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1

A Comparison of Two Flashcard Drill Methods Targeting Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional drill and practice (TD) and incremental rehearsal (IR) are two flashcard drill instructional methods previously noted to improve word recognition. The current study sought to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of these two methods, as assessed by next day retention assessments, under 2 conditions (i.e., opportunities to respond…

Volpe, Robert J.; Mule, Christina M.; Briesch, Amy M.; Joseph, Laurice M.; Burns, Matthew K.

2011-01-01

2

Word Recognition Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for participating in the Word Recognition Experiment. This study involves a series of word recognition trials in which participants are flashed a word either in the left or in the right hemifield and then identify the presented word. Performance is measured as the minimum presentation display time required for an individual to correctly identify the word.

3

Bilingual Word Recognition in a Sentence Context  

PubMed Central

This article provides an overview of bilingualism research on visual word recognition in isolation and in sentence context. Many studies investigating the processing of words out-of-context have shown that lexical representations from both languages are activated when reading in one language (language-non-selective lexical access). A newly developed research line asks whether language-non-selective access generalizes to word recognition in sentence contexts, providing a language cue and/or semantic constraint information for upcoming words. Recent studies suggest that the language of the preceding words is insufficient to restrict lexical access to words of the target language, even when reading in the native language. Eye tracking studies revealing the time course of word activation further showed that semantic constraint does not restrict language-non-selective access at early reading stages, but there is evidence that it has a relatively late effect. The theoretical implications for theories of bilingual word recognition are discussed in light of the Bilingual Interactive Activation+ model (Dijkstra and van Heuven, 2002). PMID:22675314

Assche, Eva Van; Duyck, Wouter; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2012-01-01

4

Embedded Words in Visual Word Recognition: Does the Left Hemisphere See the Rain in Brain?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine whether interhemispheric transfer during foveal word recognition entails a discontinuity between the information presented to the left and right of fixation, we presented target words in such a way that participants fixated immediately left or right of an embedded word (as in "gr*apple", "bull*et") or in the middle of an embedded word

McCormick, Samantha F.; Davis, Colin J.; Brysbaert, Marc

2010-01-01

5

Word Recognition Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research on hemispheric specialization in lateralized recognition tasks has examined a range of factors that may influence or interact with the left-right dominance of particular tasks. The divided visual field technique is a valuable strategy for examining hemispheric specialization across a range of abilities. This page offers information about how to use a divided visual field activity to illustrate hemispheric specialization.

6

Dialect Pronunciation Comparison and Spoken Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two adaptations of the regular Levenshtein dis- tance algorithm are proposed based on psy- cholinguistic work on spoken word recognition. The first adaptation is inspired by the Cohort model which assumes that the word-initial part is more important for word recognition than the word-final part. The second adaptation is based on the notion that stressed syllables contain more information and

Martijn Wieling; John Nerbonne

7

Models of visual word recognition  

PubMed Central

Reading is a complex process that draws on a remarkable number of diverse perceptual and cognitive processes. In this review, I provide an overview of computational models of reading, focussing on models of visual word recognition–how we recognise individual words. Early computational models had ‘toy’ lexicons, could simulate only a narrow range of phenomena, and frequently had fundamental limitations, such as being able to handle only four-letter words. The most recent models can use realistic lexicons, can simulate data from a range of tasks, and can process words of different lengths. These models are the driving force behind much of the empirical work on reading. I discuss how the data have guided model development and, importantly, I also provide guidelines to help interpret and evaluate the contribution the models make to our understanding of how we read. PMID:24012145

Norris, Dennis

2013-01-01

8

Recognition and verification of unconstrained handwritten words.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel approach for the verification of the word hypotheses generated by a large vocabulary, offline handwritten word recognition system. Given a word image, the recognition system produces a ranked list of the N-best recognition hypotheses consisting of text transcripts, segmentation boundaries of the word hypotheses into characters, and recognition scores. The verification consists of an estimation of the probability of each segment representing a known class of character. Then, character probabilities are combined to produce word confidence scores which are further integrated with the recognition scores produced by the recognition system. The N-best recognition hypothesis list is reranked based on such composite scores. In the end, rejection rules are invoked to either accept the best recognition hypothesis of such a list or to reject the input word image. The use of the verification approach has improved the word recognition rate as well as the reliability of the recognition system, while not causing significant delays in the recognition process. Our approach is described in detail and the experimental results on a large database of unconstrained handwritten words extracted from postal envelopes are presented. PMID:16237988

Koerich, Alessandro L; Sabourin, Robert; Suen, Ching Y

2005-10-01

9

Morphology in Word Recognition: Hindi and Urdu  

E-print Network

The present research examined whether morphology influences word recognition independently of form-level word properties. Prevailing views attribute cross-linguistic differences in morphological processing to variations in morphological structure...

Rao, Chaitra

2011-08-08

10

Adult word recognition and visual sequential memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency\\u000a of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely\\u000a spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from words with internal\\u000a transposed letters. Symbol memory was evaluated in a

V. M. Holmes

11

The Effect of Word Sociality on Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While research into the role of semantic structure in the recognition of written and spoken words has grown, it has not looked specifically at the role of conversational context on the recognition of isolated words. This study was a corpus-based and behavioral exploration of a new semantic variable--sociality--and used on-line behavioral testing…

Seaman, Sean

2010-01-01

12

Formal Models of Word Recognition. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Existing mathematical models of word recognition are reviewed and a new theory is proposed in this research. The new theory integrates earlier proposals within a single framework, sacrificing none of the predictive power of the earlier proposals, but offering a gain in theoretical economy. The theory holds that word recognition is accomplished by…

Travers, Jeffrey R.

13

Lexical Competition in Non-Native Spoken-Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name ("pencil," given target "panda") than on less confusable distractors…

Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

2004-01-01

14

Early Word Recognition and Later Language Skills  

PubMed Central

Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of infants who had earlier participated in speech segmentation tasks. Each study extends prior follow-up tests: Study 1 by using a novel follow-up measure that taps into online processing, Study 2 by assessing language performance relationships over a longer time span than previously tested. Results of Study 1 show that brain correlates of speech segmentation ability at 10 months are positively related to 16-month-olds’ target fixations in a looking-while-listening task. Results of Study 2 show that infant speech segmentation ability no longer directly predicts language profiles at the age of five. However, a meta-analysis across our results and those of similar studies (Study 3) reveals that age at follow-up does not moderate effect size. Together, the results suggest that infants’ ability to recognize words in speech certainly benefits early vocabulary development; further observed relationships of later language skills to early word recognition may be consequent upon this vocabulary size effect. PMID:25347057

Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne

2014-01-01

15

The spread of the phonological neighborhood influences spoken word recognition  

PubMed Central

In three experiments, the processing of words that had the same overall number of neighbors but varied in the spread of the neighborhood (i.e., the number of individual phonemes that could be changed to form real words) was examined. In an auditory lexical decision task, a naming task, and a same–different task, words in which changes at only two phoneme positions formed neighbors were responded to more quickly than words in which changes at all three phoneme positions formed neighbors. Additional analyses ruled out an account based on the computationally derived uniqueness points of the words. Although previous studies (e.g., Luce & Pisoni, 1998) have shown that the number of phonological neighbors influences spoken word recognition, the present results show that the nature of the relationship of the neighbors to the target word—as measured by the spread of the neighborhood—also influences spoken word recognition. The implications of this result for models of spoken word recognition are discussed. PMID:17533890

Vitevitch, Michael S.

2008-01-01

16

Offline recognition of handwritten cursive words  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust algorithm for offline cursive script recognition is described. The algorithm uses a generate-and-test paradigm to analyze cursive word images. The generate phase of the algorithm intelligently segments the word after analyzing certain structural features present in the word. The test phase determines the most likely character candidates among the segmentation points by using a recognition algorithm trained on generalized cursive letter shapes. In a sense, word recognition is done by sliding a variable sized window across the word looking for recognizable characters and strokes. The output of this system is a list of all plausible interpretations of the word. This list is then analyzed by a two-step contextual post- processor which first matches all of the interpretations to a supplied dictionary using a string matching algorithm. This eliminates the least likely interpretations. The remaining candidates are then analyzed for certain character spatial relationships (local reference line finder) to finally rank the dictionary. The system has the advantage of not requiring explicit word training yet is able to recognize many handwriting styles. This system is being successfully tested on a database of handwritten words extracted from live mail with dictionary sizes of up to 300 words. Planned extensions include developing a multilevel generate-and-test paradigm which can handle any type of handwritten word.

Favata, John T.; Srihari, Sargur N.

1992-08-01

17

An offline cursive handwritten word recognition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an offline cursive handwritten word recognition system that combines hidden Markov models (HMM) and neural networks (NN). Using a fast left-right slicing method, we generate a segmentation graph that describes all possible ways to segment a word into letters. The NN computes the observation probabilities for each letter hypothesis in the segmentation graph. Then, the HMM compute

Yong Haur Tay; Pierre-Michel Lallican; Marzuki Khalid; Christian Viard-Gaudin; S. Kneer

2001-01-01

18

Discourse Context and the Recognition of Reduced and Canonical Spoken Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two eye-tracking experiments we examined whether wider discourse information helps the recognition of reduced pronunciations (e.g., "puter") more than the recognition of canonical pronunciations of spoken words (e.g., "computer"). Dutch participants listened to sentences from a casual speech corpus containing canonical and reduced target words.…

Brouwer, Susanne; Mitterer, Holger; Huettig, Falk

2013-01-01

19

Vowel Categorization during Word Recognition in Bilingual Toddlers  

PubMed Central

Toddlers’ and preschoolers’ knowledge of the phonological forms of words was tested in Spanish-learning, Catalan-learning, and bilingual children. These populations are of particular interest because of differences in the Spanish and Catalan vowel systems: Catalan has two vowels in a phonetic region where Spanish has only one. The proximity of the Spanish vowel to the Catalan ones might pose special learning problems. Children were shown picture pairs; the target picture’s name was spoken correctly, or a vowel in the target word was altered. Altered vowels either contrasted with the usual vowel in Spanish and Catalan, or only in Catalan. Children’s looking to the target picture was used as a measure of word recognition. Monolinguals’ word recognition was hindered by within-language, but not non-native, vowel changes. Surprisingly, bilingual toddlers did not show sensitivity to changes in vowels contrastive only in Catalan. Among preschoolers, Catalan-dominant bilinguals but not Spanish-dominant bilinguals revealed mispronunciation sensitivity for the Catalan-only contrast. These studies reveal monolingual children’s robust knowledge of native-language vowel categories in words, and show that bilingual children whose two languages contain phonetically overlapping vowel categories may not treat those categories as separate in language comprehension. PMID:19338984

Ramon-Casas, Marta; Swingley, Daniel; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Bosch, Laura

2009-01-01

20

Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations?  

PubMed Central

The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that there is a symmetry in infant sensitivity to vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words (Mani & Plunkett, 2007). In a second series of simulations, we use TRACE to simulate infants’ graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). An unexpected outcome is that TRACE fails to demonstrate graded sensitivity for White and Morgan’s stimuli unless the inhibitory parameters in TRACE are substantially reduced. We explore the ramifications of this finding for theories of lexical development. Finally, TRACE mimics the impact of phonological neighbourhoods on early word learning reported by Swingley and Aslin (2007). TRACE offers an alternative explanation of these findings in terms of mispronunciations of lexical items rather than imputing word learning to infants. Together these simulations provide an evaluation of Developmental (Jusczyk, 1993) and Familiarity (Metsala, 1999) accounts of word recognition by infants and young children. The findings point to a role for both theoretical approaches whereby vocabulary structure and content constrain infant word recognition in an experience-dependent fashion, and highlight the continuity in the processes and representations involved in lexical development during the second year of life. PMID:24493907

Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

2014-01-01

21

Letter binding and invariant recognition of masked words: Behavioral and neuroimaging evidence  

E-print Network

the automaticity and functional anatomy of invariant word recognition, we measured brain activity during subliminal observed that, when the same visual word is presented twice, first as a subliminal prime by the presentation of the initial subliminal prime, and does not react as much when the same word appears as target

Boyer, Edmond

22

Spoken word recognition without a TRACE  

PubMed Central

How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition—including visual word recognition—have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349

Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S.; Grainger, Jonathan

2013-01-01

23

The role of lexical tone in spoken word recognition of Chinese  

E-print Network

The present study used a direct priming task in order to investigate the nature and processing of tonal information in spoken word recognition of Chinese. Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, prime-target pairs ...

Lee, Yu Ju

2008-03-17

24

Coordination of Word Recognition and Oculomotor Control During Reading: The Role of Implicit Lexical Decisions  

PubMed Central

The coordination of word-recognition and oculomotor processes during reading was evaluated in two eye-tracking experiments that examined how word skipping, where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading, is affected by the lexical status of a letter string in the parafovea and ease of recognizing that string. Ease of lexical recognition was manipulated through target-word frequency (Experiment 1) and through repetition priming between prime-target pairs embedded in a sentence (Experiment 2). Using the gaze-contingent boundary technique the target word appeared in the parafovea either with full preview or with transposed-letter (TL) preview. The TL preview strings were nonwords in Experiment 1 (e.g., bilnk created from the target blink), but were words in Experiment 2 (e.g., sacred created from the target scared). Experiment 1 showed greater skipping for high-frequency than low-frequency target words in the full preview condition but not in the TL preview (nonword) condition. Experiment 2 showed greater skipping for target words that repeated an earlier prime word than for those that did not, with this repetition priming occurring both with preview of the full target and with preview of the target’s TL neighbor word. However, time to progress from the word after the target was greater following skips of the TL preview word, whose meaning was anomalous in the sentence context, than following skips of the full preview word whose meaning fit sensibly into the sentence context. Together, the results support the idea that coordination between word-recognition and oculomotor processes occurs at the level of implicit lexical decisions. PMID:23106372

Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C.

2013-01-01

25

Coordination of word recognition and oculomotor control during reading: the role of implicit lexical decisions.  

PubMed

The coordination of word-recognition and oculomotor processes during reading was evaluated in eye-tracking experiments that examined how word skipping, where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading, is affected by the lexical status of a letter string in the parafovea and ease of recognizing that string. Ease of lexical recognition was manipulated through target-word frequency (Experiment 1) and through repetition priming between prime-target pairs embedded in a sentence (Experiment 2). Using the gaze-contingent boundary technique the target word appeared in the parafovea either with full preview or with transposed-letter (TL) preview. The TL preview strings were nonwords in Experiment 1 (e.g., bilnk created from the target blink), but were words in Experiment 2 (e.g., sacred created from the target scared). Experiment 1 showed greater skipping for high-frequency than low-frequency target words in the full preview condition, but not in the TL preview (nonword) condition. Experiment 2 showed greater skipping for target words that repeated an earlier prime word than for those that did not, with this repetition priming occurring both with preview of the full target and with preview of the target's TL neighbor word. However, time to progress from the word after the target was greater following skips of the TL preview word, whose meaning was anomalous in the sentence context, than following skips of the full preview word whose meaning fit sensibly into the sentence context. Together, the results support the idea that coordination between word-recognition and oculomotor processes occurs at the level of implicit lexical decisions. PMID:23106372

Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C

2013-08-01

26

Three Languages, One ECHO: Cognate Effects in Trilingual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on bilingual word recognition suggests that lexical access is non-selective with respect to language, i.e., that word representations of both languages become active during recognition. One piece of evidence is that bilinguals recognise cognates (words that are identical or similar in form and meaning in two languages) faster than…

Lemhofer, Kristin; Dijkstra, Ton; Michel, Marije C.

2004-01-01

27

Emotion and language: valence and arousal affect word recognition.  

PubMed

Emotion influences most aspects of cognition and behavior, but emotional factors are conspicuously absent from current models of word recognition. The influence of emotion on word recognition has mostly been reported in prior studies on the automatic vigilance for negative stimuli, but the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. Various models of automatic vigilance have claimed that the effect of valence on response times is categorical, an inverted U, or interactive with arousal. In the present study, we used a sample of 12,658 words and included many lexical and semantic control factors to determine the precise nature of the effects of arousal and valence on word recognition. Converging empirical patterns observed in word-level and trial-level data from lexical decision and naming indicate that valence and arousal exert independent monotonic effects: Negative words are recognized more slowly than positive words, and arousing words are recognized more slowly than calming words. Valence explained about 2% of the variance in word recognition latencies, whereas the effect of arousal was smaller. Valence and arousal do not interact, but both interact with word frequency, such that valence and arousal exert larger effects among low-frequency words than among high-frequency words. These results necessitate a new model of affective word processing whereby the degree of negativity monotonically and independently predicts the speed of responding. This research also demonstrates that incorporating emotional factors, especially valence, improves the performance of models of word recognition. PMID:24490848

Kuperman, Victor; Estes, Zachary; Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth

2014-06-01

28

Function Words Constrain On-Line Recognition of Verbs and Nouns in French 18-Month-Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this experiment using the conditioned head-turn procedure, 18-month-old French-learning toddlers were trained to respond to either a target noun ("la balle"/"the ball") or a target verb ("je mange"/"I ea"t). They were then tested on target word recognition in two syntactic contexts: the target word was…

Cauvet, Elodie; Limissuri, Rita; Millotte, Severine; Skoruppa, Katrin; Cabrol, Dominique; Christophe, Anne

2014-01-01

29

Expectation and Entropy in Spoken Word Recognition: Effects of Age and Hearing Acuity  

PubMed Central

Background/Study Context Older adults, especially those with reduced hearing acuity, can make good use of linguistic context in word recognition. Less is known about the effects of the weighted distribution of probable target and non-target words that fit the sentence context (response entropy). The present study examined the effects of age, hearing acuity, linguistic context, and response entropy on spoken word recognition. Methods Participants were 18 older adults with good hearing acuity (M age = 74.3 years), 18 older adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss (M age = 76.1 years) and 18 young adults with age-normal hearing (M age = 19.6 years). Participants heard sentence-final words using a word-onset gating paradigm, in which words were heard with increasing amounts of onset information until they could be correctly identified. Degrees of context varied from a neutral context to a high context condition. Results Older adults with poor hearing acuity required a greater amount of word onset information for recognition of words when heard in a neutral context compared to older adults with good hearing acuity and young adults. This difference progressively decreased with an increase in words’ contextual probability. Unlike the young adults, both older adult groups’ word recognition thresholds were sensitive to response entropy. Response entropy was not affected by hearing acuity. Conclusions Increasing linguistic context mitigates the negative effect of age and hearing loss on word recognition. The effect of response entropy on older adults’ word recognition is discussed in terms of an age-related inhibition deficit. PMID:23607396

Lash, Amanda; Rogers, Chad S.; Zoller, Amy; Wingfield, Arthur

2013-01-01

30

The effect of word concreteness on recognition memory.  

PubMed

Concrete words that are readily imagined are better remembered than abstract words. Theoretical explanations for this effect either claim a dual coding of concrete words in the form of both a verbal and a sensory code (dual-coding theory), or a more accessible semantic network for concrete words than for abstract words (context-availability theory). However, the neural mechanisms of improved memory for concrete versus abstract words are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the processing of concrete and abstract words during encoding and retrieval in a recognition memory task using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). As predicted, memory performance was significantly better for concrete words than for abstract words. Abstract words elicited stronger activations of the left inferior frontal cortex both during encoding and recognition than did concrete words. Stronger activation of this area was also associated with successful encoding for both abstract and concrete words. Concrete words elicited stronger activations bilaterally in the posterior inferior parietal lobe during recognition. The left parietal activation was associated with correct identification of old stimuli. The anterior precuneus, left cerebellar hemisphere and the posterior and anterior cingulate cortex showed activations both for successful recognition of concrete words and for online processing of concrete words during encoding. Additionally, we observed a correlation across subjects between brain activity in the left anterior fusiform gyrus and hippocampus during recognition of learned words and the strength of the concreteness effect. These findings support the idea of specific brain processes for concrete words, which are reactivated during successful recognition. PMID:16861011

Fliessbach, K; Weis, S; Klaver, P; Elger, C E; Weber, B

2006-09-01

31

Orthographic Facilitation in Chinese Spoken Word Recognition: An ERP Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…

Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua

2012-01-01

32

See before you jump: full recognition of parafoveal words precedes skips during reading.  

PubMed

Serial attention models of eye-movement control during reading were evaluated in an eye-tracking experiment that examined how lexical activation combines with visual information in the parafovea to affect word skipping (where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading). Lexical activation was manipulated by repetition priming created through prime-target pairs embedded within a sentence. The boundary technique (Rayner, 1975) was used to determine whether the target word was fully available during parafoveal preview or whether it was available with transposed letters (e.g., Herman changed to Hreman). With full parafoveal preview, the target word was skipped more frequently when it matched the earlier prime word (i.e., was repeated) than when it did not match the earlier prime word (i.e., was new). With transposed-letter (TL) preview, repetition had no effect on skipping rates despite the great similarity of the TL preview string to the target word and substantial evidence that TL strings activate the words from which they are derived (Perea & Lupker, 2003). These results show that lexically based skipping is based on full recognition of the letter string in parafoveal preview and does not involve using the contextual constraint to compensate for the reduced information available from the parafovea. These results are consistent with models of eye-movement control during reading in which successive words in a text are processed 1 at a time (serially) and in which word recognition strongly influences eye movements. PMID:22686842

Gordon, Peter C; Plummer, Patrick; Choi, Wonil

2013-03-01

33

Modelling the Effects of Semantic Ambiguity in Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most words in English are ambiguous between different interpretations; words can mean different things in different contexts. We investigate the implications of different types of semantic ambiguity for connectionist models of word recognition. We present a model in which there is competition to activate distributed semantic representations. The…

Rodd, Jennifer M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

2004-01-01

34

A Distributed, Developmental Model of Word Recognition and Naming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A parallel distributed processing model of visual word recognition and pronunciation is described. A key feature is the assumption that there is a simple, uniform procedure for computing a phonological representation from an orthographic representation for irregular words as well as regular words. (SLD)

Seidenberg, Mark S.; McClelland, James L.

1989-01-01

35

Effects of Age and Hearing Sensitivity on the Use of Prosodic Information in Spoken Word Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, younger and older adults heard either just word onsets, word onsets followed by white noise indicating word duration, or word onsets followed by signals indicating word prosody. Older adults required longer stimulus durations for word recognition with hearing sensitivity a significant factor. Word recognition was facilitated equally…

Wingfield, Arthur; Lindfield, Kimberly C.; Goodglass, Harold

2000-01-01

36

Visual Word Recognition during Reading Is Followed by Subvocal Articulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments examined whether the identification of a visual word is followed by its subvocal articulation during reading. An irrelevant spoken word (ISW) that was identical, phonologically similar, or dissimilar to a visual target word was presented when the eyes moved to the target in the course of sentence reading. Sentence reading was…

Eiter, Brianna M.; Inhoff, Albrecht W.

2010-01-01

37

Tracking the time course of orthographic information in spoken-word recognition  

PubMed Central

Two experiments evaluated the time course and use of orthographic information in spoken-word recognition in a visual world eye-tracking experiment using printed words as referents. Participants saw four words on a computer screen and listened to spoken sentences instructing them to click on one of the words (e.g., Click on the word bead). The printed words appeared 200 ms before the onset of the spoken target word. In Experiment 1, the display included the target word and a competitor with either a lower degree of phonological overlap with the target (bear) or a higher degree of phonological overlap with the target (bean). Both competitors had the same degree of orthographic overlap with the target. There were more fixations to the competitors than to unrelated distracters. Crucially, the likelihood of fixating a competitor did not vary as a function of the amount of phonological overlap between target and competitor. In Experiment 2, the display included the target word and a competitor with either a lower degree of orthographic overlap with the target (bare) or a higher degree of orthographic overlap with the target (bear). Competitors were homophonous and thus had the same degree of phonological overlap with the target. There were more fixations to higher-overlap competitors than to lower-overlap competitors, beginning during the temporal interval where initial fixations driven by the vowel are expected to occur. The authors conclude that orthographic information is rapidly activated as a spoken word unfolds and is immediately used in mapping spoken words onto potential printed referents. PMID:20804288

Salverda, Anne Pier; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

2010-01-01

38

The Cingulo-Opercular Network Provides Word-Recognition Benefit  

PubMed Central

Recognizing speech in difficult listening conditions requires considerable focus of attention that is often demonstrated by elevated activity in putative attention systems, including the cingulo-opercular network. We tested the prediction that elevated cingulo-opercular activity provides word-recognition benefit on a subsequent trial. Eighteen healthy, normal-hearing adults (10 females; aged 20–38 years) performed word recognition (120 trials) in multi-talker babble at +3 and +10 dB signal-to-noise ratios during a sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast was elevated in the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and frontal operculum in response to poorer speech intelligibility and response errors. These brain regions exhibited significantly greater correlated activity during word recognition compared with rest, supporting the premise that word-recognition demands increased the coherence of cingulo-opercular network activity. Consistent with an adaptive control network explanation, general linear mixed model analyses demonstrated that increased magnitude and extent of cingulo-opercular network activity was significantly associated with correct word recognition on subsequent trials. These results indicate that elevated cingulo-opercular network activity is not simply a reflection of poor performance or error but also supports word recognition in difficult listening conditions. PMID:24285902

Kuchinsky, Stefanie E.; Cute, Stephanie L.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Dubno, Judy R.

2013-01-01

39

Isolated word recognition using the weighted Levenshtein distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of dynamic programming in isolated word recognition is interpreted in terms of symbols-string processing. The use of the weighted Levenshtein distance (WLD) is discussed. A modification of the WLD gives insensitivity to overall word duration while automatically discriminating against warping functions having excessively steep and excessively gentle portions.

M. Ackroyd

1980-01-01

40

When word recognition goes wrong: Acquired dyslexia: brain damage (strokes).  

E-print Network

1 Dyslexia When word recognition goes wrong: Acquired dyslexia: brain damage (strokes). ­ Surface dyslexia: can't read irregular words (yacht). ­ Phonological dyslexia: can't read nonwords (nust). ­ Deep dyslexia: semantic errors (orchestra = symphony) Developmental dyslexia: this is most common and poorly

O'Reilly, Randall C.

41

L2 Gender Facilitation and Inhibition in Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates the role of grammatical gender facilitation and inhibition in second language (L2) learners' spoken word recognition. Native speakers of languages that have grammatical gender are sensitive to gender marking when hearing and recognizing a word. Gender facilitation refers to when a given noun that is preceded by an…

Behney, Jennifer N.

2011-01-01

42

The Influence of Phonotactic Probability on Word Recognition in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influence of phonotactic probability on word recognition in English-speaking toddlers. Typically developing toddlers completed a preferential looking paradigm using familiar words, which consisted of either high or low phonotactic probability sound sequences. The participants' looking behavior was recorded in response…

MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Marton, Klara

2014-01-01

43

Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline…

Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah

2014-01-01

44

Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ a single-trial correlational MEG analysis technique to investigate early processing in the visual recognition of morphologically complex words. Three classes of affixed words were presented in a lexical decision task: free stems (e.g., taxable), bound roots (e.g., tolerable), and unique root words (e.g., vulnerable, the root of which does not appear elsewhere). Analysis was focused on brain responses

Olla Solomyak; Alec Marantz

2009-01-01

45

Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ a single-trial correlational MEG analysis technique to investigate early processing in the visual recognition of mor- phologically complex words. Three classes of affixed words were presented in a lexical decision task: free stems (e.g., taxable), bound roots (e.g., tolerable), and unique root words (e.g., vulner- able, the root of which does not appear elsewhere). Analysis was focused on

Olla Solomyak; Alec Marantz

2010-01-01

46

Influences of High and Low Variability on Infant Word Recognition  

PubMed Central

Although infants begin to encode and track novel words in fluent speech by 7.5 months, their ability to recognize words is somewhat limited at this stage. In particular, when the surface form of a word is altered, by changing the gender or affective prosody of the speaker, infants begin to falter at spoken word recognition. Given that natural speech is replete with variability, only some of which is determines the meaning of a word, it remains unclear how infants might ever overcome the effects of surface variability without appealing to meaning. In the current set of experiments, consequences of high and low variability are examined in preverbal infants. The source of variability, vocal affect, is a common property of infant-directed speech with which young learners have to contend. Across a series of four experiments, infants' abilities to recognize repeated encounters of words, as well as to reject similar-sounding words, are investigated in the context of high and low affective variation. Results point to positive consequences of affective variation, both in creating generalizable memory representations for words, but also in establishing phonologically precise memories for words. Conversely, low variability appears to degrade word recognition on both fronts, compromising infants' abilities to generalize across different affective forms of a word and to detect similar-sounding items. Findings are discussed in the context of principles of categorization, both of a linguistic and non-linguistic variety, which may potentiate the early growth of a lexicon. PMID:17586482

Singh, Leher

2008-01-01

47

Phonetic discrimination and non-native spoken-word recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When phoneme categories of a non-native language do not correspond to those of the native language, non-native categories may be inaccurately perceived. This may impair non-native spoken-word recognition. Weber and Cutler investigated the effect of phonetic discrimination difficulties on competitor activation in non-native listening. They tested whether Dutch listeners use English phonetic contrasts to resolve potential competition. Eye movements of Dutch participants were monitored as they followed spoken English instructions to click on pictures of objects. A target picture (e.g., picture of a paddle) was always presented along with distractor pictures. The name of a distractor picture either shared initial segments with the name of the target picture (e.g., target paddle, /paedl/ and competitor pedal, /pEdl/) or not (e.g., strawberry and duck). Half of the target-competitor pairs contained English vowels that are often confused by Dutch listeners (e.g., /ae/ and /E/ as in ``paddle-pedal''), half contained vowels that are unlikely to be confused (e.g., /ae/ and /aI/ as in ``parrot-pirate''). Dutch listeners fixated distractor pictures with confusable English vowels longer than distractor pictures with distinct vowels. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity of non-native listeners to phonetic contrasts can result in spurious competitors that should not be activated for native listeners.

Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

2002-05-01

48

Lexical and Metrical Stress in Word Recognition: Lexical or Pre-Lexical Influences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of lexical stress and/or metrical stress on spoken word recognition was examined. Two experiments were designed to determine whether response times in lexical decision or shadowing tasks are influenced when primes and targets share lexical stress patterns (JUVenile-BIBlical [Syllables printed in capital letters indicate those…

Slowiaczek, Louisa M.; Soltano, Emily G.; Bernstein, Hilary L.

2006-01-01

49

Rapid Word Recognition as a Measure of Word-Level Automaticity and Its Relation to Other Measures of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the relationship between rapid recognition of individual words (Word Recognition Test) and two measures of contextual reading: (1) grade-level Passage Reading Test (IRI passage) and (2) performance on standardized STAR Reading Test. To establish if time of presentation on the word recognition test was a factor in…

Frye, Elizabeth M.; Gosky, Ross

2012-01-01

50

Visual Word Recognition of Single-Syllable Words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speeded visual word naming and lexical decision performance are reported for 2,428 words for young adults and healthy older adults. Hierarchical regression techniques were used to investigate the unique predictive variance of phonological features in the onsets, lexical variables (e.g., measures of consistency, frequency, familiarity, neighborhood size, and length), and semantic variables (e.g., imageability and semantic connectivity). The influence of

David A. Balota; Michael J. Cortese; Susan D. Sergent-Marshall; Daniel H. Spieler; Melvin J. Yap

2004-01-01

51

False recognition of incidentally learned pictures and words in primary progressive aphasia?  

PubMed Central

Recognition memory was tested in patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a language based dementia with relative preservation of memory for at least the first 2 years. The goal of the study was two-fold: (1) to compare true and false recognition rates for words versus pictures in patients with PPA and cognitively intact controls and (2) to determine if the semantic relatedness of distracters-to-targets influences recognition memory performance. Overall, performance of PPA patients was worse for words than pictures. PPA patients and healthy elderly controls showed similar recognition rates for studied items. However, the patients had significantly more false alarms than controls, particularly to semantically related items. This suggests that the aphasia in PPA patients contributes to their difficulty in selecting among items within a semantic class. PMID:16905162

Rogalski, Emily; Blum, Diana; Rademaker, Alfred; Weintraub, Sandra

2010-01-01

52

Tracking the emergence of the consonant bias in visual-word recognition: evidence with developing readers.  

PubMed

Recent research with skilled adult readers has consistently revealed an advantage of consonants over vowels in visual-word recognition (i.e., the so-called "consonant bias"). Nevertheless, little is known about how early in development the consonant bias emerges. This work aims to address this issue by studying the relative contribution of consonants and vowels at the early stages of visual-word recognition in developing readers (2(nd) and 4(th) Grade children) and skilled adult readers (college students) using a masked priming lexical decision task. Target words starting either with a consonant or a vowel were preceded by a briefly presented masked prime (50 ms) that could be the same as the target (e.g., pirata-PIRATA [pirate-PIRATE]), a consonant-preserving prime (e.g., pureto-PIRATA), a vowel-preserving prime (e.g., gicala-PIRATA), or an unrelated prime (e.g., bocelo -PIRATA). Results revealed significant priming effects for the identity and consonant-preserving conditions in adult readers and 4(th) Grade children, whereas 2(nd) graders only showed priming for the identity condition. In adult readers, the advantage of consonants was observed both for words starting with a consonant or a vowel, while in 4(th) graders this advantage was restricted to words with an initial consonant. Thus, the present findings suggest that a Consonant/Vowel skeleton should be included in future (developmental) models of visual-word recognition and reading. PMID:24523917

Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel; Comesaña, Montserrat

2014-01-01

53

Tracking the Emergence of the Consonant Bias in Visual-Word Recognition: Evidence with Developing Readers  

PubMed Central

Recent research with skilled adult readers has consistently revealed an advantage of consonants over vowels in visual-word recognition (i.e., the so-called “consonant bias”). Nevertheless, little is known about how early in development the consonant bias emerges. This work aims to address this issue by studying the relative contribution of consonants and vowels at the early stages of visual-word recognition in developing readers (2nd and 4th Grade children) and skilled adult readers (college students) using a masked priming lexical decision task. Target words starting either with a consonant or a vowel were preceded by a briefly presented masked prime (50 ms) that could be the same as the target (e.g., pirata-PIRATA [pirate-PIRATE]), a consonant-preserving prime (e.g., pureto-PIRATA), a vowel-preserving prime (e.g., gicala-PIRATA), or an unrelated prime (e.g., bocelo -PIRATA). Results revealed significant priming effects for the identity and consonant-preserving conditions in adult readers and 4th Grade children, whereas 2nd graders only showed priming for the identity condition. In adult readers, the advantage of consonants was observed both for words starting with a consonant or a vowel, while in 4th graders this advantage was restricted to words with an initial consonant. Thus, the present findings suggest that a Consonant/Vowel skeleton should be included in future (developmental) models of visual-word recognition and reading. PMID:24523917

Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel; Comesaña, Montserrat

2014-01-01

54

Sink positive: linguistic experience with th substitutions influences nonnative word recognition.  

PubMed

We used eyetracking, perceptual discrimination, and production tasks to examine the influences of perceptual similarity and linguistic experience on word recognition in nonnative (L2) speech. Eye movements to printed words were tracked while German and Dutch learners of English heard words containing one of three pronunciation variants (/t/, /s/, or /f/) of the interdental fricative /?/. Irrespective of whether the speaker was Dutch or German, looking preferences for target words with /?/ matched the preferences for producing /s/ variants in German speakers and /t/ variants in Dutch speakers (as determined via the production task), while a control group of English participants showed no such preferences. The perceptually most similar and most confusable /f/ variant (as determined via the discrimination task) was never preferred as a match for /?/. These results suggest that linguistic experience with L2 pronunciations facilitates recognition of variants in an L2, with effects of frequency outweighing effects of perceptual similarity. PMID:22207311

Hanulíková, Adriana; Weber, Andrea

2012-04-01

55

Word Recognition Error Analysis: Comparing Isolated Word List and Oral Passage Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between word recognition errors made at a letter-sound pattern level on a word list and on a curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency measure (CBM-ORF) for typical and struggling elementary readers. The participants were second, third, and fourth grade typical and struggling readers…

Flynn, Lindsay J.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.; Robbins, Kelly P.

2011-01-01

56

Word Frequency, Repetition, and Lexicality Effects in Word Recognition Tasks: Beyond Measures of Central Tendency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response time (RT) distributions obtained from 3 word recognition experiments were analyzed by fitting an ex-Gaussian function to the empirical data to determine the main effects and interactive influences of word frequency, repetition, and lexicality on the nature of the underlying distributions. The ex-Gaussian analysis allows one to determine if a manipulation simply shifts the response time (RT) distribution, produces

David A. Balota; Daniel H. Spieler

1999-01-01

57

A mega recognition memory study of 2897 disyllabic words.  

PubMed

Following the studies by Cortese, Khanna, and Hacker (2010) on recognition memory for monosyllabic words, recognition memory estimates (e.g., hits, false alarms, hits minus false alarms) for 3000 disyllabic words were obtained from 120 subjects and 2897 of these words were analysed via multiple regression. Participants studied 30 lists of 50 words and were tested on 30 lists of 100 words. Of the subjects, 60 received a constant study time of 2000?ms per item and 60 studied items at their own pace. Specific predictor variables included log word frequency, word length, imageability, age of acquisition, orthographic similarity, and phonological similarity. The results were similar to those of Cortese et al. (2010). Specifically, in the analysis of hits minus false alarms, the entire set of predictor variables accounted for 34.9% of the variance. All predictor variables except phonological similarity were related to performance, with imageability, length, orthographic similarity and frequency all being strong predictors. These results are mostly compatible with the predictions made by single- and dual-process theories. However, across items hit rates were not correlated with false alarms. Given that most variables produced the standard mirror pattern, this latter outcome poses a major challenge for recognition memory theories. PMID:25220011

Cortese, Michael J; McCarty, Daniel P; Schock, Jocelyn

2014-09-15

58

Adaptive optics to enhance target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Target recognition can be enhanced by reducing image degradation due to atmospheric turbulence. This is accomplished by an adaptive optic system. We discuss the forms of degradation when a target is viewed through the atmosphere1: scintillation from ground targets on a hot day in visible or infrared light; beam spreading and wavering around in time; atmospheric turbulence caused by motion of the target or by weather. In the case of targets we can use a beacon laser that reflects back from the target into a wavefront detector to measure the effects of turbulence on propagation to and from the target before imaging.1 A deformable mirror then corrects the wavefront shape of the transmitted, reflected or scattered data for enhanced imaging. Further, recognition of targets is enhanced by performing accurate distance measurements to localized parts of the target using lidar. Distance is obtained by sending a short pulse to the target and measuring the time for the pulse to return. There is inadequate time to scan the complete field of view so that the beam must be steered to regions of interest such as extremities of the image during image recognition. Distance is particularly valuable to recognize fine features in range along the target or when segmentation is required to separate a target from background or from other targets. We discuss the issues involved.

McAulay, Alastair D.

2012-06-01

59

A familiar font drives early emotional effects in word recognition.  

PubMed

The emotional connotation of a word is known to shift the process of word recognition. Using the electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs) approach it has been documented that early attentional processing of high-arousing negative words is shifted at a stage of processing where a presented word cannot have been fully identified. Contextual learning has been discussed to contribute to these effects. The present study shows that a manipulation of the familiarity with a word's shape interferes with these earliest emotional ERP effects. Presenting high-arousing negative and neutral words in a familiar or an unfamiliar font results in very early emotion differences only in case of familiar shapes, whereas later processing stages reveal similar emotional effects in both font conditions. Because these early emotion-related differences predict later behavioral differences, it is suggested that contextual learning of emotional valence comprises more visual features than previously expected to guide early visual-sensory processing. PMID:25226214

Kuchinke, Lars; Krause, Beatrix; Fritsch, Nathalie; Briesemeister, Benny B

2014-10-01

60

The effects of priming with regularly and irregularly related words in auditory word recognition.  

PubMed

The experiment examines the effects of relatively long-term (10-40 minutes) priming on the recognition of spoken words presented in noise. The focus of the experiment was the extent to which the priming was lexical (i.e. whole word), morphological or physical. First, no priming was found for physically related words. Thus 'deflecting' spoken clearly in the pre-training task had no effect on the identification of 'reflecting' in the test phase. Second, there was very strong facilitation from a word with a regular inflectional relationship to the test word. Thus the word 'reflected' facilitated recognition of 'reflecting' almost as much as prior experience of 'reflecting' itself and, when responses were scored in terms of the root morpheme, counting 'reflect', 'reflects' and 'reflected' etc. as being correct, the morphemic effect was the same in the two cases. That this was a structural and not a semantic effect was shown by the complete lack of facilitation between irregularly related words such as 'held/holding', 'man/men', 'lost/loses'. These data suggest that there is a morphological/structural level of analysis which is pre-semantic, at which these long-term facilitation effects take place. They also pose a challenge to the cohort theory of word recognition. PMID:7171919

Kempley, S T; Morton, J

1982-11-01

61

Morphological and semantic effects in visual word recognition: A time-course study. Language and Cognitive  

E-print Network

Some theories of visual word recognition postulate that there is a level of processing or representation at which morphemes are treated differently from whole words. Support for these theories has been derived from priming experiments in which the recognition of a target word is facilitated by the prior presentation of a morphologicallyrelatedprime (departure-DEPART). In English, such facilitation could be due to morphological relatedness, or to some combination of the orthographic and semantic relatedness characteristic of derivationally related words. We report two sets of visual priming experiments in which the morphological, semantic, and orthographic relationships between primes and targets are varied in three SOA conditions (43 ms, 72 ms, and 230 ms). Results showed that morphological structure plays a signi?cant role in the early visual recognition of English words that is independent of both semantic and orthographic relatedness. Findings are discussed in terms of current approaches to morphological processing. Requests for reprints should be addressed to Kathleen Rastle, Department of Experimental

Kathleen Rastle; Matt H. Davis; William D. Marslen-wilson; Lorraine K. Tyler

2000-01-01

62

Working memory affects older adults' use of context in spoken-word recognition.  

PubMed

Many older listeners report difficulties in understanding speech in noisy situations. Working memory and other cognitive skills may modulate older listeners' ability to use context information to alleviate the effects of noise on spoken-word recognition. In the present study, we investigated whether verbal working memory predicts older adults' ability to immediately use context information in the recognition of words embedded in sentences, presented in different listening conditions. In a phoneme-monitoring task, older adults were asked to detect as fast and as accurately as possible target phonemes in sentences spoken by a target speaker. Target speech was presented without noise, with fluctuating speech-shaped noise, or with competing speech from a single distractor speaker. The gradient measure of contextual probability (derived from a separate offline rating study) affected the speed of recognition. Contextual facilitation was modulated by older listeners' verbal working memory (measured with a backward digit span task) and age across listening conditions. Working memory and age, as well as hearing loss, were also the most consistent predictors of overall listening performance. Older listeners' immediate benefit from context in spoken-word recognition thus relates to their ability to keep and update a semantic representation of the sentence content in working memory. PMID:24443921

Janse, Esther; Jesse, Alexandra

2014-01-01

63

Transfer Effect of Word Recognition Strategies: Research Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the transfer effect of three different word recognition strategies. Subjects were 90 first- through fourth-grade children randomly drawn from an elementary school population to serve in the experimental group and a like number assigned to a non-instructed control group. Strategies taught to subjects were a graphophonic…

Ceaser, Lisbeth

64

Cross-Modal Source Information and Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a cross-modal matching task, participants were asked to match visual and auditory displays of speech based on the identity of the speaker. The present investigation used this task with acoustically transformed speech to examine the properties of sound that can convey cross-modal information. Word recognition performance was also measured under…

Lachs, Lorin; Pisoni, David B.

2004-01-01

65

Prosodic Phonological Representations Early in Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the nature of the phonological representations used during visual word recognition. We tested whether a minimality constraint (R. Frost, 1998) limits the complexity of early representations to a simple string of phonemes. Alternatively, readers might activate elaborated representations that include prosodic syllable…

Ashby, Jane; Martin, Andrea E.

2008-01-01

66

"Context and Spoken Word Recognition in a Novel Lexicon": Correction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports an error in "Context and spoken word recognition in a novel lexicon" by Kathleen Pirog Revill, Michael K. Tanenhaus and Richard N. Aslin ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 2008[Sep], Vol 34[5], 1207-1223). Figure 9 was inadvertently duplicated as Figure 10. Figure 9 in the original article was correct.…

Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

2009-01-01

67

Auditory and Visual Word Recognition in Beginning Adult Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory investigation was made of cross-modality matching within the context of word recognition skills among beginning adult readers. The specific aim of the study was to assess the possibility that a deficit in cross-modality matching might be potentially useful as a diagnostic and predictive indicator of the rate at which adults learn to…

Johnson, Raymond L.; Cortwright, Richard W.

68

The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

Yates, Mark

2012-01-01

69

Context and Spoken Word Recognition in a Novel Lexicon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three eye movement studies with novel lexicons investigated the role of semantic context in spoken word recognition, contrasting 3 models: restrictive access, access-selection, and continuous integration. Actions directed at novel shapes caused changes in motion (e.g., looming, spinning) or state (e.g., color, texture). Across the experiments,…

Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

2008-01-01

70

Spoken Word Recognition in Toddlers Who Use Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the time course of spoken word recognition in 2-year-old children who use cochlear implants (CIs) in quiet and in the presence of speech competitors. Method: Children who use CIs and age-matched peers with normal acoustic hearing listened to familiar auditory labels, in quiet or in the presence of…

Grieco-Calub, Tina M.; Saffran, Jenny R.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

2009-01-01

71

Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition  

PubMed Central

It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters) from their eye-centered (i.e., retinal) locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity) was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Word-tuning and location-invariance were found at the level of single neurons, but there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words—which was the model's learning objective—is largely based on letter-level information. PMID:24065939

Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Zorzi, Marco

2013-01-01

72

A hybrid neural network model in handwritten word recognition.  

PubMed

A hybrid neural network model is developed and applied to handwritten word recognition. The word recognition system requires a module that assigns character class confidence values to segments of images of handwritten words. The module must accurately represent ambiguities between character classes and assign low confidence values to a wide variety of non-character segments resulting from erroneous segmentations. The proposed hybrid neural model is a cascaded system. The first stage is a self-organizing feature map algorithm (SOFM). The second stage maps distances into allograph membership values using a gradient descent learning algorithm. The third stage is a multi-layer feedforward network (MLFN). The new system performs better than the baseline system. Experiments were performed on a standard test set from the SUNY/USPS Database. PMID:12662842

Chiang, J H

1998-03-01

73

Some effects of talker variability on spoken word recognition  

PubMed Central

The perceptual consequences of trial-to-trial changes in the voice of the talker on spoken word recognition were examined. The results from a series of experiments using perceptual identification and naming tasks demonstrated that perceptual performance decreases when the voice of the talker changes from trial to trial compared to performance when the voice on each trial remains the same. In addition, the effects of talker variability on word recognition appeared to be more robust and less dependent on task than the effects of word frequency and lexical structure. Possible hypotheses regarding the nature of the processes giving rise to these effects are discussed, with particular attention to the idea that the processing of information about the talker’s voice is intimately related to early perceptual processes that extract acoustic–phonetic information from the speech signal. PMID:2921419

Mullennix, John W.; Pisoni, David B.; Martin, Christopher S.

2012-01-01

74

Inferior parietal lobule contributions to visual word recognition.  

PubMed

This study investigated how the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) contributes to visual word recognition. We used repetitive TMS to temporarily disrupt neural information processing in two anatomical fields of the IPL, namely, the angular (ANG) and supramarginal (SMG) gyri, and observed the effects on reading tasks that focused attention on either the meaning or sounds of written words. Relative to no TMS, stimulation of the left ANG selectively slowed responses in the meaning, but not sound, task, whereas stimulation of the left SMG affected responses in the sound, but not meaning, task. These results demonstrate that ANG and SMG doubly dissociate in their contributions to visual word recognition. We suggest that this functional division of labor may be understood in terms of the distinct patterns of cortico-cortical connectivity resulting in separable functional circuits. PMID:25244114

Sliwinska, Magdalena W; James, Alyson; Devlin, Joseph T

2015-03-01

75

Expectation and Entropy in Spoken Word Recognition: Effects of Age and Hearing Acuity  

E-print Network

and hearing loss on word recognition. The effect of response entropy on older adults' word recognitionExpectation and Entropy in Spoken Word Recognition: Effects of Age and Hearing Acuity Amanda Lash-to-moderate hearing loss (M age = 76.1 years) and 18 young adults with age-normal hearing (M age = 19.6 years

Allen, Jont

76

Morpho-semantic processing in word recognition: evidence from balanced and biased ambiguous morphemes.  

PubMed

The role of morphemic meaning in Chinese word recognition was examined with the masked and unmasked priming paradigms. Target words contained ambiguous morphemes biased toward the dominant or the subordinate meanings. Prime words either contained the same ambiguous morphemes in the subordinate interpretations or were unrelated to the targets. In addition, the relative frequency of the alternative meanings of ambiguous morphemes could be balanced (i.e., the alternative meanings are of similar frequency) or biased (i.e., one of the meanings is used much more frequently). The recognition of subordinate targets was facilitated by the subordinate primes for both balanced and biased items, regardless of the priming procedure. However, the subordinate primes did not facilitate the recognition of dominant targets, except for biased items in masked priming. These results are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that morphemic meaning is activated to constrain morphological priming even at the early stage of processing. Yet, morpho-semantic activation is modulated by the frequency of the intended morphemic interpretations. Therefore, because of the high frequency of use, the dominant meanings of biased ambiguous morphemes can nevertheless be activated by the subordinate primes. PMID:23834058

Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

2013-11-01

77

Chinese unknown word recognition for PCFG-LA parsing.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL), is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness. PMID:24895681

Huang, Qiuping; He, Liangye; Wong, Derek F; Chao, Lidia S

2014-01-01

78

Fusing High and Low-Level Features for Handwritten Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach that combines high level and low level features for the recognition of handwritten words. Given a word image, high level fea- tures are extracted from loosely segmented words. Such features are used with an HMM word classifier in a lexicon-driven approach. This classifier produces at the output a ranked list of the N-best recognition

Alessandro L. Koerich; Alceu S. Britto Jr; Robert Sabourin

79

Italians Use Abstract Knowledge about Lexical Stress during Spoken-Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two eye-tracking experiments in Italian, we investigated how acoustic information and stored knowledge about lexical stress are used during the recognition of tri-syllabic spoken words. Experiment 1 showed that Italians use acoustic cues to a word's stress pattern rapidly in word recognition, but only for words with antepenultimate stress.…

Sulpizio, Simone; McQueen, James M.

2012-01-01

80

Latent variable modeling of cognitive processes in true and false recognition of words: A developmental perspective.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at testing theoretical predictions of the fuzzy-trace theory about true and false recognition. The effects of semantic relatedness and study opportunity on true and false recognition of words from Deese, Roediger, McDermott lists (J. Deese, 1959; D. R. Read, 1996; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995) were evaluated in 7- to 12-year-old children (N = 151). Instead of a traditional analysis of variance, the authors used a relatively novel statistical analysis technique, latent class factor analysis, to test the hypotheses pertaining to the effect of semantic relatedness and study opportunity on children's true and false recognition given their low or high verbatim-trace and gist-trace level. The results showed that variation in true recognition of target words from semantically related and unrelated word lists that were either studied once or repeated could be explained well by variation in verbatim-trace and gist-trace level. Variation in false recognition of semantically related distractors also could be explained by variation in gist-trace level, but the recollection-rejection hypothesis was not confirmed. The variable age was positively but weakly related to gist-trace level, but no significant relationship was found between age and verbatim-trace level. PMID:20438256

Bouwmeester, Samantha; Verkoeijen, Peter P J L

2010-05-01

81

Extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks.  

PubMed

We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS). Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches. PMID:22163464

Wei, Yimin; Meng, Huadong; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Xiqin

2010-01-01

82

Target Recognition and Synapse Formation During Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about neuron/target muscle recognition (page 44 of the PDF), learners arranged in two rows facing away from each other use string to simulate neural development. The lesson guide, part of NASA's "The Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience" includes background information and evaluation strategies.

Macleish, Marlene Y.; Mclean, Bernice R.

2012-06-26

83

Sonar recognition of targets embedded in sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dolphins have biological sonar abilities that exceed those of any man-made system in an aquatic environment. One problem of particular importance, and for which only limited capabilities exist, is the detection and recognition of targets buried under sediment. This paper reviews dolphin echolocation capabilities and describes a system that uses a dolphin-like signal and biomimetic signal processing mechanisms to emulate

Herbert L. Roitblat; Whitlow W. L. Au; Paul E. Nachtigall; Reid H. Shizumura; Gerald C. Moons

1995-01-01

84

Consonant/vowel asymmetry in early word form recognition.  

PubMed

Previous preferential listening studies suggest that 11-month-olds' early word representations are phonologically detailed, such that minor phonetic variations (i.e., mispronunciations) impair recognition. However, these studies focused on infants' sensitivity to mispronunciations (or omissions) of consonants, which have been proposed to be more important for lexical identity than vowels. Even though a lexically related consonant advantage has been consistently found in French from 14months of age onward, little is known about its developmental onset. The current study asked whether French-learning 11-month-olds exhibit a consonant-vowel asymmetry when recognizing familiar words, which would be reflected in vowel mispronunciations being more tolerated than consonant mispronunciations. In a baseline experiment (Experiment 1), infants preferred listening to familiar words over nonwords, confirming that at 11months of age infants show a familiarity effect rather than a novelty effect. In Experiment 2, which was constructed using the familiar words of Experiment 1, infants preferred listening to one-feature vowel mispronunciations over one-feature consonant mispronunciations. Given the familiarity preference established in Experiment 1, this pattern of results suggests that recognition of early familiar words is more dependent on their consonants than on their vowels. This adds another piece of evidence that, at least in French, consonants already have a privileged role in lexical processing by 11months of age, as claimed by Nespor, Peña, and Mehler (2003). PMID:25544396

Poltrock, Silvana; Nazzi, Thierry

2015-03-01

85

Why Um Helps Auditory Word Recognition: The Temporal Delay Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Several studies suggest that speech understanding can sometimes benefit from the presence of filled pauses (uh, um, and the like), and that words following such filled pauses are recognised more quickly. Three experiments examined whether this is because filled pauses serve to delay the onset of upcoming words and these delays facilitate auditory word recognition, or whether the fillers themselves serve to signal upcoming delays in a way which informs listeners' reactions. Participants viewed pairs of images on a computer screen, and followed recorded instructions to press buttons corresponding to either an easy (unmanipulated, with a high-frequency name) or a difficult (visually blurred, low-frequency) image. In all three experiments, participants were faster to respond to easy images. In 50% of trials in each experiment, the name of the image was directly preceded by a delay; in the remaining trials an equivalent delay was included earlier in the instruction. Participants were quicker to respond when a name was directly preceded by a delay, regardless of whether this delay was filled with a spoken um, was silent, or contained an artificial tone. This effect did not interact with the effect of image difficulty, nor did it change over the course of each experiment. Taken together, our consistent finding that delays of any kind help word recognition indicates that natural delays such as fillers need not be seen as ‘signals’ to explain the benefits they have to listeners' ability to recognise and respond to the words which follow them. PMID:21611164

Corley, Martin; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2011-01-01

86

Robotics control using isolated word recognition of voice input  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A speech input/output system is presented that can be used to communicate with a task oriented system. Human speech commands and synthesized voice output extend conventional information exchange capabilities between man and machine by utilizing audio input and output channels. The speech input facility is comprised of a hardware feature extractor and a microprocessor implemented isolated word or phrase recognition system. The recognizer offers a medium sized (100 commands), syntactically constrained vocabulary, and exhibits close to real time performance. The major portion of the recognition processing required is accomplished through software, minimizing the complexity of the hardware feature extractor.

Weiner, J. M.

1977-01-01

87

Multifunction sensor for target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Army has a critical need for the capability provided by a multifunction sensor. This is (in effect) a smart sensor system that can adapt to environmental conditions and adjust its mode of operation to effectively counter any threat it meets. It will have an intelligent signal processor which has all of the system's sensor signals to choose from. The processor chooses the appropriate signal information to rapidly detect, acquire, track, and automatically identify all targets in the vicinity of the sensor under a wide variety of battlefield scenarios and environmental conditions. The multiphenomenology signal information provides the flexibility to overcome the adverse effects of clutter, countermeasures (both active and passive), illumination, obscurants, target orientation, and weather. It should be noted, however, that the types of sensory information required is dependent on the mission and the operating environment. For instance, a strategic defense sensor operating in space can use (and will need) different types of sensor data than the multifunction sensor employed on an attack helicopter. In fact, the sensor configuration on a helicopter operating in Saudi Arabia may be quite different from one that is deployed to Vietnam. For the purpose of this paper we generalize about the technologies desired for an adaptable, `smart' sensor system. We do not specify a particular mission nor define a specific threat. However, in any case, we can assume the need to fuse sensor signal information in an intelligent processor to provide robust performance in the battlefield environment. 12

James, William M.; Lindberg, Perry C.

1993-09-01

88

(Almost) Word for Word: As Voice Recognition Programs Improve, Students Reap the Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voice recognition software is hardly new--attempts at capturing spoken words and turning them into written text have been available to consumers for about two decades. But what was once an expensive and highly unreliable tool has made great strides in recent years, perhaps most recognized in programs such as Nuance's Dragon NaturallySpeaking…

Smith, Mark

2006-01-01

89

Dynamic programming algorithm optimization for spoken word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an optimum dynamic progxamming (DP) based time-normalization algorithm for spoken word recognition. First, a general principle of time-normalization is given using time-warping function. Then, two time-normalized distance definitions, called symmetric and asymmetric forms, are derived from the principle. These two forms are compared with each other through theoretical discussions and experimental studies. The symmetric form algorithm

HIROAKI SAKOE; SEIBI CHIBA

1978-01-01

90

A Demonstration of Improved Precision of Word Recognition Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate improved precision of word recognition scores (WRSs) by increasing list length and analyzing phonemic errors. Method: Pure-tone thresholds (frequencies between 0.25 and 8.0 kHz) and WRSs were measured in 3 levels of speech-shaped noise (50, 52, and 54 dB HL) for 24 listeners with normal…

Schlauch, Robert S.; Anderson, Elizabeth S.; Micheyl, Christophe

2014-01-01

91

Real-time Functional Architecture of Visual Word Recognition.  

PubMed

Despite a century of research into visual word recognition, basic questions remain unresolved about the functional architecture of the process that maps visual inputs from orthographic analysis onto lexical form and meaning and about the units of analysis in terms of which these processes are conducted. Here we use magnetoencephalography, supported by a masked priming behavioral study, to address these questions using contrasting sets of simple (walk), complex (swimmer), and pseudo-complex (corner) forms. Early analyses of orthographic structure, detectable in bilateral posterior temporal regions within a 150-230 msec time frame, are shown to segment the visual input into linguistic substrings (words and morphemes) that trigger lexical access in left middle temporal locations from 300 msec. These are primarily feedforward processes and are not initially constrained by lexical-level variables. Lexical constraints become significant from 390 msec, in both simple and complex words, with increased processing of pseudowords and pseudo-complex forms. These results, consistent with morpho-orthographic models based on masked priming data, map out the real-time functional architecture of visual word recognition, establishing basic feedforward processing relationships between orthographic form, morphological structure, and lexical meaning. PMID:25208741

Whiting, Caroline; Shtyrov, Yury; Marslen-Wilson, William

2015-02-01

92

Electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word recognition.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word reading using a delayed repetition priming paradigm. Participants were asked to passively view lists of two-character compound words containing prime-target pairs separated by a few items. In a Whole Word repetition condition, the prime and target were the same real words (e.g., , manager-manager). In a Constituent repetition condition, the prime and target were swapped in terms of their constituent position (e.g., , the former is a pseudo-word and the later means nurse). Two ERP components including N200 and N400 showed repetition effects. The N200 showed a negative shift upon repetition in the Whole Word condition but this effect was delayed for the Constituent condition. The N400 showed comparable amplitude reduction across the two priming conditions. The results reveal different aspects of morphological processing with an early stage associated with N200 and a late stage with N400. There was also a possibility that the N200 effect reflect general cognitive processing, i.e., the detection of low-probability stimuli. PMID:24068994

Du, Yingchun; Hu, Weiping; Fang, Zhuo; Zhang, John X

2013-01-01

93

Electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word recognition  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word reading using a delayed repetition priming paradigm. Participants were asked to passively view lists of two-character compound words containing prime-target pairs separated by a few items. In a Whole Word repetition condition, the prime and target were the same real words (e.g., , manager-manager). In a Constituent repetition condition, the prime and target were swapped in terms of their constituent position (e.g., , the former is a pseudo-word and the later means nurse). Two ERP components including N200 and N400 showed repetition effects. The N200 showed a negative shift upon repetition in the Whole Word condition but this effect was delayed for the Constituent condition. The N400 showed comparable amplitude reduction across the two priming conditions. The results reveal different aspects of morphological processing with an early stage associated with N200 and a late stage with N400. There was also a possibility that the N200 effect reflect general cognitive processing, i.e., the detection of low-probability stimuli. PMID:24068994

Du, Yingchun; Hu, Weiping; Fang, Zhuo; Zhang, John X.

2013-01-01

94

Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing  

PubMed Central

Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no meaning); and (3) phonology-to-meaning (no orthography). Following learning, participants made meaning judgments on the learned words, familiar known words, and unpresented (unlearned) rare words while their ERPs were recorded. The behavioral results showed no significant effects of comprehension skill on meaning judgment performance. Contrastingly, the ERP results indicated comprehension skill differences in P600 amplitude; high-skilled readers showed stronger familiarity effects for learned words, whereas less-skilled readers did not distinguish between learned words, familiar words, and unlearned words. Evidence from the P600 and N400 illustrated superior learning of meaning when meaning information was coupled with orthography rather than phonology. These results suggest that the availability of word knowledge (orthography, phonology, and meaning) at learning affects subsequent word identification processes when the words are encountered in a new context. PMID:22399833

Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

2012-01-01

95

Frequency and Imagery in Word Recognition: Further Evidence for an Attribute Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What processes underlie recognition memory? An explanation of word recognition should be compatible with a general explanation of the functioning of the memory system. The research discussed in this paper lends support to a model of recognition performance based on the marking and storage of lists of features or attributes that define a word's…

Morris, Peter E.

1978-01-01

96

Dynamic and Contextual Information in HMM Modeling for Handwritten Word Recognition  

E-print Network

of compound char- acter HMMs. The character-based representation of words which qualifies the analyticalDynamic and Contextual Information in HMM Modeling for Handwritten Word Recognition Anne an efficient word recognition system resulting from the combination of three handwriting recognizers. The main

Likforman-Sulem, Laurence

97

Asymmetries in Early Word Recognition: The Case of Stops and Fricatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Toddlers' discrimination of native phonemic contrasts is generally unproblematic. Yet using those native contrasts in word learning and word recognition can be more challenging. In this article, we investigate perceptual versus phonological explanations for asymmetrical patterns found in early word recognition. We systematically investigated…

Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; van der Feest, Suzanne V. H.; Fikkert, Paula

2014-01-01

98

Neural networks with enhanced outlier rejection ability for off-line handwritten word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a segmentation and dynamic programming-based handwritten word recognition system, outlier rejection at the character level can improve word recognition performance because it reduces the chances that erroneous combinations of segments result in high word confidence values. We studied the multilayer perceptron (MLP) and a variant of radial basis function network (RBF) with the goal to use them as character

Jinhui Liu; Paul D. Gader

2002-01-01

99

Large-Corpus Phoneme and Word Recognition and the Generality of Lexical Context in CVC Word Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Speech recognition may be analyzed in terms of recognition probabilities for perceptual wholes (e.g., words) and parts (e.g., phonemes), where j or the j-factor reveals the number of independent perceptual units required for recognition of the whole (Boothroyd, 1968b; Boothroyd & Nittrouer, 1988; Nittrouer & Boothroyd, 1990). For…

Gelfand, Jessica T.; Christie, Robert E.; Gelfand, Stanley A.

2014-01-01

100

Tracking the Time Course of Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition with Event-Related Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the word-frequency effect is one of the most established findings in spoken-word recognition, the precise processing locus of this effect is still a topic of debate. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to track the time course of the word-frequency effect. In addition, the neighborhood density effect, which is known to…

Dufour, Sophie; Brunelliere, Angele; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

2013-01-01

101

Levels-Of-Processing Effect on Word Recognition in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with schizophrenia have difficulty organizing words semantically to facilitate encoding. This is commonly attributed to organizational rather than semantic processing limitations. By requiring participants to classify and encode words on either a shallow (e.g., uppercase/lowercase) or deep level (e.g., concrete/abstract), the levels-of-processing paradigm eliminates the need to generate organizational strategies. Methods This paradigm was administered to 30 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy comparison subjects to test whether providing a strategy would improve patient performance. Results Word classification during shallow and deep encoding was slower and less accurate in patients. Patients also responded slowly during recognition testing and maintained a more conservative response bias following deep encoding; however, both groups showed a robust levels-of-processing effect on recognition accuracy, with unimpaired patient performance following both shallow and deep encoding. Conclusions This normal levels-of-processing effect in the patient sample suggests that semantic processing is sufficiently intact for patients to benefit from organizational cues. Memory remediation efforts may therefore be most successful if they focus on teaching patients to form organizational strategies during initial encoding. PMID:14643082

Ragland, J. Daniel; Moelter, Stephen T.; McGrath, Claire; Hill, S. Kristian; Gur, Raquel E.; Bilker, Warren B.; Siegel, Steven J.; Gur, Ruben C.

2015-01-01

102

Photonics: From target recognition to lesion detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1989, Martin Marietta has invested in the development of an innovative concept for robust real-time pattern recognition for any two-dimensioanal sensor. This concept has been tested in simulation, and in laboratory and field hardware, for a number of DOD and commercial uses from automatic target recognition to manufacturing inspection. We have now joined Rose Health Care Systems in developing its use for medical diagnostics. The concept is based on determining regions of interest by using optical Fourier bandpassing as a scene segmentation technique, enhancing those regions using wavelet filters, passing the enhanced regions to a neural network for analysis and initial pattern identification, and following this initial identification with confirmation by optical correlation. The optical scene segmentation and pattern confirmation are performed by the same optical module. The neural network is a recursive error minimization network with a small number of connections and nodes that rapidly converges to a global minimum.

Henry, E. Michael

1994-01-01

103

Robust automatic target recognition in FLIR imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a robust automatic target recognition algorithm in FLIR imagery is proposed. Target is first segmented out from the background using wavelet transform. Segmentation process is accomplished by parametric Gabor wavelet transformation. Invariant features that belong to the target, which is segmented out from the background, are then extracted via moments. Higher-order moments, while providing better quality for identifying the image, are more sensitive to noise. A trade-off study is then performed on a few moments that provide effective performance. Bayes method is used for classification, using Mahalanobis distance as the Bayes' classifier. Results are assessed based on false alarm rates. The proposed method is shown to be robust against rotations, translations and scale effects. Moreover, it is shown to effectively perform under low-contrast objects in FLIR images. Performance comparisons are also performed on both GPU and CPU. Results indicate that GPU has superior performance over CPU.

Soyman, Yusuf

2012-05-01

104

Maximum mutual information training for an online neural predictive handwritten word recognition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this paper, we present a hybrid online handwriting recognition system based on hidden Markov models (HMMs). It is devoted\\u000a to word recognition using large vocabularies. An adaptive segmentation of words into letters is integrated with recognition,\\u000a and is at the heart of the training phase. A word-model is a left-right HMM in which each state is a predictive

Sonia Garcia-salicetti; Bernadette Dorizzi; Patrick Gallinari; Zsolt Wimmer

2001-01-01

105

Recognition of Arabic handwritten words using contextual character models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a system for the off-line recognition of cursive Arabic handwritten words. This system in an enhanced version of our reference system presented in [El-Hajj et al., 05] which is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and uses a sliding window approach. The enhanced version proposed here uses contextual character models. This approach is motivated by the fact that the set of Arabic characters includes a lot of ascending and descending strokes which overlap with one or two neighboring characters. Additional character models are constructed according to characters in their left or right neighborhood. Our experiments on images of the benchmark IFN/ENIT database of handwritten villages/towns names show that using contextual character models improves recognition. For a lexicon of 306 name classes, accuracy is increased by 0.6% in absolute value which corresponds to a 7.8% reduction in error rate.

El-Hajj, Ramy; Mokbel, Chafic; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence

2008-01-01

106

Software for Partly Automated Recognition of Targets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Feature Analyst is a computer program for assisted (partially automated) recognition of targets in images. This program was developed to accelerate the processing of high-resolution satellite image data for incorporation into geographic information systems (GIS). This program creates an advanced user interface that embeds proprietary machine-learning algorithms in commercial image-processing and GIS software. A human analyst provides samples of target features from multiple sets of data, then the software develops a data-fusion model that automatically extracts the remaining features from selected sets of data. The program thus leverages the natural ability of humans to recognize objects in complex scenes, without requiring the user to explain the human visual recognition process by means of lengthy software. Two major subprograms are the reactive agent and the thinking agent. The reactive agent strives to quickly learn the user's tendencies while the user is selecting targets and to increase the user's productivity by immediately suggesting the next set of pixels that the user may wish to select. The thinking agent utilizes all available resources, taking as much time as needed, to produce the most accurate autonomous feature-extraction model possible.

Opitz, David; Blundell, Stuart; Bain, William; Morris, Matthew; Carlson, Ian; Mangrich, Mark; Selinsky, T.

2002-01-01

107

Software for Partly Automated Recognition of Targets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Feature Analyst is a computer program for assisted (partially automated) recognition of targets in images. This program was developed to accelerate the processing of high-resolution satellite image data for incorporation into geographic information systems (GIS). This program creates an advanced user interface that embeds proprietary machine-learning algorithms in commercial image-processing and GIS software. A human analyst provides samples of target features from multiple sets of data, then the software develops a data-fusion model that automatically extracts the remaining features from selected sets of data. The program thus leverages the natural ability of humans to recognize objects in complex scenes, without requiring the user to explain the human visual recognition process by means of lengthy software. Two major subprograms are the reactive agent and the thinking agent. The reactive agent strives to quickly learn the user s tendencies while the user is selecting targets and to increase the user s productivity by immediately suggesting the next set of pixels that the user may wish to select. The thinking agent utilizes all available resources, taking as much time as needed, to produce the most accurate autonomous feature-extraction model possible.

Opitz, David; Blundell, Stuart; Bain, William; Morris, Matthew; Carlson, Ian; Mangrich, Mark

2003-01-01

108

Improved word recognition for observers with age-related maculopathies using compensation filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for improving word recognition for people with age-related maculopathies, which cause a loss of central vision, is discussed. It is found that the use of individualized compensation filters based on an person's normalized contrast sensitivity function can improve word recognition for people with age-related maculopathies. It is shown that 27-70 pct more magnification is needed for unfiltered words compared to filtered words. The improvement in word recognition is positively correlated with the severity of vision loss.

Lawton, Teri B.

1988-01-01

109

Application of SVM Classifier in IR Target Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper, support vector machine is proposed in IR target recognition. Grid method is used to select the appropriate parameters of SVM to avoid over-fitting due to the choice of inappropriate parameters. We employ coal mine IR monitoring images to testify the IR target recognition ability of SVM. And features and category of the coal mine IR monitoring images are given. The experimental results illustrate that the IR target recognition accuracy of SVM is 100%.Thus, SVM is an excellent IR target recognition method.

Wen-ge, Feng

110

The Role of Orthographic Neighborhood Size Effects in Chinese Word Recognition.  

PubMed

Previous studies about the orthographic neighborhood size (NS) in Chinese have overlooked the morphological processing, and the co-variation between the character frequency and the the NS. The present study manipulated the word frequency and the NS simultaneously, with the leading character frequency controlled, to explore their influences on word lexical decision (Experiment 1) and naming (Experiment 2). The results showed a robust effect that words with a larger NS produced shorter reaction time than those with a smaller NS, irrespective of the word frequency and the tasks. This facilitative effect may occur due to a semantic network formed by neighbor words, resulting in the semantic activation to accelerate the word recognition. Moreover, the comparison of the effect sizes of word frequency between the two tasks showed that lexical decision responses demonstrated a larger word frequency effect, indicating that the sub-word processing was involved in the multi-character word recognition. PMID:25451553

Li, Meng-Feng; Lin, Wei-Chun; Chou, Tai-Li; Yang, Fu-Ling; Wu, Jei-Tun

2014-12-01

111

The Influence of Neighborhood Density on the Recognition of Spanish-Accented Words.  

PubMed

Foreign-accented speech is more difficult to recognize than the same words produced by a native speaker because the accented speech may activate many additional competitors, or it may strongly activate a single, but incorrect, word during lexical retrieval. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the recognition of native-produced and foreign-accented words varying in neighborhood density with auditory lexical decision and perceptual identification tasks, respectively. Experiment 1 found increased reaction times (RTs), especially for accented dense words. Analysis of misperceptions from Experiment 2 found that the mean number of phonologically distinct misperception tokens was higher for native than accented stimuli, suggesting that accented speech does not tend to activate more lexical candidates. Furthermore, a higher proportion of misperceptions in the accented condition (71%) compared with the native condition (58%) was accounted for by the most frequently reported misperception token, suggesting that accented speech instead tends to strongly activate 1 particular neighbor of the target word during lexical competition. Moreover, systematic phonemic substitutions in the misperceptions suggest that lawful acoustic-phonetic variations introduced by the accented speaker's L1 (native language) play a crucial role in determining which neighbor is activated as a strong competitor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25485666

Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S

2014-12-01

112

Word recognition during reading: the interaction between lexical repetition and frequency.  

PubMed

Memory studies utilizing long-term repetition priming have generally demonstrated that priming is greater for low-frequency than for high-frequency words and that this effect persists if words intervene between the prime and the target. In contrast, word-recognition studies utilizing masked short-term repetition priming have typically shown that the magnitude of repetition priming does not differ as a function of word frequency and does not persist across intervening words. We conducted an eyetracking-while-reading experiment to determine which of these patterns more closely resembles the relationship between frequency and repetition during the natural reading of a text. Frequency was manipulated using proper names that were either high-frequency (e.g., Stephen) or low-frequency (e.g., Dominic). The critical name was later repeated in the sentence, or a new name was introduced. First-pass reading times and skipping rates on the critical name revealed robust repetition-by-frequency interactions, such that the magnitude of the repetition-priming effect was greater for low-frequency than for high-frequency names. In contrast, measures of later processing showed effects of repetition that did not depend on lexical frequency. These results are interpreted within a framework that conceptualizes eye-movement control as being influenced in different ways by lexical- and discourse-level factors. PMID:23283808

Lowder, Matthew W; Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C

2013-07-01

113

Comparison of parametric representations for monosyllabic word recognition in continuously spoken sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several parametric representations of the acoustic signal were compared with regard to word recognition performance in a syllable-oriented continuous speech recognition system. The vocabulary included many phonetically similar monosyllabic words, therefore the emphasis was on the ability to retain phonetically significant acoustic information in the face of syntactic and duration variations. For each parameter set (based on a mel-frequency cepstrum,

S. B. Davis; P. Mermelstein

1980-01-01

114

Modeling words with subword units in an articulatorily constrained speech recognition algorithm  

SciTech Connect

The goal of speech recognition is to find the most probable word given the acoustic evidence, i.e. a string of VQ codes or acoustic features. Speech recognition algorithms typically take advantage of the fact that the probability of a word, given a sequence of VQ codes, can be calculated.

Hogden, J.

1997-11-20

115

Author's personal copy Theories of spoken word recognition deficits in Aphasia  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Theories of spoken word recognition deficits in Aphasia: Evidence from eye, Providence, RI 02908, USA e Boston University Harold Goodglass Aphasia Research Center at the VA Boston Available online 2 March 2011 Keywords: Spoken word recognition Aphasia Eye-tracking Computational models

116

Relations among Linguistic and Cognitive Skills and Spoken Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined spoken word recognition in adults with cochlear implants (CIs) to determine the extent to which linguistic and cognitive abilities predict variability in speech-perception performance. Both a traditional consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC)-repetition measure and a gated-word recognition measure (F. Grosjean, 1996) were used.…

Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene Earley

2004-01-01

117

Age of Acquisition and Sensitivity to Gender in Spanish Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speakers of gender-agreement languages use gender-marked elements of the noun phrase in spoken-word recognition: A congruent marking on a determiner or adjective facilitates the recognition of a subsequent noun, while an incongruent marking inhibits its recognition. However, while monolinguals and early language learners evidence this…

Foote, Rebecca

2014-01-01

118

A novel thermal face recognition approach using face pattern words  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reliable thermal face recognition system can enhance the national security applications such as prevention against terrorism, surveillance, monitoring and tracking, especially at nighttime. The system can be applied at airports, customs or high-alert facilities (e.g., nuclear power plant) for 24 hours a day. In this paper, we propose a novel face recognition approach utilizing thermal (long wave infrared) face images that can automatically identify a subject at both daytime and nighttime. With a properly acquired thermal image (as a query image) in monitoring zone, the following processes will be employed: normalization and denoising, face detection, face alignment, face masking, Gabor wavelet transform, face pattern words (FPWs) creation, face identification by similarity measure (Hamming distance). If eyeglasses are present on a subject's face, an eyeglasses mask will be automatically extracted from the querying face image, and then masked with all comparing FPWs (no more transforms). A high identification rate (97.44% with Top-1 match) has been achieved upon our preliminary face dataset (of 39 subjects) from the proposed approach regardless operating time and glasses-wearing condition.e

Zheng, Yufeng

2010-04-01

119

Orthographic Consistency Affects Spoken Word Recognition at Different Grain-Sizes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous studies demonstrated this by manipulating…

Dich, Nadya

2014-01-01

120

A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

2015-01-01

121

Effects of morphological families on English compound word recognition: A multitask investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments examined the influence of first lexeme morphological family size on English compound word recognition. Concatenated compound words whose first lexemes were from large morphological families were responded to faster in word naming and lexical decision than compounds from small morphological families. In addition, an eye movement experiment showed that gaze durations were shorter on compounds from large morphological

Barbara J. Juhasz; Rachel N. Berkowitz

2011-01-01

122

Evaluating Word Representation Features in Biomedical Named Entity Recognition Tasks  

PubMed Central

Biomedical Named Entity Recognition (BNER), which extracts important entities such as genes and proteins, is a crucial step of natural language processing in the biomedical domain. Various machine learning-based approaches have been applied to BNER tasks and showed good performance. In this paper, we systematically investigated three different types of word representation (WR) features for BNER, including clustering-based representation, distributional representation, and word embeddings. We selected one algorithm from each of the three types of WR features and applied them to the JNLPBA and BioCreAtIvE II BNER tasks. Our results showed that all the three WR algorithms were beneficial to machine learning-based BNER systems. Moreover, combining these different types of WR features further improved BNER performance, indicating that they are complementary to each other. By combining all the three types of WR features, the improvements in F-measure on the BioCreAtIvE II GM and JNLPBA corpora were 3.75% and 1.39%, respectively, when compared with the systems using baseline features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically evaluate the effect of three different types of WR features for BNER tasks. PMID:24729964

Cao, Hongxin; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Xu, Hua

2014-01-01

123

Unregistered Biological Words Recognition by Q-Learning with Transfer Learning  

PubMed Central

Unregistered biological words recognition is the process of identification of terms that is out of vocabulary. Although many approaches have been developed, the performance approaches are not satisfactory. As the identification process can be viewed as a Markov process, we put forward a Q-learning with transfer learning algorithm to detect unregistered biological words from texts. With the Q-learning, the recognizer can attain the optimal solution of identification during the interaction with the texts and contexts. During the processing, a transfer learning approach is utilized to fully take advantage of the knowledge gained in a source task to speed up learning in a different but related target task. A mapping, required by many transfer learning, which relates features from the source task to the target task, is carried on automatically under the reinforcement learning framework. We examined the performance of three approaches with GENIA corpus and JNLPBA04 data. The proposed approach improved performance in both experiments. The precision, recall rate, and F score results of our approach surpassed those of conventional unregistered word recognizer as well as those of Q-learning approach without transfer learning. PMID:24701139

Liu, Quan; Wang, Hui; Fu, Yuchen

2014-01-01

124

Hemispheric asymmetries in word recognition as revealed by the orthographic uniqueness point effect  

PubMed Central

The orthographic uniqueness point (OUP) refers to the first letter of a word that, reading from left to right, makes the word unique. It has recently been proposed that OUPs might be relevant in word recognition and their influence could inform the long-lasting debate of whether – and to what extent – printed words are recognized serially or in parallel. The present study represents the first investigation of the neural and behavioral effects of OUP on visual word recognition. Behaviourally, late OUP words were identified faster and more accurately in a lexical decision task. Analysis of event-related potentials demonstrated a hemispheric asymmetry on the N170 component, with the left hemisphere appearing to be more sensitive to the position of the OUP within a word than the right hemisphere. These results suggest that processing of centrally presented words is likely to occur in a partially parallel manner, as an ends-in scanning process. PMID:24711800

Izura, Cristina; Wright, Victoria C.; Fouquet, Nathalie

2014-01-01

125

Automatic target recognition apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An automatic target recognition apparatus (10) is provided, having a video camera/digitizer (12) for producing a digitized image signal (20) representing an image containing therein objects which objects are to be recognized if they meet predefined criteria. The digitized image signal (20) is processed within a video analysis subroutine (22) residing in a computer (14) in a plurality of parallel analysis chains such that the objects are presumed to be lighter in shading than the background in the image in three of the chains and further such that the objects are presumed to be darker than the background in the other three chains. In two of the chains the objects are defined by surface texture analysis using texture filter operations. In another two of the chains the objects are defined by background subtraction operations. In yet another two of the chains the objects are defined by edge enhancement processes. In each of the analysis chains a calculation operation independently determines an error factor relating to the probability that the objects are of the type which should be recognized, and a probability calculation operation combines the results of the analysis chains.

Baumgart, Chris W. (Santa Fe, NM); Ciarcia, Christopher A. (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01

126

Speed and accuracy of dyslexic versus typical word recognition: an eye-movement investigation  

PubMed Central

Developmental dyslexia is often characterized by a dual deficit in both word recognition accuracy and general processing speed. While previous research into dyslexic word recognition may have suffered from speed-accuracy trade-off, the present study employed a novel eye-tracking task that is less prone to such confounds. Participants (10 dyslexics and 12 controls) were asked to look at real word stimuli, and to ignore simultaneously presented non-word stimuli, while their eye-movements were recorded. Improvements in word recognition accuracy over time were modeled in terms of a continuous non-linear function. The words' rhyme consistency and the non-words' lexicality (unpronounceable, pronounceable, pseudohomophone) were manipulated within-subjects. Speed-related measures derived from the model fits confirmed generally slower processing in dyslexics, and showed a rhyme consistency effect in both dyslexics and controls. In terms of overall error rate, dyslexics (but not controls) performed less accurately on rhyme-inconsistent words, suggesting a representational deficit for such words in dyslexics. Interestingly, neither group showed a pseudohomophone effect in speed or accuracy, which might call the task-independent pervasiveness of this effect into question. The present results illustrate the importance of distinguishing between speed- vs. accuracy-related effects for our understanding of dyslexic word recognition. PMID:25346708

Kunert, Richard; Scheepers, Christoph

2014-01-01

127

Comparison of crisp and fuzzy character networks in handwritten word recognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments involving handwritten word recognition on words taken from images of handwritten address blocks from the United States Postal Service mailstream are described. The word recognition algorithm relies on the use of neural networks at the character level. The neural networks are trained using crisp and fuzzy desired outputs. The fuzzy outputs were defined using a fuzzy k-nearest neighbor algorithm. The crisp networks slightly outperformed the fuzzy networks at the character level but the fuzzy networks outperformed the crisp networks at the word level.

Gader, Paul; Mohamed, Magdi; Chiang, Jung-Hsien

1992-01-01

128

The Influence of the Phonological Neighborhood Clustering Coefficient on Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clustering coefficient--a measure derived from the new science of networks--refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words "bat", "hat", and "can", all of which are neighbors of the word "cat"; the words "bat" and "hat" are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual…

Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.

2009-01-01

129

A new segmentation algorithm for handwritten word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for segmenting unconstrained printed and cursive words is proposed. The algorithm initially oversegments handwritten word images (for training and testing) using heuristics and feature detection. An artificial neural network (ANN) is then trained with global features extracted from segmentation points found in words designated for training. Segmentation points located in “test” word images are subsequently extracted and verified

M. Blumenstein; B. Vernalp

1999-01-01

130

Fusion of Spectrograph and LPC Analysis for Word Recognition: A New Fuzzy Approach  

E-print Network

) . Four different methods are applied to fusion of these features, including weighted averaging, k alternative methods for decision level fusion in word recognition. Simulation results and conclusions extraction, some preprocessing Acoustic Speech Preprocessing Spectrogram LPC Analysis Fusion Feature

Williamson, John

131

Image Quality Measures for Predicting Automatic Target Recognition Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

One important issue for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) systems is to learn how robust the performance is under different scenarios. The quality of the input image sequence is a major factor affecting the ATR algorithm's ability to detect and recognize an object. If one can correlate the algorithm performance with different image quality measures, the recognition confidence can be predicted

Yin Chen; G. Chen; R. S. Blum; E. Blasch; R. S. Lynch

2008-01-01

132

Is a FAN always FUN? Phonological and orthographic effects in bilingual visual word recognition.  

PubMed

A visual semantic categorization task in English was performed by native English speakers (Experiment 1) and late bilinguals whose first language was Japanese (Experiment 2) or Spanish (Experiment 3). In the critical conditions, the target word was a homophone of a correct category exemplar (e.g., A BODY OF WATER--SEE; cf. SEA) or a word that differed from the correct exemplar by a phonological contrast absent in the bilinguals' first language (e.g., USED FOR COOLING DOWN--FUN; cf. FAN). Homophones elicited more false positive errors and slower processing than spelling controls in all groups. The Japanese-English bilinguals, but not the Spanish-English bilinguals, also displayed 'near-homophone' effects (i.e., homophone-like effects from minimal pairs on nonnative contrasts). We conclude that second-language visual word recognition is influenced by first-language phonology, although the effect is conditioned by the first-language orthographic system. Near-homophone effects can occur when the orthographic systems of the late bilingual's two languages are different in type (e.g., alphabetic vs. non-alphabetic), but may be blocked if the languages use the same writing script (e.g., Roman alphabet). PMID:21033653

Ota, Mitsuhiko; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Haywood, Sarah L

2010-01-01

133

Design method of ARM based infrared camouflage target recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advantages of stealthiness, all weather effectiveness, visible target recognition and long affect distance, infrared thermal imaging system play important role in scouting, aiming and tracking. In order to eliminate influences of thermal camouflage to traditional intensity infrared thermal imaging system, we proposed design method of ARM based infrared camouflage target recognition system. Considering the measurement of Stokes parameters, we analyzed design method of polarized image acquisition module, designed ARM core board and its data connection with other devices, adopted LCD to display polarization image computed out by ARM. We also studied embedded Linux platform and polarized image processing program based on this platform, finally actualized the design method of ARM based infrared camouflage target recognition system. Results of our experiment show that data stream can be successfully transmitted between modules of the system and the platform we used is fast enough to run polarized image processing program. It's an effective method of using ARM to actualize infrared camouflage target recognition system.

Wang, Yuan-bo; Shen, Hong-bin; Li, Gang

2013-09-01

134

Pose independent target recognition system using pulsed Ladar imagery  

E-print Network

Although a number of object recognition techniques have been developed to process LADAR scanned terrain scenes, these techniques have had limited success in target discrimination in part due to low-resolution data and ...

Vasile, Alexandru N. (Alexandru Nicolae), 1980-

2004-01-01

135

A target recognition method based on feature level data fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

To solve the problem of multi-feature fusion target recognition, a feature level fusion method using a multi-classifier is developed. Firstly, the combination of sensors used in target recognition and the model structure of feature level data fusion is discussed. Secondly, a feature level fusion method based on a multi-classifier is presented. In this method, fuzzy logic systems with different expert

Wenjie Chen; Lihua Dou; Jie Chen

2002-01-01

136

Simultaneous recognition of words and prosody in the Boston University Radio Speech Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes automatic speech recognition systems that satisfy two techno- logical objectives. First, we seek to improve the automatic labeling of prosody, in order to aid future research in automatic speech understanding. Second, we seek to apply statistical speech recognition models of prosody for the purpose of reducing the word error rate of an automatic speech recognizer. The systems

Mark Hasegawa-johnson; Ken Chen; Jennifer Cole; Sarah Borys; Sung-suk Kim; Aaron Cohen; Tong Zhang; Jeung-yoon Choi; Heejin Kim; Taejin Yoon; Sandra Chavarria

2005-01-01

137

Latent Variable Modeling of Cognitive Processes in True and False Recognition of Words: A Developmental Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed at testing theoretical predictions of the fuzzy-trace theory about true and false recognition. The effects of semantic relatedness and study opportunity on true and false recognition of words from Deese, Roediger, McDermott lists (J. Deese, 1959; D. R. Read, 1996; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995) were evaluated in 7-…

Bouwmeester, Samantha; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.

2010-01-01

138

Gaze Position Reveals Impaired Attentional Shift during Visual Word Recognition in Dysfluent Readers  

PubMed Central

Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level. PMID:25268909

Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

2014-01-01

139

Is Syntactic-Category Processing Obligatory in Visual Word Recognition? Evidence from Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments were conducted to investigate how syntactic-category and semantic information is processed in visual word recognition. The stimuli were two-character Chinese words in which semantic and syntactic-category ambiguities were factorially manipulated. A lexical decision task was employed in Experiment 1, whereas a semantic relatedness…

Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

2012-01-01

140

Re-Evaluating Split-Fovea Processing in Word Recognition: A Critical Assessment of Recent Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, some researchers have proposed that a fundamental component of the word recognition process is that each fovea is divided precisely at its vertical midline and that information either side of this midline projects to different, contralateral hemispheres. Thus, when a word is fixated, all letters to the left of the point of…

Jordan, Timothy R.; Paterson, Kevin B.

2009-01-01

141

Evaluating a Split Processing Model of Visual Word Recognition: Effects of Orthographic Neighborhood Size  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The split fovea theory proposes that visual word recognition of centrally presented words is mediated by the splitting of the foveal image, with letters to the left of fixation being projected to the right hemisphere (RH) and letters to the right of fixation being projected to the left hemisphere (LH). Two lexical decision experiments aimed to…

Lavidor, Michal; Hayes, Adrian; Shillcock, Richard; Ellis, Andrew W.

2004-01-01

142

Spoken Word Recognition in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spoken word recognition, during gating, appears intact in specific language impairment (SLI). This study used gating to investigate the process in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders plus language impairment (ALI). Adolescents with ALI, SLI, and typical language development (TLD), matched on nonverbal IQ listened to gated words that varied…

Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony

2013-01-01

143

Acute alcohol effects on repetition priming and word recognition memory with equivalent memory cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words in the study lists. Twenty-two female and male social

Suchismita Ray; Marsha E. Bates

2006-01-01

144

Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words

Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

2006-01-01

145

The right visual field advantage and the optimal viewing position effect: On the relation between foveal and parafoveal word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments on the optimal viewing position (OVP) effect suggest that it may be caused by the same factors that underlie the right visual field advantage in word recognition. This raises the question of the relationship between foveal and parafoveal word recognition. Three experiments are reported in which participants identified tachistoscopically presented words that were presented randomly in foveal and

Marc Brysbaert; Françoise Vitu; Walter Schroyens

1996-01-01

146

A neural system for automatic target learning and recognition applied to bare and camouflaged SAR targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a neural based approach to target learning and recognition in synthetic-aperture radar imagery. Targets consist of a variety of camouflaged and uncamouflaged military vehicles taken at different radar view and depression angles in both spotlight and stripmap radar collection modes. Results from a variety of recognition experiments are reported.

Ann Marie Bernardon; James E. Carrick

1995-01-01

147

Silent Letters Are Activated in Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments are reported that investigate processing of mispronounced words for which the phonological form is inconsistent with the graphemic form (words spelled with silent letters). Words produced as mispronunciations that are consistent with their spelling were more confusable with their citation form counterpart than mispronunciations…

Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.

2011-01-01

148

N170 ERPs could represent a logographic processing strategy in visual word recognition  

PubMed Central

Background Occipito-temporal N170 component represents the first step where face, object and word processing are discriminated along the ventral stream of the brain. N170 leftward asymmetry observed during reading has been often associated to prelexical orthographic visual word form activation. However, some studies reported a lexical frequency effect for this component particularly during word repetition that appears in contradiction with this prelexical orthographic step. Here, we tested the hypothesis that under word repetition condition, discrimination between words would be operated on visual rather than orthographic basis. In this case, N170 activity may correspond to a logographic processing where a word is processed as a whole. Methods To test such an assumption, frequent words, infrequent words and pseudowords were presented to the subjects that had to complete a visual lexical decision task. Different repetition conditions were defined 1 – weak repetition, 2 – massive repetition and 3 – massive repetition with font alternation. This last condition was designed to change visual word shape during repetition and therefore to interfere with a possible visual strategy during word recognition. Results Behavioral data showed an important frequency effect for the weak repetition condition, a lower but significant frequency effect for massive repetition, and no frequency effect for the changing font repetition. Moreover alternating font repetitions slowed subject's responses in comparison to "simple" massive repetition. ERPs results evidenced larger N170 amplitude in the left hemisphere for frequent than both infrequent words and pseudowords during massive repetition. Moreover, when words were repeated with different fonts this N170 effect was not present, suggesting a visual locus for such a N170 frequency effect. Conclusion N170 represents an important step in visual word recognition, consisting probably in a prelexical orthographic processing. But during the reading of very frequent words or after a massive repetition of a word, it could represent a more holistic process where words are processed as a global visual pattern. PMID:17451598

Simon, Gregory; Petit, Laurent; Bernard, Christian; Rebaï, Mohamed

2007-01-01

149

NESP: Nonlinear enhancement and selection of plane for optimal segmentation and recognition of scene word images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report a breakthrough result on the difficult task of segmentation and recognition of coloured text from the word image dataset of ICDAR robust reading competition challenge 2: reading text in scene images. We split the word image into individual colour, gray and lightness planes and enhance the contrast of each of these planes independently by a power-law transform. The discrimination factor of each plane is computed as the maximum between-class variance used in Otsu thresholding. The plane that has maximum discrimination factor is selected for segmentation. The trial version of Omnipage OCR is then used on the binarized words for recognition. Our recognition results on ICDAR 2011 and ICDAR 2003 word datasets are compared with those reported in the literature. As baseline, the images binarized by simple global and local thresholding techniques were also recognized. The word recognition rate obtained by our non-linear enhancement and selection of plance method is 72.8% and 66.2% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 word datasets, respectively. We have created ground-truth for each image at the pixel level to benchmark these datasets using a toolkit developed by us. The recognition rate of benchmarked images is 86.7% and 83.9% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 datasets, respectively.

Kumar, Deepak; Anil Prasad, M. N.; Ramakrishnan, A. G.

2013-01-01

150

A Novel Word Based Arabic Handwritten Recognition System Using SVM Classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every language script has its structure, characteristic, and feature. Character based word recognition depends on the feature available to be extracted from character. Word based script recognition overcome the problem of character segmenting and can be applied for several languages (Arabic, Urdu, Farsi... est.). In this paper Arabic handwritten is classified as word based system. Firstly, words segmented and normalized in size to fit the DCT input. Then extract feature characteristic by computing the Euclidean distance between pairs of objects in n-by-m data matrix X. Based on the point's operator of extrema, feature was extracted. Then apply one to one-Class Support Vector Machines (SVMs) as a discriminative framework in order to address feature classification. The approach was tested with several public databases and we get high efficiency rate recognition.

Khalifa, Mahmoud; Bingru, Yang

151

Distributional structure in language: Contributions to noun–verb difficulty differences in infant word recognition  

PubMed Central

What makes some words easy for infants to recognize, and other words difficult? We addressed this issue in the context of prior results suggesting that infants have difficulty recognizing verbs relative to nouns. In this work, we highlight the role played by the distributional contexts in which nouns and verbs occur. Distributional statistics predict that English nouns should generally be easier to recognize than verbs in fluent speech. However, there are situations in which distributional statistics provide similar support for verbs. The statistics for verbs that occur with the English morpheme –ing, for example, should facilitate verb recognition. In two experiments with 7.5- and 9.5-month-old infants, we tested the importance of distributional statistics for word recognition by varying the frequency of the contextual frames in which verbs occur. The results support the conclusion that distributional statistics are utilized by infant language learners and contribute to noun–verb differences in word recognition. PMID:24908342

Willits, Jon A.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Saffran, Jenny R.

2014-01-01

152

Distributional structure in language: contributions to noun-verb difficulty differences in infant word recognition.  

PubMed

What makes some words easy for infants to recognize, and other words difficult? We addressed this issue in the context of prior results suggesting that infants have difficulty recognizing verbs relative to nouns. In this work, we highlight the role played by the distributional contexts in which nouns and verbs occur. Distributional statistics predict that English nouns should generally be easier to recognize than verbs in fluent speech. However, there are situations in which distributional statistics provide similar support for verbs. The statistics for verbs that occur with the English morpheme -ing, for example, should facilitate verb recognition. In two experiments with 7.5- and 9.5-month-old infants, we tested the importance of distributional statistics for word recognition by varying the frequency of the contextual frames in which verbs occur. The results support the conclusion that distributional statistics are utilized by infant language learners and contribute to noun-verb differences in word recognition. PMID:24908342

Willits, Jon A; Seidenberg, Mark S; Saffran, Jenny R

2014-09-01

153

Target Recognition Using Neural Networks for Model Deformation Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical measurements provide a non-invasive method for measuring deformation of wind tunnel models. Model deformation systems use targets mounted or painted on the surface of the model to identify known positions, and photogrammetric methods are used to calculate 3-D positions of the targets on the model from digital 2-D images. Under ideal conditions, the reflective targets are placed against a dark background and provide high-contrast images, aiding in target recognition. However, glints of light reflecting from the model surface, or reduced contrast caused by light source or model smoothness constraints, can compromise accurate target determination using current algorithmic methods. This paper describes a technique using a neural network and image processing technologies which increases the reliability of target recognition systems. Unlike algorithmic methods, the neural network can be trained to identify the characteristic patterns that distinguish targets from other objects of similar size and appearance and can adapt to changes in lighting and environmental conditions.

Ross, Richard W.; Hibler, David L.

1999-01-01

154

Automated Target Recognition Using Passive Radar and Coordinated Flight Models  

E-print Network

approach to ATR compares the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of targets detected by a passive radar systemAutomated Target Recognition Using Passive Radar and Coordinated Flight Models Lisa M. Ehrman and Aaron D. Lanterman Center for Signal and Image Processing School of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Lanterman, Aaron

155

Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

Zheng, Yufeng

2014-12-23

156

Kernel generalized neighbor discriminant embedding for SAR automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new supervised feature extraction algorithm in synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition (SAR ATR), called generalized neighbor discriminant embedding (GNDE). Based on manifold learning, GNDE integrates class and neighborhood information to enhance discriminative power of extracted feature. Besides, the kernelized counterpart of this algorithm is also proposed, called kernel-GNDE (KGNDE). The experiment in this paper shows that the proposed algorithms have better recognition performance than PCA and KPCA.

Huang, Yulin; Pei, Jifang; Yang, Jianyu; Wang, Tao; Yang, Haiguang; Wang, Bing

2014-12-01

157

Evidence for the Activation of Sensorimotor Information during Visual Word Recognition: The Body-Object Interaction Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the effects of sensorimotor experience in two visual word recognition tasks. Body-object interaction (BOI) ratings were collected for a large set of words. These ratings assess perceptions of the ease with which a human body can physically interact with a word's referent. A set of high BOI words (e.g., "mask") and a set of low BOI…

Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.; Aguilera, Laura; Owen, William J.; Sears, Christopher R.

2008-01-01

158

LEXICAL SEGMENTATION AND AMBIGUITY: INVESTIGATING THE RECOGNITION OF EMBEDDED WORDS  

E-print Network

- offset of embedded word [kQp] AP2 - onset of following syllable [kQpt] AP3 - vowel of second syllable[kQptÃ?] or [kQptI] AP4 - 100ms after AP3 Initial syllables in short and long word sequences differed

Davis, Matt

159

Revisiting Word Neighborhoods for Speech Recognition Preethi Jyothi  

E-print Network

of Illinois, Urbana, IL pjyothi@illinois.edu Karen Livescu Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago Chicago words are recognized faster and more accu- rately than are infrequent words (Marslen-Wilson, 1987; Luce, speaking rate, and prosodic factors (Fosler-Lussier and Morgan, 1999; Shinozaki and Furui, 2001; Hirschberg

Livescu, Karen

160

A refuse-recognition method for radar HRRP target recognition based on mahalanobis distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the radar automatic target recognition (RATR) system using high resolution range profile (HRRP), if a test sample has not been trained in training phase, it would lead to a full miss classification in test phase. In this paper, we design a classifier based on generalized confidence, which can efficiently refuse-recognize a new target. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) method

Liao Kuo; Jiansheng Fu; Yang wanlin

2010-01-01

161

SAR target recognition based on improved joint sparse representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a SAR target recognition method is proposed based on the improved joint sparse representation (IJSR) model. The IJSR model can effectively combine multiple-view SAR images from the same physical target to improve the recognition performance. The classification process contains two stages. Convex relaxation is used to obtain support sample candidates with the ? 1-norm minimization in the first stage. The low-rank matrix recovery strategy is introduced to explore the final support samples and its corresponding sparse representation coefficient matrix in the second stage. Finally, with the minimal reconstruction residual strategy, we can make the SAR target classification. The experimental results on the MSTAR database show the recognition performance outperforms state-of-the-art methods, such as the joint sparse representation classification (JSRC) method and the sparse representation classification (SRC) method.

Cheng, Jian; Li, Lan; Li, Hongsheng; Wang, Feng

2014-12-01

162

Composite Wavelet Filters for Enhanced Automated Target Recognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated Target Recognition (ATR) systems aim to automate target detection, recognition, and tracking. The current project applies a JPL ATR system to low-resolution sonar and camera videos taken from unmanned vehicles. These sonar images are inherently noisy and difficult to interpret, and pictures taken underwater are unreliable due to murkiness and inconsistent lighting. The ATR system breaks target recognition into three stages: 1) Videos of both sonar and camera footage are broken into frames and preprocessed to enhance images and detect Regions of Interest (ROIs). 2) Features are extracted from these ROIs in preparation for classification. 3) ROIs are classified as true or false positives using a standard Neural Network based on the extracted features. Several preprocessing, feature extraction, and training methods are tested and discussed in this paper.

Chiang, Jeffrey N.; Zhang, Yuhan; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

2012-01-01

163

Reading Front to Back: MEG Evidence for Early Feedback Effects During Word Recognition  

PubMed Central

Magnetoencephalography studies in humans have shown word-selective activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) approximately 130 ms after word presentation ( Pammer et al. 2004; Cornelissen et al. 2009; Wheat et al. 2010). The role of this early frontal response is currently not known. We tested the hypothesis that the IFG provides top-down constraints on word recognition using dynamic causal modeling of magnetoencephalography data collected, while subjects viewed written words and false font stimuli. Subject-specific dipoles in left and right occipital, ventral occipitotemporal and frontal cortices were identified using Variational Bayesian Equivalent Current Dipole source reconstruction. A connectivity analysis tested how words and false font stimuli differentially modulated activity between these regions within the first 300 ms after stimulus presentation. We found that left inferior frontal activity showed stronger sensitivity to words than false font and a stronger feedback connection onto the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) in the first 200 ms. Subsequently, the effect of words relative to false font was observed on feedforward connections from left occipital to ventral occipitotemporal and frontal regions. These findings demonstrate that left inferior frontal activity modulates vOT in the early stages of word processing and provides a mechanistic account of top-down effects during word recognition. PMID:23172772

Woodhead, Z.V.J.; Barnes, G.R.; Penny, W.; Moran, R.; Teki, S.; Price, C.J.; Leff, A.P.

2014-01-01

164

Recognition Memory for Braille or Spoken Words: An fMRI study in Early Blind  

PubMed Central

We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5 yrs. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied (“old”) compared to novel (“new”) words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified “new” words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken “new” words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with “old”/“new” recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to “old” words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to “new” Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for “new” words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering “old” words. A larger response when identifying “new” words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of “old” words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a “sensory echo” that aids recollection. PMID:22251836

Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J.; Agato, Alvin

2012-01-01

165

Word Frequency Modulates the Basic Orthographic Syllabic Structure (BOSS) Effect in English Polysyllable Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do native readers segment polysyllabic words based on orthographic/morphological criteria or phonological criteria? Research by Taft (1979, 2001) argues in support of the former, as readers were faster in split-word lexical decision tasks when the words were segmented by orthographic/ morphological principles based on Basic Orthographic Syllable…

Chen, Hsin-Chin; Vaid, Jyotsna

2007-01-01

166

A spatially supported forced-choice recognition test reveals children’s long-term memory for newly learned word forms  

PubMed Central

Children’s memories for the link between a newly trained word and its referent have been the focus of extensive past research. However, memory for the word form itself is rarely assessed among preschool-age children. When it is, children are typically asked to verbally recall the forms, and they generally perform at floor on such tests. To better measure children’s memory for word forms, we aimed to design a more sensitive test that required recognition rather than recall, provided spatial cues to off-set the phonological memory demands of the test, and allowed pointing rather than verbal responses. We taught 12 novel word-referent pairs via ostensive naming to sixteen 4- to 6-year-olds and measured their memory for the word forms after a week-long retention interval using the new spatially supported form recognition test. We also measured their memory for the word-referent links and the generalization of the links to untrained referents with commonly used recognition tests. Children demonstrated memory for word forms at above chance levels; however, their memory for forms was poorer than their memory for trained or generalized word-referent links. When in error, children were no more likely to select a foil that was a close neighbor to the target form than a maximally different foil. Additionally, they more often selected correct forms that were among the first six than the last six to be trained. Overall, these findings suggest that children are able to remember word forms after a limited number of ostensive exposures and a long-term delay. However, word forms remain more difficult to learn than word-referent links and there is an upper limit on the number of forms that can be learned within a given period of time. PMID:24639660

Gordon, Katherine R.; McGregor, Karla K.

2014-01-01

167

Reading component skills in dyslexia: word recognition, comprehension and processing speed.  

PubMed

The cognitive model of reading comprehension (RC) posits that RC is a result of the interaction between decoding and linguistic comprehension. Recently, the notion of decoding skill was expanded to include word recognition. In addition, some studies suggest that other skills could be integrated into this model, like processing speed, and have consistently indicated that this skill influences and is an important predictor of the main components of the model, such as vocabulary for comprehension and phonological awareness of word recognition. The following study evaluated the components of the RC model and predictive skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. 40 children and adolescents (8-13 years) were divided in a Dyslexic Group (DG; 18 children, MA = 10.78, SD = 1.66) and control group (CG 22 children, MA = 10.59, SD = 1.86). All were students from the 2nd to 8th grade of elementary school and groups were equivalent in school grade, age, gender, and IQ. Oral and RC, word recognition, processing speed, picture naming, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were assessed. There were no group differences regarding the accuracy in oral and RC, phonological awareness, naming, and vocabulary scores. DG performed worse than the CG in word recognition (general score and orthographic confusion items) and were slower in naming. Results corroborated the literature regarding word recognition and processing speed deficits in dyslexia. However, dyslexics can achieve normal scores on RC test. Data supports the importance of delimitation of different reading strategies embedded in the word recognition component. The role of processing speed in reading problems remain unclear. PMID:25506331

de Oliveira, Darlene G; da Silva, Patrícia B; Dias, Natália M; Seabra, Alessandra G; Macedo, Elizeu C

2014-01-01

168

Human brain potentials indicate morphological decomposition in visual word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem homographs are pairs of words with the same orthographic description of their stem but which are semantically and morphologically unrelated (e.g. in Spanish: rata\\/rato (rat\\/moment)). In priming tasks, stem homographs produce inhibition, unlike morphologically related words (loca\\/loco (madwoman\\/madman)) which produce facilitation. An event-related potentials study was conducted to compare morphological and stem homographic priming effects. The results show a

Horacio Barber; Alberto Dom??nguez; Manuel de Vega

2002-01-01

169

Semi-continuous HMMs with explicit state duration for unconstrained Arabic word modeling and recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an off-line unconstrained handwritten Arabic word recognition system based on segmentation-free approach and semi-continuous hidden Markov models (SCHMMs) with explicit state duration. Character durations play a significant part in the recognition of cursive handwriting. The duration information is still mostly disregarded in HMM-based automatic cursive handwriting recognizers due to the fact that HMMs are deficient

Abdallah Benouareth; Abdel Ennaji; Mokhtar Sellami

2008-01-01

170

The DARPA 1000-word resource management database for continuous speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A database of continuous read speech has been designed and recorded within the DARPA strategic computing speech recognition program. The data is intended for use in designing and evaluating algorithms for speaker-independent, speaker-adaptive and speaker-dependent speech recognition. The data consists of read sentences appropriate to a naval resource management task built around existing interactive database and graphics programs. The 1000-word

Patti Price; William M. Fisher; Jared Bernstein; D. S. Pallett

1988-01-01

171

Cascaded automatic target recognition (Cascaded ATR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global war on terror has plunged US and coalition forces into a battle space requiring the continuous adaptation of tactics and technologies to cope with an elusive enemy. As a result, technologies that enhance the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) mission making the warfighter more effective are experiencing increased interest. In this paper we show how a new generation of smart cameras built around foveated sensing makes possible a powerful ISR technique termed Cascaded ATR. Foveated sensing is an innovative optical concept in which a single aperture captures two distinct fields of view. In Cascaded ATR, foveated sensing is used to provide a coarse resolution, persistent surveillance, wide field of view (WFOV) detector to accomplish detection level perception. At the same time, within the foveated sensor, these detection locations are passed as a cue to a steerable, high fidelity, narrow field of view (NFOV) detector to perform recognition level perception. Two new ISR mission scenarios, utilizing Cascaded ATR, are proposed.

Walls, Bradley

2010-04-01

172

Influences of Lexical Tone and Pitch on Word Recognition in Bilingual Infants  

PubMed Central

Infants’ abilities to discriminate native and non-native phonemes have been extensively investigated in monolingual learners, demonstrating a transition from language-general to language-specific sensitivities over the first year after birth. However, these studies have mostly been limited to the study of vowels and consonants in monolingual learners. There is relatively little research on other types of phonetic segments, such as lexical tone, even though tone languages are very well represented across languages of the world. The goal of the present study is to investigate how Mandarin Chinese-English bilingual learners contend with non-phonemic pitch variation in English spoken word recognition. This is contrasted with their treatment of phonemic changes in lexical tone in Mandarin spoken word recognition. The experimental design was cross-sectional and three age-groups were sampled (7.5 months, 9 months and 11 months). Results demonstrated limited generalization abilities at 7.5 months, where infants only recognized words in English when matched in pitch and words in Mandarin that were matched in tone. At 9 months, infants recognized words in Mandarin Chinese that matched in tone, but also falsely recognized words that contrasted in tone. At this age, infants also recognized English words whether they were matched or mismatched in pitch. By 11 months, infants correctly recognized pitch-matched and - mismatched words in English but only recognized tonal matches in Mandarin Chinese. PMID:22682766

Singh, Leher; Foong, Joanne

2012-01-01

173

Preference and processing: The role of speech affect in early spoken word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants prefer to listen to happy speech. To assess influences of speech affect on early lexical processing, 7.5- and 10.5-month-old infants were familiarized with one word spoken with happy affect and another with neutral affect and then tested on recognition of these words in fluent passages. Infants heard all passages either with happy affect or with neutral affect. Contrary to

Leher Singh; James L. Morgan; Katherine S. Whiteb

2004-01-01

174

AN INFORMATION-THEORETIC APPROACH TO SONAR AUTOMATIC TARGET RECOGNITION  

E-print Network

AN INFORMATION-THEORETIC APPROACH TO SONAR AUTOMATIC TARGET RECOGNITION By RODNEY ALBERTO MOREJON, and guidance over my long course of study (which has extended beyond my longest expectations when I began thankful of Dr. Gerry Dobeck, who has served as a second mentor through the course of my research

Slatton, Clint

175

Infrared target simulation environment for pattern recognition applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of complete databases of IR data is extremely useful for training human observers and testing automatic pattern recognition algorithms. Field data may be used for realism, but require expensive and time-consuming procedures. IR scene simulation methods have emerged as a more economical and efficient alternative for the generation of IR databases. A novel approach to IR target simulation

Andreas E. Savakis; Nicholas George

1994-01-01

176

Automatic target recognition using waveform diversity in radar sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we perform a number of theoretical studies on constant frequency (CF) pulse waveform design and diversity in radar sensor networks (RSN): (1) the conditions for waveform co-existence, (2) interferences among waveforms in RSN, (3) waveform diversity combining in RSN. As an application example, we apply the waveform design and diversity to automatic target recognition (ATR) in RSN

Qilian Liang

2008-01-01

177

The research of multi-frame target recognition based on laser active imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser active imaging is fit to conditions such as no difference in temperature between target and background, pitch-black night, bad visibility. Also it can be used to detect a faint target in long range or small target in deep space, which has advantage of high definition and good contrast. In one word, it is immune to environment. However, due to the affect of long distance, limited laser energy and atmospheric backscatter, it is impossible to illuminate the whole scene at the same time. It means that the target in every single frame is unevenly or partly illuminated, which make the recognition more difficult. At the same time the speckle noise which is common in laser active imaging blurs the images . In this paper we do some research on laser active imaging and propose a new target recognition method based on multi-frame images . Firstly, multi pulses of laser is used to obtain sub-images for different parts of scene. A denoising method combined homomorphic filter with wavelet domain SURE is used to suppress speckle noise. And blind deconvolution is introduced to obtain low-noise and clear sub-images. Then these sub-images are registered and stitched to combine a completely and uniformly illuminated scene image. After that, a new target recognition method based on contour moments is proposed. Firstly, canny operator is used to obtain contours. For each contour, seven invariant Hu moments are calculated to generate the feature vectors. At last the feature vectors are input into double hidden layers BP neural network for classification . Experiments results indicate that the proposed algorithm could achieve a high recognition rate and satisfactory real-time performance for laser active imaging.

Wang, Can-jin; Sun, Tao; Wang, Tin-feng; Chen, Juan

2013-09-01

178

Handwritten word recognition with character and inter-character neural networks.  

PubMed

An off-line handwritten word recognition system is described. Images of handwritten words are matched to lexicons of candidate strings. A word image is segmented into primitives. The best match between sequences of unions of primitives and a lexicon string is found using dynamic programming. Neural networks assign match scores between characters and segments. Two particularly unique features are that neural networks assign confidence that pairs of segments are compatible with character confidence assignments and that this confidence is integrated into the dynamic programming. Experimental results are provided on data from the U.S. Postal Service. PMID:18255853

Gader, P D; Mohamed, M; Chiang, J H

1997-01-01

179

Effects of targets embedded within words in a visual search task  

PubMed Central

Visual search performance can be negatively affected when both targets and distracters share a dimension relevant to the task. This study examined if visual search performance would be influenced by distracters that affect a dimension irrelevant from the task. In Experiment 1 within the letter string of a letter search task, target letters were embedded within a word. Experiment 2 compared targets embedded in words to targets embedded in nonwords. Experiment 3 compared targets embedded in words to a condition in which a word was present in a letter string, but the target letter, although in the letter string, was not embedded within the word. The results showed that visual search performance was negatively affected when a target appeared within a high frequency word. These results suggest that the interaction and effectiveness of distracters is not merely dependent upon common features of the target and distracters, but can be affected by word frequency (a dimension not related to the task demands). PMID:24855497

Grabbe, Jeremy W.

2014-01-01

180

Lexical Representation of Phonological Variation in Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been a number of mechanisms proposed to account for recognition of phonological variation in spoken language. Five of these mechanisms were considered here, including underspecification, inference, feature parsing, tolerance, and a frequency-based representational account. A corpus analysis and five experiments using the nasal flap…

Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

181

An ERP investigation of the co-development of hemispheric lateralization of face and word recognition.  

PubMed

The adult human brain would appear to have specialized and independent neural systems for the visual processing of words and faces. Extensive evidence has demonstrated greater selectivity for written words in the left over right hemisphere, and, conversely, greater selectivity for faces in the right over left hemisphere. This study examines the emergence of these complementary neural profiles, as well as the possible relationship between them. Using behavioral and neurophysiological measures, in adults, we observed the standard finding of greater accuracy and a larger N170 ERP component in the left over right hemisphere for words, and conversely, greater accuracy and a larger N170 in the right over the left hemisphere for faces. We also found that although children aged 7-12 years revealed the adult hemispheric pattern for words, they showed neither a behavioral nor a neural hemispheric superiority for faces. Of particular interest, the magnitude of their N170 for faces in the right hemisphere was related to that of the N170 for words in their left hemisphere. These findings suggest that the hemispheric organization of face recognition and of word recognition does not develop independently, and that word lateralization may precede and drive later face lateralization. A theoretical account for the findings, in which competition for visual representations unfolds over the course of development, is discussed. PMID:24933662

Dundas, Eva M; Plaut, David C; Behrmann, Marlene

2014-08-01

182

A prototype system for handwritten sub-word recognition: Toward Arabic-manuscript transliteration  

E-print Network

A prototype system for the transliteration of diacritics-less Arabic manuscripts at the sub-word or part of Arabic word (PAW) level is developed. The system is able to read sub-words of the input manuscript using a set of skeleton-based features. A variation of the system is also developed which reads archigraphemic Arabic manuscripts, which are dot-less, into archigraphemes transliteration. In order to reduce the complexity of the original highly multiclass problem of sub-word recognition, it is redefined into a set of binary descriptor classifiers. The outputs of trained binary classifiers are combined to generate the sequence of sub-word letters. SVMs are used to learn the binary classifiers. Two specific Arabic databases have been developed to train and test the system. One of them is a database of the Naskh style. The initial results are promising. The systems could be trained on other scripts found in Arabic manuscripts.

Moghaddam, Reza Farrahi; Milo, Thomas; Wisnovsky, Robert

2011-01-01

183

Word Recognition versus Sentence Comprehension on a Speechreading Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reevaluation of a previous study which found a significant improvement in speechreading scores of 15 normal hearing adults following a word-scoring training intervention found that, though subjects increased verbal output and mean length of utterance, they did not improve sentence comprehension, syntactic correctness, or overall response…

Dancer, Jesse E.; And Others

1987-01-01

184

Integration of Pragmatic and Phonetic Cues in Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous research has established that multiple top-down factors guide the identification of words during speech processing, the ultimate range of information sources that listeners integrate from different levels of linguistic structure is still unknown. In a set of experiments, we investigate whether comprehenders can integrate…

Rohde, Hannah; Ettlinger, Marc

2012-01-01

185

Word Learning under Adverse Listening Conditions: Context-Specific Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies of word learning have presented the items to listeners under ideal conditions. Here we ask how listeners learn new vocabulary items under adverse listening conditions. Would listeners form acoustically-specific representations that incorporated the noise, base their representations on noise-free language knowledge, or both? To…

Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

2012-01-01

186

Visual and Phonological Processes in Poor Readers' Word Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments, poor and normal Dutch readers, matched for reading age, were presented with visual matching tasks on a computer screen. In the first experiment, word and pseudoword letter strings were used. Poor readers needed more time to decode uppercase/lowercase pairs, especially when the pairs consisted of pseudowords. Experiment 2…

Assink, Egbert; Lam, Merel; Knuijt, Paul

1998-01-01

187

Reassessing Word Frequency as a Determinant of Word Recognition for Skilled and Unskilled Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of vocabulary in reading comprehension emphasizes the need to accurately assess an individual's familiarity with words. The present article highlights problems with using occurrence counts in corpora as an index of word familiarity, especially when studying individuals varying in reading experience. We demonstrate via computational…

Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.

2013-01-01

188

The Utility of the Rey Word Recognition Test in the Detection of Suspect Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rey Word Recognition Test potentially represents an underutilized tool for clinicians to use in the detection of suspect effort. The present study examined the predictive accuracy of the test by examining the performance of three groups of participants: (a) 92 noncredible patients (as determined by failed psychometric and behavioral criteria and external motive to feign), (b) 51 general clinical

Stephen Nitch; Kyle Brauer Boone; Johnny Wen; Ginger Arnold; Kimberly Alfano

2006-01-01

189

Validating Models of Clinical Word Recognition Tests for Spanish/English Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Shi and Sánchez (2010) developed models to predict the optimal test language for evaluating Spanish/English (S/E) bilinguals' word recognition. The current study intended to validate their conclusions in a separate bilingual listener sample. Method: Seventy normal-hearing S/E bilinguals varying in language profile were included.…

Shi, Lu-Feng

2014-01-01

190

Peer Commentaries on "The Architecture of the Bilingual Word Recognition System: From Identification to Decision."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven peer commentaries focus on an article that evaluated the BIA model of bilingual word recognition in the light of recent empirical evidence, pointed out problems with it, and proposed a new model, the BIA+. Raise several issues of concern. (Author/VWL)

Brysbaert, Marc; van Wijnendaele, Ilse; Duyck, Wouter; Jacquet, Maud; French, Robert M.; Green, David W.; van Hell, Janet G.; Li, Ping; Roelofs, Ardi; Thomas, Michael S. C.

2002-01-01

191

EVALUATION OF THE MODIFIED GROUP DELAY FEATURE FOR ISOLATED WORD RECOGNITION  

E-print Network

EVALUATION OF THE MODIFIED GROUP DELAY FEATURE FOR ISOLATED WORD RECOGNITION Leigh D. Alsteris-mail: L.Alsteris@griffith.edu.au, K.Paliwal@griffith.edu.au ABSTRACT The results of our recent human epochs and windowing effects. We summarise the work by Yeg- nanarayana and Murthy on the modified GDF

192

Putting It All Together: A Unified Account of Word Recognition and Reaction-Time Distributions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

R. Ratcliff, P. Gomez, and G. McKoon (2004) suggested much of what goes on in lexical decision is attributable to decision processes and may not be particularly informative about word recognition. They proposed that lexical decision should be characterized by a decision process, taking the form of a drift-diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978), that…

Norris, Dennis

2009-01-01

193

Visual Word Recognition in Two Facial Motion Conditions: Full-Face versus Lips-plus-Mandible.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared visual word recognition (speechreading) in video sequences showing either full face or lips plus mandible to 26 normal hearing college students and 4 adults with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Percent phoneme correct scores were similar in the two conditions and scores significantly improved for the repeated measure in…

Marassa, Lynn K.; Lansing, Charissa R.

1995-01-01

194

Early Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition: Dissociating Morphology, Form, and Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of morphological, semantic, and form-based factors in the early stages of visual word recognition was investigated across different SOAs in a masked priming paradigm, focusing on English derivational morphology. In a first set of experiments, stimulus pairs co-varying in morphological decomposability and in semantic and orthographic…

Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Bozic, Mirjana; Randall, Billi

2008-01-01

195

The Impact of Orthographic Connectivity on Visual Word Recognition in Arabic: A Cross-Sectional Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at assessing the effects of letters' connectivity in Arabic on visual word recognition. For this purpose, reaction times (RTs) and accuracy scores were collected from ninety-third, sixth and ninth grade native Arabic speakers during a lexical decision task, using fully connected (Cw), partially connected (PCw) and…

Khateb, Asaid; Khateb-Abdelgani, Manal; Taha, Haitham Y.; Ibrahim, Raphiq

2014-01-01

196

Sub-word-based language models for speech recognition: implications for spoken document retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition (LVCSR) is dependent on language models to constrain the acoustic search space by delivering an a priori probability of possible word sequences. A language model for LVCSR models a spoken document as a time series; it predicts language as a sequence of units drawn from a fixed alphabet. The classic LVCSR language model is an

Martha Larson

197

Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

2012-01-01

198

The Influence of Semantic Constraints on Bilingual Word Recognition during Sentence Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates how semantic constraint of a sentence context modulates language-non-selective activation in bilingual visual word recognition. We recorded Dutch-English bilinguals' eye movements while they read cognates and controls in low and high semantically constraining sentences in their second language. Early and late…

Van Assche, Eva; Drieghe, Denis; Duyck, Wouter; Welvaert, Marijke; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2011-01-01

199

Predicting writing skill development with word recognition and preschool readiness skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this longitudinal study, the writing skill development of154 Finnish-speaking children was followed from preschool to thethird grade. The focus was on predictive associations betweenpreschool writing readiness skills and later mechanics ofwriting, as well as between word recognition skill, mechanics ofwriting, and composition coherence. In addition, comparisons weremade between boys and girls to see to what extent writing skilldevelopment is

Hanna S. Mäki; Marinus J. M. Voeten; Marja M. S. Vauras; Elisa H. Poskiparta

2001-01-01

200

Electrophysiological Markers of Syllable Frequency during Written Word Recognition in French  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several empirical lines of investigation support the idea that syllable-sized units may be involved in visual word recognition processes. In this perspective, the present study aimed at investigating further the nature of the process that causes syllabic effects in reading. To do so, the syllable frequency effect was investigated in French using…

Chetail, Fabienne; Colin, Cecile; Content, Alain

2012-01-01

201

Multiletter Word Units in Visual Recognition: Direct Activation by Supraletter Visual Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiletter priming effects have been interpreted as evidence for the representation of separable multiletter units in the visual word recognition system (Whiteley & Walker, 1994). The reported experiments examine whether the activation of such units is pre- or post-lexical. Experiments 2 and 3 employed priming in an alphabetic decision task in which subjects made a discrimination response to test stimuli

Helen E. Whiteley Peter Walker

1997-01-01

202

Working Memory Spans as Predictors of Word Recognition and Receptive Vocabulary in Children with Cochlear Implants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated whether differences in working memory could account for variance in word recognition and receptive vocabulary skills of children (ages 5-16) using oral communication (n=32) and total communication (n=29). A contribution from working memory was observed only for the span tasks that incorporated an auditory processing component.…

Cleary, Miranda; Pisoni, David B.; Kirk, Karen Iler

2000-01-01

203

Prefixes as Access Units in Visual Word Recognition: A Comparison of Italian and Dutch Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares morphological processing of skilled and less skilled Dutch readers. Focuses on the role of prefixes as access units in visual word recognition. Finds evidence for differential use of prefix information in undergraduate students and elementary school children. Concludes that the information accessed by prefixes is semantically combined…

Assink, Egbert M. H.; Vooijs, Caroline; Knuijt, Paul P. N. A.

2000-01-01

204

Local and global processing biases fail to influence face, object, and word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies investigated whether encouraging people to use either global or local processing using the Navon task (Navon, 1977) influenced recognition memory for upright and inverted pictures of faces, objects, and words. Contrary to the striking results of Macrae and Lewis (2002), no effect of such cross-task processing biases were found. In particular, encouraging global processing did not improve the

Rebecca Lawson

2007-01-01

205

TOPIC IDENTIFICATION FROM AUDIO RECORDINGS USING WORD AND PHONE RECOGNITION LATTICES  

E-print Network

TOPIC IDENTIFICATION FROM AUDIO RECORDINGS USING WORD AND PHONE RECOGNITION LATTICES Timothy J In this paper, we investigate the problem of topic identification from audio documents using features extracted the training material is minimally annotated with only topic labels. Under this scenario, the lexical knowledge

Hazen, Timothy J.

206

Automatic target recognition using group-structured sparse representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sparse representation classification method has been increasingly used in the fields of computer vision and pattern analysis, due to its high recognition rate, little dependence on the features, robustness to corruption and occlusion, and etc. However, most of these existing methods aim to find the sparsest representations of the test sample y in an overcomplete dictionary, which do not particularly consider the relevant structure between the atoms in the dictionary. Moreover, sufficient training samples are always required by the sparse representation method for effective recognition. In this paper we formulate the classification as a group-structured sparse representation problem using a sparsity-inducing norm minimization optimization and propose a novel sparse representation-based automatic target recognition (ATR) framework for the practical applications in which the training samples are drawn from the simulation models of real targets. The experimental results show that the proposed approach improves the recognition rate of standard sparse models, and our system can effectively and efficiently recognize targets under real environments, especially, where the good characteristics of the sparse representation based classification method are kept.

Sun, Bo; Wu, Xuewen; He, Jun; Zhu, Xiaoming; Chen, Chao

2014-06-01

207

Psychometric Functions for Shortened Administrations of a Speech Recognition Approach Using Tri-Word Presentations and Phonemic Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Method: Complete psychometric functions for phoneme and word recognition scores at 8 signal-to-noise ratios from -15 dB to 20 dB were generated for the first 10, 20, and 25, as well as all 50, three-word presentations of the Tri-Word or Computer Assisted Speech Recognition Assessment (CASRA) Test (Gelfand, 1998) based on the results of 12…

Gelfand, Stanley A.; Gelfand, Jessica T.

2012-01-01

208

The utility of the Rey Word Recognition Test in the detection of suspect effort.  

PubMed

The Rey Word Recognition Test potentially represents an underutilized tool for clinicians to use in the detection of suspect effort. The present study examined the predictive accuracy of the test by examining the performance of three groups of participants: (a) 92 noncredible patients (as determined by failed psychometric and behavioral criteria and external motive to feign), (b) 51 general clinical patients with no motive to feign, and (c) 31 learning disabled college students. Results demonstrated gender differences in performance that necessitated separate cutoff scores for men and women. Use of a cutoff score of < or = 7 words correctly recognized identified 80.5% of noncredible female patients while maintaining specificity of > 90%. However, to achieve this level of specificity in male noncredible patients, the cutoff score had to be lowered to < or = 5, with resultant sensitivity of only 62.7%. A combination variable (recognition correct minus false positive errors + number of words recognized from the first 8 words) showed enhanced sensitivity in identifying suspect effort in a subset of the noncredible sample who were claiming cognitive symptoms secondary to traumatic brain injury (i.e., cutoff score of < or = 9 = 81.6% sensitivity with 90% specificity). Results indicate that the Rey Word Recognition Test is an accurate and cost-effective method for the detection of noncredible cognitive performance. PMID:16980268

Nitch, Stephen; Boone, Kyle Brauer; Wen, Johnny; Arnold, Ginger; Alfano, Kimberly

2006-12-01

209

Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals  

PubMed Central

Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals’ parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300–500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633–767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

2013-01-01

210

Levels-of-Processing Effect on Frontotemporal Function in Schizophrenia During Word Encoding and Recognition  

PubMed Central

Objective Patients with schizophrenia improve episodic memory accuracy when given organizational strategies through levels-of-processing paradigms. This study tested if improvement is accompanied by normalized frontotemporal function. Method Event-related blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure activation during shallow (perceptual) and deep (semantic) word encoding and recognition in 14 patients with schizophrenia and 14 healthy comparison subjects. Results Despite slower and less accurate overall word classification, the patients showed normal levels-of-processing effects, with faster and more accurate recognition of deeply processed words. These effects were accompanied by left ventrolateral prefrontal activation during encoding in both groups, although the thalamus, hippocampus, and lingual gyrus were overactivated in the patients. During word recognition, the patients showed overactivation in the left frontal pole and had a less robust right prefrontal response. Conclusions Evidence of normal levels-of-processing effects and left prefrontal activation suggests that patients with schizophrenia can form and maintain semantic representations when they are provided with organizational cues and can improve their word encoding and retrieval. Areas of overactivation suggest residual inefficiencies. Nevertheless, the effect of teaching organizational strategies on episodic memory and brain function is a worthwhile topic for future interventional studies. PMID:16199830

Ragland, J. Daniel; Gur, Ruben C.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Loughead, James; Elliott, Mark; Kohler, Christian; Kanes, Stephen; Siegel, Steven J.; Moelter, Stephen T.; Gur, Raquel E.

2015-01-01

211

Variable length and context-dependent HMM letter form models for Arabic handwritten word recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present in this paper an HMM-based recognizer for the recognition of unconstrained Arabic handwritten words. The recognizer is a context-dependent HMM which considers variable topology and contextual information for a better modeling of writing units. We propose an algorithm to adapt the topology of each HMM to the character to be modeled. For modeling the contextual units, a state-tying process based on decision tree clustering is introduced which significantly reduces the number of parameters. Decision trees are built according to a set of expert-based questions on how characters are written. Questions are divided into global questions yielding larger clusters and precise questions yielding smaller ones. We apply this modeling to the recognition of Arabic handwritten words. Experiments conducted on the OpenHaRT2010 database show that variable length topology and contextual information significantly improves the recognition rate.

Bianne-Bernard, Anne-Laure; Menasri, Fares; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence; Mokbel, Chafic; Kermorvant, Christopher

2012-01-01

212

Automated target recognition and tracking using an optical pattern recognition neural network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The on-going development of an automatic target recognition and tracking system at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is presented. This system is an optical pattern recognition neural network (OPRNN) that is an integration of an innovative optical parallel processor and a feature extraction based neural net training algorithm. The parallel optical processor provides high speed and vast parallelism as well as full shift invariance. The neural network algorithm enables simultaneous discrimination of multiple noisy targets in spite of their scales, rotations, perspectives, and various deformations. This fully developed OPRNN system can be effectively utilized for the automated spacecraft recognition and tracking that will lead to success in the Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) of the unmanned Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV). One of the most powerful optical parallel processors for automatic target recognition is the multichannel correlator. With the inherent advantages of parallel processing capability and shift invariance, multiple objects can be simultaneously recognized and tracked using this multichannel correlator. This target tracking capability can be greatly enhanced by utilizing a powerful feature extraction based neural network training algorithm such as the neocognitron. The OPRNN, currently under investigation at JPL, is constructed with an optical multichannel correlator where holographic filters have been prepared using the neocognitron training algorithm. The computation speed of the neocognitron-type OPRNN is up to 10(exp 14) analog connections/sec that enabling the OPRNN to outperform its state-of-the-art electronics counterpart by at least two orders of magnitude.

Chao, Tien-Hsin

1991-01-01

213

The Interaction of Lexical Semantics and Cohort Competition in Spoken Word Recognition: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning…

Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Tyler, Lorraine K.

2011-01-01

214

Analysis of MorphBased Speech Recognition and the Modeling of OutofVocabulary Words Across Languages  

E-print Network

processes; words are formed through extensive use of, e.g., inflection, derivation and compounding (such languages German, Dutch and Swedish, decomposition of compound words can be carried out to reduceAnalysis of Morph­Based Speech Recognition and the Modeling of Out­of­Vocabulary Words Across

Stolcke, Andreas

215

Speech-perception training for older adults with hearing loss impacts word recognition and effort.  

PubMed

The current pupillometry study examined the impact of speech-perception training on word recognition and cognitive effort in older adults with hearing loss. Trainees identified more words at the follow-up than at the baseline session. Training also resulted in an overall larger and faster peaking pupillary response, even when controlling for performance and reaction time. Perceptual and cognitive capacities affected the peak amplitude of the pupil response across participants but did not diminish the impact of training on the other pupil metrics. Thus, we demonstrated that pupillometry can be used to characterize training-related and individual differences in effort during a challenging listening task. Importantly, the results indicate that speech-perception training not only affects overall word recognition, but also a physiological metric of cognitive effort, which has the potential to be a biomarker of hearing loss intervention outcome. PMID:24909603

Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Cute, Stephanie L; Humes, Larry E; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

2014-10-01

216

Spatial distorted target recognition based on improved MACH filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joint transform correlator (JTC) can make targets recognized and located accurately, but the bottleneck technique of JTC is how to recognize spatial distorted targets in cluttered scene. This has restricted the development of the pattern recognition with JTC to a great extent. In order to solve the problem, improved maximum average correlation height (MACH) filter algorithm is presented in this paper. The MACH algorithm has powerful capability of recognition for spatial distorted targets (rotation and scale changed etc.). The controlling parameters of the synthesized filter are optimized in this paper, which makes the filter have higher distortion tolerance and can suppress cluttered noise effectively. When improved MACH filter algorithm in frequency domain is projected to space domain, the MACH reference template image can be obtained which includes various forms of distorted target image. Based on amounts of computer simulation and optical experiments, MACH reference template is proved to have the capability of sharpening the correlation peaks and expanding recognizing scope for distorted targets in cluttered scene. MATLAB software is applied to produce MACH reference image for the detected target images and conduct simulation experiments for its powerful calculation capability of matrix. In order to prove the feasibility of MACH reference in JTC and determine the recognition scope, experiments for an aircraft target in the sky are carried out. After the original image is processed by edge extraction, a MACH filter reference template is obtained in space domain from improved MACH filter in frequency domain. From simulation experiments, the improved MACH filter is proved to have the feasibility of sharpening correlation peaks for distorted targets. Optical experiments are given to verify the effectiveness further. The experiments show the angular distortion tolerance can reach up to +/-15 degrees and scale distortion tolerance can reach up to +/-23%. Within this scope, the spatial distorted aircraft can be recognized effectively. The actual effect of the improved MACH filter algorithm has been confirmed very well.

Chen, Yu; Huo, Furong; Zheng, Liqin

2014-11-01

217

Gated viewing for target detection and target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gated viewing using short pulse lasers and fast cameras offers many new possibilities in imaging compared with passive EO imaging. Among these we note ranging capability, large target-to-background contrast also in low visibility, good penetration capability trough obscurants and vegetation as well as through shadows in buildings, cars, etc. We also note that short wavelength laser systems have better angular resolution than long-wave infrared systems of the same aperture size. This gives an interesting potential of combined IR and laser systems for target detection and classification. Beside military applications civilian applications of gated viewing for search and rescue as well as vehicle enhanced vision and other applications are in progress. This presentation investigates the performance for gated viewing systems during different atmospheric conditions, including obscurants and gives examples of experimental data. The paper also deals with signal processing of gated viewing images for target detection. This is performed in two steps. First, image frames containing information of interest are found. In a second step those frames are investigated further to evaluate if man-made objects are present. In this step a sequence of images (video frames) are set up as a 3-D volume to incorporate spatial information. The object will then be detected using a set of quadrature filters operating on the volume.

Steinvall, Ove K.; Olsson, Hakan; Bolander, Goeran; Groenwall, Christina A.; Letalick, Dietmar

1999-05-01

218

Optical-digital-neural network system for aided target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many military systems have a critical need for aided target recognition, or cuing. This includes several systems with wide field-of-view search missions such as the UAV, EFOG-M, and Comanche. This report discusses one new approach: a multiple region of interest processor based on diffraction pattern sampling and digital neural network processing. In this concept an optical system segments the image into multiple, rectangular regions of interest and in parallel converts each ROI, be it visible, IR, or radar, to a spatial frequency power spectrum and samples that spectrum for 64 features. A neural network learns to correlate those features with target classes or identifications. A digital system uses the network weights to recognize unknown targets. The research discussed in this report using a single ROI processor showed a very high level of performance. Out of 1024 trials with models of five targets of F- 14, F-18, HIND, SCUD, and M1 tanks, there were 1023 correct classifications and 1 incorrect classification. Out of 1514 trials with those images plus 490 real clutter scenes, there were 1514 correct decisions between target or no-target. Of the 1024 target detections, there were 1023 correct classifications. Out of 60 trials with low resolution IR images of real scenes, there were 60 correct decisions between target and no-target. Of the 40 target detections, there were 40 correct classifications.

Farr, Keith B.; Hartman, Richard L.

1995-07-01

219

Nanostructured materials for selective recognition and targeted drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective recognition requires the introduction of a molecular memory into a polymer matrix in order to make it capable of rebinding an analyte with a very high specificity. In addition, targeted drug delivery requires drug-loaded vesicles which preferentially localize to the sites of injury and avoid uptake into uninvolved tissues. The rapid evolution of nanotechnology is aiming to fulfill the goal of selective recognition and optimal drug delivery through the development of molecularly imprinted polymeric (MIP) nanoparticles, tailor-made for a diverse range of analytes (e.g., pharmaceuticals, pesticides, amino acids, etc.) and of nanostructured targeted drug carriers (e.g., liposomes and micelles) with increased circulation lifetimes. In the present study, PLGA microparticles containing multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), and MIP nanoparticles were synthesized to be employed as drug carriers and synthetic receptors respectively.

Kotrotsiou, O.; Kotti, K.; Dini, E.; Kammona, O.; Kiparissides, C.

2005-01-01

220

Automated Target Acquisition, Recognition and Tracking (ATTRACT). Phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of phase 1 of this research project is to conduct multidisciplinary research that will contribute to fundamental scientific knowledge in several of the USAF critical technology areas. Specifically, neural networks, signal processing techniques, and electro-optic capabilities are utilized to solve problems associated with automated target acquisition, recognition, and tracking. To accomplish the stated objective, several tasks have been identified and were executed.

Abdallah, Mahmoud A.

1995-01-01

221

The Role of Native-Language Phonology in the Auditory Word Identification and Visual Word Recognition of Russian-English Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstract Does native language phonology influence visual word processing in a second language? This question was investigated in two experiments with two groups of Russian-English bilinguals, differing in their English experience, and a monolingual English control group. Experiment 1 tested visual word recognition following semantic…

Shafiro, Valeriy; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.

2009-01-01

222

A word language model based contextual language processing on Chinese character recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The language model design and implementation issue is researched in this paper. Different from previous research, we want to emphasize the importance of n-gram models based on words in the study of language model. We build up a word based language model using the toolkit of SRILM and implement it for contextual language processing on Chinese documents. A modified Absolute Discount smoothing algorithm is proposed to reduce the perplexity of the language model. The word based language model improves the performance of post-processing of online handwritten character recognition system compared with the character based language model, but it also increases computation and storage cost greatly. Besides quantizing the model data non-uniformly, we design a new tree storage structure to compress the model size, which leads to an increase in searching efficiency as well. We illustrate the set of approaches on a test corpus of recognition results of online handwritten Chinese characters, and propose a modified confidence measure for recognition candidate characters to get their accurate posterior probabilities while reducing the complexity. The weighted combination of linguistic knowledge and candidate confidence information proves successful in this paper and can be further developed to achieve improvements in recognition accuracy.

Huang, Chen; Ding, Xiaoqing; Chen, Yan

2010-01-01

223

Conformal mapping-based hand-written word and sentence representation and recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduce a technique for handwritten words and sentences representation and recognition. The proposed method is based on complex variables and conformal mapping methodology. In particular, in a previous work, through a complex variable methodology and conformal mapping process, we demonstrated the ability to recognized shapes and concisely represent shape boundaries using a set of polynomial coefficients derived in the mapping process. In this work we illustrate how these previous results can be applied to hand-written words and sentences. We show that the words/sentences classification techniques used are adapted to the feature-coefficients selected and are based on feature-coefficients similarities in combination with the minimum distance classifier. We use as measures the Euclidean distance as well as the covariance matrix eigen- values distance. Finally, experimental results of handwritten words and sentences are shown to show the power, versatility and robustness of the proposed technique.

Megherbi, Dalila B.; Iyassu, Yohannes; Boulenouar, A. J.

2001-08-01

224

Recognition of Handwritten Arabic words using a neuro-fuzzy network  

SciTech Connect

We present a new method for the recognition of handwritten Arabic words based on neuro-fuzzy hybrid network. As a first step, connected components (CCs) of black pixels are detected. Then the system determines which CCs are sub-words and which are stress marks. The stress marks are then isolated and identified separately and the sub-words are segmented into graphemes. Each grapheme is described by topological and statistical features. Fuzzy rules are extracted from training examples by a hybrid learning scheme comprised of two phases: rule generation phase from data using a fuzzy c-means, and rule parameter tuning phase using gradient descent learning. After learning, the network encodes in its topology the essential design parameters of a fuzzy inference system.The contribution of this technique is shown through the significant tests performed on a handwritten Arabic words database.

Boukharouba, Abdelhak [Departement de Genie electrique, Universite 08 Mai 45 de Guelma (Algeria); Bennia, Abdelhak [Departement d'Electronique, Universite Mentouri de Constantine (Algeria)

2008-06-12

225

Recognition of Handwritten Arabic words using a neuro-fuzzy network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new method for the recognition of handwritten Arabic words based on neuro-fuzzy hybrid network. As a first step, connected components (CCs) of black pixels are detected. Then the system determines which CCs are sub-words and which are stress marks. The stress marks are then isolated and identified separately and the sub-words are segmented into graphemes. Each grapheme is described by topological and statistical features. Fuzzy rules are extracted from training examples by a hybrid learning scheme comprised of two phases: rule generation phase from data using a fuzzy c-means, and rule parameter tuning phase using gradient descent learning. After learning, the network encodes in its topology the essential design parameters of a fuzzy inference system. The contribution of this technique is shown through the significant tests performed on a handwritten Arabic words database.

Boukharouba, Abdelhak; Bennia, Abdelhak

2008-06-01

226

Optical correlator based target detection, recognition, classification, and tracking.  

PubMed

A dedicated automatic target recognition and tracking optical correlator (OC) system using advanced processing technology has been developed. Rapidly cycling data-cubes with size, shape, and orientation are employed with software algorithms to isolate correlation peaks and enable tracking of targets in maritime environments with future track prediction. The method has been found superior to employing maximum average correlation height filters for which the correlation peak intensity drops off in proportion to the number of training images. The physical dimensions of the OC system may be reduced to as small as 2 in. × 2 in. × 3 in. (51 mm × 51 mm × 76 mm) by modifying and minimizing the OC components. PMID:22858935

Manzur, Tariq; Zeller, John; Serati, Steve

2012-07-20

227

Alpha and theta brain oscillations index dissociable processes in spoken word recognition.  

PubMed

Slow neural oscillations (~1-15 Hz) are thought to orchestrate the neural processes of spoken language comprehension. However, functional subdivisions within this broad range of frequencies are disputed, with most studies hypothesizing only about single frequency bands. The present study utilizes an established paradigm of spoken word recognition (lexical decision) to test the hypothesis that within the slow neural oscillatory frequency range, distinct functional signatures and cortical networks can be identified at least for theta- (~3-7 Hz) and alpha-frequencies (~8-12 Hz). Listeners performed an auditory lexical decision task on a set of items that formed a word-pseudoword continuum: ranging from (1) real words over (2) ambiguous pseudowords (deviating from real words only in one vowel; comparable to natural mispronunciations in speech) to (3) pseudowords (clearly deviating from real words by randomized syllables). By means of time-frequency analysis and spatial filtering, we observed a dissociation into distinct but simultaneous patterns of alpha power suppression and theta power enhancement. Alpha exhibited a parametric suppression as items increasingly matched real words, in line with lowered functional inhibition in a left-dominant lexical processing network for more word-like input. Simultaneously, theta power in a bilateral fronto-temporal network was selectively enhanced for ambiguous pseudowords only. Thus, enhanced alpha power can neurally 'gate' lexical integration, while enhanced theta power might index functionally more specific ambiguity-resolution processes. To this end, a joint analysis of both frequency bands provides neural evidence for parallel processes in achieving spoken word recognition. PMID:24747736

Strauß, Antje; Kotz, Sonja A; Scharinger, Mathias; Obleser, Jonas

2014-08-15

228

Thermodynamics of DNA target site recognition by homing endonucleases  

PubMed Central

The thermodynamic profiles of target site recognition have been surveyed for homing endonucleases from various structural families. Similar to DNA-binding proteins that recognize shorter target sites, homing endonucleases display a narrow range of binding free energies and affinities, mediated by structural interactions that balance the magnitude of enthalpic and entropic forces. While the balance of ?H and T?S are not strongly correlated with the overall extent of DNA bending, unfavorable ?Hbinding is associated with unstacking of individual base steps in the target site. The effects of deleterious basepair substitutions in the optimal target sites of two LAGLIDADG homing endonucleases, and the subsequent effect of redesigning one of those endonucleases to accommodate that DNA sequence change, were also measured. The substitution of base-specific hydrogen bonds in a wild-type endonuclease/DNA complex with hydrophobic van der Waals contacts in a redesigned complex reduced the ability to discriminate between sites, due to nonspecific ?Sbinding. PMID:17947319

Eastberg, Jennifer H.; Smith, Audrey McConnell; Zhao, Lei; Ashworth, Justin; Shen, Betty W.; Stoddard, Barry L.

2007-01-01

229

How does Arabic orthographic connectivity modulate brain activity during visual word recognition: an ERP study.  

PubMed

One of the unique features of the Arabic orthography that differentiates it from many other alphabetical ones is the fact that most letters connect obligatorily to each other. Hence, these letters change their forms according to the location in the word (i.e. beginning, middle, or end), leading to the suggestion that connectivity adds a visual load which negatively impacts reading in Arabic. In this study, we investigated the effects of the orthographic connectivity on the time course of early brain electric responses during the visual word recognition. For this purpose, we collected event-related potentials (ERPs) from adult skilled readers while performing a lexical decision task using fully connected (Cw), partially connected and non-connected words (NCw). Reaction times variance was higher and accuracy was lower in NCw compared to Cw words. ERPs analysis revealed significant amplitude and latency differences between Cw and NCw at posterior electrodes during the N170 component which implied the temporo-occipital areas. Our findings show that instead of slowing down reading, orthographic connectivity in Arabic skilled readers seems to impact positively the reading process already during the early stages of word recognition. These results are discussed in relation to previous observations in the literature. PMID:22864655

Taha, Haitham; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Khateb, Asaid

2013-04-01

230

The Effect of Talker Variability on Word Recognition in Preschool Children  

PubMed Central

In a series of experiments, the authors investigated the effects of talker variability on children’s word recognition. In Experiment 1, when stimuli were presented in the clear, 3- and 5-year-olds were less accurate at identifying words spoken by multiple talkers than those spoken by a single talker when the multiple-talker list was presented first. In Experiment 2, when words were presented in noise, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds again performed worse in the multiple-talker condition than in the single-talker condition, this time regardless of order; processing multiple talkers became easier with age. Experiment 3 showed that both children and adults were slower to repeat words from multiple-talker than those from single-talker lists. More important, children (but not adults) matched acoustic properties of the stimuli (specifically, duration). These results provide important new information about the development of talker normalization in speech perception and spoken word recognition. PMID:9149923

Ryalls, Brigette Oliver; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

231

A Bruner-Potter effect in audition? Spoken word recognition in adult aging.  

PubMed

Bruner and Potter (1964) demonstrated the surprising finding that incrementally increasing the clarity of images until they were correctly recognized (ascending presentation) was less effective for recognition than presenting images in a single presentation at that same clarity level. This has been attributed to interference from incorrect perceptual hypotheses formed on the initial presentations under ascending conditions. We demonstrate an analogous effect for spoken word recognition in older adults, with the size of the effect predicted by working memory span. This effect did not appear for young adults, whose group spans exceeded that of the older adults. PMID:25244463

Lash, Amanda; Wingfield, Arthur

2014-12-01

232

Visual word recognition of multisyllabic words Melvin J. Yap a,*, David A. Balota b  

E-print Network

, higher than the estimates reported by previous monosyllabic studies. The findings we report represent a well-specified set of benchmark phenomena for constraining nascent multisyllabic models of English word.g., the dual route cas- caded model; Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), while

233

Motivational mechanisms (BAS) and prefrontal cortical activation contribute to recognition memory for emotional words. rTMS effect on performance and EEG (alpha band) measures.  

PubMed

The present research addressed the question of where memories for emotional words could be represented in the brain. A second main question was related to the effect of personality traits, in terms of the Behavior Activation System (BAS), in emotional word recognition. We tested the role of the left DLPFC (LDLPFC) by performing a memory task in which old (previously encoded targets) and new (previously not encoded distractors) positive or negative emotional words had to be recognized. High-BAS and low-BAS subjects were compared when a repetitive TMS (rTMS) was applied on the LDLPFC. We found significant differences between high-BAS vs. low-BAS subjects, with better performance for high-BAS in response to positive words. In parallel, an increased left cortical activity (alpha desynchronization) was observed for high-BAS in the case of positive words. Thus, we can conclude that the left approach-related hemisphere, underlying BAS, may support faster recognition of positive words. PMID:25190327

Balconi, Michela; Cobelli, Chiara

2014-10-01

234

Context-dependent HMM modeling using tree-based clustering for the recognition of handwritten words  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an HMM-based recognizer for the off-line recognition of handwritten words. Word models are the concatenation of context-dependent character models (trigraphs). The trigraph models we consider are similar to triphone models in speech recognition, where a character adapts its shape according to its adjacent characters. Due to the large number of possible context-dependent models to compute, a top-down clustering is applied on each state position of all models associated with a particular character. This clustering uses decision trees, based on rhetorical questions we designed. Decision trees have the advantage to model untrained trigraphs. Our system is shown to perform better than a baseline context independent system, and reaches an accuracy higher than 74% on the publicly available Rimes database.

Bianne, Anne-Laure; Kermorvant, Christopher; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence

2010-01-01

235

Word Error Correction of Continuous Speech Recognition Using WEB Documents for Spoken Document Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes an error correction method of continuous speech recognition using WEB documents for spoken documents\\u000a indexing. We performed an experiment of error correction for news speech automatically transcribed, where we focused on especially\\u000a proper nouns. Two LVCSR systems were used to detect correctly and incorrectly recognized words. Keywords for the Internet\\u000a search engine were selected among the correctly

Hiromitsu Nishizaki; Yoshihiro Sekiguchi

2006-01-01

236

Manipulating letter fluency for words alters electrophysiological correlates of recognition memory  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms that give rise to familiarity memory have received intense research interest. One current topic of debate concerns the extent to which familiarity is driven by the same fluency sources that give rise to certain implicit memory phenomena. Familiarity may be tied to conceptual fluency, given that familiarity and conceptual implicit memory can exhibit similar neurocognitive properties. However, familiarity can also be driven by perceptual factors, and its neural basis under these circumstances has received less attention. Here we recorded brain potentials during recognition testing using a procedure that has previously been shown to encourage a reliance on letter information when assessing familiarity for words. Studied and unstudied words were derived either from two separate letter pools or a single letter pool (“letter-segregated” and “normal” conditions, respectively) in a within-subjects contrast. As predicted, recognition accuracy was higher in the letter-segregated relative to the normal condition. Electrophysiological analyses revealed parietal old-new effects from 500–700 ms in both conditions. In addition, a topographically dissociable occipital old-new effect from 300–700 ms was present in the letter-segregated condition only. In a second experiment, we found that similar occipital brain potentials were associated with confident false recognition of words that shared letters with studied words but were not themselves studied. These findings indicate that familiarity is a multiply determined phenomenon, and that the stimulus dimensions on which familiarity is based can moderate its neural correlates. Conceptual and perceptual contributions to familiarity vary across testing circumstances, and both must be accounted for in theories of recognition memory and its neural basis. PMID:23871869

Lucas, Heather D.; Paller, Ken A.

2013-01-01

237

Automatic Target Recognition in Synthetic Aperture Radar image using multiresolution analysis and classifiers combination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic target recognition (ATR) is an important capability for defense application. ATR removes the human operator from the process of target acquisition and classification, reducing the reaction time to possible threats and can be used to gun target engagement. This paper presents one technique used to solve the automatic target recognition problem in synthetic aperture radars (SAR) images, that is

João Paulo Pordeus Gomes; José Fernando Basso Brancalion; David Fernandes

2008-01-01

238

Design and performance of a large vocabulary discrete word recognition system. Volume 2: Appendixes. [flow charts and users manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The users manual for the word recognition computer program contains flow charts of the logical diagram, the memory map for templates, the speech analyzer card arrangement, minicomputer input/output routines, and assembly language program listings.

1973-01-01

239

Visual phonology: the effects of orthographic consistency on different auditory word recognition tasks.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated orthographic influences on spoken word recognition. The degree of spelling inconsistency was manipulated while rime phonology was held constant. Inconsistent words with subdominant spellings were processed more slowly than inconsistent words with dominant spellings. This graded consistency effect was obtained in three experiments. However, the effect was strongest in lexical decision, intermediate in rime detection, and weakest in auditory naming. We conclude that (1) orthographic consistency effects are not artifacts of phonological, phonetic, or phonotactic properties of the stimulus material; (2) orthographic effects can be found even when the error rate is extremely low, which rules out the possibility that they result from strategies used to reduce task difficulty; and (3) orthographic effects are not restricted to lexical decision. However, they are stronger in lexical decision than in other tasks. Overall, the study shows that learning about orthography alters the way we process spoken language. PMID:15552350

Ziegler, Johannes C; Ferrand, Ludovic; Montant, Marie

2004-07-01

240

The influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction effect in visual word recognition  

PubMed Central

We examined the influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction (BOI) effect in visual word recognition. High print exposure readers and low print exposure readers either made semantic categorizations (“Is the word easily imageable?”; Experiment 1) or phonological lexical decisions (“Does the item sound like a real English word?”; Experiment 2). The results from Experiment 1 showed that there was a larger BOI effect for the low print exposure readers than for the high print exposure readers in semantic categorization, though an effect was observed for both print exposure groups. However, the results from Experiment 2 showed that the BOI effect was observed only for the high print exposure readers in phonological lexical decision. The results of the present study suggest that print exposure does influence the BOI effect, and that this influence varies as a function of task demands. PMID:22563312

Hansen, Dana; Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.

2012-01-01

241

Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

2013-01-01

242

Exploiting vibration-based spectral signatures for automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feature extraction algorithms for vehicle classification techniques represent a large branch of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) efforts. Traditionally, vehicle ATR techniques have assumed time series vibration data collected from multiple accelerometers are a function of direct path, engine driven signal energy. If data, however, is highly dependent on measurement location these pre-established feature extraction algorithms are ineffective. In this paper, we examine the consequences of analyzing vibration data potentially contingent upon transfer path effects by exploring the sensitivity of sensor location. We summarize our analysis of spectral signatures from each accelerometer and investigate similarities within the data.

Crider, Lauren; Kangas, Scott

2014-06-01

243

Assessing Multimodal Spoken Word-in-Sentence Recognition in Children with Normal Hearing and Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children. Method: Two experiments were undertaken. In Experiment 1, the youngest age with which the multimodal sentence recognition materials could be used was evaluated. In Experiment 2, lexical difficulty and presentation modality effects were examined, along with test-retest…

Holt, Rachael Frush; Kirk, Karen Iler; Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia

2011-01-01

244

Got Rhythm...For Better and for Worse. Cross-Modal Effects of Auditory Rhythm on Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research aimed to investigate whether, as previously observed with pictures, background auditory rhythm would also influence visual word recognition. In a lexical decision task, participants were presented with bisyllabic visual words, segmented into two successive groups of letters, while an irrelevant strongly metric auditory…

Brochard, Renaud; Tassin, Maxime; Zagar, Daniel

2013-01-01

245

The relationships between anxiety level, perceptual recognition thresholds and response latencies to words varying in affective value  

E-print Network

. The Teacher's Word Book of N. Y. , 1944 24 APPENDIK A Word list for Group A Reversed Order Farm Like Long Will Hard Rape Line Rich Hope Anal Ca se Anus Best Vise Name Love That Kiss Fuck Dead Sick Coat Some Pain Come Rape Come...THE REIATIONSHIPS BETW~ ANXIETY LEVEL, PERCEPTUAL RECOGNITION THRESHOLDS AND RESPONSE LATENCIES TO WORDS VARYING IN AFFECTIVE VALUE A Thesis by SIU-WAH CHRISTINA SO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AZM University in partial...

So, Siu-Wah Christina

2012-06-07

246

The process of spoken word recognition in the face of signal degradation  

PubMed Central

Though much is known about how words are recognized, little research has focused on how a degraded signal affects the fine-grained temporal aspects of real-time word recognition. The perception of degraded speech was examined in two populations with the goal of describing the time course of word recognition and lexical competition. Thirty-three postlingually-deafened cochlear implant (CI) users and 57 normal hearing (NH) adults (16 in a CI-simulation condition) participated in a visual world paradigm eye-tracking task in which their fixations to a set of phonologically related items were monitored as they heard one item being named. Each degraded-speech group was compared to a set of age-matched NH participants listening to unfiltered speech. CI users and the simulation group showed a delay in activation relative to the NH listeners, and there is weak evidence that the CI users showed differences in the degree of peak and late competitor activation. In general, though, the degraded-speech groups behaved statistically similarly with respect to activation levels. PMID:24041330

Farris-Trimble, Ashley; McMurray, Bob; Cigrand, Nicole; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2013-01-01

247

Speech Reductions Change the Dynamics of Competition during Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three eye-tracking experiments investigated how phonological reductions (e.g., "puter" for "computer") modulate phonological competition. Participants listened to sentences extracted from a spontaneous speech corpus and saw four printed words: a target (e.g., "computer"), a competitor similar to the canonical form (e.g., "companion"), one similar…

Brouwer, Susanne; Mitterer, Holger; Huettig, Falk

2012-01-01

248

Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

Burt, Jennifer S.

2009-01-01

249

Reading as Active Sensing: A Computational Model of Gaze Planning in Word Recognition  

PubMed Central

We offer a computational model of gaze planning during reading that consists of two main components: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database), and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting. PMID:20577589

Ferro, Marcello; Ognibene, Dimitri; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

2010-01-01

250

Event-Related fMRI of Frontotemporal Activity During Word Encoding and Recognition in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective Neuropsychological studies have demonstrated verbal episodic memory deficits in schizophrenia during word encoding and retrieval. This study examined neural substrates of memory in an analysis that controlled for successful retrieval. Method Event-related blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain activation during word encoding and recognition in 14 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy comparison subjects. An unbiased multiple linear regression procedure was used to model the BOLD response, and task effects were detected by contrasting the signal before and after stimulus onset. Results Patients attended during encoding and had unimpaired reaction times and normal response biases during recognition, but they had lower recognition discriminability scores, compared with the healthy subjects. Analysis of contrasts was restricted to correct items. Previous findings of a deficit in bilateral prefrontal cortex activation during encoding in patients were reproduced, but patients showed greater parahippocampal activation rather than deficits in temporal lobe activation. During recognition, left dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex activation was lower in the patients and right anterior prefrontal cortex activation was preserved, as in the authors’ previous study using positron emission tomography. Successful retrieval was associated with greater right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation in the comparison subjects, whereas orbitofrontal, superior frontal, mesial temporal, middle temporal, and inferior parietal regions were more active in the patients during successful retrieval. Conclusions The pattern of prefrontal cortex underactivation and parahippocampal overactivation in the patients suggests that functional connectivity of dorsolateral prefrontal and temporal-limbic structures is disrupted by schizophrenia. This disruption may be reflected in the memory strategies of patients with schizophrenia, which include reliance on rote rehearsal rather than associative semantic processing. PMID:15169688

Ragland, J. Daniel; Gur, Ruben C.; Valdez, Jeffrey; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Elliott, Mark; Kohler, Christian; Siegel, Steve; Kanes, Stephen; Gur, Raquel E.

2015-01-01

251

Recognition of inflected words in a morphologically limited language: frequency effects in monolinguals and bilinguals.  

PubMed

The effect of word frequency on the processing of monomorphemic vs. inflected words was investigated in a morphologically relatively limited language, Swedish, with two participant groups: early Finnish-Swedish bilinguals and Swedish monolinguals. The visual lexical decision results of the monolinguals suggest morphological decomposition with low-frequency inflected nouns, while with medium- and high-frequency inflections, full-form processing was apparently employed. The bilinguals demonstrated a similar pattern. The results suggest that morpheme-based recognition is employed even in a morphologically limited language when the inflectional forms occur rarely. With more frequent inflectional forms, full-form representations have developed for both mono- and bilingual speakers. In a comparable study employing a morphologically rich language, Finnish, Lehtonen and Laine (2003, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 6, 213-225) observed full-form access only at the high-frequency range and only for monolinguals. These differences suggest that besides word frequency and language background, the morphological richness of a language affects the processing mode employed with polymorphemic words. PMID:16538549

Lehtonen, Minna; Niska, Helge; Wande, Erling; Niemi, Jussi; Laine, Matti

2006-03-01

252

Evaluating Effects of Divided Hemispheric Processing on Word Recognition in Foveal and Extrafoveal Displays: The Evidence from Arabic  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have claimed that a precise split at the vertical midline of each fovea causes all words to the left and right of fixation to project to the opposite, contralateral hemisphere, and this division in hemispheric processing has considerable consequences for foveal word recognition. However, research in this area is dominated by the use of stimuli from Latinate languages, which may induce specific effects on performance. Consequently, we report two experiments using stimuli from a fundamentally different, non-Latinate language (Arabic) that offers an alternative way of revealing effects of split-foveal processing, if they exist. Methods and Findings Words (and pseudowords) were presented to the left or right of fixation, either close to fixation and entirely within foveal vision, or further from fixation and entirely within extrafoveal vision. Fixation location and stimulus presentations were carefully controlled using an eye-tracker linked to a fixation-contingent display. To assess word recognition, Experiment 1 used the Reicher-Wheeler task and Experiment 2 used the lexical decision task. Results Performance in both experiments indicated a functional division in hemispheric processing for words in extrafoveal locations (in recognition accuracy in Experiment 1 and in reaction times and error rates in Experiment 2) but no such division for words in foveal locations. Conclusions These findings from a non-Latinate language provide new evidence that although a functional division in hemispheric processing exists for word recognition outside the fovea, this division does not extend up to the point of fixation. Some implications for word recognition and reading are discussed. PMID:21559084

Almabruk, Abubaker A. A.; Paterson, Kevin B.; McGowan, Victoria; Jordan, Timothy R.

2011-01-01

253

Multi-Stage System for Automatic Target Recognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feedforward back-propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and to remove false positives. The system parameter optimizations process has been developed to adapt to various targets and datasets. The objective was to design an efficient computer vision system that can learn to detect multiple targets in large images with unknown backgrounds. Because the target size is small relative to the image size in this problem, there are many regions of the image that could potentially contain the target. A cursory analysis of every region can be computationally efficient, but may yield too many false positives. On the other hand, a detailed analysis of every region can yield better results, but may be computationally inefficient. The multi-stage ATR system was designed to achieve an optimal balance between accuracy and computational efficiency by incorporating both models. The detection stage first identifies potential ROIs where the target may be present by performing a fast Fourier domain OT-MACH filter-based correlation. Because threshold for this stage is chosen with the goal of detecting all true positives, a number of false positives are also detected as ROIs. The verification stage then transforms the regions of interest into feature space, and eliminates false positives using an artificial neural network classifier. The multi-stage system allows tuning the detection sensitivity and the identification specificity individually in each stage. It is easier to achieve optimized ATR operation based on its specific goal. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar and video image datasets.

Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas T.; Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Johnson, Oliver

2010-01-01

254

Does viotin activate violin more than viocin? On the use of visual cues during visual-word recognition.  

PubMed

The vast majority of neural and computational models of visual-word recognition assume that lexical access is achieved via the activation of abstract letter identities. Thus, a word's overall shape should play no role in this process. In the present lexical decision experiment, we compared word-like pseudowords like viotín (same shape as its base word: violín) vs. viocín (different shape) in mature (college-aged skilled readers), immature (normally reading children), and immature/impaired (young readers with developmental dyslexia) word-recognition systems. Results revealed similar response times (and error rates) to consistent-shape and inconsistent-shape pseudowords for both adult skilled readers and normally reading children - this is consistent with current models of visual-word recognition. In contrast, young readers with developmental dyslexia made significantly more errors to viotín-like pseudowords than to viocín-like pseudowords. Thus, unlike normally reading children, young readers with developmental dyslexia are sensitive to a word's visual cues, presumably because of poor letter representations. PMID:23948388

Perea, Manuel; Panadero, Victoria

2014-01-01

255

A Corpus-Based Approach for Automatic Thai Unknown Word Recognition Using Boosting Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While classification techniques can be applied for automatic unknown word recognition in a language without word boundary, it faces with the problem of unbalanced datasets where the number of positive unknown word candidates is dominantly smaller than that of negative candidates. To solve this problem, this paper presents a corpus-based approach that introduces a so-called group-based ranking evaluation technique into ensemble learning in order to generate a sequence of classification models that later collaborate to select the most probable unknown word from multiple candidates. Given a classification model, the group-based ranking evaluation (GRE) is applied to construct a training dataset for learning the succeeding model, by weighing each of its candidates according to their ranks and correctness when the candidates of an unknown word are considered as one group. A number of experiments have been conducted on a large Thai medical text to evaluate performance of the proposed group-based ranking evaluation approach, namely V-GRE, compared to the conventional naïve Bayes classifier and our vanilla version without ensemble learning. As the result, the proposed method achieves an accuracy of 90.93±0.50% when the first rank is selected while it gains 97.26±0.26% when the top-ten candidates are considered, that is 8.45% and 6.79% improvement over the conventional record-based naïve Bayes classifier and the vanilla version. Another result on applying only best features show 93.93±0.22% and up to 98.85±0.15% accuracy for top-1 and top-10, respectively. They are 3.97% and 9.78% improvement over naive Bayes and the vanilla version. Finally, an error analysis is given.

Techo, Jakkrit; Nattee, Cholwich; Theeramunkong, Thanaruk

256

INITIAL EMBEDDED WORDS CAN FACILITATE THE RECOGNITION OF THEIR CARRIER WORD, BUT NOT ACCORDING TO TRACE-LIKE MODELS  

E-print Network

behavior, implying that it has some psychological validity. Key words Embedded word, Facilitation for resolving lexical conflicts. Lexical statistics, however, reveal some inconsistency between the organization first syllables form a word and words starting with a lexical sequence of phonemes not corresponding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

257

Effect of Schizophrenia on Frontotemporal Activity During Word Encoding and Recognition: A PET Cerebral Blood Flow Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Neuropsychological studies have shown that deficits in verbal episodic memory in schizophrenia occur primarily during encoding and retrieval stages of information processing. The current study used positron emission tomography to examine the effect of schizophrenia on change in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during these memory stages. Method CBF was measured in 23 healthy comparison subjects and 23 patients with schizophrenia during four conditions: resting baseline, motor baseline, word encoding, and word recognition. The motor baseline was used as a reference that was subtracted from encoding and recognition conditions by using statistical parametric mapping. Results Patients’ performance was similar to that of healthy comparison subjects. During word encoding, patients showed reduced activation of left prefrontal and superior temporal regions. Reduced left prefrontal activation in patients was also seen during word recognition, and additional differences were found in the left anterior cingulate, left mesial temporal lobe, and right thalamus. Although patients’ performance was similar to that of healthy comparison subjects, left inferior prefrontal activation was associated with better performance only in the comparison subjects. Conclusions Left frontotemporal activation during episodic encoding and retrieval, which is associated with better recognition in healthy people, is disrupted in schizophrenia despite relatively intact recognition performance and right prefrontal function. This may reflect impaired strategic use of semantic information to organize encoding and facilitate retrieval. PMID:11431234

Ragland, J. Daniel; Gur, Ruben C.; Raz, Jonathan; Schroeder, Lee; Kohler, Christian G.; Smith, Robin J.; Alavi, Abass; Gur, Raquel E.

2015-01-01

258

Logical metonymy resolution in a words-as-cues framework: evidence from self-paced reading and probe recognition.  

PubMed

Logical metonymy resolution (begin a book ? begin reading a book or begin writing a book) has traditionally been explained either through complex lexical entries (qualia structures) or through the integration of the implicit event via post-lexical access to world knowledge. We propose that recent work within the words-as-cues paradigm can provide a more dynamic model of logical metonymy, accounting for early and dynamic integration of complex event information depending on previous contextual cues (agent and patient). We first present a self-paced reading experiment on German subordinate sentences, where metonymic sentences and their paraphrased version differ only in the presence or absence of the clause-final target verb (Der Konditor begann die Glasur ? Der Konditor begann, die Glasur aufzutragen/The baker began the icing ? The baker began spreading the icing). Longer reading times at the target verb position in a high-typicality condition (baker + icing ? spread ) compared to a low-typicality (but still plausible) condition (child + icing ? spread) suggest that we make use of knowledge activated by lexical cues to build expectations about events. The early and dynamic integration of event knowledge in metonymy interpretation is bolstered by further evidence from a second experiment using the probe recognition paradigm. Presenting covert events as probes following a high-typicality or a low-typicality metonymic sentence (Der Konditor begann die Glasur ? AUFTRAGEN/The baker began the icing ? SPREAD), we obtain an analogous effect of typicality at 100 ms interstimulus interval. PMID:24628505

Zarcone, Alessandra; Padó, Sebastian; Lenci, Alessandro

2014-06-01

259

Practice Effects in Large-Scale Visual Word Recognition Studies: A Lexical Decision Study on 14,000 Dutch Mono- and Disyllabic Words and Nonwords  

PubMed Central

In recent years, psycholinguistics has seen a remarkable growth of research based on the analysis of data from large-scale studies of word recognition, in particular lexical decision and word naming. We present the data of the Dutch Lexicon Project (DLP) in which a group of 39 participants made lexical decisions to 14,000 words and the same number of nonwords. To examine whether the extensive practice precludes comparison with the traditional short experiments, we look at the differences between the first and the last session, compare the results with the English Lexicon Project (ELP) and the French Lexicon Project (FLP), and examine to what extent established findings in Dutch psycholinguistics can be replicated in virtual experiments. Our results show that when good nonwords are used, practice effects are minimal in lexical decision experiments and do not invalidate the behavioral data. For instance, the word frequency curve is the same in DLP as in ELP and FLP. Also, the Dutch–English cognate effect is the same in DLP as in a previously published factorial experiment. This means that large-scale word recognition studies can make use of psychophysical and psychometrical approaches. In addition, our data represent an important collection of very long series of individual reaction times that may be of interest to researchers in other areas. PMID:21833236

Keuleers, Emmanuel; Diependaele, Kevin; Brysbaert, Marc

2010-01-01

260

Background Subtraction and Target Classification for Gait Recognition  

E-print Network

This paper deals with background modeling and moving object classification for gait recognition. Current image-based human recognition methods such as fingerprints, face, iris biometric modalities, generally require a cooperative subject views. These methods cannot reliably recognize non cooperating individuals at a distance in the real world under changing environmental conditions. In such conditions, recognition of a person using gait has good advantage. First step in gait recognition is the background subtraction/modeling. This is the crucial step in gait recognition. By using this, identification of moving objects from background scene has to be done. Perfect background subtraction is essential to get a high recognition rate. Next step is the separation of human beings from other moving objects (viz; car, tree etc.). In this paper, we have used a modified background subtraction algorithm and subsequently used feature-based classification of pedestrian from other moving objects. Experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Kantipudi Mvv Prasad; Dr. V. Sailaja; A. Jagan

261

HMM-based lexicon-driven and lexicon-free word recognition for online handwritten Indic scripts.  

PubMed

Research for recognizing online handwritten words in Indic scripts is at its early stages when compared to Latin and Oriental scripts. In this paper, we address this problem specifically for two major Indic scripts--Devanagari and Tamil. In contrast to previous approaches, the techniques we propose are largely data driven and script independent. We propose two different techniques for word recognition based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM): lexicon driven and lexicon free. The lexicon-driven technique models each word in the lexicon as a sequence of symbol HMMs according to a standard symbol writing order derived from the phonetic representation. The lexicon-free technique uses a novel Bag-of-Symbols representation of the handwritten word that is independent of symbol order and allows rapid pruning of the lexicon. On handwritten Devanagari word samples featuring both standard and nonstandard symbol writing orders, a combination of lexicon-driven and lexicon-free recognizers significantly outperforms either of them used in isolation. In contrast, most Tamil word samples feature the standard symbol order, and the lexicon-driven recognizer outperforms the lexicon free one as well as their combination. The best recognition accuracies obtained for 20,000 word lexicons are 87.13 percent for Devanagari when the two recognizers are combined, and 91.8 percent for Tamil using the lexicon-driven technique. PMID:22156094

Bharath, A; Madhvanath, Sriganesh

2012-04-01

262

Enhanced Recognition and Recall of New Words in 7- and 12-Year-Olds Following a Period of Offline Consolidation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies of adults have found evidence for consolidation effects in the acquisition of novel words, but little is known about whether such effects are found developmentally. In two experiments, we familiarized children with novel nonwords (e.g., "biscal") and tested their recognition and recall of these items. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds…

Brown, Helen; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

2012-01-01

263

Morphological Structure Processing during Word Recognition and Its Relationship to Character Reading among Third-Grade Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we explored the characteristics of morphological structure processing during word recognition among third grade Chinese children and its possible relationship with Chinese character reading. By using the modified priming lexical decision paradigm, a significant morphological structure priming effect was found in the subject…

Liu, Duo; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2014-01-01

264

The contribution of phonological skills to spelling, word recognition, and reading comprehension in learning-disabled and achieving readers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of phonological skills to the word recognition, spelling, and reading comprehension of learning disabled and achieving readers. A learning disabled sample (LD) consisting of 38 students (mean age = 10.10 years) was compared to two achieving reader groups: a younger, reading level matched sample (RL) consisting of 41 students

John Francis Kugler

1993-01-01

265

The Influence of Sentence Context and Accented Speech on Lexical Access in Second-Language Auditory Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until now, research on bilingual auditory word recognition has been scarce, and although most studies agree that lexical access is language-nonselective, there is less consensus with respect to the influence of potentially constraining factors. The present study investigated the influence of three possible constraints. We tested whether language…

Lagrou, Evelyne; Harsuiker, Robert J.; Duyck, Wouter

2013-01-01

266

Individual Differences in the Size of Orthographic Effects in Spoken Word Recognition: The Role of Listeners' Orthographic Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the extent to which orthography affects spoken word recognition in literate adults is related to their spelling proficiency. The study included two components: an auditory lexical decision task manipulating orthographic consistency of the stimuli and a spelling test. The results replicated…

Dich, Nadya

2011-01-01

267

Wake-up-word speech recognition application for first responder communication enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speech Recognition systems, historically, have proven to be cumbersome and insufficiently accurate for a range of applications. The ultimate goal of our proposed technology is to fundamentally change the way current Speech Recognition (SR) systems interact with humans and develop an application that is extremely hardware efficient. Accurate SR and reasonable hardware requirements will afford the average first responder officer, e.g., police officer, a true break-through technology that will change the way an officer performs his duties. The presented technology provides a cutting-edge solution for human-machine interaction through the utilization of a properly solved Wake-Up-Word (WUW) SR problem. This paradigm-shift provides the basis for development of SR systems with truly "Voice Activated" capabilities, impacting all SR based technologies and the way in which humans interact with computers. This shift is a radical departure from the current "push-to-talk" paradigm currently applied to all speech-to-text or speech-recognition applications. To be able to achieve this goal, a significantly more accurate pattern classification and scoring technique is required, which in turn provides SR systems enhanced performance for correct recognition (i.e., minimization of false rejection) as well as correct rejection (i.e., minimization of false acceptance). A revolutionary and innovative classification and scoring technique is used that is a significant enhancement over an earlier method presented in reference [1]. The solution in reference [1] has been demonstrated to meet the stringent requirements of the WUW-SR task. Advanced solution of [1] is a novel technique that is model and algorithm independent. Therefore, it could be used to significantly improve performance of existing recognition algorithms and systems. Reduction of error rates of over 40% are commonly observed for both false rejections and false acceptance. In this paper the architecture of the WUW-SR based system as interface to current SR applications is presented. In this system WUW-SR is used as a gateway for truly Voice Activated applications utilizing the current solution without "push-to-talk" paradigm. The technique has been developed with hardware optimization in mind and therefore has the ability to run as a "background" application on a standard Windows-based PC platform.

Këpuska, Veton; Breitfeller, Jason

2006-05-01

268

Variable duration hidden Markov model and morphological segmentation for handwritten word recognition.  

PubMed

This paper describes a complete system for the recognition of unconstrained handwritten words using a continuous density variable duration hidden Markov model (CD-VDHMM). First, a new segmentation algorithm based on mathematical morphology is developed to translate the 2-D image into a 1-D sequence of subcharacter symbols. This sequence of symbols is modeled by the CDVDHMM. Thirty-five features are selected to represent the character symbols in the feature space. Generally, there are two information sources associated with written text; the shape information and the linguistic knowledge. While the shape information of each character symbol is modeled as a mixture Gaussian distribution, the linguistic knowledge, i.e., constraint, is modeled as a Markov chain. The variable duration state is used to take care of the segmentation ambiguity among the consecutive characters. A modified Viterbi algorithm, which provides l globally best paths, is adapted to VDHMM by incorporating the duration probabilities for the variable duration state sequence. The general string editing method is used at the postprocessing stage. The detailed experiments are carried out for two postal applications; and successful recognition results are reported. PMID:18291998

Chen, M Y; Kundu, A; Srihari, S N

1995-01-01

269

Isolated word recognition of silent speech using magnetic implants and sensors.  

PubMed

There are a number of situations where individuals wish to communicate verbally but are unable to use conventional means-so called 'silent speech'. These include speakers in noisy and covert situations as well as patients who have lost their voice as a result of a laryngectomy or similar procedure. This paper focuses on those who are unable to speak following a laryngectomy and assesses the possibility of speech recognition based on a magnetic implant/sensors system. Permanent magnets are placed on the tongue and lips and the changes in magnetic field resulting from movement during speech are monitored using a set of magnetic sensors. The sensor signals are compared to sets of pre-recorded templates using the dynamic time warping (DTW) method, and the best match is identified. Experimental trials are reported for subjects with intact larynx, typically using 500-1000 utterances used for speaker dependant training and testing. It is shown that recognition rates of over 90% are achievable for vocabularies of at least 57 isolated words: sufficient to drive command-and-control applications. PMID:20863739

Gilbert, J M; Rybchenko, S I; Hofe, R; Ell, S R; Fagan, M J; Moore, R K; Green, P

2010-12-01

270

Hybrid generative-discriminative human action recognition by combining spatiotemporal words with supervised topic models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a hybrid generative-discriminative learning method for human action recognition from video sequences. Our model combines a bag-of-words component with supervised latent topic models. A video sequence is represented as a collection of spatiotemporal words by extracting space-time interest points and describing these points using both shape and motion cues. The supervised latent Dirichlet allocation (sLDA) topic model, which employs discriminative learning using labeled data under a generative framework, is introduced to discover the latent topic structure that is most relevant to action categorization. The proposed algorithm retains most of the desirable properties of generative learning while increasing the classification performance though a discriminative setting. It has also been extended to exploit both labeled data and unlabeled data to learn human actions under a unified framework. We test our algorithm on three challenging data sets: the KTH human motion data set, the Weizmann human action data set, and a ballet data set. Our results are either comparable to or significantly better than previously published results on these data sets and reflect the promise of hybrid generative-discriminative learning approaches.

Sun, Hao; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Boliang

2011-02-01

271

Orthographic Consistency and Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition: New Evidence from Lexical Decision and Rime Detection  

PubMed Central

Many studies have repeatedly shown an orthographic consistency effect in the auditory lexical decision task. Words with phonological rimes that could be spelled in multiple ways (i.e., inconsistent words) typically produce longer auditory lexical decision latencies and more errors than do words with rimes that could be spelled in only one way (i.e., consistent words). These results have been extended to different languages and tasks, suggesting that the effect is quite general and robust. Despite this growing body of evidence, some psycholinguists believe that orthographic effects on spoken language are exclusively strategic, post-lexical, or restricted to peculiar (low-frequency) words. In the present study, we manipulated consistency and word-frequency orthogonally in order to explore whether the orthographic consistency effect extends to high-frequency words. Two different tasks were used: lexical decision and rime detection. Both tasks produced reliable consistency effects for both low- and high-frequency words. Furthermore, in Experiment 1 (lexical decision), an interaction revealed a stronger consistency effect for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words, as initially predicted by Ziegler and Ferrand (1998), whereas no interaction was found in Experiment 2 (rime detection). Our results extend previous findings by showing that the orthographic consistency effect is obtained not only for low-frequency words but also for high-frequency words. Furthermore, these effects were also obtained in a rime detection task, which does not require the explicit processing of orthographic structure. Globally, our results suggest that literacy changes the way people process spoken words, even for frequent words. PMID:22025916

Petrova, Ana; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Ferrand, Ludovic

2011-01-01

272

Encoding the target or the plausible preview word? The nature of the plausibility preview benefit in reading Chinese  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that a plausible preview word can facilitate the processing of a target word as compared to an implausible preview word (a plausibility preview benefit effect) when reading Chinese (Yang, Wang, Tong, & Rayner, 2012; Yang, 2013). Regarding the nature of this effect, it is possible that readers processed the meaning of the plausible preview word and did not actually encode the target word (given that the parafoveal preview word lies close to the fovea). The current experiment examined this possibility with three conditions wherein readers received a preview of a target word that was either (1) identical to the target word (identical preview), (2) a plausible continuation of the pre-target text, but the post-target text in the sentence was incompatible with it (initially plausible preview), or (3) not a plausible continuation of the pre-target text, nor compatible with the post-target text (implausible preview). Gaze durations on target words were longer in the initially plausible condition than the identical condition. Overall, the results showed a typical preview benefit, but also implied that readers did not encode the initially plausible preview. Also, a plausibility preview benefit was replicated: gaze durations were longer with implausible previews than the initially plausible ones. Furthermore, late eye movement measures did not reveal differences between the initially plausible and the implausible preview conditions, which argues against the possibility of misreading the plausible preview word as the target word. In sum, these results suggest that a plausible preview word provides benefit in processing the target word as compared to an implausible preview word, and this benefit is only present in early but not late eye movement measures. PMID:24910514

Yang, Jinmian; Li, Nan; Wang, Suiping; Slattery, Timothy J.; Rayner, Keith

2014-01-01

273

Target Recognition of Software Research about Machine System of Accurately Spraying  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The software is used modularity and qeneric idea, realize target recognition and accurately spraying, it consist of five modules:\\u000a module of image process, module of identifing the crop from the background of elaphic, module of target recognition and classification\\u000a of treatment, module of intelligent decision-making and helpness. Image process is made of distortion adjustment,gray strengthen,\\u000a neighbourhoods average, histogram equalization and

Yan Shi; Chunmei Zhang; Maogang Li; Haibo Yuan

2010-01-01

274

Neighborhood virtual points discriminant embedding for synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new feature extraction method for synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition based on manifold learning theory. By introducing the virtual point in every sample's neighborhood, we establish the spatial relationships of the neighborhoods. When the samples are embedded into the feature space, each sample moves toward its neighborhood virtual point, whereas the virtual points with the same class label get together, and the virtual points from different classes separate from each other. This can improve the classification and recognition performance effectively. Experiments based on the moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition database are conducted to verify the effectiveness of our method.

Pei, Jifang; Huang, Yulin; Liu, Xian; Yang, Jianyu

2013-03-01

275

Target recognition for the two color IR imaging system based on the multi-classifiers decision level fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim at the problem of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) for the two color IR imaging system, presented a method for the IR dual band image target recognition based on multi- classifiers decision level fusion. This method firstly inputted all kinds of feature vectors of the target image into these relevant classifiers respectively to get the likelihood ratio of the target

Li Qiuhua; Lei Bin; Du Yi

2011-01-01

276

Words, hemispheres, and dissociable subsystems: the effects of exposure duration, case alternation, priming, and continuity of form on word recognition in the left and right visual fields.  

PubMed

Three experiments explore aspects of the dissociable neural subsystems theory of hemispheric specialisation proposed by Marsolek and colleagues, and in particular a study by [Deason, R. G., & Marsolek, C. J. (2005). A critical boundary to the left-hemisphere advantage in word processing. Brain and Language, 92, 251-261]. Experiment 1A showed that shorter exposure durations for lower-case words (13 ms) are associated with reduced right visual field (RVF) advantages compared with longer exposure durations (144 ms). Experiment 1B compared report accuracy for lower case and mixed case words at the same exposure duration (144 ms). The RVF advantage was reduced for mixed case words due to case alternation having more of an adverse effect in the RVF than in the LVF. Experiment 2 tested a different prediction of dissociable neural subsystems theory. Four-letter words were presented in mixed case in the LVF or RVF for 100 ms. They were preceded at the same location by a prime which could be in the same word in the same alternation pattern (e.g., FlAg-FlAg), the same word in the opposite alternation pattern (e.g., fLaG-FlAg), or an unrelated letter string in the same or opposite case alternation pattern (WoPk-FlAg or wOpK-FlAg). Relative to performance in the letter string prime conditions, which did not differ significantly between the two visual fields, there was more of an effect of word primes in the RVF than in the LVF. Importantly, the benefit of a word prime was the same whether the prime was in the same alternation pattern or was in the opposition alternation pattern. We argue that these results run contrary to the predictions of dissociable neural subsystems theory and are more compatible with theories which propose that a left hemisphere word recognition system is responsible for identifying written words, whether they are presented in the LVF or the RVF, and that letters are processed to an abstract graphemic level of representation before being identified by that system. PMID:17292463

Ellis, Andrew W; Ansorge, Lydia; Lavidor, Michal

2007-12-01

277

Application of automatic threshold in dynamic target recognition with low contrast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid photoelectric joint transform correlator can realize automatic real-time recognition with high precision through the combination of optical devices and electronic devices. When recognizing targets with low contrast using photoelectric joint transform correlator, because of the difference of attitude, brightness and grayscale between target and template, only four to five frames of dynamic targets can be recognized without any processing. CCD camera is used to capture the dynamic target images and the capturing speed of CCD is 25 frames per second. Automatic threshold has many advantages like fast processing speed, effectively shielding noise interference, enhancing diffraction energy of useful information and better reserving outline of target and template, so this method plays a very important role in target recognition with optical correlation method. However, the automatic obtained threshold by program can not achieve the best recognition results for dynamic targets. The reason is that outline information is broken to some extent. Optimal threshold is obtained by manual intervention in most cases. Aiming at the characteristics of dynamic targets, the processing program of improved automatic threshold is finished by multiplying OTSU threshold of target and template by scale coefficient of the processed image, and combining with mathematical morphology. The optimal threshold can be achieved automatically by improved automatic threshold processing for dynamic low contrast target images. The recognition rate of dynamic targets is improved through decreased background noise effect and increased correlation information. A series of dynamic tank images with the speed about 70 km/h are adapted as target images. The 1st frame of this series of tanks can correlate only with the 3rd frame without any processing. Through OTSU threshold, the 80th frame can be recognized. By automatic threshold processing of the joint images, this number can be increased to 89 frames. Experimental results show that the improved automatic threshold processing has special application value for the recognition of dynamic target with low contrast.

Miao, Hua; Guo, Xiaoming; Chen, Yu

2014-11-01

278

A comparison of word recognition processes in dyslexic and normal readers at two reading-age levels.  

PubMed

This study addressed the question of whether dyslexic children use qualitatively different word identification processes as compared to normal readers at the same stage of reading acquisition. Fifty-two dyslexic children and reading-age matched normal readers were required to pronounce words and pseudowords designed to tap several word recognition and decoding processes. Performance profiles were compared for the two reading groups at two reading ages. Although an invariant acquisition sequence was observed across reading groups, differences in level of performance between dyslexics and reading-age controls varied as a function of reading age. The performance of the more advanced dyslexics was virtually indistinguishable from normal readers on all measures. In contrast, the younger reading age dyslexics differed from normal readers on several measures of spelling-sound correspondences. However, no reading group differences were observed on measures of word recognition. The results indicated that dyslexics and normal readers at the same reading age use essentially the same processes to recognize words, but may differ in knowledge of correspondence rules. PMID:3694122

Szeszulski, P A; Manis, F R

1987-12-01

279

Design and performance of a large vocabulary discrete word recognition system. Volume 1: Technical report. [real time computer technique for voice data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development, construction, and test of a 100-word vocabulary near real time word recognition system are reported. Included are reasonable replacement of any one or all 100 words in the vocabulary, rapid learning of a new speaker, storage and retrieval of training sets, verbal or manual single word deletion, continuous adaptation with verbal or manual error correction, on-line verification of vocabulary as spoken, system modes selectable via verification display keyboard, relationship of classified word to neighboring word, and a versatile input/output interface to accommodate a variety of applications.

1973-01-01

280

A universal approach to modeling visual word recognition and reading: Not only possible, but also inevitable  

PubMed Central

I have argued that orthographic processing cannot be understood and modeled without considering the manner in which orthographic structure represents phonological, semantic and morphological information in a given writing system. A reading theory, therefore, must be a theory of the interaction of the reader with his/her linguistic environment. This outlines a novel approach to studying and modeling visual word recognition, an approach that focuses on the common cognitive principles involved in processing printed words across different writing systems. These claims were challenged by several commentaries that contested the merits of my general theoretical agenda, the relevance of the evolution of writing systems, and the plausibility of finding commonalities in reading across orthographies. Other commentaries extended the scope of the debate by bringing into the discussion additional perspectives. My response addresses all these issues. By considering the constraints of neurobiology on modeling reading, developmental data, and a large scope of cross-linguistic evidence, I argue that front-end implementations of orthographic processing that do not stem from a comprehensive theory of the complex information conveyed by writing systems do not present a viable approach for understanding reading. The common principles by which writing systems have evolved to represent orthographic, phonological and semantic information in a language reveal the critical distributional characteristics of orthographic structure that govern reading behavior. Models of reading should thus be learning models, primarily constrained by cross-linguistic developmental evidence that describes how the statistical properties of writing systems shape the characteristics of orthographic processing. When this approach is adopted a universal model of reading is possible. PMID:23251930

Frost, Ram

2013-01-01

281

Impaired Word Recognition in Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Age of Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of word production in patients with Alzheimer's disease have identified the age of acquisition of words as an important predictor of retention or loss, with early acquired words remaining accessible for longer than later acquired words. If, as proposed by current theories, effects of age of acquisition reflect the involvement of semantic…

Cuetos, Fernando; Herrera, Elena; Ellis, Andrew W.

2010-01-01

282

Stimulus Onset Asynchrony and the Timeline of Word Recognition: Event-Related Potentials during Sentence Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three ERP experiments examined the effect of word presentation rate (i.e., stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA) on the time course of word frequency and predictability effects in sentence reading. In Experiments 1 and 2, sentences were presented word-by-word in the screen center at an SOA of 700 and 490ms, respectively. While these rates are typical…

Dambacher, Michael; Dimigen, Olaf; Braun, Mario; Wille, Kristin; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Kliegl, Reinhold

2012-01-01

283

[Biotherapies, immunotherapies, targeted therapies, biopharmaceuticals… which word should be used?].  

PubMed

The ability to accurately describe and name medical advances is a prerequisite to foster public debates with scientists and physicians, and favour faith over fear among patients and citizens. Therapeutic antibodies are a good example of a medical breakthrough which has met with considerable clinical success, and which terminology has changed over the years. If the appellation serotherapy was appropriate a century ago, it has become obsolete. Recent names such as biotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, biopharmaceuticals have been introduced and are now commonly used, each of those can apply to therapeutic antibodies. It is thus interesting to question the real meaning of these different appellations. Our goal in this manuscript is to analyse the genesis of these terms but also to suggest how to simplify the terminology: biotherapy or targeted therapy need to be eliminated, as well as immunotherapy when communicating with non scientific public. It is recommended to favour the term biopharmaceuticals (biomédicaments in French), which clearly indicates the origin of these molecules, intermediate between chemical drugs and living biologics, whose borders need to be accurately defined also. PMID:24939545

Watier, Hervé

2014-05-01

284

Target position and practice in the identification of letters in varying contexts: A word superiority effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

A forced-choice detection paradigm controlling for postperceptual inference was used to investigate letter identification\\u000a in three-position displays. Letters from a predesignated set of four targets appeared singly, in strings of noise characters,\\u000a in unpronounceable nonsense strings, and in words. Subjects knew which context would occur, but did not know which of the\\u000a three display positions would contain the target. Correct

Thomas H. Carr; Stephen W. Lehmkuhle; Brian Kottas; Eileen C. Astor-Stetson; Drew Arnold

1976-01-01

285

Time Course of Target Recognition in Visual Search  

PubMed Central

Visual search is a ubiquitous task of great importance: it allows us to quickly find the objects that we are looking for. During active search for an object (target), eye movements are made to different parts of the scene. Fixation locations are chosen based on a combination of information about the target and the visual input. At the end of a successful search, the eyes typically fixate on the target. But does this imply that target identification occurs while looking at it? The duration of a typical fixation (?170?ms) and neuronal latencies of both the oculomotor system and the visual stream indicate that there might not be enough time to do so. Previous studies have suggested the following solution to this dilemma: the target is identified extrafoveally and this event will trigger a saccade towards the target location. However this has not been experimentally verified. Here we test the hypothesis that subjects recognize the target before they look at it using a search display of oriented colored bars. Using a gaze-contingent real-time technique, we prematurely stopped search shortly after subjects fixated the target. Afterwards, we asked subjects to identify the target location. We find that subjects can identify the target location even when fixating on the target for less than 10?ms. Longer fixations on the target do not increase detection performance but increase confidence. In contrast, subjects cannot perform this task if they are not allowed to move their eyes. Thus, information about the target during conjunction search for colored oriented bars can, in some circumstances, be acquired at least one fixation ahead of reaching the target. The final fixation serves to increase confidence rather then performance, illustrating a distinct role of the final fixation for the subjective judgment of confidence rather than accuracy. PMID:20428512

Kotowicz, Andreas; Rutishauser, Ueli; Koch, Christof

2009-01-01

286

Target recognitions in multiple-camera closed-circuit television using color constancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People tracking in crowded scenes from closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage has been a popular and challenging task in computer vision. Due to the limited spatial resolution in the CCTV footage, the color of people's dress may offer an alternative feature for their recognition and tracking. However, there are many factors, such as variable illumination conditions, viewing angles, and camera calibration, that may induce illusive modification of intrinsic color signatures of the target. Our objective is to recognize and track targets in multiple camera views using color as the detection feature, and to understand if a color constancy (CC) approach may help to reduce these color illusions due to illumination and camera artifacts and thereby improve target recognition performance. We have tested a number of CC algorithms using various color descriptors to assess the efficiency of target recognition from a real multicamera Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) data set. Various classifiers have been used for target detection, and the figure of merit to assess the efficiency of target recognition is achieved through the area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC). We have proposed two modifications of luminance-based CC algorithms: one with a color transfer mechanism and the other using a pixel-wise sigmoid function for an adaptive dynamic range compression, a method termed enhanced luminance reflectance CC (ELRCC). We found that both algorithms improve the efficiency of target recognitions substantially better than that of the raw data without CC treatment, and in some cases the ELRCC improves target tracking by over 100% within the AUROC assessment metric. The performance of the ELRCC has been assessed over 10 selected targets from three different camera views of the i-LIDS footage, and the averaged target recognition efficiency over all these targets is found to be improved by about 54% in AUROC after the data are processed by the proposed ELRCC algorithm. This amount of improvement represents a reduction of probability of false alarm by about a factor of 5 at the probability of detection of 0.5. Our study concerns mainly the detection of colored targets; and issues for the recognition of white or gray targets will be addressed in a forthcoming study.

Soori, Umair; Yuen, Peter; Han, Ji Wen; Ibrahim, Izzati; Chen, Wentao; Hong, Kan; Merfort, Christian; James, David; Richardson, Mark

2013-04-01

287

Task modulation of brain responses in visual word recognition as studied using EEG/MEG and fMRI  

PubMed Central

Do task demands change the way we extract information from a stimulus, or only how we use this information for decision making? In order to answer this question for visual word recognition, we used EEG/MEG as well as fMRI to determine the latency ranges and spatial areas in which brain activation to words is modulated by task demands. We presented letter strings in three tasks (lexical decision, semantic decision, silent reading), and measured combined EEG/MEG as well as fMRI responses in two separate experiments. EEG/MEG sensor statistics revealed the earliest reliable task effects at around 150 ms, which were localized, using minimum norm estimates (MNE), to left inferior temporal, right anterior temporal and left precentral gyri. Later task effects (250 and 480 ms) occurred in left middle and inferior temporal gyri. Our fMRI data showed task effects in left inferior frontal, posterior superior temporal and precentral cortices. Although there was some correspondence between fMRI and EEG/MEG localizations, discrepancies predominated. We suggest that fMRI may be less sensitive to the early short-lived processes revealed in our EEG/MEG data. Our results indicate that task-specific processes start to penetrate word recognition already at 150 ms, suggesting that early word processing is flexible and intertwined with decision making. PMID:23888133

Chen, Y.; Davis, M. H.; Pulvermüller, F.; Hauk, O.

2013-01-01

288

The Processing of Consonants and Vowels during Letter Identity and Letter Position Assignment in Visual-Word Recognition: An ERP Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research suggests that there is a processing distinction between consonants and vowels in visual-word recognition. Here we conjointly examine the time course of consonants and vowels in processes of letter identity and letter position assignment. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in…

Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Marin, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

2011-01-01

289

Composition of biosonar images for target recognition by echolocating bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echolocating bats can recognize flying insects as sonar targets in a variety of different acoustic situations ranging from open spaces to dense clutter. Target classification must depend on perceiving images whose dimensions can tolerate intrusion of additional echoes from other objects, even echoes arriving at about the same time as those from the insect, without disrupting image organization. The big

James A. Simmons; Prestor A. Saillant; Janine M. Wotton; Tim Haresign; Michael J. Ferragamo; Cynthia F. Moss

1995-01-01

290

Feature extraction for SAR target recognition based on supervised manifold learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of manifold learning theory, a new feature extraction method for Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) target recognition is proposed. First, the proposed algorithm estimates the within-class and between-class local neighbourhood surrounding each SAR sample. After computing the local tangent space for each neighbourhood, the proposed algorithm seeks for the optimal projecting matrix by preserving the local within-class property and simultaneously maximizing the local between-class separability. The use of uncorrelated constraint can also enhance the discriminating power of the optimal projecting matrix. Finally, the nearest neighbour classifier is applied to recognize SAR targets in the projected feature subspace. Experimental results on MSTAR datasets demonstrate that the proposed method can provide a higher recognition rate than traditional feature extraction algorithms in SAR target recognition.

Du, C.; Zhou, S.; Sun, J.; Zhao, J.

2014-03-01

291

Automatic target recognition algorithm based on statistical dispersion of infrared multispectral image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel automatic target recognition algorithm based on statistical dispersion of infrared multispectral images(SDOIMI) is proposed. Firstly, infrared multispectral characteristic matrix of the scenario is constructed based on infrared multispectral characteristic information (such as radiation intensity and spectral distribution etc.) of targets, background and decoys. Then the infrared multispectral characteristic matrix of targets is reconstructed after segmenting image by maximum distance method and fusing spatial and spectral information. Finally, an statistical dispersion of infrared multispectral images(SDOIMI) recognition criteria is formulated in terms of spectral radiation difference of interesting targets. In simulation, nine sub-bands multispectral images of real ship target and shipborne aerosol infrared decoy modulated by laser simulating ship geometry appearance are obtained via using spectral radiation curves. Digital simulation experiment result verifies that the algorithm is effective and feasible.

Zhang, Wei; Cao, Le-lin; Wu, Chun-feng; Hou, Qing-yu

2009-07-01

292

Tracking and recognition of airborne targets via commercial television and FM radio signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate a Bayesian approach to the joint tracking and recognition of airborne targets via reflected commercial television and FM radio signals measured by an array of sensors. Such passive system may remain covert, whereas traditional active systems must reveal their presence and location by their transmissions. Since the number of aircraft in the scene is not known a priori, and targets may enter and leave the scene at unknown times, the parameters space is a union of subspaces of varying dimensions as well as varying target classes. Targets tracks are parameterized via both positions and orientations, with the orientations naturally represented as elements of the special orthogonal group. A prior on target tracks is constructed from Newtonian equations of motion. This prior results in a coupling between the position and orientation estimates, yielding a coupling between the tracking and recognition problems.

Lanterman, Aaron D.

1999-07-01

293

Superconducting gravity gradiometers for underground target recognition. Final report  

SciTech Connect

One of the most formidable intelligence challenges existing in the non-proliferation community is the detection of buried targets. The physical parameter that all buried targets share, whether the target is buried armaments, a tunnel or a bunker, is mass. In the case of buried armaments, there is an excess mass (higher density) compared to the surrounding area; for a tunnel or bunker, the mass is missing. In either case, this difference in mass generates a distinct gravitational signature. The Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer project at Sandia worked toward developing an airborne device for the detection of these underground structures.

Adriaans, M.J.

1998-01-01

294

Cross-Language Effects in Written Word Recognition: The Case of Bilingual Deaf Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, multiple studies have shown that the languages of a bilingual interact during processing. We investigated sign activation as deaf children read words. In a word-picture verification task, we manipulated the underlying sign equivalents. We presented children with word-picture pairs for which the sign translation equivalents varied…

Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

2012-01-01

295

Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…

Gabig, Cheryl Smith

2010-01-01

296

It's What's on the Outside that Matters: An Advantage for External Features in Children's Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relative importance of internal and external letter features of words in children's developing reading was investigated to clarify further the nature of early featural analysis. In Experiment 1, 72 6-, 8-, and 10-year-olds read aloud words displayed as wholes, external features only (central features missing, thereby preserving word shape…

Webb, Tessa M.; Beech, John R.; Mayall, Kate M.; Andrews, Antony S.

2006-01-01

297

Infants Exposed to Fluent Natural Speech Succeed at Cross-Gender Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine the possibility that early signal-to-word form mapping capabilities are robust enough to handle substantial indexical variation in the realization of words. Method: Two groups of 7.5-month-olds were tested with the Headturn Preference Procedure. Half of the infants were exposed to words embedded in passages spoken by their…

van Heugten, Marieke; Johnson, Elizabeth K.

2012-01-01

298

SAR target feature extraction and recognition based multilinear principal component analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA) algorithm is applied to dimensionality reduction in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images target feature extraction. Firstly, the MPCA algorithm is used to find the projection matrices in each mode and perform dimensionality reduction in all tensor modes. And then the distances of the feature tensors of the testing and training are computed for classification. Experimental results based on the moving and stationary target recognition (MSTAR) data indicate that compared with the existing methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA), 2-dimensional PCA (2DPCA), and generalized low rank approximations of matrices (GLRAM), the MPCA algorithm achieves the best recognition performance with acceptable feature dimensionality.

Hu, Liping; Xing, Xiaoyu

2014-11-01

299

Wavelet-Based Signal and Image Processing for Target Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PI visited NSWC Dahlgren, VA, for six weeks in May-June 2002 and collaborated with scientists in the G33 TEAMS facility, and with Marilyn Rudzinsky of T44 Technology and Photonic Systems Branch. During this visit the PI also presented six educational seminars to NSWC scientists on various aspects of signal processing. Several items from the grant proposal were completed, including (1) wavelet-based algorithms for interpolation of 1-d signals and 2-d images; (2) Discrete Wavelet Transform domain based algorithms for filtering of image data; (3) wavelet-based smoothing of image sequence data originally obtained for the CRITTIR (Clutter Rejection Involving Temporal Techniques in the Infra-Red) project. The PI visited the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa to collaborate with colleagues Prof. B.M. Herbst and Prof. J. du Preez on the use of wavelet image processing in conjunction with pattern recognition techniques. The University of Stellenbosch has offered the PI partial funding to support a sabbatical visit in Fall 2003, the primary purpose of which is to enable the PI to develop and enhance his expertise in Pattern Recognition. During the first year, the grant supported publication of 3 referred papers, presentation of 9 seminars and an intensive two-day course on wavelet theory. The grant supported the work of two students who functioned as research assistants.

Sherlock, Barry G.

2002-11-01

300

Target recognition in passive terahertz image of human body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THz radiation can penetrate through many nonpolar dielectric materials and can be used for nondestructive/noninvasive sensing and imaging of targets under nonpolar, nonmetallic covers or containers. Thus using THz systems to "see through" concealing barriers (i.e. packaging, corrugated cardboard, clothing) has been proposed as a new security screening method. Objects that can be detected by THz include concealed weapons, explosives, and chemical agents under clothing. Passive THz imaging system can detect THz wave from human body without transmit any electromagnetic wave, and the suspicious objects will become visible because the THz wave is blocked by this items. We can find out whether or not someone is carrying dangerous objects through this image. In this paper, the THz image enhancement, segmentation and contour extraction algorithms were studied to achieve effective target image detection. First, the terahertz images are enhanced and their grayscales are stretched. Then we apply global threshold segmentation to extract the target, and finally the targets are marked on the image. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper can extract and mark targets effectively, so that people can identify suspicious objects under clothing quickly. The algorithm can significantly improve the usefulness of the terahertz security apparatus.

Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cun-lin; Li, Yue

2014-11-01

301

Pattern-Recognition System for Approaching a Known Target  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A closed-loop pattern-recognition system is designed to provide guidance for maneuvering a small exploratory robotic vehicle (rover) on Mars to return to a landed spacecraft to deliver soil and rock samples that the spacecraft would subsequently bring back to Earth. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in guiding mobile robots to approach known structures that humans could not approach safely, for such purposes as reconnaissance in military or law-enforcement applications, terrestrial scientific exploration, and removal of explosive or other hazardous items. The system has been demonstrated in experiments in which the Field Integrated Design and Operations (FIDO) rover (a prototype Mars rover equipped with a video camera for guidance) is made to return to a mockup of Mars-lander spacecraft. The FIDO rover camera autonomously acquires an image of the lander from a distance of 125 m in an outdoor environment. Then under guidance by an algorithm that performs fusion of multiple line and texture features in digitized images acquired by the camera, the rover traverses the intervening terrain, using features derived from images of the lander truss structure. Then by use of precise pattern matching for determining the position and orientation of the rover relative to the lander, the rover aligns itself with the bottom of ramps extending from the lander, in preparation for climbing the ramps to deliver samples to the lander. The most innovative aspect of the system is a set of pattern-recognition algorithms that govern a three-phase visual-guidance sequence for approaching the lander. During the first phase, a multifeature fusion algorithm integrates the outputs of a horizontal-line-detection algorithm and a wavelet-transform-based visual-area-of-interest algorithm for detecting the lander from a significant distance. The horizontal-line-detection algorithm is used to determine candidate lander locations based on detection of a horizontal deck that is part of the lander.

Huntsberger, Terrance; Cheng, Yang

2008-01-01

302

Deficits in audiovisual speech perception in normal aging emerge at the level of whole-word recognition.  

PubMed

Over the next 2 decades, a dramatic shift in the demographics of society will take place, with a rapid growth in the population of older adults. One of the most common complaints with healthy aging is a decreased ability to successfully perceive speech, particularly in noisy environments. In such noisy environments, the presence of visual speech cues (i.e., lip movements) provide striking benefits for speech perception and comprehension, but previous research suggests that older adults gain less from such audiovisual integration than their younger peers. To determine at what processing level these behavioral differences arise in healthy-aging populations, we administered a speech-in-noise task to younger and older adults. We compared the perceptual benefits of having speech information available in both the auditory and visual modalities and examined both phoneme and whole-word recognition across varying levels of signal-to-noise ratio. For whole-word recognition, older adults relative to younger adults showed greater multisensory gains at intermediate SNRs but reduced benefit at low SNRs. By contrast, at the phoneme level both younger and older adults showed approximately equivalent increases in multisensory gain as signal-to-noise ratio decreased. Collectively, the results provide important insights into both the similarities and differences in how older and younger adults integrate auditory and visual speech cues in noisy environments and help explain some of the conflicting findings in previous studies of multisensory speech perception in healthy aging. These novel findings suggest that audiovisual processing is intact at more elementary levels of speech perception in healthy-aging populations and that deficits begin to emerge only at the more complex word-recognition level of speech signals. PMID:25282337

Stevenson, Ryan A; Nelms, Caitlin E; Baum, Sarah H; Zurkovsky, Lilia; Barense, Morgan D; Newhouse, Paul A; Wallace, Mark T

2015-01-01

303

Information-Theoretic Bounds on Target Recognition Performance Based on Degraded Image Data  

E-print Network

, as well as least-favorable Gaussian clutter. A sixth application involving compressed sensor image data imaging (FLIR) systems, and hyperspectral sensors [1, 2]. These imaging sensors are used for object in a target-recognition context, image understanding algorithms are required to interpret remote observations

Moulin, Pierre

304

Waveform Design and Diversity in Radar Sensor Networks: Theoretical Analysis and Application to Automatic Target Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we perform some theoretical studies on constant frequency (CF) pulse waveform design and diversity in radar sensor networks (RSN): (1) the conditions for waveform co-existence, (2) interferences among waveforms in RSN, (3) waveform diversity combining in RSN. As an application example, we apply the waveform design and diversity to automatic target recognition (ATR) in RSN and propose

Qilian Liang

2006-01-01

305

Tracking and recognition of airborne targets via commercial television and FM radio signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate a Bayesian approach to the joint tracking and recognition of airborne targets via reflected commercial television and FM radio signals measured by an array of sensors. Such passive system may remain covert, whereas traditional active systems must reveal their presence and location by their transmissions. Since the number of aircraft in the scene is not known a priori,

Aaron D. Lanterman

1999-01-01

306

Brain-potential analysis of visual word recognition in dyslexics and typically reading children  

PubMed Central

The specialization of visual brain areas for fast processing of printed words plays an important role in the acquisition of reading skills. Dysregulation of these areas may be among the deficits underlying developmental dyslexia. The present study examines the specificity of word activation in dyslexic children in 3rd grade by comparing early components of brain potentials elicited by visually presented words vs. strings of meaningless letter-like symbols. Results showed a more pronounced N1 component for words compared to symbols for both groups. The dyslexic group revealed larger left-lateralized, word-specific N1 responses than the typically reading group. Furthermore, positive correlations between N1 amplitudes and reading fluency were found in the dyslexic group. Our results support the notion of N1 as a sensitive index of visual word processing involved in reading fluency. PMID:25071507

Fraga González, Gorka; Žari?, Gojko; Tijms, Jurgen; Bonte, Milene; Blomert, Leo; van der Molen, Maurits W.

2014-01-01

307

fMRI Evidence for Dual Routes to the Mental Lexicon in Visual Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

& Event-related fMRI was used to investigate lexical decisions to words of high and low frequency of occurrence and to pseudowords. The results obtained strongly support dual-route models of visual word processing. By contrasting words with pseudowords,bilateral occipito-temporal brain areas and posterior left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) were identified as contributing to the successful mapping of orthographic percepts onto visual

Christian J. Fiebach; Angela D. Friederici; D. Yves von Cramon

2002-01-01

308

An improved cortex-like neuromorphic system for target recognitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the enhancement of biologically-inspired machine vision through a rotation invariance mechanism. Research over the years has suggested that rotation invariance is one of the fundamental generic elements of object constancy, a known generic visual ability of the human brain. Cortex-like vision unlike conventional pixel based machine vision is achieved by mimicking neuromorphic mechanisms of the primates' brain. In this preliminary study, rotation invariance is implemented through histograms from Gabor features of an object. The performance of rotation invariance in the neuromorphic algorithm is assessed by the classification accuracies of a test data set which consists of image objects in five different orientations. It is found that a much more consistent classification result over these five different oriented data sets has been achieved by the integrated rotation invariance neuromorphic algorithm compared to the one without. In addition, the issue of varying aspect ratios of input images to these models is also addressed, in an attempt to create a robust algorithm against a wider variability of input data. The extension of the present achievement is to improve the recognition accuracies while incorporating it to a series of different real-world scenarios which would challenge the approach accordingly.

Tsitiridis, Aristeidis; Yuen, Peter; Hong, Kan; Chen, Tong; Ibrahim, Izzati; Jackman, James; James, David; Richardson, Mark

2010-10-01

309

Hybrid optoelectronic correlator architecture for shift-invariant target recognition.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present theoretical details and the underlying architecture of a hybrid optoelectronic correlator (HOC) that correlates images using spatial light modulators (SLMs), detector arrays, and field programmable gate array (FPGA). The proposed architecture bypasses the need for nonlinear materials such as photorefractive polymer films by using detectors instead, and the phase information is yet conserved by the interference of plane waves with the images. However, the output of such an HOC has four terms: two convolution signals and two cross-correlation signals. By implementing a phase stabilization and scanning circuit, the convolution terms can be eliminated, so that the behavior of an HOC becomes essentially identical to that of a conventional holographic correlator (CHC). To achieve the ultimate speed of such a correlator, we also propose an integrated graphic processing unit, which would perform all the electrical processes in a parallel manner. The HOC architecture along with the phase stabilization technique would thus be as good as a CHC, capable of high-speed image recognition in a translation-invariant manner. PMID:24561938

Monjur, Mehjabin Sultana; Tseng, Shih; Tripathi, Renu; Donoghue, John James; Shahriar, M S

2014-01-01

310

Bayesian Spatiotemporal Multitask Learning for Radar HRRP Target Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Bayesian dynamic model based on multitask learning (MTL) is developed for radar automatic target recog- nition (RATR) using high-resolution range profile (HRRP). The aspect-dependent HRRP sequence is modeled using a trun- cated stick-breaking hidden Markov model (TSB-HMM) with time-evolving transition probabilities, in which the spatial struc- ture acrossrangecellsisdescribedbythehiddenMarkovstructure and the temporal dependence between HRRP samples is described by the

Lan Du; Penghui Wang; Hongwei Liu; Mian Pan; Feng Chen; Zheng Bao

2011-01-01

311

Lip-Reading Aids Word Recognition Most in Moderate Noise: A Bayesian Explanation Using High-Dimensional Feature Space  

PubMed Central

Watching a speaker's facial movements can dramatically enhance our ability to comprehend words, especially in noisy environments. From a general doctrine of combining information from different sensory modalities (the principle of inverse effectiveness), one would expect that the visual signals would be most effective at the highest levels of auditory noise. In contrast, we find, in accord with a recent paper, that visual information improves performance more at intermediate levels of auditory noise than at the highest levels, and we show that a novel visual stimulus containing only temporal information does the same. We present a Bayesian model of optimal cue integration that can explain these conflicts. In this model, words are regarded as points in a multidimensional space and word recognition is a probabilistic inference process. When the dimensionality of the feature space is low, the Bayesian model predicts inverse effectiveness; when the dimensionality is high, the enhancement is maximal at intermediate auditory noise levels. When the auditory and visual stimuli differ slightly in high noise, the model makes a counterintuitive prediction: as sound quality increases, the proportion of reported words corresponding to the visual stimulus should first increase and then decrease. We confirm this prediction in a behavioral experiment. We conclude that auditory-visual speech perception obeys the same notion of optimality previously observed only for simple multisensory stimuli. PMID:19259259

Ross, Lars A.; Foxe, John J.; Parra, Lucas C.

2009-01-01

312

Dichotic Word Recognition in Noise and the Right-Ear Advantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study sought to compare dichotic right-ear advantages (REAs) of young adults to older adult data (C. M. Roup, T. L. Wiley, & R. H. Wilson, 2006) after matching for overall levels of recognition performance. Specifically, speech-spectrum noise was introduced in order to reduce dichotic recognition performance of young adults to a…

Roup, Christina M.

2011-01-01

313

Automatic target-shape recognition via deformable wavelet templates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deformable wavelet template (DWT) is proposed for object shape description in this research. Wavelet templates offer not only the global information at lower scales but also local features at higher differential scales. It provides a natural tool for multiresolution representation and can be used conveniently in a hierarchical matching procedure. We first address three main processing steps in the DWT-based ATR system for feature extraction. They are: (1) image preprocessing and target shape extraction, (2) shape feature normalization and (3) wavelet decomposition. Then, a multiscale matching procedure is discussed. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated with extensive experimental results.

Li, Jin; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

1996-05-01

314

Further Analysis of Picture Interference when Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research indicates that pairing pictures with associated words when teaching sight-word reading may hinder acquisition (e.g., Didden, Prinsen, & Sigafoos, 2000; Singh & Solman, 1990; Solman & Singh, 1992). The purpose of the current study was to determine whether this phenomenon was due to a previously learned association between the…

Dittlinger, Laura Harper; Lerman, Dorothea C.

2011-01-01

315

Effects of Training on Speech Recognition Performance in Noise Using Lexically Hard Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined how repeated presentations of lexically difficult words within a background noise affect a listener's ability to understand both trained (lexically difficult) and untrained (lexically easy) words in isolation and within sentences. Method: In the 1st experiment, 9 young listeners with normal hearing completed a…

Burk, Matthew H.; Humes, Larry E.

2007-01-01

316

Acquired Affective Associations Induce Emotion Effects in Word Recognition: An ERP Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined how contextual learning and in particular emotionality conditioning impacts the neural processing of words, as possible key factors for the acquisition of words' emotional connotation. 21 participants learned on five consecutive days associations between meaningless pseudowords and unpleasant or neutral pictures using an…

Fritsch, Nathalie; Kuchinke, Lars

2013-01-01

317

Multi-Layer Local Graph Words for Object Recognition Svebor Karaman1  

E-print Network

the BoW operates on words. The semantic power of a word is much higher than which of a local key point of the BoVW, some approaches have been developed in the past few years. The spatial pyramid matching

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

318

Word Recognition and Syntactic Attachment in Reading: Evidence for a Staged Architecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 3 experiments, the author examined how readers' eye movements are influenced by joint manipulations of a word's frequency and the syntactic fit of the word in its context. In the critical conditions of the first 2 experiments, a high- or low-frequency verb was used to disambiguate a garden-path sentence, while in the last experiment, a high- or…

Staub, Adrian

2011-01-01

319

Developmental Changes in Infants' Ability to Cope with Dialect Variation in Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Toward the end of their first year of life, infants' overly specified word representations are thought to give way to more abstract ones, which helps them to better cope with variation not relevant to word identity (e.g., voice and affect). This developmental change may help infants process the ambient language more efficiently, thus enabling…

Schmale, Rachel; Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda; Johnson, Elizabeth K.

2010-01-01

320

See before You Jump: Full Recognition of Parafoveal Words Precedes Skips during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serial attention models of eye-movement control during reading were evaluated in an eye-tracking experiment that examined how lexical activation combines with visual information in the parafovea to affect word skipping (where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading). Lexical activation was manipulated by repetition priming created through…

Gordon, Peter C.; Plummer, Patrick; Choi, Wonil

2013-01-01

321

Hybridization kinetics between immobilized double-stranded DNA probes and targets containing embedded recognition segments  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the time-dependent strand displacement activity of several targets with double-stranded DNA probes (dsProbes) of varying affinity. Here, the relative affinity of various dsProbes is altered through choices in hybridization length (11–15 bases) and the selective inclusion of center mismatches in the duplexes. While the dsProbes are immobilized on microspheres, the soluble, 15 base-long complementary sequence is presented either alone as a short target strand or as a recognition segment embedded within a longer target strand. Compared to the short target, strand displacement activity of the longer targets is slower, but still successful. Additionally, the longer targets exhibit modest differences in the observed displacement rates, depending on the location of recognition segment within the long target. Overall, our study demonstrates that the kinetics of strand displacement activity can be tuned through dsProbe sequence design parameters and is only modestly affected by the location of the complementary segment within a longer target strand. PMID:21613238

Baker, Bryan A.; Milam, Valeria T.

2011-01-01

322

Further consideration of advanced clinical solutions word choice: comparison to the recognition memory test-words and classification accuracy in a clinical sample.  

PubMed

Word Choice (WC), a test in the Advanced Clinical Solutions package for Wechsler measures, was examined in two studies. The first study compared WC to the Recognition Memory Test-Words (RMT-W) in a clinical sample (N = 46). WC scores were significantly higher than RMT-W scores overall and in sample subsets grouped by separate validity indicators. In item-level analyses, WC items demonstrated lower frequency, greater imageability, and higher concreteness than RMT-W items. The second study explored WC classification accuracy in a different clinical sample grouped by separate validity indicators into Pass (n = 54), Fail-1 (n = 17), and Fail-2 (n = 8) groups. WC scores were significantly higher in the Pass group (M = 49.1, SD = 1.9) than in the Fail-1 (M = 46.0, SD = 5.3) and Fail-2 (M = 44.1, SD = 4.8) groups. WC demonstrated area under the curve of .81 in classifying Pass and Fail-2 participants. Using the test manual cutoff associated with a 10% false positive rate, sensitivity was 38% and specificity was 96% in Pass and Fail-2 groups with 24% of Fail-1 participants scoring below cutoff. WC may be optimally used in combination with other measures given observed sensitivity. PMID:25372961

Davis, Jeremy J

2014-11-01

323

Experiments in the application of isolated-word recognition to secondary driving controls for the disabled.  

PubMed

Adaptive driving controls such as mechanical hand controls or electromechanical contact switches are now available which allow even the most severely impaired to drive. The residual functions, however, are all directed toward primary controls such as steering, braking, and accelerating, limiting the ability to operate secondary controls such as the horn, turn signals, ignition, and headlights, etc. In this paper, we discuss the application of speech recognition technology when operating these secondary controls. The performance of a speech recognition system inside a vehicle is studied, and the types of noise that degrade the recognition accuracy are also identified. Results are presented on the degradation in recognition performance caused by engine noise, fan noise, and interfering speech. PMID:1831857

Quintin, E C; Halan, S K; Abdelhamied, K A

1991-01-01

324

An alternative mode of microRNA target recognition  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate mRNA targets through perfect pairing with their seed region (position 2-7). Recently, a precise genome-wide map of miRNA interaction sites in mouse brain was generated by high-throughput sequencing of clusters of ~50 nucleotide RNA tags associated with Argonaute (Ago HITS-CLIP). By analyzing Ago HITS-CLIP “orphan clusters” – Ago binding regions from HITS-CLIP that cannot be explained by canonical seed matches – we have identified an alternative binding mode used by miRNAs. Specifically, G-bulge sites (position 5-6) are often bound and regulated by miR-124 in brain. More generally, bulged sites comprise ? 15% (? 1441 sites) of all Ago-miRNA interactions in mouse brain and are evolutionally conserved. We have termed position 6 the “pivot” nucleotide and suggest a model in which a transitional “nucleation-bulge” leads to functional bulge mRNA-miRNA interactions, expanding the number of potential miRNA regulatory sites. PMID:22343717

Chi, Sung Wook; Hannon, Gregory J.; Darnell, Robert B.

2012-01-01

325

a Recognition Method for Airplane Targets Using 3d Point Cloud Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LiDAR is capable of obtaining three dimension coordinates of the terrain and targets directly and is widely applied in digital city, emergent disaster mitigation and environment monitoring. Especially because of its ability of penetrating the low density vegetation and canopy, LiDAR technique has superior advantages in hidden and camouflaged targets detection and recognition. Based on the multi-echo data of LiDAR, and combining the invariant moment theory, this paper presents a recognition method for classic airplanes (even hidden targets mainly under the cover of canopy) using KD-Tree segmented point cloud data. The proposed algorithm firstly uses KD-tree to organize and manage point cloud data, and makes use of the clustering method to segment objects, and then the prior knowledge and invariant recognition moment are utilized to recognise airplanes. The outcomes of this test verified the practicality and feasibility of the method derived in this paper. And these could be applied in target measuring and modelling of subsequent data processing.

Zhou, M.; Tang, L.-L.; Li, C.-R.; Peng, Z.; Li, J.-M.

2012-07-01

326

Linguistically-motivated sub-word modeling with applications to speech recognition  

E-print Network

Despite the proliferation of speech-enabled applications and devices, speech-driven human-machine interaction still faces several challenges. One of theses issues is the new word or the out-of-vocabulary (OOV) problem, ...

Choueiter, Ghinwa F., 1980-

2009-01-01

327

Age of acquisition, not word frequency, affects object naming, not object recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Word frequency is widely believed to affect object naming speed, despite several studies in which it has been reported that\\u000a frequency effects may be redundant upon age of acquisition. We report, first, a reanalysis of data from the study by Oldfield\\u000a and Wingfield (1965), which is standardly cited as evidence for a word frequency effect in object naming; then we

Catriona M. Morrison; Andrew W. Ellis; Philip T. Quinlan

1992-01-01

328

Predicting Reaction Times in Word Recognition by Unsupervised Learning of Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A central question in the study of the mental lexicon is how morphologically complex words are processed. We consider this\\u000a question from the viewpoint of statistical models of morphology. As an indicator of the mental processing cost in the brain,\\u000a we use reaction times to words in a visual lexical decision task on Finnish nouns. Statistical correlation between a model

Sami Virpioja; Minna Lehtonen; Annika Hultén; Riitta Salmelin; Krista Lagus

329

Resolving the orthographic ambiguity during visual word recognition in Arabic: an event-related potential investigation  

PubMed Central

The Arabic alphabetical orthographic system has various unique features that include the existence of emphatic phonemic letters. These represent several pairs of letters that share a phonological similarity and use the same parts of the articulation system. The phonological and articulatory similarities between these letters lead to spelling errors where the subject tends to produce a pseudohomophone (PHw) instead of the correct word. Here, we investigated whether or not the unique orthographic features of the written Arabic words modulate early orthographic processes. For this purpose, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) collected from adult skilled readers during an orthographic decision task on real words and their corresponding PHw. The subjects' reaction times (RTs) were faster in words than in PHw. ERPs analysis revealed significant response differences between words and the PHw starting during the N170 and extending to the P2 component, with no difference during processing steps devoted to phonological and lexico-semantic processing. Amplitude and latency differences were found also during the P6 component which peaked earlier for words and where source localization indicated the involvement of the classical left language areas. Our findings replicate some of the previous findings on PHw processing and extend them to involve early orthographical processes. PMID:24348367

Taha, Haitham; Khateb, Asaid

2013-01-01

330

Resolving the orthographic ambiguity during visual word recognition in Arabic: an event-related potential investigation.  

PubMed

The Arabic alphabetical orthographic system has various unique features that include the existence of emphatic phonemic letters. These represent several pairs of letters that share a phonological similarity and use the same parts of the articulation system. The phonological and articulatory similarities between these letters lead to spelling errors where the subject tends to produce a pseudohomophone (PHw) instead of the correct word. Here, we investigated whether or not the unique orthographic features of the written Arabic words modulate early orthographic processes. For this purpose, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) collected from adult skilled readers during an orthographic decision task on real words and their corresponding PHw. The subjects' reaction times (RTs) were faster in words than in PHw. ERPs analysis revealed significant response differences between words and the PHw starting during the N170 and extending to the P2 component, with no difference during processing steps devoted to phonological and lexico-semantic processing. Amplitude and latency differences were found also during the P6 component which peaked earlier for words and where source localization indicated the involvement of the classical left language areas. Our findings replicate some of the previous findings on PHw processing and extend them to involve early orthographical processes. PMID:24348367

Taha, Haitham; Khateb, Asaid

2013-01-01

331

Neuronal Spoken Word Recognition: The Time Course of Processing Variation in the Speech Signal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent neurobiological studies revealed evidence for lexical representations that are not specified for the coronal place of articulation (PLACE; Friedrich, Eulitz, & Lahiri, 2006; Friedrich, Lahiri, & Eulitz, 2008). Here we tested when these types of underspecified representations influence neuronal speech recognition. In a unimodal…

Schild, Ulrike; Roder, Brigitte; Friedrich, Claudia K.

2012-01-01

332

A New Segmentation Algorithm for Handwritten Word Recognition M. Blumenstein1  

E-print Network

handwriting, including the diversity of character patterns, ambiguity and illegibility of characters unconstrained handwriting. One such procedure is that of character segmentation. Researchers have acknowledged the importance that segmentation plays in the handwriting recognition process [7-9]. This is precisely why more

Blumenstein, Michael

333

The Role of Orthographic Syllable Structure in Assigning Letters to Their Position in Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The way in which letters are assigned their position when recognizing a visually presented word was examined in three experiments using nonwords created by transposing the two medial consonants of a bisyllabic baseword (e.g., "nakpin," "semron"). The difficulty in responding to such "TL" nonwords in a lexical decision task was shown to be lower…

Taft, Marcus; Krebs-Lazendic, Lidija

2013-01-01

334

ERP Index of the Morphological Family Size Effect during Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine whether the N400 is affected by the semantic richness of associated neighboring word members or by the density of the orthographic syllable neighborhood. Another purpose of this study was to investigate the source of the different LPC in respect to the semantic richness. To do so, the density of the…

Kwon, Youan; Nam, Kichun; Lee, Yoonhyoung

2012-01-01

335

Effects of Frequency on Visual Word Recognition Tasks: Where Are They?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared the effect of frequency on lexical decision time (LDT) with that on reaction time (RT) in four other tasks, for the same words and subjects. Exp. 1 yielded an effect on semantic categorization RT (person vs. thing) similar in size and form to the effect on LDT. Exp. 2 yielded a substantial effect for syntactic categorization (noun vs. adjective),

S. Monsell; M. C. Doyle; P. N. Haggard

1989-01-01

336

Semantic Radical Knowledge and Word Recognition in Chinese for Chinese as Foreign Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we examined the relation of knowledge of semantic radicals to students' language proficiency and word reading for adult Chinese-as-a-foreign language students. Ninety-seven college students rated their proficiency in speaking, listening, reading, and writing in Chinese, and were administered measures of receptive and…

Su, Xiaoxiang; Kim, Young-Suk

2014-01-01

337

Teaching Word Recognition, Spelling, and Vocabulary: Strategies from "The Reading Teacher."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, one of four in the Teaching Reading Collection, presents the "best of the best" classroom-tested ideas, approaches, and practical applications for helping students learn about words. The articles have been drawn from the journal "The Reading Teacher" from 1993-1999. The ideas and strategies are intended to provide possible building…

Rasinski, Timothy V., Ed.; Padak, Nancy D., Ed.; Church, Brenda Weible, Ed.; Fawcett, Gay, Ed.; Hendershot, Judith, Ed.; Henry, Justina M., Ed.; Moss, Barbara G., Ed.; Peck, Jacqueline K., Ed.; Pryor, Elizabeth, Ed.; Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.

338

Continuous speech recognition results of the BYBLOS system on the DARPA 1000-word resource management database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system was trained in a speaker dependent mode on 28 minutes of speech from each of 8 speakers, and was tested on independent test material for each speaker. The system was tested with three artificial grammars spanning a broad perplexity range. The average performance of the system measured in percent word error was: 1.4% for a pattern grammar of

F. Kubala; Y. Chow; A. Derr; M. Feng; O. Kimball; J. Makhoul; P. Price; J. Rohlicek; S. Roucos; R. Schwartz; J. Vandegrift

1988-01-01

339

Semantic transparency in free stems: The effect of Orthography-Semantics Consistency on word recognition.  

PubMed

A largely overlooked side effect in most studies of morphological priming is a consistent main effect of semantic transparency across priming conditions. That is, participants are faster at recognizing stems from transparent sets (e.g., farm) in comparison to stems from opaque sets (e.g., fruit), regardless of the preceding primes. This suggests that semantic transparency may also be consistently associated with some property of the stem word. We propose that this property might be traced back to the consistency, throughout the lexicon, between the orthographic form of a word and its meaning, here named Orthography-Semantics Consistency (OSC), and that an imbalance in OSC scores might explain the "stem transparency" effect. We exploited distributional semantic models to quantitatively characterize OSC, and tested its effect on visual word identification relying on large-scale data taken from the British Lexicon Project (BLP). Results indicated that (a) the "stem transparency" effect is solid and reliable, insofar as it holds in BLP lexical decision times (Experiment 1); (b) an imbalance in terms of OSC can account for it (Experiment 2); and (c) more generally, OSC explains variance in a large item sample from the BLP, proving to be an effective predictor in visual word access (Experiment 3). PMID:25269473

Marelli, Marco; Amenta, Simona; Crepaldi, Davide

2014-10-01

340

Effects of Supplemental Small Group Phonics Instruction on Kindergartners' Word Recognition Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of a phonics supplemental small group instructional approach for improving kindergartners' word reading skills. Six kindergarten students from one primary school were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Each group participated in a phonics condition as well as a control condition. Data were examined using…

Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Joseph, Laurice M.; Kunesh, Claire E.

2013-01-01

341

Word Recognition and Basic Cognitive Processes among Reading-Disabled and Normal Readers in Arabic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates word identification in Arabic and basic cognitive processes in reading-disabled (RD) and normal level readers of the same chronological age, and in younger normal readers at the same reading level. Indicates significant deficiencies in morphology, working memory, and syntactic and visual processing, with the most severe deficiencies…

Abu-Rabia, Salim; Share, David; Mansour, Maysaloon Said

2003-01-01

342

The Time Course of the Syllable Frequency Effect in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence for Both Facilitatory and Inhibitory Effects in French  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study tracked the time course of the syllable frequency effect in French visual word recognition, by varying the strength of spreading activation between letters and phonological syllables. The frequency of phonological first syllables and the frequency of orthographic first syllables were conjointly manipulated in two lexical decision…

Mahé, Gwendoline; Bonnefond, Anne; Doignon-Camus, Nadège

2014-01-01

343

Is Phonological Context Always Used to Recognize Variant Forms in Spoken Word Recognition? The Role of Variant Frequency and Context Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for how listeners accommodate regular phonological variation in connected speech. Using a corpus analysis and 5 cross-modal priming experiments, the authors investigate phonological variant recognition for the American English word-final flap. The corpus analysis showed that the flap variant occurs…

Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.; Yudman, Elana M.

2009-01-01

344

Cognitive Processes as Predictors of Word Recognition and Reading Comprehension in Learning-Disabled and Skilled Readers: Revisiting the Specificity Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how cognitive processes interrelate as well as predict learning-disabled (LD) readers’ word recognition and reading comprehension performance. Correlations between phonological, orthographic, semantic, metacognitive, and working memory measures with reading performance were examined in LD and skilled readers ages 8 to 12 years. Important results were (a) LD readers were deficient on all cognitive processes compared with skilled

H. Lee Swanson; Joy E. Alexander

1997-01-01

345

The Modulation of Visual and Task Characteristics of a Writing System on Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Recognition--A Computational Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through computational modeling, here we examine whether visual and task characteristics of writing systems alone can account for lateralization differences in visual word recognition between different languages without assuming influence from left hemisphere (LH) lateralized language processes. We apply a hemispheric processing model of face…

Hsiao, Janet H.; Lam, Sze Man

2013-01-01

346

Emotion Recognition of Weblog Sentences Based on an Ensemble Algorithm of Multi-label Classification and Word Emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weblogs have greatly changed the communication ways of mankind. Affective analysis of blog posts is found valuable for many applications such as text-to-speech synthesis or computer-assisted recommendation. Traditional emotion recognition in text based on single-label classification can not satisfy higher requirements of affective computing. In this paper, the automatic identification of sentence emotion in weblogs is modeled as a multi-label text categorization task. Experiments are carried out on 12273 blog sentences from the Chinese emotion corpus Ren_CECps with 8-dimension emotion annotation. An ensemble algorithm RAKEL is used to recognize dominant emotions from the writer's perspective. Our emotion feature using detailed intensity representation for word emotions outperforms the other main features such as the word frequency feature and the traditional lexicon-based feature. In order to deal with relatively complex sentences, we integrate grammatical characteristics of punctuations, disjunctive connectives, modification relations and negation into features. It achieves 13.51% and 12.49% increases for Micro-averaged F1 and Macro-averaged F1 respectively compared to the traditional lexicon-based feature. Result shows that multiple-dimension emotion representation with grammatical features can efficiently classify sentence emotion in a multi-label problem.

Li, Ji; Ren, Fuji

347

Dynamics of Word Comprehension in Infancy: Developments in Timing, Accuracy, and Resistance to Acoustic Degradation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online comprehension of naturally spoken and perceptually degraded words was assessed in 95 children ages 12 to 31 months. The time course of word recognition was measured by monitoring eye movements as children looked at pictures while listening to familiar target words presented in unaltered, time-compressed, and low-pass-filtered forms. Success…

Zangl, Renate; Klarman, Lindsay; Thal, Donna; Fernald, Anne; Bates, Elizabeth

2005-01-01

348

Extraction of Linguistic Information from Successive Words during Reading: Evidence for Spatially Distributed Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined whether word recognition progressed from one word to the next during reading, as maintained by sequential attention shift models such as the E-Z Reader model. The boundary technique was used to control the visibility of to-be-identified short target words, so that they were either previewed in the parafovea or masked. The…

Wang, Chin-An; Inhoff, Albrecht W.

2013-01-01

349

Evaluation of lexicon size variations on a verification and rejection system based on SVM, for accurate and robust recognition of handwritten words  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transcription of handwritten words remains a still challenging and difficult task. When processing full pages, approaches are limited by the trade-off between automatic recognition errors and the tedious aspect of human user verification. In this article, we present our investigations to improve the capabilities of an automatic recognizer, so as to be able to reject unknown words (not to take wrong decisions) while correctly rejecting (i.e. to recognize as much as possible from the lexicon of known words). This is the active research topic of developing a verification system that optimize the trade-off between performance and reliability. To minimize the recognition errors, a verification system is usually used to accept or reject the hypotheses produced by an existing recognition system. Thus, we re-use our novel verification architecture1 here: the recognition hypotheses are re-scored by a set of support vector machines, and validated by a verification mechanism based on multiple rejection thresholds. In order to tune these (class-dependent) rejection thresholds, an algorithm based on dynamic programming has been proposed which focus on maximizing the recognition rate for a given error rate. Experiments have been carried out on the RIMES database in three steps. The first two showed that this approach results in a performance superior or equal to other state-of-the-art rejection methods. We focus here on the third one showing that this verification system also greatly improves results of keywords extraction in a set of handwritten words, with a strong robustness to lexicon size variations (21 lexicons have been tested from 167 entries up to 5,600 entries) which is particularly relevant to our application context cooperating with humans, and only made possible thanks to the rejection ability of this proposed system. The proposed verification system, compared to a HMM with simple rejection, improves on average the recognition rate by 57% (resp. 33% and 21%) for a given error rate of 1% (resp. 5% and 10%).

Ricquebourg, Yann; Coüasnon, Bertrand; Guichard, Laurent

2013-01-01

350

The C-value\\/NC-value Method of Automatic Recognition for Multi-Word Terms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical terms (henceforth called simply terms), are important elements for digital libraries. In this paper we present a domainindependent method for the automatic extraction\\u000a of multi-word terms, from machine-readable special language corpora.\\u000a \\u000a The method, (C-value\\/NC-value), combines linguistic and statistical information. The first part, C-value enhances the common statistical measure of frequency of occurrence for term extraction, making it sensitive to

Katerina T. Frantzi; Sophia Ananiadou; Jun-ichi Tsujii

1998-01-01

351

Semantic similarity influences early morphological priming in Serbian: A challenge to form-then-meaning accounts of word recognition  

PubMed Central

Semantically similar (e.g., coolant-COOL) primes produced greater facilitation than did form similar, semantically dissimilar (e.g., rampant-RAMP) primes when English words appeared in the forward masked primed lexical decision task (Feldman, O'Connor & Moscoso del Prado Martín, 2009). Results challenge claims that form-based semantically blind activation underlies early morphological facilitation. Some have argued that those English materials were not ideally constructed insofar as types of spelling changes to affixed stems in semantically similar and dissimilar pairs differed. The present study exploits Serbian's bialphabetism, rich morphology, and homographic (form-identical) stems to replicate early effects of semantic similarity. Further, it incorporates a within-target manipulation of prime type and of alphabet such that alphabet of prime-target pairs matched in Exp.1a and alternated in Exp.1b. Importantly, no letter or phoneme changes occurred between stems of prime and target. Results reveal significant effects of semantic similarity that are comparable with and without alphabet alternation. Semantic effects in Serbian replicate almost exactly those in English (Feldman et al., 2009) and suggest that even early in the course of processing, morphemes are units of meaning as well as form. Results fail to support models of lexical processing that postulate sequential access to the morphological form and then the semantic aspects of words. PMID:22477336

Kosti?, Aleksandar; Gvozdenovi?, Vasilije; O'Connor, Patrick A.; Martín, Fermín Moscoso del Prado

2013-01-01

352

Forward-looking infrared target recognition based on histograms of oriented gradients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes the difference between the imaging mechanism of the infrared images and that of the visible light images, and find that it is important to extract the stable and reliable common feature for object recognition. Then we propose a target recognition algorithm based on histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) which evaluates normalized local histograms of image gradient orientations in a dense grid. Last we adopt linear SVM trained for a binary object/non-object classifier and detect the object in the forward-looking infrared (FLIR) images. The experiment results suggest that the proposed approach has high rates of detection. Furthermore, we study how to select positive and negative samples for a better performance.

Cao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Wenwu

2011-11-01

353

Visual real-time detection, recognition and tracking of ground and airborne targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents methods and algorithms for real-time visual target detection, recognition and tracking, both in the case of ground-based objects (surveyed from a moving airborne imaging sensor) and flying targets (observed from a ground-based or vehicle mounted sensor). The methods are highly parallelized and partially implemented on GPU, with the goal of real-time speeds even in the case of multiple target observations. Real-time applicability is in focus. The methods use single camera observations, providing a passive and expendable alternative for expensive and/or active sensors. Use cases involve perimeter defense and surveillance situations, where passive detection and observation is a priority (e.g. aerial surveillance of a compound, detection of reconnaissance drones, etc.).

Kovács, Levente; Benedek, Csaba

2011-03-01

354

Advances in image compression and automatic target recognition; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various papers on image compression and automatic target recognition are presented. Individual topics addressed include: target cluster detection in cluttered SAR imagery, model-based target recognition using laser radar imagery, Smart Sensor front-end processor for feature extraction of images, object attitude estimation and tracking from a single video sensor, symmetry detection in human vision, analysis of high resolution aerial images for object detection, obscured object recognition for an ATR application, neural networks for adaptive shape tracking, statistical mechanics and pattern recognition, detection of cylinders in aerial range images, moving object tracking using local windows, new transform method for image data compression, quad-tree product vector quantization of images, predictive trellis encoding of imagery, reduced generalized chain code for contour description, compact architecture for a real-time vision system, use of human visibility functions in segmentation coding, color texture analysis and synthesis using Gibbs random fields.

Tescher, Andrew G. (editor)

1989-01-01

355

Vigilante: Ultrafast Smart Sensor for Target Recognition and Precision Tracking in a Simulated CMD Scenario  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VIGILANTE is an ultrafast smart sensor testbed for generic Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) applications with a series of capability demonstration focussed on cruise missile defense (CMD). VIGILANTE's sensor/processor architecture is based on next-generation UV/visible/IR sensors and a tera-operations per second sugar-cube processor, as well as supporting airborne vehicle. Excellent results of efficient ATR methodologies that use an eigenvectors/neural network combination and feature-based precision tracking have been demonstrated in the laboratory environment.

Uldomkesmalee, Suraphol; Suddarth, Steven C.

1997-01-01

356

Automatic target recognition using a feature-based optical neural network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical neural network based upon the Neocognitron paradigm (K. Fukushima et al. 1983) is introduced. A novel aspect of the architectural design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by iteratively feeding back the output of the feature correlator to the input spatial light modulator and updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intra-class fault tolerance and inter-class discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstration of a two-layer neural network for space objects discrimination is also presented.

Chao, Tien-Hsin

1992-01-01

357

Optical implementation of a feature-based neural network with application to automatic target recognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical neural network based on the neocognitron paradigm is introduced. A novel aspect of the architecture design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by feeding back the ouput of the feature correlator interatively to the input spatial light modulator and by updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intraclass fault tolerance and interclass discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstrations of a two-layer neural network for space-object discrimination is also presented.

Chao, Tien-Hsin; Stoner, William W.

1993-01-01

358

The recognition of extended targets - SAR images for level and hilly terrain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar image simulation techniques are used to determine the character of SAR images of area-extensive targets, for the cases of flat underlying terrain and of moderate relief, with a view to the severity of elevation change effects on the detection and recognition of boundaries and shapes. The experiment, which demonstrated these effects on shapes and boundaries, was performed in order to establish Seasat-A SAR performance. Attention is given to the geometry/propagation effects in range perspective imaging that must be known for information extraction.

Stiles, J. A.; Frost, V. S.; Holtzman, J. C.; Shanmugam, K. S.

1982-01-01

359

Pattern recognition of the targets with help of polarization properties of the signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed to use the possibility of recognition of the targets on background of the scattering from the surface, weather objects with the help of polarimetric 3-cm radar. It has been investigated such polarization characteristics: the amplitudes of the polarization matrix elements; an anisotropy coefficient; depolarization coefficient; asymmetry coefficient; the energy section was less than 1 dB at ranges up to 15 km and less than 1.5 dB at ranges up to 100 km. During the experiments urban objects and 6 various ships of small displacement having the closest values of the backscattering cross-section were used. The analysis has shown: the factor of the polarization selection for anisotropy objects and weather objects had the values about 0.02-0.08 Isotropy had the values of polarimetric correlation factor for hydrometers about 0.7-0.8, for earth surface about 0.8-0.9, for sea surface - from 0.33 to 0.7. The results of the work of recognition algorithm of a class 'concrete objects', and 'metal objects' are submitted as example in the paper. The result of experiments have shown that the probability of correct recognition of the identified objects was in the limits from 0.93 to 0.97.

Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; de Rivera, Luis N.; Castellanos, Aldo B.; Popov, Anatoly V.

1999-10-01

360

Laser radar range profile, Doppler spectra and range resolved Doppler imaging technologies for the target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of laser range profile, Doppler spectra and Range Resolved Doppler imaging technologies including the experiments, simulations and engineering applications have been summarized and reviewed in this paper. It was analyzed the problems of the laser radar imaging system which need to solve in experiments and models. The achievements and the key technologies of Range profile, Doppler spectra and Range Doppler imaging laser radar are reported in detail. Different typically theoretical simulated models have been built to show the last technologies of target recognition for laser radar in order to be based on the further studying on designing the laser radar imaging systems in many applications and offering the precise data of the detected target.

Wu, Pengfei; Wang, Ming-Jun; Ke, Xi-zheng; Gong, Yan-jun; Teng, Yang

2014-11-01

361

Receptor architecture of visual areas in the face and word-form recognition region of the posterior fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

Recently, two extrastriate visual areas on the posterior fusiform gyrus, areas FG1 and FG2, were identified based on cytoarchitectonical criteria (Caspers et al. in Brain Struct Funct 218:511-526, 2013a). They are located within the object-related ventral visual stream at the transition between early and higher-order (category-specific) visual areas. FG2 has a topographical position which is best comparable to the face or visual word-form recognition area. However, the precise function of FG2 is presently unknown. Since transmitter receptors are key molecules of neurotransmission, we analysed the regional and laminar distribution of 15 different receptor binding sites by means of quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. Significant differences between receptor densities of both areas were found for NMDA, GABAB, M3, nicotinic ?4/?2 and 5-HT1A receptors as well as for GABAA associated benzodiazepine binding sites. These results support the cytoarchitectonic segregation of FG1 and FG2 into two distinct cortical areas. In addition, principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses of the multireceptor data of both fusiform areas and 24 visual, auditory, somatosensory and multimodal association areas not only revealed the typical receptor architectonic characteristics of visual areas for FG1 and FG2, but also suggest their putative function as object recognition regions due to the similarity of their receptor fingerprints with those of areas of the ventral visual stream. Furthermore, FG1 and FG2 build a cluster with the multimodal association areas of the inferior parietal lobule. This underlines their hierarchically high position in the visual system of the human cerebral cortex. PMID:24126835

Caspers, Julian; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Caspers, Svenja; Schleicher, Axel; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

2015-01-01

362

The TCF C-clamp DNA binding domain expands the Wnt transcriptome via alternative target recognition  

PubMed Central

LEF/TCFs direct the final step in Wnt/?-catenin signalling by recruiting ?-catenin to genes for activation of transcription. Ancient, non-vertebrate TCFs contain two DNA binding domains, a High Mobility Group box for recognition of the Wnt Response Element (WRE; 5?-CTTTGWWS-3?) and the C-clamp domain for recognition of the GC-rich Helper motif (5?-RCCGCC-3?). Two vertebrate TCFs (TCF-1/TCF7 and TCF-4/TCF7L2) use the C-clamp as an alternatively spliced domain to regulate cell-cycle progression, but how the C-clamp influences TCF binding and activity genome-wide is not known. Here, we used a doxycycline inducible system with ChIP-seq to assess how the C-clamp influences human TCF1 binding genome-wide. Metabolic pulse-labeling of nascent RNA with 4?Thiouridine was used with RNA-seq to connect binding to the Wnt transcriptome. We find that the C-clamp enables targeting to a greater number of gene loci for stronger occupancy and transcription regulation. The C-clamp uses Helper sites concurrently with WREs for gene targeting, but it also targets TCF1 to sites that do not have readily identifiable canonical WREs. The coupled ChIP-seq/4?Thiouridine-seq analysis identified new Wnt target genes, including additional regulators of cell proliferation. Thus, C-clamp containing isoforms of TCFs are potent transcriptional regulators with an expanded transcriptome directed by C-clamp-Helper site interactions. PMID:25414359

Hoverter, Nate P.; Zeller, Michael D.; McQuade, Miriam M.; Garibaldi, Angela; Busch, Anke; Selwan, Elizabeth M.; Hertel, Klemens J.; Baldi, Pierre; Waterman, Marian L.

2014-01-01

363

The TCF C-clamp DNA binding domain expands the Wnt transcriptome via alternative target recognition.  

PubMed

LEF/TCFs direct the final step in Wnt/?-catenin signalling by recruiting ?-catenin to genes for activation of transcription. Ancient, non-vertebrate TCFs contain two DNA binding domains, a High Mobility Group box for recognition of the Wnt Response Element (WRE; 5'-CTTTGWWS-3') and the C-clamp domain for recognition of the GC-rich Helper motif (5'-RCCGCC-3'). Two vertebrate TCFs (TCF-1/TCF7 and TCF-4/TCF7L2) use the C-clamp as an alternatively spliced domain to regulate cell-cycle progression, but how the C-clamp influences TCF binding and activity genome-wide is not known. Here, we used a doxycycline inducible system with ChIP-seq to assess how the C-clamp influences human TCF1 binding genome-wide. Metabolic pulse-labeling of nascent RNA with 4'Thiouridine was used with RNA-seq to connect binding to the Wnt transcriptome. We find that the C-clamp enables targeting to a greater number of gene loci for stronger occupancy and transcription regulation. The C-clamp uses Helper sites concurrently with WREs for gene targeting, but it also targets TCF1 to sites that do not have readily identifiable canonical WREs. The coupled ChIP-seq/4'Thiouridine-seq analysis identified new Wnt target genes, including additional regulators of cell proliferation. Thus, C-clamp containing isoforms of TCFs are potent transcriptional regulators with an expanded transcriptome directed by C-clamp-Helper site interactions. PMID:25414359

Hoverter, Nate P; Zeller, Michael D; McQuade, Miriam M; Garibaldi, Angela; Busch, Anke; Selwan, Elizabeth M; Hertel, Klemens J; Baldi, Pierre; Waterman, Marian L

2014-12-16

364

An ERP study of inhibition of non-target languages in trilingual word production.  

PubMed

The present study examined the locus where inhibition of non-target languages is exerted during trilingual word production by analyzing the cue-locked and stimulus-locked ERPs respectively in the n-2 language repetition paradigm. During the experiment, Uighur-Chinese-English trilinguals overtly named Arabic digits in one of their three languages according to a visually presented cue while their behavioral and electrophysiological responses were recorded. The behavioral data revealed insignificant n-2 repetition costs. Cue-locked ERPs revealed also only tiny or marginally significant n-2 repetition effects over some midline electrodes. The stimulus-locked ERP data showed a more negative ERP component elicited by the n-2 repetition trials than the n-2 non-repetition trials around 250 ms after stimulus onset, but no significant difference in this ERP effect between different languages was found. The results indicate that inhibition of non-target languages occurs at the lemma selection phase rather than the language task schemas phase during trilingual language production. PMID:23994766

Guo, Taomei; Ma, Fengyang; Liu, Fengqin

2013-10-01

365

Multicolor and dual-band IR camera for missile warning and automatic target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For applications like missile warning and automatic target recognition, AIM is presently launching its new 3rd generation high speed dual-color module. The focal plane array (FPA) is a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) 192x192 56micrometers pitch device in a dual-color mid wave (MWIR) design. The module provides spectral selection with temporal and spatial coincidence for both colors using a new AIM proprietary technology. The spectral bands presently selected are 3.4-4 and 4.2-5micrometers with a full frame rate of 870Hz. Prior to the new devices, a sequential multicolor MCT camera with broadband detector and spectral selection using a rotating filter wheel was developed and evaluated. Results are shown to demonstrate the capabilities of spectral selective detection specifically for clutter and false alarm suppression in missile warning applications. A new algorithm was developed to allow highly sensitive detection of missile plumes without any need for non-uniformity correction for long-term stable operation and maximum dynamic range. An outlook is given on new activities at AIM on dual-band devices. The dual-band approach combining mid wave (MWIR) and long wave (LWIR) detection is specifically useful in automatic target recognition. The application, existing devices and the design goal of the new dual-band device are discussed together with experimental results.

Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann; Schneider, Harald; Walther, Martin

2002-08-01

366

CRISPR RNA binding and DNA target recognition by purified Cascade complexes from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated Cas proteins comprise a prokaryotic RNA-guided adaptive immune system that interferes with mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids and phages. The type I-E CRISPR interference complex Cascade from Escherichia coli is composed of five different Cas proteins and a 61-nt-long guide RNA (crRNA). crRNAs contain a unique 32-nt spacer flanked by a repeat-derived 5' handle (8 nt) and a 3' handle (21 nt). The spacer part of crRNA directs Cascade to DNA targets. Here, we show that the E. coli Cascade can be expressed and purified from cells lacking crRNAs and loaded in vitro with synthetic crRNAs, which direct it to targets complementary to crRNA spacer. The deletion of even one nucleotide from the crRNA 5' handle disrupted its binding to Cascade and target DNA recognition. In contrast, crRNA variants with just a single nucleotide downstream of the spacer part bound Cascade and the resulting ribonucleotide complex containing a 41-nt-long crRNA specifically recognized DNA targets. Thus, the E. coli Cascade-crRNA system exhibits significant flexibility suggesting that this complex can be engineered for applications in genome editing and opening the way for incorporation of site-specific labels in crRNA. PMID:25488810

Beloglazova, Natalia; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Flick, Robert; Datsenko, Kirill A; Brown, Greg; Popovic, Ana; Lemak, Sofia; Semenova, Ekaterina; Severinov, Konstantin; Yakunin, Alexander F

2015-01-01

367

CRISPR RNA binding and DNA target recognition by purified Cascade complexes from Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated Cas proteins comprise a prokaryotic RNA-guided adaptive immune system that interferes with mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids and phages. The type I-E CRISPR interference complex Cascade from Escherichia coli is composed of five different Cas proteins and a 61-nt-long guide RNA (crRNA). crRNAs contain a unique 32-nt spacer flanked by a repeat-derived 5? handle (8 nt) and a 3? handle (21 nt). The spacer part of crRNA directs Cascade to DNA targets. Here, we show that the E. coli Cascade can be expressed and purified from cells lacking crRNAs and loaded in vitro with synthetic crRNAs, which direct it to targets complementary to crRNA spacer. The deletion of even one nucleotide from the crRNA 5? handle disrupted its binding to Cascade and target DNA recognition. In contrast, crRNA variants with just a single nucleotide downstream of the spacer part bound Cascade and the resulting ribonucleotide complex containing a 41-nt-long crRNA specifically recognized DNA targets. Thus, the E. coli Cascade-crRNA system exhibits significant flexibility suggesting that this complex can be engineered for applications in genome editing and opening the way for incorporation of site-specific labels in crRNA. PMID:25488810

Beloglazova, Natalia; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Flick, Robert; Datsenko, Kirill A.; Brown, Greg; Popovic, Ana; Lemak, Sofia; Semenova, Ekaterina; Severinov, Konstantin; Yakunin, Alexander F.

2015-01-01

368

Regulation of cargo recognition, commitment, and unloading drives cotranslational protein targeting  

PubMed Central

Efficient and accurate protein localization is essential to cells and requires protein-targeting machineries to both effectively capture the cargo in the cytosol and productively unload the cargo at the membrane. To understand how these challenges are met, we followed the interaction of translating ribosomes during their targeting by the signal recognition particle (SRP) using a site-specific fluorescent probe in the nascent protein. We show that initial recruitment of SRP receptor (SR) selectively enhances the affinity of SRP for correct cargos, thus committing SRP-dependent substrates to the pathway. Real-time measurement of cargo transfer from the targeting to translocation machinery revealed multiple factors that drive this event, including GTPase rearrangement in the SRP–SR complex, stepwise displacement of SRP from the ribosome and signal sequence by SecYEG, and elongation of the nascent polypeptide. Our results elucidate how active and sequential regulation of the SRP–cargo interaction drives efficient and faithful protein targeting. PMID:24914238

Akopian, David

2014-01-01

369

Lipid activation of the signal recognition particle receptor provides spatial coordination of protein targeting  

PubMed Central

The signal recognition particle (SRP) and SRP receptor comprise the major cellular machinery that mediates the cotranslational targeting of proteins to cellular membranes. It remains unclear how the delivery of cargos to the target membrane is spatially coordinated. We show here that phospholipid binding drives important conformational rearrangements that activate the bacterial SRP receptor FtsY and the SRP–FtsY complex. This leads to accelerated SRP–FtsY complex assembly, and allows the SRP–FtsY complex to more efficiently unload cargo proteins. Likewise, formation of an active SRP–FtsY GTPase complex exposes FtsY’s lipid-binding helix and enables stable membrane association of the targeting complex. Thus, membrane binding, complex assembly with SRP, and cargo unloading are inextricably linked to each other via conformational changes in FtsY. These allosteric communications allow the membrane delivery of cargo proteins to be efficiently coupled to their subsequent unloading and translocation, thus providing spatial coordination during protein targeting. PMID:20733058

Lam, Vinh Q.; Akopian, David; Rome, Michael; Henningsen, Doug

2010-01-01

370

Dynamics of activation of semantically similar concepts during spoken word recognition  

PubMed Central

Semantic similarity effects provide critical insight into the organization of semantic knowledge and the nature of semantic processing. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of semantic similarity effects by using the visual world eyetracking paradigm. Four objects were shown on a computer monitor, and participants were instructed to click on a named object, during which time their gaze position was recorded. The likelihood of fixating competitor objects was predicted by the degree of semantic similarity to the target concept. We found reliable, graded competition that depended on degree of target–competitor similarity, even for distantly related items for which priming has not been found in previous priming studies. Time course measures revealed a consistently earlier fixation peak for near semantic neighbors relative to targets. Computational investigations with an attractor dynamical model, a spreading activation model, and a decision model revealed that a combination of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms is required to obtain such peak timing, providing new constraints on models of semantic processing. PMID:19744941

Mirman, Daniel; Magnuson, James S.

2010-01-01

371

Dynamics of activation of semantically similar concepts during spoken word recognition.  

PubMed

Semantic similarity effects provide critical insight into the organization of semantic knowledge and the nature of semantic processing. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of semantic similarity effects by using the visual world eyetracking paradigm. Four objects were shown on a computer monitor, and participants were instructed to click on a named object, during which time their gaze position was recorded. The likelihood of fixating competitor objects was predicted by the degree of semantic similarity to the target concept. We found reliable, graded competition that depended on degree of target-competitor similarity, even for distantly related items for which priming has not been found in previous priming studies. Time course measures revealed a consistently earlier fixation peak for near semantic neighbors relative to targets. Computational investigations with an attractor dynamical model, a spreading activation model, and a decision model revealed that a combination of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms is required to obtain such peak timing, providing new constraints on models of semantic processing. PMID:19744941

Mirman, Daniel; Magnuson, James S

2009-10-01

372

Analytical derivation of distortion constraints and their verification in a learning vector quantization-based target recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain a novel analytical derivation for distortion-related constraints in a neural network- (NN)-based automatic target recognition (ATR) system. We obtain two types of constraints for a realistic ATR system implementation involving 4-f correlator architecture. The first constraint determines the relative size between the input objects and input correlation filters. The second constraint dictates the limits on amount of rotation, translation, and scale of input objects for system implementation. We exploit these constraints in recognition of targets varying in rotation, translation, scale, occlusion, and the combination of all of these distortions using a learning vector quantization (LVQ) NN. We present the simulation verification of the constraints using both the gray-scale images and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA's) Moving and Stationary Target Recognition (MSTAR) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images with different depression and pose angles.

Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Razzaque, Mohammad A.

2005-06-01

373

Recognition of camouflage targets with hyper-spectral polarization imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the principle of polarization detection, a hyper-spectral polarization imaging system, which is based on linear polarizer and acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), was designed to detect and recognize camouflage target intelligently and rapidly in this paper. Our design has neither moving parts nor modulation, and has fast and electronically tuning property, so a quick scan of spectrum at 400 nm~1000 nm can be realized electronically. At the same time, it not only could obtain the intensity image, hyper-spectral information, but also could acquire polarization signatures of the scene. Then the spectral polarization experiment about aluminous plane which covered with the bottle green, shallow green and khaki camouflage pigments within meadow were conducted at specifically wavelength by the instrument. Finally, the polarization information of the man-made targets and natural background in the scene, and the fusion image based on HIS color space were deduced through processing the experiment data. The experimental result demonstrates that the polarization characteristics of camouflage pigments were different from that of natural background. As the contrast of target and background could be enhanced by polarization information, the camouflage target could be identified effectively from the image according to polarization information. On the other hand, the camouflage target is more obvious in the fused image. Therefore, the proposed method and the system in this paper are reasonable and effective. Consequently, the hyper-spectral polarization detection technique which relative to the classical intensity detection is of significance to improve the accuracy of recognition of camouflage targets in mixed background under proper detection condition.

Wang, Qi-chao; Wang, Jia-chun; Zhao, Da-peng; Ma, Li-fang; Chen, Zong-sheng; Li, Zhi-gang

2013-08-01

374

AM3 Modulates Dendritic Cell Pathogen Recognition Capabilities by Targeting DC-SIGN?  

PubMed Central

AM3 (Inmunoferon) is an orally effective immunomodulator that influences the regulatory and effector functions of the immune system whose molecular mechanisms of action are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the polysaccharide moiety of AM3 (IF-S) might affect immune responses by modulating the lectin-dependent pathogen recognition abilities of human dendritic cells. IF-S inhibited binding of viral, fungal, and parasite pathogens by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells in a dose-dependent manner. IF-S specifically impaired the pathogen recognition capabilities of DC-SIGN, as it reduced the attachment of Candida, Aspergillus, and Leishmania to DC-SIGN transfectants. IF-S also inhibited the interaction of DC-SIGN with both its cellular counterreceptor (intercellular adhesion molecule 3) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 gp120 protein and blocked the DC-SIGN-dependent capture of HIV virions and the HIV trans-infection capability of DC-SIGN transfectants. IF-S promoted DC-SIGN internalization in DCs without affecting mannose receptor expression, and 1D saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance demonstrated that IF-S directly interacts with DC-SIGN on the cell surface. Therefore, the polysaccharide moiety of AM3 directly influences pathogen recognition by dendritic cells by interacting with DC-SIGN. Our results indicate that DC-SIGN is the target for an immunomodulator and imply that the adjuvant and immunomodulatory actions of AM3 are mediated, at least in part, by alteration of the DC-SIGN functional activities. PMID:17452477

Serrano-Gómez, Diego; Martínez-Nuñez, Rocío T.; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Izquierdo, Nuria; Colmenares, María; Pla, Jesús; Rivas, Luis; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesús; Alonso-Lebrero, José Luis; González, Salvador; Corbí, Angel L.

2007-01-01

375

Never Seem to Find the Time: Evaluating the Physiological Time Course of Visual Word Recognition with Regression Analysis of Single Item ERPs  

PubMed Central

Visual word recognition is a process that, both hierarchically and in parallel, draws on different types of information ranging from perceptual to orthographic to semantic. A central question concerns when and how these different types of information come online and interact after a word form is initially perceived. Numerous studies addressing aspects of this question have been conducted with a variety of techniques (e.g., behavior, eye-tracking, ERPs), and divergent theoretical models, suggesting different overall speeds of word processing, have coalesced around clusters of mostly method-specific results. Here, we examine the time course of influence of variables ranging from relatively perceptual (e.g., bigram frequency) to relatively semantic (e.g., number of lexical associates) on ERP responses, analyzed at the single item level. Our results, in combination with a critical review of the literature, suggest methodological, analytic, and theoretical factors that may have led to inconsistency in results of past studies; we will argue that consideration of these factors may lead to a reconciliation between divergent views of the speed of word recognition. PMID:24954966

Laszlo, Sarah; Federmeier, Kara D.

2014-01-01

376

Structural Code for DNA Recognition Revealed in Crystal Structures of Papillomavirus E2-DNA Targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transcriptional regulation in papillomaviruses depends on sequence-specific binding of the regulatory protein E2 to several sites in the viral genome. Crystal structures of bovine papillomavirus E2 DNA targets reveal a conformational variant of B-DNA characterized by a roll-induced writhe and helical repeat of 10.5 bp per turn. A comparison between the free and the protein-bound DNA demonstrates that the intrinsic structure of the DNA regions contacted directly by the protein and the deformability of the DNA region that is not contacted by the protein are critical for sequence-specific protein/DNA recognition and hence for gene-regulatory signals in the viral system. We show that the selection of dinucleotide or longer segments with appropriate conformational characteristics, when positioned at correct intervals along the DNA helix, can constitute a structural code for DNA recognition by regulatory proteins. This structural code facilitates the formation of a complementary protein-DNA interface that can be further specified by hydrogen bonds and nonpolar interactions between the protein amino acids and the DNA bases.

Rozenberg, Haim; Rabinovich, Dov; Frolow, Felix; Hegde, Rashmi S.; Shakked, Zippora

1998-12-01

377

Workbench for 3D target detection and recognition from airborne motion stereo and ladar imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D imagery has a well-known potential for improving situational awareness and battlespace visualization by providing enhanced knowledge of uncooperative targets. This potential arises from the numerous advantages that 3D imagery has to offer over traditional 2D imagery, thereby increasing the accuracy of automatic target detection (ATD) and recognition (ATR). Despite advancements in both 3D sensing and 3D data exploitation, 3D imagery has yet to demonstrate a true operational gain, partly due to the processing burden of the massive dataloads generated by modern sensors. In this context, this paper describes the current status of a workbench designed for the study of 3D ATD/ATR. Among the project goals is the comparative assessment of algorithms and 3D sensing technologies given various scenarios. The workbench is comprised of three components: a database, a toolbox, and a simulation environment. The database stores, manages, and edits input data of various types such as point clouds, video, still imagery frames, CAD models and metadata. The toolbox features data processing modules, including range data manipulation, surface mesh generation, texture mapping, and a shape-from-motion module to extract a 3D target representation from video frames or from a sequence of still imagery. The simulation environment includes synthetic point cloud generation, 3D ATD/ATR algorithm prototyping environment and performance metrics for comparative assessment. In this paper, the workbench components are described and preliminary results are presented. Ladar, video and still imagery datasets collected during airborne trials are also detailed.

Roy, Simon; Se, Stephen; Kotamraju, Vinay; Maheux, Jean; Nadeau, Christian; Larochelle, Vincent; Fournier, Jonathan

2010-04-01

378

Programmable and Multiparameter DNA-Based Logic Platform For Cancer Recognition and Targeted Therapy  

PubMed Central

The specific inventory of molecules on diseased cell surfaces (e.g., cancer cells) provides clinicians an opportunity for accurate diagnosis and intervention. With the discovery of panels of cancer markers, carrying out analyses of multiple cell-surface markers is conceivable. As a trial to accomplish this, we have recently designed a DNA-based device that is capable of performing autonomous logic-based analysis of two or three cancer cell-surface markers. Combining the specific target-recognition properties of DNA aptamers with toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions, multicellular marker-based cancer analysis can be realized based on modular AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic gates. Specifically, we report here a general approach for assembling these modular logic gates to execute programmable and higher-order profiling of multiple coexisting cell-surface markers, including several found on cancer cells, with the capacity to report a diagnostic signal and/or deliver targeted photodynamic therapy. The success of this strategy demonstrates the potential of DNA nanotechnology in facilitating targeted disease diagnosis and effective therapy. PMID:25361164

2014-01-01

379

Target-selective protein S-nitrosylation by sequence motif recognition.  

PubMed

S-nitrosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification emerging as a principal mechanism of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated signal transduction and cell function. S-nitrosylases can use NO synthase (NOS)-derived NO to modify selected cysteines in target proteins. Despite proteomic identification of over a thousand S-nitrosylated proteins, few S-nitrosylases have been identified. Moreover, mechanisms underlying site-selective S-nitrosylation and the potential role of specific sequence motifs remain largely unknown. Here, we describe a stimulus-inducible, heterotrimeric S-nitrosylase complex consisting of inducible NOS (iNOS), S100A8, and S100A9. S100A9 exhibits transnitrosylase activity, shuttling NO from iNOS to the target protein, whereas S100A8 and S100A9 coordinately direct site selection. A family of proteins S-nitrosylated by iNOS-S100A8/A9 were revealed by proteomic analysis. A conserved I/L-X-C-X2-D/E motif was necessary and sufficient for iNOS-S100A8/A9-mediated S-nitrosylation. These results reveal an elusive parallel between protein S-nitrosylation and phosphorylation, namely, stimulus-dependent posttranslational modification of selected targets by primary sequence motif recognition. PMID:25417112

Jia, Jie; Arif, Abul; Terenzi, Fulvia; Willard, Belinda; Plow, Edward F; Hazen, Stanley L; Fox, Paul L

2014-10-23

380

Human cytolytic T cell recognition of Yersinia pestis virulence proteins that target innate immune responses.  

PubMed

Cell contact by the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis initiates the injection of several virulence factors that target biochemical pathways critical for host clearance of bacteria. Despite this impairment of innate immunity, it is unclear whether antigen recognition by T cells is equally affected. We present evidence that human cytolytic T cells respond to Y. pestis virulence proteins presented by infected monocytes and dendritic cells. These T cell antigens consisted of a panel of proteins encoded by pCD1, a 70-kDa plasmid that harbors virulence factors and transport proteins of the cell contact-dependent, type III secretion system. Infected cells retained the ability to process and present tetanus toxoid to T cells, which indicates that responses to unrelated antigens were also maintained. Our results indicate that T cell immunity remains functional during Y. pestis infection, which thus suggests the potential benefits of therapeutic vaccination and strategies that emphasize the inclusion of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. PMID:17109349

Saikh, Kamal U; Kissner, Teri L; Dyas, Beverly; Tropea, Joseph E; Waugh, David S; Ulrich, Robert G

2006-12-15

381

User acceptance of intelligent avionics: A study of automatic-aided target recognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

User acceptance of new support systems typically was evaluated after the systems were specified, designed, and built. The current study attempts to assess user acceptance of an Automatic-Aided Target Recognition (ATR) system using an emulation of such a proposed system. The detection accuracy and false alarm level of the ATR system were varied systematically, and subjects rated the tactical value of systems exhibiting different performance levels. Both detection accuracy and false alarm level affected the subjects' ratings. The data from two experiments suggest a cut-off point in ATR performance below which the subjects saw little tactical value in the system. An ATR system seems to have obvious tactical value only if it functions at a correct detection rate of 0.7 or better with a false alarm level of 0.167 false alarms per square degree or fewer.

Becker, Curtis A.; Hayes, Brian C.; Gorman, Patrick C.

1991-01-01

382

Structural Insights Into the Recognition of Peroxisomal Targeting Signal 1 By Trypanosoma Brucei Peroxin 5  

SciTech Connect

Glycosomes are peroxisome-like organelles essential for trypanosomatid parasites. Glycosome biogenesis is mediated by proteins called 'peroxins,' which are considered to be promising drug targets in pathogenic Trypanosomatidae. The first step during protein translocation across the glycosomal membrane of peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1)-harboring proteins is signal recognition by the cytosolic receptor peroxin 5 (PEX5). The C-terminal PTS1 motifs interact with the PTS1 binding domain (P1BD) of PEX5, which is made up of seven tetratricopeptide repeats. Obtaining diffraction-quality crystals of the P1BD of Trypanosoma brucei PEX5 (TbPEX5) required surface entropy reduction mutagenesis. Each of the seven tetratricopeptide repeats appears to have a residue in the alpha(L) conformation in the loop connecting helices A and B. Five crystal structures of the P1BD of TbPEX5 were determined, each in complex with a hepta- or decapeptide corresponding to a natural or nonnatural PTS1 sequence. The PTS1 peptides are bound between the two subdomains of the P1BD. These structures indicate precise recognition of the C-terminal Leu of the PTS1 motif and important interactions between the PTS1 peptide main chain and up to five invariant Asn side chains of PEX5. The TbPEX5 structures reported here reveal a unique hydrophobic pocket in the subdomain interface that might be explored to obtain compounds that prevent relative motions of the subdomains and interfere selectively with PTS1 motif binding or release in trypanosomatids, and would therefore disrupt glycosome biogenesis and prevent parasite growth.

Sampathkumar, P.; Roach, C.; Michels, P.A.M.; Hol, W.G.J.

2009-05-27

383

Increase in Speech Recognition due to Linguistic Mismatch Between Target and Masker Speech: Monolingual and Simultaneous Bilingual Performance  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine whether improved speech recognition during linguistically mismatched target–masker experiments is due to linguistic unfamiliarity of the masker speech or linguistic dissimilarity between the target and masker speech. Method Monolingual English speakers (n = 20) and English–Greek simultaneous bilinguals (n = 20) listened to English sentences in the presence of competing English and Greek speech. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects regression models to determine differences in English recogition performance between the 2 groups and 2 masker conditions. Results Results indicated that English sentence recognition for monolinguals and simultaneous English–Greek bilinguals improved when the masker speech changed from competing English to competing Greek speech. Conclusion The improvement in speech recognition that has been observed for linguistically mismatched target–masker experiments cannot be simply explained by the masker language being linguistically unknown or unfamiliar to the listeners. Listeners can improve their speech recognition in linguistically mismatched target–masker experiments even when the listener is able to obtain meaningful linguistic information from the masker speech. PMID:24167230

Calandruccio, Lauren; Zhou, Haibo

2014-01-01

384

Setting the Tone: An ERP Investigation of the Influences of Phonological Similarity on Spoken Word Recognition in Mandarin Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the influences of phonological similarity on the time course of spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese. Event related potentials were recorded while adult native speakers of Mandarin ("N" = 19) judged whether auditory words matched or mismatched visually presented pictures. Mismatching words were of the following nature:…

Malins, Jeffrey G.; Joanisse, Marc F.

2012-01-01

385

Molecular Mechanism of Target Recognition by Subtilin, a Class I Lanthionine Antibiotic?  

PubMed Central

The increasing resistance of human pathogens to conventional antibiotics presents a growing threat to the chemotherapeutic management of infectious diseases. The lanthionine antibiotics, still unused as therapeutic agents, have recently attracted significant scientific interest as models for targeting and management of bacterial infections. We investigated the action of one member of this class, subtilin, which permeabilizes lipid membranes in a lipid II-dependent manner and binds bactoprenyl pyrophosphate, akin to nisin. The role the C and N termini play in target recognition was investigated in vivo and in vitro by using the natural N-terminally succinylated subtilin as well as enzymatically truncated subtilin variants. Fluorescence dequenching experiments show that subtilin induces leakage in membranes in a lipid II-dependent manner and that N-succinylated subtilin is roughly 75-fold less active. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance was used to show that subtilin forms complexes with membrane isoprenyl pyrophosphates. Activity assays in vivo show that the N terminus of subtilin plays a critical role in its activity. Succinylation of the N terminus resulted in a 20-fold decrease in its activity, whereas deletion of N-terminal Trp abolished activity altogether. PMID:17999970

Parisot, Judicaël; Carey, Sarah; Breukink, Eefjan; Chan, Weng C.; Narbad, Arjan; Bonev, Boyan

2008-01-01

386

Inhibition of non-target languages in multilingual word production: evidence from Uighur-Chinese-English trilinguals.  

PubMed

The present study examined the hypothesis whether non-target languages are inhibited during multilingual language production by examining the n-2 language repetition cost. In two experiments, Uighur-Chinese-English trilinguals named Arabic digits in one of their three languages according to a visually presented cue. Significant n-2 repetition costs were obtained in both experiments, which indicate that inhibition exists during multilingual word production. In addition, in Experiment 1, it was also found that the n-2 repetition cost was reduced when cues were highly compatible with the task, which means non-target languages are less inhibited. In Experiment 2, the n-2 repetition cost was increased at a shorter CSI. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of non-target languages occurs during multilingual language production, and that efficiency of establishing the target language task schema has an effect on the inhibitory control process. PMID:23688401

Guo, Taomei; Liu, Fengqin; Chen, Bingle; Li, Shengcao

2013-07-01

387

Joint target tracking, recognition and segmentation for infrared imagery using a shape manifold-based level set.  

PubMed

We propose a new integrated target tracking, recognition and segmentation algorithm, called ATR-Seg, for infrared imagery. ATR-Seg is formulated in a probabilistic shape-aware level set framework that incorporates a joint view-identity manifold (JVIM) for target shape modeling. As a shape generative model, JVIM features a unified manifold structure in the latent space that is embedded with one view-independent identity manifold and infinite identity-dependent view manifolds. In the ATR-Seg algorithm, the ATR problem formulated as a sequential level-set optimization process over the latent space of JVIM, so that tracking and recognition can be jointly optimized via implicit shape matching where target segmentation is achieved as a by-product without any pre-processing or feature extraction. Experimental results on the recently released SENSIAC ATR database demonstrate the advantages and effectiveness of ATR-Seg over two recent ATR algorithms that involve explicit shape matching. PMID:24919014

Gong, Jiulu; Fan, Guoliang; Yu, Liangjiang; Havlicek, Joseph P; Chen, Derong; Fan, Ningjun

2014-01-01

388

Joint Target Tracking, Recognition and Segmentation for Infrared Imagery Using a Shape Manifold-Based Level Set  

PubMed Central

We propose a new integrated target tracking, recognition and segmentation algorithm, called ATR-Seg, for infrared imagery. ATR-Seg is formulated in a probabilistic shape-aware level set framework that incorporates a joint view-identity manifold (JVIM) for target shape modeling. As a shape generative model, JVIM features a unified manifold structure in the latent space that is embedded with one view-independent identity manifold and infinite identity-dependent view manifolds. In the ATR-Seg algorithm, the ATR problem formulated as a sequential level-set optimization process over the latent space of JVIM, so that tracking and recognition can be jointly optimized via implicit shape matching where target segmentation is achieved as a by-product without any pre-processing or feature extraction. Experimental results on the recently released SENSIAC ATR database demonstrate the advantages and effectiveness of ATR-Seg over two recent ATR algorithms that involve explicit shape matching. PMID:24919014

Gong, Jiulu; Fan, Guoliang; Yu, Liangjiang; Havlicek, Joseph P.; Chen, Derong; Fan, Ningjun

2014-01-01

389

Non-cooperative target recognition by means of singular value decomposition applied to radar high resolution range profiles.  

PubMed

Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising. PMID:25551484

López-Rodríguez, Patricia; Escot-Bocanegra, David; Fernández-Recio, Raúl; Bravo, Ignacio

2014-01-01

390

PDZ Domain Recognition: Insight from Human Tax-Interacting Protein 1 (TIP-1) Interaction with Target Proteins.  

PubMed

Cellular signaling is primarily directed via protein-protein interactions. PDZ (PSD-95/Discs large/ZO-1 homologous) domains are well known protein-protein interaction modules involved in various key signaling pathways. Human Tax-interacting protein 1 (TIP-1), also known as glutaminase interaction protein (GIP), is a Class I PDZ domain protein that recognizes the consensus binding motif X-S/T-X-V/I/L-COOH of the C-terminus of its target proteins. We recently reported that TIP-1 not only interacts via the C-terminus of its target partner proteins but also recognizes an internal motif defined by the consensus sequence S/T-X-V/L-D in the target protein. Identification of new target partners containing either a C-terminal or internal recognition motif has rapidly expanded the TIP-1 protein interaction network. TIP-1 being composed solely of a single PDZ domain is unique among PDZ containing proteins. Since it is involved in many important signaling pathways, it is a possible target for drug design. In this mini review, we have discussed human TIP-1, its structure, mechanism of function, its interactions with target proteins containing different recognition motifs, and its involvement in human diseases. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of TIP-1 interactions with distinct target partners and their role in human diseases will be useful for designing novel therapeutics. PMID:25665168

Mohanty, Smita; Ovee, Mohiuddin; Banerjee, Monimoy

2015-01-01

391

ERP Manifestations of Processing Printed Words at Different Psycholinguistic Levels: Time Course and Scalp Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine the time course and scalp distribution of electrophysiological manifestations of the visual word recognition mechanism. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by visually presented lists of words were recorded while subjects were involved in a series of oddball tasks. The distinction between the designated target and nontarget stimuli was manipulated to induce a

S. Bentin; Y. Mouchetant-Rostaing; M. H. Giard; J. F. Echallier; J. Pernier

1999-01-01

392

Proposed docking interface between peptidoglycan and the target recognition domain of zoocin A  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Peptidoglycan added to zoocin rTRD perturbs NMR resonances around W115. •Simulations predict docking to a shallow surface groove near W115. •The docking interface is similar to mammalian antibody–antigen sites. •EDTA binds to a distinct surface site. -- Abstract: A docking model is proposed for the target recognition domain of the lytic exoenzyme zoocin A with the peptidoglycan on the outer cell surface of sensitive bacterial strains. Solubilized fragments from such peptidoglycans perturb specific backbone and side chain amide resonances in the recombinant form of the domain designated rTRD as detected in two-dimensional {sup 1}H–{sup 15}N correlation NMR spectra. The affected residues comprise a shallow surface cleft on the protein surface near W115, N53, N117, and Q105 among others, which interacts with the peptide portion of the peptidoglycan. Calculations with AutoDock Vina provide models of the docking interface. There is approximate homology between the rTDR-peptidoglycan docking site and the antigen binding site of Fab antibodies with the immunoglobin fold. EDTA was also found to bind to rTRD, but at a site distinct from the proposed peptidoglycan docking site.

Chen, Yinghua [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Simmonds, Robin S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)] [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Timkovich, Russell, E-mail: rtimkovi@bama.ua.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

2013-11-15

393

Functional signature for the recognition of specific target mRNAs by human Staufen1 protein  

PubMed Central

Cellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are associated to proteins in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. The double-stranded RNA-binding (DRB) proteins play important roles in mRNA synthesis, modification, activity and decay. Staufen is a DRB protein involved in the localized translation of specific mRNAs during Drosophila early development. The human Staufen1 (hStau1) forms RNA granules that contain translation regulation proteins as well as cytoskeleton and motor proteins to allow the movement of the granule on microtubules, but the mechanisms of hStau1-RNA recognition are still unclear. Here we used a combination of affinity chromatography, RNAse-protection, deep-sequencing and bioinformatic analyses to identify mRNAs differentially associated to hStau1 or a mutant protein unable to bind RNA and, in this way, defined a collection of mRNAs specifically associated to wt hStau1. A common sequence signature consisting of two opposite-polarity Alu motifs was present in the hStau1-associated mRNAs and was shown to be sufficient for binding to hStau1 and hStau1-dependent stimulation of protein expression. Our results unravel how hStau1 identifies a wide spectrum of cellular target mRNAs to control their localization, expression and fate. PMID:24470147

de Lucas, Susana; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Chagoyen, Mónica; Ortín, Juan

2014-01-01

394

Structural information implant in a context based segmentation-free HMM handwritten word recognition system for Latin and Bangla script  

E-print Network

based handwritten entity recognition system is described. To model the handwriting considered as being was borrowed and used with the same success in handwriting recognition domain too. The power of such a model in a connectionist approach. While the speech can be considered as a 1D signal, the handwriting is a much more

Belaïd, Abdel

395

Words, Hemispheres, and Dissociable Subsystems: The Effects of Exposure Duration, Case Alternation, Priming, and Continuity of Form on Word Recognition in the Left and Right Visual Fields  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments explore aspects of the dissociable neural subsystems theory of hemispheric specialisation proposed by Marsolek and colleagues, and in particular a study by [Deason, R. G., & Marsolek, C. J. (2005). A critical boundary to the left-hemisphere advantage in word processing. "Brain and Language," 92, 251-261]. Experiment 1A showed…

Ellis, Andrew W.; Ansorge, Lydia; Lavidor, Michal

2007-01-01

396

Development and Validation of a Set of German Stimulus- and Target Words for an Attachment Related Semantic Priming Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Experimental research in adult attachment theory is faced with the challenge to adequately activate the adult attachment system. In view of the multitude of methods employed for this purpose so far, this paper suggests to further make use of the methodological advantages of semantic priming. In order to enable the use of such a paradigm in a German speaking context, a set of German words belonging to the semantic categories ‘interpersonal closeness’, ‘interpersonal distance’ and ‘neutral’ were identified and their semantics were validated combining production- and rating method. 164 university students answered corresponding online-questionnaires. Ratings were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and cluster analysis from which three clearly distinct groups emerged. Beyond providing validated stimulus- and target words which can be used to activate the adult attachment system in a semantic priming paradigm, the results of this study point at important links between attachment and stress which call for further investigation in the future. PMID:23844061

Maatz, Anke; Strauss, Bernhard; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

2013-01-01

397

Teaching Sight Word Recognition to Preschoolers with Delays Using Activity-Based Intervention and Didactic Instruction: A Comparison Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alternating treatments design was used to compare the effectiveness of activity-based intervention and didactic instruction to teach sight word reading to four young children with developmental delays attending an inclusive child care centre. Following the collection of baseline measures, the two interventions, counterbalanced for word lists…

Hong, Sung-Jin; Kemp, Coral

2007-01-01

398

Type I-E CRISPR-Cas Systems Discriminate Target from Non-Target DNA through Base Pairing-Independent PAM Recognition  

PubMed Central

Discriminating self and non-self is a universal requirement of immune systems. Adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes are centered around repetitive loci called CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat), into which invader DNA fragments are incorporated. CRISPR transcripts are processed into small RNAs that guide CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to invading nucleic acids by complementary base pairing. However, to avoid autoimmunity it is essential that these RNA-guides exclusively target invading DNA and not complementary DNA sequences (i.e., self-sequences) located in the host's own CRISPR locus. Previous work on the Type III-A CRISPR system from Staphylococcus epidermidis has demonstrated that a portion of the CRISPR RNA-guide sequence is involved in self versus non-self discrimination. This self-avoidance mechanism relies on sensing base pairing between the RNA-guide and sequences flanking the target DNA. To determine if the RNA-guide participates in self versus non-self discrimination in the Type I-E system from Escherichia coli we altered base pairing potential between the RNA-guide and the flanks of DNA targets. Here we demonstrate that Type I-E systems discriminate self from non-self through a base pairing-independent mechanism that strictly relies on the recognition of four unchangeable PAM sequences. In addition, this work reveals that the first base pair between the guide RNA and the PAM nucleotide immediately flanking the target sequence can be disrupted without affecting the interference phenotype. Remarkably, this indicates that base pairing at this position is not involved in foreign DNA recognition. Results in this paper reveal that the Type I-E mechanism of avoiding self sequences and preventing autoimmunity is fundamentally different from that employed by Type III-A systems. We propose the exclusive targeting of PAM-flanked sequences to be termed a target versus non-target discrimination mechanism. PMID:24039596

Datsenko, Kirill A.; Jackson, Ryan N.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Severinov, Konstantin; Brouns, Stan J. J.

2013-01-01

399

Norms for word lists that create false memories.  

PubMed

Roediger and McDermott (1995) induced false recall and false recognition for words that were not presented in lists. They had subjects study 24 lists of 15 words that were associates of a common word (called the critical target or critical lure) that was not presented in the list. False recall and false recognition of the critical target occurred frequently in response to these lists. The purpose of the current work was to provide a set of normative data for the lists Roediger and McDermott used and for 12 others developed more recently. We tested false recall and false recognition for critical targets from 36 lists. Despite the fact that all lists were constructed to produce false remembering, the diversity in their effectiveness was large--60% or more of subjects falsely recalled window and sleep following the appropriate lists, and false recognition for these items was greater than 80%. However, the list generated from king led to 10% false recall and 27% false recognition. Possible reasons for these wide differences in effectiveness of the lists are discussed. These norms serve as a useful benchmark for designing experiments about false recall and false recognition in this paradigm. PMID:10355238

Stadler, M A; Roediger, H L; McDermott, K B

1999-05-01

400

Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The…

Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

2008-01-01

401

Experiments on mixture-density phoneme-modelling for the speaker-independent 1000-word speech recognition DARPA task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modifications and improvements of the acoustic recognition component of the SPICOS system for the DARPA naval resource management task are described. These modifications and improvements include: the modeling of the continuous mixture densities of the acoustic vectors, the choice of suitable context-dependent phoneme units and the construction of generalized context phoneme units, and the modeling of transitional information in

H. Ney

1990-01-01

402

Age Acquisition Norms from Elderly Spanish People: Characteristics and the Prediction of Word Recognition Performance in Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age of acquisition is possibly the single most potent variable affecting lexical access. It is also a variable that determines the retention or loss of words in patients who have suffered brain injury, and in patients with Alzheimer's disease. But the norms of age of acquisition currently available have largely been obtained from university…

Cuetos, Fernando; Samartino, Tamara; Ellis, Andrew W.

2012-01-01

403

Comparison of the Effects of SMART Board Technology and Flash Card Instruction on Sight Word Recognition and Observational Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effectiveness of SMART Board, interactive whiteboard technology and traditional flash cards in teaching reading in a small-group instructional arrangement. Three students with moderate intellectual disabilities were taught to read grocery store aisle marker words under each condition. Observational learning (students…

Mechling, Linda C.; Gast, David L.; Thompson, Kimberly L.

2009-01-01

404

Examining the Test of Memory Malingering Trial 1 and Word Memory Test Immediate Recognition as Screening Tools for Insufficient Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessing effort level during neuropsychological evaluations is critical to support the accuracy of cognitive test scores. Many instruments are designed to measure effort, yet they are not routinely administered in neuropsychological assessments. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Word Memory Test (WMT) are commonly administered symptom…

Bauer, Lyndsey; O'Bryant, Sid E.; Lynch, Julie K.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Fisher, Jerid M.

2007-01-01

405

Effectiveness and Efficiency of Flashcard Drill Instructional Methods on Urban First-Graders' Word Recognition, Acquisition, Maintenance, and Generalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation built upon previous studies that compared effectiveness and efficiency among instructional methods. Instructional effectiveness and efficiency were compared among three conditions: an incremental rehearsal, a more challenging ratio of known to unknown interspersal word procedure, and a traditional drill and practice flashcard…

Nist, Lindsay; Joseph, Laurice M.

2008-01-01

406

Molecularly imprinted polymer based on MWCNT-QDs as fluorescent biomimetic sensor for specific recognition of target protein.  

PubMed

A novel molecularly imprinted optosensing material based on multi-walled carbon nanotube-quantum dots (MWCNT-QDs) has been designed and synthesized for its high selectivity, sensitivity and specificity in the recognition of a target protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). Molecularly imprinted polymer coated MWCNT-QDs using BSA as the template (BMIP-coated MWCNT-QDs) exhibits a fast mass-transfer speed with a response time of 25min. It is found that the BSA as a target protein can significantly quench the luminescence of BMIP-coated MWCNT-QDs in a concentration-dependent manner that is best described by a Stern-Volmer equation. The KSV for BSA is much higher than bovine hemoglobin and lysozyme, implying a highly selective recognition of the BMIP-coated MWCNT-QDs to BSA. Under optimal conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity of BMIP-coated MWCNT-QDs decreases linearly with the increasing target protein BSA in the concentration range of 5.0×10(-7)-35.0×10(-7)M with a detection limit of 80nM. PMID:25579948

Ding, Zhaoqiang; Annie Bligh, S W; Tao, Lei; Quan, Jing; Nie, Huali; Zhu, Limin; Gong, Xiao

2015-03-01

407

Changing Models across Cultures: Associations of Phonological Awareness and Morphological Structure Awareness with Vocabulary and Word Recognition in Second Graders from Beijing, Hong Kong, Korea, and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data provided by approximately 100 second graders each from Beijing, Hong Kong, Korea, and the United States, we investigated relations among phonological awareness, morphological structure awareness, vocabulary, and word recognition. Our results indicate that across languages, phonological awareness and morphological structure awareness are…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Liu, Hongyun; Wagner, Richard K.; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Cheuk, Cecilia S-M.; Muse, Andrea

2005-01-01

408

Word-Initial Letters Influence Fixation Durations during Fluent Reading  

PubMed Central

The present study examined how word-initial letters influence lexical access during reading. Eye movements were monitored as participants read sentences containing target words. Three factors were independently manipulated. First, target words had either high or low constraining word-initial letter sequences (e.g., dwarf or clown, respectively). Second, targets were either high or low in frequency of occurrence (e.g., train or stain, respectively). Third, targets were embedded in either biasing or neutral contexts (i.e., targets were high or low in their predictability). This 2 (constraint)?×?2 (frequency)?×?2 (context) design allowed us to examine the conditions under which a word’s initial letter sequence could facilitate processing. Analyses of fixation duration data revealed significant main effects of constraint, frequency, and context. Moreover, in measures taken to reflect “early” lexical processing (i.e., first and single fixation duration), there was a significant interaction between constraint and context. The overall pattern of findings suggests lexical access is facilitated by highly constraining word-initial letters. Results are discussed in comparison to recent studies of lexical features involved in word recognition during reading. PMID:22485100

Hand, Christopher J.; O’Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

2012-01-01

409

Development and Performance Analysis of a Class of Intelligent Target Recognition Algorithms  

E-print Network

Tillman Defense Intelligence Agency Missile and Space Intelligence Center Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898 and compares two fuzzy logic based and a traditional rule-based pattern recognition system, which perform classification. The traditional rule-based method implements an expert system and correctly classifies 75

Arabshahi, Payman

410

Study on forest fires recognition and moving target tracking in video surveillance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forest fires are caused by extremely complex natural factors and human factors. How to convert from passive prevention taxed a lot of manpower and material resources into the active management model with automatic monitoring and alarming, it has been a technical problem for forest fires department. In digital video surveillance system, we used image recognition technology to track suspicious

Xiao-Yun Xiong; Bing Wang

2011-01-01

411

The anodal tDCS over the left posterior parietal cortex enhances attention toward a focus word in a sentence  

PubMed Central

The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has two attentional functions: top-down attentional control and stimulus-driven attentional processing. Using the focused version of the reading span test (RST), in which the target word to be remembered is the critical word for comprehending a sentence (focused word) or a non-focused word, we examined the effect of tDCS on resolution of distractor interference by the focused word in the non-focus condition (top-down attentional control) and on augmented/shrunk attentional capture by the focused word in both the focus and non-focus conditions (stimulus-driven attentional processing). Participants were divided into two groups: anodal tDCS (atDCS) and cathodal tDCS (ctDCS). Online stimulation was given while participants performed the RST. A post-hoc recognition task was also administered in which three kinds of words were presented: target words in the RST, distractor words in the RST, and novel words. atDCS augmented the effect of the focused word by increasing differences in performance between the focus and non-focus conditions. Such an effect was not observed in the ctDCS group. As for the recognition task, atDCS again produced the augmented effect of the focused words in the distractor recognition. On the other hand, ctDCS brought less recognition of non-focused target words in comparison to sham. The results indicate that atDCS promotes stimulus-driven attentional processing, possibly by affecting neural firing in the inferior parietal regions. In contrast, ctDCS appears to prevent retrieval of less important information from episodic memory, which may require top-down attentional processing. PMID:25538609

Minamoto, Takehiro; Azuma, Miyuki; Yaoi, Ken; Ashizuka, Aoi; Mima, Tastuya; Osaka, Mariko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Osaka, Naoyuki

2014-01-01

412

Translational control and target recognition by Escherichia coli small RNAs in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are an emerging class of regulators of bacterial gene expression. Most of the regulatory Escherichia coli sRNAs known to date modulate translation of trans- encoded target mRNAs. We studied the specificity of sRNA target interactions using gene fusions to green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a novel reporter of translational control by bacterial sRNAs in vivo. Target

Johannes H. Urban; Jorg Vogel

2007-01-01

413

Mobile Augmented Reality using scalable recognition and tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new mobile Augmented Reality (AR) framework which is scalable to the number of objects being augmented is proposed. The scalability is achieved by a visual word recognition module on the remote server and a mobile phone which detects, tracks, and augments target objects with the received information from the server. The server and the mobile phone

Jaewon Ha; Jinki Jung; ByungOk Han; Kyusung Cho; Hyun S. Yang

2011-01-01

414

Congruent and Incongruent Semantic Context Influence Vowel Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of sentence context on the recognition of naturally spoken vowels degraded by reverberation and Gaussian noise was investigated. Target words were paired to have similar consonant sounds but different vowels (e.g., map/mop) and were embedded early in sentences which provided three types of semantic context. Fifty-eight…

Wotton, J. M.; Elvebak, R. L.; Moua, L. C.; Heggem, N. M.; Nelson, C. A.; Kirk, K. M.

2011-01-01

415

Multi-source feature extraction and target recognition in wireless sensor networks based on adaptive distributed wavelet compression algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proposed distributed wavelet-based algorithms are a means to compress sensor data received at the nodes forming a wireless sensor network (WSN) by exchanging information between neighboring sensor nodes. Local collaboration among nodes compacts the measurements, yielding a reduced fused set with equivalent information at far fewer nodes. Nodes may be equipped with multiple sensor types, each capable of sensing distinct phenomena: thermal, humidity, chemical, voltage, or image signals with low or no frequency content as well as audio, seismic or video signals within defined frequency ranges. Compression of the multi-source data through wavelet-based methods, distributed at active nodes, reduces downstream processing and storage requirements along the paths to sink nodes; it also enables noise suppression and more energy-efficient query routing within the WSN. Targets are first detected by the multiple sensors; then wavelet compression and data fusion are applied to the target returns, followed by feature extraction from the reduced data; feature data are input to target recognition/classification routines; targets are tracked during their sojourns through the area monitored by the WSN. Algorithms to perform these tasks are implemented in a distributed manner, based on a partition of the WSN into clusters of nodes. In this work, a scheme of collaborative processing is applied for hierarchical data aggregation and decorrelation, based on the sensor data itself and any redundant information, enabled by a distributed, in-cluster wavelet transform with lifting that allows multiple levels of resolution. The wavelet-based compression algorithm significantly decreases RF bandwidth and other resource use in target processing tasks. Following wavelet compression, features are extracted. The objective of feature extraction is to maximize the probabilities of correct target classification based on multi-source sensor measurements, while minimizing the resource expenditures at participating nodes. Therefore, the feature-extraction method based on the Haar DWT is presented that employs a maximum-entropy measure to determine significant wavelet coefficients. Features are formed by calculating the energy of coefficients grouped around the competing clusters. A DWT-based feature extraction algorithm used for vehicle classification in WSNs can be enhanced by an added rule for selecting the optimal number of resolution levels to improve the correct classification rate and reduce energy consumption expended in local algorithm computations. Published field trial data for vehicular ground targets, measured with multiple sensor types, are used to evaluate the wavelet-assisted algorithms. Extracted features are used in established target recognition routines, e.g., the Bayesian minimum-error-rate classifier, to compare the effects on the classification performance of the wavelet compression. Simulations of feature sets and recognition routines at different resolution levels in target scenarios indicate the impact on classification rates, while formulas are provided to estimate reduction in resource use due to distributed compression.

Hortos, William S.

2008-04-01

416

Experimental induction of reading difficulties in normal readers provides novel insights into the neurofunctional mechanisms of visual word recognition.  

PubMed

Phonological and visual dysfunctions may result in reading deficits like those encountered in developmental dyslexia. Here, we use a novel approach to induce similar reading difficulties in normal readers in an event-related fMRI study, thus systematically investigating which brain regions relate to different pathways relating to orthographic-phonological (e.g. grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, GPC) vs. visual processing. Based upon a previous behavioural study (Tholen et al. 2011), the retrieval of phonemes from graphemes was manipulated by lowering the identifiability of letters in familiar vs. unfamiliar shapes. Visual word and letter processing was impeded by presenting the letters of a word in a moving, non-stationary manner. FMRI revealed that the visual condition activated cytoarchitectonically defined area hOC5 in the magnocellular pathway and area 7A in the right mesial parietal cortex. In contrast, the grapheme manipulation revealed different effects localised predominantly in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (left cytoarchitectonic area 44; right area 45) and inferior parietal lobule (including areas PF/PFm), regions that have been demonstrated to show abnormal activation in dyslexic as compared to normal readers. This pattern of activation bears close resemblance to recent findings in dyslexic samples both behaviourally and with respect to the neurofunctional activation patterns. The novel paradigm may thus prove useful in future studies to understand reading problems related to distinct pathways, potentially providing a link also to the understanding of real reading impairments in dyslexia. PMID:23400699

Heim, Stefan; Weidner, Ralph; von Overheidt, Ann-Christin; Tholen, Nicole; Grande, Marion; Amunts, Katrin

2014-03-01

417

Word-Superiority Effect as a Function of Semantic Transparency of Chinese Bimorphemic Compound Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The word-superiority effect (WSE) describes the superior recognition of word constituents in a word, as opposed to a non-word, context. In this study, the WSE was used as a diagnostic tool to examine the modulatory effect of word semantic transparency on the degree to which Chinese bimorphemic compound words are lexically represented as unitised…

Mok, Leh Woon

2009-01-01

418

Label-free fluorescent assays based on aptamer-target recognition.  

PubMed

Label-free fluorescent assays were developed based on the competition of intramolecular DNA hybridization and aptamer-target binding. Using small molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and biomacro-molecule thrombin as model targets, our design was proved to be a general method with good sensitivity and high selectivity. PMID:22451893

Tan, Ying; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Yonghua; Zhao, Rui; Tan, Chunyan; Jiang, Yuyang

2012-05-21

419

Individual Differences in the Joint Effects of Semantic Priming and Word Frequency Revealed by RT Distributional Analyses: The Role of Lexical Integrity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word frequency and semantic priming effects are among the most robust effects in visual word recognition, and it has been generally assumed that these two variables produce interactive effects in lexical decision performance, with larger priming effects for low-frequency targets. The results from four lexical decision experiments indicate that the…

Yap, Melvin J.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.

2009-01-01

420

Effective Foreign Word Extraction for Korean Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need to index foreign words for information retrieval that are used in Korean text and presents an effective foreign word recognition and extraction method based on word segmentation. Uses both unknown word information acquired through the automatic dictionary compilation and foreign word recognition information. (Author/LRW)

Kang, Byung-Ju; Choi, Key-Sun

2002-01-01

421

Convolutional neural network approach for buried target recognition in FL-LWIR imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A convolutional neural network (CNN) approach to recognition of buried explosive hazards in forward-looking long-wave infrared (FL-LWIR) imagery is presented. The convolutional filters in the first layer of the network are learned in the frequency domain, making enforcement of zero-phase and zero-dc response characteristics much easier. The spatial domain representations of the filters are forced to have unit l2 norm, and penalty terms are added to the online gradient descent update to encourage orthonormality among the convolutional filters, as well smooth first and second order derivatives in the spatial domain. The impact of these modifications on the generalization performance of the CNN model is investigated. The CNN approach is compared to a second recognition algorithm utilizing shearlet and log-gabor decomposition of the image coupled with cell-structured feature extraction and support vector machine classification. Results are presented for multiple FL-LWIR data sets recently collected from US Army test sites. These data sets include vehicle position information allowing accurate transformation between image and world coordinates and realistic evaluation of detection and false alarm rates.

Stone, K.; Keller, J. M.

2014-05-01

422

Target recognition by calmodulin: dissecting the kinetics and affinity of interaction using short peptide sequences.  

PubMed Central

The interaction between calmodulin (CaM) and peptide M13, its target binding sequence from skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase, involves predominantly two sets of interactions, between the N-terminal target residues and the C-domain of calmodulin, and between the C-terminal target residues and the N-domain of calmodulin (Ikura M et al., 1992, Science 256:632-638). Using short synthetic peptides based on the two halves of the target sequence, the interactions with calmodulin and its separate C-domain have been studied by fluorescence and CD spectroscopy, calcium binding, and kinetic techniques. Peptide WF10 (residues 1-10 of M13) binds to CaM with Kd approximately 1 microM; peptide FW10 (residues 9-18 of M13, with Phe-17-->Trp substitution) binds to CaM with Kd approximately 100 microM. The effect of peptide WF10 on calcium binding to calmodulin produces a biphasic saturation curve, with marked enhancement of affinity for the binding of two calcium ions to the C-domain, forming a stable half-saturated complex, Ca2-CaM-peptide, and confirming the functional importance of the interaction of this sequence with the C-domain. Stopped-flow studies show that the EGTA-induced dissociation of WF10 from Ca4-CaM proceeds by a reversible relaxation mechanism from a kinetic intermediate state, also involving half-saturation of CaM, and the same mechanism is evident for the full target peptide. Interaction of the N-terminal target residues with the C-domain is energetically the most important component, but interaction of calmodulin with the whole target sequence is necessary to induce the full cooperative interaction of the two contiguous elements of the target sequence with both N- and C-domains of calmodulin. Thus, the interaction of calmodulin with the M13 sequence can be dissected on both a structural and kinetic basis into partial reactions involving intermediates comprising distinct regions of the target sequence. We propose a general mechanism for the calcium regulation of calmodulin-dependent enzyme activation, involving an intermediate complex formed by interaction of the calmodulin C-domain and the corresponding part of the target sequence. This intermediate species can function to regulate the overall calcium sensitivity of activation and to determine the affinity of the calmodulin target interaction. PMID:8819155

Bayley, P. M.; Findlay, W. A.; Martin, S. R.

1996-01-01

423

Does the Information Content of an Irrelevant Source Differentially Affect Spoken Word Recognition in Younger and Older Adults?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether older adults find it difficult to inhibit the processing of irrelevant speech, the authors asked younger and older adults to listen to and repeat meaningless sentences (e.g., "A rose could paint a fish") when the perceived location of the masker (speech or noise) but not the target was manipulated. Separating the perceived…

Li, Liang; Daneman, Meredyth; Qi, James G.; Schneider, Bruce A.

2004-01-01

424

Fast pattern recognizer for autonomous target recognition and tracking for advanced naval attack missiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A FPR System under development for the Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA is funded under a SBIR, Phase II contract as an automatic target recognizer and tracker candidate for Navy fast-reaction, subsonic and supersonic, stand-off weapons. The FPR will autonomously detect, identify, correlate, and track complex surface ship and land based targets in hostile, high-clutter environments in real time. The novel FPR system is proven technology that uses an electronic implementation analogous to an optical correlator system, where the Fourier transform of the incoming image is compared against known target images stored as matched filter templates. FPR demonstrations show that unambiguous target identification is achievable in a ninety-five percent fog obscuration for over ninety-percent of target images tested. The FPR technology employs an acoustic dispersive delay line (DDL) to achieve ultra-fast image correlations in 90 microseconds or 11,000 correlations per second. The massively scalable FPR design is capable of achieving processing speeds of an order of magnitude faster using available ASIC technology. Key benefits of the FPR are dramatically reduced power, size, weight, and cost with increased durability, robustness, and performance - which makes the FPR ideal for onboard missile applications.

Hastbacka, Al

2001-10-01

425

Specificity and false positive rates of the Test of Memory Malingering, Rey 15-item Test, and Rey Word Recognition Test among forensic inpatients with intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the specificity and false positive (FP) rates of the Rey 15-Item Test (FIT), Word Recognition Test (WRT), and Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in a sample of 21 forensic inpatients with mild intellectual disability (ID). The FIT demonstrated an FP rate of 23.8% with the standard quantitative cutoff score. Certain qualitative error types on the FIT showed promise and had low FP rates. The WRT obtained an FP rate of 0.0% with previously reported cutoff scores. Finally, the TOMM demonstrated low FP rates of 4.8% and 0.0% on Trial 2 and the Retention Trial, respectively, when applying the standard cutoff score. FP rates are reported for a range of cutoff scores and compared with published research on individuals diagnosed with ID. Results indicated that although the quantitative variables on the FIT had unacceptably high FP rates, the TOMM and WRT had low FP rates, increasing the confidence clinicians can place in scores reflecting poor effort on these measures during ID evaluations. PMID:24671735

Love, Christopher M; Glassmire, David M; Zanolini, Shanna Jordan; Wolf, Amanda

2014-10-01

426

Recognition of marine-target craters on Earth, and its application to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most bolides that collide with the Earth hit the sea. All marine-target craters so far found on Earth have formed in epicontinental seas. Among them are the famous Chicxulub crater, Mexico, as well as a group of Middle Ordovician craters formed at different water depths. Rapid coverage by sediments helps the marine-target crater to survive later erosion. Therefore, some of these craters are among the best preserved crater structures in the world. In the oceans, the great average water depth (> 4 km) prevents the smallest, and most frequent, impacts from forming craters on the seabed. The large impacts necessary for cratering the ocean floor are rare. This circumstance, combined with the young age of the oceanic crust, explains why only few craters are likely to be found in the oceans. The geological features of craters formed at sea are most likely a result of influence of target on the cratering process. When the crater diameter is large compared to the water depth, the crater resembles counterparts formed on land. Craters formed in deeper water are concentric, often lack melt sheets and rim walls but have deposits and radial gullies formed by the resurge of the sea. These features would exist at other craters in the Solar System with similar target environments. A number of Martian impact craters resemble craters formed in shallow epicontinental seas on Earth. The best examples are situated in an intermediate zone between the northern plains and the highlands. However, at the moment only the morphological features can be investigated, although lithological evidence is needed to prove a marine target. An outer shallow crater must be considered when estimating marine-target crater dimensions. These impacts are probably much more energetic than is suggested by the dimensions of the more often preserved, inner part of the crater.

Ormo, J.

1999-09-01

427

Three-Dimensional target recognition via sonar: A neural network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neural network was trained to recognize two three-dimensional shapes independent of orientation, based on echoes of ultrasonic pulses similar to those used by an echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Following supervised learning, the network was required to generalize and recognize echoes from the shapes at novel orientations. The representation of the echo was manipulated to explore how information about target

Itiel E. Dror; Mark Zagaeski; Cynthia F. Moss

1995-01-01

428

General Metropolis-Hastings jump diffusions for automatic target recognition in infrared scenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To locate and recognize ground-based targets in forward- looking IR (FLIR) images, 3D faceted models with associated pose parameters are formulated to accommodate the variability found in FLIR imagery. Taking a Bayesian approach, scenes are simulated from the emissive characteristics of the CAD models and compared with the collected data by a likelihood function based on sensor statistics. This likelihood is combined with a prior distribution defined over the set of possible scenes to form a posterior distribution. To accommodate scenes with variable numbers of targets, the posterior distribution is defined over parameter vectors of varying dimension. An inference algorithm based on Metropolis-Hastings jump- diffusion processes empirically samples from the posterior distribution, generating configurations of templates and transformations that match the collected sensor data with high probability. The jumps accommodate the addition and deletion of targets and the estimation of target identities; diffusions refine the hypotheses by drifting along the gradient of the posterior distribution with respect to the orientation and position parameters. Previous results on jumps strategies analogous to the Metropolis acceptance/rejection algorithm, with proposals drawn from the prior and accepted based on the likelihood, are extended to encompass general Metropolis-Hastings proposal densities. In particular, the algorithm proposes moves by drawing from the posterior distribution over computationally tractible subsets of the parameter space. The algorithm is illustrated by an implementation on a Silicon Graphics Onyx/Reality Engine.

Lanterman, Aaron D.; Miller, Michael I.; Snyder, Donald L.

1997-04-01

429

Saccade target selection and object recognition: Evidence for a common attentional mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial interaction of visual attention and saccadic eye movements was investigated in a dual-task paradigm that required a target-directed saccade in combination with a letter discrimination task. Subjects had to saccade to locations within horizontal letter strings left and right of a central fixation cross. The performance in discriminating between the symbols “E” and “?”, presented tachistoscopically before the

Heiner Deubel; Werner X. Schneider

1996-01-01

430

Global identification of target recognition and cleavage by the Microprocessor in human ES cells  

PubMed Central

The Microprocessor plays an essential role in canonical miRNA biogenesis by facilitating cleavage of stem-loop structures in primary transcripts to yield pre-miRNAs. Although miRNA biogenesis has been extensively studied through biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, it has yet to be addressed to what extent the current miRNA biogenesis models hold true in intact cells. To address the issues of in vivo recognition and cleavage by the Microprocessor, we investigate RNAs that are associated with DGCR8 and Drosha by using immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing. Here, we present global protein–RNA interactions with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity. Our data indicate that precursors of canonical miRNAs and miRNA-like hairpins are the major substrates of the Microprocessor. As a result of specific enrichment of nascent cleavage products, we are able to pinpoint the Microprocessor-mediated cleavage sites per se at single-nucleotide resolution. Unexpectedly, a 2-nt 3? overhang invariably exists at the ends of cleaved bases instead of nascent pre-miRNAs. Besides canonical miRNA precursors, we find that two novel miRNA-like structures embedded in mRNAs are cleaved to yield pre-miRNA-like hairpins, uncoupled from miRNA maturation. Our data provide a framework for in vivo Microprocessor-mediated cleavage and a foundation for experimental and computational studies on miRNA biogenesis in living cells. PMID:25326327

Seong, Youngmo; Lim, Do-Hwan; Kim, Augustine; Seo, Jae Hong; Lee, Young Sik; Song, Hoseok; Kwon, Young-Soo

2014-01-01

431

Structural basis for specific recognition of multiple mRNA targets by a PUF regulatory protein  

PubMed Central

Caenorhabditis elegans fem-3 binding factor (FBF) is a founding member of the PUMILIO/FBF (PUF) family of mRNA regulatory proteins. It regulates multiple mRNAs critical for stem cell maintenance and germline development. Here, we report crystal structures of FBF in complex with 6 different 9-nt RNA sequences, including elements from 4 natural mRNAs. These structures reveal that FBF binds to conserved bases at positions 1–3 and 7–8. The key specificity determinant of FBF vs. other PUF proteins lies in positions 4–6. In FBF/RNA complexes, these bases stack directly with one another and turn away from the RNA-binding surface. A short region of FBF is sufficient to impart its unique specificity and lies directly opposite the flipped bases. We suggest that this region imposes a flattened curvature on the protein; hence, the requirement for the additional nucleotide. The principles of FBF/RNA recognition suggest a general mechanism by which PUF proteins recognize distinct families of RNAs yet exploit very nearly identical atomic contacts in doing so. PMID:19901328

Wang, Yeming; Opperman, Laura; Wickens, Marvin; Hall, Traci M. Tanaka

2009-01-01

432

Structures of the Signal Recognition Particle Receptor from the Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus: Implications for the Targeting Step at the Membrane  

PubMed Central

In all organisms, a ribonucleoprotein called the signal recognition particle (SRP) and its receptor (SR) target nascent proteins from the ribosome to the translocon for secretion or membrane insertion. We present the first X-ray structures of an archeal FtsY, the receptor from the hyper-thermophile Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu), in its free and GDP•magnesium-bound forms. The highly charged N-terminal domain of Pfu-FtsY is distinguished by a long N-terminal helix. The basic charges on the surface of this helix are likely to regulate interactions at the membrane. A peripheral GDP bound near a regulatory motif could indicate a site of interaction between the receptor and ribosomal or SRP RNAs. Small angle X-ray scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation indicate that the crystal structure of Pfu-FtsY correlates well with the average conformation in solution. Based on previous structures of two sub-complexes, we propose a model of the core of archeal and eukaryotic SRP•SR targeting complexes. PMID:18978942

Egea, Pascal F.; Tsuruta, Hiro; de Leon, Gladys P.; Napetschnig, Johanna; Walter, Peter; Stroud, Robert M.

2008-01-01

433

Cellular target recognition of perfluoroalkyl acids: in vitro evaluation of inhibitory effects on lysine decarboxylase.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been shown to bind with hepatic peroxisome proliferator receptor ?, estrogen receptors and human serum albumin and subsequently cause some toxic effects. Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) plays an important role in cell growth and developmental processes. In this study, the inhibitory effect of 16 PFAAs, including 13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 3 perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs), on lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity was investigated. The inhibition constants obtained in fluorescence enzyme assays fall in the range of 2.960 ?M to 290.8 ?M for targeted PFCAs, and 41.22 ?M to 67.44 ?M for targeted PFSAs. The inhibitory effect of PFCAs increased significantly with carbon chain (7-18 carbons), whereas the short chain PFCAs (less than 7 carbons) did not show any effect. Circular dichroism results showed that PFAA binding induced significant protein secondary structural changes. Molecular docking revealed that the inhibitory effect could be rationalized well by the cleft binding mode as well as the size, substituent group and hydrophobic characteristics of the PFAAs. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, three selected PFAAs inhibited LDC activity in HepG2 cells, and subsequently resulted in the decreased cadaverine level in the exposed cells, suggesting that LDC may be a possible target of PFAAs for their in vivo toxic effects. PMID:25093300

Wang, Sufang; Lv, Qiyan; Yang, Yu; Guo, Liang-Hong; Wan, Bin; Zhao, Lixia

2014-10-15

434

Identifying mRNA sequence elements for target recognition by human Argonaute proteins  

PubMed Central

It is commonly known that mammalian microRNAs (miRNAs) guide the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to target mRNAs through the seed-pairing rule. However, recent experiments that coimmunoprecipitate the Argonaute proteins (AGOs), the central catalytic component of RISC, have consistently revealed extensive AGO-associated mRNAs that lack seed complementarity with miRNAs. We herein test the hypothesis that AGO has its own binding preference within target mRNAs, independent of guide miRNAs. By systematically analyzing the data from in vivo cross-linking experiments with human AGOs, we have identified a structurally accessible and evolutionarily conserved region (?10 nucleotides in length) that alone can accurately predict AGO–mRNA associations, independent of the presence of miRNA binding sites. Within this region, we further identified an enriched motif that was replicable on independent AGO-immunoprecipitation data sets. We used RNAcompete to enumerate the RNA-binding preference of human AGO2 to all possible 7-mer RNA sequences and validated the AGO motif in vitro. These findings reveal a novel function of AGOs as sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins, which may aid miRNAs in recognizing their targets with high specificity. PMID:24663241

Li, Jingjing; Kim, TaeHyung; Nutiu, Razvan; Ray, Debashish; Hughes, Timothy R.; Zhang, Zhaolei

2014-01-01

435

Voice Recognition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains how speech recognition works. Today, when we call most large companies, a person doesn't usually answer the phone. Instead, an automated voice recording answers and instructs you to press buttons to move through option menus. Many companies have moved beyond requiring you to press buttons, though. Often you can just speak certain words (again, as instructed by a recording) to get what you need. The system that makes this possible is a type of speech recognition program -- an automated phone system.

Grabianowski, Ed

2011-06-13

436

Object representation in echolocating bats: Recognition of targets from different orientations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) can discriminate among objects using wideband FM sonar sounds. Bats could perceive and represent only the acoustic dimensions of echoes (e.g., delay, frequency, amplitude), or they could use those dimensions to reconstruct object features (e.g., distance, shape, size). To investigate this question, bats were presented with a two-alternative (left/right) forced-choice sonar discrimination task. The stimuli were a one-cylinder monopole target and a two-cylinder dipole target that was presented at all aspect angles. Acoustic dimensions of the dipole echoes change depending on aspect angle. If the bats represent only acoustic dimensions, they should have difficulty selecting the dipole. If the bats represent object features, they should be able to select the dipole independent of aspect angle. Bats can select the dipole over a wide range of aspect angles, suggesting that they construct object features from echo acoustic dimensions. The bats' error patterns may indicate the echo dimensions they use to construct object features. [Work supported by NIH and ONR.

Delong, Caroline M.; Bragg, Rebecca; Simmons, James A.

2005-09-01

437

Spelling-to-sound correspondences affect acronym recognition processes.  

PubMed

A large body of research has examined the factors that affect the speed with which words are recognized in lexical decision tasks. Nothing has yet been reported concerning the important factors in differentiating acronyms (e.g., BBC, HIV, NASA) from nonwords. It appears that this task poses little problem for skilled readers, in spite of the fact that acronyms have uncommon, even illegal, spellings in English. We used regression techniques to examine the role of a number of lexical and nonlexical variables known to be important in word processing in relation to lexical decision for acronym targets. Findings indicated that acronym recognition is affected by age of acquisition and imageability. In a departure from findings in word recognition, acronym recognition was not affected by frequency. Lexical decision responses for acronyms were also affected by the relationship between spelling and sound-a pattern not usually observed in word recognition. We argue that the complexity of acronym recognition means that the process draws phonological information in addition to semantics. PMID:25337636

Playfoot, David; Izura, Cristina

2014-11-14

438

Solution structure of Grb2 reveals extensive flexibility necessary for target recognition.  

PubMed

Grb2 is an adaptor protein composed of a single SH2 domain flanked by two SH3 domains. Grb2 functions as an important evolutionary conserved link between a variety of cell membrane receptors and the Ras/MAP kinase-signaling cascade. Here, we describe the solution structure of Grb2 as revealed by NMR and small angle X-ray scattering measurements. We demonstrate that Grb2 is a flexible protein in which the C-terminal SH3 domain is connected to the SH2 domain via a flexible linker. This is in contrast to the previously described Grb2 crystal structure, which showed a compact structure with intramolecular contact between two SH3 domains. Binding experiments on Grb2 and peptides containing two different proline-rich sequences indicate that Grb2 adapts the relative position and orientation of the two SH3 domains to bind bivalently to the target peptide sequences. PMID:11178911

Yuzawa, S; Yokochi, M; Hatanaka, H; Ogura, K; Kataoka, M; Miura, K; Mandiyan, V; Schlessinger, J; Inagaki, F

2001-02-23

439

Survey of approaches and experiments in decision-level fusion of automatic target recognition (ATR) products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is exploring the decision-level fusion (DLF) trade space in the Fusion for Identifying Targets Experiment (FITE) program. FITE is surveying past DLF approaches and experiments. This paper reports preliminary findings from that survey, which ultimately plans to place the various studies in a common framework, identify trends, and make recommendations on the additional studies that would best inform the trade space of how to fuse ATR products and how ATR products should be improved to support fusion. We tentatively conclude that DLF is better at rejecting incorrect decisions than in adding correct decisions, a larger ATR library is better (for a constant Pid), a better source ATR has many mild attractors rather than a few large attractors, and fusion will be more beneficial when there are no dominant sources. Dependencies between the sources diminish performance, even when that dependency is well modeled. However, poor models of dependencies do not significantly further diminish performance. Distributed fusion is not driven by performance, so centralized fusion is an appropriate focus for FITE. For multi-ATR fusion, the degree of improvement may depend on the participating ATRs having different OC sensitivities. The machine learning literature is an especially rich source for the impact of imperfect (learned in their case) models. Finally and perhaps most significantly, even with perfect models and independence, the DLF gain may be quite modest and it may be fairly easy to check whether the best possible performance is good enough for a given application.

Ross, Timothy D.; Morgan, Doug R.; Blasch, Erik P.; Erickson, Kyle J.; Kahler, Bart D.

2007-04-01

440

New detection targets for amyloid-reactive probes: spectroscopic recognition of bacterial spores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report characteristic changes in fluorescence of amyloid-binding dyes Thioflavin T (TfT), pinacyanol (PIN) and related dyes, caused by their interaction with suspended Bacillus spore cultures (B. subtilis, B thuringiensis). The gain in TfT emission in the presence of spores allowed their immediate detection in aqueous suspensions, with a sensitivity limit of < 105 spores per ml. The spectroscopic signatures are consistent with a large number of binding sites for the two dyes on spore coats. The possible structural relationship of these dye binding loci with characteristic motifs (?-stacks) of amyloid deposits and other misfolded protein formations suggests new designs for probing biocontamination and also for clinical studies of non-microbial human pathogens (e.g., amyloid-related protein aggregates in prion-related transmissible encephalopathies or in Alzheimer's disease). Also reported is a special screening technique that was designed and used herein for calibration of new detection probes and assays for spore detection. It employed spectroscopic interactions between the candidate amyloid stains and poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-coated colloid silica (Percoll) nanoparticles that also display remarkable parallelism with the corresponding dye-amyloid and dye-spore reactivities. Percoll may thus find new applications as a convenient non-biological structural model mimicking the putative probe-targeted motifs in both classes of bioanalytes. These findings are important in the design of new probes and assays for important human pathogens (i.e. bacterial spores and amyloidogenic protein aggregates).

Jones, Guilford, II; Landsman, Pavel

2005-05-01

441

Optimal reduced-rank quadratic classifiers using the Fukunaga-Koontz transform with applications to automated target recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In target recognition applications of discriminant of classification analysis, each 'feature' is a result of a convolution of an imagery with a filter, which may be derived from a feature vector. It is important to use relatively few features. We analyze an optimal reduced-rank classifier under the two-class situation. Assuming each population is Gaussian and has zero mean, and the classes differ through the covariance matrices: ?1 and ?2. The following matrix is considered: ?=(?1+?2)-1/2?1(?1+?2)-1/2. We show that the k eigenvectors of this matrix whose eigenvalues are most different from 1/2 offer the best rank k approximation to the maximum likelihood classifier. The matrix ? and its eigenvectors have been introduced by Fukunaga and Koontz; hence this analysis gives a new interpretation of the well known Fukunaga-Koontz transform. The optimality that is promised in this method hold if the two populations are exactly Guassian with the same means. To check the applicability of this approach to real data, an experiment is performed, in which several 'modern' classifiers were used on an Infrared ATR data. In these experiments, a reduced-rank classifier-Tuned Basis Functions-outperforms others. The competitive performance of the optimal reduced-rank quadratic classifier suggests that, at least for classification purposes, the imagery data behaves in a nearly-Gaussian fashion.

Huo, Xiaoming; Elad, Michael; Flesia, Ana G.; Muise, Robert R.; Stanfill, S. Robert; Friedman, Jerome; Popescu, Bogdan; Chen, Jihong; Mahalanobis, Abhijit; Donoho, David L.

2003-09-01

442

False and veridical collaborative recognition.  

PubMed

Participants studied DRM words lists (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) and then completed a recognition test individually or in a collaborative pair, trio, or quartet. The collaborative groups' responses were compared to those of equivalent sized nominal groups. Non-studied critical lure and studied word recognition increased with group size and these increases were greatest for the collaborative groups. The collaborative groups' critical lure and studied word recognition rates were facilitated as they lowered their response criterion thresholds towards all test words semantically related to those in the DRM lists. Prior collaboration also enhanced later individual critical lure and studied word recognition. The group members believed the critical lures and studied words recognised during collaboration were studied, and they therefore repeated these judgements when tested alone. PMID:19058091

Thorley, Craig; Dewhurst, Stephen A

2009-01-01

443

Speech recognition and understanding  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the automatic processing of speech signals with the aim of finding a sequence of works (speech recognition) or a concept (speech understanding) being transmitted by the speech signal. The goal of the research is to develop an automatic typewriter that will automatically edit and type text under voice control. A dynamic programming method is proposed in which all possible class signals are stored, after which the presented signal is compared to all the stored signals during the recognition phase. Topics considered include element-by-element recognition of words of speech, learning speech recognition, phoneme-by-phoneme speech recognition, the recognition of connected speech, understanding connected speech, and prospects for designing speech recognition and understanding systems. An application of the composition dynamic programming method for the solution of basic problems in the recognition and understanding of speech is presented.

Vintsyuk, T.K.

1983-05-01

444

Stem and Calyx Recognition on `Jonagold' Apples by Pattern Recognition  

E-print Network

Stem and Calyx Recognition on `Jonagold' Apples by Pattern Recognition D. Unay TCTS Labs., Facult of `Jonagold' apples by pattern recognition is proposed. The method starts with background removal and object- ment relative to the ones introduced in the literature. Key words: apple, stem, calyx, machine vision

Dupont, Stéphane

445

Effects of Stimulus Emotionality and Sentence Generation on Memory for Words in Adults With Unilateral Brain Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does sentence generation and\\/or stimulus emotionality enhance verbal memory in patients with neurological impairment? This question was addressed by testing 40 patients with unilateral stroke (20 with left-brain and 20 with right-brain damage) and 20 healthy control participants for recall and recognition of 48 target words. During encoding, emotional and nonemotional words were either presented in sentences (read condition) or

Stacy Berrin-Wasserman; Wilma A. Winnick; Joan C. Borod

2003-01-01

446

In theory, speech recognition technology can make any spoken words in video or audio media usable for text indexing, search and  

E-print Network

recognition without the benefit of human corrections and editing. INFORMEDIATM : NEWS-ON-DEMAND EXPERIMENTS usable for text indexing, search and retrieval. This article describes the News-on-Demand application be obtained with only moderate speech recognition accuracy. 1. INFORMEDIA: NEWS-ON-DEMAND The Informedia

447

Dynamic Conformational Change Regulates the Protein-DNA Recognition: An Investigation on Binding of a Y-Family Polymerase to Its Target DNA  

PubMed Central

Protein-DNA recognition is a central biological process that governs the life of cells. A protein will often undergo a conformational transition to form the functional complex with its target DNA. The protein conformational dynamics are expected to contribute to the stability and specificity of DNA recognition and therefore may control the functional activity of the protein-DNA complex. Understanding how the conformational dynamics influences the protein-DNA recognition is still challenging. Here, we developed a two-basin structure-based model to explore functional dynamics in Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Y-family polymerase IV (DPO4) during its binding to DNA. With explicit consideration of non-specific and specific interactions between DPO4 and DNA, we found that DPO4-DNA recognition is comprised of first 3D diffusion, then a short-range adjustment sliding on DNA and finally specific binding. Interestingly, we found that DPO4 is under a conformational equilibrium between multiple states during the binding process and the distributions of the conformations vary at different binding stages. By modulating the strength of the electrostatic interactions, the flexibility of the linker, and the conformational dynamics in DPO4, we drew a clear picture on how DPO4 dynamically regulates the DNA recognition. We argue that the unique features of flexibility and conformational dynamics in DPO4-DNA recognition have direct implications for low-fidelity translesion DNA synthesis, most of which is found to be accomplished by the Y-family DNA polymerases. Our results help complete the description of the DNA synthesis process for the Y-family polymerases. Furthermore, the methods developed here can be widely applied for future investigations on how various proteins recognize and bind specific DNA substrates. PMID:25188490

Chu, Xiakun; Liu, Fei; Maxwell, Brian A.; Wang, Yong; Suo, Zucai; Wang, Haijun; Han, Wei; Wang, Jin

2014-01-01

448

Dynamic conformational change regulates the protein-DNA recognition: an investigation on binding of a Y-family polymerase to its target DNA.  

PubMed

Protein-DNA recognition is a central biological process that governs the life of cells. A protein will often undergo a conformational transition to form the functional complex with its target DNA. The protein conformational dynamics are expected to contribute to the stability and specificity of DNA recognition and therefore may control the functional activity of the protein-DNA complex. Understanding how the conformational dynamics influences the protein-DNA recognition is still challenging. Here, we developed a two-basin structure-based model to explore functional dynamics in Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Y-family polymerase IV (DPO4) during its binding to DNA. With explicit consideration of non-specific and specific interactions between DPO4 and DNA, we found that DPO4-DNA recognition is comprised of first 3D diffusion, then a short-range adjustment sliding on DNA and finally specific binding. Interestingly, we found that DPO4 is under a conformational equilibrium between multiple states during the binding process and the distributions of the conformations vary at different binding stages. By modulating the strength of the electrostatic interactions, the flexibility of the linker, and the conformational dynamics in DPO4, we drew a clear picture on how DPO4 dynamically regulates the DNA recognition. We argue that the unique features of flexibility and conformational dynamics in DPO4-DNA recognition have direct implications for low-fidelity translesion DNA synthesis, most of which is found to be accomplished by the Y-family DNA polymerases. Our results help complete the description of the DNA synthesis process for the Y-family polymerases. Furthermore, the methods developed here can be widely applied for future investigations on how various proteins recognize and bind specific DNA substrates. PMID:25188490

Chu, Xiakun; Liu, Fei; Maxwell, Brian A; Wang, Yong; Suo, Zucai; Wang, Haijun; Han, Wei; Wang, Jin

2014-09-01

449

Eye movements and word skipping during reading: Effects of word length and predictability  

PubMed Central

The extent to which target words were predictable from prior context was varied: half of the target words were predictable and the other half were unpredictable. In addition, the length of the target word varied: the target words were short (4–6 letters), medium (7–9 letters), or long (10–12 letters). Length and predictability both yielded strong effects on the probability of skipping the target words and on the amount of time readers fixated the target words (when they were not skipped). However, there was no interaction in any of the measures examined for either skipping or fixation time. The results demonstrate that word predictability (due to contextual constraint) and word length have strong and independent influences on word skipping and fixation durations. Furthermore, since the long words extended beyond the word identification span, the data indicate that skipping can occur on the basis of partial information in relation to word identity. PMID:21463086

Rayner, Keith; Slattery, Timothy J.; Drieghe, Denis; Liversedge, Simon P.

2012-01-01

450

Influence of Word Class Proportion on Cerebral Asymmetries for High- And Low-Imagery Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been claimed that the typical RVF/LH advantage for word recognition is reduced or eliminated for imageable, as compared to nonimageable, nouns. To determine whether such word-class effects vary depending on the stimulus list context in which the words are presented, we varied the proportion of high- and low-image words presented in a…

Chiarello, C.; Shears, C.; Liu, S.; Kacinik, N.A.

2005-01-01

451

Misperceptions of spoken words: Data from a random sample of American English words  

PubMed Central

This study reports a detailed analysis of incorrect responses from an open-set spoken word recognition experiment of 1428 words designed to be a random sample of the entire American English lexicon. The stimuli were presented in six-talker babble to 192 young, normal-hearing listeners at three signal-to-noise ratios (0, +5, and +10?dB). The results revealed several patterns: (1) errors tended to have a higher frequency of occurrence than did the corresponding target word, and frequency of occurrence of error responses was significantly correlated with target frequency of occurrence; (2) incorrect responses were close to the target words in terms of number of phonemes and syllables but had a mean edit distance of 3; (3) for syllables, substitutions were much more frequent than either deletions or additions; for phonemes, deletions were slightly more frequent than substitutions; both were more frequent than additions; and (4) for errors involving just a single segment, substitutions were more frequent than either deletions or additions. The raw data are being made available to other researchers as supplementary material to form the beginnings of a database of speech errors collected under controlled laboratory conditions. PMID:23862832

Albert Felty, Robert; Buchwald, Adam; Gruenenfelder, Thomas M.; Pisoni, David B.