-Identity Manifold for Infrared Target Tracking and Recognition

    E-print Network

    Fan, Guoliang

    Joint View-Identity Manifold for Infrared Target Tracking and Recognition Jiulu Gonga,b , Guoliang Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, China b School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, USA c School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, USA

  5. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  6. Word Frequency and the Attentional Blink: The Effects of Target Difficulty on Retrieval and Consolidation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Wierda, Stefan M.; Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Martens, Sander

    2013-01-01

    Background When a second target (T2) is presented in close succession of a first target (T1) within a stream of non-targets, people often fail to detect T2–a deficit known as the attentional blink (AB). Two types of theories can be distinguished that have tried to account for this phenomenon. Whereas attentional-control theories suggest that protection of consolidation processes induces the AB, limited-resource theories claim that the AB is caused by a lack of resources. According to the latter type of theories, increasing difficulty of one or both targets should increase the magnitude of the AB. Similarly, attentional-control theories predict that a difficult T1 increases the AB due to prolonged processing. However, the prediction for T2 is not as straightforward. Prolonged processing of T2 could cause conflicts and increase the AB. However, if consolidation of T2 is postponed without loss of identity, the AB might be attenuated. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants performed an AB task that consisted of a stream of distractor non-words and two target words. Difficulty of T1 and T2 was manipulated by varying word-frequency. Overall performance for high-frequency words was better than for low-frequency words. When T1 was highly frequent, the AB was reduced. The opposite effect was found for T2. When T2 was highly frequent, performance during the AB period was relatively worse than for a low-frequency T2. A threaded-cognition model of the AB was presented that simulated the observed pattern of behavior by taking changes in the time-course of retrieval and consolidation processes into account. Our results were replicated in a subsequent ERP study. Conclusions/Significance The finding that a difficult low-frequency T2 reduces the magnitude of the AB is at odds with limited-resource accounts of the AB. However, it was successfully accounted for by the threaded-cognition model, thus providing an explanation in terms of attentional control. PMID:24019921

  7. Ship target recognition using low resolution radar and neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Inggs; A. D. Robinson

    1999-01-01

    The classification of ship targets using low resolution down-range radar profiles together with preprocessing and neural networks is investigated. An implementation of the Fourier-modified discrete Mellin transform is used as a means for extracting features which are insensitive to the aspect angle of the radar. Kohonen's self-organizing map with learning vector quantization (LVQ) is used for the classification of these

  8. Brn3a target gene recognition in embryonic sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Jason; Quina, Lely A.; Eng, S. Raisa; Cox, Eric; Turner, Eric E.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous transcription factors have been identified which have profound effects on developing neurons. A fundamental problem is to identify genes downstream of these factors and order them in developmental pathways. We have previously identified 85 genes with changed expression in the trigeminal ganglia of mice lacking Brn3a, a transcription factor encoded by the Pou4f1 gene. Here we use locus-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation in embryonic trigeminal neurons to show that Brn3a is a direct repressor of two of these downstream genes, NeuroD1 and NeuroD4, and also directly modulates its own expression. Comparison of Brn3a binding to the Pou4f1 locus in vitro and in vivo reveals that not all high affinity sites are occupied, and several Brn3a binding sites identified in the promoters of genes that are silent in sensory ganglia are also not occupied in vivo. Site occupancy by Brn3a can be correlated with evolutionary conservation of the genomic regions containing the recognition sites and also with histone modifications found in regions of chromatin active in transcription and gene regulation, suggesting that Brn3a binding is highly context-dependent. PMID:17196582

  9. Molecular Recognition in the Case of Flexible Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ivetac, Anthony; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    A protein’s flexibility is well recognized to underlie its capacity to engage in critical functions, such as signal transduction, biomolecular transport and biochemical reactivity. Molecular recognition is also tightly linked to the dynamics of the binding partners, yet protein flexibility has largely been ignored by the growing field of structure-based drug design (SBDD). In combination with experimentally determined structures, a number of computational methods have been proposed to model protein movements, which may be important for small molecule binding. Such techniques have the ability to expose new binding site conformations, which may in turn recognize and lead to the discovery of more potent and selective drugs through molecular docking. In this article, we discuss various methods and focus on the Relaxed Complex Scheme (RCS), which uses Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to model full protein flexibility and enhance virtual screening programmes. We review practical applications of the RCS and use a recent study of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase to illustrate the various phases of the scheme. We also discuss some encouraging developments, aimed at addressing current weaknesses of the RCS. PMID:21619526

  10. Hybrid optoelectronic correlator architecture for shift-invariant target recognition.

    PubMed

    Monjur, Mehjabin Sultana; Tseng, Shih; Tripathi, Renu; Donoghue, John James; Shahriar, M S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present theoretical details and the underlying architecture of a hybrid optoelectronic correlator (HOC) that correlates images using spatial light modulators (SLMs), detector arrays, and field programmable gate array (FPGA). The proposed architecture bypasses the need for nonlinear materials such as photorefractive polymer films by using detectors instead, and the phase information is yet conserved by the interference of plane waves with the images. However, the output of such an HOC has four terms: two convolution signals and two cross-correlation signals. By implementing a phase stabilization and scanning circuit, the convolution terms can be eliminated, so that the behavior of an HOC becomes essentially identical to that of a conventional holographic correlator (CHC). To achieve the ultimate speed of such a correlator, we also propose an integrated graphic processing unit, which would perform all the electrical processes in a parallel manner. The HOC architecture along with the phase stabilization technique would thus be as good as a CHC, capable of high-speed image recognition in a translation-invariant manner. PMID:24561938

  11. Brain-potential analysis of visual word recognition in dyslexics and typically reading children

    PubMed Central

    Fraga González, Gorka; Žari?, Gojko; Tijms, Jurgen; Bonte, Milene; Blomert, Leo; van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2014-01-01

    The specialization of visual brain areas for fast processing of printed words plays an important role in the acquisition of reading skills. Dysregulation of these areas may be among the deficits underlying developmental dyslexia. The present study examines the specificity of word activation in dyslexic children in 3rd grade by comparing early components of brain potentials elicited by visually presented words vs. strings of meaningless letter-like symbols. Results showed a more pronounced N1 component for words compared to symbols for both groups. The dyslexic group revealed larger left-lateralized, word-specific N1 responses than the typically reading group. Furthermore, positive correlations between N1 amplitudes and reading fluency were found in the dyslexic group. Our results support the notion of N1 as a sensitive index of visual word processing involved in reading fluency. PMID:25071507

  12. fMRI Evidence for Dual Routes to the Mental Lexicon in Visual Word Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian J. Fiebach; Angela D. Friederici; D. Yves von Cramon

    2002-01-01

    & Event-related fMRI was used to investigate lexical decisions to words of high and low frequency of occurrence and to pseudowords. The results obtained strongly support dual-route models of visual word processing. By contrasting words with pseudowords,bilateral occipito-temporal brain areas and posterior left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) were identified as contributing to the successful mapping of orthographic percepts onto visual

  13. Automatic modeling for adding new words to a large-vocabulary continuous speech recognition system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayman Asadi; Richard Schwartz; J. Makhoul

    1991-01-01

    The authors report on the detection of new words for the speaker-dependent and speaker-independent paradigms. A useful operating point in a speaker-dependent paradigm is defined at 71% detection rate and 1% false alarm rate. The authors present a novel technique for obtaining a phonetic transcription for a new word, which is needed to add the new word to the system.

  14. Lip-Reading Aids Word Recognition Most in Moderate Noise: A Bayesian Explanation Using High-Dimensional Feature Space

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lars A.; Foxe, John J.; Parra, Lucas C.

    2009-01-01

    Watching a speaker's facial movements can dramatically enhance our ability to comprehend words, especially in noisy environments. From a general doctrine of combining information from different sensory modalities (the principle of inverse effectiveness), one would expect that the visual signals would be most effective at the highest levels of auditory noise. In contrast, we find, in accord with a recent paper, that visual information improves performance more at intermediate levels of auditory noise than at the highest levels, and we show that a novel visual stimulus containing only temporal information does the same. We present a Bayesian model of optimal cue integration that can explain these conflicts. In this model, words are regarded as points in a multidimensional space and word recognition is a probabilistic inference process. When the dimensionality of the feature space is low, the Bayesian model predicts inverse effectiveness; when the dimensionality is high, the enhancement is maximal at intermediate auditory noise levels. When the auditory and visual stimuli differ slightly in high noise, the model makes a counterintuitive prediction: as sound quality increases, the proportion of reported words corresponding to the visual stimulus should first increase and then decrease. We confirm this prediction in a behavioral experiment. We conclude that auditory-visual speech perception obeys the same notion of optimality previously observed only for simple multisensory stimuli. PMID:19259259

  15. Regulating the on-surface LNA probe density for the highest target recognition efficiency.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sourav; Ghosh, Srabani; Mukhopadhyay, Rupa

    2014-09-01

    The recent emergence of on-surface LNA-based assays as potentially better alternatives over DNA-based approaches, due to enhanced sensitivity and target specificity, raises the need for the precise identification of the factors that control the performance of these assays. In this work, we investigated whether the probe density of fully modified ssLNA probes on the gold(111) surface could influence the target recognition capacity of the LNA sensing layer and illustrated simple means to control it, primarily by adjusting the salt concentration, nature of the cation, and pH of the immobilization buffer. It was observed that monovalent Na(+) could more effectively control the sensor probe density compared to bivalent Mg(2+), leading to better target recognition. Interestingly, unlike in the case of ssDNA sensor probes, the target recognition efficiency of the LNA layer at the optimum probe density was found to be almost spacer-independent, probably due to the rigidity of the LNA backbone. The optimized LNA sensor layer could discriminate single base mismatches, detect a minimum target DNA concentration of 5 nM, and sense a significant level of hybridization within a time scale of a few minutes. To our knowledge, for the first time, we identify the factors that control the on-surface LNA probe density for maximizing the performance of the LNA sensing layer. PMID:25105454

  16. OPPORTUNITIES FOR RE-CONVERGENCE OF ENGINEERING AND COGNITIVE SCIENCE ACCOUNTS OF SPOKEN WORD RECOGNITION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Huckvale

    1998-01-01

    As users are only too aware, contemporary large vocabulary speech recognition systems do not respond to speech in the same way as humans. The dictation systems that are in use today are very sensitive to disfluencies, restarts, background noise and change of speaker or voice quality. Furthermore the recognition mistakes they make seem to be very different to the ones

  17. Wake-up-word speech recognition application for first responder communication enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    Speech Recognition systems, historically, have proven to be cumbersome and insufficiently accurate for a range of applications. The ultimate goal of our proposed technology is to fundamentally change the way current Speech Recognition (SR) systems interact with humans and develop an application that is extremely hardware efficient. Accurate SR and reasonable hardware requirements will afford the average first responder officer,

  18. Inherently electroactive graphene oxide nanoplatelets as labels for specific protein-target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Bonanni, Alessandra; Pumera, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Graphene related materials have been widely employed as highly efficient transducers for biorecognition. Here we show a conceptually new approach of using graphene oxide nanoplatelets (50 × 50 nm) as voltammetric inherently active labels for specific protein-target molecule recognition. This proof-of-principle is demonstrated by biotin-avidin recognition, which displays that graphene oxide nanoplatelet labels show excellent selectivity. Therefore, it is expected that inherently electroactive graphene oxide nanoplatelet labels will play a similar role as electroactive gold nanoparticle labels which were developed more than a decade ago.

  19. An evaluation of endpoint detection measures for malay speech recognition of an isolated words

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noraini Seman; Zainab Abu Bakar; Nordin Abu Bakar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the endpoint detection approaches specifically for an isolated word uses Malay spoken speeches from Malaysian Parliamentary session. Currently, there are 34,466 vocabularies of utterances in the database collection and for the purpose of this study; the vocabulary is limited to 25 words which are most frequently spoken selected from ten speakers. Endpoint detection, which aims to distinguish

  20. Morphological Decomposition in the Recognition of Prefixed and Suffixed Words: Evidence from Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Say Young; Wang, Min; Taft, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Korean has visually salient syllable units that are often mapped onto either prefixes or suffixes in derived words. In addition, prefixed and suffixed words may be processed differently given a left-to-right parsing procedure and the need to resolve morphemic ambiguity in prefixes in Korean. To test this hypothesis, four experiments using the…

  1. The Mechanisms Underlying the Interhemispheric Integration of Information in Foveal Word Recognition: Evidence for Transcortical Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Haegen, Lise; Brysbaert, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Words are processed as units. This is not as evident as it seems, given the division of the human cerebral cortex in two hemispheres and the partial decussation of the optic tract. In two experiments, we investigated what underlies the unity of foveally presented words: A bilateral projection of visual input in foveal vision, or interhemispheric…

  2. Revisiting Age-of-Acquisition Effects in Spanish Visual Word Recognition: The Role of Item Imageability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Cuetos, Fernando; Davies, Rob; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Word age-of-acquisition (AoA) affects reading. The mapping hypothesis predicts AoA effects when input--output mappings are arbitrary. In Spanish, the orthography-to-phonology mappings required for word naming are consistent; therefore, no AoA effects are expected. Nevertheless, AoA effects have been found, motivating the present investigation of…

  3. The Role of Orthographic Neighborhood Size Effects in Chinese Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Meng-Feng; Lin, Wei-Chun; Chou, Tai-Li; Yang, Fu-Ling; Wu, Jei-Tun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the orthographic neighborhood size (NS) in Chinese have overlooked the morphological processing, and the co-variation between the character frequency and the the NS. The present study manipulated the word frequency and the NS simultaneously, with the leading character frequency controlled, to explore their influences on word

  4. Acquired Affective Associations Induce Emotion Effects in Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Nathalie; Kuchinke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how contextual learning and in particular emotionality conditioning impacts the neural processing of words, as possible key factors for the acquisition of words' emotional connotation. 21 participants learned on five consecutive days associations between meaningless pseudowords and unpleasant or neutral pictures using an…

  5. Further Analysis of Picture Interference when Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittlinger, Laura Harper; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that pairing pictures with associated words when teaching sight-word reading may hinder acquisition (e.g., Didden, Prinsen, & Sigafoos, 2000; Singh & Solman, 1990; Solman & Singh, 1992). The purpose of the current study was to determine whether this phenomenon was due to a previously learned association between the…

  6. See before You Jump: Full Recognition of Parafoveal Words Precedes Skips during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Peter C.; Plummer, Patrick; Choi, Wonil

    2013-01-01

    Serial attention models of eye-movement control during reading were evaluated in an eye-tracking experiment that examined how lexical activation combines with visual information in the parafovea to affect word skipping (where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading). Lexical activation was manipulated by repetition priming created through…

  7. a Recognition Method for Airplane Targets Using 3d Point Cloud Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M.; Tang, L.-L.; Li, C.-R.; Peng, Z.; Li, J.-M.

    2012-07-01

    LiDAR is capable of obtaining three dimension coordinates of the terrain and targets directly and is widely applied in digital city, emergent disaster mitigation and environment monitoring. Especially because of its ability of penetrating the low density vegetation and canopy, LiDAR technique has superior advantages in hidden and camouflaged targets detection and recognition. Based on the multi-echo data of LiDAR, and combining the invariant moment theory, this paper presents a recognition method for classic airplanes (even hidden targets mainly under the cover of canopy) using KD-Tree segmented point cloud data. The proposed algorithm firstly uses KD-tree to organize and manage point cloud data, and makes use of the clustering method to segment objects, and then the prior knowledge and invariant recognition moment are utilized to recognise airplanes. The outcomes of this test verified the practicality and feasibility of the method derived in this paper. And these could be applied in target measuring and modelling of subsequent data processing.

  8. Effective connectivity of brain regions related to visual word recognition: An fMRI study of Chinese reading.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Fox, Peter T; Tan, Li Hai

    2015-07-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have focused on identifying specialized functional brain systems for processing different components of reading, such as orthography, phonology, and semantics. More recently, a few experiments have been performed to look into the integration and interaction of distributed neural systems for visual word recognition, suggesting that lexical processing in alphabetic languages involves both ventral and dorsal neural pathways originating from the visual cortex. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we tested the multiple pathways model with Chinese character stimuli and examined how the neural systems interacted in reading Chinese. Using dynamic causal modeling, we demonstrated that visual word recognition in Chinese engages the ventral pathway from the visual cortex to the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, but not the dorsal pathway from the visual cortex to the left parietal region. The ventral pathway, however, is linked to the superior parietal lobule and the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) so that a dynamic neural network is formed, with information flowing from the visual cortex to the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex to the parietal lobule and then to the left MFG. The findings suggest that cortical dynamics is constrained by the differences in how visual orthographic symbols in writing systems are linked to spoken language. Hum Brain Mapp 36:2580-2591, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25788100

  9. A biological cortex like target recognition and tracking in cluttered background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitiridis, Aristeidis; Yuen, Peter; Hong, Kan; Chen, Tong; Kam, Firmin; Jackman, James; James, David; Richardson, Mark

    2009-09-01

    This paper reports how objects in street scenes, such as pedestrians and cars, can be spotted, recognised and then subsequently tracked in cluttered background using a cortex like vision approach. Unlike the conventional pixel based machine vision, tracking is achieved by recognition of the target implemented in neuromorphic ways. In this preliminary study the region of interest (ROI) of the image is spotted according to the salience and relevance of the scene and subsequently target recognition and tracking of the object in the ROI have been performed using a mixture of feed forward cortex like neuromorphic algorithms together with statistical classifier & tracker. Object recognitions for four categories (bike, people, car & background) using only one set of ventral visual like features have achieved a max of ~70% accuracy and the present system is quite effective for tracking prominent objects relatively independent of background types. The extension of the present achievement to improve the recognition accuracy as well as the identification of occluded objects from a crowd formulates the next stage of work.

  10. CTLs respond with activation and granule secretion when serving as targets for T-cell recognition.

    PubMed

    Milstein, Oren; Hagin, David; Lask, Assaf; Reich-Zeliger, Shlomit; Shezen, Elias; Ophir, Eran; Eidelstein, Yaki; Afik, Ran; Antebi, Yaron E; Dustin, Michael L; Reisner, Yair

    2011-01-20

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) suppress T cell responses directed against their antigens regardless of their own T cell receptor (TCR) specificity. This makes the use of CTLs promising for tolerance induction in autoimmunity and transplantation. It has been established that binding of the CTL CD8 molecule to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I ?3 domain of the recognizing T cell must be permitted for death of the latter cell to ensue. However, the signaling events triggered in the CTL by this molecular interaction in the absence of TCR recognition have never been clarified. Here we use single-cell imaging to study the events occurring in CTLs serving as targets for recognition by specific T cells. We demonstrate that CTLs actively respond to recognition by polarizing their cytotoxic granules to the contact area, releasing their lethal cargo, and vigorously proliferating. Using CTLs from perforin knockout (KO) mice and lymphocyte specific kinase (Lck) knockdown with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), we show that the killing of the recognizing CD8 T cell is perforin dependent and is initiated by Lck signaling in the CTL. Collectively, these data suggest a novel mechanism in which the entire cascade generally triggered by TCR engagement is "hijacked" in CTLs serving as targets for T cell recognition without TCR ligation. PMID:21045195

  11. Quantum Pattern Recognition of Classical Signal

    E-print Network

    Chao-Yang Pang; Cong-Bao Ding; Ben-Qiong Hu

    2007-09-04

    It's the key research topic of signal processing that recognizing genuine targets real time from the disturbed signal which has giant amount of data. A quantum algorithm for pattern recognition of classical signal which has time complexity O(sqrt(N)) is presented in this paper. Key Words: Pattern recognition, Grover's algorithm, Rotation on subspace

  12. Mapping orthographic and phonological neighborhood density effects in visual word recognition in two distinct orthographies

    E-print Network

    Chen, Hsin-Chin

    2009-05-15

    density1 was first proposed by Landauer and Streeter (1973). Coltheart, et al. (1977) defined it as the number of words 1 The effect of neighborhood density was originally called neighborhood size effect (Coltheart, Davelaar, Jonasson, & Besner...

  13. Integrated approach for automatic target recognition using a network of collaborative sensors.

    PubMed

    Mahalanobis, Abhijit; Van Nevel, Alan

    2006-10-01

    We introduce what is believed to be a novel concept by which several sensors with automatic target recognition (ATR) capability collaborate to recognize objects. Such an approach would be suitable for netted systems in which the sensors and platforms can coordinate to optimize end-to-end performance. We use correlation filtering techniques to facilitate the development of the concept, although other ATR algorithms may be easily substituted. Essentially, a self-configuring geometry of netted platforms is proposed that positions the sensors optimally with respect to each other, and takes into account the interactions among the sensor, the recognition algorithms, and the classes of the objects to be recognized. We show how such a paradigm optimizes overall performance, and illustrate the collaborative ATR scheme for recognizing targets in synthetic aperture radar imagery by using viewing position as a sensor parameter. PMID:16983426

  14. High-resolution crystal structure reveals molecular details of target recognition by bacitracin.

    PubMed

    Economou, Nicoleta J; Cocklin, Simon; Loll, Patrick J

    2013-08-27

    Bacitracin is a metalloantibiotic agent that is widely used as a medicine and feed additive. It interferes with bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis by binding undecaprenyl-pyrophosphate, a lipid carrier that serves as a critical intermediate in cell wall production. Despite bacitracin's broad use, the molecular details of its target recognition have not been elucidated. Here we report a crystal structure for the ternary complex of bacitracin A, zinc, and a geranyl-pyrophosphate ligand at a resolution of 1.1 Å. The antibiotic forms a compact structure that completely envelopes the ligand's pyrophosphate group, together with flanking zinc and sodium ions. The complex adopts a highly amphipathic conformation that offers clues to antibiotic function in the context of bacterial membranes. Bacitracin's efficient sequestration of its target represents a previously unseen mode for the recognition of lipid pyrophosphates, and suggests new directions for the design of next-generation antimicrobial agents. PMID:23940351

  15. Morphological shared-weight networks with applications to automatic target recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yonggwan Won; Paul D. Gader; Patrick C. Coffield

    1997-01-01

    A shared-weight neural network based on mathematical morphology is introduced. The feature extraction process is learned by interaction with the classification process. Feature extraction is performed using gray-scale hit-miss transforms that are independent of gray-level shifts. The morphological shared-weight neural network (MSNN) is applied to automatic target recognition. Two sets of images of outdoor scenes are considered. The first set

  16. Classification on the monogenic scale space: application to target recognition in SAR image.

    PubMed

    Ganggang Dong; Gangyao Kuang

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduces a novel classification strategy based on the monogenic scale space for target recognition in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image. The proposed method exploits monogenic signal theory, a multidimensional generalization of the analytic signal, to capture the characteristics of SAR image, e.g., broad spectral information and simultaneous spatial localization. The components derived from the monogenic signal at different scales are then applied into a recently developed framework, sparse representation-based classification (SRC). Moreover, to deal with the data set, whose target classes are not linearly separable, the classification via kernel combination is proposed, where the multiple components of the monogenic signal are jointly considered into a unifying framework for target recognition. The novelty of this paper comes from: the development of monogenic feature via uniformly downsampling, normalization, and concatenation of the components at various scales; the development of score-level fusion for SRCs; and the development of composite kernel learning for classification. In particular, the comparative experimental studies under nonliteral operating conditions, e.g., structural modifications, random noise corruption, and variations in depression angle, are performed. The comparative experimental studies of various algorithms, including the linear support vector machine and the kernel version, the SRC and the variants, kernel SRC, kernel linear representation, and sparse representation of monogenic signal, are performed too. The feasibility of the proposed method has been successfully verified using Moving and Stationary Target Acquiration and Recognition database. The experimental results demonstrate that significant improvement for recognition accuracy can be achieved by the proposed method in comparison with the baseline algorithms. PMID:25872212

  17. Multicolor and dual-band IR camera for missile warning and automatic target recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Breiter; Wolfgang A. Cabanski; Karl-Heinz Mauk; Werner Rode; Johann Ziegler; Harald Schneider; Martin Walther

    2002-01-01

    For applications like missile warning and automatic target recognition, AIM is presently launching its new 3rd generation high speed dual-color module. The focal plane array (FPA) is a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) 192x192 56micrometers pitch device in a dual-color mid wave (MWIR) design. The module provides spectral selection with temporal and spatial coincidence for both colors using a new AIM

  18. ARTMAP neural networks for information fusion and data mining: map production and target recognition methodologies.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Olga; Carpenter, Gail A

    2003-09-01

    The Sensor Exploitation Group of MIT Lincoln Laboratory incorporated an early version of the ARTMAP neural network as the recognition engine of a hierarchical system for fusion and data mining of registered geospatial images. The Lincoln Lab system has been successfully fielded, but is limited to target/non-target identifications and does not produce whole maps. Procedures defined here extend these capabilities by means of a mapping method that learns to identify and distribute arbitrarily many target classes. This new spatial data mining system is designed particularly to cope with the highly skewed class distributions of typical mapping problems. Specification of canonical algorithms and a benchmark testbed has enabled the evaluation of candidate recognition networks as well as pre- and post-processing and feature selection options. The resulting mapping methodology sets a standard for a variety of spatial data mining tasks. In particular, training pixels are drawn from a region that is spatially distinct from the mapped region, which could feature an output class mix that is substantially different from that of the training set. The system recognition component, default ARTMAP, with its fully specified set of canonical parameter values, has become the a priori system of choice among this family of neural networks for a wide variety of applications. PMID:14692640

  19. RNA-guided complex from a bacterial immune system enhances target recognition through seed sequence interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wiedenheft, Blake; van Duijn, Esther; Bultema, Jelle B.; Waghmare, Sakharam P.; Zhou, Kaihong; Barendregt, Arjan; Westphal, Wiebke; Heck, Albert J. R.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Dickman, Mark J.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Prokaryotes have evolved multiple versions of an RNA-guided adaptive immune system that targets foreign nucleic acids. In each case, transcripts derived from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are thought to selectively target invading phage and plasmids in a sequence-specific process involving a variable cassette of CRISPR-associated (cas) genes. The CRISPR locus in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA14) includes four cas genes that are unique to and conserved in microorganisms harboring the Csy-type (CRISPR system yersinia) immune system. Here we show that the Csy proteins (Csy1–4) assemble into a 350 kDa ribonucleoprotein complex that facilitates target recognition by enhancing sequence-specific hybridization between the CRISPR RNA and complementary target sequences. Target recognition is enthalpically driven and localized to a “seed sequence” at the 5? end of the CRISPR RNA spacer. Structural analysis of the complex by small-angle X-ray scattering and single particle electron microscopy reveals a crescent-shaped particle that bears striking resemblance to the architecture of a large CRISPR-associated complex from Escherichia coli, termed Cascade. Although similarity between these two complexes is not evident at the sequence level, their unequal subunit stoichiometry and quaternary architecture reveal conserved structural features that may be common among diverse CRISPR-mediated defense systems. PMID:21536913

  20. Lipids Trigger a Conformational Switch That Regulates Signal Recognition Particle (SRP)-mediated Protein Targeting*

    PubMed Central

    Stjepanovic, Goran; Kapp, Katja; Bange, Gert; Graf, Christian; Parlitz, Richard; Wild, Klemens; Mayer, Matthias P.; Sinning, Irmgard

    2011-01-01

    Co-translational protein targeting to the membrane is mediated by the signal recognition particle and its receptor (FtsY). Their homologous GTPase domains interact at the membrane and form a heterodimer in which both GTPases are activated. The prerequisite for protein targeting is the interaction of FtsY with phospholipids. However, the mechanism of FtsY regulation by phospholipids remained unclear. Here we show that the N terminus of FtsY (A domain) is natively unfolded in solution and define the complete membrane-targeting sequence. We show that the membrane-targeting sequence is highly dynamic in solution, independent of nucleotides and directly responds to the density of anionic phospholipids by a random coil-helix transition. This conformational switch is essential for tethering FtsY to membranes and activates the GTPase for its subsequent interaction with the signal recognition particle. Our results underline the dynamics of lipid-protein interactions and their importance in the regulation of protein targeting and translocation across biological membranes. PMID:21543314

  1. Lipids trigger a conformational switch that regulates signal recognition particle (SRP)-mediated protein targeting.

    PubMed

    Stjepanovic, Goran; Kapp, Katja; Bange, Gert; Graf, Christian; Parlitz, Richard; Wild, Klemens; Mayer, Matthias P; Sinning, Irmgard

    2011-07-01

    Co-translational protein targeting to the membrane is mediated by the signal recognition particle and its receptor (FtsY). Their homologous GTPase domains interact at the membrane and form a heterodimer in which both GTPases are activated. The prerequisite for protein targeting is the interaction of FtsY with phospholipids. However, the mechanism of FtsY regulation by phospholipids remained unclear. Here we show that the N terminus of FtsY (A domain) is natively unfolded in solution and define the complete membrane-targeting sequence. We show that the membrane-targeting sequence is highly dynamic in solution, independent of nucleotides and directly responds to the density of anionic phospholipids by a random coil-helix transition. This conformational switch is essential for tethering FtsY to membranes and activates the GTPase for its subsequent interaction with the signal recognition particle. Our results underline the dynamics of lipid-protein interactions and their importance in the regulation of protein targeting and translocation across biological membranes. PMID:21543314

  2. Neuronal Spoken Word Recognition: The Time Course of Processing Variation in the Speech Signal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schild, Ulrike; Roder, Brigitte; Friedrich, Claudia K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent neurobiological studies revealed evidence for lexical representations that are not specified for the coronal place of articulation (PLACE; Friedrich, Eulitz, & Lahiri, 2006; Friedrich, Lahiri, & Eulitz, 2008). Here we tested when these types of underspecified representations influence neuronal speech recognition. In a unimodal…

  3. A Theory of Multiple Classifier Systems And Its Application to Visual Word Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tin Kam Ho

    1992-01-01

    Despite the success of many pattern recognition systems in constrained domains,problems that involve noisy input and many classes remain difficult. A promisingdirection is to use several classifiers simultaneously, such that they can complementeach other in correctness. This thesis is concerned with decision combination in amultiple classifier system that is critical to its success.A multiple classifier system consists of a set

  4. Potential therapeutic targets in the process of nucleic acid recognition: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    He, Shaoheng; Mao, Xiaoquan; Sun, Hongzhi; Shirakawa, Taro; Zhang, Huiyun; Wang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid recognition or sensing (NAS) is accepted as a fundamental function in the host defense against self or foreign genetic elements. Abnormal recognition or interpretation of microbial-origin pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) can lead to infections or autoimmune diseases (ADs). Modulation of the NAS process represents a path toward the development of novel vaccines or drugs, through targets such as myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 3 and 6 in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling pathways. DNA helicases can be targeted by arresting replication and the breakage of DNA double strands. Stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) may act as a therapeutic target by upregulation of the STING-dependent pathway or vaccination with cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS)-catalyzed reaction products. Several challenges are faced before and during clinical therapy. NAS can be an important breakthrough for molecular targets and therapies. The specificity of drug delivery, potential of long-term genotoxicity, risk of tumorigenesis, duration of drug efficacy, and drug metabolism should be further validated. PMID:25479797

  5. Hybrid optoelectronic joint transform correlator for the recognition of targets in cluttered scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wensheng; Chen, Yu; Liang, Cuiping; Miao, Hua

    2005-01-01

    Hybrid optoelectronic joint transform correlator (HOJTC), exploiting the Fourier transform property of a lens, implements target detection in real time. Adaptive nonlinear digital filtering in the joint transform power spectrum (JTPS) plane improves the immunity against the noise and clutter. In this paper, electrically addressed liquid crystal devices (EALCD) are used as the space light modulators (SLM), Charge Coupled Device (CCD) matrix camera as the square law detector and Ar+ laser as the light source. We develop the hybrid optoelectronic joint transform correlator controlled by computers, which can successfully detect and recognize the target in cluttered scenes in real time. The speed rate of the recognition is 25 frames per second. As the experiment examples, the target recognition of a tank and a car in cluttered scenes is presented. The experiments show that the intensity of cross-correlation peaks after adaptive nonlinear digital filtering is increased greatly, the performance of the joint transform correlator is improved, and it can detect the distorted and noisy targets in cluttered scenes in real time. It was found that using wavelet filter in frequency domain is a very effective way to suppress clutter noise while maintaining high tolerance for distortion.

  6. How vocabulary size in two languages relates to efficiency in spoken word recognition by young Spanish-English bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda

    2010-01-01

    Research using online comprehension measures with monolingual children shows that speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition are correlated with lexical development. Here we examined speech processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary development in bilingual children learning both Spanish and English (n=26; 2;6 yrs). Between-language associations were weak: vocabulary size in Spanish was uncorrelated with vocabulary in English, and children’s facility in online comprehension in Spanish was unrelated to their facility in English. Instead, efficiency of online processing in one language was significantly related to vocabulary size in that language, after controlling for processing speed and vocabulary size in the other language. These links between efficiency of lexical access and vocabulary knowledge in bilinguals parallel those previously reported for Spanish and English monolinguals, suggesting that children’s ability to abstract information from the input in building a working lexicon relates fundamentally to mechanisms underlying the construction of language. PMID:19726000

  7. ERP index of the morphological family size effect during word recognition.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Youan; Nam, Kichun; Lee, Yoonhyoung

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the N400 is affected by the semantic richness of associated neighboring word members or by the density of the orthographic syllable neighborhood. Another purpose of this study was to investigate the source of the different LPC in respect to the semantic richness. To do so, the density of the syllable neighborhood and the size of the morphological family of a word were orthogonally manipulated. ERPs from 24 participants were collected during a go/no-go semantic categorization task. The results showed that the N400 effect was mainly influenced by the density of the syllable neighborhood rather than by the morphological family size. The results also showed that words with a larger morphological family size generate significantly larger LPC than words with a smaller morphological family size. The present study did not support the assumption that the main source of the N400 effect is the semantic richness of the associated neighbors. The present results suggest that the N400 is more sensitive to the density of the syllable neighborhood and LPC is sensitive to the density of the semantic neighborhood reflected by the morphological family size. PMID:23036281

  8. Effects of Supplemental Small Group Phonics Instruction on Kindergartners' Word Recognition Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Joseph, Laurice M.; Kunesh, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a phonics supplemental small group instructional approach for improving kindergartners' word reading skills. Six kindergarten students from one primary school were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Each group participated in a phonics condition as well as a control condition. Data were examined using…

  9. Semantic transparency in free stems: The effect of Orthography-Semantics Consistency on word recognition.

    PubMed

    Marelli, Marco; Amenta, Simona; Crepaldi, Davide

    2014-10-01

    A largely overlooked side effect in most studies of morphological priming is a consistent main effect of semantic transparency across priming conditions. That is, participants are faster at recognizing stems from transparent sets (e.g., farm) in comparison to stems from opaque sets (e.g., fruit), regardless of the preceding primes. This suggests that semantic transparency may also be consistently associated with some property of the stem word. We propose that this property might be traced back to the consistency, throughout the lexicon, between the orthographic form of a word and its meaning, here named Orthography-Semantics Consistency (OSC), and that an imbalance in OSC scores might explain the "stem transparency" effect. We exploited distributional semantic models to quantitatively characterize OSC, and tested its effect on visual word identification relying on large-scale data taken from the British Lexicon Project (BLP). Results indicated that (a) the "stem transparency" effect is solid and reliable, insofar as it holds in BLP lexical decision times (Experiment 1); (b) an imbalance in terms of OSC can account for it (Experiment 2); and (c) more generally, OSC explains variance in a large item sample from the BLP, proving to be an effective predictor in visual word access (Experiment 3). PMID:25269473

  10. Continuous speech recognition results of the BYBLOS system on the DARPA 1000-word resource management database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Kubala; Y. Chow; A. Derr; M. Feng; O. Kimball; J. Makhoul; P. Price; J. Rohlicek; S. Roucos; R. Schwartz; J. Vandegrift

    1988-01-01

    The system was trained in a speaker dependent mode on 28 minutes of speech from each of 8 speakers, and was tested on independent test material for each speaker. The system was tested with three artificial grammars spanning a broad perplexity range. The average performance of the system measured in percent word error was: 1.4% for a pattern grammar of

  11. Word Recognition and Basic Cognitive Processes among Reading-Disabled and Normal Readers in Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Share, David; Mansour, Maysaloon Said

    2003-01-01

    Investigates word identification in Arabic and basic cognitive processes in reading-disabled (RD) and normal level readers of the same chronological age, and in younger normal readers at the same reading level. Indicates significant deficiencies in morphology, working memory, and syntactic and visual processing, with the most severe deficiencies…

  12. Visual Constraints in Written Word Recognition: Evidence from the Optimal Viewing-Position Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brysbaert, Marc; Nazir, Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we review the literature on visual constraints in written word processing. We notice that not all letters are equally visible to the reader. The letter that is most visible is the letter that is fixated. The visibility of the other letters depends on the distance between the letters and the fixation location, whether the letters are…

  13. Effects of Frequency on Visual Word Recognition Tasks: Where Are They?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Monsell; M. C. Doyle; P. N. Haggard

    1989-01-01

    Compared the effect of frequency on lexical decision time (LDT) with that on reaction time (RT) in four other tasks, for the same words and subjects. Exp. 1 yielded an effect on semantic categorization RT (person vs. thing) similar in size and form to the effect on LDT. Exp. 2 yielded a substantial effect for syntactic categorization (noun vs. adjective),

  14. The role of perceptual integration in the recognition of assimilated word forms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Mitterer; Valéria Csépe; Leo Blomert

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how spoken words are recognized when they have been altered by phonological assimilation. Previous research has shown that there is a process of perceptual compensation for phonological assimilations. Three recently formulated proposals regarding the mechanisms for compensation for assimilation make different predictions with regard to the level at which compensation is supposed to occur as well as regarding

  15. Estimating Word-Stability During Incremental Speech Recognition Ian McGraw1

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    , e.g. [4], and is now appearing in com- mercial applications. Since version 2.2, Android has included a type-by-voice feature. In version 4.0, Android's latest release, incremental results allow users related, these two measures are clearly different. It is easy to imagine a word in a partial ut- terance

  16. The Role of Orthographic Syllable Structure in Assigning Letters to Their Position in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Marcus; Krebs-Lazendic, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    The way in which letters are assigned their position when recognizing a visually presented word was examined in three experiments using nonwords created by transposing the two medial consonants of a bisyllabic baseword (e.g., "nakpin," "semron"). The difficulty in responding to such "TL" nonwords in a lexical decision task was shown to be lower…

  17. Teaching Word Recognition to Young Children Who Are at Risk Using Microsoft[R] Powerpoint[TM] Coupled with Direct Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Boeckmann, Nichole M.; Watts, Emily H.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on use of Microsoft[R] PowerPoint[TM] paired with direct instruction (DI) to teach word recognition to young children at risk. DI has been a widely used teaching method for over 40 years, and is often used to teach emergent literacy skills. Recent DI research with preschoolers at risk has suggested the potential for using…

  18. Effects of An Integrated Format for Reading Instruction on the Comprehension and Word-Recognition Performance of Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Students Who Exhibit Severe Reading Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmer, Lavada Jacumin; Thames, Dana G.; Kazelskis, Richard

    A study examined the effectiveness of an integrated language arts instructional format for teaching reading compared with the effectiveness of the typical traditional reading program. The study investigated the effectiveness of approaches that are representative of both viewpoints of the reading process (i.e., word recognition and the construction…

  19. Sublexical Properties of Spoken Words Modulate Activity in Broca's Area but Not Superior Temporal Cortex: Implications for Models of Speech Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth I. Vaden; Tepring Piquado; Gregory Hickok

    2011-01-01

    Many models of spoken word recognition posit that the acoustic stream is parsed into phoneme level units, which in turn activate larger representations [McClelland, J. L., & Elman, J. L. The TRACE model of speech perception. Cognitive Psychology, 18, 1–86, 1986], whereas others suggest that larger units of analysis are activated without the need for segmental mediation [Greenberg, S. A

  20. The Modulation of Visual and Task Characteristics of a Writing System on Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Recognition--A Computational Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Janet H.; Lam, Sze Man

    2013-01-01

    Through computational modeling, here we examine whether visual and task characteristics of writing systems alone can account for lateralization differences in visual word recognition between different languages without assuming influence from left hemisphere (LH) lateralized language processes. We apply a hemispheric processing model of face…

  1. Extraction of Linguistic Information from Successive Words during Reading: Evidence for Spatially Distributed Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chin-An; Inhoff, Albrecht W.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether word recognition progressed from one word to the next during reading, as maintained by sequential attention shift models such as the E-Z Reader model. The boundary technique was used to control the visibility of to-be-identified short target words, so that they were either previewed in the parafovea or masked. The…

  2. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY. A Cas9-guide RNA complex preorganized for target DNA recognition.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fuguo; Zhou, Kaihong; Ma, Linlin; Gressel, Saskia; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2015-06-26

    Bacterial adaptive immunity uses CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-associated (Cas) proteins together with CRISPR transcripts for foreign DNA degradation. In type II CRISPR-Cas systems, activation of Cas9 endonuclease for DNA recognition upon guide RNA binding occurs by an unknown mechanism. Crystal structures of Cas9 bound to single-guide RNA reveal a conformation distinct from both the apo and DNA-bound states, in which the 10-nucleotide RNA "seed" sequence required for initial DNA interrogation is preordered in an A-form conformation. This segment of the guide RNA is essential for Cas9 to form a DNA recognition-competent structure that is poised to engage double-stranded DNA target sequences. We construe this as convergent evolution of a "seed" mechanism reminiscent of that used by Argonaute proteins during RNA interference in eukaryotes. PMID:26113724

  3. Pose recognition of articulated target based on ladar range image with elastic shape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng-Jun; Li, Qi; Wang, Qi

    2014-10-01

    Elastic shape analysis is introduced for pose recognition of articulated target which is based on small samples of ladar range images. Shape deformations caused by poses changes represented as closed elastic curves given by the square-root velocity function geodesics are used to quantify shape differences and the Karcher mean is used to build a model library. Three kinds of moments - Hu moment invariants, affine moment invariants, and Zernike moment invariants based on support vector machines (SVMs) - are applied to evaluate this approach. The experiment results show that no matter what the azimuth angles of the testing samples are, this approach is capable of achieving a high recognition rate using only 3 model samples with different carrier to noise ratios (CNR); the performance of this approach is much better than that of three kinds of moments based on SVM, especially under high noise conditions.

  4. Forward-looking infrared target recognition based on histograms of oriented gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Wenwu

    2011-11-01

    This paper analyzes the difference between the imaging mechanism of the infrared images and that of the visible light images, and find that it is important to extract the stable and reliable common feature for object recognition. Then we propose a target recognition algorithm based on histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) which evaluates normalized local histograms of image gradient orientations in a dense grid. Last we adopt linear SVM trained for a binary object/non-object classifier and detect the object in the forward-looking infrared (FLIR) images. The experiment results suggest that the proposed approach has high rates of detection. Furthermore, we study how to select positive and negative samples for a better performance.

  5. Signal processing, sensor fusion, and target recognition; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 20-22, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libby, Vibeke; Kadar, Ivan

    Consideration is given to a multiordered mapping technique for target prioritization, a neural network approach to multiple-target-tracking problems, a multisensor fusion algorithm for multitarget multibackground classification, deconvolutiom of multiple images of the same object, neural networks and genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization of sensor data fusion, classification of atmospheric acoustic signals from fixed-wing aircraft, and an optics approach to sensor fusion for target recognition. Also treated are a zoom lens for automatic target recognition, a hybrid model for the analysis of radar sensors, an innovative test bed for developing and assessing air-to-air noncooperative target identification algorithms, SAR imagery scene segmentation using fractal processing, sonar feature-based bandwidth compression, laboratory experiments for a new sonar system, computational algorithms for discrete transform using fixed-size filter matrices, and pattern recognition for power systems.

  6. Semantic similarity influences early morphological priming in Serbian: A challenge to form-then-meaning accounts of word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kosti?, Aleksandar; Gvozdenovi?, Vasilije; O'Connor, Patrick A.; Martín, Fermín Moscoso del Prado

    2013-01-01

    Semantically similar (e.g., coolant-COOL) primes produced greater facilitation than did form similar, semantically dissimilar (e.g., rampant-RAMP) primes when English words appeared in the forward masked primed lexical decision task (Feldman, O'Connor & Moscoso del Prado Martín, 2009). Results challenge claims that form-based semantically blind activation underlies early morphological facilitation. Some have argued that those English materials were not ideally constructed insofar as types of spelling changes to affixed stems in semantically similar and dissimilar pairs differed. The present study exploits Serbian's bialphabetism, rich morphology, and homographic (form-identical) stems to replicate early effects of semantic similarity. Further, it incorporates a within-target manipulation of prime type and of alphabet such that alphabet of prime-target pairs matched in Exp.1a and alternated in Exp.1b. Importantly, no letter or phoneme changes occurred between stems of prime and target. Results reveal significant effects of semantic similarity that are comparable with and without alphabet alternation. Semantic effects in Serbian replicate almost exactly those in English (Feldman et al., 2009) and suggest that even early in the course of processing, morphemes are units of meaning as well as form. Results fail to support models of lexical processing that postulate sequential access to the morphological form and then the semantic aspects of words. PMID:22477336

  7. Form–meaning links in the development of visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Nation, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Learning to read takes time and it requires explicit instruction. Three decades of research has taught us a good deal about how children learn about the links between orthography and phonology during word reading development. However, we have learned less about the links that children build between orthographic form and meaning. This is surprising given that the goal of reading development must be for children to develop an orthographic system that allows meanings to be accessed quickly, reliably and efficiently from orthography. This review considers whether meaning-related information is used when children read words aloud, and asks what we know about how and when children make connections between form and meaning during the course of reading development. PMID:19933139

  8. Feature and conjunction effects in recognition memory: Toward specifying familiarity for compound words

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd C. Jones; Alan S. Brown; Paul Atchley

    2007-01-01

    In three experiments, we evaluated potential sources of familiarity in the production of feature and conjunction errors with\\u000a both word (Experiments 1 and 3) and nonword (Experiment 2) stimuli and related this work to various dual-process models of\\u000a memory. The contributions of letter, syllable, lexical morpheme, and conceptual information were considered. Lexical morpheme\\u000a information was consistently more potent than syllable

  9. Automatic recognition of multi-word terms: the C-value\\/NC-value method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katerina T. Frantzi; Sophia Ananiadou; Hideki Mima

    2000-01-01

    .   Technical terms (henceforth called terms ), are important elements for digital libraries. In this paper we present a domain-independent\\u000a method for the automatic extraction of multi-word terms, from machine-readable special language corpora. The method, (C-value\\/NC-value\\u000a ), combines linguistic and statistical information. The first part, C-value, enhances the common statistical measure of frequency\\u000a of occurrence for term extraction, making it

  10. Role for the Propofol Hydroxyl in Anesthetic Protein Target Molecular Recognition.

    PubMed

    Woll, Kellie A; Weiser, Brian P; Liang, Qiansheng; Meng, Tao; McKinstry-Wu, Andrew; Pinch, Benika; Dailey, William P; Gao, Wei Dong; Covarrubias, Manuel; Eckenhoff, Roderic G

    2015-06-17

    Propofol is a widely used intravenous general anesthetic. We synthesized 2-fluoro-1,3-diisopropylbenzene, a compound that we call "fropofol", to directly assess the significance of the propofol 1-hydroxyl for pharmacologically relevant molecular recognition in vitro and for anesthetic efficacy in vivo. Compared to propofol, fropofol had a similar molecular volume and only a small increase in hydrophobicity. Isothermal titration calorimetry and competition assays revealed that fropofol had higher affinity for a protein site governed largely by van der Waals interactions. Within another protein model containing hydrogen bond interactions, propofol demonstrated higher affinity. In vivo, fropofol demonstrated no anesthetic efficacy, but at high concentrations produced excitatory activity in tadpoles and mice; fropofol also antagonized propofol-induced hypnosis. In a propofol protein target that contributes to hypnosis, ?1?2?2L GABAA receptors, fropofol demonstrated no significant effect alone or on propofol positive allosteric modulation of the ion channel, suggesting an additional requirement for the 1-hydroxyl within synaptic GABAA receptor site(s). However, fropofol caused similar adverse cardiovascular effects as propofol by a dose-dependent depression of myocardial contractility. Our results directly implicate the propofol 1-hydroxyl as contributing to molecular recognition within protein targets leading to hypnosis, but not necessarily within protein targets leading to side effects of the drug. PMID:25799399

  11. Recognition and analysis of aircraft targets by radar, using structural pattern representations derived from polarimetric signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Neil Frederick

    Automatic recognition of aircraft by means of radar signals is examined. In particular, the problem of utilizing polarimetric information from the monostatic, wideband, scattering matrix to target classification and analysis is considered. The approach taken is to effect a decomposition of the target in terms of its predominant scattering centers and their polarimetric properties. This polarimetric target model is based on a new formalism for the description of the vector behavior of wideband electromagnetic planewaves, called transient polarization. The transient polarization response of a radar object is a 3-dimensional, time-dependent electric field locus. Conceptually, this signature can be envisioned as the result of transmitting a short circularly polarized pulse toward the object. Transient polarization states are expressed as a 3-tuple of time-dependent polarimetric parameters: amplitude, ellipticity, and tilt. Scattering centers are identified by the peaks in the amplitude. The polarimetric parameters of canonical targets, simplified aircraft target combinations, and scaled model commercial airliners are analyzed. The performance of radar target identification systems employing polarimetric features is evaluated by means of Monte-Carlo simulation studies. Both decision-theoretic and language-theoretic techniques are used for this purpose. A target is represented as a string of polarimetrically-related symbols, and is classified using syntactic methods. Target classification simulations show that polarimetric pattern representations extracted from transient polarization responses may be used for reliable and flexible target classification. In addition, the polarimetric techniques developed may be used as a tool for concise characterization and analysis of time-domain electromagnetic scattering.

  12. Automatic target recognition using a feature-based optical neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1992-01-01

    An optical neural network based upon the Neocognitron paradigm (K. Fukushima et al. 1983) is introduced. A novel aspect of the architectural design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by iteratively feeding back the output of the feature correlator to the input spatial light modulator and updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intra-class fault tolerance and inter-class discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstration of a two-layer neural network for space objects discrimination is also presented.

  13. Vigilante: Ultrafast Smart Sensor for Target Recognition and Precision Tracking in a Simulated CMD Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uldomkesmalee, Suraphol; Suddarth, Steven C.

    1997-01-01

    VIGILANTE is an ultrafast smart sensor testbed for generic Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) applications with a series of capability demonstration focussed on cruise missile defense (CMD). VIGILANTE's sensor/processor architecture is based on next-generation UV/visible/IR sensors and a tera-operations per second sugar-cube processor, as well as supporting airborne vehicle. Excellent results of efficient ATR methodologies that use an eigenvectors/neural network combination and feature-based precision tracking have been demonstrated in the laboratory environment.

  14. Effects of extended camera baseline and image magnification on target detection time and target recognition with a stereoscopic TV system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spain, E. H.

    1986-02-01

    Accomplishments of the first year of a two-year investigation of remote presence with a stereoscopic TV display are summarized. A dual-channel video recording and playback system was constructed, consisting of a synchronized pair of optical video disk recorders under computer control, used to record stereoscopic still video frame-pairs in the field and play them back in a controlled laboratory environment for visual performance data collection. Three experiments were conducted to assess the independent effects of camera interaxial separation, image magnification, and their simultaneous interaction on target detection and recognition. The results of these experiments suggested that both image magnification and increases in camera interaxial separation are useful strategies for enhancing visual performance. The interaction of these two factors did not disrupt performance. Recommendations are made for the conduct of subsequent studies and for the design of stereo TV displays for terrestrial reconnaissance applications.

  15. Increase in Speech Recognition Due to Linguistic Mismatch between Target and Masker Speech: Monolingual and Simultaneous Bilingual Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Zhou, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether improved speech recognition during linguistically mismatched target-masker experiments is due to linguistic unfamiliarity of the masker speech or linguistic dissimilarity between the target and masker speech. Method: Monolingual English speakers (n = 20) and English-Greek simultaneous bilinguals (n = 20) listened to…

  16. Factors Affecting Open-Set Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Laura K.; Finley, Charles C.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Timothy A.; Brenner, Christine; Potts, Lisa G.; Gotter, Brenda D.; Vanderhoof, Sallie S.; Mispagel, Karen; Heydebrand, Gitry; Skinner, Margaret W.

    2012-01-01

    A monosyllabic word test was administered to 114 postlingually-deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients at numerous intervals from two weeks to two years post-initial CI activation. Biographic/audiologic information, electrode position, and cognitive ability were examined to determine factors affecting CI outcomes. Results revealed that Duration of Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss, Age at Implantation, CI Sound-field Threshold Levels, Percentage of Electrodes in Scala Vestibuli, Medio-lateral Electrode Position, Insertion Depth, and Cognition were among the factors that affected performance. Knowledge of how factors affect performance can influence counseling, device fitting, and rehabilitation for patients and may contribute to improved device design. PMID:23348845

  17. Pattern recognition of the targets with help of polarization properties of the signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; de Rivera, Luis N.; Castellanos, Aldo B.; Popov, Anatoly V.

    1999-10-01

    We proposed to use the possibility of recognition of the targets on background of the scattering from the surface, weather objects with the help of polarimetric 3-cm radar. It has been investigated such polarization characteristics: the amplitudes of the polarization matrix elements; an anisotropy coefficient; depolarization coefficient; asymmetry coefficient; the energy section was less than 1 dB at ranges up to 15 km and less than 1.5 dB at ranges up to 100 km. During the experiments urban objects and 6 various ships of small displacement having the closest values of the backscattering cross-section were used. The analysis has shown: the factor of the polarization selection for anisotropy objects and weather objects had the values about 0.02-0.08 Isotropy had the values of polarimetric correlation factor for hydrometers about 0.7-0.8, for earth surface about 0.8-0.9, for sea surface - from 0.33 to 0.7. The results of the work of recognition algorithm of a class 'concrete objects', and 'metal objects' are submitted as example in the paper. The result of experiments have shown that the probability of correct recognition of the identified objects was in the limits from 0.93 to 0.97.

  18. Automatic target recognition using both measurements from identity sensors and motion information from tracking sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copsey, Keith D.

    2005-05-01

    The majority of automatic target recognition (ATR) studies are formulated as a traditional classification problem. Specifically, using a training set of target exemplars, a classifier is developed for application to isolated measurements of targets. Performance is assessed using a test set of target exemplars. Unfortunately, this is a simplification of the ATR problem. Often, the operating conditions differ from those prevailing at the time of training data collection, which can have severe effects on the obtained performance. It is therefore becoming increasingly recognised that development of robust ATR systems requires more than just consideration of the traditional classification problem. In particular, one should make use of any extra information or data that is available. The example in this paper focuses on a hybrid ATR system being designed to utilise both measurements from identity sensors (such as radar profiles) and motion information from tracking sensors to classify targets. The first-stage of the system uses mixture-model classifiers to classify targets into generic classes based upon data from (long range) tracking sensors. Where the generic classes are related to platform types (e.g. fast-jets, heavy bombers and commercial aircraft), the initial classifications can be used to assist the military commander's early decision making. The second-stage of the system uses measurements from (closer-range) identity sensors to classify the targets into individual target types, while taking into account the (uncertain) outputs from the first-stage. A Bayesian classifier is proposed for the second-stage, so that the first-stage outputs can be incorporated into the second-stage prior class probabilities.

  19. Simulating Retrieval from a Highly Clustered Network: Implications for Spoken Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Ercal, Gunes; Adagarla, Bhargav

    2011-01-01

    Network science describes how entities in complex systems interact, and argues that the structure of the network influences processing. Clustering coefficient, C – one measure of network structure – refers to the extent to which neighbors of a node are also neighbors of each other. Previous simulations suggest that networks with low C dissipate information (or disease) to a large portion of the network, whereas in networks with high C information (or disease) tends to be constrained to a smaller portion of the network (Newman, 2003). In the present simulation we examined how C influenced the spread of activation to a specific node, simulating retrieval of a specific lexical item in a phonological network. The results of the network simulation showed that words with lower C had higher activation values (indicating faster or more accurate retrieval from the lexicon) than words with higher C. These results suggest that a simple mechanism for lexical retrieval can account for the observations made in Chan and Vitevitch (2009), and have implications for diffusion dynamics in other fields. PMID:22174705

  20. The TCF C-clamp DNA binding domain expands the Wnt transcriptome via alternative target recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hoverter, Nate P.; Zeller, Michael D.; McQuade, Miriam M.; Garibaldi, Angela; Busch, Anke; Selwan, Elizabeth M.; Hertel, Klemens J.; Baldi, Pierre; Waterman, Marian L.

    2014-01-01

    LEF/TCFs direct the final step in Wnt/?-catenin signalling by recruiting ?-catenin to genes for activation of transcription. Ancient, non-vertebrate TCFs contain two DNA binding domains, a High Mobility Group box for recognition of the Wnt Response Element (WRE; 5?-CTTTGWWS-3?) and the C-clamp domain for recognition of the GC-rich Helper motif (5?-RCCGCC-3?). Two vertebrate TCFs (TCF-1/TCF7 and TCF-4/TCF7L2) use the C-clamp as an alternatively spliced domain to regulate cell-cycle progression, but how the C-clamp influences TCF binding and activity genome-wide is not known. Here, we used a doxycycline inducible system with ChIP-seq to assess how the C-clamp influences human TCF1 binding genome-wide. Metabolic pulse-labeling of nascent RNA with 4?Thiouridine was used with RNA-seq to connect binding to the Wnt transcriptome. We find that the C-clamp enables targeting to a greater number of gene loci for stronger occupancy and transcription regulation. The C-clamp uses Helper sites concurrently with WREs for gene targeting, but it also targets TCF1 to sites that do not have readily identifiable canonical WREs. The coupled ChIP-seq/4?Thiouridine-seq analysis identified new Wnt target genes, including additional regulators of cell proliferation. Thus, C-clamp containing isoforms of TCFs are potent transcriptional regulators with an expanded transcriptome directed by C-clamp-Helper site interactions. PMID:25414359

  1. ARTMAP-FTR: a neural network for fusion target recognition with application to sonar classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Gail A.; Streilein, William W.

    1998-09-01

    ART (Adaptive Resonance Theory) neural networks for fast, stable learning and prediction have been applied in a variety of areas. Applications include automatic mapping from satellite remote sensing data, machine tool monitoring, medical prediction, digital circuit design, chemical analysis, and robot vision. Supervised ART architectures, called ARTMAP systems, feature internal control mechanisms that create stable recognition categories of optimal size by maximizing code compression while minimizing predictive error in an on- line setting. Special-purpose requirements of various application domains have led to a number of ARTMAP variants, including fuzzy ARTMAP, ART-EMAP, ARTMAP-IC, Gaussian ARTMAP, and distributed ARTMAP. A new ARTMAP variant, called ARTMAP- FTR (fusion target recognition), has been developed for the problem of multi-ping sonar target classification. The development data set, which lists sonar returns from underwater objects, was provided by the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) Coastal Systems Station (CSS), Dahlgren Division. The ARTMAP-FTR network has proven to be an effective tool for classifying objects from sonar returns. The system also provides a procedure for solving more general sensor fusion problems.

  2. Joint Infrared Target Recognition and Segmentation Using a Shape Manifold-Aware Level Set

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Liangjiang; Fan, Guoliang; Gong, Jiulu; Havlicek, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    We propose new techniques for joint recognition, segmentation and pose estimation of infrared (IR) targets. The problem is formulated in a probabilistic level set framework where a shape constrained generative model is used to provide a multi-class and multi-view shape prior and where the shape model involves a couplet of view and identity manifolds (CVIM). A level set energy function is then iteratively optimized under the shape constraints provided by the CVIM. Since both the view and identity variables are expressed explicitly in the objective function, this approach naturally accomplishes recognition, segmentation and pose estimation as joint products of the optimization process. For realistic target chips, we solve the resulting multi-modal optimization problem by adopting a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and then improve the computational efficiency by implementing a gradient-boosted PSO (GB-PSO). Evaluation was performed using the Military Sensing Information Analysis Center (SENSIAC) ATR database, and experimental results show that both of the PSO algorithms reduce the cost of shape matching during CVIM-based shape inference. Particularly, GB-PSO outperforms other recent ATR algorithms, which require intensive shape matching, either explicitly (with pre-segmentation) or implicitly (without pre-segmentation). PMID:25938202

  3. Joint infrared target recognition and segmentation using a shape manifold-aware level set.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liangjiang; Fan, Guoliang; Gong, Jiulu; Havlicek, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    We propose new techniques for joint recognition, segmentation and pose estimation of infrared (IR) targets. The problem is formulated in a probabilistic level set framework where a shape constrained generative model is used to provide a multi-class and multi-view shape prior and where the shape model involves a couplet of view and identity manifolds (CVIM). A level set energy function is then iteratively optimized under the shape constraints provided by the CVIM. Since both the view and identity variables are expressed explicitly in the objective function, this approach naturally accomplishes recognition, segmentation and pose estimation as joint products of the optimization process. For realistic target chips, we solve the resulting multi-modal optimization problem by adopting a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and then improve the computational efficiency by implementing a gradient-boosted PSO (GB-PSO). Evaluation was performed using the Military Sensing Information Analysis Center (SENSIAC) ATR database, and experimental results show that both of the PSO algorithms reduce the cost of shape matching during CVIM-based shape inference. Particularly, GB-PSO outperforms other recent ATR algorithms, which require intensive shape matching, either explicitly (with pre-segmentation) or implicitly (without pre-segmentation). PMID:25938202

  4. Multicolor and dual-band IR camera for missile warning and automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann; Schneider, Harald; Walther, Martin

    2002-08-01

    For applications like missile warning and automatic target recognition, AIM is presently launching its new 3rd generation high speed dual-color module. The focal plane array (FPA) is a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) 192x192 56micrometers pitch device in a dual-color mid wave (MWIR) design. The module provides spectral selection with temporal and spatial coincidence for both colors using a new AIM proprietary technology. The spectral bands presently selected are 3.4-4 and 4.2-5micrometers with a full frame rate of 870Hz. Prior to the new devices, a sequential multicolor MCT camera with broadband detector and spectral selection using a rotating filter wheel was developed and evaluated. Results are shown to demonstrate the capabilities of spectral selective detection specifically for clutter and false alarm suppression in missile warning applications. A new algorithm was developed to allow highly sensitive detection of missile plumes without any need for non-uniformity correction for long-term stable operation and maximum dynamic range. An outlook is given on new activities at AIM on dual-band devices. The dual-band approach combining mid wave (MWIR) and long wave (LWIR) detection is specifically useful in automatic target recognition. The application, existing devices and the design goal of the new dual-band device are discussed together with experimental results.

  5. Receptor architecture of visual areas in the face and word-form recognition region of the posterior fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Caspers, Julian; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Caspers, Svenja; Schleicher, Axel; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two extrastriate visual areas on the posterior fusiform gyrus, areas FG1 and FG2, were identified based on cytoarchitectonical criteria (Caspers et al. in Brain Struct Funct 218:511-526, 2013a). They are located within the object-related ventral visual stream at the transition between early and higher-order (category-specific) visual areas. FG2 has a topographical position which is best comparable to the face or visual word-form recognition area. However, the precise function of FG2 is presently unknown. Since transmitter receptors are key molecules of neurotransmission, we analysed the regional and laminar distribution of 15 different receptor binding sites by means of quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. Significant differences between receptor densities of both areas were found for NMDA, GABAB, M3, nicotinic ?4/?2 and 5-HT1A receptors as well as for GABAA associated benzodiazepine binding sites. These results support the cytoarchitectonic segregation of FG1 and FG2 into two distinct cortical areas. In addition, principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses of the multireceptor data of both fusiform areas and 24 visual, auditory, somatosensory and multimodal association areas not only revealed the typical receptor architectonic characteristics of visual areas for FG1 and FG2, but also suggest their putative function as object recognition regions due to the similarity of their receptor fingerprints with those of areas of the ventral visual stream. Furthermore, FG1 and FG2 build a cluster with the multimodal association areas of the inferior parietal lobule. This underlines their hierarchically high position in the visual system of the human cerebral cortex. PMID:24126835

  6. Real-time imaging systems' combination of methods to achieve automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraviglia, Carlos G.; Williams, Elmer F.; Pezzulich, Alan Z.

    1998-03-01

    Using a combination of strategies real time imaging weapons systems are achieving their goals of detecting their intended targets. The demands of acquiring a target in a cluttered environment in a timely manner with a high degree of confidence demands compromise be made as to having a truly automatic system. A combination of techniques such as dedicated image processing hardware, real time operating systems, mixes of algorithmic methods, and multi-sensor detectors are a forbearance of the unleashed potential of future weapons system and their incorporation in truly autonomous target acquisition. Elements such as position information, sensor gain controls, way marks for mid course correction, and augmentation with different imaging spectrums as well as future capabilities such as neural net expert systems and decision processors over seeing a fusion matrix architecture may be considered tools for a weapon system's achievement of its ultimate goal. Currently, acquiring a target in a cluttered environment in a timely manner with a high degree of confidence demands compromises be made as to having a truly automatic system. It is now necessary to include a human in the track decision loop, a system feature that may be long lived. Automatic Track Recognition will still be the desired goal in future systems due to the variability of military missions and desirability of an expendable asset. Furthermore, with the increasing incorporation of multi-sensor information into the track decision the human element's real time contribution must be carefully engineered.

  7. Regulation of cargo recognition, commitment, and unloading drives cotranslational protein targeting.

    PubMed

    Saraogi, Ishu; Akopian, David; Shan, Shu-Ou

    2014-06-01

    Efficient and accurate protein localization is essential to cells and requires protein-targeting machineries to both effectively capture the cargo in the cytosol and productively unload the cargo at the membrane. To understand how these challenges are met, we followed the interaction of translating ribosomes during their targeting by the signal recognition particle (SRP) using a site-specific fluorescent probe in the nascent protein. We show that initial recruitment of SRP receptor (SR) selectively enhances the affinity of SRP for correct cargos, thus committing SRP-dependent substrates to the pathway. Real-time measurement of cargo transfer from the targeting to translocation machinery revealed multiple factors that drive this event, including GTPase rearrangement in the SRP-SR complex, stepwise displacement of SRP from the ribosome and signal sequence by SecYEG, and elongation of the nascent polypeptide. Our results elucidate how active and sequential regulation of the SRP-cargo interaction drives efficient and faithful protein targeting. PMID:24914238

  8. Analytical derivation of distortion constraints and their verification in a learning vector quantization-based target recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Razzaque, Mohammad A.

    2005-06-01

    We obtain a novel analytical derivation for distortion-related constraints in a neural network- (NN)-based automatic target recognition (ATR) system. We obtain two types of constraints for a realistic ATR system implementation involving 4-f correlator architecture. The first constraint determines the relative size between the input objects and input correlation filters. The second constraint dictates the limits on amount of rotation, translation, and scale of input objects for system implementation. We exploit these constraints in recognition of targets varying in rotation, translation, scale, occlusion, and the combination of all of these distortions using a learning vector quantization (LVQ) NN. We present the simulation verification of the constraints using both the gray-scale images and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA's) Moving and Stationary Target Recognition (MSTAR) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images with different depression and pose angles.

  9. Recognition of camouflage targets with hyper-spectral polarization imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi-chao; Wang, Jia-chun; Zhao, Da-peng; Ma, Li-fang; Chen, Zong-sheng; Li, Zhi-gang

    2013-08-01

    On the basis of the principle of polarization detection, a hyper-spectral polarization imaging system, which is based on linear polarizer and acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), was designed to detect and recognize camouflage target intelligently and rapidly in this paper. Our design has neither moving parts nor modulation, and has fast and electronically tuning property, so a quick scan of spectrum at 400 nm~1000 nm can be realized electronically. At the same time, it not only could obtain the intensity image, hyper-spectral information, but also could acquire polarization signatures of the scene. Then the spectral polarization experiment about aluminous plane which covered with the bottle green, shallow green and khaki camouflage pigments within meadow were conducted at specifically wavelength by the instrument. Finally, the polarization information of the man-made targets and natural background in the scene, and the fusion image based on HIS color space were deduced through processing the experiment data. The experimental result demonstrates that the polarization characteristics of camouflage pigments were different from that of natural background. As the contrast of target and background could be enhanced by polarization information, the camouflage target could be identified effectively from the image according to polarization information. On the other hand, the camouflage target is more obvious in the fused image. Therefore, the proposed method and the system in this paper are reasonable and effective. Consequently, the hyper-spectral polarization detection technique which relative to the classical intensity detection is of significance to improve the accuracy of recognition of camouflage targets in mixed background under proper detection condition.

  10. Dynamics of activation of semantically similar concepts during spoken word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Magnuson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Semantic similarity effects provide critical insight into the organization of semantic knowledge and the nature of semantic processing. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of semantic similarity effects by using the visual world eyetracking paradigm. Four objects were shown on a computer monitor, and participants were instructed to click on a named object, during which time their gaze position was recorded. The likelihood of fixating competitor objects was predicted by the degree of semantic similarity to the target concept. We found reliable, graded competition that depended on degree of target–competitor similarity, even for distantly related items for which priming has not been found in previous priming studies. Time course measures revealed a consistently earlier fixation peak for near semantic neighbors relative to targets. Computational investigations with an attractor dynamical model, a spreading activation model, and a decision model revealed that a combination of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms is required to obtain such peak timing, providing new constraints on models of semantic processing. PMID:19744941

  11. Choosing the road less traveled by: a ligand-receptor system that controls target recognition by Drosophila motor axons.

    PubMed

    Zinn, Kai

    2009-05-01

    In this issue of Genes & Development, Siebert and colleagues (pp. 1052-1062) define a ligand-receptor system that controls motor axon guidance and target recognition in the Drosophila embryo. The beaten path (beat) and sidestep (side) genes were known to be important regulators of motor axon guidance. Siebert and colleagues now show that Beat and Side are cell surface proteins that physically interact with each other, and that Beat-expressing motor axon growth cones reach their targets via recognition of Side-expressing pathways. PMID:19369412

  12. Comparison of optimization-algorithm based feature extraction from time data or time-frequency data for target recognition purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strifors, H. C.; Abrahamson, S.; Andersson, T.; Gaunaurd, G. C.

    2006-05-01

    Ultra-wideband ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems have proved useful for extracting and displaying information for target recognition purposes. Target signatures whether in the time, frequency, or joint time-frequency domains, will substantially depend on the target's burial conditions such as the type of soil, burial depth, and the soil's moisture content. That dependence can be utilized for target recognition purposes as we have demonstrated previously. The signature template of each target was computed in the time-frequency domain from the returned echo when the target was buried at a known depth in the soil with a known moisture content. Then, for any returned echo the relative difference between the similarly computed target signature and a selected signature template was computed. A global optimization method together with our (approximate) target translation method (TTM) that signature difference, chosen as object function, was minimized by adjusting the depth and moisture content, now taken to be unknown parameters. The template that gave the smallest value of the minimized object function for the returned echo was taken as target classification and the corresponding values of the depth and moisture parameters as estimates of the target's burial conditions. This optimization technique can also be applied to time-series data, avoiding the need for time-frequency analysis. It is then of interest to evaluate the relative merits of time data and time-frequency data for target recognition. Such a comparison is here preformed using signals returned from dummy mines buried underground. The results of the analysis serve to assess the intrinsic worth of data in the time domain and in the time-frequency domain for identifying subsurface targets using a GPR. The targets are buried in a test field at the Swedish Explosive Ordnance Disposal and Demining Center (SWEDEC) at Eksjo, Sweden.

  13. Programmable and multiparameter DNA-based logic platform for cancer recognition and targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    You, Mingxu; Zhu, Guizhi; Chen, Tao; Donovan, Michael J; Tan, Weihong

    2015-01-21

    The specific inventory of molecules on diseased cell surfaces (e.g., cancer cells) provides clinicians an opportunity for accurate diagnosis and intervention. With the discovery of panels of cancer markers, carrying out analyses of multiple cell-surface markers is conceivable. As a trial to accomplish this, we have recently designed a DNA-based device that is capable of performing autonomous logic-based analysis of two or three cancer cell-surface markers. Combining the specific target-recognition properties of DNA aptamers with toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions, multicellular marker-based cancer analysis can be realized based on modular AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic gates. Specifically, we report here a general approach for assembling these modular logic gates to execute programmable and higher-order profiling of multiple coexisting cell-surface markers, including several found on cancer cells, with the capacity to report a diagnostic signal and/or deliver targeted photodynamic therapy. The success of this strategy demonstrates the potential of DNA nanotechnology in facilitating targeted disease diagnosis and effective therapy. PMID:25361164

  14. A distributed automatic target recognition system using multiple low resolution sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Zhanfeng; Lakshmi Narasimha, Pramod; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-agent system which uses swarming techniques to perform high accuracy Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) in a distributed manner. The proposed system can co-operatively share the information from low-resolution images of different looks and use this information to perform high accuracy ATR. An advanced, multiple-agent Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems-based approach is proposed which integrates the processing capabilities, combines detection reporting with live video exchange, and swarm behavior modalities that dramatically surpass individual sensor system performance levels. We employ real-time block-based motion analysis and compensation scheme for efficient estimation and correction of camera jitter, global motion of the camera/scene and the effects of atmospheric turbulence. Our optimized Partition Weighted Sum (PWS) approach requires only bitshifts and additions, yet achieves a stunning 16X pixel resolution enhancement, which is moreover parallizable. We develop advanced, adaptive particle-filtering based algorithms to robustly track multiple mobile targets by adaptively changing the appearance model of the selected targets. The collaborative ATR system utilizes the homographies between the sensors induced by the ground plane to overlap the local observation with the received images from other UAVs. The motion of the UAVs distorts estimated homography frame to frame. A robust dynamic homography estimation algorithm is proposed to address this, by using the homography decomposition and the ground plane surface estimation.

  15. A Compact Methodology to Understand, Evaluate, and Predict the Performance of Automatic Target Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Chen, Yiping; Zhuang, Zhaowen; Cheng, Yongqiang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Liandong; Zeng, Yonghu; Gao, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a compacted mechanism to carry out the performance evaluation work for an automatic target recognition (ATR) system: (a) a standard description of the ATR system's output is suggested, a quantity to indicate the operating condition is presented based on the principle of feature extraction in pattern recognition, and a series of indexes to assess the output in different aspects are developed with the application of statistics; (b) performance of the ATR system is interpreted by a quality factor based on knowledge of engineering mathematics; (c) through a novel utility called “context-probability” estimation proposed based on probability, performance prediction for an ATR system is realized. The simulation result shows that the performance of an ATR system can be accounted for and forecasted by the above-mentioned measures. Compared to existing technologies, the novel method can offer more objective performance conclusions for an ATR system. These conclusions may be helpful in knowing the practical capability of the tested ATR system. At the same time, the generalization performance of the proposed method is good. PMID:24967605

  16. User acceptance of intelligent avionics: A study of automatic-aided target recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Curtis A.; Hayes, Brian C.; Gorman, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    User acceptance of new support systems typically was evaluated after the systems were specified, designed, and built. The current study attempts to assess user acceptance of an Automatic-Aided Target Recognition (ATR) system using an emulation of such a proposed system. The detection accuracy and false alarm level of the ATR system were varied systematically, and subjects rated the tactical value of systems exhibiting different performance levels. Both detection accuracy and false alarm level affected the subjects' ratings. The data from two experiments suggest a cut-off point in ATR performance below which the subjects saw little tactical value in the system. An ATR system seems to have obvious tactical value only if it functions at a correct detection rate of 0.7 or better with a false alarm level of 0.167 false alarms per square degree or fewer.

  17. Structural Insights Into the Recognition of Peroxisomal Targeting Signal 1 By Trypanosoma Brucei Peroxin 5

    SciTech Connect

    Sampathkumar, P.; Roach, C.; Michels, P.A.M.; Hol, W.G.J.

    2009-05-27

    Glycosomes are peroxisome-like organelles essential for trypanosomatid parasites. Glycosome biogenesis is mediated by proteins called 'peroxins,' which are considered to be promising drug targets in pathogenic Trypanosomatidae. The first step during protein translocation across the glycosomal membrane of peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1)-harboring proteins is signal recognition by the cytosolic receptor peroxin 5 (PEX5). The C-terminal PTS1 motifs interact with the PTS1 binding domain (P1BD) of PEX5, which is made up of seven tetratricopeptide repeats. Obtaining diffraction-quality crystals of the P1BD of Trypanosoma brucei PEX5 (TbPEX5) required surface entropy reduction mutagenesis. Each of the seven tetratricopeptide repeats appears to have a residue in the alpha(L) conformation in the loop connecting helices A and B. Five crystal structures of the P1BD of TbPEX5 were determined, each in complex with a hepta- or decapeptide corresponding to a natural or nonnatural PTS1 sequence. The PTS1 peptides are bound between the two subdomains of the P1BD. These structures indicate precise recognition of the C-terminal Leu of the PTS1 motif and important interactions between the PTS1 peptide main chain and up to five invariant Asn side chains of PEX5. The TbPEX5 structures reported here reveal a unique hydrophobic pocket in the subdomain interface that might be explored to obtain compounds that prevent relative motions of the subdomains and interfere selectively with PTS1 motif binding or release in trypanosomatids, and would therefore disrupt glycosome biogenesis and prevent parasite growth.

  18. Development of automatic target recognition for infrared sensor-based close-range land mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngan, Peter; Garcia, Sigberto A.; Cloud, Eugene L.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Long, Daniel T.; Hackett, Jay K.

    1995-06-01

    Infrared imagery scenes change continuously with environmental conditions. Strategic targets embedded in them are often difficult to be identified with the naked eye. An IR sensor-based mine detector must include Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) to detect and extract land mines from IR scenes. In the course of the ATR development process, mine signature data were collected using a commercial 8-12 (mu) spectral range FLIR, model Inframetrics 445L, and a commercial 3-5 (mu) starting focal planar array FLIR, model Infracam. These sensors were customized to the required field-of-view for short range operation. These baseline data were then input into a specialized parallel processor on which the mine detection algorithm is developed and trained. The ATR is feature-based and consists of several subprocesses to progress from raw input IR imagery to a neural network classifier for final nomination of the targets. Initially, image enhancement is used to remove noise and sensor artifact. Three preprocessing techniques, namely model-based segmentation, multi-element prescreener, and geon detector are then applied to extract specific features of the targets and to reject all objects that do not resemble mines. Finally, to further reduce the false alarm rate, the extracted features are presented to the neural network classifier. Depending on the operational circumstances, one of three neural network techniques will be adopted; back propagation, supervised real-time learning, or unsupervised real-time learning. The Close Range IR Mine Detection System is an Army program currently being experimentally developed to be demonstrated in the Army's Advanced Technology Demonstration in FY95. The ATR resulting from this program will be integrated in the 21st Century Land Warrior program in which the mine avoidance capability is its primary interest.

  19. Sensor fusion for target recognition: a review of fundamentals and a potential approach to multisensor requirements allocation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Harney

    1994-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, a brief tutorial review of sensor fusion for target recognition applications is presented. In this context, relevant aspects of system architecture, sensor integration, and data fusion are discussed. Several unresolved issues in the practical implementation of sensor fusion are identified; significant among these are the rationale for selection of a sensor suite and

  20. Inhibition of non-target languages in multilingual word production: evidence from Uighur-Chinese-English trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Guo, Taomei; Liu, Fengqin; Chen, Bingle; Li, Shengcao

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined the hypothesis whether non-target languages are inhibited during multilingual language production by examining the n-2 language repetition cost. In two experiments, Uighur-Chinese-English trilinguals named Arabic digits in one of their three languages according to a visually presented cue. Significant n-2 repetition costs were obtained in both experiments, which indicate that inhibition exists during multilingual word production. In addition, in Experiment 1, it was also found that the n-2 repetition cost was reduced when cues were highly compatible with the task, which means non-target languages are less inhibited. In Experiment 2, the n-2 repetition cost was increased at a shorter CSI. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of non-target languages occurs during multilingual language production, and that efficiency of establishing the target language task schema has an effect on the inhibitory control process. PMID:23688401

  1. The structure of SgrAI bound to DNA; recognition of an 8 base pair target.

    PubMed

    Dunten, Pete W; Little, Elizabeth J; Gregory, Mark T; Manohar, Veena M; Dalton, Michael; Hough, David; Bitinaite, Jurate; Horton, Nancy C

    2008-09-01

    The three-dimensional X-ray crystal structure of the 'rare cutting' type II restriction endonuclease SgrAI bound to cognate DNA is presented. SgrAI forms a dimer bound to one duplex of DNA. Two Ca(2+) bind in the enzyme active site, with one ion at the interface between the protein and DNA, and the second bound distal from the DNA. These sites are differentially occupied by Mn(2+), with strong binding at the protein-DNA interface, but only partial occupancy of the distal site. The DNA remains uncleaved in the structures from crystals grown in the presence of either divalent cation. The structure of the dimer of SgrAI is similar to those of Cfr10I, Bse634I and NgoMIV, however no tetrameric structure of SgrAI is observed. DNA contacts to the central CCGG base pairs of the SgrAI canonical target sequence (CR|CCGGYG, | marks the site of cleavage) are found to be very similar to those in the NgoMIV/DNA structure (target sequence G|CCGGC). Specificity at the degenerate YR base pairs of the SgrAI sequence may occur via indirect readout using DNA distortion. Recognition of the outer GC base pairs occurs through a single contact to the G from an arginine side chain located in a region unique to SgrAI. PMID:18701646

  2. Common mechanisms of target cell recognition and immunity for class II bacteriocins

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Dzung B.; Skaugen, Morten; Salehian, Zhian; Holo, Helge; Nes, Ingolf F.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of target cell recognition and producer cell self-protection (immunity) are both important yet poorly understood issues in the biology of peptide bacteriocins. In this report, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence that lactococcin A, a permeabilizing peptide–bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis, uses components of the mannose phosphotransferase system (man-PTS) of susceptible cells as target/receptor. We present experimental evidence that the immunity protein LciA forms a strong complex with the receptor proteins and the bacteriocin, thereby preventing cells from being killed. Importantly, the complex between LciA and the man-PTS components (IIAB, IIC, and IID) appears to involve an on–off type mechanism that allows complex formation only in the presence of bacteriocin; otherwise no complexes were observed between LciA and the receptor proteins. Deletion of the man-PTS operon combined with biochemical studies revealed that the presence of the membrane-located components IIC and IID was sufficient for sensitivity to lactococcin A as well as complex formation with LciA. The cytoplasmic component of the man-PTS, IIAB, was not required for the biological sensitivity or for complex formation. Furthermore, heterologous expression of the lactococcal man-PTS operon rendered the insensitive Lactobacillus sakei susceptible to lactococcin A. We also provide evidence that, not only lactococcin A, but other class II peptide-bacteriocins including lactococcin B and some Listeria-active pediocin-like bacteriocins also target the man-PTS components IIC and IID on susceptible cells and that their immunity proteins involve a mechanism in producer cell self-protection similar to that observed for LciA. PMID:17284603

  3. Non-cooperative target recognition by means of singular value decomposition applied to radar high resolution range profiles.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, Patricia; Escot-Bocanegra, David; Fernández-Recio, Raúl; Bravo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising. PMID:25551484

  4. The Use of Overlapped Sub-Bands in Multi-Band, Multi-SNR, Multi-Path Recognition of Noisy Word Utterances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Yutaka; Ihara, Takehiro; Takagi, Kazuyuki; Ozeki, Kazuhiko

    A solution to the problem of improving robustness to noise in automatic speech recognition is presented in the framework of multi-band, multi-SNR, and multi-path approaches. In our word recognizer, the whole frequency band is divided into seven-overlapped subbands, and then sub-band noisy phoneme HMMs are trained on speech data mixed with the filtered white Gaussian noise at multiple SNRs. The acoustic model of a word is built as a set of concatenations of clean and noisy sub-band phoneme HMMs arranged in parallel. A Viterbi decoder allows a search path to transit to another SNR condition at a phoneme boundary. The recognition scores of the sub-bands are then recombined to give the score for a word. Experiments show that the overlapped seven-band system yields the best performance under nonstationary ambient noises. It is also shown that the use of filtered white Gaussian noise is advantageous for training noisy phoneme HMMs.

  5. Exploring a recognition-induced recognition decrement

    PubMed Central

    Dopkins, Stephen; Ngo, Catherine Trinh; Sargent, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments explored a recognition decrement that is associated with the recognition of a word from a short list. The stimulus material for demonstrating the phenomenon was a list of words of different syntactic types. A word from the list was recognized less well following a decision that a word of the same type had occurred in the list than following a decision that such a word had not occurred in the list. A recognition decrement did not occur for a word of a given type following a positive recognition decision to a word of a different type. A recognition decrement did not occur when the list consisted exclusively of nouns. It was concluded that the phenomenon may reflect a criterion shift but probably does not reflect a list strength effect, suppression, or familiarity attribution consequent to a perceived discrepancy between actual and expected fluency. PMID:17063915

  6. Letter Position Information and Printed Word Perception: The Relative-Position Priming Constraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Jonathan; Granier, Jean-Pierre; Farioli, Fernand; Van Assche, Eva; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Six experiments apply the masked priming paradigm to investigate how letter position information is computed during printed word perception. Primes formed by a subset of the target's letters facilitated target recognition as long as the relative position of letters was respected across prime and target (e.g., "arict" vs. "acirt" as primes for the…

  7. Effects of SAR parametric variations on the performance of automatic target recognition algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Kefu; Sink, Sam; Power, Gregory J.

    2003-09-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is one of the most valuable sensor data sources for today's military battlefield surveillance and analysis. The collection of SAR images by various platforms (e.g. Global Hawk, NASA/JPL AIRSAR, etc.) and on various missions for multiple purposes (e.g. reconnaissance, terrain mapping, etc.) has resulted in vast amount of data over wide surveillance areas. The pixel-to-eye ratio is simply too high for human analysts to rapidly sift through massive volumes of sensor data and yield engagement decisions quickly and precisely. Effective automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms to process this growing mountain of information are clearly needed. However, even after many years of research, SAR ATR still remains a highly challenging research problem. What makes SAR ATR problems difficult is the amount of variability exhibited in the SAR image signatures of targets and clutters. There are many different factors that can cause the variability in SAR image signatures. It is of convention to categorizes those factors into three major groups known as extended operating conditions (OC's) of target, environment and sensor. The group of sensor OC's includes SAR sensor parametric variations in depression angle, polarization, squint angle, frequencies (UHF, VHF, X band) and bandwidth, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), multi-look, antenna geometry and type, image formation algorithms, platform variations and geometric errors, noise level, etc. Many existing studies of SAR ATR have been traditionally focused on the variability of SAR signatures caused by a sub-space of target OC's and environment OC's. The similar studies in terms of SAR parametric variations in sensor OC's have been very limited due to the lack of data across the sensor OC's and the inherent difficulties as well as the high cost in supplying various sensor OC's during the data collections. This paper will present the results of a comprehensive survey of SAR ATR research works involving the subjects of various sensor OC's. We found out in the survey that, to this date, very few research has been devoted to the problems of sensor OC's and their effects over the performance of SAR image based ATR algorithms. Due to the importance of sensor OC's in the ATR applications, we have developed a research platform as well as important focus areas of future research in SAR parametric variations. A number of baseline ATR algorithms in the research platform have been implemented and verified. We have also planned and started SAR data simulation process across the spectrum of sensor OC's. A road-map for the future research of SAR parametric variations (sensor OC's) and their impact on ATR algorithms is laid out in this paper.

  8. ERP Manifestations of Processing Printed Words at Different Psycholinguistic Levels: Time Course and Scalp Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bentin; Y. Mouchetant-Rostaing; M. H. Giard; J. F. Echallier; J. Pernier

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the time course and scalp distribution of electrophysiological manifestations of the visual word recognition mechanism. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by visually presented lists of words were recorded while subjects were involved in a series of oddball tasks. The distinction between the designated target and nontarget stimuli was manipulated to induce a

  9. Targeting B cell leukemia with highly specific allogeneic T cells with a public recognition motif.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, I W; Stronen, E; Wälchli, S; Johansen, J N; Kjellevoll, S; Kumari, S; Komada, M; Gaudernack, G; Tjonnfjord, G; Toebes, M; Schumacher, T N; Lund-Johansen, F; Olweus, J

    2010-11-01

    The possibility that allogeneic T cells may be targeted to leukemia has important therapeutic implications. As most tumor antigens represent self-proteins, high-avidity tumor-specific T cells are largely deleted from the repertoire of the patient. In contrast, T cells from major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched donors provide naïve repertoires wherein such cells have not been systematically eliminated. Yet, evidence for peptide degeneracy or poly-specificity warrants caution in the use of foreign human leukocyte antigen (HLA) or peptide complexes as therapeutic targets. Here, we cocultured HLA-A(*)0201-negative T cells with autologous dendritic cells engineered to present HLA-A(*)0201 complexed with a peptide from the B cell antigen CD20 (CD20p). HLA-A(*)0201/CD20p pentamer-reactive CD8(+) T cells were readily obtained from all donors. The polyclonal cells showed exquisite peptide and MHC specificity, and efficiently killed HLA-A(*)0201-positive B cells, including primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. The T cell receptor (TCR) sequences displayed a novel type of conservation, with extensive homology in the TCR ? chain complementarity-determining region 3 and in J, but not V, region. This is surprising, as the donors were HLA disparate and their TCR repertoires are expected to show little overlap. The results demonstrate the first public recognition motif for an allogeneic HLA/peptide complex. The allo-restricted T cells or TCRs could provide graft-versus-leukemia in the absence of graft-versus-host disease. PMID:20844564

  10. Proposed docking interface between peptidoglycan and the target recognition domain of zoocin A

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yinghua [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Simmonds, Robin S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)] [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Timkovich, Russell, E-mail: rtimkovi@bama.ua.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Peptidoglycan added to zoocin rTRD perturbs NMR resonances around W115. •Simulations predict docking to a shallow surface groove near W115. •The docking interface is similar to mammalian antibody–antigen sites. •EDTA binds to a distinct surface site. -- Abstract: A docking model is proposed for the target recognition domain of the lytic exoenzyme zoocin A with the peptidoglycan on the outer cell surface of sensitive bacterial strains. Solubilized fragments from such peptidoglycans perturb specific backbone and side chain amide resonances in the recombinant form of the domain designated rTRD as detected in two-dimensional {sup 1}H–{sup 15}N correlation NMR spectra. The affected residues comprise a shallow surface cleft on the protein surface near W115, N53, N117, and Q105 among others, which interacts with the peptide portion of the peptidoglycan. Calculations with AutoDock Vina provide models of the docking interface. There is approximate homology between the rTDR-peptidoglycan docking site and the antigen binding site of Fab antibodies with the immunoglobin fold. EDTA was also found to bind to rTRD, but at a site distinct from the proposed peptidoglycan docking site.

  11. THAP proteins target specific DNA sites through bipartite recognition of adjacent major and minor grooves

    PubMed Central

    Sabogal, Alex; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Corn, Jacob E.; Berger, James M.; Rio, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    THAP-family C2CH zinc-coordinating DNA-binding proteins function in diverse eukaryotic cellular processes, such as transposition, transcriptional repression, stem-cell pluripotency, angiogenesis and neurological function. To determine the molecular basis for sequence-specific DNA recognition by THAP proteins, we solved the crystal structure of the Drosophila melanogaster P element transposase THAP domain (DmTHAP) complexed with a natural 10-base pair site. In contrast to C2H2 zinc fingers, DmTHAP docks a conserved ?-sheet into the major groove and a basic C-terminal loop into the adjacent minor groove. We confirmed specific protein-DNA interactions by mutagenesis and DNA binding assays. Sequence analysis of natural and in-vitro-selected binding sites suggests several THAPs (DmTHAP, human THAP1 and THAP9) recognize a bipartite TxxGGGx(A/T) consensus motif; homology suggests THAP proteins bind DNA through a bipartite interaction. These findings reveal the conserved mechanisms by which THAP-family proteins engage specific chromosomal target elements. PMID:20010837

  12. Improved Local Ternary Patterns for Automatic Target Recognition in Infrared Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaosheng; Sun, Junding; Fan, Guoliang; Wang, Zhiheng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an improved local ternary pattern (LTP) for automatic target recognition (ATR) in infrared imagery. Firstly, a robust LTP (RLTP) scheme is proposed to overcome the limitation of the original LTP for achieving the invariance with respect to the illumination transformation. Then, a soft concave-convex partition (SCCP) is introduced to add some flexibility to the original concave-convex partition (CCP) scheme. Referring to the orthogonal combination of local binary patterns (OC_LBP), the orthogonal combination of LTP (OC_LTP) is adopted to reduce the dimensionality of the LTP histogram. Further, a novel operator, called the soft concave-convex orthogonal combination of robust LTP (SCC_OC_RLTP), is proposed by combing RLTP, SCCP and OC_LTP Finally, the new operator is used for ATR along with a blocking schedule to improve its discriminability and a feature selection technique to enhance its efficiency Experimental results on infrared imagery show that the proposed features can achieve competitive ATR results compared with the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25785311

  13. The targeted recognition of Lactococcus lactis phages to their polysaccharide receptors.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Orla; Spinelli, Silvia; Farenc, Carine; Labbé, Myriam; Tremblay, Denise; Blangy, Stéphanie; Oscarson, Stefan; Moineau, Sylvain; Cambillau, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Each phage infects a limited number of bacterial strains through highly specific interactions of the receptor-binding protein (RBP) at the tip of phage tail and the receptor at the bacterial surface. Lactococcus lactis is covered with a thin polysaccharide pellicle (hexasaccharide repeating units), which is used by a subgroup of phages as a receptor. Using L.?lactis and phage 1358 as a model, we investigated the interaction between the phage RBP and the pellicle hexasaccharide of the host strain. A core trisaccharide (TriS), derived from the pellicle hexasaccharide repeating unit, was chemically synthesised, and the crystal structure of the RBP/TriS complex was determined. This provided unprecedented structural details of RBP/receptor site-specific binding. The complete hexasaccharide repeating unit was modelled and found to aptly fit the extended binding site. The specificity observed in in vivo phage adhesion assays could be interpreted in view of the reported structure. Therefore, by combining synthetic carbohydrate chemistry, X-ray crystallography and phage plaquing assays, we suggest that phage adsorption results from distinct recognition of the RBP towards the core TriS or the remaining residues of the hexasacchride receptor. This study provides a novel insight into the adsorption process of phages targeting saccharides as their receptors. PMID:25708888

  14. Teaching Sight Word Recognition to Preschoolers with Delays Using Activity-Based Intervention and Didactic Instruction: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sung-Jin; Kemp, Coral

    2007-01-01

    An alternating treatments design was used to compare the effectiveness of activity-based intervention and didactic instruction to teach sight word reading to four young children with developmental delays attending an inclusive child care centre. Following the collection of baseline measures, the two interventions, counterbalanced for word lists…

  15. ROBIN: a platform for evaluating automatic target recognition algorithms: I. Overview of the project and presentation of the SAGEM DS competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Duclos; J. Lonnoy; Q. Guillerm; F. Jurie; S. Herbin; E. D'Angelo

    2008-01-01

    The last five years have seen a renewal of Automatic Target Recognition applications, mainly because of the latest advances in machine learning techniques. In this context, large collections of image datasets are essential for training algorithms as well as for their evaluation. Indeed, the recent proliferation of recognition algorithms, generally applied to slightly different problems, make their comparisons through clean

  16. Masked priming and ERPs dissociate maturation of orthographic and semantic components of visual word recognition in children

    E-print Network

    Eddy, Marianna D.

    This study examined the time-course of reading single words in children and adults using masked repetition priming and the recording of event-related potentials. The N250 and N400 repetition priming effects were used to ...

  17. Orthodenticle Is Required for the Expression of Principal Recognition Molecules That Control Axon Targeting in the Drosophila Retina

    PubMed Central

    Mencarelli, Chiara; Pichaud, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Parallel processing of neuronal inputs relies on assembling neural circuits into distinct synaptic-columns and layers. This is orchestrated by matching recognition molecules between afferent growth cones and target areas. Controlling the expression of these molecules during development is crucial but not well understood. The developing Drosophila visual system is a powerful genetic model for addressing this question. In this model system, the achromatic R1-6 photoreceptors project their axons in the lamina while the R7 and R8 photoreceptors, which are involved in colour detection, project their axons to two distinct synaptic-layers in the medulla. Here we show that the conserved homeodomain transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd), which in the eye is a main regulator of rhodopsin expression, is also required for R1-6 photoreceptor synaptic-column specific innervation of the lamina. Our data indicate that otd function in these photoreceptors is largely mediated by the recognition molecules flamingo (fmi) and golden goal (gogo). In addition, we find that otd regulates synaptic-layer targeting of R8. We demonstrate that during this process, otd and the R8-specific transcription factor senseless/Gfi1 (sens) function as independent transcriptional inputs that are required for the expression of fmi, gogo and the adhesion molecule capricious (caps), which govern R8 synaptic-layer targeting. Our work therefore demonstrates that otd is a main component of the gene regulatory network that regulates synaptic-column and layer targeting in the fly visual system. PMID:26114289

  18. Orthodenticle Is Required for the Expression of Principal Recognition Molecules That Control Axon Targeting in the Drosophila Retina.

    PubMed

    Mencarelli, Chiara; Pichaud, Franck

    2015-06-01

    Parallel processing of neuronal inputs relies on assembling neural circuits into distinct synaptic-columns and layers. This is orchestrated by matching recognition molecules between afferent growth cones and target areas. Controlling the expression of these molecules during development is crucial but not well understood. The developing Drosophila visual system is a powerful genetic model for addressing this question. In this model system, the achromatic R1-6 photoreceptors project their axons in the lamina while the R7 and R8 photoreceptors, which are involved in colour detection, project their axons to two distinct synaptic-layers in the medulla. Here we show that the conserved homeodomain transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd), which in the eye is a main regulator of rhodopsin expression, is also required for R1-6 photoreceptor synaptic-column specific innervation of the lamina. Our data indicate that otd function in these photoreceptors is largely mediated by the recognition molecules flamingo (fmi) and golden goal (gogo). In addition, we find that otd regulates synaptic-layer targeting of R8. We demonstrate that during this process, otd and the R8-specific transcription factor senseless/Gfi1 (sens) function as independent transcriptional inputs that are required for the expression of fmi, gogo and the adhesion molecule capricious (caps), which govern R8 synaptic-layer targeting. Our work therefore demonstrates that otd is a main component of the gene regulatory network that regulates synaptic-column and layer targeting in the fly visual system. PMID:26114289

  19. WordImage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwood, Charles

    2000-01-01

    A survey involving 14 students with learning disabilities in Northern Ireland primary schools found that WordImage, an approach that uses word-cards with sentences on one side and color picture-cards on the reverse, was effective in teaching word recognition. Some children were found to be more receptive to pictorial cueing than others. (Contains…

  20. Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The…

  1. A Robust Algorithm for Automatic Target Recognition Using Passive Lisa M. Ehrman and Aaron D. Lanterman

    E-print Network

    Lanterman, Aaron

    to existing passive radar systems. We do so by comparing the radar cross section (RCS) of detected targets to the precom- puted RCS of known targets in the target class. The precomputed RCS of the targets comprising- pabilities to existing passive radar systems, using RCS as the key information for classification. Since RCS

  2. Ease of identifying words degraded by visual noise.

    PubMed

    Barber, P; de la Mahotière, C

    1982-08-01

    A technique is described for investigating word recognition involving the superimposition of 'noise' on the visual target word. For this task a word is printed in the form of letters made up of separate elements; noise consists of additional elements which serve to reduce the ease whereby the words may be recognized, and a threshold-like measure can be obtained in terms of the amount of noise. A word frequency effect was obtained for the noise task, and for words presented tachistoscopically but in conventional typography. For the tachistoscope task, however, the frequency effect depended on the method of presentation. A second study showed no effect of inspection interval on performance on the noise task. A word-frequency effect was also found in a third experiment with tachistoscopic exposure of the noise task stimuli in undegraded form. The question of whether common processes are drawn on by tasks entailing different ways of varying ease of recognition is addressed, and the suitability of different tasks for word recognition research is discussed. PMID:7116083

  3. The relationships between anxiety level, perceptual recognition thresholds and response latencies to words varying in affective value 

    E-print Network

    So, Siu-Wah Christina

    1979-01-01

    response contribute to the observed threshold differences. The present study was an attempt to relate word threshold and response latency to words differing in affective ~alue, and to test if response latencies would vary with anxiety levels... to relatively stable individual differences in anxiety proneness as a personality t ait. Trait anxiety (A-Trait) is not directly ma"ifested in behavior, but may be inferred from the i'requency and the intensity of an individual' s elevations in A-State over...

  4. Whole CMV Proteome Pattern Recognition Analysis after HSCT Identifies Unique Epitope Targets Associated with the CMV Status

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Bercoff, Lena; Valentini, Davide; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Mahdavifar, Shahnaz; Schutkowski, Mike; Poiret, Thomas; Pérez-Bercoff, Åsa; Ljungman, Per; Maeurer, Markus J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection represents a vital complication after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). We screened the entire CMV proteome to visualize the humoral target epitope-focus profile in serum after HSCT. IgG profiling from four patient groups (donor and/or recipient +/? for CMV) was performed at 6, 12 and 24 months after HSCT using microarray slides containing 17174 of 15mer-peptides overlapping by 4 aa covering 214 proteins from CMV. Data were analyzed using maSigPro, PAM and the ‘exclusive recognition analysis (ERA)’ to identify unique CMV epitope responses for each patient group. The ‘exclusive recognition analysis’ of serum epitope patterns segregated best 12 months after HSCT for the D+/R+ group (versus D?/R?). Epitopes were derived from UL123 (IE1), UL99 (pp28), UL32 (pp150), this changed at 24 months to 2 strongly recognized peptides provided from UL123 and UL100. Strongly (IgG) recognized CMV targets elicited also robust cytokine production in T-cells from patients after HSCT defined by intracellular cytokine staining (IL-2, TNF, IFN and IL-17). High-content peptide microarrays allow epitope profiling of entire viral proteomes; this approach can be useful to map relevant targets for diagnostics and therapy in patients with well defined clinical endpoints. Peptide microarray analysis visualizes the breadth of B-cell immune reconstitution after HSCT and provides a useful tool to gauge immune reconstitution. PMID:24740411

  5. Emotion Recognition/Understanding Ability in Hearing or Vision-Impaired Children: Do Sounds, Sights, or Words Make the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyck, Murray J.; Farrugia, Charles; Shochet, Ian M.; Holmes-Brown, Martez

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to assess whether children with a sensory disability have consistent delays in acquiring emotion recognition and emotion understanding abilities. Method: Younger (6-11 years) and older (12-18 years) hearing-impaired children (HI; n = 49), vision-impaired children (VI; n = 42), and children with no sensory…

  6. Experiments on mixture-density phoneme-modelling for the speaker-independent 1000-word speech recognition DARPA task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ney

    1990-01-01

    The modifications and improvements of the acoustic recognition component of the SPICOS system for the DARPA naval resource management task are described. These modifications and improvements include: the modeling of the continuous mixture densities of the acoustic vectors, the choice of suitable context-dependent phoneme units and the construction of generalized context phoneme units, and the modeling of transitional information in

  7. Modeling the Effects of Repetitions, Similarity, and Normative Word Frequency on Old-New Recognition and Judgments of Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Holden, Jocelyn E.; Shiffren, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    Judgments of frequency for targets (old items) and foils (similar; dissimilar) steadily increase as the number of times a target is studied increases, but discrimination of targets from similar foils does not steadily improve, a phenomenon termed registration without learning (D. L. Hintzman & T. Curran, 1995; D. L. Hintzman, T. Curran, & B. Oppy,…

  8. Word-Initial Letters Influence Fixation Durations during Fluent Reading

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Christopher J.; O’Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined how word-initial letters influence lexical access during reading. Eye movements were monitored as participants read sentences containing target words. Three factors were independently manipulated. First, target words had either high or low constraining word-initial letter sequences (e.g., dwarf or clown, respectively). Second, targets were either high or low in frequency of occurrence (e.g., train or stain, respectively). Third, targets were embedded in either biasing or neutral contexts (i.e., targets were high or low in their predictability). This 2 (constraint)?×?2 (frequency)?×?2 (context) design allowed us to examine the conditions under which a word’s initial letter sequence could facilitate processing. Analyses of fixation duration data revealed significant main effects of constraint, frequency, and context. Moreover, in measures taken to reflect “early” lexical processing (i.e., first and single fixation duration), there was a significant interaction between constraint and context. The overall pattern of findings suggests lexical access is facilitated by highly constraining word-initial letters. Results are discussed in comparison to recent studies of lexical features involved in word recognition during reading. PMID:22485100

  9. Interhemispheric Cooperation and Non-Cooperation during Word Recognition: Evidence for Callosal Transfer Dysfunction in Dyslexic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lisa; Barca, Laura; Ellis, Andrew W.

    2007-01-01

    Participants report briefly-presented words more accurately when two copies are presented, one in the left visual field (LVF) and another in the right visual field (RVF), than when only a single copy is presented. This effect is known as the "redundant bilateral advantage" and has been interpreted as evidence for interhemispheric cooperation. We…

  10. Spelling and Word Recognition in Grades 1 and 2: Relations to Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed in Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Wim G. M.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J

    2010-01-01

    The influences of early phonological awareness and naming speed on Dutch children's later word spelling were investigated in a longitudinal study. Phonological awareness and naming speed predicted spelling in early Grade 1, later Grade 1, and later Grade 2. Phonological awareness, however, predominated over naming speed for the prediction of early…

  11. A speaker-independent, syntax-directed, connected word recognition system based on hidden Markov models and level building

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Rabiner; S. Levinson

    1985-01-01

    In the last several years, a wide variety of techniques have been developed which make practical the implementation and development of large networks for recognizing connected sequences of words. Included among these techniques are efficient and accurate speech modeling methods (e.g., vector quantization, hidden Markov models) and efficient, optimal network search procedures (i.e., level building). In this paper we show

  12. Examining the Test of Memory Malingering Trial 1 and Word Memory Test Immediate Recognition as Screening Tools for Insufficient Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Lyndsey; O'Bryant, Sid E.; Lynch, Julie K.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Fisher, Jerid M.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing effort level during neuropsychological evaluations is critical to support the accuracy of cognitive test scores. Many instruments are designed to measure effort, yet they are not routinely administered in neuropsychological assessments. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Word Memory Test (WMT) are commonly administered symptom…

  13. Targeting and intelligence electro-optical recognition modeling: a juxtaposition of the probabilities of discrimination and the general image quality equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driggers, Ronald G.; Cox, Paul G.; Leachtenauer, J.; Vollmerhausen, Richard; Scribner, Dean A.

    1998-03-01

    The recognition of objects using target acquisition systems is modeled by a sensor's minimum resolvable temperature, the Johnson criteria, atmospherics, and object specifics. Collectively, these three characteristics provide an acquisition model for estimating the probability of object recognition as a function of sensor-to-object range. This technique is called the probabilities of discrimination. When quantifying the performance of intelligence- surveillance-reconnaissance (ISR) systems, object recognition is assessed using the National Imagery Interpretability Scale (NIIRS). Each NIIRS level corresponds to a different capacity for object recognition and is defined by a set of recognition criteria. The general image quality equation (GIQE) is the ISR sensor model that determines the expected NIIRS level of a sensor for a given set of sensor parameters. It is important that electro- optical sensor engineers understand both of these recognition models. The segregation between the target acquisition and ISR sensor communities is becoming less sharp as ISR sensors are beginning to be used for target acquisition purposes and visa versa. Network and wireless communication advances are providing the means for dual exploitation of these systems. Descriptions of these two recognition models, probabilities of discrimination, and the GIQE are provided. The two models are applied to example systems. Finally, the two models are compared and contrasted.

  14. Pairs of related words in French (and their English equivalents) PRIME TARGET

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    gâteau (cake) bonbon (sweet) 7 6.6 6.7 3.1 2.8 13.92 3.72 6 6 Negative targets tempête (storm) vent (wind) pelle (shovel) 4.75 4.8 26.01 11.35 5 5 plat (dish) rasoir (razor) 5.3 3.9 44.26 15.61 4 6 cape (cape

  15. A Fuzzy Approach to Region of Interest Coding in JPEG 2000 for Automatic Target Recognition Applications from High-Resolution Satellite Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katari Clement Emmanuel Sanjay Raj; Sarma Venkataraman; Geeta Varadan

    2008-01-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) from satellite imagery involves detection of foreground (FG) objects from the background (BG). ATR demands higher fidelity, which in turn requires more bitrate, hence a conventional compression, which does not discriminate targets with the background results in poor detection rate. Here we propose a mechanism to achieve lower bitrate without compromising the detection efficiency. By allowing

  16. Complete automatic target cuer\\/recognition system for tactical forward-looking infrared images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian E. Ernisse; Steven K. Rogers; Martin P. DeSimio; Richard A. Raines

    1997-01-01

    A complete forward-looking IR (FLIR) automatic target cuer\\/recognizer (ATC\\/R) is presented. The data used for development and testing of this ATC\\/R are first generation FLIR images collected using a F-15E. The database contains thousands of images with various mission profiles and target arrangements. The specific target of interest is a mobile missile launcher, the primary target. The goal is to

  17. MicroRNAs and their targets: recognition, regulation and an emerging reciprocal relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy E. Pasquinelli

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key gene regulators in diverse biological pathways. These small non-coding RNAs bind to target sequences in mRNAs, typically resulting in repressed gene expression. Several methods are now available for identifying miRNA target sites, but the mere presence of an miRNA-binding site is insufficient for predicting target regulation. Regulation of targets by miRNAs is subject to

  18. Words: What Goes with What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph A.

    Techniques for teaching collocation and word-association recognition as applied to the English as a second language class are suggested. Collocations are defined as phrases made of words which usually occur together, like "for the time being." Collocations and word associations are treated as synonymous. It is suggested that some words ought to be…

  19. Asynchrony of visual-orthographic and auditory-phonological word recognition processes: An underlying factor in dyslexia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zvia Breznitz

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated whether asynchrony ofspeed of processing (SOP) betweenvisual-orthographic and auditory-phonologicalmodalities can account for word recognitiondeficits among dyslexic readers. SOP amongelementary school dyslexic readers was comparedto that of chronologically age-matched normalreaders. SOP was assessed using nonlinguisticand linguistic auditory and visual low-leveltasks and higher-level orthographic andphonological tasks. Behavioral andelectrophysiological (ERP) measures of SOP wereobtained. Data indicated that dyslexic readerswere significantly

  20. Targeting and intelligence electro-optical recognition modeling: a juxtaposition of the probabilities of discrimination and the general image quality equation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald G. Driggers; Paul G. Cox; J. Leachtenauer; Richard Vollmerhausen; Dean A. Scribner

    1998-01-01

    The recognition of objects using target acquisition systems is modeled by a sensor's minimum resolvable temperature, the Johnson criteria, atmospherics, and object specifics. Collectively, these three characteristics provide an acquisition model for estimating the probability of object recognition as a function of sensor-to-object range. This technique is called the probabilities of discrimination. When quantifying the performance of intelligence- surveillance-reconnaissance (ISR)

  1. Translational control and target recognition by Escherichia coli small RNAs in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes H. Urban; Jorg Vogel

    2007-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are an emerging class of regulators of bacterial gene expression. Most of the regulatory Escherichia coli sRNAs known to date modulate translation of trans- encoded target mRNAs. We studied the specificity of sRNA target interactions using gene fusions to green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a novel reporter of translational control by bacterial sRNAs in vivo. Target

  2. Multi-source feature extraction and target recognition in wireless sensor networks based on adaptive distributed wavelet compression algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    2008-04-01

    Proposed distributed wavelet-based algorithms are a means to compress sensor data received at the nodes forming a wireless sensor network (WSN) by exchanging information between neighboring sensor nodes. Local collaboration among nodes compacts the measurements, yielding a reduced fused set with equivalent information at far fewer nodes. Nodes may be equipped with multiple sensor types, each capable of sensing distinct phenomena: thermal, humidity, chemical, voltage, or image signals with low or no frequency content as well as audio, seismic or video signals within defined frequency ranges. Compression of the multi-source data through wavelet-based methods, distributed at active nodes, reduces downstream processing and storage requirements along the paths to sink nodes; it also enables noise suppression and more energy-efficient query routing within the WSN. Targets are first detected by the multiple sensors; then wavelet compression and data fusion are applied to the target returns, followed by feature extraction from the reduced data; feature data are input to target recognition/classification routines; targets are tracked during their sojourns through the area monitored by the WSN. Algorithms to perform these tasks are implemented in a distributed manner, based on a partition of the WSN into clusters of nodes. In this work, a scheme of collaborative processing is applied for hierarchical data aggregation and decorrelation, based on the sensor data itself and any redundant information, enabled by a distributed, in-cluster wavelet transform with lifting that allows multiple levels of resolution. The wavelet-based compression algorithm significantly decreases RF bandwidth and other resource use in target processing tasks. Following wavelet compression, features are extracted. The objective of feature extraction is to maximize the probabilities of correct target classification based on multi-source sensor measurements, while minimizing the resource expenditures at participating nodes. Therefore, the feature-extraction method based on the Haar DWT is presented that employs a maximum-entropy measure to determine significant wavelet coefficients. Features are formed by calculating the energy of coefficients grouped around the competing clusters. A DWT-based feature extraction algorithm used for vehicle classification in WSNs can be enhanced by an added rule for selecting the optimal number of resolution levels to improve the correct classification rate and reduce energy consumption expended in local algorithm computations. Published field trial data for vehicular ground targets, measured with multiple sensor types, are used to evaluate the wavelet-assisted algorithms. Extracted features are used in established target recognition routines, e.g., the Bayesian minimum-error-rate classifier, to compare the effects on the classification performance of the wavelet compression. Simulations of feature sets and recognition routines at different resolution levels in target scenarios indicate the impact on classification rates, while formulas are provided to estimate reduction in resource use due to distributed compression.

  3. A cepstral domain maximum likelihod beamformer for speech recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominik Raub; John W. McDonough; Matthias Wölfel

    2004-01-01

    Recent work by Seltzer (1) indicates that classical approaches to beamforming, minimizing output power while enforcing a distor- tionless constraint, do not yield optimal results in terms of word error rate (WER) on speech recognition task. This problem can be traced back to the mismatch between the target criterion of clas- sical adaptive beamformers, which is optimization of the signal

  4. Congruent and Incongruent Semantic Context Influence Vowel Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotton, J. M.; Elvebak, R. L.; Moua, L. C.; Heggem, N. M.; Nelson, C. A.; Kirk, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of sentence context on the recognition of naturally spoken vowels degraded by reverberation and Gaussian noise was investigated. Target words were paired to have similar consonant sounds but different vowels (e.g., map/mop) and were embedded early in sentences which provided three types of semantic context. Fifty-eight…

  5. Fast pattern recognizer for autonomous target recognition and tracking for advanced naval attack missiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Al Hastbacka

    2001-01-01

    A FPR System under development for the Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA is funded under a SBIR, Phase II contract as an automatic target recognizer and tracker candidate for Navy fast-reaction, subsonic and supersonic, stand-off weapons. The FPR will autonomously detect, identify, correlate, and track complex surface ship and land based targets in hostile, high-clutter environments in real

  6. Structural and sequencing analysis of local target DNA recognition by MLV integrase

    PubMed Central

    Aiyer, Sriram; Rossi, Paolo; Malani, Nirav; Schneider, William M.; Chandar, Ashwin; Bushman, Frederic D.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Roth, Monica J.

    2015-01-01

    Target-site selection by retroviral integrase (IN) proteins profoundly affects viral pathogenesis. We describe the solution nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the Moloney murine leukemia virus IN (M-MLV) C-terminal domain (CTD) and a structural homology model of the catalytic core domain (CCD). In solution, the isolated MLV IN CTD adopts an SH3 domain fold flanked by a C-terminal unstructured tail. We generated a concordant MLV IN CCD structural model using SWISS-MODEL, MMM-tree and I-TASSER. Using the X-ray crystal structure of the prototype foamy virus IN target capture complex together with our MLV domain structures, residues within the CCD ?2 helical region and the CTD ?1-?2 loop were predicted to bind target DNA. The role of these residues was analyzed in vivo through point mutants and motif interchanges. Viable viruses with substitutions at the IN CCD ?2 helical region and the CTD ?1-?2 loop were tested for effects on integration target site selection. Next-generation sequencing and analysis of integration target sequences indicate that the CCD ?2 helical region, in particular P187, interacts with the sequences distal to the scissile bonds whereas the CTD ?1-?2 loop binds to residues proximal to it. These findings validate our structural model and disclose IN-DNA interactions relevant to target site selection. PMID:25969444

  7. Structural and sequencing analysis of local target DNA recognition by MLV integrase.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, Sriram; Rossi, Paolo; Malani, Nirav; Schneider, William M; Chandar, Ashwin; Bushman, Frederic D; Montelione, Gaetano T; Roth, Monica J

    2015-06-23

    Target-site selection by retroviral integrase (IN) proteins profoundly affects viral pathogenesis. We describe the solution nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the Moloney murine leukemia virus IN (M-MLV) C-terminal domain (CTD) and a structural homology model of the catalytic core domain (CCD). In solution, the isolated MLV IN CTD adopts an SH3 domain fold flanked by a C-terminal unstructured tail. We generated a concordant MLV IN CCD structural model using SWISS-MODEL, MMM-tree and I-TASSER. Using the X-ray crystal structure of the prototype foamy virus IN target capture complex together with our MLV domain structures, residues within the CCD ?2 helical region and the CTD ?1-?2 loop were predicted to bind target DNA. The role of these residues was analyzed in vivo through point mutants and motif interchanges. Viable viruses with substitutions at the IN CCD ?2 helical region and the CTD ?1-?2 loop were tested for effects on integration target site selection. Next-generation sequencing and analysis of integration target sequences indicate that the CCD ?2 helical region, in particular P187, interacts with the sequences distal to the scissile bonds whereas the CTD ?1-?2 loop binds to residues proximal to it. These findings validate our structural model and disclose IN-DNA interactions relevant to target site selection. PMID:25969444

  8. A bio-recognition device developed onto nano-crystals of carbonate apatite for cell-targeted gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, E H; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2005-05-20

    The DNA delivery to mammalian cells is an essential tool for analyzing gene structure, regulation, and function. The approach holds great promise for the further development of gene therapy techniques and DNA vaccination strategies to treat and control diseases. Here, we report on the establishment of a cell-specific gene delivery and expression system by physical adsorption of a cell-recognition molecule on the nano-crystal surface of carbonate apatite. As a model, DNA/nano-particles were successfully coated with asialofetuin to facilitate uptake by hepatocyte-derived cell lines through the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPr) and albumin to prevent non-specific interactions of the particles with cell-surface. The resulting composite particles with dual surface properties could accelerate DNA uptake and enhance expression to a notable extent. Nano-particles coated with transferrin in the same manner dramatically enhanced transgene expression in the corresponding receptor-bearing cells and thus our newly developed strategy represents a universal phenomenon for anchoring a bio-recognition macromolecule on the apatite crystal surface for targeted gene delivery, having immediate applications in basic research laboratories and great promise for gene therapy. PMID:15816024

  9. Targeting of plant pattern recognition receptor-triggered immunity by bacterial type-III secretion system effectors.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Zipfel, Cyril

    2015-02-01

    During infection, microbes are detected by surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to an innate immune response that prevents microbial ingress. Therefore, successful pathogens must evade or inhibit PRR-triggered immunity to cause disease. In the past decade, a number of type-III secretion system effector (T3Es) proteins from plant pathogenic bacteria have been shown to suppress this layer of innate immunity. More recently, the detailed mechanisms of action have been defined for several of these effectors. Interestingly, effectors display a wide array of virulence targets, being able to prevent activation of immune receptors and to hijack immune signaling pathways. Besides being a fascinating example of pathogen-host co-evolution, effectors have also emerged as valuable tools to dissect important biological processes in host cells. PMID:25461568

  10. Recognition by top-down and bottom-up processing in cortex: the control of selective attention.

    PubMed

    Graboi, Dan; Lisman, John

    2003-08-01

    Visual recognition is achieved by a hierarchy of bidirectionally connected cortical areas. The entry of signals into higher areas involves the serial sampling of information within a movable window of attention. Here we explore how the cortex can move this window and integrate the sampled information. To make this concrete, we modeled the process of visual word recognition by hierarchical cortical areas representing features, letters, and words. At the start of the recognition process, nodes representing all contextually possible words are active. Simple connectivity rules allow a parallel top-down (T-D) computation of the relative probability of each feature at each location given the set of active words. This information is then used to guide the window of attention to information-rich features (e.g., a feature that is present in the visual image but has lowest probability). Bottom-up processing of this feature excludes words that do not contain it and leads to T-D recomputation of feature probabilities. Recognition occurs after several such cycles when all but one word has been excluded. We show that when 950 words are stored in long-term memory, recognition occurs after an average of 4.9 cycles. Because covert attention can be moved every 20-30 ms, word recognition could be as fast as determined experimentally (<200 ms of cortical processing). This model accounts for the findings that recognition time depends logarithmically on set size, recognition time is reduced when context reduces the number of possible targets, the time to classify a nonword decreases when its approximation to English decreases, and in high level cortex, the firing of neurons tuned to an object increases progressively as its recognition occurs. More generally the model provides a physiologically plausible view of how bi-directional signal flow in cortex guides attention to produce efficient recognition. PMID:12702712

  11. Fast pattern recognizer for autonomous target recognition and tracking for advanced naval attack missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastbacka, Al

    2001-10-01

    A FPR System under development for the Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA is funded under a SBIR, Phase II contract as an automatic target recognizer and tracker candidate for Navy fast-reaction, subsonic and supersonic, stand-off weapons. The FPR will autonomously detect, identify, correlate, and track complex surface ship and land based targets in hostile, high-clutter environments in real time. The novel FPR system is proven technology that uses an electronic implementation analogous to an optical correlator system, where the Fourier transform of the incoming image is compared against known target images stored as matched filter templates. FPR demonstrations show that unambiguous target identification is achievable in a ninety-five percent fog obscuration for over ninety-percent of target images tested. The FPR technology employs an acoustic dispersive delay line (DDL) to achieve ultra-fast image correlations in 90 microseconds or 11,000 correlations per second. The massively scalable FPR design is capable of achieving processing speeds of an order of magnitude faster using available ASIC technology. Key benefits of the FPR are dramatically reduced power, size, weight, and cost with increased durability, robustness, and performance - which makes the FPR ideal for onboard missile applications.

  12. Recognition and sensing of low-epitope targets via ternary complexes with oligonucleotides and synthetic receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kyung-Ae; Barbu, Mihaela; Halim, Marlin; Pallavi, Payal; Kim, Benjamin; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M.; Pecic, Stevan; Taylor, Steven; Worgall, Tilla S.; Stojanovic, Milan N.

    2014-11-01

    Oligonucleotide-based receptors or aptamers can interact with small molecules, but the ability to achieve high-affinity and specificity of these interactions depends strongly on functional groups or epitopes displayed by the binding targets. Some classes of targets are particularly challenging: for example, monosaccharides have scarce functionalities and no aptamers have been reported to recognize, let alone distinguish from each other, glucose and other hexoses. Here we report aptamers that differentiate low-epitope targets such as glucose, fructose or galactose by forming ternary complexes with high-epitope organic receptors for monosaccharides. In a follow-up example, we expand this method to isolate high-affinity oligonucleotides against aromatic amino acids complexed in situ with a nonspecific organometallic receptor. The method is general and enables broad clinical use of aptamers for the detection of small molecules in mix-and-measure assays, as demonstrated by monitoring postprandial waves of phenylalanine in human subjects.

  13. Novel Pattern Recognition Techniques for Improved Target Detection in Hyperspectral Imagery 

    E-print Network

    Sakla, Wesam Adel

    2011-02-22

    optimization. We investigated a proper number of signatures N to generate for the SVDD target class and found that only a small number of training samples is required relative to the dimensionality (number of bands). We have extended decision-level fusion...

  14. Three-Dimensional target recognition via sonar: A neural network model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itiel E. Dror; Mark Zagaeski; Cynthia F. Moss

    1995-01-01

    A neural network was trained to recognize two three-dimensional shapes independent of orientation, based on echoes of ultrasonic pulses similar to those used by an echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Following supervised learning, the network was required to generalize and recognize echoes from the shapes at novel orientations. The representation of the echo was manipulated to explore how information about target

  15. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 45, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2007 4043 Urban-Target Recognition by Means of

    E-print Network

    Perissin, Daniele

    --The relative low resolution (25 m × 5 m on the ground) of spaceborne C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data-Target Recognition by Means of Repeated Spaceborne SAR Images Daniele Perissin and Alessandro Ferretti Abstract the amplitude of the radar signal and by exploiting polarization diversity, the main radar characteristics

  16. Integrated approach to bandwidth reduction and mine detection in shallow water with reduced-dimension image compression and automatic target recognition algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances B. Shin; David H. Kil; Gerald J. Dobeck

    1997-01-01

    In distributed underwater signal processing for area surveillance and sanitization during regional conflicts, it is often necessary to transmit raw imagery data to a remote processing station for detection-report confirmation and more sophisticated automatic target recognition (ATR) processing. Because of he limited bandwidth available for transmission, image compression is of paramount importance. At the same time, preservation of useful information

  17. Testing a Hierarchical Model of Word Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juel, Connie; Holmes, Betty

    A study was conducted into the operation of an interactive-compensatory model of reading. Specifically, it examined the development of context-free word recognition skills, their role in contextual reading, and the degree to which one word recognition skill might compensate another. Four word factors were examined: (1) orthographic redundancy (the…

  18. Interaction with WDR5 Promotes Target Gene Recognition and Tumorigenesis by MYC.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lance R; Wang, Qingguo; Grieb, Brian C; Phan, Jason; Foshage, Audra M; Sun, Qi; Olejniczak, Edward T; Clark, Travis; Dey, Soumyadeep; Lorey, Shelly; Alicie, Bethany; Howard, Gregory C; Cawthon, Bryan; Ess, Kevin C; Eischen, Christine M; Zhao, Zhongming; Fesik, Stephen W; Tansey, William P

    2015-05-01

    MYC is an oncoprotein transcription factor that is overexpressed in the majority of malignancies. The oncogenic potential of MYC stems from its ability to bind regulatory sequences in thousands of target genes, which depends on interaction of MYC with its obligate partner, MAX. Here, we show that broad association of MYC with chromatin also depends on interaction with the WD40-repeat protein WDR5. MYC binds WDR5 via an evolutionarily conserved "MYC box IIIb" motif that engages a shallow, hydrophobic cleft on the surface of WDR5. Structure-guided mutations in MYC that disrupt interaction with WDR5 attenuate binding of MYC at ?80% of its chromosomal locations and disable its ability to promote induced pluripotent stem cell formation and drive tumorigenesis. Our data reveal WDR5 as a key determinant for MYC recruitment to chromatin and uncover a tractable target for the discovery of anticancer therapies against MYC-driven tumors. PMID:25818646

  19. Structural basis for specific recognition of multiple mRNA targets by a PUF regulatory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yeming; Opperman, Laura; Wickens, Marvin; Tanaka Hall, Traci M.; (NIH); (UW)

    2010-08-19

    Caenorhabditis elegans fem-3 binding factor (FBF) is a founding member of the PUMILIO/FBF (PUF) family of mRNA regulatory proteins. It regulates multiple mRNAs critical for stem cell maintenance and germline development. Here, we report crystal structures of FBF in complex with 6 different 9-nt RNA sequences, including elements from 4 natural mRNAs. These structures reveal that FBF binds to conserved bases at positions 1-3 and 7-8. The key specificity determinant of FBF vs. other PUF proteins lies in positions 4-6. In FBF/RNA complexes, these bases stack directly with one another and turn away from the RNA-binding surface. A short region of FBF is sufficient to impart its unique specificity and lies directly opposite the flipped bases. We suggest that this region imposes a flattened curvature on the protein; hence, the requirement for the additional nucleotide. The principles of FBF/RNA recognition suggest a general mechanism by which PUF proteins recognize distinct families of RNAs yet exploit very nearly identical atomic contacts in doing so.

  20. Telomere DNA recognition in Saccharomycotina yeast: potential lessons for the co-evolution of ssDNA and dsDNA-binding proteins and their target sites

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg-Neifach, Olga; Lue, Neal F.

    2015-01-01

    In principle, alterations in the telomere repeat sequence would be expected to disrupt the protective nucleoprotein complexes that confer stability to chromosome ends, and hence relatively rare events in evolution. Indeed, numerous organisms in diverse phyla share a canonical 6 bp telomere repeat unit (5?-TTAGGG-3?/5?-CCCTAA-3?), suggesting common descent from an ancestor that carries this particular repeat. All the more remarkable, then, are the extraordinarily divergent telomere sequences that populate the Saccharomycotina subphylum of budding yeast. These sequences are distinguished from the canonical telomere repeat in being long, occasionally degenerate, and frequently non-G/C-rich. Despite the divergent telomere repeat sequences, studies to date indicate that the same families of single-strand and double-strand telomere binding proteins (i.e., the Cdc13 and Rap1 families) are responsible for telomere protection in Saccharomycotina yeast. The recognition mechanisms of the protein family members therefore offer an informative paradigm for understanding the co-evolution of DNA-binding proteins and the cognate target sequences. Existing data suggest three potential, inter-related solutions to the DNA recognition problem: (i) duplication of the recognition protein and functional modification; (ii) combinatorial recognition of target site; and (iii) flexibility of the recognition surfaces of the DNA-binding proteins to adopt alternative conformations. Evidence in support of these solutions and the relevance of these solutions to other DNA-protein regulatory systems are discussed. PMID:25983743