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Sample records for target word recognition

  1. A Comparison of Two Flashcard Drill Methods Targeting Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Mule, Christina M.; Briesch, Amy M.; Joseph, Laurice M.; Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional drill and practice (TD) and incremental rehearsal (IR) are two flashcard drill instructional methods previously noted to improve word recognition. The current study sought to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of these two methods, as assessed by next day retention assessments, under 2 conditions (i.e., opportunities to respond…

  2. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  3. Recognition intent and visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man-Ying; Ching, Chi-Le

    2009-03-01

    This study adopted a change detection task to investigate whether and how recognition intent affects the construction of orthographic representation in visual word recognition. Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1) and nonreaders (Experiment 1-2) detected color changes in radical components of Chinese characters. Explicit recognition demand was imposed in Experiment 2 by an additional recognition task. When the recognition was implicit, a bias favoring the radical location informative of character identity was found in Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1), but not nonreaders (Experiment 1-2). With explicit recognition demands, the effect of radical location interacted with radical function and word frequency (Experiment 2). An estimate of identification performance under implicit recognition was derived in Experiment 3. These findings reflect the joint influence of recognition intent and orthographic regularity in shaping readers' orthographic representation. The implication for the role of visual attention in word recognition was also discussed. PMID:19036609

  4. Word recognition using ideal word patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sheila X.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1994-03-01

    The word shape analysis approach to text recognition is motivated by discoveries in psychological studies of the human reading process. It attempts to describe and compare the shape of the word as a whole object without trying to segment and recognize the individual characters, so it bypasses the errors committed in character segmentation and classification. However, the large number of classes and large variation and distortion expected in all patterns belonging to the same class make it difficult for conventional, accurate, pattern recognition approaches. A word shape analysis approach using ideal word patterns to overcome the difficulty and improve recognition performance is described in this paper. A special word pattern which characterizes a word class is extracted from different sample patterns of the word class and stored in memory. Recognition of a new word pattern is achieved by comparing it with the special pattern of each word class called ideal word pattern. The process of generating the ideal word pattern of each word class is proposed. The algorithm was tested on a set of machine printed gray scale word images which included a wide range of print types and qualities.

  5. Visual recognition of permuted words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Sheikh Faisal; Shafait, Faisal; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-02-01

    In current study we examine how letter permutation affects in visual recognition of words for two orthographically dissimilar languages, Urdu and German. We present the hypothesis that recognition or reading of permuted and non-permuted words are two distinct mental level processes, and that people use different strategies in handling permuted words as compared to normal words. A comparison between reading behavior of people in these languages is also presented. We present our study in context of dual route theories of reading and it is observed that the dual-route theory is consistent with explanation of our hypothesis of distinction in underlying cognitive behavior for reading permuted and non-permuted words. We conducted three experiments in lexical decision tasks to analyze how reading is degraded or affected by letter permutation. We performed analysis of variance (ANOVA), distribution free rank test, and t-test to determine the significance differences in response time latencies for two classes of data. Results showed that the recognition accuracy for permuted words is decreased 31% in case of Urdu and 11% in case of German language. We also found a considerable difference in reading behavior for cursive and alphabetic languages and it is observed that reading of Urdu is comparatively slower than reading of German due to characteristics of cursive script.

  6. Cortical dynamics of word recognition.

    PubMed

    Mainy, Nelly; Jung, Julien; Baciu, Monica; Kahane, Philippe; Schoendorff, Benjamin; Minotti, Lorella; Hoffmann, Dominique; Bertrand, Olivier; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

    2008-11-01

    While functional neuroimaging studies have helped elucidate major regions implicated in word recognition, much less is known about the dynamics of the associated activations or the actual neural processes of their functional network. We used intracerebral electroencephalography recordings in 10 patients with epilepsy to directly measure neural activity in the temporal and frontal lobes during written words' recognition, predominantly in the left hemisphere. The patients were presented visually with consonant strings, pseudo-words, and words and performed a hierarchical paradigm contrasting semantic processes (living vs. nonliving word categorization task), phonological processes (rhyme decision task on pseudo-words), and visual processes (visual analysis of consonant strings). Stimuli triggered a cascade of modulations in the gamma-band (>40 Hz) with reproducible timing and task-sensitivity throughout the functional reading network: the earliest gamma-band activations were observed for all stimuli in the mesial basal temporal lobe at 150 ms, reaching the word form area in the mid fusiform gyrus at 200 ms, evidencing a superiority effect for word-like stimuli. Peaks of gamma-band activations were then observed for word-like stimuli after 400 ms in the anterior and middle portion of the superior temporal gyrus (BA 38 and BA 22 respectively), in the pars triangularis of Broca's area for the semantic task (BAs 45 and 47), and in the pars opercularis for the phonological task (BA 44). Concurrently, we observed a two-pronged effect in the prefrontal cortex (BAs 9 and 46), with nonspecific sustained dorsal activation related to sustained attention and, more ventrally, a strong reflex deactivation around 500 ms, possibly due to semantic working memory reset. PMID:17712785

  7. Natural Language Processing: Word Recognition without Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeed, Khalid; Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of automatic recognition of hand and machine-written cursive text using the Arabic alphabet focuses on an algorithm for word recognition. Describes results of testing words for recognition without segmentation and considers the algorithms' use for words of different fonts and for processing whole sentences. (Author/LRW)

  8. Do handwritten words magnify lexical effects in visual word recognition?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Beléndez, Victoria; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    An examination of how the word recognition system is able to process handwritten words is fundamental to formulate a comprehensive model of visual word recognition. Previous research has revealed that the magnitude of lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) is greater with handwritten words than with printed words. In the present lexical decision experiments, we examined whether the quality of handwritten words moderates the recruitment of top-down feedback, as reflected in word-frequency effects. Results showed a reading cost for difficult-to-read and easy-to-read handwritten words relative to printed words. But the critical finding was that difficult-to-read handwritten words, but not easy-to-read handwritten words, showed a greater word-frequency effect than printed words. Therefore, the inherent physical variability of handwritten words does not necessarily boost the magnitude of lexical effects. PMID:26340587

  9. Lexicon-based word recognition without word segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.K.; Chen, C.H.

    1994-12-31

    We present a word recognition approach that does not rely on explicit word segmentation. It treats the character recognition output as a continuous string of characters instead of first dividing it into words before word-level contextual knowledge is applied. This technique is useful in degraded document images, in which isolation of individual words by purely image- or character-based means is difficult or unreliable. We use a hypothesis generation and verification approach, in which word identities and their positions are hypothesized based on {open_quotes}seed features{close_quotes} (character substrings) extracted from the output of the character recognizer. Verification of the hypotheses consists of comparing the characters in the hypothesized word with candidate characters near the position of the seed feature in the text, and selecting the set of consecutive word hypotheses that are the most mutually consistent. Hence, word segmentation and word recognition are effectively performed in parallel.

  10. Adult Word Recognition and Visual Sequential Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from…

  11. Embedded Words in Visual Word Recognition: Does the Left Hemisphere See the Rain in Brain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Samantha F.; Davis, Colin J.; Brysbaert, Marc

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether interhemispheric transfer during foveal word recognition entails a discontinuity between the information presented to the left and right of fixation, we presented target words in such a way that participants fixated immediately left or right of an embedded word (as in "gr*apple", "bull*et") or in the middle of an embedded word…

  12. Intelligent word-based text recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoenes, Frank; Bleisinger, Rainer; Dengel, Andreas R.

    1991-02-01

    STRACT The need for making information within paper documents available for computers increases steadily. In this paper we present a system which is capable to read and to simply understand address blocks of business letters. It is based on optical word recognition (OWR) techniques uses feature recognition methods based on word shapes and is largly independent from different fonts and sizes. Even uncertainly recognized words can be identified using a dictionary and a specific verification algorithm. Additionally recognition accuracy is improved considering different knowledge layers like address syntax and logical dictionaries. Keywords: Text recognition document layout classification text analysis pattern recognition intelligent interfaces

  13. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  14. Developmental, Crosslinguistic Perspectives on Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Greg B.; Kang, Hyewon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that a complete understanding of language processing, in this case word-recognition processes, requires consideration both of multiple languages and of developmental processes. To illustrate these goals, we will summarize a 10-year research program exploring word-recognition processes in Korean adults and children. We…

  15. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  16. The Slow Developmental Time Course of Real-Time Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigler, Hannah; Farris-Trimble, Ashley; Greiner, Lea; Walker, Jessica; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McMurray, Bob

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental time course of spoken word recognition in older children using eye tracking to assess how the real-time processing dynamics of word recognition change over development. We found that 9-year-olds were slower to activate the target words and showed more early competition from competitor words than…

  17. Item Effects in Recognition Memory for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Emily; Heathcote, Andrew; Chalmers, Kerry; Hockley, William

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effects of word characteristics on episodic recognition memory using analyses that avoid Clark's (1973) "language-as-a-fixed-effect" fallacy. Our results demonstrate the importance of modeling word variability and show that episodic memory for words is strongly affected by item noise (Criss & Shiffrin, 2004), as measured by the…

  18. Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lisa B.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E.; Rojas, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task. PMID:21159322

  19. Word Frequency Effects for LEET Lettering in Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Grabbe, Jeremy W

    2016-01-01

    Letter substitution has been shown to have a cost to word recognition performance, such as increased reaction time. The use of orthographically similar numbers or symbols as a substitute for letters is known as LEET. Perea, Duñabeitia, and Carreiras (2008) showed that word recognition was not affected when LEET substitutions were used as primes. This study examined whether the effects of LEET prime substitutions would remain constant across word frequency. The apparent lack of substitution costs may have been an effect of word-level processing such as holistic bias for high-frequency words. Evidence that LEET does not have an appreciable cost to performance across word frequency suggests that such orthographic substitutions are processed much like normally lettered words, which supported Perea et al.'s findings. It was suggested that LEET substitutions offset substitution costs because of orthography (because of more complete processing of nonsubstituted letters) rather than lexical effects (i.e., holistic bias). PMID:27029105

  20. Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A method used widely to study the first 250 ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: For example, only word targets show priming in the lexical decision task, but both words and non-words do in the same-different task; semantic priming effects are generally weak in the lexical decision task but are robust in the semantic categorization task. We explain how such task dependence arises within the Bayesian Reader account of masked priming (Norris and Kinoshita, 2008), and how the task dissociations can be used to understand the early processes in lexical access. PMID:22675316

  1. Lexical Competition in Non-Native Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Four eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name ("pencil," given target "panda") than on less confusable distractors…

  2. Individual differences in online spoken word recognition: Implications for SLI

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have important implications for work on language impairment. The present study begins to fill this gap by relating individual differences in overall language ability to variation in online word recognition processes. Using the visual world paradigm, we evaluated online spoken word recognition in adolescents who varied in both basic language abilities and non-verbal cognitive abilities. Eye movements to target, cohort and rhyme objects were monitored during spoken word recognition, as an index of lexical activation. Adolescents with poor language skills showed fewer looks to the target and more fixations to the cohort and rhyme competitors. These results were compared to a number of variants of the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) that were constructed to test a range of theoretical approaches to language impairment: impairments at sensory and phonological levels; vocabulary size, and generalized slowing. None were strongly supported, and variation in lexical decay offered the best fit. Thus, basic word recognition processes like lexical decay may offer a new way to characterize processing differences in language impairment. PMID:19836014

  3. Visual word recognition across the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Balota, David A

    2016-08-01

    The current study examines visual word recognition in a large sample (N = 148) across the adult life span and across a large set of stimuli (N = 1,187) in three different lexical processing tasks (pronunciation, lexical decision, and animacy judgment). Although the focus of the present study is on the influence of word frequency, a diverse set of other variables are examined as the word recognition system ages and acquires more experience with language. Computational models and conceptual theories of visual word recognition and aging make differing predictions for age-related changes in the system. However, these have been difficult to assess because prior studies have produced inconsistent results, possibly because of sample differences, analytic procedures, and/or task-specific processes. The current study confronts these potential differences by using 3 different tasks, treating age and word variables as continuous, and exploring the influence of individual differences such as vocabulary, vision, and working memory. The primary finding is remarkable stability in the influence of a diverse set of variables on visual word recognition across the adult age spectrum. This pattern is discussed in reference to previous inconsistent findings in the literature and implications for current models of visual word recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27336629

  4. Early Word Recognition and Later Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of infants who had earlier participated in speech segmentation tasks. Each study extends prior follow-up tests: Study 1 by using a novel follow-up measure that taps into online processing, Study 2 by assessing language performance relationships over a longer time span than previously tested. Results of Study 1 show that brain correlates of speech segmentation ability at 10 months are positively related to 16-month-olds’ target fixations in a looking-while-listening task. Results of Study 2 show that infant speech segmentation ability no longer directly predicts language profiles at the age of five. However, a meta-analysis across our results and those of similar studies (Study 3) reveals that age at follow-up does not moderate effect size. Together, the results suggest that infants’ ability to recognize words in speech certainly benefits early vocabulary development; further observed relationships of later language skills to early word recognition may be consequent upon this vocabulary size effect. PMID:25347057

  5. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions. PMID:25593407

  6. Famous talker effects in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Maibauer, Alisa M; Markis, Teresa A; Newell, Jessica; McLennan, Conor T

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that talker-specific representations affect spoken word recognition relatively late during processing. However, participants in these studies were listening to unfamiliar talkers. In the present research, we used a long-term repetition-priming paradigm and a speeded-shadowing task and presented listeners with famous talkers. In Experiment 1, half the words were spoken by Barack Obama, and half by Hillary Clinton. Reaction times (RTs) to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words only when repeated by the same talker. However, in Experiment 2, using nonfamous talkers, RTs to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words both when repeated by the same talker and when repeated by a different talker. Taken together, the results demonstrate that talker-specific details can affect the perception of spoken words relatively early during processing when words are spoken by famous talkers. PMID:24366633

  7. Word Spotting and Recognition with Embedded Attributes.

    PubMed

    Almazán, Jon; Gordo, Albert; Fornés, Alicia; Valveny, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the problems of word spotting and word recognition on images. In word spotting, the goal is to find all instances of a query word in a dataset of images. In recognition, the goal is to recognize the content of the word image, usually aided by a dictionary or lexicon. We describe an approach in which both word images and text strings are embedded in a common vectorial subspace. This is achieved by a combination of label embedding and attributes learning, and a common subspace regression. In this subspace, images and strings that represent the same word are close together, allowing one to cast recognition and retrieval tasks as a nearest neighbor problem. Contrary to most other existing methods, our representation has a fixed length, is low dimensional, and is very fast to compute and, especially, to compare. We test our approach on four public datasets of both handwritten documents and natural images showing results comparable or better than the state-of-the-art on spotting and recognition tasks. PMID:26353157

  8. Immediate effects of anticipatory coarticulation in spoken-word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Salverda, Anne Pier; Kleinschmidt, Dave; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments examined listeners’ use of pre word-onset anticipatory coarticulation in spoken-word recognition. Experiment 1 established the shortest lag with which information in the speech signal influences eye-movement control, using stimuli such as “The … ladder is the target”. With a neutral token of the definite article preceding the target word, saccades to the referent were not more likely than saccades to an unrelated distractor until 200–240 ms after the onset of the target word. In Experiment 2, utterances contained definite articles which contained natural anticipatory coarticulation pertaining to the onset of the target word (“ The ladder … is the target”). A simple Gaussian classifier was able to predict the initial sound of the upcoming target word from formant information from the first few pitch periods of the article’s vowel. With these stimuli, effects of speech on eye-movement control began about 70 ms earlier than in Experiment 1, suggesting rapid use of anticipatory coarticulation. The results are interpreted as support for “data explanation” approaches to spoken-word recognition. Methodological implications for visual-world studies are also discussed. PMID:24511179

  9. The spread of the phonological neighborhood influences spoken word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, the processing of words that had the same overall number of neighbors but varied in the spread of the neighborhood (i.e., the number of individual phonemes that could be changed to form real words) was examined. In an auditory lexical decision task, a naming task, and a same–different task, words in which changes at only two phoneme positions formed neighbors were responded to more quickly than words in which changes at all three phoneme positions formed neighbors. Additional analyses ruled out an account based on the computationally derived uniqueness points of the words. Although previous studies (e.g., Luce & Pisoni, 1998) have shown that the number of phonological neighbors influences spoken word recognition, the present results show that the nature of the relationship of the neighbors to the target word—as measured by the spread of the neighborhood—also influences spoken word recognition. The implications of this result for models of spoken word recognition are discussed. PMID:17533890

  10. Acoustic-phonetic representations in word recognition*

    PubMed Central

    PISONI, DAVID B.; LUCE, PAUL A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews what is currently known about the sensory and perceptual input that is made available to the word recognition system by processes typically assumed to be related to speech sound perception. In the first section, we discuss several of the major problems that speech researchers have tried to deal with over the last thirty years. In the second section, we consider one attempt to conceptualize the speech perception process within a theoretical framework that equates processing stages with levels of linguistic analysis. This framework assumes that speech is processed through a series of analytic stages ranging from peripheral auditory processing, acoustic-phonetic and phonological analysis, to word recognition and lexical access. Finally, in the last section, we consider several recent approaches to spoken word recognition and lexical access. We examine a number of claims surrounding the nature of the bottom-up input assumed by these models, postulated perceptual units, and the interaction of different knowledge sources in auditory word recognition. An additional goal of this paper was to establish the need to employ segmental representations in spoken word recognition. PMID:3581727

  11. Eye Movements during Spoken Word Recognition in Russian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores incremental processing in spoken word recognition in Russian 5- and 6-year-olds and adults using free-viewing eye-tracking. Participants viewed scenes containing pictures of four familiar objects and clicked on a target embedded in a spoken instruction. In the cohort condition, two object names shared identical three-phoneme…

  12. Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Continuous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positional probability of syllables played in recognition of spoken word in continuous Cantonese speech. Because some sounds occur more frequently at the beginning position or ending position of Cantonese syllables than the others, so these kinds of probabilistic information of syllables may cue the locations…

  13. Morpho-Semantic Processing in Word Recognition: Evidence from Balanced and Biased Ambiguous Morphemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2013-01-01

    The role of morphemic meaning in Chinese word recognition was examined with the masked and unmasked priming paradigms. Target words contained ambiguous morphemes biased toward the dominant or the subordinate meanings. Prime words either contained the same ambiguous morphemes in the subordinate interpretations or were unrelated to the targets. In…

  14. The Army word recognition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, David R.; Haratz, David

    1977-01-01

    The application of speech recognition technology in the Army command and control area is presented. The problems associated with this program are described as well as as its relevance in terms of the man/machine interactions, voice inflexions, and the amount of training needed to interact with and utilize the automated system.

  15. Local strategic control of information in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Simpson, G B

    2001-06-01

    In the present studies, we examined strategic flexibility in the use of lexical and sublexical information in Korean word recognition. Korean readers show a large frequency effect for words printed in the alphabetic Hangul script only if these words are embedded in a list consisting largely of logographic (Hanza) words. In the first experiment, high- and low- frequency Hangul words were preceded by Hangul or Hanza words. Frequency effects were eliminated when a Hangul target word was preceded by two Hangul words, even when the overall proportion of Hanza words in the list was large. In the second experiment, one group saw each stimulus preceded by a cue indicating which script would be seen on that trial. Frequency effects for Hangul targets were absent under this condition, but were present when subjects were not so cued. These results indicate that Korean readers are able to control their use of lexical and sublexical information over a small number of stimuli or even trial by trial. PMID:11504013

  16. Contextual Constraints on Ambiguous Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schvaneveldt, Roger W.; And Others

    Two major hypotheses are currently at issue concerning the effects of semantic context on ambiguous word recognition: (1) the selective-retrieval hypothesis (SRH) maintains that a single meaning is retrieved from memory, and (2) the nonselective-retrieval hypothesis maintains that all meanings are retrieved from memory. To help clear up this…

  17. Bilingual Word Recognition in English and Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiri, Helena-Fivi; Willows, Dale M.

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated word recognition processes of Greek/English bilinguals in relation to linguistic and syntactic differences in the languages, then compared those processes with those of monolinguals. Bilingual readers performed differently in the languages, conforming more to monolingual patterns in their native language (Greek), interpreted…

  18. Word Recognition: Theoretical Issues and Instructional Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward E.; Kleiman, Glenn M.

    Research on adult readers' word recognition skills is used in this paper to develop a general information processing model of reading. Stages of the model include feature extraction, interpretation, lexical access, working memory, and integration. Of those stages, particular attention is given to the units of interpretation, speech recoding and…

  19. Vowel Categorization during Word Recognition in Bilingual Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Ramon-Casas, Marta; Swingley, Daniel; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Bosch, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Toddlers’ and preschoolers’ knowledge of the phonological forms of words was tested in Spanish-learning, Catalan-learning, and bilingual children. These populations are of particular interest because of differences in the Spanish and Catalan vowel systems: Catalan has two vowels in a phonetic region where Spanish has only one. The proximity of the Spanish vowel to the Catalan ones might pose special learning problems. Children were shown picture pairs; the target picture’s name was spoken correctly, or a vowel in the target word was altered. Altered vowels either contrasted with the usual vowel in Spanish and Catalan, or only in Catalan. Children’s looking to the target picture was used as a measure of word recognition. Monolinguals’ word recognition was hindered by within-language, but not non-native, vowel changes. Surprisingly, bilingual toddlers did not show sensitivity to changes in vowels contrastive only in Catalan. Among preschoolers, Catalan-dominant bilinguals but not Spanish-dominant bilinguals revealed mispronunciation sensitivity for the Catalan-only contrast. These studies reveal monolingual children’s robust knowledge of native-language vowel categories in words, and show that bilingual children whose two languages contain phonetically overlapping vowel categories may not treat those categories as separate in language comprehension. PMID:19338984

  20. Vowel categorization during word recognition in bilingual toddlers.

    PubMed

    Ramon-Casas, Marta; Swingley, Daniel; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Bosch, Laura

    2009-08-01

    Toddlers' and preschoolers' knowledge of the phonological forms of words was tested in Spanish-learning, Catalan-learning, and bilingual children. These populations are of particular interest because of differences in the Spanish and Catalan vowel systems: Catalan has two vowels in a phonetic region where Spanish has only one. The proximity of the Spanish vowel to the Catalan ones might pose special learning problems. Children were shown picture pairs; the target picture's name was spoken correctly, or a vowel in the target word was altered. Altered vowels either contrasted with the usual vowel in Spanish and Catalan, or only in Catalan. Children's looking to the target picture was used as a measure of word recognition. Monolinguals' word recognition was hindered by within-language, but not non-native, vowel changes. Surprisingly, bilingual toddlers did not show sensitivity to changes in vowels contrastive only in Catalan. Among preschoolers, Catalan-dominant bilinguals but not Spanish-dominant bilinguals revealed mispronunciation sensitivity for the Catalan-only contrast. These studies reveal monolingual children's robust knowledge of native-language vowel categories in words, and show that bilingual children whose two languages contain phonetically overlapping vowel categories may not treat those categories as separate in language comprehension. PMID:19338984

  1. Spoken word recognition without a TRACE.

    PubMed

    Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition-including visual word recognition-have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349

  2. Spoken Word Recognition in Toddlers Who Use Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M.; Saffran, Jenny R.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the time course of spoken word recognition in 2-year-old children who use cochlear implants (CIs) in quiet and in the presence of speech competitors. Method Children who use CIs and age-matched peers with normal acoustic hearing listened to familiar auditory labels, in quiet or in the presence of speech competitors, while their eye movements to target objects were digitally recorded. Word recognition performance was quantified by measuring each child’s reaction time (i.e., the latency between the spoken auditory label and the first look at the target object) and accuracy (i.e., the amount of time that children looked at target objects within 367 ms to 2,000 ms after the label onset). Results Children with CIs were less accurate and took longer to fixate target objects than did age-matched children without hearing loss. Both groups of children showed reduced performance in the presence of the speech competitors, although many children continued to recognize labels at above-chance levels. Conclusion The results suggest that the unique auditory experience of young CI users slows the time course of spoken word recognition abilities. In addition, real-world listening environments may slow language processing in young language learners, regardless of their hearing status. PMID:19951921

  3. Is Early Word-form Processing Stress-full? How Natural Variability Supports Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bortfeld, Heather; Morgan, James L.

    2010-01-01

    In a series of studies, we examined how mothers naturally stress words across multiple mentions in speech to their infants and how this marking influences infants’ recognition of words in fluent speech. We first collected samples of mothers’ infant-directed speech using a technique that induced multiple repetitions of target words. Acoustic analyses revealed that mothers systematically alternated between emphatic and nonemphatic stress when talking to their infants. Using the headturn preference procedure, we then tested 7.5-month-old infants on their ability to detect familiarized bisyllabic words in fluent speech. Stress of target words (emphatic and nonemphatic) was systematically varied across familiarization and recognition phases of four experiments. Results indicated that, although infants generally prefer listening to words produced with emphatic stress, recognition was enhanced when the degree of emphatic stress at familiarization matched the degree of emphatic stress at recognition. PMID:20159653

  4. Phonological assimilation and visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yang; Moreno, Miguel A; Park, Hyeongsaeng; Carello, Claudia; Turvey, Michael T

    2006-11-01

    Are the visual word-processing tasks of naming and lexical decision sensitive to systematic phonological properties that may or may not be specified in the spelling? Two experiments with Hangul, the alphabetic orthography of Korea, were directed at the effects of the phonological process of assimilation whereby one articulation changes to conform to a neighboring articulation. Disyllabic words were responded to more quickly when (a) the final letter of the first syllable and the initial letter of the second syllable specified phonemes that satisfied rather than violated consonant assimilation, and (b) the vowel letters specified harmonious as opposed to disharmonious vowel phonemes. Discussion addressed the possible mediation of assimilation effects by consistency differences and theories that predict broad phonological influences on visual word recognition. PMID:17103326

  5. Spoken word recognition without a TRACE

    PubMed Central

    Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition—including visual word recognition—have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349

  6. Recognition of Spoken Words: Semantic Effects in Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurm, Lee H.; Vakoch, Douglas A.; Seaman, Sean R.

    2004-01-01

    Until recently most models of word recognition have assumed that semantic effects come into play only after the identification of the word in question. What little evidence exists for early semantic effects in word recognition has relied primarily on priming manipulations using the lexical decision task, and has used visual stimulus presentation.…

  7. Three Languages, One ECHO: Cognate Effects in Trilingual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemhofer, Kristin; Dijkstra, Ton; Michel, Marije C.

    2004-01-01

    Research on bilingual word recognition suggests that lexical access is non-selective with respect to language, i.e., that word representations of both languages become active during recognition. One piece of evidence is that bilinguals recognise cognates (words that are identical or similar in form and meaning in two languages) faster than…

  8. Brain wave recognition of words

    PubMed Central

    Suppes, Patrick; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Han, Bing

    1997-01-01

    Electrical and magnetic brain waves of seven subjects under three experimental conditions were recorded for the purpose of recognizing which one of seven words was processed. The analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to both of which Fourier transforms were applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. The filters used were optimal predictive filters, selected for each subject and condition. Recognition rates, based on a least-squares criterion, varied widely, but all but one of 24 were significantly different from chance. The two best were above 90%. These results show that brain waves carry substantial information about the word being processed under experimental conditions of conscious awareness. PMID:9405722

  9. Coordination of Word Recognition and Oculomotor Control During Reading: The Role of Implicit Lexical Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The coordination of word-recognition and oculomotor processes during reading was evaluated in two eye-tracking experiments that examined how word skipping, where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading, is affected by the lexical status of a letter string in the parafovea and ease of recognizing that string. Ease of lexical recognition was manipulated through target-word frequency (Experiment 1) and through repetition priming between prime-target pairs embedded in a sentence (Experiment 2). Using the gaze-contingent boundary technique the target word appeared in the parafovea either with full preview or with transposed-letter (TL) preview. The TL preview strings were nonwords in Experiment 1 (e.g., bilnk created from the target blink), but were words in Experiment 2 (e.g., sacred created from the target scared). Experiment 1 showed greater skipping for high-frequency than low-frequency target words in the full preview condition but not in the TL preview (nonword) condition. Experiment 2 showed greater skipping for target words that repeated an earlier prime word than for those that did not, with this repetition priming occurring both with preview of the full target and with preview of the target’s TL neighbor word. However, time to progress from the word after the target was greater following skips of the TL preview word, whose meaning was anomalous in the sentence context, than following skips of the full preview word whose meaning fit sensibly into the sentence context. Together, the results support the idea that coordination between word-recognition and oculomotor processes occurs at the level of implicit lexical decisions. PMID:23106372

  10. Influences of High and Low Variability on Infant Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Leher

    2008-01-01

    Although infants begin to encode and track novel words in fluent speech by 7.5 months, their ability to recognize words is somewhat limited at this stage. In particular, when the surface form of a word is altered, by changing the gender or affective prosody of the speaker, infants begin to falter at spoken word recognition. Given that natural…

  11. The Dynamics of Lexical Competition during Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, James S.; Dixon, James A.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2007-01-01

    The sounds that make up spoken words are heard in a series and must be mapped rapidly onto words in memory because their elements, unlike those of visual words, cannot simultaneously exist or persist in time. Although theories agree that the dynamics of spoken word recognition are important, they differ in how they treat the nature of the…

  12. The Influence of the Phonological Neighborhood Clustering-Coefficient on Spoken Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Clustering coefficient—a measure derived from the new science of networks—refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words bat, hat, and can, all of which are neighbors of the word cat; the words bat and hat are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual identification task, words with a low clustering coefficient (i.e., few neighbors are neighbors of each other) were more accurately identified than words with a high clustering coefficient (i.e., many neighbors are neighbors of each other). In a lexical decision task, words with a low clustering coefficient were responded to more quickly than words with a high clustering coefficient. These findings suggest that the structure of the lexicon, that is the similarity relationships among neighbors of the target word measured by clustering coefficient, influences lexical access in spoken word recognition. Simulations of the TRACE and Shortlist models of spoken word recognition failed to account for the present findings. A framework for a new model of spoken word recognition is proposed. PMID:19968444

  13. The slow developmental timecourse of real-time spoken word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Rigler, Hannah; Farris-Trimble, Ashley; Greiner, Lea; Walker, Jessica; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McMurray, Bob

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental timecourse of spoken word recognition in older children using eye-tracking to assess how the real-time processing dynamics of word recognition change over development. We found that nine-year-olds were slower to activate the target words and showed more early competition from competitor words than 16 year olds; however, both age groups ultimately fixated targets to the same degree. This contrasts with a prior study of adolescents with language impairment (McMurray et al, 2010) which showed a different pattern of real-time processes. These findings suggest that the dynamics of word recognition are still developing even at these late ages, and differences due to developmental change may derive from different sources than individual differences in relative language ability. PMID:26479544

  14. The Role of Additional Processing Time and Lexical Constraint in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoCasto, Paul C.; Connine, Cynthia M.; Patterson, David

    2007-01-01

    Three phoneme monitoring experiments examined the manner in which additional processing time influences spoken word recognition. Experiment 1a introduced a version of the phoneme monitoring paradigm in which a silent interval is inserted prior to the word-final target phoneme. Phoneme monitoring reaction time decreased as the silent interval…

  15. The Roles of Tonal and Segmental Information in Mandarin Spoken Word Recognition: An Eyetracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malins, Jeffrey G.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2010-01-01

    We used eyetracking to examine how tonal versus segmental information influence spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese. Participants heard an auditory word and were required to identify its corresponding picture from an array that included the target item ("chuang2" "bed"), a phonological competitor (segmental: chuang1 "window"; cohort:…

  16. Visual speech primes open-set recognition of spoken words

    PubMed Central

    Buchwald, Adam B.; Winters, Stephen J.; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Visual speech perception has become a topic of considerable interest to speech researchers. Previous research has demonstrated that perceivers neurally encode and use speech information from the visual modality, and this information has been found to facilitate spoken word recognition in tasks such as lexical decision (Kim, Davis, & Krins, 2004). In this paper, we used a cross-modality repetition priming paradigm with visual speech lexical primes and auditory lexical targets to explore the nature of this priming effect. First, we report that participants identified spoken words mixed with noise more accurately when the words were preceded by a visual speech prime of the same word compared with a control condition. Second, analyses of the responses indicated that both correct and incorrect responses were constrained by the visual speech information in the prime. These complementary results suggest that the visual speech primes have an effect on lexical access by increasing the likelihood that words with certain phonetic properties are selected. Third, we found that the cross-modality repetition priming effect was maintained even when visual and auditory signals came from different speakers, and thus different instances of the same lexical item. We discuss implications of these results for current theories of speech perception. PMID:21544260

  17. Orthographic Facilitation in Chinese Spoken Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…

  18. The Role of Antibody in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kim, Kyungil

    2010-01-01

    A subsyllabic phonological unit, the antibody, has received little attention as a potential fundamental processing unit in word recognition. The psychological reality of the antibody in Korean recognition was investigated by looking at the performance of subjects presented with nonwords and words in the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, the…

  19. Function Words Constrain On-Line Recognition of Verbs and Nouns in French 18-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauvet, Elodie; Limissuri, Rita; Millotte, Severine; Skoruppa, Katrin; Cabrol, Dominique; Christophe, Anne

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment using the conditioned head-turn procedure, 18-month-old French-learning toddlers were trained to respond to either a target noun ("la balle"/"the ball") or a target verb ("je mange"/"I ea"t). They were then tested on target word recognition in two syntactic contexts: the target word was…

  20. Phonotactics Constraints and the Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Two word-spotting experiments were conducted to examine the question of whether native Cantonese listeners are constrained by phonotactics information in spoken word recognition of Chinese words in speech. Because no legal consonant clusters occurred within an individual Chinese word, this kind of categorical phonotactics information of Chinese…

  1. Using pronunciation data to study word recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Mark A.; Johnson, Keith

    2003-10-01

    Many of the mysteries of spoken word recognition have evolved out of the observation that pronunciation is highly variable yet perception is amazingly stable. Extreme forms of variation can even result in different phonetic percepts, such as consonant assimilation (e.g., ``green ball:'' ``greem ball'') and deletion (e.g., ``and:'' ``an''), yet listeners still perceive the intended word. The results from two lines of work will be presented in which we are studying the regularity of these production phenomena to evaluate models of how phonological variants are recognized. In one project we examined variation itself. Phonological and acoustic analyses of phonological variation in the Buckeye corpus of conversational speech were carried out in which we asked questions such as the following: How predictable and consistent is regressive assimilation? and How acoustically similar is the assimilated segment to an intended production of that same segment? In a related project, we examined the listener's sensitivity to the variation found in conversational speech. Results reveal the complexities of these production phenomena, the challenges models must overcome to account for how variants are recognized, and listeners' sensitivity to stochastic properties of pronunication variation. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  2. Cognitive Development, Sex, and Abstractness in Grade One Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yore, Larry D.; Ollila, Lloyd O.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of global cognitive development, sex, and word abstractness on young readers' word recognition were explored. ANOVA results indicated that nouns were recognized more frequently than non-nouns; children with high cognitive development recognized more words than children with lower cognitive development; and females recognized more words…

  3. Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Word Processing, Recognition and Context Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit

    2007-01-01

    In the paper the lexical ambiguity resolution is presented. The paper is specifically focused on the processing of words, models of word recognition, context effect, trying to find an answer to how the reader-listener determines the contextually appropriate meaning of a word. Ambiguity resolution is analyzed and explored in two perspectives: the…

  4. Modelling the Effects of Semantic Ambiguity in Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    2004-01-01

    Most words in English are ambiguous between different interpretations; words can mean different things in different contexts. We investigate the implications of different types of semantic ambiguity for connectionist models of word recognition. We present a model in which there is competition to activate distributed semantic representations. The…

  5. From Numbers to Letters: Feedback Regularization in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinaro, Nicola; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Marin-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Word reading in alphabetic languages involves letter identification, independently of the format in which these letters are written. This process of letter "regularization" is sensitive to word context, leading to the recognition of a word even when numbers that resemble letters are inserted among other real letters (e.g., M4TERI4L). The present…

  6. Morphological Structures in Visual Word Recognition: The Case of Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Awwad, Jasmin (Shalhoub)

    2004-01-01

    This research examined the function within lexical access of the main morphemic units from which most Arabic words are assembled, namely roots and word patterns. The present study focused on the derivation of nouns, in particular, whether the lexical representation of Arabic words reflects their morphological structure and whether recognition of a…

  7. Influences of Spoken Word Planning on Speech Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Ardi; Ozdemir, Rebecca; Levelt, Willem J. M.

    2007-01-01

    In 4 chronometric experiments, influences of spoken word planning on speech recognition were examined. Participants were shown pictures while hearing a tone or a spoken word presented shortly after picture onset. When a spoken word was presented, participants indicated whether it contained a prespecified phoneme. When the tone was presented, they…

  8. Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2010-01-01

    We employ a single-trial correlational MEG analysis technique to investigate early processing in the visual recognition of morphologically complex words. Three classes of affixed words were presented in a lexical decision task: free stems (e.g., taxable), bound roots (e.g., tolerable), and unique root words (e.g., vulnerable, the root of which…

  9. [Recognition processes for Chinese and original words written in Hangul].

    PubMed

    Cho, K D

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine recognition processes for Chinese and original words written in Hangul. It was tested whether or not the processing time for Chinese words is different from that for original words. In the first experiment, naming latencies for Chinese words were longer than those for original words. Also, the naming latencies for high-frequency-Chinese-words with final consonant (CVC + CVC) were shorter than those for high-frequency-Chinese-words without final consonant (CV + CV). The second experiment was conducted to clarify the lexical process by using the lexical decision task. The lexical decision times for Chinese words were not different from those for original words. The data suggest that the reading of Hangul words is mediated by lexical information as well as by phonological information. PMID:9278965

  10. Foreign language learning, hyperlexia, and early word recognition.

    PubMed

    Sparks, R L; Artzer, M

    2000-01-01

    Children with hyperlexia read words spontaneously before the age of five, have impaired comprehension on both listening and reading tasks, and have word recognition skill above expectations based on cognitive and linguistic abilities. One student with hyperlexia and another student with higher word recognition than comprehension skills who started to read words at a very early age were followed over several years from the primary grades through high school when both were completing a second-year Spanish course. The purpose of the present study was to examine the foreign language (FL) word recognition, spelling, reading comprehension, writing, speaking, and listening skills of the two students and another high school student without hyperlexia. Results showed that the student without hyperlexia achieved higher scores than the hyperlexic student and the student with above average word recognition skills on most FL proficiency measures. The student with hyperlexia and the student with above average word recognition skills achieved higher scores on the Spanish proficiency tasks that required the exclusive use of phonological (pronunciation) and phonological/orthographic (word recognition, spelling) skills than on Spanish proficiency tasks that required the use of listening comprehension and speaking and writing skills. The findings provide support for the notion that word recognition and spelling in a FL may be modular processes and exist independently of general cognitive and linguistic skills. Results also suggest that students may have stronger FL learning skills in one language component than in other components of language, and that there may be a weak relationship between FL word recognition and oral proficiency in the FL. PMID:20563785

  11. Effects of word frequency, contextual diversity, and semantic distinctiveness on spoken word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Brendan T.; Gruenenfelder, Thomas M.; Pisoni, David B.; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    The relative abilities of word frequency, contextual diversity, and semantic distinctiveness to predict accuracy of spoken word recognition in noise were compared using two data sets. Word frequency is the number of times a word appears in a corpus of text. Contextual diversity is the number of different documents in which the word appears in that corpus. Semantic distinctiveness takes into account the number of different semantic contexts in which the word appears. Semantic distinctiveness and contextual diversity were both able to explain variance above and beyond that explained by word frequency, which by itself explained little unique variance. PMID:22894319

  12. Visual Word Recognition during Reading Is Followed by Subvocal Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiter, Brianna M.; Inhoff, Albrecht W.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the identification of a visual word is followed by its subvocal articulation during reading. An irrelevant spoken word (ISW) that was identical, phonologically similar, or dissimilar to a visual target word was presented when the eyes moved to the target in the course of sentence reading. Sentence reading was…

  13. The Temporal Dynamics of Spoken Word Recognition in Adverse Listening Conditions.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the temporal dynamics of spoken word recognition in noise and background speech. In two visual-world experiments, English participants listened to target words while looking at four pictures on the screen: a target (e.g. candle), an onset competitor (e.g. candy), a rhyme competitor (e.g. sandal), and an unrelated distractor (e.g. lemon). Target words were presented in quiet, mixed with broadband noise, or mixed with background speech. Results showed that lexical competition changes throughout the observation window as a function of what is presented in the background. These findings suggest that, rather than being strictly sequential, stream segregation and lexical competition interact during spoken word recognition. PMID:26420754

  14. Connectionism and the Role of Morphology in Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Rueckl, Jay G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the connectionist perspective on the role of morphology in visual word recognition. Several computational models of morphological effects in reading are described and relationships between these models, models of past tense production, and models of other aspects of word recognition are traced. Limitations of extant models are noted, as are some of the technical challenges that must be solved to develop the next generation of models. Finally, some directions for future research are identified. PMID:22934123

  15. Understanding individual differences in word recognition skills of ESL children.

    PubMed

    Geva, E; Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z; Schuster, B

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extent to which the development of ESL (English as a Second Language) word recognition skills mimics similar trajectories in same-aged EL1 (English as a First Language) children, and the extent to which phonological processing skills and rapid naming can be used to predict word recognition performance in ESL children. Two cohorts of Grade 1 ESL and EL1 primary-level children were followed for two consecutive years. Results indicated that vocabulary knowledge, a measure of language proficiency, and nonverbal intelligence were not significant predictors of word recognition in either group. Yet, by considering individual differences in phonological awareness and rapid naming, it was possible to predict substantial amounts of variance on word recognition performance six months and one year later in both language groups. Commonality analyses indicated that phonological awareness and rapid naming contributed unique variance to word recognition performance. Moreover, the profiles of not at-risk children in the EL1 and ESL groups were similar on all but the oral language measure, where EL1 children had the advantage. In addition, EL1 and ESL profiles of children who had word-recognition difficulty were similar, with low performance on rapid naming and phonological awareness. Results indicate that these measures are reliable indicators of potential reading disability among ESL children. PMID:20563783

  16. The Cingulo-Opercular Network Provides Word-Recognition Benefit

    PubMed Central

    Kuchinsky, Stefanie E.; Cute, Stephanie L.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Dubno, Judy R.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing speech in difficult listening conditions requires considerable focus of attention that is often demonstrated by elevated activity in putative attention systems, including the cingulo-opercular network. We tested the prediction that elevated cingulo-opercular activity provides word-recognition benefit on a subsequent trial. Eighteen healthy, normal-hearing adults (10 females; aged 20–38 years) performed word recognition (120 trials) in multi-talker babble at +3 and +10 dB signal-to-noise ratios during a sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast was elevated in the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and frontal operculum in response to poorer speech intelligibility and response errors. These brain regions exhibited significantly greater correlated activity during word recognition compared with rest, supporting the premise that word-recognition demands increased the coherence of cingulo-opercular network activity. Consistent with an adaptive control network explanation, general linear mixed model analyses demonstrated that increased magnitude and extent of cingulo-opercular network activity was significantly associated with correct word recognition on subsequent trials. These results indicate that elevated cingulo-opercular network activity is not simply a reflection of poor performance or error but also supports word recognition in difficult listening conditions. PMID:24285902

  17. The Effects of Training on Automatization of Word Recognition in English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akamatsu, Nobuhiko

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of word-recognition training on the word-recognition processing of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Providing 7-week word-recognition training, the study examined whether such training improves EFL learners' word-recognition performance. The main aspects of this study concerned word…

  18. L2 Gender Facilitation and Inhibition in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behney, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the role of grammatical gender facilitation and inhibition in second language (L2) learners' spoken word recognition. Native speakers of languages that have grammatical gender are sensitive to gender marking when hearing and recognizing a word. Gender facilitation refers to when a given noun that is preceded by an…

  19. Reading Habits, Perceptual Learning, and Recognition of Printed Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Tatjana A.; Ben-Boutayab, Nadia; Decoppet, Nathalie; Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram

    2004-01-01

    The present work aims at demonstrating that visual training associated with the act of reading modifies the way we perceive printed words. As reading does not train all parts of the retina in the same way but favors regions on the side in the direction of scanning, visual word recognition should be better at retinal locations that are frequently…

  20. The Influence of Phonotactic Probability on Word Recognition in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Marton, Klara

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of phonotactic probability on word recognition in English-speaking toddlers. Typically developing toddlers completed a preferential looking paradigm using familiar words, which consisted of either high or low phonotactic probability sound sequences. The participants' looking behavior was recorded in response…

  1. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline…

  2. Influences of High and Low Variability on Infant Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Leher

    2008-01-01

    Although infants begin to encode and track novel words in fluent speech by 7.5 months, their ability to recognize words is somewhat limited at this stage. In particular, when the surface form of a word is altered, by changing the gender or affective prosody of the speaker, infants begin to falter at spoken word recognition. Given that natural speech is replete with variability, only some of which is determines the meaning of a word, it remains unclear how infants might ever overcome the effects of surface variability without appealing to meaning. In the current set of experiments, consequences of high and low variability are examined in preverbal infants. The source of variability, vocal affect, is a common property of infant-directed speech with which young learners have to contend. Across a series of four experiments, infants' abilities to recognize repeated encounters of words, as well as to reject similar-sounding words, are investigated in the context of high and low affective variation. Results point to positive consequences of affective variation, both in creating generalizable memory representations for words, but also in establishing phonologically precise memories for words. Conversely, low variability appears to degrade word recognition on both fronts, compromising infants' abilities to generalize across different affective forms of a word and to detect similar-sounding items. Findings are discussed in the context of principles of categorization, both of a linguistic and non-linguistic variety, which may potentiate the early growth of a lexicon. PMID:17586482

  3. Visual word recognition by bilinguals in a sentence context: evidence for nonselective lexical access.

    PubMed

    Duyck, Wouter; Assche, Eva Van; Drieghe, Denis; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    Recent research on bilingualism has shown that lexical access in visual word recognition by bilinguals is not selective with respect to language. In the present study, the authors investigated language-independent lexical access in bilinguals reading sentences, which constitutes a strong unilingual linguistic context. In the first experiment, Dutch-English bilinguals performing a 2nd language (L2) lexical decision task were faster to recognize identical and nonidentical cognate words (e.g., banaan-banana) presented in isolation than control words. A second experiment replicated this effect when the same set of cognates was presented as the final words of low-constraint sentences. In a third experiment that used eyetracking, the authors showed that early target reading time measures also yield cognate facilitation but only for identical cognates. These results suggest that a sentence context may influence, but does not nullify, cross-lingual lexical interactions during early visual word recognition by bilinguals. PMID:17576146

  4. The time course of spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese: a unimodal ERP study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen; Zhang, Qin; Guo, Chunyan

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, two experiments were carried out to investigate the time course of spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese using both event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral measures. To address the hypothesis that there is an early phonological processing stage independent of semantics during spoken word recognition, a unimodal word-matching paradigm was employed, in which both prime and target words were presented auditorily. Experiment 1 manipulated the phonological relations between disyllabic primes and targets, and found an enhanced P2 (200-270 ms post-target onset) as well as a smaller early N400 to word-initial phonological mismatches over fronto-central scalp sites. Experiment 2 manipulated both phonological and semantic relations between monosyllabic primes and targets, and replicated the phonological mismatch-associated P2, which was not modulated by semantic relations. Overall, these results suggest that P2 is a sensitive electrophysiological index of early phonological processing independent of semantics in Mandarin Chinese spoken word recognition. PMID:25172388

  5. Rapid Word Recognition as a Measure of Word-Level Automaticity and Its Relation to Other Measures of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Elizabeth M.; Gosky, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between rapid recognition of individual words (Word Recognition Test) and two measures of contextual reading: (1) grade-level Passage Reading Test (IRI passage) and (2) performance on standardized STAR Reading Test. To establish if time of presentation on the word recognition test was a factor in…

  6. Task modulation of disyllabic spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese: a unimodal ERP study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen; Chang, Ruohan; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Using unimodal auditory tasks of word-matching and meaning-matching, this study investigated how the phonological and semantic processes in Chinese disyllabic spoken word recognition are modulated by top-down mechanism induced by experimental tasks. Both semantic similarity and word-initial phonological similarity between the primes and targets were manipulated. Results showed that at early stage of recognition (~150-250 ms), an enhanced P2 was elicited by the word-initial phonological mismatch in both tasks. In ~300-500 ms, a fronto-central negative component was elicited by word-initial phonological similarities in the word-matching task, while a parietal negativity was elicited by semantically unrelated primes in the meaning-matching task, indicating that both the semantic and phonological processes can be involved in this time window, depending on the task requirements. In the late stage (~500-700 ms), a centro-parietal Late N400 was elicited in both tasks, but with a larger effect in the meaning-matching task than in the word-matching task. This finding suggests that the semantic representation of the spoken words can be activated automatically in the late stage of recognition, even when semantic processing is not required. However, the magnitude of the semantic activation is modulated by task requirements. PMID:27180951

  7. Task modulation of disyllabic spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese: a unimodal ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen; Chang, Ruohan; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Using unimodal auditory tasks of word-matching and meaning-matching, this study investigated how the phonological and semantic processes in Chinese disyllabic spoken word recognition are modulated by top-down mechanism induced by experimental tasks. Both semantic similarity and word-initial phonological similarity between the primes and targets were manipulated. Results showed that at early stage of recognition (~150–250 ms), an enhanced P2 was elicited by the word-initial phonological mismatch in both tasks. In ~300–500 ms, a fronto-central negative component was elicited by word-initial phonological similarities in the word-matching task, while a parietal negativity was elicited by semantically unrelated primes in the meaning-matching task, indicating that both the semantic and phonological processes can be involved in this time window, depending on the task requirements. In the late stage (~500–700 ms), a centro-parietal Late N400 was elicited in both tasks, but with a larger effect in the meaning-matching task than in the word-matching task. This finding suggests that the semantic representation of the spoken words can be activated automatically in the late stage of recognition, even when semantic processing is not required. However, the magnitude of the semantic activation is modulated by task requirements. PMID:27180951

  8. Phonetic discrimination and non-native spoken-word recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

    2002-05-01

    When phoneme categories of a non-native language do not correspond to those of the native language, non-native categories may be inaccurately perceived. This may impair non-native spoken-word recognition. Weber and Cutler investigated the effect of phonetic discrimination difficulties on competitor activation in non-native listening. They tested whether Dutch listeners use English phonetic contrasts to resolve potential competition. Eye movements of Dutch participants were monitored as they followed spoken English instructions to click on pictures of objects. A target picture (e.g., picture of a paddle) was always presented along with distractor pictures. The name of a distractor picture either shared initial segments with the name of the target picture (e.g., target paddle, /paedl/ and competitor pedal, /pEdl/) or not (e.g., strawberry and duck). Half of the target-competitor pairs contained English vowels that are often confused by Dutch listeners (e.g., /ae/ and /E/ as in ``paddle-pedal''), half contained vowels that are unlikely to be confused (e.g., /ae/ and /aI/ as in ``parrot-pirate''). Dutch listeners fixated distractor pictures with confusable English vowels longer than distractor pictures with distinct vowels. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity of non-native listeners to phonetic contrasts can result in spurious competitors that should not be activated for native listeners.

  9. Semantic information mediates visual attention during spoken word recognition in Chinese: Evidence from the printed-word version of the visual-world paradigm.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Qu, Qingqing; Li, Xingshan

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the activation of semantic information during spoken word recognition can mediate visual attention's deployment to printed Chinese words. We used a visual-world paradigm with printed words, in which participants listened to a spoken target word embedded in a neutral spoken sentence while looking at a visual display of printed words. We examined whether a semantic competitor effect could be observed in the printed-word version of the visual-world paradigm. In Experiment 1, the relationship between the spoken target words and the printed words was manipulated so that they were semantically related (a semantic competitor), phonologically related (a phonological competitor), or unrelated (distractors). We found that the probability of fixations on semantic competitors was significantly higher than that of fixations on the distractors. In Experiment 2, the orthographic similarity between the spoken target words and their semantic competitors was manipulated to further examine whether the semantic competitor effect was modulated by orthographic similarity. We found significant semantic competitor effects regardless of orthographic similarity. Our study not only reveals that semantic information can affect visual attention, it also provides important new insights into the methodology employed to investigate the semantic processing of spoken words during spoken word recognition using the printed-word version of the visual-world paradigm. PMID:26993126

  10. Lexical and Metrical Stress in Word Recognition: Lexical or Pre-Lexical Influences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slowiaczek, Louisa M.; Soltano, Emily G.; Bernstein, Hilary L.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of lexical stress and/or metrical stress on spoken word recognition was examined. Two experiments were designed to determine whether response times in lexical decision or shadowing tasks are influenced when primes and targets share lexical stress patterns (JUVenile-BIBlical [Syllables printed in capital letters indicate those…

  11. Orthographic Activation in L2 Spoken Word Recognition Depends on Proficiency: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Veivo, Outi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Porretta, Vincent; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The use of orthographic and phonological information in spoken word recognition was studied in a visual world task where L1 Finnish learners of L2 French (n = 64) and L1 French native speakers (n = 24) were asked to match spoken word forms with printed words while their eye movements were recorded. In Experiment 1, French target words were contrasted with competitors having a longer ( vs. ) or a shorter word initial phonological overlap ( vs. ) and an identical orthographic overlap. In Experiment 2, target words were contrasted with competitors of either longer ( vs. ) or shorter word initial orthographic overlap ( vs. ) and of an identical phonological overlap. A general phonological effect was observed in the L2 listener group but not in the L1 control group. No general orthographic effects were observed in the L2 or L1 groups, but a significant effect of proficiency was observed for orthographic overlap over time: higher proficiency L2 listeners used also orthographic information in the matching task in a time-window from 400 to 700 ms, whereas no such effect was observed for lower proficiency listeners. These results suggest that the activation of orthographic information in L2 spoken word recognition depends on proficiency in L2. PMID:27512381

  12. The Role of Derivative Suffix Productivity in the Visual Word Recognition of Complex Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lázaro, Miguel; Sainz, Javier; Illera, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present two lexical decision experiments that examine the role of base frequency and of derivative suffix productivity in visual recognition of Spanish words. In the first experiment we find that complex words with productive derivative suffixes result in lower response times than those with unproductive derivative suffixes.…

  13. Sight Word Recognition among Young Children At-Risk: Picture-Supported vs. Word-Only

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Stoner, Julia B.; Parette, Howard P.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the impact of Picture Communication Symbols (PCS) on sight word recognition by young children identified as "at risk" for academic and social-behavior difficulties. Ten pre-primer and 10 primer Dolch words were presented to 23 students in the intervention group and 8 students in the control group…

  14. Word Recognition Error Analysis: Comparing Isolated Word List and Oral Passage Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Lindsay J.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.; Robbins, Kelly P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between word recognition errors made at a letter-sound pattern level on a word list and on a curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency measure (CBM-ORF) for typical and struggling elementary readers. The participants were second, third, and fourth grade typical and struggling readers…

  15. An Activation-Verification Model for Letter and Word Recognition: The Word-Superiority Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paap, Kenneth R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    An encoding algorithm uses empirically determined confusion matrices to activate units in an alphabetum and a lexicon to predict performance of word, orthographically regular nonword, or irregular nonword recognition. Performance is enhanced when decisions are based on lexical information which constrains test letter identity. Word prediction…

  16. Language Membership Identification Precedes Semantic Access: Suppression during Bilingual Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Hoversten, Liv J; Brothers, Trevor; Swaab, Tamara Y; Traxler, Matthew J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research suggests that bilingual comprehenders access lexical representations of words in both languages nonselectively. However, it is unclear whether global language suppression plays a role in guiding attention to target language representations during ongoing lexico-semantic processing. To help clarify this issue, this study examined the relative timing of language membership and meaning activation during visual word recognition. Spanish-English bilinguals performed simultaneous semantic and language membership classification tasks on single words during EEG recording. Go/no-go ERP latencies provided evidence that language membership information was accessed before semantic information. Furthermore, N400 frequency effects indicated that the depth of processing of words in the nontarget language was reduced compared to the target language. These results suggest that the bilingual brain can rapidly identify the language to which a word belongs and subsequently use this information to selectively modulate the degree of processing in each language accordingly. PMID:26102228

  17. Tracking the Emergence of the Consonant Bias in Visual-Word Recognition: Evidence with Developing Readers

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel; Comesaña, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with skilled adult readers has consistently revealed an advantage of consonants over vowels in visual-word recognition (i.e., the so-called “consonant bias”). Nevertheless, little is known about how early in development the consonant bias emerges. This work aims to address this issue by studying the relative contribution of consonants and vowels at the early stages of visual-word recognition in developing readers (2nd and 4th Grade children) and skilled adult readers (college students) using a masked priming lexical decision task. Target words starting either with a consonant or a vowel were preceded by a briefly presented masked prime (50 ms) that could be the same as the target (e.g., pirata-PIRATA [pirate-PIRATE]), a consonant-preserving prime (e.g., pureto-PIRATA), a vowel-preserving prime (e.g., gicala-PIRATA), or an unrelated prime (e.g., bocelo -PIRATA). Results revealed significant priming effects for the identity and consonant-preserving conditions in adult readers and 4th Grade children, whereas 2nd graders only showed priming for the identity condition. In adult readers, the advantage of consonants was observed both for words starting with a consonant or a vowel, while in 4th graders this advantage was restricted to words with an initial consonant. Thus, the present findings suggest that a Consonant/Vowel skeleton should be included in future (developmental) models of visual-word recognition and reading. PMID:24523917

  18. Tracking the emergence of the consonant bias in visual-word recognition: evidence with developing readers.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel; Comesaña, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with skilled adult readers has consistently revealed an advantage of consonants over vowels in visual-word recognition (i.e., the so-called "consonant bias"). Nevertheless, little is known about how early in development the consonant bias emerges. This work aims to address this issue by studying the relative contribution of consonants and vowels at the early stages of visual-word recognition in developing readers (2(nd) and 4(th) Grade children) and skilled adult readers (college students) using a masked priming lexical decision task. Target words starting either with a consonant or a vowel were preceded by a briefly presented masked prime (50 ms) that could be the same as the target (e.g., pirata-PIRATA [pirate-PIRATE]), a consonant-preserving prime (e.g., pureto-PIRATA), a vowel-preserving prime (e.g., gicala-PIRATA), or an unrelated prime (e.g., bocelo -PIRATA). Results revealed significant priming effects for the identity and consonant-preserving conditions in adult readers and 4(th) Grade children, whereas 2(nd) graders only showed priming for the identity condition. In adult readers, the advantage of consonants was observed both for words starting with a consonant or a vowel, while in 4(th) graders this advantage was restricted to words with an initial consonant. Thus, the present findings suggest that a Consonant/Vowel skeleton should be included in future (developmental) models of visual-word recognition and reading. PMID:24523917

  19. Syllable Frequency and Spoken Word Recognition: An Inhibitory Effect.

    PubMed

    González-Alvarez, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Angeles

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that syllables play a relevant role in lexical access in Spanish, a shallow language with a transparent syllabic structure. Syllable frequency has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on visual word recognition in Spanish. However, no study has examined the syllable frequency effect on spoken word recognition. The present study tested the effect of the frequency of the first syllable on recognition of spoken Spanish words. A sample of 45 young adults (33 women, 12 men; M = 20.4, SD = 2.8; college students) performed an auditory lexical decision on 128 Spanish disyllabic words and 128 disyllabic nonwords. Words were selected so that lexical and first syllable frequency were manipulated in a within-subject 2 × 2 design, and six additional independent variables were controlled: token positional frequency of the second syllable, number of phonemes, position of lexical stress, number of phonological neighbors, number of phonological neighbors that have higher frequencies than the word, and acoustical durations measured in milliseconds. Decision latencies and error rates were submitted to linear mixed models analysis. Results showed a typical facilitatory effect of the lexical frequency and, importantly, an inhibitory effect of the first syllable frequency on reaction times and error rates. PMID:27287267

  20. False recognition of incidentally learned pictures and words in primary progressive aphasia☆

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Emily; Blum, Diana; Rademaker, Alfred; Weintraub, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Recognition memory was tested in patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a language based dementia with relative preservation of memory for at least the first 2 years. The goal of the study was two-fold: (1) to compare true and false recognition rates for words versus pictures in patients with PPA and cognitively intact controls and (2) to determine if the semantic relatedness of distracters-to-targets influences recognition memory performance. Overall, performance of PPA patients was worse for words than pictures. PPA patients and healthy elderly controls showed similar recognition rates for studied items. However, the patients had significantly more false alarms than controls, particularly to semantically related items. This suggests that the aphasia in PPA patients contributes to their difficulty in selecting among items within a semantic class. PMID:16905162

  1. Effects of Hearing and Aging on Sentence-Level Time-Gated Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Molis, Michelle R.; Kampel, Sean D.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Gallun, Frederick J.; Dann, Serena M.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Aging is known to influence temporal processing, but its relationship to speech perception has not been clearly defined. To examine listeners’ use of contextual and phonetic information, the Revised Speech Perception in Noise test (R-SPIN) was used to develop a time-gated word (TGW) task Method In Experiment 1, R-SPIN sentence lists were matched on context, target-word length, and median word segment length necessary for target recognition. In Experiment 2, TGW recognition was assessed in quiet and in noise among adults of various ages with normal hearing to moderate hearing loss. Linear regression models of the minimum word duration necessary for correct identification and identification failure rates were developed. Age and hearing thresholds were modeled as continuous predictors with corrections for correlations among multiple measurements of the same participants. Results While aging and hearing loss both had significant impacts on task performance in the most adverse listening condition (low context, in noise), for most conditions, performance was limited primarily by hearing loss. Conclusion Whereas hearing loss was strongly related to target-word recognition, the effect of aging was only weakly related to task performance. These results have implications for the design and evaluation of studies of hearing and aging. PMID:25815688

  2. Phonological Assimilation and Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yang; Moreno, Miguel A.; Park, Hyeongsaeng; Carello, Claudia; Turvey, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Are the visual word-processing tasks of naming and lexical decision sensitive to systematic phonological properties that may or may not be specified in the spelling? Two experiments with Hangul, the alphabetic orthography of Korea, were directed at the effects of the phonological process of assimilation whereby one articulation changes to conform…

  3. The Effects of Multiple Script Priming on Word Recognition by the Two Cerebral Hemispheres: Implications for Discourse Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Barak, Ofra; Chiarello, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined left (LH) and right (RH) hemisphere involvement in discourse processing by testing the ability of each hemisphere to use world knowledge in the form of script contexts for word recognition. Participants made lexical decisions to laterally presented target words preceded by centrally presented script primes (four…

  4. Individual differences in involvement of the visual object recognition system during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, Sarah; Sacchi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with dyslexia often evince reduced activation during reading in left hemisphere (LH) language regions. This can be observed along with increased activation in the right hemisphere (RH), especially in areas associated with object recognition - a pattern referred to as RH compensation. The mechanisms of RH compensation are relatively unclear. We hypothesize that RH compensation occurs when the RH object recognition system is called upon to supplement an underperforming LH visual word form recognition system. We tested this by collecting ERPs while participants with a range of reading abilities viewed words, objects, and word/object ambiguous items (e.g., "SMILE" shaped like a smile). Less experienced readers differentiate words, objects, and ambiguous items less strongly, especially over the RH. We suggest that this lack of differentiation may have negative consequences for dyslexic individuals demonstrating RH compensation. PMID:25957504

  5. Modeling Polymorphemic Word Recognition: Exploring Differences Among Children With Early-Emerging and Late-Emerging Word Reading Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Devin M; Steacy, Laura M; Compton, Donald L; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Goodwin, Amanda P; Cho, Eunsoo; Lindstrom, Esther R; Collins, Alyson A

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive models of derived polymorphemic word recognition skill in developing readers, with an emphasis on children with reading difficulty (RD), have not been developed. The purpose of the present study was to model individual differences in polymorphemic word recognition ability at the item level among 5th-grade children (N = 173) oversampled for children with RD using item-response crossed random-effects models. We distinguish between two subtypes of RD children with word recognition problems, those with early-emerging RD and late-emerging RD. An extensive set of predictors representing item-specific knowledge, child-level characteristics, and word-level characteristics were used to predict item-level variance in polymorphemic word recognition. Results indicate that item-specific root word recognition and word familiarity; child-level RD status, morphological awareness, and orthographic choice; word-level frequency and root word family size; and the interactions between morphological awareness and RD status and root word recognition and root transparency predicted individual differences in polymorphemic word recognition item performance. Results are interpreted within a multisource individual difference model of polymorphemic word recognition skill spanning item-specific, child-level, and word-level knowledge. PMID:25331757

  6. Suprasegmental lexical stress cues in visual speech can guide spoken-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M

    2014-01-01

    Visual cues to the individual segments of speech and to sentence prosody guide speech recognition. The present study tested whether visual suprasegmental cues to the stress patterns of words can also constrain recognition. Dutch listeners use acoustic suprasegmental cues to lexical stress (changes in duration, amplitude, and pitch) in spoken-word recognition. We asked here whether they can also use visual suprasegmental cues. In two categorization experiments, Dutch participants saw a speaker say fragments of word pairs that were segmentally identical but differed in their stress realization (e.g., 'ca-vi from cavia "guinea pig" vs. 'ka-vi from kaviaar "caviar"). Participants were able to distinguish between these pairs from seeing a speaker alone. Only the presence of primary stress in the fragment, not its absence, was informative. Participants were able to distinguish visually primary from secondary stress on first syllables, but only when the fragment-bearing target word carried phrase-level emphasis. Furthermore, participants distinguished fragments with primary stress on their second syllable from those with secondary stress on their first syllable (e.g., pro-'jec from projector "projector" vs. 'pro-jec from projectiel "projectile"), independently of phrase-level emphasis. Seeing a speaker thus contributes to spoken-word recognition by providing suprasegmental information about the presence of primary lexical stress. PMID:24134065

  7. Context and Spoken Word Recognition in a Novel Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    Three eye movement studies with novel lexicons investigated the role of semantic context in spoken word recognition, contrasting 3 models: restrictive access, access-selection, and continuous integration. Actions directed at novel shapes caused changes in motion (e.g., looming, spinning) or state (e.g., color, texture). Across the experiments,…

  8. "Context and Spoken Word Recognition in a Novel Lexicon": Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    Reports an error in "Context and spoken word recognition in a novel lexicon" by Kathleen Pirog Revill, Michael K. Tanenhaus and Richard N. Aslin ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 2008[Sep], Vol 34[5], 1207-1223). Figure 9 was inadvertently duplicated as Figure 10. Figure 9 in the original article was correct.…

  9. Auditory and Visual Word Recognition in Beginning Adult Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Raymond L.; Cortwright, Richard W.

    An exploratory investigation was made of cross-modality matching within the context of word recognition skills among beginning adult readers. The specific aim of the study was to assess the possibility that a deficit in cross-modality matching might be potentially useful as a diagnostic and predictive indicator of the rate at which adults learn to…

  10. The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

  11. ERP Evidence of Hemispheric Independence in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemrodov, Dan; Harpaz, Yuval; Javitt, Daniel C.; Lavidor, Michal

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the capability of the left hemisphere (LH) and the right hemisphere (RH) to perform a visual recognition task independently as formulated by the Direct Access Model (Fernandino, Iacoboni, & Zaidel, 2007). Healthy native Hebrew speakers were asked to categorize nouns and non-words (created from nouns by transposing two middle…

  12. Stimulus-based similarity and the recognition of spoken words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Edward T.

    2003-10-01

    Spoken word recognition has been hypothesized to be achieved via a competitive process amongst perceptually similar lexical candidates in the mental lexicon. In this process, lexical candidates are activated as a function of their perceived similarity to the spoken stimulus. The evidence supporting this hypothesis has largely come from studies of auditory word recognition. In this talk, evidence from our studies of visual spoken word recognition will be reviewed. Visual speech provides the opportunity to highlight the importance of stimulus-driven perceptual similarity because it presents a different pattern of segmental similarity than is afforded by auditory speech degraded by noise. Our results are consistent with stimulus-driven activation followed by competition as general spoken word recognition mechanism. In addition, results will be presented from recent investigations of the direct prediction of perceptual similarity from measurements of spoken stimuli. High levels of correlation have been observed between the predicted and perceptually obtained distances for a large set of spoken consonants. These results support the hypothesis that the perceptual structure of English consonants and vowels is predicted by stimulus structure without the need for an intervening level of abstract linguistic representation. [Research supported by NSF IIS 9996088 and NIH DC04856.

  13. Cross-Modal Source Information and Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachs, Lorin; Pisoni, David B.

    2004-01-01

    In a cross-modal matching task, participants were asked to match visual and auditory displays of speech based on the identity of the speaker. The present investigation used this task with acoustically transformed speech to examine the properties of sound that can convey cross-modal information. Word recognition performance was also measured under…

  14. Automatization and Orthographic Development in Second Language Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kida, Shusaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated second language (L2) learners' acquisition of automatic word recognition and the development of L2 orthographic representation in the mental lexicon. Participants in the study were Japanese university students enrolled in a compulsory course involving a weekly 30-minute sustained silent reading (SSR) activity with…

  15. Prosodic Phonological Representations Early in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Jane; Martin, Andrea E.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the nature of the phonological representations used during visual word recognition. We tested whether a minimality constraint (R. Frost, 1998) limits the complexity of early representations to a simple string of phonemes. Alternatively, readers might activate elaborated representations that include prosodic syllable…

  16. Lexical and Sublexical Feedback in Auditory Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Mark A.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    1995-01-01

    Results from 3 experiments in auditory word recognition involving a total of 266 undergraduates supported interactive models of lexical processing, but required additional sublexical processes. The hypothesized sublexical mechanism is fast acting and frequency sensitive and produces top-down effects, but its operation has not yet been fully…

  17. Recognition of Hits in a Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerak, Vojtech; Drahansky, Martin

    This paper describes two possible ways of hit recognition in a target. First method is based on frame differencing with use of a stabilization algorithm to eliminate movements of a target. Second method uses flood fill with random seed point definition to find hits in the target scene.

  18. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Zorzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters) from their eye-centered (i.e., retinal) locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity) was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Word-tuning and location-invariance were found at the level of single neurons, but there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words—which was the model's learning objective

  19. Sound-Imitation Word Recognition for Environmental Sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Kazushi; Komatani, Kazunori; Ogata, Tetsuya; Okuno, Hiroshi G.

    Environmental sounds are very helpful in understanding environmental situations and in telling the approach of danger, and sound-imitation words (sound-related onomatopoeia) are important expressions to inform such sounds in human communication, especially in Japanese language. In this paper, we design a method to recognize sound-imitation words (SIWs) for environmental sounds. Critical issues in recognizing SIW are how to divide an environmental sound into recognition units and how to resolve representation ambiguity of the sounds. To solve these problems, we designed three-stage procedure that transforms environmental sounds into sound-imitation words, and phoneme group expressions that can represent ambiguous sounds. The three-stage procedure is as follows: (1) a whole waveform is divided into some chunks, (2) the chunks are transformed into sound-imitation syllables by phoneme recognition, (3) a sound-imitation word is constructed from sound-imitation syllables according to the requirements of the Japanese language. Ambiguity problem is that an environmental sound is often recognized differently by different listeners even under the same situation. Phoneme group expressions are new phonemes for environmental sounds, and they can express multiple sound-imitation words by one word. We designed two sets of phoneme groups: ``a set of basic phoneme group'' and ``a set of articulation-based phoneme group'' to absorb the ambiguity. Based on subjective experiments, the set of basic phoneme groups proved more appropriate to represent environmental sounds than the articulation-based one or a set of normal Japaneses phonemes.

  20. Exploring the Neural Representation of Novel Words Learned through Enactment in a Word Recognition Task

    PubMed Central

    Macedonia, Manuela; Mueller, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning in a second language is enhanced if learners enrich the learning experience with self-performed iconic gestures. This learning strategy is called enactment. Here we explore how enacted words are functionally represented in the brain and which brain regions contribute to enhance retention. After an enactment training lasting 4 days, participants performed a word recognition task in the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner. Data analysis suggests the participation of different and partially intertwined networks that are engaged in higher cognitive processes, i.e., enhanced attention and word recognition. Also, an experience-related network seems to map word representation. Besides core language regions, this latter network includes sensory and motor cortices, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum. On the basis of its complexity and the involvement of the motor system, this sensorimotor network might explain superior retention for enactment. PMID:27445918

  1. Exploring the Neural Representation of Novel Words Learned through Enactment in a Word Recognition Task.

    PubMed

    Macedonia, Manuela; Mueller, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning in a second language is enhanced if learners enrich the learning experience with self-performed iconic gestures. This learning strategy is called enactment. Here we explore how enacted words are functionally represented in the brain and which brain regions contribute to enhance retention. After an enactment training lasting 4 days, participants performed a word recognition task in the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner. Data analysis suggests the participation of different and partially intertwined networks that are engaged in higher cognitive processes, i.e., enhanced attention and word recognition. Also, an experience-related network seems to map word representation. Besides core language regions, this latter network includes sensory and motor cortices, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum. On the basis of its complexity and the involvement of the motor system, this sensorimotor network might explain superior retention for enactment. PMID:27445918

  2. Consonants and vowels contribute differently to visual word recognition: ERPs of relative position priming.

    PubMed

    Carreiras, Manuel; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Molinaro, Nicola

    2009-11-01

    This paper shows that the nature of letters--consonant versus vowel--modulates the process of letter position assignment during visual word recognition. We recorded Event Related Potentials while participants read words in a masked priming semantic categorization task. Half of the words included a vowel as initial, third, and fifth letters (e.g., acero [steel]). The other half included a consonant as initial, third, and fifth (e.g., farol [lantern]). Targets could be preceded 1) by the initial, third, and fifth letters (relative position; e.g., aeo-acero and frl-farol), 2) by 3 consonants or vowels that did not appear in the target word (control; e.g., iui-acero and tsb-farol), or 3) by the same words (identity: acero-acero, farol-farol). The results showed modulation in 2 time windows (175-250 and 350-450 ms). Relative position primes composed of consonants produced similar effects to the identity condition. These 2 differed from the unrelated control condition, which showed a larger negativity. In contrast, relative position primes composed of vowels produced similar effects to the unrelated control condition, and these 2 showed larger negativities as compared with the identity condition. This finding has important consequences for cracking the orthographic code and developing computational models of visual word recognition. PMID:19273459

  3. Italians Use Abstract Knowledge about Lexical Stress during Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; McQueen, James M.

    2012-01-01

    In two eye-tracking experiments in Italian, we investigated how acoustic information and stored knowledge about lexical stress are used during the recognition of tri-syllabic spoken words. Experiment 1 showed that Italians use acoustic cues to a word's stress pattern rapidly in word recognition, but only for words with antepenultimate stress.…

  4. Consonant/vowel asymmetry in early word form recognition.

    PubMed

    Poltrock, Silvana; Nazzi, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Previous preferential listening studies suggest that 11-month-olds' early word representations are phonologically detailed, such that minor phonetic variations (i.e., mispronunciations) impair recognition. However, these studies focused on infants' sensitivity to mispronunciations (or omissions) of consonants, which have been proposed to be more important for lexical identity than vowels. Even though a lexically related consonant advantage has been consistently found in French from 14 months of age onward, little is known about its developmental onset. The current study asked whether French-learning 11-month-olds exhibit a consonant-vowel asymmetry when recognizing familiar words, which would be reflected in vowel mispronunciations being more tolerated than consonant mispronunciations. In a baseline experiment (Experiment 1), infants preferred listening to familiar words over nonwords, confirming that at 11 months of age infants show a familiarity effect rather than a novelty effect. In Experiment 2, which was constructed using the familiar words of Experiment 1, infants preferred listening to one-feature vowel mispronunciations over one-feature consonant mispronunciations. Given the familiarity preference established in Experiment 1, this pattern of results suggests that recognition of early familiar words is more dependent on their consonants than on their vowels. This adds another piece of evidence that, at least in French, consonants already have a privileged role in lexical processing by 11 months of age, as claimed by Nespor, Peña, and Mehler (2003). PMID:25544396

  5. Asymmetries in the exploitation of phonetic features for word recognition.

    PubMed

    Martin, Alexander; Peperkamp, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    French listeners' reliance on voicing, manner, and place was tested in a mispronunciation detection task. Mispronounced words were more likely to be recognized when the mispronunciation concerned voicing rather than manner or place. This indicates that listeners rely less on the former than on the latter for the purposes of word recognition. Further, the role of visual cues to phonetic features was explored by the task being conducted in both an audio-only and an audiovisual version, but no effect of modality was found. Discussion focuses on crosslinguistic comparisons and lexical factors that might influence the weight of individual features. PMID:25920882

  6. Robotics control using isolated word recognition of voice input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A speech input/output system is presented that can be used to communicate with a task oriented system. Human speech commands and synthesized voice output extend conventional information exchange capabilities between man and machine by utilizing audio input and output channels. The speech input facility is comprised of a hardware feature extractor and a microprocessor implemented isolated word or phrase recognition system. The recognizer offers a medium sized (100 commands), syntactically constrained vocabulary, and exhibits close to real time performance. The major portion of the recognition processing required is accomplished through software, minimizing the complexity of the hardware feature extractor.

  7. Morpho-semantic processing in word recognition: evidence from balanced and biased ambiguous morphemes.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2013-11-01

    The role of morphemic meaning in Chinese word recognition was examined with the masked and unmasked priming paradigms. Target words contained ambiguous morphemes biased toward the dominant or the subordinate meanings. Prime words either contained the same ambiguous morphemes in the subordinate interpretations or were unrelated to the targets. In addition, the relative frequency of the alternative meanings of ambiguous morphemes could be balanced (i.e., the alternative meanings are of similar frequency) or biased (i.e., one of the meanings is used much more frequently). The recognition of subordinate targets was facilitated by the subordinate primes for both balanced and biased items, regardless of the priming procedure. However, the subordinate primes did not facilitate the recognition of dominant targets, except for biased items in masked priming. These results are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that morphemic meaning is activated to constrain morphological priming even at the early stage of processing. Yet, morpho-semantic activation is modulated by the frequency of the intended morphemic interpretations. Therefore, because of the high frequency of use, the dominant meanings of biased ambiguous morphemes can nevertheless be activated by the subordinate primes. PMID:23834058

  8. Lexical effects on spoken word recognition in children with normal hearing a

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Vidya; Choi, Sangsook; Kirk, Karen Iler; Prusick, Lindsay; French, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Summary This paper outlines the development of a theoretically-motivated sentence recognition test for children. Previous sentence tests such as the Lexical Neighborhood Test and the Multisyllabic Lexical Neighborhood Test examined lexical effects on children's recognition of words. In previous studies related to their test development, lexical characteristics were confounded. This study examines independent effects of word frequency and lexical density on a new test of spoken word recognition in children. Results show that word frequency and lexical density influence word recognition both independently, and in combination. Lexical density appears to be more heavily weighted than word frequency in children. PMID:19701087

  9. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the "visual world" eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., "point at the candle"). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  10. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E.; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M.

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., “point at the candle”). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  11. (Almost) Word for Word: As Voice Recognition Programs Improve, Students Reap the Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Voice recognition software is hardly new--attempts at capturing spoken words and turning them into written text have been available to consumers for about two decades. But what was once an expensive and highly unreliable tool has made great strides in recent years, perhaps most recognized in programs such as Nuance's Dragon NaturallySpeaking…

  12. A Demonstration of Improved Precision of Word Recognition Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Anderson, Elizabeth S.; Micheyl, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate improved precision of word recognition scores (WRSs) by increasing list length and analyzing phonemic errors. Method: Pure-tone thresholds (frequencies between 0.25 and 8.0 kHz) and WRSs were measured in 3 levels of speech-shaped noise (50, 52, and 54 dB HL) for 24 listeners with normal…

  13. Do Spanish children use the syllable in visual word recognition in learning to read?

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Juan E; García, Eduardo; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Rojas, Estefanía

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Spanish children that are learning to read use the syllable unit in word reading. We used a visual version of the syllable monitoring technique (Mehler, Dommerges, Freavenfelder & Seguí, 1981). For Experiment I, we selected first grade readers at the end of the first year of reading instruction. In the Experiment II we selected second grade readers at the middle of the second year of reading instruction. Participants responded whenever the structure of the target string (e.g., bal) appeared at the beginning of a subsequently presented printed word (e.g., bala). The target was either a consonant-vowel (CV) or consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) structure and either did or did not correspond to the initial syllable of the target-bearing word. At the end of the first year of reading instruction, children showed significant effects of syllable compatibility (faster detection times when the targets correspond to the initial syllable of target-bearing words than when they did not). When we tested children of the second year of reading instruction, they also showed a syllable compatibility effect. These results suggest that Spanish children use syllabic units at the beginning of reading instruction in the visual word recognition. PMID:20480678

  14. ERP evidence of hemispheric independence in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Nemrodov, Dan; Harpaz, Yuval; Javitt, Daniel C; Lavidor, Michal

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the capability of the left hemisphere (LH) and the right hemisphere (RH) to perform a visual recognition task independently as formulated by the Direct Access Model (Fernandino, Iacoboni, & Zaidel, 2007). Healthy native Hebrew speakers were asked to categorize nouns and non-words (created from nouns by transposing two middle letters) into man-made and natural categories while their performance and ERPs were recorded. The stimuli were presented parafoveally to the right and left visual fields. As predicted by the Direct Access Model, ERP data showed that both the left hemisphere and right hemisphere were able to differentiate between words and non-words as early as 170 ms post-stimulus; these results were significant only for the contralaterally presented stimuli. The N1 component, which is considered to reflect orthographic processing, was larger in both hemispheres in response to the contralateral than the ipsilateral presented stimuli. This finding provides evidence for the RH capability to access higher level lexical information at the early stages of visual word recognition, thus lending weight to arguments for the relatively independent nature of this process. PMID:20542549

  15. An improved Camshift algorithm for target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Min; Cai, Chao; Mao, Yusu

    2015-12-01

    Camshift algorithm and three frame difference algorithm are the popular target recognition and tracking methods. Camshift algorithm requires a manual initialization of the search window, which needs the subjective error and coherence, and only in the initialization calculating a color histogram, so the color probability model cannot be updated continuously. On the other hand, three frame difference method does not require manual initialization search window, it can make full use of the motion information of the target only to determine the range of motion. But it is unable to determine the contours of the object, and can not make use of the color information of the target object. Therefore, the improved Camshift algorithm is proposed to overcome the disadvantages of the original algorithm, the three frame difference operation is combined with the object's motion information and color information to identify the target object. The improved Camshift algorithm is realized and shows better performance in the recognition and tracking of the target.

  16. Electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yingchun; Hu, Weiping; Fang, Zhuo; Zhang, John X.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word reading using a delayed repetition priming paradigm. Participants were asked to passively view lists of two-character compound words containing prime-target pairs separated by a few items. In a Whole Word repetition condition, the prime and target were the same real words (e.g., , manager-manager). In a Constituent repetition condition, the prime and target were swapped in terms of their constituent position (e.g., , the former is a pseudo-word and the later means nurse). Two ERP components including N200 and N400 showed repetition effects. The N200 showed a negative shift upon repetition in the Whole Word condition but this effect was delayed for the Constituent condition. The N400 showed comparable amplitude reduction across the two priming conditions. The results reveal different aspects of morphological processing with an early stage associated with N200 and a late stage with N400. There was also a possibility that the N200 effect reflect general cognitive processing, i.e., the detection of low-probability stimuli. PMID:24068994

  17. Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing

    PubMed Central

    Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no meaning); and (3) phonology-to-meaning (no orthography). Following learning, participants made meaning judgments on the learned words, familiar known words, and unpresented (unlearned) rare words while their ERPs were recorded. The behavioral results showed no significant effects of comprehension skill on meaning judgment performance. Contrastingly, the ERP results indicated comprehension skill differences in P600 amplitude; high-skilled readers showed stronger familiarity effects for learned words, whereas less-skilled readers did not distinguish between learned words, familiar words, and unlearned words. Evidence from the P600 and N400 illustrated superior learning of meaning when meaning information was coupled with orthography rather than phonology. These results suggest that the availability of word knowledge (orthography, phonology, and meaning) at learning affects subsequent word identification processes when the words are encountered in a new context. PMID:22399833

  18. Multifunction sensor for target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, William M.; Lindberg, Perry C.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. Army has a critical need for the capability provided by a multifunction sensor. This is (in effect) a smart sensor system that can adapt to environmental conditions and adjust its mode of operation to effectively counter any threat it meets. It will have an intelligent signal processor which has all of the system's sensor signals to choose from. The processor chooses the appropriate signal information to rapidly detect, acquire, track, and automatically identify all targets in the vicinity of the sensor under a wide variety of battlefield scenarios and environmental conditions. The multiphenomenology signal information provides the flexibility to overcome the adverse effects of clutter, countermeasures (both active and passive), illumination, obscurants, target orientation, and weather. It should be noted, however, that the types of sensory information required is dependent on the mission and the operating environment. For instance, a strategic defense sensor operating in space can use (and will need) different types of sensor data than the multifunction sensor employed on an attack helicopter. In fact, the sensor configuration on a helicopter operating in Saudi Arabia may be quite different from one that is deployed to Vietnam. For the purpose of this paper we generalize about the technologies desired for an adaptable, `smart' sensor system. We do not specify a particular mission nor define a specific threat. However, in any case, we can assume the need to fuse sensor signal information in an intelligent processor to provide robust performance in the battlefield environment. 12

  19. Modeling Polymorphemic Word Recognition: Exploring Differences among Children with Early-Emerging and Late- Emerging Word Reading Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Devin M.; Steacy, Laura M.; Compton, Donald L.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Goodwin, Amanda P.; Cho, Eunsoo; Lindstrom, Esther R.; Collins, Alyson A.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive models of derived polymorphemic word recognition skill in developing readers, with an emphasis on children with reading difficulty (RD), have not been developed. The purpose of the present study was to model individual differences in polymorphemic word recognition ability at the item level among 5th-grade children (N = 173)…

  20. Extended Target Recognition in Cognitive Radar Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yimin; Meng, Huadong; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Xiqin

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS). Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches. PMID:22163464

  1. Automatic target recognition via sparse representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estabridis, Katia

    2010-04-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) based on the emerging technology of Compressed Sensing (CS) can considerably improve accuracy, speed and cost associated with these types of systems. An image based ATR algorithm has been built upon this new theory, which can perform target detection and recognition in a low dimensional space. Compressed dictionaries (A) are formed to include rotational information for a scale of interest. The algorithm seeks to identify y(test sample) as a linear combination of the dictionary elements : y=Ax, where A ∈ Rnxm(n<target. The algorithm can reject clutter and background, which are part of the input image. The detection and recognition problems are solved by finding the sparse-solution to the undetermined system y=Ax via Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and l1 minimization techniques. Visible and MWIR imagery collected by the Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) was utilized to test the algorithm. Results show an average detection and recognition rates above 95% for targets at ranges up to 3Km for both image modalities.

  2. Phonological and Visual Processes in Word Recognition by American Learners of Arabic as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaldieh, Salim A.

    A study investigated the roles of phonological encoding and visual processes in word recognition in American learners of Arabic as a foreign language. Subjects were 36 individuals with proficiency ranging from beginning to native. Two experiments in word recognition were conducted, one at word and one at sentence level. At each level, the word…

  3. Asymmetries in Early Word Recognition: The Case of Stops and Fricatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; van der Feest, Suzanne V. H.; Fikkert, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Toddlers' discrimination of native phonemic contrasts is generally unproblematic. Yet using those native contrasts in word learning and word recognition can be more challenging. In this article, we investigate perceptual versus phonological explanations for asymmetrical patterns found in early word recognition. We systematically investigated…

  4. A Limited-Vocabulary, Multi-Speaker Automatic Isolated Word Recognition System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, James E., Jr.

    Techniques for automatic recognition of isolated words are investigated, and a computer simulation of a word recognition system is effected. Considered in detail are data acquisition and digitizing, word detection, amplitude and time normalization, short-time spectral estimation including spectral windowing, spectral envelope approximation,…

  5. The Impact of Left and Right Intracranial Tumors on Picture and Word Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Bram; Armstrong, Carol L.; Modestino, Edward; Ledakis, George; John, Cameron; Hunter, Jill V.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of left and right intracranial tumors on picture and word recognition memory. We hypothesized that left hemispheric (LH) patients would exhibit greater word recognition memory impairment than right hemispheric (RH) patients, with no significant hemispheric group picture recognition memory differences. The LH…

  6. Frequency and Imagery in Word Recognition: Further Evidence for an Attribute Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Peter E.

    1978-01-01

    What processes underlie recognition memory? An explanation of word recognition should be compatible with a general explanation of the functioning of the memory system. The research discussed in this paper lends support to a model of recognition performance based on the marking and storage of lists of features or attributes that define a word's…

  7. Tracking the Time Course of Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition with Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Sophie; Brunelliere, Angele; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the word-frequency effect is one of the most established findings in spoken-word recognition, the precise processing locus of this effect is still a topic of debate. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to track the time course of the word-frequency effect. In addition, the neighborhood density effect, which is known to…

  8. Word recognition and phonetic structure acquisition: Possible relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, James

    2002-05-01

    Several accounts of possible relations between the emergence of the mental lexicon and acquisition of native language phonological structure have been propounded. In one view, acquisition of word meanings guides infants' attention toward those contrasts that are linguistically significant in their language. In the opposing view, native language phonological categories may be acquired from statistical patterns of input speech, prior to and independent of learning at the lexical level. Here, a more interactive account will be presented, in which phonological structure is modeled as emerging consequentially from the self-organization of perceptual space underlying word recognition. A key prediction of this model is that early native language phonological categories will be highly context specific. Data bearing on this prediction will be presented which provide clues to the nature of infants' statistical analysis of input.

  9. Extending models of visual-word recognition to semicursive scripts: Evidence from masked priming in Uyghur.

    PubMed

    Yakup, Mahire; Abliz, Wayit; Sereno, Joan; Perea, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    One basic feature of the Arabic script is its semicursive style: some letters are connected to the next, but others are not, as in the Uyghur word [see text]/ya xʃi/ ("good"). None of the current orthographic coding schemes in models of visual-word recognition, which were created for the Roman script, assign a differential role to the coding of within letter "chunks" and between letter "chunks" in words in the Arabic script. To examine how letter identity/position is coded at the earliest stages of word processing in the Arabic script, we conducted 2 masked priming lexical decision experiments in Uyghur, an agglutinative Turkic language. The target word was preceded by an identical prime, by a transposed-letter nonword prime (that either kept the ligation pattern or did not), or by a 2-letter replacement nonword prime. Transposed-letter primes were as effective as identity primes when the letter transposition in the prime kept the same ligation pattern as the target word (e.g., [see text]/inta_jin/-/itna_jin/), but not when the transposed-letter prime didn't keep the ligation pattern (e.g., [see text]/so_w_ʁa_t/-/so_ʁw_a_t/). Furthermore, replacement-letter primes were more effective when they kept the ligation pattern of the target word than when they did not (e.g., [see text]/so_d_ʧa_t/-/so_w_ʁa_t/ faster than [see text]/so_ʧd_a_t/-/so_w_ʁa_t/). We examined how input coding schemes could be extended to deal with the intricacies of semicursive scripts. PMID:26618626

  10. Onsets and codas in 1.5-year-olds’ word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Swingley, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Previous tests of toddlers’ phonological knowledge of familiar words using word recognition tasks have examined syllable onsets but not word-final consonants (codas). However, there are good reasons to suppose that children’s knowledge of coda consonants might be less complete than their knowledge of onset consonants. To test this hypothesis, the present study examined 14- to 21-month-old children’s knowledge of the phonological forms of familiar words by measuring their comprehension of correctly-pronounced and mispronounced instances of those words using a visual fixation task. Mispronunciations substituted onset or coda consonants. Adults were tested in the same task for comparison with children. Children and adults fixated named targets more upon hearing correct pronunciations than upon hearing mispronunciations, whether those mispronunciations involved the word’s initial or final consonant. In addition, detailed analysis of the timing of adults’ and children’s eye movements provided clear evidence for incremental interpretation of the speech signal. Children’s responses were slower and less accurate overall, but children and adults showed nearly identical temporal effects of the placement of phonological substitutions. The results demonstrate accurate encoding of consonants even in words children cannot yet say. PMID:20126290

  11. Word Recognition during Reading: The Interaction between Lexical Repetition and Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Lowder, Matthew W.; Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Memory studies utilizing long-term repetition priming have generally demonstrated that priming is greater for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words and that this effect persists if words intervene between the prime and the target. In contrast, word-recognition studies utilizing masked short-term repetition priming typically show that the magnitude of repetition priming does not differ as a function of word frequency and does not persist across intervening words. We conducted an eye-tracking while reading experiment to determine which of these patterns more closely resembles the relationship between frequency and repetition during the natural reading of a text. Frequency was manipulated using proper names that were high-frequency (e.g., Stephen) or low-frequency (e.g., Dominic). The critical name was later repeated in the sentence, or a new name was introduced. First-pass reading times and skipping rates on the critical name revealed robust repetition-by-frequency interactions such that the magnitude of the repetition-priming effect was greater for low-frequency names than for high-frequency names. In contrast, measures of later processing showed effects of repetition that did not depend on lexical frequency. These results are interpreted within a framework that conceptualizes eye-movement control as being influenced in different ways by lexical- and discourse-level factors. PMID:23283808

  12. The Influence of Orthographic Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency on Visual Word Recognition: Insights from RT Distributional Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Stephen Wee Hun

    2016-01-01

    The effects of orthographic neighborhood density and word frequency in visual word recognition were investigated using distributional analyses of response latencies in visual lexical decision. Main effects of density and frequency were observed in mean latencies. Distributional analyses additionally revealed a density × frequency interaction: for low-frequency words, density effects were mediated predominantly by distributional shifting whereas for high-frequency words, density effects were absent except at the slower RTs, implicating distributional skewing. The present findings suggest that density effects in low-frequency words reflect processes involved in early lexical access, while the effects observed in high-frequency words reflect late postlexical checking processes. PMID:27065902

  13. Automatic target recognition on the connection machine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) is a computationally intensive problem that benefits from the abilities of the Connection Machine (CM), a massively parallel computer used for data-level parallel computing. The large computational resources of the CM can efficiently handle an approach to ATR that uses parallel stereo-matching and neural-network algorithms. Such an approach shows promise as an ATR system of satisfactory performance. 13 refs.

  14. Improved word recognition for observers with age-related maculopathies using compensation filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, Teri B.

    1988-01-01

    A method for improving word recognition for people with age-related maculopathies, which cause a loss of central vision, is discussed. It is found that the use of individualized compensation filters based on an person's normalized contrast sensitivity function can improve word recognition for people with age-related maculopathies. It is shown that 27-70 pct more magnification is needed for unfiltered words compared to filtered words. The improvement in word recognition is positively correlated with the severity of vision loss.

  15. Synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition using adaptive boosting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yijun; Liu, Zhipeng; Todorovic, Sinisa; Li, Jian

    2005-05-01

    We propose a novel automatic target recognition (ATR) system for classification of three types of ground vehicles in the MSTAR public release database. First, each image chip is pre-processed by extracting fine and raw feature sets, where raw features compensate for the target pose estimation error that corrupts fine image features. Then, the chips are classified by using the adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) algorithm with the radial basis function (RBF) net as the base learner. Since the RBF net is a binary classifier, we decompose our multiclass problem into a set of binary ones through the error-correcting output codes (ECOC) method, specifying a dictionary of code words for the set of three possible classes. AdaBoost combines the classification results of the RBF net for each binary problem into a code word, which is then "decoded" as one of the code words (i.e., ground-vehicle classes) in the specified dictionary. Along with classification, within the AdaBoost framework, we also conduct efficient fusion of the fine and raw image-feature vectors. The results of large-scale experiments demonstrate that our ATR scheme outperforms the state-of-the-art systems reported in the literature.

  16. Establishing a time-line of word recognition: evidence from eye movements and event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Sereno, S C; Rayner, K; Posner, M I

    1998-07-13

    The average duration of eye fixations in reading places constraints on the time for lexical processing. Data from event related potential (ERP) studies of word recognition can illuminate stages of processing within a single fixation on a word. In the present study, high and low frequency regular and exception words were used as targets in an eye movement reading experiment and a high-density electrode ERP lexical decision experiment. Effects of lexicality (words vs pseudowords vs consonant strings), word frequency (high vs low frequency) and word regularity (regular vs exception spelling-sound correspondence) were examined. Results suggest a very early time-course for these aspects of lexical processing within the context of a single eye fixation. PMID:9694199

  17. Do Diacritical Marks Play a Role at the Early Stages of Word Recognition in Arabic?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Abu Mallouh, Reem; Mohammed, Ahmed; Khalifa, Batoul; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    A crucial question in the domain of visual word recognition is whether letter similarity plays a role in the early stages of visual word processing. Here we focused on Arabic because in this language there are various groups of letters that share the same basic shape and only differ in the number/location of diacritical points. We conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment in which a target word was preceded by: (i) an identity prime; (ii) a prime in which the critical letter was replaced by a letter with the same shape that differed in the number of diacritics (e.g., ); or (iii) a prime in which the critical letter was replaced by a letter with different shape (e.g., ). Results showed a sizable advantage of the identity condition over the two substituted-letter priming conditions (i.e., diacritical information is rapidly processed). Thus, diacritical marks play an essential role in the "feature letter" level of models of visual word recognition in Arabic. PMID:27597838

  18. Do Diacritical Marks Play a Role at the Early Stages of Word Recognition in Arabic?

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Manuel; Abu Mallouh, Reem; Mohammed, Ahmed; Khalifa, Batoul; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    A crucial question in the domain of visual word recognition is whether letter similarity plays a role in the early stages of visual word processing. Here we focused on Arabic because in this language there are various groups of letters that share the same basic shape and only differ in the number/location of diacritical points. We conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment in which a target word was preceded by: (i) an identity prime; (ii) a prime in which the critical letter was replaced by a letter with the same shape that differed in the number of diacritics (e.g., ); or (iii) a prime in which the critical letter was replaced by a letter with different shape (e.g., ). Results showed a sizable advantage of the identity condition over the two substituted-letter priming conditions (i.e., diacritical information is rapidly processed). Thus, diacritical marks play an essential role in the “feature letter” level of models of visual word recognition in Arabic. PMID:27597838

  19. Tracking the time course of phonetic cue integration during spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Bob; Clayards, Meghan A; Tanenhaus, Michael K; Aslin, Richard N

    2008-12-01

    Speech perception requires listeners to integrate multiple cues that each contribute to judgments about a phonetic category. Classic studies of trading relations assessed the weights attached to each cue but did not explore the time course of cue integration. Here, we provide the first direct evidence that asynchronous cues to voicing (/b/ vs. /p/) and manner (/b/ vs. /w/) contrasts become available to the listener at different times during spoken word recognition. Using the visual world paradigm, we show that the probability of eye movements to pictures of target and of competitor objects diverge at different points in time after the onset of the target word. These points of divergence correspond to the availability of early (voice onset time or formant transition slope) and late (vowel length) cues to voicing and manner contrasts. These results support a model of cue integration in which phonetic cues are used for lexical access as soon as they are available. PMID:19001568

  20. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  1. Integration of Pragmatic and Phonetic Cues in Spoken Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Hannah; Ettlinger, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has established that multiple top-down factors guide the identification of words during speech processing, the ultimate range of information sources that listeners integrate from different levels of linguistic structure is still unknown. In a set of experiments, we investigate whether comprehenders can integrate information from the two most disparate domains: pragmatic inference and phonetic perception. Using contexts that trigger pragmatic expectations regarding upcoming coreference (expectations for either he or she), we test listeners' identification of phonetic category boundaries (using acoustically ambiguous words on the/hi/∼/∫i/continuum). The results indicate that, in addition to phonetic cues, word recognition also reflects pragmatic inference. These findings are consistent with evidence for top-down contextual effects from lexical, syntactic, and semantic cues, but they extend this previous work by testing cues at the pragmatic level and by eliminating a statistical-frequency confound that might otherwise explain the previously reported results. We conclude by exploring the time-course of this interaction and discussing how different models of cue integration could be adapted to account for our results. PMID:22250908

  2. Integration of pragmatic and phonetic cues in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Hannah; Ettlinger, Marc

    2012-07-01

    Although previous research has established that multiple top-down factors guide the identification of words during speech processing, the ultimate range of information sources that listeners integrate from different levels of linguistic structure is still unknown. In a set of experiments, we investigate whether comprehenders can integrate information from the 2 most disparate domains: pragmatic inference and phonetic perception. Using contexts that trigger pragmatic expectations regarding upcoming coreference (expectations for either he or she), we test listeners' identification of phonetic category boundaries (using acoustically ambiguous words on the /hi/∼/∫i/ continuum). The results indicate that, in addition to phonetic cues, word recognition also reflects pragmatic inference. These findings are consistent with evidence for top-down contextual effects from lexical, syntactic, and semantic cues, but they extend this previous work by testing cues at the pragmatic level and by eliminating a statistical-frequency confound that might otherwise explain the previously reported results. We conclude by exploring the time course of this interaction and discussing how different models of cue integration could be adapted to account for our results. PMID:22250908

  3. Spatiotemporal Brain Maps of Delayed Word Repetition and Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Dhond, Rupali P.; Witzel, Thomas; Dale, Anders M.; Halgren, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to spatiotemporally map the brain response underlying episodic retrieval of words studied a single time following a long delay (~40min.) Recognition following a long delay occurs as a strong, sustained, differential response, within bilateral, ventral and lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior temporal and medial parietal regions from ~500ms onward, as well as ventral occipitotemporal regions from ~700ms onward. In comparison with previous tasks using multiple repetitions at short delays, these effects were centered within the same areas (anteroventral temporal and ventral prefrontal), but were shifted to longer latencies (~500ms vs. ~200ms), were less left-lateralized, and appear more in anterolateral prefrontal regions and less in lateral temporal cortex. Furthermore, comparison of correctly classified words with misclassified, novel and repeated words, suggests that these frontotemporal-parietocingulate responses are sensitive to actual as well as perceived repetition. The results also suggest that lateral prefrontal regions may participate more in controlled, effortful retrieval while left ventral frontal and anterior temporal responses may support sustained lexicosemantic processing. Additionally, left ventromedial temporal sites may be relatively more involved in episodic retrieval, while lateral temporal sites may participate more in automatic priming. PMID:16084111

  4. Sensory experience ratings (SERs) for 1,659 French words: Relationships with other psycholinguistic variables and visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Ferrand, Ludovic; Bugaïska, Aurélia

    2015-09-01

    We collected sensory experience ratings (SERs) for 1,659 French words in adults. Sensory experience for words is a recently introduced variable that corresponds to the degree to which words elicit sensory and perceptual experiences (Juhasz & Yap Behavior Research Methods, 45, 160-168, 2013; Juhasz, Yap, Dicke, Taylor, & Gullick Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 1683-1691, 2011). The relationships of the sensory experience norms with other psycholinguistic variables (e.g., imageability and age of acquisition) were analyzed. We also investigated the degree to which SER predicted performance in visual word recognition tasks (lexical decision, word naming, and progressive demasking). The analyses indicated that SER reliably predicted response times in lexical decision, but not in word naming or progressive demasking. The findings are discussed in relation to the status of SER, the role of semantic code activation in visual word recognition, and the embodied view of cognition. PMID:24993636

  5. Parallel algorithms for isolated and connected word recognition. Volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    For years researchers have worked toward finding a way to allow people to talk to machines in the same manner a person communicates to another person. This verbal man to machine interface, called speech recognition, can be grouped into three types: isolated word recognition, connected word recognition, and continuous speech recognition. Isolated word recognizers recognize single words with distinctive pauses before and after them. Continuous speech recognizers recognize speech spoken as one person speaks to another, continuously without pauses. Connected word recognition is an extension of isolated word recognition which recognizes groups of words spoken continuously. A group of words must have distinctive pauses before and after it, and the number of words in a group is limited to some small value (typically less than six). If these types of recognition systems are to be successful in the real world, they must be speaker independent and support a large vocabulary. They also must be able to recognize the speech input accurately and in real time. Currently there is no system which can meet all of these criteria because a vast amount of computations are needed. This thesis examines the use of parallel processing to reduce the computation time for speech recognition.

  6. A naturalistic study of the word frequency effect in episodic recognition.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, K A; Humphreys, M S; Dennis, S

    1997-11-01

    In order to separate the effects of experience from other characteristics of word frequency (e.g., orthographic distinctiveness), computer science and psychology students rated their experience with computer science technical items and nontechnical items from a wide range of word frequencies prior to being tested for recognition memory of the rated items. For nontechnical items, there was a curvilinear relationship between recognition accuracy and word frequency for both groups of students. The usual superiority of low-frequency words was demonstrated and high-frequency words were recognized least well. For technical items, a similar curvilinear relationship was evident for the psychology students, but for the computer science students, recognition accuracy was inversely related to word frequency. The ratings data showed that subjective experience rather than background word frequency was the better predictor of recognition accuracy. PMID:9421563

  7. Offline handwritten word recognition using MQDF-HMMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandrula, Sitaram; Hambarde, Mangesh; Patial, Ajay; Sahoo, Dushyant; Kochar, Shaivi

    2015-01-01

    We propose an improved HMM formulation for offline handwriting recognition (HWR). The main contribution of this work is using modified quadratic discriminant function (MQDF) [1] within HMM framework. In an MQDF-HMM the state observation likelihood is calculated by a weighted combination of MQDF likelihoods of individual Gaussians of GMM (Gaussian Mixture Model). The quadratic discriminant function (QDF) of a multivariate Gaussian can be rewritten by avoiding the inverse of covariance matrix by using the Eigen values and Eigen vectors of it. The MQDF is derived from QDF by substituting few of badly estimated lower-most Eigen values by an appropriate constant. The estimation errors of non-dominant Eigen vectors and Eigen values of covariance matrix for which the training data is insufficient can be controlled by this approach. MQDF has been successfully shown to improve the character recognition performance [1]. The usage of MQDF in HMM improves the computation, storage and modeling power of HMM when there is limited training data. We have got encouraging results on offline handwritten character (NIST database) and word recognition in English using MQDF HMMs.

  8. Photonics: From target recognition to lesion detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, E. Michael

    1994-01-01

    Since 1989, Martin Marietta has invested in the development of an innovative concept for robust real-time pattern recognition for any two-dimensioanal sensor. This concept has been tested in simulation, and in laboratory and field hardware, for a number of DOD and commercial uses from automatic target recognition to manufacturing inspection. We have now joined Rose Health Care Systems in developing its use for medical diagnostics. The concept is based on determining regions of interest by using optical Fourier bandpassing as a scene segmentation technique, enhancing those regions using wavelet filters, passing the enhanced regions to a neural network for analysis and initial pattern identification, and following this initial identification with confirmation by optical correlation. The optical scene segmentation and pattern confirmation are performed by the same optical module. The neural network is a recursive error minimization network with a small number of connections and nodes that rapidly converges to a global minimum.

  9. Protein-targeted corona phase molecular recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bisker, Gili; Dong, Juyao; Park, Hoyoung D.; Iverson, Nicole M.; Ahn, Jiyoung; Nelson, Justin T.; Landry, Markita P.; Kruss, Sebastian; Strano, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Corona phase molecular recognition (CoPhMoRe) uses a heteropolymer adsorbed onto and templated by a nanoparticle surface to recognize a specific target analyte. This method has not yet been extended to macromolecular analytes, including proteins. Herein we develop a variant of a CoPhMoRe screening procedure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and use it against a panel of human blood proteins, revealing a specific corona phase that recognizes fibrinogen with high selectivity. In response to fibrinogen binding, SWCNT fluorescence decreases by >80% at saturation. Sequential binding of the three fibrinogen nodules is suggested by selective fluorescence quenching by isolated sub-domains and validated by the quenching kinetics. The fibrinogen recognition also occurs in serum environment, at the clinically relevant fibrinogen concentrations in the human blood. These results open new avenues for synthetic, non-biological antibody analogues that recognize biological macromolecules, and hold great promise for medical and clinical applications. PMID:26742890

  10. Protein-targeted corona phase molecular recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisker, Gili; Dong, Juyao; Park, Hoyoung D.; Iverson, Nicole M.; Ahn, Jiyoung; Nelson, Justin T.; Landry, Markita P.; Kruss, Sebastian; Strano, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Corona phase molecular recognition (CoPhMoRe) uses a heteropolymer adsorbed onto and templated by a nanoparticle surface to recognize a specific target analyte. This method has not yet been extended to macromolecular analytes, including proteins. Herein we develop a variant of a CoPhMoRe screening procedure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and use it against a panel of human blood proteins, revealing a specific corona phase that recognizes fibrinogen with high selectivity. In response to fibrinogen binding, SWCNT fluorescence decreases by >80% at saturation. Sequential binding of the three fibrinogen nodules is suggested by selective fluorescence quenching by isolated sub-domains and validated by the quenching kinetics. The fibrinogen recognition also occurs in serum environment, at the clinically relevant fibrinogen concentrations in the human blood. These results open new avenues for synthetic, non-biological antibody analogues that recognize biological macromolecules, and hold great promise for medical and clinical applications.

  11. Robust automatic target recognition in FLIR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyman, Yusuf

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a robust automatic target recognition algorithm in FLIR imagery is proposed. Target is first segmented out from the background using wavelet transform. Segmentation process is accomplished by parametric Gabor wavelet transformation. Invariant features that belong to the target, which is segmented out from the background, are then extracted via moments. Higher-order moments, while providing better quality for identifying the image, are more sensitive to noise. A trade-off study is then performed on a few moments that provide effective performance. Bayes method is used for classification, using Mahalanobis distance as the Bayes' classifier. Results are assessed based on false alarm rates. The proposed method is shown to be robust against rotations, translations and scale effects. Moreover, it is shown to effectively perform under low-contrast objects in FLIR images. Performance comparisons are also performed on both GPU and CPU. Results indicate that GPU has superior performance over CPU.

  12. Testing Saliency Parameters for Automatic Target Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Sagar

    2012-01-01

    A bottom-up visual attention model (the saliency model) is tested to enhance the performance of Automated Target Recognition (ATR). JPL has developed an ATR system that identifies regions of interest (ROI) using a trained OT-MACH filter, and then classifies potential targets as true- or false-positives using machine-learning techniques. In this project, saliency is used as a pre-processing step to reduce the space for performing OT-MACH filtering. Saliency parameters, such as output level and orientation weight, are tuned to detect known target features. Preliminary results are promising and future work entails a rigrous and parameter-based search to gain maximum insight about this method.

  13. Words Jump-Start Vision: A Label Advantage in Object Recognition.

    PubMed

    Boutonnet, Bastien; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-06-24

    People use language to shape each other's behavior in highly flexible ways. Effects of language are often assumed to be "high-level" in that, whereas language clearly influences reasoning, decision making, and memory, it does not influence low-level visual processes. Here, we test the prediction that words are able to provide top-down guidance at the very earliest stages of visual processing by acting as powerful categorical cues. We investigated whether visual processing of images of familiar animals and artifacts was enhanced after hearing their name (e.g., "dog") compared with hearing an equally familiar and unambiguous nonverbal sound (e.g., a dog bark) in 14 English monolingual speakers. Because the relationship between words and their referents is categorical, we expected words to deploy more effective categorical templates, allowing for more rapid visual recognition. By recording EEGs, we were able to determine whether this label advantage stemmed from changes to early visual processing or later semantic decision processes. The results showed that hearing a word affected early visual processes and that this modulation was specific to the named category. An analysis of ERPs showed that the P1 was larger when people were cued by labels compared with equally informative nonverbal cues-an enhancement occurring within 100 ms of image onset, which also predicted behavioral responses occurring almost 500 ms later. Hearing labels modulated the P1 such that it distinguished between target and nontarget images, showing that words rapidly guide early visual processing. PMID:26109657

  14. The influence of neighborhood density on the recognition of Spanish-accented words.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S

    2015-02-01

    Foreign-accented speech is more difficult to recognize than the same words produced by a native speaker because the accented speech may activate many additional competitors, or it may strongly activate a single, but incorrect, word during lexical retrieval. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the recognition of native-produced and foreign-accented words varying in neighborhood density with auditory lexical decision and perceptual identification tasks, respectively. Experiment 1 found increased reaction times (RTs), especially for accented dense words. Analysis of misperceptions from Experiment 2 found that the mean number of phonologically distinct misperception tokens was higher for native than accented stimuli, suggesting that accented speech does not tend to activate more lexical candidates. Furthermore, a higher proportion of misperceptions in the accented condition (71%) compared with the native condition (58%) was accounted for by the most frequently reported misperception token, suggesting that accented speech instead tends to strongly activate 1 particular neighbor of the target word during lexical competition. Moreover, systematic phonemic substitutions in the misperceptions suggest that lawful acoustic-phonetic variations introduced by the accented speaker's L1 (native language) play a crucial role in determining which neighbor is activated as a strong competitor. PMID:25485666

  15. Individual Differences in Visual Word Recognition: Insights from the English Lexicon Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences among individuals who contributed to the English…

  16. Talker and Lexical Effects on Audiovisual Word Recognition by Adults with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Adam R.; Kirk, Karen Iler; Lachs, Lorin; Pisoni, David B.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined how 20 adults with postlingual deafness with cochlear implants combined visual information from lip reading with auditory cues in an open-set word recognition task. Word recognition performance was highest for audiovisual presentation followed by auditory-only and then visual-only stimulus presentation, and for single-talker…

  17. Knowledge of a Second Language Influences Auditory Word Recognition in the Native Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagrou, Evelyne; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Duyck, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Many studies in bilingual visual word recognition have demonstrated that lexical access is not language selective. However, research on bilingual word recognition in the auditory modality has been scarce, and it has yielded mixed results with regard to the degree of this language nonselectivity. In the present study, we investigated whether…

  18. Modeling words with subword units in an articulatorily constrained speech recognition algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.

    1997-11-20

    The goal of speech recognition is to find the most probable word given the acoustic evidence, i.e. a string of VQ codes or acoustic features. Speech recognition algorithms typically take advantage of the fact that the probability of a word, given a sequence of VQ codes, can be calculated.

  19. Concurrent Correlates of Chinese Word Recognition in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Boby Ho-Hong; Nunes, Terezinha

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relative contributions of phonological, semantic radical, and morphological awareness to Chinese word recognition in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Measures of word recognition, general intelligence, phonological, semantic radical, and morphological awareness were administered to 32 DHH and 35…

  20. Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed in the Prediction of Dutch Children's Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, W.; Aarnoutse, C.; van Leeuwe, J.

    2008-01-01

    Influences of phonological awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. The speed and accuracy of word recognition at the ends of Grades 1 and 2 were predicted by naming speed from both the beginning and end of Grade 1, after control for autoregressive…

  1. Morphing Images: A Potential Tool for Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2005-01-01

    Children with severe learning difficulties who fail to begin word recognition can learn to recognise pictures and symbols relatively easily. However, finding an effective means of using pictures to teach word recognition has proved problematic. This research explores the use of morphing software to support the transition from picture to word…

  2. Developmental Word Recognition: A Study of L1 English Readers of L2 Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikamatsu, Nobuko

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on developmental word recognition strategies used by first language (L1) English readers of second language (L2) Japanese. There were two proficiency groups of Japanese learners. The study considered whether or not word recognition strategies are developmental and whether or not L1 orthographic interference (i.e., involvement of…

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Word Recognition and Process Measures in the Colorado Reading Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, R. K.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Subjects measures of word recognition, phonological coding, and orthographic coding obtained from analyses of identical and fraternal twins to multivariate genetic analysis. Finds that genetic influences on individual differences in word recognition were more strongly related to genetic variance in phonological coding than in orthographic coding.…

  4. The Predictive Power of Phonemic Awareness and Naming Speed for Early Dutch Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Wim G. M.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of phonemic awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. Both the speed and accuracy of word recognition at the end of Grade 2 were predicted by naming speed from both kindergarten and Grade 1, after control for autoregressive relations, kindergarten…

  5. Software for Partly Automated Recognition of Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opitz, David; Blundell, Stuart; Bain, William; Morris, Matthew; Carlson, Ian; Mangrich, Mark; Selinsky, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Feature Analyst is a computer program for assisted (partially automated) recognition of targets in images. This program was developed to accelerate the processing of high-resolution satellite image data for incorporation into geographic information systems (GIS). This program creates an advanced user interface that embeds proprietary machine-learning algorithms in commercial image-processing and GIS software. A human analyst provides samples of target features from multiple sets of data, then the software develops a data-fusion model that automatically extracts the remaining features from selected sets of data. The program thus leverages the natural ability of humans to recognize objects in complex scenes, without requiring the user to explain the human visual recognition process by means of lengthy software. Two major subprograms are the reactive agent and the thinking agent. The reactive agent strives to quickly learn the user's tendencies while the user is selecting targets and to increase the user's productivity by immediately suggesting the next set of pixels that the user may wish to select. The thinking agent utilizes all available resources, taking as much time as needed, to produce the most accurate autonomous feature-extraction model possible.

  6. Software for Partly Automated Recognition of Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opitz, David; Blundell, Stuart; Bain, William; Morris, Matthew; Carlson, Ian; Mangrich, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The Feature Analyst is a computer program for assisted (partially automated) recognition of targets in images. This program was developed to accelerate the processing of high-resolution satellite image data for incorporation into geographic information systems (GIS). This program creates an advanced user interface that embeds proprietary machine-learning algorithms in commercial image-processing and GIS software. A human analyst provides samples of target features from multiple sets of data, then the software develops a data-fusion model that automatically extracts the remaining features from selected sets of data. The program thus leverages the natural ability of humans to recognize objects in complex scenes, without requiring the user to explain the human visual recognition process by means of lengthy software. Two major subprograms are the reactive agent and the thinking agent. The reactive agent strives to quickly learn the user s tendencies while the user is selecting targets and to increase the user s productivity by immediately suggesting the next set of pixels that the user may wish to select. The thinking agent utilizes all available resources, taking as much time as needed, to produce the most accurate autonomous feature-extraction model possible.

  7. Conformational Frustration in Calmodulin-Target Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Swarnendu; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Pengzhi; Hoffman, Laurel; Waxham, M. Neal; Cheung, Margaret S.

    2015-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a primary calcium (Ca2+) signaling protein that specifically recognizes and activates highly diverse target proteins. We explored the molecular basis of target recognition of CaM with peptides representing the CaM-binding domains from two Ca2+-CaM dependent kinases, CaMKI and CaMKII, by employing experimentally-constrained molecular simulations. Detailed binding route analysis revealed that the two CaM target peptides, although similar in length and net charge, follow distinct routes that lead to a higher binding frustration in the CaM-CaMKII complex than the CaM-CaMKI complex. We discovered that the molecular origin of the binding frustration is caused by intermolecular contacts formed with the C-domain of CaM that need to be broken before the formation of intermolecular contacts with the N-domain of CaM. We argue that the binding frustration is important for determining the kinetics of the recognition process of proteins involving large structural fluctuations. PMID:25622562

  8. Emotion word recognition: discrete information effects first, continuous later?

    PubMed

    Briesemeister, Benny B; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2014-05-20

    Manipulations of either discrete emotions (e.g. happiness) or affective dimensions (e.g. positivity) have a long tradition in emotion research, but interactive effects have never been studied, based on the assumption that the two underlying theories are incompatible. Recent theorizing suggests, however, that the human brain relies on two affective processing systems, one working on the basis of discrete emotion categories, and the other working along affective dimensions. Presenting participants with an orthogonal manipulation of happiness and positivity in a lexical decision task, the present study meant to test the appropriateness of this assumption in emotion word recognition. Behavioral and electroencephalographic data revealed independent effects for both variables, with happiness affecting the early visual N1 component, while positivity affected an N400-like component and the late positive complex. These results are interpreted as evidence for a sequential processing of affective information, with discrete emotions being the basis for later dimensional appraisal processes. PMID:24713350

  9. Image understanding research for automatic target recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Bhanu, B. ); Jones, T.L. )

    1993-10-01

    Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) is an extremely important capability for defense applications. Many aspects of Image Understanding (IU) research are traditionally used to solve ATR problems. In this paper, the authors discuss ATR applications and problems in developing real-world ATR systems, and present the status of technology for these systems. They identify several IU problems that need to be resolved in order to enhance the effectiveness of ATR-based weapon systems. Finally, they conclude that technological gains in developing robust ATR systems will also lead to significant advances in many other areas of applications of image understanding.

  10. Concurrent correlates of Chinese word recognition in deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

    PubMed

    Ching, Boby Ho-Hong; Nunes, Terezinha

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relative contributions of phonological, semantic radical, and morphological awareness to Chinese word recognition in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Measures of word recognition, general intelligence, phonological, semantic radical, and morphological awareness were administered to 32 DHH and 35 hearing children in Hong Kong. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that tone, semantic radical, and morphological awareness made independent contributions to word recognition in DHH children after the effects of age and intelligence were statistically controlled for. Semantic radical and morphological awareness was found to explain significantly more variance than tone awareness in predicting word recognition in DHH children. This study has replicated previous evidence regarding the importance of semantic radical and morphological awareness in Chinese word recognition in hearing children and extended its significance to DHH children. PMID:25749634

  11. A novel thermal face recognition approach using face pattern words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    A reliable thermal face recognition system can enhance the national security applications such as prevention against terrorism, surveillance, monitoring and tracking, especially at nighttime. The system can be applied at airports, customs or high-alert facilities (e.g., nuclear power plant) for 24 hours a day. In this paper, we propose a novel face recognition approach utilizing thermal (long wave infrared) face images that can automatically identify a subject at both daytime and nighttime. With a properly acquired thermal image (as a query image) in monitoring zone, the following processes will be employed: normalization and denoising, face detection, face alignment, face masking, Gabor wavelet transform, face pattern words (FPWs) creation, face identification by similarity measure (Hamming distance). If eyeglasses are present on a subject's face, an eyeglasses mask will be automatically extracted from the querying face image, and then masked with all comparing FPWs (no more transforms). A high identification rate (97.44% with Top-1 match) has been achieved upon our preliminary face dataset (of 39 subjects) from the proposed approach regardless operating time and glasses-wearing condition.e

  12. Recognition Memory for Pairs of Words as a Function of Associative Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Benton J.

    The purpose of these studies was to test a theory of associative context (defined as the association between two words in a pair) on recognition memory. The theory states that culturally associated words in a pair and nonassociated words in a pair differ after a single study trial in terms of their frequency representation in memory. Two…

  13. Frequency Effects in Spoken and Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from Dual-Task Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Alexandra A.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Quinlan, Philip T.; Tamminen, Jakke

    2006-01-01

    The authors report 3 dual-task experiments concerning the locus of frequency effects in word recognition. In all experiments, Task 1 entailed a simple perceptual choice and Task 2 involved lexical decision. In Experiment 1, an underadditive effect of word frequency arose for spoken words. Experiment 2 also showed underadditivity for visual lexical…

  14. A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

  15. Orthographic Consistency Affects Spoken Word Recognition at Different Grain-Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dich, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous studies demonstrated this by manipulating…

  16. Extraction of words from the national ID cards for automated recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Md. Rezwan; Bhuiyan, Md. Hasanuzzaman; Uddin, Mohammad Shorif

    2011-10-01

    The government of Bangladesh introduced national ID cards in 2008 for all peoples of age 18 years and above. This card is now a de-facto identity document and finds diverse applications in vote casting, bank account opening, telephone subscribing as well as in many real life transactions and security checking. To get real fruits of this versatile ID card, automated retrieving and recognition of an independent person from this extra large national database is an ultimate necessity. This work is the first step to fill this gap in making the recognition in automated fashion. Here we have investigated an image analysis technique to extract the words that will be used in subsequent recognition steps. At first scanned ID card image is used as an input into the computer system and then the target text region is separated from the picture region. The text region is used for separation of lines and words on the basis of the vertical and horizontal projections of image intensity, respectively. Experimentation using real national ID cards confirms the effectiveness of our technique.

  17. Age of Acquisition and Sensitivity to Gender in Spanish Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Speakers of gender-agreement languages use gender-marked elements of the noun phrase in spoken-word recognition: A congruent marking on a determiner or adjective facilitates the recognition of a subsequent noun, while an incongruent marking inhibits its recognition. However, while monolinguals and early language learners evidence this…

  18. Word-level recognition of multifont Arabic text using a feature vector matching approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandson, Erik J.; Trenkle, John M.; Vogt, Robert C., III

    1996-03-01

    Many text recognition systems recognize text imagery at the character level and assemble words from the recognized characters. An alternative approach is to recognize text imagery at the word level, without analyzing individual characters. This approach avoids the problem of individual character segmentation, and can overcome local errors in character recognition. A word-level recognition system for machine-printed Arabic text has been implemented. Arabic is a script language, and is therefore difficult to segment at the character level. Character segmentation has been avoided by recognizing text imagery of complete words. The Arabic recognition system computes a vector of image-morphological features on a query word image. This vector is matched against a precomputed database of vectors from a lexicon of Arabic words. Vectors from the database with the highest match score are returned as hypotheses for the unknown image. Several feature vectors may be stored for each word in the database. Database feature vectors generated using multiple fonts and noise models allow the system to be tuned to its input stream. Used in conjunction with database pruning techniques, this Arabic recognition system has obtained promising word recognition rates on low-quality multifont text imagery.

  19. Cognitive control and word recognition speed influence the Stroop effect in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruiming; Fan, Xiaoyue; Liu, Cong; Cai, Zhenguang G

    2016-04-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to be less susceptible to Stroop interference in their first language than monolinguals, though the cause is currently being debated. In two experiments, we explored how cognitive control and word recognition contribute to the Stroop effect by contrasting cognitive control (via a Simon arrow task), word recognition speed (via a Chinese/English word recognition task) and Stroop susceptibility (via a verbal Stroop task) between proficient and non-proficient Chinese-English bilinguals. Compared to non-proficient bilinguals, proficient bilinguals showed better cognitive control at inhibiting irrelevant information, and they were slower at recognising Chinese words but quicker at recognising English words. Critically, we also showed that proficient bilinguals showed a smaller Stroop effect than non-proficient bilinguals in Chinese but a comparable Stroop effect as non-proficient bilinguals in English. The results cannot be accounted for by cognitive control or word recognition speed alone; instead, they are best accommodated by assuming that cognitive control and word recognition speed jointly determine the Stroop effect. Thus, we conclude that enhanced cognitive control and delayed word recognition combine to reduce Stroop effect in bilinguals as compared to monolinguals. PMID:25418783

  20. Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition: the consistency effect in semantic and gender categorization tasks.

    PubMed

    Peereman, Ronald; Dufour, Sophie; Burt, Jennifer S

    2009-04-01

    According to current models, spoken word recognition is driven by the phonological properties of the speech signal. However, several studies have suggested that orthographic information also influences recognition in adult listeners. In particular, it has been repeatedly shown that, in the lexical decision task, words that include rimes with inconsistent spellings (e.g., /-ip/ spelled -eap or -eep) are disadvantaged, as compared with words with consistent rime spelling. In the present study, we explored whether the orthographic consistency effect extends to tasks requiring people to process words beyond simple lexical access. Two different tasks were used: semantic and gender categorization. Both tasks produced reliable consistency effects. The data are discussed as suggesting that orthographic codes are activated during word recognition, or that the organization of phonological representations of words is affected by orthography during literacy acquisition. PMID:19293108

  1. The modulation of semantic transparency on the recognition memory for two-character Chinese words.

    PubMed

    Han, Yi-Jhong; Huang, Shuo-Chieh; Lee, Chia-Ying; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Cheng, Shih-Kuen

    2014-11-01

    This study demonstrated that semantic transparency as a linguistic property modulates the recognition memory for two-character Chinese words, with opaque words (i.e., words whose meanings cannot be derived from constituent characters-e.g., "[/guang/, light][/gun/, stick]", bachelor) remembered better than transparent words (i.e., words whose meanings can be derived from constituent characters-e.g., "[/cha/, tea][/bei/, cup]", teacup). In Experiment 1, the participants made lexical decisions on transparent words, opaque words, and nonwords in the study and then engaged in an old/new recognition test. Experiment 2 employed a concreteness judgment as the encoding task to ensure equivalent semantic processing for opaque and transparent words. In Experiment 3, the neighborhood size of the two-character words was manipulated together with their semantic transparency. In all three experiments, opaque words were found to be better remembered than transparent words. We concluded that the conceptual incongruence between the meanings of a whole word and its constituent characters made opaque words more distinctive and, hence, better remembered than transparent words. PMID:24894986

  2. Speed and accuracy of dyslexic versus typical word recognition: an eye-movement investigation.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Richard; Scheepers, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is often characterized by a dual deficit in both word recognition accuracy and general processing speed. While previous research into dyslexic word recognition may have suffered from speed-accuracy trade-off, the present study employed a novel eye-tracking task that is less prone to such confounds. Participants (10 dyslexics and 12 controls) were asked to look at real word stimuli, and to ignore simultaneously presented non-word stimuli, while their eye-movements were recorded. Improvements in word recognition accuracy over time were modeled in terms of a continuous non-linear function. The words' rhyme consistency and the non-words' lexicality (unpronounceable, pronounceable, pseudohomophone) were manipulated within-subjects. Speed-related measures derived from the model fits confirmed generally slower processing in dyslexics, and showed a rhyme consistency effect in both dyslexics and controls. In terms of overall error rate, dyslexics (but not controls) performed less accurately on rhyme-inconsistent words, suggesting a representational deficit for such words in dyslexics. Interestingly, neither group showed a pseudohomophone effect in speed or accuracy, which might call the task-independent pervasiveness of this effect into question. The present results illustrate the importance of distinguishing between speed- vs. accuracy-related effects for our understanding of dyslexic word recognition. PMID:25346708

  3. Interpretation of Orthographic Uniqueness Point Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberts, Koen

    2005-01-01

    The orthographic uniqueness point (OUP) of a word is the position of the first letter from the left that distinguishes a word from all other words. In 2 recent studies (P. J. Kwantes & D. J. K. Mewhort, 1999a; A. K. Lindell, M. E. R. Nicholls, & A. E. Castles, 2003), it has been observed that words with an early OUP were processed more quickly…

  4. Comparison of crisp and fuzzy character networks in handwritten word recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gader, Paul; Mohamed, Magdi; Chiang, Jung-Hsien

    1992-01-01

    Experiments involving handwritten word recognition on words taken from images of handwritten address blocks from the United States Postal Service mailstream are described. The word recognition algorithm relies on the use of neural networks at the character level. The neural networks are trained using crisp and fuzzy desired outputs. The fuzzy outputs were defined using a fuzzy k-nearest neighbor algorithm. The crisp networks slightly outperformed the fuzzy networks at the character level but the fuzzy networks outperformed the crisp networks at the word level.

  5. The Influence of the Phonological Neighborhood Clustering Coefficient on Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Clustering coefficient--a measure derived from the new science of networks--refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words "bat", "hat", and "can", all of which are neighbors of the word "cat"; the words "bat" and "hat" are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual…

  6. Spoken word recognition in English by Japanese listeners: A case of Japanese-accented and unaccented English words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Kiyoko

    2001-05-01

    The effect of acoustic mismatch between a listener's phonological representations and speech input on spoken word recognition was examined with Japanese learners of English. Imai, Flege, and Walley (2003) recently found that native-Spanish listeners showed a larger neighborhood density effect for unaccented English words than Spanish-accented English words, whereas native-English listeners showed a larger neighborhood density effect for Spanish-accented than unaccented words. We hypothesized that phonological mismatches would occur when native-Japanese listeners respond to unaccented English words than Japanese-accented English words. Further, the effect of the mismatch would be expected to be greater for words from dense versus sparse neighborhoods because Yoneyama (2002) found that Japanese listeners showed neighborhood density effect when they listen to Japanese. This paper reports the results of the experiment where native-Japanese listeners were asked to write down English words that were presented in noise. The words differed in neighborhood density; half were Japanese-accented words that were produced by a Japanese learner of English at a beginner level, the other half were unaccented words that were produced by a native-English listener. The results replicated Imai et al.'s (2003) finding.

  7. The influence of orthographic consistency on reading development: word recognition in English and German children.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, H; Goswami, U

    1994-01-01

    Groups of 7, 8, and 9-year-old children who were learning to read in English and German were given three different continuous reading tasks: a numeral reading task, a number word reading task, and a nonsense word reading task. The nonsense words could be read by analogy to the number words. Whereas reading time and error rates in numeral and number word reading were very similar across the two orthographies, the German children showed a big advantage in reading the nonsense words. This pattern of results is interpreted as evidence for the initial adoption of different strategies for word recognition in the two orthographies. German children appear to rely on assembling pronunciations via grapheme-phoneme conversion, and English children appear to rely more on some kind of direct recognition strategy. A model of reading development that takes account of orthographic consistency is proposed. PMID:8149718

  8. Context and spoken word recognition in a novel lexicon.

    PubMed

    Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K; Aslin, Richard N

    2008-09-01

    Three eye movement studies with novel lexicons investigated the role of semantic context in spoken word recognition, contrasting 3 models: restrictive access, access-selection, and continuous integration. Actions directed at novel shapes caused changes in motion (e.g., looming, spinning) or state (e.g., color, texture). Across the experiments, novel names for the actions and the shapes varied in frequency, cohort density, and whether the cohorts referred to actions (Experiment 1) or shapes with action-congruent or action-incongruent affordances (Experiments 2 and 3). Experiment 1 demonstrated effects of frequency and cohort competition from both displayed and non-displayed competitors. In Experiment 2, a biasing context induced an increase in anticipatory eye movements to congruent referents and reduced the probability of looks to incongruent cohorts, without the delay predicted by access-selection models. In Experiment 3, context did not reduce competition from non-displayed incompatible neighbors as predicted by restrictive access models. The authors conclude that the results are most consistent with continuous integration models. PMID:18763901

  9. Application of wavelets to automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirman, Charles

    1995-03-01

    'Application of Wavelets to Automatic Target Recognition,' is the second phase of multiphase project to insert compactly supported wavelets into an existing or near-term Department of Defense system such as the Longbow fire control radar for the Apache Attack Helicopter. In this contract, we have concentrated mainly on the classifier function. During the first phase of the program ('Application of Wavelets to Radar Data Processing'), the feasibility of using wavelets to process high range resolution profile (HRRP) amplitude returns from a wide bandwidth radar system was demonstrated. This phase obtained fully polarized wide bandwidth radar HRRP amplitude returns and processed, them with wavelet and wavelet packet or (best basis) transforms. Then, by mathematically defined nonlinear feature selection, we showed that significant improvements in the probability of correct classification are possible, up to 14 percentage points maximum (4 percentage points average) improvement when compared to the current classifier performance. In addition, we addressed the feasibility of using wavelet packets' best basis to address target registration, man made object rejection, clutter discriminations, and synthetic aperture radar scene speckle removal and object registration.

  10. Electrophysiological assessment of the time course of bilingual visual word recognition: Early access to language membership.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Loretta K; Pitts, Michael A; Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta

    2015-08-01

    Previous research examining the time course of lexical access during word recognition suggests that phonological processing precedes access to semantic information, which in turn precedes access to syntactic information. Bilingual word recognition likely requires an additional level: knowledge of which language a specific word belongs to. Using the recording of event-related potentials, we investigated the time course of access to language membership information relative to semantic (Experiment 1) and syntactic (Experiment 2) encoding during visual word recognition. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals viewed a series of printed words while making dual-choice go/nogo and left/right hand decisions based on semantic (whether the word referred to an animal or an object) and language membership information (whether the word was in English or in Spanish). Experiment 2 used a similar paradigm but with syntactic information (whether the word was a noun or a verb) as one of the response contingencies. The onset and peak latency of the N200, a component related to response inhibition, indicated that language information is accessed earlier than semantic information. Similarly, language information was also accessed earlier than syntactic information (but only based on peak latency). We discuss these findings with respect to models of bilingual word recognition and language comprehension in general. PMID:26102192

  11. Transformation invariant on-line target recognition.

    PubMed

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M

    2011-06-01

    Transformation invariant automatic target recognition (ATR) has been an active research area due to its widespread applications in defense, robotics, medical imaging and geographic scene analysis. The primary goal for this paper is to obtain an on-line ATR system for targets in presence of image transformations, such as rotation, translation, scale and occlusion as well as resolution changes. We investigate biologically inspired adaptive critic design (ACD) neural network (NN) models for on-line learning of such transformations. We further exploit reinforcement learning (RL) in ACD framework to obtain transformation invariant ATR. We exploit two ACD designs, such as heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) and dual heuristic dynamic programming (DHP) to obtain transformation invariant ATR. We obtain extensive statistical evaluations of proposed on-line ATR networks using both simulated image transformations and real benchmark facial image database, UMIST, with pose variations. Our simulations show promising results for learning transformations in simulated images and authenticating out-of plane rotated face images. Comparing the two on-line ATR designs, HDP outperforms DHP in learning capability and robustness and is more tolerant to noise. The computational time involved in HDP is also less than that of DHP. On the other hand, DHP achieves a 100% success rate more frequently than HDP for individual targets, and the residual critic error in DHP is generally smaller than that of HDP. Mathematical analyses of both our RL-based on-line ATR designs are also obtained to provide a sufficient condition for asymptotic convergence in a statistical average sense. PMID:21571610

  12. Early decomposition in visual word recognition: Dissociating morphology, form, and meaning

    PubMed Central

    Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Bozic, Mirjana; Randall, Billi

    2008-01-01

    The role of morphological, semantic, and form-based factors in the early stages of visual word recognition was investigated across different SOAs in a masked priming paradigm, focusing on English derivational morphology. In a first set of experiments, stimulus pairs co-varying in morphological decomposability and in semantic and orthographic relatedness were presented at three SOAs (36, 48, and 72 ms). No effects of orthographic relatedness were found at any SOA. Semantic relatedness did not interact with effects of morphological decomposability, which came through strongly at all SOAs, even for pseudo-suffixed pairs such as archer-arch. Derivational morphological effects in masked priming seem to be primarily driven by morphological decomposability at an early stage of visual word recognition, and are independent of semantic factors. A second experiment reversed the order of prime and target (stem-derived rather than derived-stem), and again found that morphological priming did not interact with semantic relatedness. This points to an early segmentation process that is driven by morphological decomposability and not by the structure or content of central lexical representations. PMID:18923643

  13. Remote weapon station for automatic target recognition system demand analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhang; Li, Sheng-cai; Shi, Cai

    2015-08-01

    Introduces a remote weapon station basic composition and the main advantage, analysis of target based on image automatic recognition system for remote weapon station of practical significance, the system elaborated the image based automatic target recognition system in the photoelectric stabilized technology, multi-sensor image fusion technology, integrated control target image enhancement, target behavior risk analysis technology, intelligent based on the character of the image automatic target recognition algorithm research, micro sensor technology as the key technology of the development in the field of demand.

  14. Gaze Position Reveals Impaired Attentional Shift during Visual Word Recognition in Dysfluent Readers

    PubMed Central

    Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level. PMID:25268909

  15. Computational Modeling of Morphological Effects in Bangla Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasgupta, Tirthankar; Sinha, Manjira; Basu, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we aim to model the organization and processing of Bangla polymorphemic words in the mental lexicon. Our objective is to determine whether the mental lexicon accesses a polymorphemic word as a whole or decomposes the word into its constituent morphemes and then recognize them accordingly. To address this issue, we adopted two…

  16. Automatic target recognition apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Baumgart, Chris W.; Ciarcia, Christopher A.

    2000-01-01

    An automatic target recognition apparatus (10) is provided, having a video camera/digitizer (12) for producing a digitized image signal (20) representing an image containing therein objects which objects are to be recognized if they meet predefined criteria. The digitized image signal (20) is processed within a video analysis subroutine (22) residing in a computer (14) in a plurality of parallel analysis chains such that the objects are presumed to be lighter in shading than the background in the image in three of the chains and further such that the objects are presumed to be darker than the background in the other three chains. In two of the chains the objects are defined by surface texture analysis using texture filter operations. In another two of the chains the objects are defined by background subtraction operations. In yet another two of the chains the objects are defined by edge enhancement processes. In each of the analysis chains a calculation operation independently determines an error factor relating to the probability that the objects are of the type which should be recognized, and a probability calculation operation combines the results of the analysis chains.

  17. Syllables and Bigrams: Orthographic Redundancy and Syllabic Units Affect Visual Word Recognition at Different Processing Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Markus; Carreiras, Manuel; Tamm, Sascha; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing evidence for syllabic processing during visual word recognition. If syllabic effects prove to be independent from orthographic redundancy, this would seriously challenge the ability of current computational models to account for the processing of polysyllabic words. Three experiments are presented to…

  18. Re-Evaluating Split-Fovea Processing in Word Recognition: A Critical Assessment of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Paterson, Kevin B.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have proposed that a fundamental component of the word recognition process is that each fovea is divided precisely at its vertical midline and that information either side of this midline projects to different, contralateral hemispheres. Thus, when a word is fixated, all letters to the left of the point of…

  19. The Temporal Dynamics of Ambiguity Resolution: Evidence from Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan, Delphine; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments examined the dynamics of lexical activation in spoken-word recognition. In both, the key materials were pairs of onset-matched picturable nouns varying in frequency. Pictures associated with these words, plus two distractor pictures were displayed. A gating task, in which participants identified the picture associated with…

  20. Bilingual Word Recognition beyond Orthography: On Meaning, Linguistic Context and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hell, Janet G.

    2002-01-01

    Central questions in psycholinguistic studies on bilingualism are how bilinguals access words in their two languages, and how they control their language systems and solve the problem of cross-language competition. In their excellent paper "The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision", Dijkstra and…

  1. Evaluating a Split Processing Model of Visual Word Recognition: Effects of Orthographic Neighborhood Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavidor, Michal; Hayes, Adrian; Shillcock, Richard; Ellis, Andrew W.

    2004-01-01

    The split fovea theory proposes that visual word recognition of centrally presented words is mediated by the splitting of the foveal image, with letters to the left of fixation being projected to the right hemisphere (RH) and letters to the right of fixation being projected to the left hemisphere (LH). Two lexical decision experiments aimed to…

  2. Is Syntactic-Category Processing Obligatory in Visual Word Recognition? Evidence from Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate how syntactic-category and semantic information is processed in visual word recognition. The stimuli were two-character Chinese words in which semantic and syntactic-category ambiguities were factorially manipulated. A lexical decision task was employed in Experiment 1, whereas a semantic relatedness…

  3. Lexical-Semantic Processing and Reading: Relations between Semantic Priming, Visual Word Recognition and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobre, Alexandre de Pontes; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between lexical-semantic processing and two components of reading: visual word recognition and reading comprehension. Sixty-eight children from private schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 7 to 12 years, were evaluated. Reading was assessed with a word/nonword reading task and a reading…

  4. Age-of-Acquisition Effects in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from Expert Vocabularies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadthagen-Gonzalez, Hans; Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Damian, Markus F.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the contributions of age-of-acquisition (AoA) and frequency to visual word recognition. Three databases were created from electronic journals in chemistry, psychology and geology in order to identify technical words that are extremely frequent in each discipline but acquired late in life. In Experiment 1, psychologists…

  5. Spoken Word Recognition in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Spoken word recognition, during gating, appears intact in specific language impairment (SLI). This study used gating to investigate the process in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders plus language impairment (ALI). Adolescents with ALI, SLI, and typical language development (TLD), matched on nonverbal IQ listened to gated words that varied…

  6. Investigating an Innovative Computer Application to Improve L2 Word Recognition from Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Joshua; O'Toole, John Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recognise words from the aural modality is a critical aspect of successful second language (L2) listening comprehension. However, little research has been reported on computer-mediated development of L2 word recognition from speech in L2 learning contexts. This report describes the development of an innovative computer application…

  7. The Effects of Semantic Transparency and Base Frequency on the Recognition of English Complex Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Joe; Taft, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    A visual lexical decision task was used to examine the interaction between base frequency (i.e., the cumulative frequencies of morphologically related forms) and semantic transparency for a list of derived words. Linear mixed effects models revealed that high base frequency facilitates the recognition of the complex word (i.e., a "base…

  8. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Individual Differences in Printed Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayan, Javier; Olson, Richard K.

    2003-01-01

    Explored genetic and environmental etiologies of individual differences in printed word recognition and related skills in identical and fraternal twin 8- to 18-year-olds. Found evidence for moderate genetic influences common between IQ, phoneme awareness, and word-reading skills and for stronger IQ-independent genetic influences that were common…

  9. N170 ERPs could represent a logographic processing strategy in visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Gregory; Petit, Laurent; Bernard, Christian; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Background Occipito-temporal N170 component represents the first step where face, object and word processing are discriminated along the ventral stream of the brain. N170 leftward asymmetry observed during reading has been often associated to prelexical orthographic visual word form activation. However, some studies reported a lexical frequency effect for this component particularly during word repetition that appears in contradiction with this prelexical orthographic step. Here, we tested the hypothesis that under word repetition condition, discrimination between words would be operated on visual rather than orthographic basis. In this case, N170 activity may correspond to a logographic processing where a word is processed as a whole. Methods To test such an assumption, frequent words, infrequent words and pseudowords were presented to the subjects that had to complete a visual lexical decision task. Different repetition conditions were defined 1 – weak repetition, 2 – massive repetition and 3 – massive repetition with font alternation. This last condition was designed to change visual word shape during repetition and therefore to interfere with a possible visual strategy during word recognition. Results Behavioral data showed an important frequency effect for the weak repetition condition, a lower but significant frequency effect for massive repetition, and no frequency effect for the changing font repetition. Moreover alternating font repetitions slowed subject's responses in comparison to "simple" massive repetition. ERPs results evidenced larger N170 amplitude in the left hemisphere for frequent than both infrequent words and pseudowords during massive repetition. Moreover, when words were repeated with different fonts this N170 effect was not present, suggesting a visual locus for such a N170 frequency effect. Conclusion N170 represents an important step in visual word recognition, consisting probably in a prelexical orthographic processing. But during

  10. Visual word recognition models should also be constrained by knowledge about the visual system.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Pablo; Silins, Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Frost's article advocates for universal models of reading and critiques recent models that concentrate in what has been described as "cracking the orthographic code." Although the challenge to develop models that can account for word recognition beyond Indo-European languages is welcomed, we argue that reading models should also be constrained by general principles of visual processing and object recognition. PMID:22929059

  11. Latent Variable Modeling of Cognitive Processes in True and False Recognition of Words: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwmeester, Samantha; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at testing theoretical predictions of the fuzzy-trace theory about true and false recognition. The effects of semantic relatedness and study opportunity on true and false recognition of words from Deese, Roediger, McDermott lists (J. Deese, 1959; D. R. Read, 1996; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995) were evaluated in 7-…

  12. Song Recognition among Preschool-Age Children: An Investigation of Words and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feierabend, John M.; Saunders, T. Clark; Getnick, Pamela E.; Holahan, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to discover whether listening to songs over an extended period of time contributes to a greater integration of words and music in memory among preschool children. Finds more accurate recognition of songs performed without text when they had heard them previously with texts and that melodic content influenced song-recognition ability. (DSK)

  13. NESP: Nonlinear enhancement and selection of plane for optimal segmentation and recognition of scene word images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deepak; Anil Prasad, M. N.; Ramakrishnan, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report a breakthrough result on the difficult task of segmentation and recognition of coloured text from the word image dataset of ICDAR robust reading competition challenge 2: reading text in scene images. We split the word image into individual colour, gray and lightness planes and enhance the contrast of each of these planes independently by a power-law transform. The discrimination factor of each plane is computed as the maximum between-class variance used in Otsu thresholding. The plane that has maximum discrimination factor is selected for segmentation. The trial version of Omnipage OCR is then used on the binarized words for recognition. Our recognition results on ICDAR 2011 and ICDAR 2003 word datasets are compared with those reported in the literature. As baseline, the images binarized by simple global and local thresholding techniques were also recognized. The word recognition rate obtained by our non-linear enhancement and selection of plance method is 72.8% and 66.2% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 word datasets, respectively. We have created ground-truth for each image at the pixel level to benchmark these datasets using a toolkit developed by us. The recognition rate of benchmarked images is 86.7% and 83.9% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 datasets, respectively.

  14. A Novel Word Based Arabic Handwritten Recognition System Using SVM Classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Mahmoud; Bingru, Yang

    Every language script has its structure, characteristic, and feature. Character based word recognition depends on the feature available to be extracted from character. Word based script recognition overcome the problem of character segmenting and can be applied for several languages (Arabic, Urdu, Farsi... est.). In this paper Arabic handwritten is classified as word based system. Firstly, words segmented and normalized in size to fit the DCT input. Then extract feature characteristic by computing the Euclidean distance between pairs of objects in n-by-m data matrix X. Based on the point's operator of extrema, feature was extracted. Then apply one to one-Class Support Vector Machines (SVMs) as a discriminative framework in order to address feature classification. The approach was tested with several public databases and we get high efficiency rate recognition.

  15. Effects of age and hearing loss on recognition of unaccented and accented multisyllabic words

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Yeni-Komshian, Grace H.; Fitzgibbons, Peter J.; Cohen, Julie I.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of age and hearing loss on recognition of unaccented and accented words of varying syllable length were investigated. It was hypothesized that with increments in length of syllables, there would be atypical alterations in syllable stress in accented compared to native English, and that these altered stress patterns would be sensitive to auditory temporal processing deficits with aging. Sets of one-, two-, three-, and four-syllable words with the same initial syllable were recorded by one native English and two Spanish-accented talkers. Lists of these words were presented in isolation and in sentence contexts to younger and older normal-hearing listeners and to older hearing-impaired listeners. Hearing loss effects were apparent for unaccented and accented monosyllabic words, whereas age effects were observed for recognition of accented multisyllabic words, consistent with the notion that altered syllable stress patterns with accent are sensitive for revealing effects of age. Older listeners also exhibited lower recognition scores for moderately accented words in sentence contexts than in isolation, suggesting that the added demands on working memory for words in sentence contexts impact recognition of accented speech. The general pattern of results suggests that hearing loss, age, and cognitive factors limit the ability to recognize Spanish-accented speech. PMID:25698021

  16. Effects of audio-visual presentation of target words in word translation training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Komaki, Ryo; Kubo, Rieko

    2001-05-01

    Komaki and Akahane-Yamada (Proc. ICA2004) used 2AFC translation task in vocabulary training, in which the target word is presented visually in orthographic form of one language, and the appropriate meaning in another language has to be chosen between two choices. Present paper examined the effect of audio-visual presentation of target word when native speakers of Japanese learn to translate English words into Japanese. Pairs of English words contrasted in several phonemic distinctions (e.g., /r/-/l/, /b/-/v/, etc.) were used as word materials, and presented in three conditions; visual-only (V), audio-only (A), and audio-visual (AV) presentations. Identification accuracy of those words produced by two talkers was also assessed. During pretest, the accuracy for A stimuli was lowest, implying that insufficient translation ability and listening ability interact with each other when aurally presented word has to be translated. However, there was no difference in accuracy between V and AV stimuli, suggesting that participants translate the words depending on visual information only. The effect of translation training using AV stimuli did not transfer to identification ability, showing that additional audio information during translation does not help improve speech perception. Further examination is necessary to determine the effective L2 training method. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.

  17. Context affects L1 but not L2 during bilingual word recognition: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Pellikka, Janne; Helenius, Päivi; Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Lehtonen, Minna

    2015-03-01

    How do bilinguals manage the activation levels of the two languages and prevent interference from the irrelevant language? Using magnetoencephalography, we studied the effect of context on the activation levels of languages by manipulating the composition of word lists (the probability of the languages) presented auditorily to late Finnish-English bilinguals. We first determined the upper limit time-window for semantic access, and then focused on the preceding responses during which the actual word recognition processes were assumedly ongoing. Between 300 and 500 ms in the temporal cortices (in the N400 m response) we found an asymmetric language switching effect: the responses to L1 Finnish words were affected by the presentation context unlike the responses to L2 English words. This finding suggests that the stronger language is suppressed in an L2 context, supporting models that allow auditory word recognition to be affected by contextual factors and the language system to be subject to inhibitory influence. PMID:25656318

  18. Hemispheric Differences in Bilingual Word and Language Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, William T.; And Others

    The linguistic role of the right hemisphere in bilingual language processing was examined. Ten right-handed Spanish-English bilinguals were tachistoscopically presented with mixed lists of Spanish and English words to either the right or left visual field and asked to identify the language and the word presented. Five of the subjects identified…

  19. Evidence for the Activation of Sensorimotor Information during Visual Word Recognition: The Body-Object Interaction Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.; Aguilera, Laura; Owen, William J.; Sears, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of sensorimotor experience in two visual word recognition tasks. Body-object interaction (BOI) ratings were collected for a large set of words. These ratings assess perceptions of the ease with which a human body can physically interact with a word's referent. A set of high BOI words (e.g., "mask") and a set of low BOI…

  20. Individual Differences in Visual Word Recognition: Insights from the English Lexicon Project

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences between individuals who contributed to the English Lexicon Project (http://elexicon.wustl.edu), an online behavioral database containing nearly four million word recognition (speeded pronunciation and lexical decision) trials from over 1,200 participants. We observed considerable within- and between-session reliability across distinct sets of items, in terms of overall mean response time (RT), RT distributional characteristics, diffusion model parameters (Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, 2004), and sensitivity to underlying lexical dimensions. This indicates reliably detectable individual differences in word recognition performance. In addition, higher vocabulary knowledge was associated with faster, more accurate word recognition performance, attenuated sensitivity to stimuli characteristics, and more efficient accumulation of information. Finally, in contrast to suggestions in the literature, we did not find evidence that individuals were trading-off in their utilization of lexical and nonlexical information. PMID:21728459

  1. Distinguishing Target From Distractor in Stroop, Picture-Word, and Word-Word Interference Tasks.

    PubMed

    Schmalz, Xenia; Treccani, Barbara; Mulatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Lexical selection-both during reading aloud and speech production-involves selecting an intended word, while ignoring irrelevant lexical activation. This process has been studied by the use of interference tasks. Examples are the Stroop task, where participants ignore the written color word and name the color of the ink, picture-word interference tasks, where participants name a picture while ignoring a super-imposed written word, or word-word interference (WWI) tasks, where two words are presented and the participants need to respond to only one, based on an pre-determined visual feature (e.g., color, position). Here, we focus on the WWI task: it is theoretically impossible for existing models to explain how the cognitive system can respond to one stimulus and block the other, when they are presented by the same modality (i.e., they are both words). We describe a solution that can explain performance on the WWI task: drawing on the literature on visual attention, we propose that the system creates an object file for each perceived object, which is continuously updated with increasingly complete information about the stimulus, such as the task-relevant visual feature. Such a model can account for performance on all three tasks. PMID:26696927

  2. The time course of speaking rate specificity effects in spoken word recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLennan, Conor T.; Luce, Paul A.

    2005-09-01

    Specificity effects in spoken word recognition were previously examined by examining the circumstances under which variability in speaking rate affects participants perception of spoken words. The word recognition and memory literatures are now replete with demonstrations that variability has representational and processing consequences. The research focuses on one of the conditions expected to influence the extent to which variability plays a role in spoken word recognition, namely time course of processing. Based on previous work, it was hypothesized that speaking rate variability would only affect later stages of spoken word recognition. The results confirmed this hypothesis: Specificity effects were only obtained when processing was relatively slow. However, previous stimuli not only differed in speaking rate, but also in articulation style (i.e., casual and careful). Therefore, in the current set of experiments, it was sought to determine whether the same pattern of results would be obtained with stimuli that only differed in speaking rate (i.e., in the absence of articulation style differences). Moreover, to further generalize time course findings, the stimuli were produced by a different speaker than the speaker in the earlier study. The results add to the knowledge of the circumstances under which variability affects the perception of spoken words.

  3. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  4. Conducting spoken word recognition research online: Validation and a new timing method.

    PubMed

    Slote, Joseph; Strand, Julia F

    2016-06-01

    Models of spoken word recognition typically make predictions that are then tested in the laboratory against the word recognition scores of human subjects (e.g., Luce & Pisoni Ear and Hearing, 19, 1-36, 1998). Unfortunately, laboratory collection of large sets of word recognition data can be costly and time-consuming. Due to the numerous advantages of online research in speed, cost, and participant diversity, some labs have begun to explore the use of online platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) to source participation and collect data (Buhrmester, Kwang, & Gosling Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 3-5, 2011). Many classic findings in cognitive psychology have been successfully replicated online, including the Stroop effect, task-switching costs, and Simon and flanker interference (Crump, McDonnell, & Gureckis PLoS ONE, 8, e57410, 2013). However, tasks requiring auditory stimulus delivery have not typically made use of AMT. In the present study, we evaluated the use of AMT for collecting spoken word identification and auditory lexical decision data. Although online users were faster and less accurate than participants in the lab, the results revealed strong correlations between the online and laboratory measures for both word identification accuracy and lexical decision speed. In addition, the scores obtained in the lab and online were equivalently correlated with factors that have been well established to predict word recognition, including word frequency and phonological neighborhood density. We also present and analyze a method for precise auditory reaction timing that is novel to behavioral research. Taken together, these findings suggest that AMT can be a viable alternative to the traditional laboratory setting as a source of participation for some spoken word recognition research. PMID:25987305

  5. Phonological Variation and Its Consequences for the Word Recognition System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2001-01-01

    Examines possible solutions to the problem of form variation in the perception of speech. Asks whether sentential context can influence the identification of potentially assimilated forms of words. (Author/VWL)

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF SYLLABIFICATION RULES IN L1 ON L2 WORD RECOGNITION.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonil; Nam, Kichun; Lee, Yoonhyoung

    2015-10-01

    Experiments with Korean learners of English and English monolinguals were conducted to examine whether knowledge of syllabification in the native language (Korean) affects the recognition of printed words in the non-native language (English). Another purpose of this study was to test whether syllables are the processing unit in Korean visual word recognition. In Experiment 1, 26 native Korean speakers and 19 native English speakers participated. In Experiment 2, 40 native Korean speakers participated. In two experiments, syllable length was manipulated based on the Korean syllabification rule and the participants performed a lexical decision task. Analyses of variance were performed for the lexical decision latencies and error rates in two experiments. The results from Korean learners of English showed that two-syllable words based on the Korean syllabification rule were recognized faster as words than various types of three-syllable words, suggesting that Korean learners of English exploited their L1 phonological knowledge in recognizing English words. The results of the current study also support the idea that syllables are a processing unit of Korean visual word recognition. PMID:26340053

  7. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kevin J. Y.; Dijkstra, Ton; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information) contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1) action features, (2) visual features, or (3) semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100, 250, 400, and 1000 ms) to determine the relative time course of the different features. Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100, 250, and 1000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1) demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2) provides new evidence for embodied theories of language. PMID:26074836

  8. Decomposition, lookup, and recombination: MEG evidence for the full decomposition model of complex visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Fruchter, Joseph; Marantz, Alec

    2015-04-01

    There is much evidence that visual recognition of morphologically complex words (e.g., teacher) proceeds via a decompositional route, first involving recognition of their component morphemes (teach + -er). According to the Full Decomposition model, after the visual decomposition stage, followed by morpheme lookup, there is a final "recombination" stage, in which the decomposed morphemes are combined and the well-formedness of the complex form is evaluated. Here, we use MEG to provide evidence for the temporally-differentiated stages of this model. First, we demonstrate an early effect of derivational family entropy, corresponding to the stem lookup stage; this is followed by a surface frequency effect, corresponding to the later recombination stage. We also demonstrate a late effect of a novel statistical measure, semantic coherence, which quantifies the gradient semantic well-formedness of complex words. Our findings illustrate the usefulness of corpus measures in investigating the component processes within visual word recognition. PMID:25797098

  9. Memory bias for negative emotional words in recognition memory is driven by effects of category membership

    PubMed Central

    White, Corey N.; Kapucu, Aycan; Bruno, Davide; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Recognition memory studies often find that emotional items are more likely than neutral items to be labeled as studied. Previous work suggests this bias is driven by increased memory strength/familiarity for emotional items. We explored strength and bias interpretations of this effect with the conjecture that emotional stimuli might seem more familiar because they share features with studied items from the same category. Categorical effects were manipulated in a recognition task by presenting lists with a small, medium, or large proportion of emotional words. The liberal memory bias for emotional words was only observed when a medium or large proportion of categorized words were presented in the lists. Similar, though weaker, effects were observed with categorized words that were not emotional (animal names). These results suggest that liberal memory bias for emotional items may be largely driven by effects of category membership. PMID:24303902

  10. Tachistoscopic recognition of Kana and Hangul words, handedness and shift of laterality difference.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, A; Endo, M

    1981-01-01

    Nonsense Kana words as verbal stimuli and Hangul words (Korean orthographic characters) as non-verbal were presented tachistoscopically in the left or right visual field to normal right-handed, non-familial left-handed Japanese subjects, who have not seen Hangul characters. Right-handers showed a significant right (or left) field superiority for the recognition of verbal (or non-verbal) stimuli. This pattern of differences found in right-handers is, though to a slightly lesser degree, also present in non-familial left-handers, while it is absent in familial left-handers. Initial left field superiority for Hangul word recognition shifted to no laterality difference in left-handers as well as in right-handers during the learning period for Hangul words. PMID:7312151

  11. Short-term and long-term effects on visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Kapnoula, Efthymia C

    2016-04-01

    Effects of lexical and sublexical variables on visual word recognition are often treated as homogeneous across participants and stable over time. In this study, we examine the modulation of frequency, length, syllable and bigram frequency, orthographic neighborhood, and graphophonemic consistency effects by (a) individual differences, and (b) item repetition. A group of 129 participants performed lexical decision and naming, in counterbalanced order, using a set of 150 Greek words in which these variables were decorrelated. Frequency, length, and syllable frequency effects were reduced by a preceding task. Length effects were inversely related to years of education. Neighborhood effects depended on the metric used. There were no significant effects or interactions of bigram frequency or consistency. The results suggest that exposure to a word causes transient effects that may cumulatively develop into permanent individual differences. Models of word recognition must incorporate item-specific learning to account for these findings. PMID:26436633

  12. Influences of Lexical Tone and Pitch on Word Recognition in Bilingual Infants

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Leher; Foong, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Infants’ abilities to discriminate native and non-native phonemes have been extensively investigated in monolingual learners, demonstrating a transition from language-general to language-specific sensitivities over the first year after birth. However, these studies have mostly been limited to the study of vowels and consonants in monolingual learners. There is relatively little research on other types of phonetic segments, such as lexical tone, even though tone languages are very well represented across languages of the world. The goal of the present study is to investigate how Mandarin Chinese-English bilingual learners contend with non-phonemic pitch variation in English spoken word recognition. This is contrasted with their treatment of phonemic changes in lexical tone in Mandarin spoken word recognition. The experimental design was cross-sectional and three age-groups were sampled (7.5 months, 9 months and 11 months). Results demonstrated limited generalization abilities at 7.5 months, where infants only recognized words in English when matched in pitch and words in Mandarin that were matched in tone. At 9 months, infants recognized words in Mandarin Chinese that matched in tone, but also falsely recognized words that contrasted in tone. At this age, infants also recognized English words whether they were matched or mismatched in pitch. By 11 months, infants correctly recognized pitch-matched and - mismatched words in English but only recognized tonal matches in Mandarin Chinese. PMID:22682766

  13. Influences of lexical tone and pitch on word recognition in bilingual infants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Leher; Foong, Joanne

    2012-08-01

    Infants' abilities to discriminate native and non-native phonemes have been extensively investigated in monolingual learners, demonstrating a transition from language-general to language-specific sensitivities over the first year after birth. However, these studies have mostly been limited to the study of vowels and consonants in monolingual learners. There is relatively little research on other types of phonetic segments, such as lexical tone, even though tone languages are very well represented across languages of the world. The goal of the present study is to investigate how Mandarin Chinese-English bilingual learners contend with non-phonemic pitch variation in English spoken word recognition. This is contrasted with their treatment of phonemic changes in lexical tone in Mandarin spoken word recognition. The experimental design was cross-sectional and three age-groups were sampled (7.5months, 9months and 11months). Results demonstrated limited generalization abilities at 7.5months, where infants only recognized words in English when matched in pitch and words in Mandarin that were matched in tone. At 9months, infants recognized words in Mandarin Chinese that matched in tone, but also falsely recognized words that contrasted in tone. At this age, infants also recognized English words whether they were matched or mismatched in pitch. By 11months, infants correctly recognized pitch-matched and - mismatched words in English but only recognized tonal matches in Mandarin Chinese. PMID:22682766

  14. Reading component skills in dyslexia: word recognition, comprehension and processing speed

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Darlene G.; da Silva, Patrícia B.; Dias, Natália M.; Seabra, Alessandra G.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive model of reading comprehension (RC) posits that RC is a result of the interaction between decoding and linguistic comprehension. Recently, the notion of decoding skill was expanded to include word recognition. In addition, some studies suggest that other skills could be integrated into this model, like processing speed, and have consistently indicated that this skill influences and is an important predictor of the main components of the model, such as vocabulary for comprehension and phonological awareness of word recognition. The following study evaluated the components of the RC model and predictive skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. 40 children and adolescents (8–13 years) were divided in a Dyslexic Group (DG; 18 children, MA = 10.78, SD = 1.66) and control group (CG 22 children, MA = 10.59, SD = 1.86). All were students from the 2nd to 8th grade of elementary school and groups were equivalent in school grade, age, gender, and IQ. Oral and RC, word recognition, processing speed, picture naming, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were assessed. There were no group differences regarding the accuracy in oral and RC, phonological awareness, naming, and vocabulary scores. DG performed worse than the CG in word recognition (general score and orthographic confusion items) and were slower in naming. Results corroborated the literature regarding word recognition and processing speed deficits in dyslexia. However, dyslexics can achieve normal scores on RC test. Data supports the importance of delimitation of different reading strategies embedded in the word recognition component. The role of processing speed in reading problems remain unclear. PMID:25506331

  15. Reading component skills in dyslexia: word recognition, comprehension and processing speed.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Darlene G; da Silva, Patrícia B; Dias, Natália M; Seabra, Alessandra G; Macedo, Elizeu C

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive model of reading comprehension (RC) posits that RC is a result of the interaction between decoding and linguistic comprehension. Recently, the notion of decoding skill was expanded to include word recognition. In addition, some studies suggest that other skills could be integrated into this model, like processing speed, and have consistently indicated that this skill influences and is an important predictor of the main components of the model, such as vocabulary for comprehension and phonological awareness of word recognition. The following study evaluated the components of the RC model and predictive skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. 40 children and adolescents (8-13 years) were divided in a Dyslexic Group (DG; 18 children, MA = 10.78, SD = 1.66) and control group (CG 22 children, MA = 10.59, SD = 1.86). All were students from the 2nd to 8th grade of elementary school and groups were equivalent in school grade, age, gender, and IQ. Oral and RC, word recognition, processing speed, picture naming, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were assessed. There were no group differences regarding the accuracy in oral and RC, phonological awareness, naming, and vocabulary scores. DG performed worse than the CG in word recognition (general score and orthographic confusion items) and were slower in naming. Results corroborated the literature regarding word recognition and processing speed deficits in dyslexia. However, dyslexics can achieve normal scores on RC test. Data supports the importance of delimitation of different reading strategies embedded in the word recognition component. The role of processing speed in reading problems remain unclear. PMID:25506331

  16. Reassessing word frequency as a determinant of word recognition for skilled and unskilled readers

    PubMed Central

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of vocabulary in reading comprehension emphasizes the need to accurately assess an individual’s familiarity with words. The present article highlights problems with using occurrence counts in corpora as an index of word familiarity, especially when studying individuals varying in reading experience. We demonstrate via computational simulations and norming studies that corpus-based word frequencies systematically overestimate strengths of word representations, especially in the low-frequency range and in smaller-size vocabularies. Experience-driven differences in word familiarity prove to be faithfully captured by the subjective frequency ratings collected from responders at different experience levels. When matched on those levels, this lexical measure explains more variance than corpus-based frequencies in eye-movement and lexical decision latencies to English words, attested in populations with varied reading experience and skill. Furthermore, the use of subjective frequencies removes the widely reported (corpus) frequency-by-skill interaction, showing that more skilled readers are equally faster in processing any word than the less skilled readers, not disproportionally faster in processing lower-frequency words. This finding challenges the view that the more skilled an individual is in generic mechanisms of word processing the less reliant he/she will be on the actual lexical characteristics of that word. PMID:23339352

  17. Reassessing word frequency as a determinant of word recognition for skilled and unskilled readers.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A

    2013-06-01

    The importance of vocabulary in reading comprehension emphasizes the need to accurately assess an individual's familiarity with words. The present article highlights problems with using occurrence counts in corpora as an index of word familiarity, especially when studying individuals varying in reading experience. We demonstrate via computational simulations and norming studies that corpus-based word frequencies systematically overestimate strengths of word representations, especially in the low-frequency range and in smaller-size vocabularies. Experience-driven differences in word familiarity prove to be faithfully captured by the subjective frequency ratings collected from responders at different experience levels. When matched on those levels, this lexical measure explains more variance than corpus-based frequencies in eye-movement and lexical decision latencies to English words, attested in populations with varied reading experience and skill. Furthermore, the use of subjective frequencies removes the widely reported (corpus) Frequency × Skill interaction, showing that more skilled readers are equally faster in processing any word than the less skilled readers, not disproportionally faster in processing lower frequency words. This finding challenges the view that the more skilled an individual is in generic mechanisms of word processing, the less reliant he or she will be on the actual lexical characteristics of that word. PMID:23339352

  18. Interactive object recognition assistance: an approach to recognition starting from target objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Juergen; Littfass, Michael

    1999-07-01

    Recognition of target objects in remotely sensed imagery required detailed knowledge about the target object domain as well as about mapping properties of the sensing system. The art of object recognition is to combine both worlds appropriately and to provide models of target appearance with respect to sensor characteristics. Common approaches to support interactive object recognition are either driven from the sensor point of view and address the problem of displaying images in a manner adequate to the sensing system. Or they focus on target objects and provide exhaustive encyclopedic information about this domain. Our paper discusses an approach to assist interactive object recognition based on knowledge about target objects and taking into account the significance of object features with respect to characteristics of the sensed imagery, e.g. spatial and spectral resolution. An `interactive recognition assistant' takes the image analyst through the interpretation process by indicating step-by-step the respectively most significant features of objects in an actual set of candidates. The significance of object features is expressed by pregenerated trees of significance, and by the dynamic computation of decision relevance for every feature at each step of the recognition process. In the context of this approach we discuss the question of modeling and storing the multisensorial/multispectral appearances of target objects and object classes as well as the problem of an adequate dynamic human-machine-interface that takes into account various mental models of human image interpretation.

  19. Semantic Richness Effects in Spoken Word Recognition: A Lexical Decision and Semantic Categorization Megastudy.

    PubMed

    Goh, Winston D; Yap, Melvin J; Lau, Mabel C; Ng, Melvin M R; Tan, Luuan-Chin

    2016-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that semantic richness dimensions [e.g., number of features, semantic neighborhood density, semantic diversity , concreteness, emotional valence] influence word recognition processes. Some of these richness effects appear to be task-general, while others have been found to vary across tasks. Importantly, almost all of these findings have been found in the visual word recognition literature. To address this gap, we examined the extent to which these semantic richness effects are also found in spoken word recognition, using a megastudy approach that allows for an examination of the relative contribution of the various semantic properties to performance in two tasks: lexical decision, and semantic categorization. The results show that concreteness, valence, and number of features accounted for unique variance in latencies across both tasks in a similar direction-faster responses for spoken words that were concrete, emotionally valenced, and with a high number of features-while arousal, semantic neighborhood density, and semantic diversity did not influence latencies. Implications for spoken word recognition processes are discussed. PMID:27445936

  20. Acquisition of Malay word recognition skills: lessons from low-progress early readers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both syllable awareness and phoneme blending were significant predictors of word recognition, suggesting that both syllable and phonemic grain-sizes are important in Malay word recognition. Item analysis revealed a hierarchical pattern of difficulty based on the syllable and the phonic structure of the words. Error analysis identified the sources of errors to be errors due to inefficient syllable segmentation, oversimplification of syllables, insufficient grapheme-phoneme knowledge and inefficient phonemic code assembly. Evidence also suggests that direct instruction in syllable segmentation, phonemic awareness and grapheme-phoneme correspondence is necessary for low-progress readers to acquire word recognition skills. Finally, a logical sequence to teach grapheme-phoneme decoding in Malay is suggested. PMID:21241030

  1. Assessing spoken word recognition in children who are deaf or hard of hearing: A translational approach

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Karen Iler; Prusick, Lindsay; French, Brian; Gotch, Chad; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Young, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Under natural conditions, listeners use both auditory and visual speech cues to extract meaning from speech signals containing many sources of variability. However, traditional clinical tests of spoken word recognition routinely employ isolated words or sentences produced by a single talker in an auditory-only presentation format. The more central cognitive processes used during multimodal integration, perceptual normalization and lexical discrimination that may contribute to individual variation in spoken word recognition performance are not assessed in conventional tests of this kind. In this paper, we review our past and current research activities aimed at developing a series of new assessment tools designed to evaluate spoken word recognition in children who are deaf or hard of hearing. These measures are theoretically motivated by a current model of spoken word recognition and also incorporate “real-world” stimulus variability in the form multiple talkers and presentation formats. The goal of this research is to enhance our ability to estimate real-world listening ability and to predict benefit from sensory aid use in children with varying degrees of hearing loss. PMID:22668766

  2. Semantic Richness Effects in Spoken Word Recognition: A Lexical Decision and Semantic Categorization Megastudy

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Winston D.; Yap, Melvin J.; Lau, Mabel C.; Ng, Melvin M. R.; Tan, Luuan-Chin

    2016-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that semantic richness dimensions [e.g., number of features, semantic neighborhood density, semantic diversity , concreteness, emotional valence] influence word recognition processes. Some of these richness effects appear to be task-general, while others have been found to vary across tasks. Importantly, almost all of these findings have been found in the visual word recognition literature. To address this gap, we examined the extent to which these semantic richness effects are also found in spoken word recognition, using a megastudy approach that allows for an examination of the relative contribution of the various semantic properties to performance in two tasks: lexical decision, and semantic categorization. The results show that concreteness, valence, and number of features accounted for unique variance in latencies across both tasks in a similar direction—faster responses for spoken words that were concrete, emotionally valenced, and with a high number of features—while arousal, semantic neighborhood density, and semantic diversity did not influence latencies. Implications for spoken word recognition processes are discussed. PMID:27445936

  3. The resolution of visual noise in word recognition.

    PubMed

    Pae, Hye K; Lee, Yong-Won

    2015-06-01

    This study examined lexical processing in English by native speakers of Korean and Chinese, compared to that of native speakers of English, using normal, alternated, and inverse fonts. Sixty four adult students participated in a lexical decision task. The findings demonstrated similarities and differences in accuracy and latency among the three L1 groups. The participants, regardless of L1, had a greater advantage in nonwords than words for the normal fonts because they were able to efficiently detect the illegal letter strings. However, word advantages were observed in the visually distorted stimuli (i.e., alternated and inverse fonts). These results were explained from the perspectives of the theory of psycholinguistic grain size, L1-L2 distance, and the mechanism of familiarity discrimination. The native speakers of Chinese were more sensitive to visual distortions than the Korean counterpart, suggesting that the linguistic template established in L1 might play a role in word processing in English. PMID:25283377

  4. A spatially supported forced-choice recognition test reveals children’s long-term memory for newly learned word forms

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Katherine R.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2014-01-01

    Children’s memories for the link between a newly trained word and its referent have been the focus of extensive past research. However, memory for the word form itself is rarely assessed among preschool-age children. When it is, children are typically asked to verbally recall the forms, and they generally perform at floor on such tests. To better measure children’s memory for word forms, we aimed to design a more sensitive test that required recognition rather than recall, provided spatial cues to off-set the phonological memory demands of the test, and allowed pointing rather than verbal responses. We taught 12 novel word-referent pairs via ostensive naming to sixteen 4- to 6-year-olds and measured their memory for the word forms after a week-long retention interval using the new spatially supported form recognition test. We also measured their memory for the word-referent links and the generalization of the links to untrained referents with commonly used recognition tests. Children demonstrated memory for word forms at above chance levels; however, their memory for forms was poorer than their memory for trained or generalized word-referent links. When in error, children were no more likely to select a foil that was a close neighbor to the target form than a maximally different foil. Additionally, they more often selected correct forms that were among the first six than the last six to be trained. Overall, these findings suggest that children are able to remember word forms after a limited number of ostensive exposures and a long-term delay. However, word forms remain more difficult to learn than word-referent links and there is an upper limit on the number of forms that can be learned within a given period of time. PMID:24639660

  5. Word Learning under Adverse Listening Conditions: Context-Specific Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of word learning have presented the items to listeners under ideal conditions. Here we ask how listeners learn new vocabulary items under adverse listening conditions. Would listeners form acoustically-specific representations that incorporated the noise, base their representations on noise-free language knowledge, or both? To…

  6. Integration of Pragmatic and Phonetic Cues in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Hannah; Ettlinger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Although previous research has established that multiple top-down factors guide the identification of words during speech processing, the ultimate range of information sources that listeners integrate from different levels of linguistic structure is still unknown. In a set of experiments, we investigate whether comprehenders can integrate…

  7. Vowel Categorization during Word Recognition in Bilingual Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramon-Casas, Marta; Swingley, Daniel; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria; Bosch, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Toddlers' and preschoolers' knowledge of the phonological forms of words was tested in Spanish-learning, Catalan-learning, and bilingual children. These populations are of particular interest because of differences in the Spanish and Catalan vowel systems: Catalan has two vowels in a phonetic region where Spanish has only one. The proximity of the…

  8. Morphological Effects in Auditory Word Recognition: Evidence from Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the processing of morphologically complex words in Danish using auditory lexical decision. We document a second critical point in auditory comprehension in addition to the Uniqueness Point (UP), namely the point at which competing morphological continuation forms of the base cease to be compatible with the input,…

  9. Some Experiments on Visual and Aural Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanna P.

    Strategies children use when they recognize words were explored. To measure the effectiveness of two different methods of training children to attend to the critical features of letters, 40 first-grade urban children were presented two pairs of letters (similar and dissimilar) simultaneously or successively. Unexpectedly, it was found that with…

  10. Target Recognition Using Neural Networks for Model Deformation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Richard W.; Hibler, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Optical measurements provide a non-invasive method for measuring deformation of wind tunnel models. Model deformation systems use targets mounted or painted on the surface of the model to identify known positions, and photogrammetric methods are used to calculate 3-D positions of the targets on the model from digital 2-D images. Under ideal conditions, the reflective targets are placed against a dark background and provide high-contrast images, aiding in target recognition. However, glints of light reflecting from the model surface, or reduced contrast caused by light source or model smoothness constraints, can compromise accurate target determination using current algorithmic methods. This paper describes a technique using a neural network and image processing technologies which increases the reliability of target recognition systems. Unlike algorithmic methods, the neural network can be trained to identify the characteristic patterns that distinguish targets from other objects of similar size and appearance and can adapt to changes in lighting and environmental conditions.

  11. An ERP investigation of the co-development of hemispheric lateralization of face and word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Dundas, Eva M.; Plaut, David C.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    The adult human brain would appear to have specialized and independent neural systems for the visual processing of words and faces. Extensive evidence has demonstrated greater selectivity for written words in the left over right hemisphere, and, conversely, greater selectivity for faces in the right over left hemisphere. This study examines the emergence of these complementary neural profiles, as well as the possible relationship between them. Using behavioral and neurophysiological measures, in adults, we observed the standard finding of greater accuracy and a larger N170 ERP component in the left over right hemisphere for words, and conversely, greater accuracy and a larger N170 in the right over the left hemisphere for faces. We also found that, although children aged 7-12 years revealed the adult hemispheric pattern for words, they showed neither a behavioral nor a neural hemispheric superiority for faces. Of particular interest, the magnitude of their N170 for faces in the right hemisphere was related to that of the N170 for words in their left hemisphere. These findings suggest that the hemispheric organization of face recognition and of word recognition do not develop independently, and that word lateralization may precede and drive later face lateralization. A theoretical account for the findings, in which competition for visual representations unfolds over the course of development, is discussed. PMID:24933662

  12. The Relationship between Word and Stress Pattern Recognition Ability and Hearing Level in Hearing-Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Pamela; Kelly-Ballweber, Denise

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between word and stress pattern recognition ability and hearing level was explored by administering the Children's Auditory Test to hearing-impaired young adults (N=27). For word recognition, subjects with average hearing loss between 85 and 100 decibels demonstrated a wide range of performance not predictable from their…

  13. Bilingual Word Recognition in Deaf and Hearing Signers: Effects of Proficiency and Language Dominance on Cross-Language Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morford, Jill P.; Kroll, Judith F.; Piñar, Pilar; Wilkinson, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that American Sign Language (ASL) signs are active during print word recognition in deaf bilinguals who are highly proficient in both ASL and English. In the present study, we investigate whether signs are active during print word recognition in two groups of unbalanced bilinguals: deaf ASL-dominant and hearing…

  14. Speech Perception, Word Recognition and the Structure of the Lexicon. Research on Speech Perception Progress Report No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.; And Others

    The results of three projects concerned with auditory word recognition and the structure of the lexicon are reported in this paper. The first project described was designed to test experimentally several specific predictions derived from MACS, a simulation model of the Cohort Theory of word recognition. The second project description provides the…

  15. Reassessing Word Frequency as a Determinant of Word Recognition for Skilled and Unskilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of vocabulary in reading comprehension emphasizes the need to accurately assess an individual's familiarity with words. The present article highlights problems with using occurrence counts in corpora as an index of word familiarity, especially when studying individuals varying in reading experience. We demonstrate via computational…

  16. Lexical Representation of Phonological Variation in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    There have been a number of mechanisms proposed to account for recognition of phonological variation in spoken language. Five of these mechanisms were considered here, including underspecification, inference, feature parsing, tolerance, and a frequency-based representational account. A corpus analysis and five experiments using the nasal flap…

  17. Neural Correlates of Word Recognition: A Systematic Comparison of Natural Reading and Rapid Serial Visual Presentation.

    PubMed

    Kornrumpf, Benthe; Niefind, Florian; Sommer, Werner; Dimigen, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    Neural correlates of word recognition are commonly studied with (rapid) serial visual presentation (RSVP), a condition that eliminates three fundamental properties of natural reading: parafoveal preprocessing, saccade execution, and the fast changes in attentional processing load occurring from fixation to fixation. We combined eye-tracking and EEG to systematically investigate the impact of all three factors on brain-electric activity during reading. Participants read lists of words either actively with eye movements (eliciting fixation-related potentials) or maintained fixation while the text moved passively through foveal vision at a matched pace (RSVP-with-flankers paradigm, eliciting ERPs). The preview of the upcoming word was manipulated by changing the number of parafoveally visible letters. Processing load was varied by presenting words of varying lexical frequency. We found that all three factors have strong interactive effects on the brain's responses to words: Once a word was fixated, occipitotemporal N1 amplitude decreased monotonically with the amount of parafoveal information available during the preceding fixation; hence, the N1 component was markedly attenuated under reading conditions with preview. Importantly, this preview effect was substantially larger during active reading (with saccades) than during passive RSVP with flankers, suggesting that the execution of eye movements facilitates word recognition by increasing parafoveal preprocessing. Lastly, we found that the N1 component elicited by a word also reflects the lexical processing load imposed by the previously inspected word. Together, these results demonstrate that, under more natural conditions, words are recognized in a spatiotemporally distributed and interdependent manner across multiple eye fixations, a process that is mediated by active motor behavior. PMID:27167402

  18. Cascaded automatic target recognition (Cascaded ATR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Bradley

    2010-04-01

    The global war on terror has plunged US and coalition forces into a battle space requiring the continuous adaptation of tactics and technologies to cope with an elusive enemy. As a result, technologies that enhance the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) mission making the warfighter more effective are experiencing increased interest. In this paper we show how a new generation of smart cameras built around foveated sensing makes possible a powerful ISR technique termed Cascaded ATR. Foveated sensing is an innovative optical concept in which a single aperture captures two distinct fields of view. In Cascaded ATR, foveated sensing is used to provide a coarse resolution, persistent surveillance, wide field of view (WFOV) detector to accomplish detection level perception. At the same time, within the foveated sensor, these detection locations are passed as a cue to a steerable, high fidelity, narrow field of view (NFOV) detector to perform recognition level perception. Two new ISR mission scenarios, utilizing Cascaded ATR, are proposed.

  19. Morphological Awareness and Early and Advanced Word Recognition and Spelling in Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispens, Judith E.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Reitsma, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relations of three aspects of morphological awareness to word recognition and spelling skills of Dutch speaking children. Tasks of inflectional and derivational morphology and lexical compounding, as well as measures of phonological awareness, vocabulary and mathematics were administered to 104 first graders (mean age 6…

  20. The Influence of Semantic Constraints on Bilingual Word Recognition during Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Assche, Eva; Drieghe, Denis; Duyck, Wouter; Welvaert, Marijke; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates how semantic constraint of a sentence context modulates language-non-selective activation in bilingual visual word recognition. We recorded Dutch-English bilinguals' eye movements while they read cognates and controls in low and high semantically constraining sentences in their second language. Early and late…

  1. Methods for Sight Word Recognition in Kindergarten: Traditional Flashcard Method vs. Multisensory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, William E.; Feng, Jay

    2012-01-01

    A quasi-experimental action research with a pretest-posttest same subject design was implemented to determine if there is a different effect of the flash card method and the multisensory approach on kindergarteners' achievement in sight word recognition, and which method is more effective if there is any difference. Instrumentation for pretest and…

  2. Electrophysiological Markers of Syllable Frequency during Written Word Recognition in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetail, Fabienne; Colin, Cecile; Content, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Several empirical lines of investigation support the idea that syllable-sized units may be involved in visual word recognition processes. In this perspective, the present study aimed at investigating further the nature of the process that causes syllabic effects in reading. To do so, the syllable frequency effect was investigated in French using…

  3. fMRI of Two Measures of Phonological Processing in Visual Word Recognition: Ecological Validity Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, William J.; Borowsky, Ron; Sarty, Gordon E.

    2004-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the role of phonological processing by utilizing nonword rhyming decision tasks (e.g., Pugh et al., 1996). Although such tasks clearly engage phonological components of visual word recognition, it is clear that decision tasks are more cognitively involved than the…

  4. Validating Models of Clinical Word Recognition Tests for Spanish/English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Shi and Sánchez (2010) developed models to predict the optimal test language for evaluating Spanish/English (S/E) bilinguals' word recognition. The current study intended to validate their conclusions in a separate bilingual listener sample. Method: Seventy normal-hearing S/E bilinguals varying in language profile were included.…

  5. Visual Word Recognition by Bilinguals in a Sentence Context: Evidence for Nonselective Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duyck, Wouter; Van Assche, Eva; Drieghe, Denis; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research on bilingualism has shown that lexical access in visual word recognition by bilinguals is not selective with respect to language. In the present study, the authors investigated language-independent lexical access in bilinguals reading sentences, which constitutes a strong unilingual linguistic context. In the first experiment,…

  6. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  7. Phonological Activation during Visual Word Recognition in Deaf and Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Hendriks, Angelique; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Phonological activation during visual word recognition was studied in deaf and hearing children under two circumstances: (a) when the use of phonology was not required for task performance and might even hinder it and (b) when the use of phonology was critical for task performance. Method: Deaf children mastering written Dutch and Sign…

  8. An Evaluation of Project iRead: A Program Created to Improve Sight Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Theresa Meade

    2014-01-01

    This program evaluation was undertaken to examine the relationship between participation in Project iRead and student gains in word recognition, fluency, and comprehension as measured by the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS) Test. Linear regressions compared the 2012-13 PALS results from 5,140 first and second grade students at…

  9. Prefixes as Access Units in Visual Word Recognition: A Comparison of Italian and Dutch Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assink, Egbert M. H.; Vooijs, Caroline; Knuijt, Paul P. N. A.

    2000-01-01

    Compares morphological processing of skilled and less skilled Dutch readers. Focuses on the role of prefixes as access units in visual word recognition. Finds evidence for differential use of prefix information in undergraduate students and elementary school children. Concludes that the information accessed by prefixes is semantically combined…

  10. Putting It All Together: A Unified Account of Word Recognition and Reaction-Time Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    R. Ratcliff, P. Gomez, and G. McKoon (2004) suggested much of what goes on in lexical decision is attributable to decision processes and may not be particularly informative about word recognition. They proposed that lexical decision should be characterized by a decision process, taking the form of a drift-diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978), that…

  11. Early Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition: Dissociating Morphology, Form, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Bozic, Mirjana; Randall, Billi

    2008-01-01

    The role of morphological, semantic, and form-based factors in the early stages of visual word recognition was investigated across different SOAs in a masked priming paradigm, focusing on English derivational morphology. In a first set of experiments, stimulus pairs co-varying in morphological decomposability and in semantic and orthographic…

  12. Collaborative Efforts to Promote Emergent Literacy and Efficient Word Recognition Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Froma P.; Troia, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, 3 models of collaboration between speech-language pathologists and classroom teachers are discussed to promote emergent literacy and accurate and fluent word recognition. These models are demonstration lessons, team teaching, and consultation. A number of instructional principles are presented for emergent literacy and decoding…

  13. Children's Word Recognition and Retrieval as a Function of Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackbarth, Steven L.; Rundle, Sarah A.

    This study investigated fourth-grade children's ability to identify and retrieve tachistoscopically presented words in relation to their rated ability on both reading speed and comprehension. No significant difference was found between fast and slow readers in either recognition or retrieval. High comprehension children had significantly lower…

  14. Acquisition of Malay Word Recognition Skills: Lessons from Low-Progress Early Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both…

  15. The Architecture of the Bilingual Word Recognition System: From Identification to Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Ton; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the BIA model of bilingual word recognition in the light of recent empirical evidence. Points out problems with the model and proposes a new model, the BIA+. The new model extends the old one by adding phonological and semantic lexical representations to the available orthographic ones, and assigns a different role to the so-called…

  16. Short-Term and Long-Term Effects on Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Kapnoula, Efthymia C.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of lexical and sublexical variables on visual word recognition are often treated as homogeneous across participants and stable over time. In this study, we examine the modulation of frequency, length, syllable and bigram frequency, orthographic neighborhood, and graphophonemic consistency effects by (a) individual differences, and (b) item…

  17. ASL Handshape Stories, Word Recognition and Signing Deaf Readers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gietz, Merrilee R.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of using American Sign Language (ASL) handshape stories to teach word recognition in whole stories using a descriptive case study approach was explored. Four profoundly deaf children ages 7 to 8, enrolled in a self-contained deaf education classroom in a public school in the south participated in the story time five-week…

  18. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  19. The Impact of Orthographic Connectivity on Visual Word Recognition in Arabic: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khateb, Asaid; Khateb-Abdelgani, Manal; Taha, Haitham Y.; Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of letters' connectivity in Arabic on visual word recognition. For this purpose, reaction times (RTs) and accuracy scores were collected from ninety-third, sixth and ninth grade native Arabic speakers during a lexical decision task, using fully connected (Cw), partially connected (PCw) and…

  20. Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: Promoting Word Recognition, Fluency, and Reading Comprehension in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we summarize a good portion of the CASL research program on reading in the early grades. We first describe investigations conducted in kindergarten, where our focus was on the development of decoding and word recognition. Then we discuss studies conducted in first grade, where we continued to emphasize decoding and word…

  1. Prediction of Word Recognition in the First Half of Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snel, M. J.; Aarnoutse, C. A. J.; Terwel, J.; van Leeuwe, J. F. J.; van der Veld, W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of reading problems is important to prevent an enduring lag in reading skills. We studied the relationship between speed of word recognition (after six months of grade 1 education) and four kindergarten pre-literacy skills: letter knowledge, phonological awareness and naming speed for both digits and letters. Our sample consisted…

  2. The Reading Process--The Relationship Between Word Recognition and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Warren S.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between word recognition and comprehension achieved by second and fifth grade students when reading material at various levels of readability. A random sample of twenty-five second and twenty-five fifth graders, taken from three middle class schools, was administered a…

  3. Letter Names: Effect on Letter Saying, Spelling, and Word Recognition in Hebrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Iris; Patel, Sigal; Margalit, Tamar; Barad, Noa

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether letter names, which bridge the gap between oral and written language among English speaking children, have a similar function in Hebrew. In findings from studies of Israeli kindergartners and first graders, children were found to rely on letter names in performing a number of letter saying, spelling, and word recognition tasks.…

  4. Learning of Letter Names and Sounds and Their Contribution to Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Iris; Shatil-Carmon, Sivan; Asif-Rave, Ornit

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, their learning, and their contributions to word recognition. Of 123 preschoolers examined on letter knowledge, 65 underwent training on both letter names and letter sounds in a counterbalanced order. Prior to training, children were more advanced in associating letters with their…

  5. Laterality differences in recognition of Japanese and Hangul words by monolinguals and bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Endo, M; Shimizu, A; Nakamura, I

    1981-10-01

    Two-character nonsense Kana words, individual Kanji words and individual Hangul words are presented tachistoscopically in the left or right visual field to 20 normal, right-handed Japanese students and 13 normal, right-handed Korean subjects. The former did not know Hangul letters. The latter were born and raised in Japan, in exclusively Japanese-speaking families, but they could read Hangul letters and write them a little because they have learned the Hangul language for 6 months. In each of three conditions (Kana, Kanji and Hangul work recognition), each subject was required to move the index finger of his right or left hand leftwards as fast as possible after the presentation of two of four stimuli and rightwards after the presentation of the other two. The reaction time was measured. A significant right field superiority for the recognition of Kana words and no lateral asymmetry for Kanji words were shown in both Japanese and Korean groups. However, for the Hangul recognition, a significant left field superiority for Japanese subjects and a significant right field superiority for Korean subjects were obtained. These findings are interpreted as follows. Kana and Kanji are processed somewhat differently in the cerebral hemispheres. Japanese subjects do not recognize Hangul stimuli as orthographic characters but as shapes or figures. Korean subjects can identify Hangul stimuli as letters. Both the first language (Kana) and second language (Hangul) are processed in the dominant left hemisphere by right-handed Korean subjects. PMID:6174270

  6. Clustering of Farsi sub-word images for whole-book recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Kabir, Ehsanollah; Stricker, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Redundancy of word and sub-word occurrences in large documents can be effectively utilized in an OCR system to improve recognition results. Most OCR systems employ language modeling techniques as a post-processing step; however these techniques do not use important pictorial information that exist in the text image. In case of large-scale recognition of degraded documents, this information is even more valuable. In our previous work, we proposed a subword image clustering method for the applications dealing with large printed documents. In our clustering method, the ideal case is when all equivalent sub-word images lie in one cluster. To overcome the issues of low print quality, the clustering method uses an image matching algorithm for measuring the distance between two sub-word images. The measured distance with a set of simple shape features were used to cluster all sub-word images. In this paper, we analyze the effects of adding more shape features on processing time, purity of clustering, and the final recognition rate. Previously published experiments have shown the efficiency of our method on a book. Here we present extended experimental results and evaluate our method on another book with totally different font face. Also we show that the number of the new created clusters in a page can be used as a criteria for assessing the quality of print and evaluating preprocessing phases.

  7. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals’ parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300–500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633–767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  8. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals' parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300-500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633-767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  9. Relationships among vocabulary size, nonverbal cognition, and spoken word recognition in adults with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene E.

    2002-05-01

    Recent research has attempted to identify the factors that predict speech perception performance among users of cochlear implants (CIs). Studies have found that approximately 20%-60% of the variance in speech perception scores can be accounted for by factors including duration of deafness, etiology, type of device, and length of implant use, leaving approximately 50% of the variance unaccounted for. The current study examines the extent to which vocabulary size and nonverbal cognitive ability predict CI listeners' spoken word recognition. Fifteen postlingually deafened adults with nucleus or clarion CIs were given standardized assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive vocabulary size: the Expressive Vocabulary Test, the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-III, and the Woodcock-Johnson-III Test of Cognitive Ability, Verbal Comprehension subtest. Two spoken word recognition tasks were administered. In the first, listeners identified isophonemic CVC words. In the second, listeners identified gated words varying in lexical frequency and neighborhood density. Analyses will examine the influence of lexical frequency and neighborhood density on the uniqueness point in the gating task, as well as relationships among nonverbal cognitive ability, vocabulary size, and the two spoken word recognition measures. [Work supported by NIH Grant P01 DC00110 and by the Lions 3M Hearing Foundation.

  10. Effective connectivity of visual word recognition and homophone orthographic errors

    PubMed Central

    Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel; Zarabozo-Hurtado, Daniel; González-Garrido, Andrés A.; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    The study of orthographic errors in a transparent language like Spanish is an important topic in relation to writing acquisition. The development of neuroimaging techniques, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has enabled the study of such relationships between brain areas. The main objective of the present study was to explore the patterns of effective connectivity by processing pseudohomophone orthographic errors among subjects with high and low spelling skills. Two groups of 12 Mexican subjects each, matched by age, were formed based on their results in a series of ad hoc spelling-related out-scanner tests: a high spelling skills (HSSs) group and a low spelling skills (LSSs) group. During the f MRI session, two experimental tasks were applied (spelling recognition task and visuoperceptual recognition task). Regions of Interest and their signal values were obtained for both tasks. Based on these values, structural equation models (SEMs) were obtained for each group of spelling competence (HSS and LSS) and task through maximum likelihood estimation, and the model with the best fit was chosen in each case. Likewise, dynamic causal models (DCMs) were estimated for all the conditions across tasks and groups. The HSS group’s SEM results suggest that, in the spelling recognition task, the right middle temporal gyrus, and, to a lesser extent, the left parahippocampal gyrus receive most of the significant effects, whereas the DCM results in the visuoperceptual recognition task show less complex effects, but still congruent with the previous results, with an important role in several areas. In general, these results are consistent with the major findings in partial studies about linguistic activities but they are the first analyses of statistical effective brain connectivity in transparent languages. PMID:26042070

  11. Psychometric Functions for Shortened Administrations of a Speech Recognition Approach Using Tri-Word Presentations and Phonemic Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, Stanley A.; Gelfand, Jessica T.

    2012-01-01

    Method: Complete psychometric functions for phoneme and word recognition scores at 8 signal-to-noise ratios from -15 dB to 20 dB were generated for the first 10, 20, and 25, as well as all 50, three-word presentations of the Tri-Word or Computer Assisted Speech Recognition Assessment (CASRA) Test (Gelfand, 1998) based on the results of 12…

  12. The Syllable Frequency Effect in Visual Recognition of French Words: A Study in Skilled and Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetail, Fabienne; Mathey, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of syllable activation during visual recognition of French words. In addition, it was investigated whether word orthographic information underlies syllable effects. To do so, words were selected according to the frequency of their first syllable (high versus low) and the frequency of the orthographic…

  13. The Interaction of Lexical Semantics and Cohort Competition in Spoken Word Recognition: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2011-01-01

    Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning…

  14. Composite Wavelet Filters for Enhanced Automated Target Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Jeffrey N.; Zhang, Yuhan; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Automated Target Recognition (ATR) systems aim to automate target detection, recognition, and tracking. The current project applies a JPL ATR system to low-resolution sonar and camera videos taken from unmanned vehicles. These sonar images are inherently noisy and difficult to interpret, and pictures taken underwater are unreliable due to murkiness and inconsistent lighting. The ATR system breaks target recognition into three stages: 1) Videos of both sonar and camera footage are broken into frames and preprocessed to enhance images and detect Regions of Interest (ROIs). 2) Features are extracted from these ROIs in preparation for classification. 3) ROIs are classified as true or false positives using a standard Neural Network based on the extracted features. Several preprocessing, feature extraction, and training methods are tested and discussed in this paper.

  15. Speech-perception training for older adults with hearing loss impacts word recognition and effort

    PubMed Central

    Kuchinsky, Stefanie E.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Cute, Stephanie L.; Humes, Larry E.; Dubno, Judy R.; Eckert, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The current pupillometry study examined the impact of speech-perception training on word recognition and cognitive effort in older adults with hearing loss. Trainees identified more words at the follow-up than at the baseline session. Training also resulted in an overall larger and faster peaking pupillary response, even when controlling for performance and reaction time. Perceptual and cognitive capacities affected the peak amplitude of the pupil response across participants but did not diminish the impact of training on the other pupil metrics. Thus, we demonstrated that pupillometry can be used to characterize training-related and individual differences in effort during a challenging listening task. Importantly, the results indicate that speech-perception training not only affects overall word recognition, but also a physiological metric of cognitive effort, which has the potential to be a biomarker of hearing loss intervention outcome. PMID:24909603

  16. Speech-perception training for older adults with hearing loss impacts word recognition and effort.

    PubMed

    Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Cute, Stephanie L; Humes, Larry E; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    The current pupillometry study examined the impact of speech-perception training on word recognition and cognitive effort in older adults with hearing loss. Trainees identified more words at the follow-up than at the baseline session. Training also resulted in an overall larger and faster peaking pupillary response, even when controlling for performance and reaction time. Perceptual and cognitive capacities affected the peak amplitude of the pupil response across participants but did not diminish the impact of training on the other pupil metrics. Thus, we demonstrated that pupillometry can be used to characterize training-related and individual differences in effort during a challenging listening task. Importantly, the results indicate that speech-perception training not only affects overall word recognition, but also a physiological metric of cognitive effort, which has the potential to be a biomarker of hearing loss intervention outcome. PMID:24909603

  17. Is a Fan Always Fun? Phonological and Orthographic Effects in Bilingual Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Haywood, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    A visual semantic categorization task in English was performed by native English speakers (Experiment 1) and late bilinguals whose first language was Japanese (Experiment 2) or Spanish (Experiment 3). In the critical conditions, the target word was a homophone of a correct category exemplar (e.g., A BODY OF WATER-SEE; cf. SEA) or a word that…

  18. Online lexical competition during spoken word recognition and word learning in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Brown, Helen; Gaskell, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Lexical competition that occurs as speech unfolds is a hallmark of adult oral language comprehension crucial to rapid incremental speech processing. This study used pause detection to examine whether lexical competition operates similarly at 7-8 years and tested variables that influence "online" lexical activity in adults. Children (n = 20) and adults (n = 17) were slower to detect pauses in familiar words with later uniqueness points. Faster latencies were obtained for words with late uniqueness points in constraining compared with neutral sentences; no such effect was observed for early unique words. Following exposure to novel competitors ("biscal"), children (n = 18) and adults (n = 18) showed competition for existing words with early uniqueness points ("biscuit") after 24 hr. Thus, online lexical competition effects are remarkably similar across development. PMID:23432734

  19. Lexical Influences on Spoken Spondaic Word Recognition in Hearing-Impaired Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, Annie; Richard, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Top-down contextual influences play a major part in speech understanding, especially in hearing-impaired patients with deteriorated auditory input. Those influences are most obvious in difficult listening situations, such as listening to sentences in noise but can also be observed at the word level under more favorable conditions, as in one of the most commonly used tasks in audiology, i.e., repeating isolated words in silence. This study aimed to explore the role of top-down contextual influences and their dependence on lexical factors and patient-specific factors using standard clinical linguistic material. Spondaic word perception was tested in 160 hearing-impaired patients aged 23–88 years with a four-frequency average pure-tone threshold ranging from 21 to 88 dB HL. Sixty spondaic words were randomly presented at a level adjusted to correspond to a speech perception score ranging between 40 and 70% of the performance intensity function obtained using monosyllabic words. Phoneme and whole-word recognition scores were used to calculate two context-influence indices (the j factor and the ratio of word scores to phonemic scores) and were correlated with linguistic factors, such as the phonological neighborhood density and several indices of word occurrence frequencies. Contextual influence was greater for spondaic words than in similar studies using monosyllabic words, with an overall j factor of 2.07 (SD = 0.5). For both indices, context use decreased with increasing hearing loss once the average hearing loss exceeded 55 dB HL. In right-handed patients, significantly greater context influence was observed for words presented in the right ears than for words presented in the left, especially in patients with many years of education. The correlations between raw word scores (and context influence indices) and word occurrence frequencies showed a significant age-dependent effect, with a stronger correlation between perception scores and word occurrence frequencies

  20. Hierarchical polynomial network approach to automated target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Richard Y.; Drake, Keith C.; Kim, Tony Y.

    1994-02-01

    A hierarchical recognition methodology using abductive networks at several levels of object recognition is presented. Abductive networks--an innovative numeric modeling technology using networks of polynomial nodes--results from nearly three decades of application research and development in areas including statistical modeling, uncertainty management, genetic algorithms, and traditional neural networks. The systems uses pixel-registered multisensor target imagery provided by the Tri-Service Laser Radar sensor. Several levels of recognition are performed using detection, classification, and identification, each providing more detailed object information. Advanced feature extraction algorithms are applied at each recognition level for target characterization. Abductive polynomial networks process feature information and situational data at each recognition level, providing input for the next level of processing. An expert system coordinates the activities of individual recognition modules and enables employment of heuristic knowledge to overcome the limitations provided by a purely numeric processing approach. The approach can potentially overcome limitations of current systems such as catastrophic degradation during unanticipated operating conditions while meeting strict processing requirements. These benefits result from implementation of robust feature extraction algorithms that do not take explicit advantage of peculiar characteristics of the sensor imagery, and the compact, real-time processing capability provided by abductive polynomial networks.

  1. Early use of orthographic information in spoken word recognition: Event-related potential evidence from the Korean language.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Youan; Choi, Sungmook; Lee, Yoonhyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study examines whether orthographic information is used during prelexical processes in spoken word recognition by investigating ERPs during spoken word processing for Korean words. Differential effects due to orthographic syllable neighborhood size and sound-to-spelling consistency on P200 and N320 were evaluated by recording ERPs from 42 participants during a lexical decision task. The results indicate that P200 was smaller for words whose orthographic syllable neighbors are large in number rather than those that are small. In addition, a word with a large orthographic syllable neighborhood elicited a smaller N320 effect than a word with a small orthographic syllable neighborhood only when the word had inconsistent sound-to-spelling mapping. The results provide support for the assumption that orthographic information is used early during the prelexical spoken word recognition process. PMID:26669620

  2. Target recognition using three dimensional laser range imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defatta, Richard P.

    1986-12-01

    This thesis involved the analysis of computer generated synthetic range imagery for the purpose of autonomous target recognition. The scenario is an air to surface missile sensor using a laser rangefinder to image prospective targets and attempt recognition. Synthetic range images of a sophisticated Soviet T 72 tank model were created. Cross correlation was used as a recognition technique. A reference tank image was tested against rotated images and an array of decoys. The reference image was analyzed for its most prominent features for the purpose of examining feature extraction as a recognition technique. Two methods of image enhancement were compared: gradient (frequency emphasis) and phase only filtering. It was shown that these two methods exhibited equal performance for recognition of rotated targets, but differently in decoy rejection. Phase only filtering was more effective in the process of discriminating simple decoys from actual tanks. Feature analysis of the model tank revealed its correlation was highly dependent upon what method of image enhancement was used.

  3. Recognition of Handwritten Arabic words using a neuro-fuzzy network

    SciTech Connect

    Boukharouba, Abdelhak; Bennia, Abdelhak

    2008-06-12

    We present a new method for the recognition of handwritten Arabic words based on neuro-fuzzy hybrid network. As a first step, connected components (CCs) of black pixels are detected. Then the system determines which CCs are sub-words and which are stress marks. The stress marks are then isolated and identified separately and the sub-words are segmented into graphemes. Each grapheme is described by topological and statistical features. Fuzzy rules are extracted from training examples by a hybrid learning scheme comprised of two phases: rule generation phase from data using a fuzzy c-means, and rule parameter tuning phase using gradient descent learning. After learning, the network encodes in its topology the essential design parameters of a fuzzy inference system.The contribution of this technique is shown through the significant tests performed on a handwritten Arabic words database.

  4. Method on camouflaged target recognition using the angle of ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuansun, Xiao-bo; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Huang, Yan-hua; Li, Zhao-zhao

    2015-10-01

    Using polarimetric information of the camouflaged target surface to identify camouflage has been a hot research area in camouflage detecting. The main method is to use the difference in the degree of polarization(DOP) between background and target to add the contrast ratio of them. The measurement of the DOP has some requirements on the intensity of reflected radiation. In case of low reflected radiation intensity, the difference in the DOP for different materials is not so distinguishable. In addition, the linear degree of polarization is largely under the effects of detection angle and surface roughness, so it is hard to differentiate the degree of polarization when the targets with similar surface roughness are detected at the same detection angle. By analyzing the elements affecting the reflected electromagnetic radiation amplitudes and phase on the camouflaged target surface, this article makes a research on the polarization character of reflected radiation A method on camouflaged target recognition directly or indirectly by taking the angle of ellipsometry (AOE) imaging under the linear polarized light. The function model of the angle of incidence, complex refractive index and AOE was modeled, then the model was simulated by MATLAB and the results showed it can describe the distribution properties of AOE. A new thought for the approach of identifying camouflaged target recognition by detecting polarimetric information was proposed, and it has a deep theoretical and practical significance in camouflaged target recognition.

  5. Alpha and theta brain oscillations index dissociable processes in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Strauß, Antje; Kotz, Sonja A; Scharinger, Mathias; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-08-15

    Slow neural oscillations (~1-15 Hz) are thought to orchestrate the neural processes of spoken language comprehension. However, functional subdivisions within this broad range of frequencies are disputed, with most studies hypothesizing only about single frequency bands. The present study utilizes an established paradigm of spoken word recognition (lexical decision) to test the hypothesis that within the slow neural oscillatory frequency range, distinct functional signatures and cortical networks can be identified at least for theta- (~3-7 Hz) and alpha-frequencies (~8-12 Hz). Listeners performed an auditory lexical decision task on a set of items that formed a word-pseudoword continuum: ranging from (1) real words over (2) ambiguous pseudowords (deviating from real words only in one vowel; comparable to natural mispronunciations in speech) to (3) pseudowords (clearly deviating from real words by randomized syllables). By means of time-frequency analysis and spatial filtering, we observed a dissociation into distinct but simultaneous patterns of alpha power suppression and theta power enhancement. Alpha exhibited a parametric suppression as items increasingly matched real words, in line with lowered functional inhibition in a left-dominant lexical processing network for more word-like input. Simultaneously, theta power in a bilateral fronto-temporal network was selectively enhanced for ambiguous pseudowords only. Thus, enhanced alpha power can neurally 'gate' lexical integration, while enhanced theta power might index functionally more specific ambiguity-resolution processes. To this end, a joint analysis of both frequency bands provides neural evidence for parallel processes in achieving spoken word recognition. PMID:24747736

  6. During visual word recognition, phonology is accessed within 100 ms and may be mediated by a speech production code: evidence from magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Wheat, Katherine L; Cornelissen, Piers L; Frost, Stephen J; Hansen, Peter C

    2010-04-14

    Debate surrounds the precise cortical location and timing of access to phonological information during visual word recognition. Therefore, using whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated the spatiotemporal pattern of brain responses induced by a masked pseudohomophone priming task. Twenty healthy adults read target words that were preceded by one of three kinds of nonword prime: pseudohomophones (e.g., brein-BRAIN), where four of five letters are shared between prime and target, and the pronunciation is the same; matched orthographic controls (e.g., broin-BRAIN), where the same four of five letters are shared between prime and target but pronunciation differs; and unrelated controls (e.g., lopus-BRAIN), where neither letters nor pronunciation are shared between prime and target. All three priming conditions induced activation in the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFGpo) and the left precentral gyrus (PCG) within 100 ms of target word onset. However, for the critical comparison that reveals a processing difference specific to phonology, we found that the induced pseudohomophone priming response was significantly stronger than the orthographic priming response in left IFG/PCG at approximately 100 ms. This spatiotemporal concurrence demonstrates early phonological influences during visual word recognition and is consistent with phonological access being mediated by a speech production code. PMID:20392945

  7. The Role of Native-Language Phonology in the Auditory Word Identification and Visual Word Recognition of Russian-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Does native language phonology influence visual word processing in a second language? This question was investigated in two experiments with two groups of Russian-English bilinguals, differing in their English experience, and a monolingual English control group. Experiment 1 tested visual word recognition following semantic…

  8. Combining different classification approaches to improve off-line Arabic handwritten word recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorin, Ilya; Borovikov, Eugene; Davis, Ericson; Borovikov, Anna; Summers, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Machine perception and recognition of handwritten text in any language is a difficult problem. Even for Latin script most solutions are restricted to specific domains like bank checks courtesy amount recognition. Arabic script presents additional challenges for handwriting recognition systems due to its highly connected nature, numerous forms of each letter, and other factors. In this paper we address the problem of offline Arabic handwriting recognition of pre-segmented words. Rather than focusing on a single classification approach and trying to perfect it, we propose to combine heterogeneous classification methodologies. We evaluate our system on the IFN/ENIT corpus of Tunisian village and town names and demonstrate that the combined approach yields results that are better than those of the individual classifiers.

  9. AUDITORY-PHONETIC PROJECTION AND LEXICAL STRUCTURE IN THE RECOGNITION OF SINE-WAVE WORDS

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E.; Dubowski, Kathryn R.; Broder, Robin S.; Davids, Morgana L.; Grossman, Yael S.; Moskalenko, Marina; Pardo, Jennifer S.; Hasbun, Sara Maria

    2010-01-01

    Speech remains intelligible despite the elimination of canonical acoustic correlates of phonemes from the spectrum. A portion of this perceptual flexibility can be attributed to modulation sensitivity in the auditory-to-phonetic projection, though signal-independent properties of lexical neighborhoods also affect intelligibility in utterances composed of words. Three tests were conducted to estimate the effects of exposure to natural and sine-wave samples of speech in this kind of perceptual versatility. First, sine-wave versions of the easy/hard word sets were created, modeled on the speech samples of a single talker. The performance difference in recognition of easy and hard words was used to index the perceptual reliance on signal-independent properties of lexical contrasts. Second, several kinds of exposure produced familiarity with an aspect of sine-wave speech: 1) sine-wave sentences modeled on the same talker; 2) sine-wave sentences modeled on a different talker, to create familiarity with a sine-wave carrier; and 3) natural sentences spoken by the same talker, to create familiarity with the idiolect expressed in the sine-wave words. Recognition performance with both easy and hard sine-wave words improved after exposure only to sine-wave sentences modeled on the same talker. Third, a control test showed that signal-independent uncertainty is a plausible cause of differences in recognition of easy and hard sine-wave words. The conditions of beneficial exposure reveal the specificity of attention underlying versatility in speech perception. PMID:20865138

  10. A study of regressive place assimilation in spontaneous speech and its implications for spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Dilley, Laura C; Pitt, Mark A

    2007-10-01

    Regressive place assimilation is a form of pronunciation variation in which a word-final alveolar sound takes the place of articulation of a following labial or velar sound, as when green boat is pronounced greem boat. How listeners recover the intended word (e.g., green, given greem) has been a major focus of spoken word recognition theories. However, the extent to which this variation occurs in casual, unscripted speech has previously not been reported. Two studies of pronunciation variation were conducted using a spontaneous speech corpus. First, phonetic labeling data were used to identify contexts in which assimilation could occur, namely, when a word-final alveolar stop (/t/, /d/, or /n/) was followed by a velar or labial consonant. Assimilation was indicated relatively infrequently, while deletion, glottalization, or canonical pronunciations were more often indicated. Moreover, lexical frequency was shown to affect pronunciation; high frequency lexical items showed more types of variation. Second, acoustic analyses showed that neither place of articulation cues (indicated by second formant variation) nor relative amplitude was sufficient to distinguish assimilated from deleted and canonical variants; only when closure duration was additionally taken into account were these three variant types distinguishable. Implications for theories of word recognition are discussed. PMID:17902869

  11. Spoken Word Recognition and Serial Recall of Words from Components in the Phonological Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siew, Cynthia S. Q.; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Network science uses mathematical techniques to study complex systems such as the phonological lexicon (Vitevitch, 2008). The phonological network consists of a "giant component" (the largest connected component of the network) and "lexical islands" (smaller groups of words that are connected to each other, but not to the giant…

  12. Functional Anatomy of Recognition of Chinese Multi-Character Words: Convergent Evidence from Effects of Transposable Nonwords, Lexicality, and Word Frequency.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nan; Yu, Xi; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Mingxia

    2016-01-01

    This fMRI study aimed to identify the neural mechanisms underlying the recognition of Chinese multi-character words by partialling out the confounding effect of reaction time (RT). For this purpose, a special type of nonword-transposable nonword-was created by reversing the character orders of real words. These nonwords were included in a lexical decision task along with regular (non-transposable) nonwords and real words. Through conjunction analysis on the contrasts of transposable nonwords versus regular nonwords and words versus regular nonwords, the confounding effect of RT was eliminated, and the regions involved in word recognition were reliably identified. The word-frequency effect was also examined in emerged regions to further assess their functional roles in word processing. Results showed significant conjunctional effect and positive word-frequency effect in the bilateral inferior parietal lobules and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas only conjunctional effect was found in the anterior cingulate cortex. The roles of these brain regions in recognition of Chinese multi-character words were discussed. PMID:26901644

  13. Functional Anatomy of Recognition of Chinese Multi-Character Words: Convergent Evidence from Effects of Transposable Nonwords, Lexicality, and Word Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Nan; Yu, Xi; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Mingxia

    2016-01-01

    This fMRI study aimed to identify the neural mechanisms underlying the recognition of Chinese multi-character words by partialling out the confounding effect of reaction time (RT). For this purpose, a special type of nonword—transposable nonword—was created by reversing the character orders of real words. These nonwords were included in a lexical decision task along with regular (non-transposable) nonwords and real words. Through conjunction analysis on the contrasts of transposable nonwords versus regular nonwords and words versus regular nonwords, the confounding effect of RT was eliminated, and the regions involved in word recognition were reliably identified. The word-frequency effect was also examined in emerged regions to further assess their functional roles in word processing. Results showed significant conjunctional effect and positive word-frequency effect in the bilateral inferior parietal lobules and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas only conjunctional effect was found in the anterior cingulate cortex. The roles of these brain regions in recognition of Chinese multi-character words were discussed. PMID:26901644

  14. A Bruner-Potter effect in audition? Spoken word recognition in adult aging.

    PubMed

    Lash, Amanda; Wingfield, Arthur

    2014-12-01

    Bruner and Potter (1964) demonstrated the surprising finding that incrementally increasing the clarity of images until they were correctly recognized (ascending presentation) was less effective for recognition than presenting images in a single presentation at that same clarity level. This has been attributed to interference from incorrect perceptual hypotheses formed on the initial presentations under ascending conditions. We demonstrate an analogous effect for spoken word recognition in older adults, with the size of the effect predicted by working memory span. This effect did not appear for young adults, whose group spans exceeded that of the older adults. PMID:25244463

  15. Automated target recognition and tracking using an optical pattern recognition neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1991-01-01

    The on-going development of an automatic target recognition and tracking system at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is presented. This system is an optical pattern recognition neural network (OPRNN) that is an integration of an innovative optical parallel processor and a feature extraction based neural net training algorithm. The parallel optical processor provides high speed and vast parallelism as well as full shift invariance. The neural network algorithm enables simultaneous discrimination of multiple noisy targets in spite of their scales, rotations, perspectives, and various deformations. This fully developed OPRNN system can be effectively utilized for the automated spacecraft recognition and tracking that will lead to success in the Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) of the unmanned Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV). One of the most powerful optical parallel processors for automatic target recognition is the multichannel correlator. With the inherent advantages of parallel processing capability and shift invariance, multiple objects can be simultaneously recognized and tracked using this multichannel correlator. This target tracking capability can be greatly enhanced by utilizing a powerful feature extraction based neural network training algorithm such as the neocognitron. The OPRNN, currently under investigation at JPL, is constructed with an optical multichannel correlator where holographic filters have been prepared using the neocognitron training algorithm. The computation speed of the neocognitron-type OPRNN is up to 10(exp 14) analog connections/sec that enabling the OPRNN to outperform its state-of-the-art electronics counterpart by at least two orders of magnitude.

  16. Demonstration of the ULTOR target recognition and tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Richard L.; Farr, Keith B.

    2003-08-01

    Advanced Optical Systems has developed the world's smallest and lowest cost, fully functional target recognition and tracking system. The heart of the ULTOR target recognition and tracking system is an optical correlator. The system includes real-time preprocessing, large filter stores, filter management logic, correlation detection and thresholding, correlation tracking, and data output. It is self contained, receiving operational commands as an Internet appliance. We will present a demonstration of some of the capabilities of the system using live video signals and real target models. The ULTOR system has wide application in both military and commercial settings. The Navy is considering use of the ULTOR system in several programs, including missile systems and unmanned aerial vehicles.

  17. A Study of Neural Word Embeddings for Named Entity Recognition in Clinical Text

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonghui; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a critical task for extracting important patient information from clinical text to support clinical and translational research. This study explored the neural word embeddings derived from a large unlabeled clinical corpus for clinical NER. We systematically compared two neural word embedding algorithms and three different strategies for deriving distributed word representations. Two neural word embeddings were derived from the unlabeled Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC) II corpus (403,871 notes). The results from both 2010 i2b2 and 2014 Semantic Evaluation (SemEval) data showed that the binarized word embedding features outperformed other strategies for deriving distributed word representations. The binarized embedding features improved the F1-score of the Conditional Random Fields based clinical NER system by 2.3% on i2b2 data and 2.4% on SemEval data. The combined feature from the binarized embeddings and the Brown clusters improved the F1-score of the clinical NER system by 2.9% on i2b2 data and 2.7% on SemEval data. Our study also showed that the distributed word embedding features derived from a large unlabeled corpus can be better than the widely used Brown clusters. Further analysis found that the neural word embeddings captured a wide range of semantic relations, which could be discretized into distributed word representations to benefit the clinical NER system. The low-cost distributed feature representation can be adapted to any other clinical natural language processing research. PMID:26958273

  18. A Study of Neural Word Embeddings for Named Entity Recognition in Clinical Text.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yonghui; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a critical task for extracting important patient information from clinical text to support clinical and translational research. This study explored the neural word embeddings derived from a large unlabeled clinical corpus for clinical NER. We systematically compared two neural word embedding algorithms and three different strategies for deriving distributed word representations. Two neural word embeddings were derived from the unlabeled Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC) II corpus (403,871 notes). The results from both 2010 i2b2 and 2014 Semantic Evaluation (SemEval) data showed that the binarized word embedding features outperformed other strategies for deriving distributed word representations. The binarized embedding features improved the F1-score of the Conditional Random Fields based clinical NER system by 2.3% on i2b2 data and 2.4% on SemEval data. The combined feature from the binarized embeddings and the Brown clusters improved the F1-score of the clinical NER system by 2.9% on i2b2 data and 2.7% on SemEval data. Our study also showed that the distributed word embedding features derived from a large unlabeled corpus can be better than the widely used Brown clusters. Further analysis found that the neural word embeddings captured a wide range of semantic relations, which could be discretized into distributed word representations to benefit the clinical NER system. The low-cost distributed feature representation can be adapted to any other clinical natural language processing research. PMID:26958273

  19. Effects of targets embedded within words in a visual search task

    PubMed Central

    Grabbe, Jeremy W.

    2014-01-01

    Visual search performance can be negatively affected when both targets and distracters share a dimension relevant to the task. This study examined if visual search performance would be influenced by distracters that affect a dimension irrelevant from the task. In Experiment 1 within the letter string of a letter search task, target letters were embedded within a word. Experiment 2 compared targets embedded in words to targets embedded in nonwords. Experiment 3 compared targets embedded in words to a condition in which a word was present in a letter string, but the target letter, although in the letter string, was not embedded within the word. The results showed that visual search performance was negatively affected when a target appeared within a high frequency word. These results suggest that the interaction and effectiveness of distracters is not merely dependent upon common features of the target and distracters, but can be affected by word frequency (a dimension not related to the task demands). PMID:24855497

  20. Bayesian multi-target tracking and sequential object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, Walter

    2008-04-01

    The paper considers the following problem: given a 3D model of a reference target and a sequence of images of a 3D scene, identify the object in the scene most likely to be the reference target and determine its current pose. Finding the best match in each frame independently of previous decisions is not optimal, since past information is ignored. Our solution concept uses a novel Bayesian framework for multi target tracking and object recognition to define and sequentially update the probability that the reference target is any one of the tracked objects. The approach is applied to problems of automatic lock-on and missile guidance using a laser radar seeker. Field trials have resulted in high target hit probabilities despite low resolution imagery and temporarily highly occluded targets.

  1. Gated viewing for target detection and target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove K.; Olsson, Hakan; Bolander, Goeran; Groenwall, Christina A.; Letalick, Dietmar

    1999-05-01

    Gated viewing using short pulse lasers and fast cameras offers many new possibilities in imaging compared with passive EO imaging. Among these we note ranging capability, large target-to-background contrast also in low visibility, good penetration capability trough obscurants and vegetation as well as through shadows in buildings, cars, etc. We also note that short wavelength laser systems have better angular resolution than long-wave infrared systems of the same aperture size. This gives an interesting potential of combined IR and laser systems for target detection and classification. Beside military applications civilian applications of gated viewing for search and rescue as well as vehicle enhanced vision and other applications are in progress. This presentation investigates the performance for gated viewing systems during different atmospheric conditions, including obscurants and gives examples of experimental data. The paper also deals with signal processing of gated viewing images for target detection. This is performed in two steps. First, image frames containing information of interest are found. In a second step those frames are investigated further to evaluate if man-made objects are present. In this step a sequence of images (video frames) are set up as a 3-D volume to incorporate spatial information. The object will then be detected using a set of quadrature filters operating on the volume.

  2. Manipulating letter fluency for words alters electrophysiological correlates of recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Heather D.; Paller, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms that give rise to familiarity memory have received intense research interest. One current topic of debate concerns the extent to which familiarity is driven by the same fluency sources that give rise to certain implicit memory phenomena. Familiarity may be tied to conceptual fluency, given that familiarity and conceptual implicit memory can exhibit similar neurocognitive properties. However, familiarity can also be driven by perceptual factors, and its neural basis under these circumstances has received less attention. Here we recorded brain potentials during recognition testing using a procedure that has previously been shown to encourage a reliance on letter information when assessing familiarity for words. Studied and unstudied words were derived either from two separate letter pools or a single letter pool (“letter-segregated” and “normal” conditions, respectively) in a within-subjects contrast. As predicted, recognition accuracy was higher in the letter-segregated relative to the normal condition. Electrophysiological analyses revealed parietal old-new effects from 500–700 ms in both conditions. In addition, a topographically dissociable occipital old-new effect from 300–700 ms was present in the letter-segregated condition only. In a second experiment, we found that similar occipital brain potentials were associated with confident false recognition of words that shared letters with studied words but were not themselves studied. These findings indicate that familiarity is a multiply determined phenomenon, and that the stimulus dimensions on which familiarity is based can moderate its neural correlates. Conceptual and perceptual contributions to familiarity vary across testing circumstances, and both must be accounted for in theories of recognition memory and its neural basis. PMID:23871869

  3. Image characterization and target recognition in the surf zone environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevis, Andrew J.

    1996-05-01

    The surf zone environment represents a very difficult challenge for electro-optic surveillance programs. Data from these programs have been shown to contain dense clutter from vegetation, biological factors (fish), and man-made objects, and is further complicated by the water to land transition which has a significant impact on target signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Also, targets can be geometrically warped from the sea surface and by occlusion from sand and breaking waves. The Program Executive Office Mine Warfare (PMO-210) recently sponsored a test under the Magic Lantern Adaptation (MLA) program to collect surf zone data. Analysis of the data revealed a dilemma for automatic target recognition algorithms; threshold target features high enough to reduce high false alarm rates from land clutter or low enough to detect and classify underwater targets. Land image typically have high SNR clutter with crisp edges while underwater images have lower SNR clutter with blurred edges. In an attempt to help distinguish between land and underwater images, target feature thresholds were made to vary as a function of the SNR of image features within images and as a function of a measure of the edge crispness of the image features. The feasibility of varying target feature thresholds to reduce false alarm rates was demonstrated on a target recognition program using a small set of MLA data. Four features were developed based on expected target shape and resolution: a contrast difference measure between circular targets and their local backgrounds, a signal-to-noise ratio, a normalized correlation, and a target circularity measure. Results showed a target probability of detection and classification (Pdc) of 50 - 78% with false alarms per frame of less than 4%.

  4. Top-down modulation of ventral occipito-temporal responses during visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Tae; Kawabata Duncan, Keith J.; Price, Cathy J.; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2011-01-01

    Although interactivity is considered a fundamental principle of cognitive (and computational) models of reading, it has received far less attention in neural models of reading that instead focus on serial stages of feed-forward processing from visual input to orthographic processing to accessing the corresponding phonological and semantic information. In particular, the left ventral occipito-temporal (vOT) cortex is proposed to be the first stage where visual word recognition occurs prior to accessing nonvisual information such as semantics and phonology. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether there is evidence that activation in vOT is influenced top-down by the interaction of visual and nonvisual properties of the stimuli during visual word recognition tasks. Participants performed two different types of lexical decision tasks that focused on either visual or nonvisual properties of the word or word-like stimuli. The design allowed us to investigate how vOT activation during visual word recognition was influenced by a task change to the same stimuli and by a stimulus change during the same task. We found both stimulus- and task-driven modulation of vOT activation that can only be explained by top-down processing of nonvisual aspects of the task and stimuli. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that vOT acts as an interface linking visual form with nonvisual processing in both bottom up and top down directions. Such interactive processing at the neural level is in agreement with cognitive and computational models of reading but challenges some of the assumptions made by current neuro-anatomical models of reading. PMID:21232615

  5. Spatial distorted target recognition based on improved MACH filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Huo, Furong; Zheng, Liqin

    2014-11-01

    Joint transform correlator (JTC) can make targets recognized and located accurately, but the bottleneck technique of JTC is how to recognize spatial distorted targets in cluttered scene. This has restricted the development of the pattern recognition with JTC to a great extent. In order to solve the problem, improved maximum average correlation height (MACH) filter algorithm is presented in this paper. The MACH algorithm has powerful capability of recognition for spatial distorted targets (rotation and scale changed etc.). The controlling parameters of the synthesized filter are optimized in this paper, which makes the filter have higher distortion tolerance and can suppress cluttered noise effectively. When improved MACH filter algorithm in frequency domain is projected to space domain, the MACH reference template image can be obtained which includes various forms of distorted target image. Based on amounts of computer simulation and optical experiments, MACH reference template is proved to have the capability of sharpening the correlation peaks and expanding recognizing scope for distorted targets in cluttered scene. MATLAB software is applied to produce MACH reference image for the detected target images and conduct simulation experiments for its powerful calculation capability of matrix. In order to prove the feasibility of MACH reference in JTC and determine the recognition scope, experiments for an aircraft target in the sky are carried out. After the original image is processed by edge extraction, a MACH filter reference template is obtained in space domain from improved MACH filter in frequency domain. From simulation experiments, the improved MACH filter is proved to have the feasibility of sharpening correlation peaks for distorted targets. Optical experiments are given to verify the effectiveness further. The experiments show the angular distortion tolerance can reach up to +/-15 degrees and scale distortion tolerance can reach up to +/-23%. Within this

  6. Hemispheric asymmetry in visual recognition of words and motor response in schizophrenic and depressive patients.

    PubMed

    Min, S K; Oh, B H

    1992-02-01

    Two-letter Hangul words were presented tachistoscopically as target words to either the right or left visual field of normal subjects, schizophrenics, and depressive patients. The subjects' task was to judge the similarity or difference between the target words and the words used for comparison. They were to signal as soon as possible by pressing a key with their hands. In normal subjects, the correct response rate was significantly higher in the left hemisphere; there was little difference in the speed of motor response between the two hemispheres, however. Compared with normal subjects, both patient groups showed generalized impairment. Schizophrenia was associated with impairment in the left hemisphere, depression was associated with impairment in the right hemisphere. PMID:1547299

  7. How older adults use cognition in sentence-final word recognition.

    PubMed

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Spiro, Avron; Sayers, Jesse T; Oveis, Abigail C; Higby, Eve; Ojo, Emmanuel A; Duncan, Susan; Goral, Mira; Hyun, Jungmoon; Albert, Martin L; Obler, Loraine K

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the effects of executive control and working memory on older adults' sentence-final word recognition. The question we addressed was the importance of executive functions to this process and how it is modulated by the predictability of the speech material. To this end, we tested 173 neurologically intact adult native English speakers aged 55-84 years. Participants were given a sentence-final word recognition test in which sentential context was manipulated and sentences were presented in different levels of babble, and multiple tests of executive functioning assessing inhibition, shifting, and efficient access to long-term memory, as well as working memory. Using a generalized linear mixed model, we found that better inhibition was associated with higher accuracy in word recognition, while increased age and greater hearing loss were associated with poorer performance. Findings are discussed in the framework of semantic control and are interpreted as supporting a theoretical view of executive control which emphasizes functional diversity among executive components. PMID:26569553

  8. Matching heard and seen speech: An ERP study of audiovisual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Rowland, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Seeing articulatory gestures while listening to speech-in-noise (SIN) significantly improves speech understanding. However, the degree of this improvement varies greatly among individuals. We examined a relationship between two distinct stages of visual articulatory processing and the SIN accuracy by combining a cross-modal repetition priming task with ERP recordings. Participants first heard a word referring to a common object (e.g., pumpkin) and then decided whether the subsequently presented visual silent articulation matched the word they had just heard. Incongruent articulations elicited a significantly enhanced N400, indicative of a mismatch detection at the pre-lexical level. Congruent articulations elicited a significantly larger LPC, indexing articulatory word recognition. Only the N400 difference between incongruent and congruent trials was significantly correlated with individuals' SIN accuracy improvement in the presence of the talker's face. PMID:27155219

  9. The influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction effect in visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Dana; Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction (BOI) effect in visual word recognition. High print exposure readers and low print exposure readers either made semantic categorizations (“Is the word easily imageable?”; Experiment 1) or phonological lexical decisions (“Does the item sound like a real English word?”; Experiment 2). The results from Experiment 1 showed that there was a larger BOI effect for the low print exposure readers than for the high print exposure readers in semantic categorization, though an effect was observed for both print exposure groups. However, the results from Experiment 2 showed that the BOI effect was observed only for the high print exposure readers in phonological lexical decision. The results of the present study suggest that print exposure does influence the BOI effect, and that this influence varies as a function of task demands. PMID:22563312

  10. Sensitivity to morphological composition in spoken word recognition: Evidence from grammatical and lexical identification tasks.

    PubMed

    Gwilliams, Laura E; Monahan, Philip J; Samuel, Arthur G

    2015-11-01

    Access to morphological structure during lexical processing has been established across a number of languages; however, it remains unclear which constituents are held as mental representations in the lexicon. The present study examined the auditory recognition of different noun types across 2 experiments. The critical manipulations were morphological complexity and the presence of a verbal derivation or nominalizing suffix form. Results showed that nominalizations, such as "explosion," were harder to classify as a noun but easier to classify as a word when compared with monomorphemic words with similar actionlike semantics, such as "avalanche." These findings support the claim that listeners decompose morphologically complex words into their constituent units during processing. More specifically, the results suggest that people hold representations of base morphemes in the lexicon. PMID:25961359

  11. Coevolving feature extraction agents for target recognition in SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanu, Bir; Krawiec, Krzysztof

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a novel evolutionary method for automatic induction of target recognition procedures from examples. The learning process starts with training data containing SAR images with labeled targets and consists in coevolving the population of feature extraction agents that cooperate to build an appropriate representation of the input image. Features extracted by a team of cooperating agents are used to induce a machine learning classifier that is responsible for making the final decision of recognizing a target in a SAR image. Each agent (individual) contains feature extraction procedure encoded according to the principles of linear genetic programming (LGP). Like 'plain' genetic programming, in LGP an agent's genome encodes a program that is executed and tested on the set of training images during the fitness calculation. The program is a sequence of calls to the library of parameterized operations, including, but not limited to, global and local image processing operations, elementary feature extraction, and logic and arithmetic operations. Particular calls operate on working variables that enable the program to store intermediate results, and therefore design complex features. This paper contains detailed description of the learning and recognition methodology outlined here. In experimental part, we report and analyze the results obtained when testing the proposed approach for SAR target recognition using MSTAR database.

  12. Advanced automatic target recognition for police helicopter missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Christoph; Schoppmann, Paul

    2000-08-01

    The results of a case study about the application of an advanced method for automatic target recognition to infrared imagery taken from police helicopter missions are presented. The method consists of the following steps: preprocessing, classification, fusion, postprocessing and tracking, and combines the three paradigms image pyramids, neural networks and bayesian nets. The technology has been developed using a variety of different scenes typical for military aircraft missions. Infrared cameras have been in use for several years at the Bavarian police helicopter forces and are highly valuable for night missions. Several object classes like 'persons' or 'vehicles' are tested and the possible discrimination between persons and animals is shown. The analysis of complex scenes with hidden objects and clutter shows the potentials and limitations of automatic target recognition for real-world tasks. Several display concepts illustrate the achievable improvement of the situation awareness. The similarities and differences between various mission types concerning object variability, time constraints, consequences of false alarms, etc. are discussed. Typical police actions like searching for missing persons or runaway criminals illustrate the advantages of automatic target recognition. The results demonstrate the possible operational benefits for the helicopter crew. Future work will include performance evaluation issues and a system integration concept for the target platform.

  13. Design and performance of a large vocabulary discrete word recognition system. Volume 2: Appendixes. [flow charts and users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The users manual for the word recognition computer program contains flow charts of the logical diagram, the memory map for templates, the speech analyzer card arrangement, minicomputer input/output routines, and assembly language program listings.

  14. Assessing multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children with normal hearing and children with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Rachael Frush; Kirk, Karen Iler; Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children. Method Two experiments were undertaken. In Experiment I, the youngest age with which the multimodal sentence recognition materials could be used was evaluated. In Experiment II, lexical difficulty and presentation modality effects were examined, along with test-retest reliability and validity in normal-hearing children and those with cochlear implants. Results Normal-hearing children as young as 3.25 years and those with cochlear implants just under 4 years who have used their device for at least 1 year were able to complete the multimodal sentence testing. Both groups identified lexically easy words in sentences more accurately than lexically hard words across modalities, although the largest effects occurred in the auditory-only modality. Both groups displayed audiovisual integration with the highest scores achieved in the audiovisual modality, followed sequentially by auditory-only and visual-only modalities. Recognition of words in sentences was correlated with recognition of words in isolation. Preliminary results suggest fair to good test-retest reliability. Conclusions The results suggest that children’s audiovisual word-in-sentence recognition can be assessed using the materials developed for this investigation. With further development, the materials hold promise for becoming a test of multimodal sentence recognition for children with hearing loss. PMID:20689028

  15. Automated Target Acquisition, Recognition and Tracking (ATTRACT). Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Mahmoud A.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective of phase 1 of this research project is to conduct multidisciplinary research that will contribute to fundamental scientific knowledge in several of the USAF critical technology areas. Specifically, neural networks, signal processing techniques, and electro-optic capabilities are utilized to solve problems associated with automated target acquisition, recognition, and tracking. To accomplish the stated objective, several tasks have been identified and were executed.

  16. What can we learn from learning models about sensitivity to letter-order in visual word recognition?

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Itamar; Armstrong, Blair C.; Frost, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the effects of letter transposition in Indo-European Languages has shown that readers are surprisingly tolerant of these manipulations in a range of tasks. This evidence has motivated the development of new computational models of reading that regard flexibility in positional coding to be a core and universal principle of the reading process. Here we argue that such approach does not capture cross-linguistic differences in transposed-letter effects, nor do they explain them. To address this issue, we investigated how a simple domain-general connectionist architecture performs in tasks such as letter-transposition and letter substitution when it had learned to process words in the context of different linguistic environments. The results show that in spite of of the neurobiological noise involved in registering letter-position in all languages, flexibility and inflexibility in coding letter order is also shaped by the statistical orthographic properties of words in a language, such as the relative prevalence of anagrams. Our learning model also generated novel predictions for targeted empirical research, demonstrating a clear advantage of learning models for studying visual word recognition. PMID:25431521

  17. What can we learn from learning models about sensitivity to letter-order in visual word recognition?

    PubMed

    Lerner, Itamar; Armstrong, Blair C; Frost, Ram

    2014-11-01

    Recent research on the effects of letter transposition in Indo-European Languages has shown that readers are surprisingly tolerant of these manipulations in a range of tasks. This evidence has motivated the development of new computational models of reading that regard flexibility in positional coding to be a core and universal principle of the reading process. Here we argue that such approach does not capture cross-linguistic differences in transposed-letter effects, nor do they explain them. To address this issue, we investigated how a simple domain-general connectionist architecture performs in tasks such as letter-transposition and letter substitution when it had learned to process words in the context of different linguistic environments. The results show that in spite of of the neurobiological noise involved in registering letter-position in all languages, flexibility and inflexibility in coding letter order is also shaped by the statistical orthographic properties of words in a language, such as the relative prevalence of anagrams. Our learning model also generated novel predictions for targeted empirical research, demonstrating a clear advantage of learning models for studying visual word recognition. PMID:25431521

  18. Sequential Processing in Hemispheric Word Recognition: The Impact of Initial Letter Discriminability on the Oup Naming Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, A.K.; Nicholls, M.E.R.; Kwantes, P.J.; Castles, A.

    2005-01-01

    The cerebral hemispheres have been proposed to engage different word recognition strategies: the left hemisphere implementing a parallel, and the right hemisphere, a sequential, analysis. To investigate this notion, we asked participants to name words with an early or late orthographic uniqueness point (OUP), presented horizontally to their left…

  19. The Development of Vocabulary in English as a Second Language Children and Its Role in Predicting Word Recognition Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Maureen; Geva, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Do older English as a second language (ESL) children have the same knowledge of word meanings as English as a first language (EL1) children? How important is vocabulary's role in predicting word recognition in these groups? This study sought to answer these questions by examining the profiles of ESL and EL1 upper elementary aged children, for a…

  20. Got Rhythm...For Better and for Worse. Cross-Modal Effects of Auditory Rhythm on Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brochard, Renaud; Tassin, Maxime; Zagar, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The present research aimed to investigate whether, as previously observed with pictures, background auditory rhythm would also influence visual word recognition. In a lexical decision task, participants were presented with bisyllabic visual words, segmented into two successive groups of letters, while an irrelevant strongly metric auditory…

  1. Developing normal reading skills: aspects of the visual processes underlying word recognition.

    PubMed

    Aghababian, V; Nazir, T A

    2000-06-01

    Visual word recognition performance of first graders (mean age: 6.6 years) through fifth graders (mean age: 10.8 years) was investigated using an experimental technique that is known to elicit the "viewing position effect" in skilled readers. The results showed that this effect, which consists of a systematic variation of performance as a function of fixation position within words, emerged early at the end of the 1st year of reading instruction. Visual field asymmetries in recognizing individual letters in words were also observed starting from first grade. Effects of word familiarity were obtained as early as in second grade. In contrast to skilled readers, children showed a marked word-length effect, which persisted through the first 5 years of instruction. No other qualitative differences between beginning and skilled readers were apparent. Hence, the basics of reading skills, as measured by the present technique, seem to be attained very early during acquisition. Further experience mainly reduces the time a reader needs to extract visual information from print. PMID:10788306

  2. The Role of Semantic Diversity in Word Recognition across Aging and Bilingualism

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Brendan T.; Sheppard, Christine L.; Jones, Michael N.; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Frequency effects are pervasive in studies of language, with higher frequency words being recognized faster than lower frequency words. However, the exact nature of frequency effects has recently been questioned, with some studies finding that contextual information provides a better fit to lexical decision and naming data than word frequency (Adelman et al., 2006). Recent work has cemented the importance of these results by demonstrating that a measure of the semantic diversity of the contexts that a word occurs in provides a powerful measure to account for variability in word recognition latency (Johns et al., 2012, 2015; Jones et al., 2012). The goal of the current study is to extend this measure to examine bilingualism and aging, where multiple theories use frequency of occurrence of linguistic constructs as central to accounting for empirical results (Gollan et al., 2008; Ramscar et al., 2014). A lexical decision experiment was conducted with four groups of subjects: younger and older monolinguals and bilinguals. Consistent with past results, a semantic diversity variable accounted for the greatest amount of variance in the latency data. In addition, the pattern of fits of semantic diversity across multiple corpora suggests that bilinguals and older adults are more sensitive to semantic diversity information than younger monolinguals. PMID:27458392

  3. Novel Blind Recognition Algorithm of Frame Synchronization Words Based on Soft-Decision in Digital Communication Systems

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jiangyi; Huang, Zhiping; Liu, Chunwu; Su, Shaojing; Zhou, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A novel blind recognition algorithm of frame synchronization words is proposed to recognize the frame synchronization words parameters in digital communication systems. In this paper, a blind recognition method of frame synchronization words based on the hard-decision is deduced in detail. And the standards of parameter recognition are given. Comparing with the blind recognition based on the hard-decision, utilizing the soft-decision can improve the accuracy of blind recognition. Therefore, combining with the characteristics of Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) signal, an improved blind recognition algorithm based on the soft-decision is proposed. Meanwhile, the improved algorithm can be extended to other signal modulation forms. Then, the complete blind recognition steps of the hard-decision algorithm and the soft-decision algorithm are given in detail. Finally, the simulation results show that both the hard-decision algorithm and the soft-decision algorithm can recognize the parameters of frame synchronization words blindly. What’s more, the improved algorithm can enhance the accuracy of blind recognition obviously. PMID:26154439

  4. Assessing Multimodal Spoken Word-in-Sentence Recognition in Children with Normal Hearing and Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Rachael Frush; Kirk, Karen Iler; Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children. Method: Two experiments were undertaken. In Experiment 1, the youngest age with which the multimodal sentence recognition materials could be used was evaluated. In Experiment 2, lexical difficulty and presentation modality effects were examined, along with test-retest…

  5. Effects of Suprasegmental Phonological Alternations on Early Word Recognition: Evidence from Tone Sandhi.

    PubMed

    Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D; Singh, Leher

    2016-01-01

    Early language acquisition is potentially complicated by the presence of many sources of variability in the speech signal. A frequent example of variability is phonological alternations, which can lead to context-driven changes in the realization of a word. The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of a highly frequent yet scarcely researched type of suprasegmental phonological alternation - tone Sandhi - on early spoken word recognition. The tone Sandhi rule investigated herein involves a tone change of the first syllable in a disyllabic unit. In accordance with third tone Sandhi, when two dipping tone syllables are juxtaposed in connected speech, the first syllable is dissimilated to a high rising tone. For example, 'flour mill' (unaltered pre-Sandhi form [(214) (214)]) undergoes tonal alternation resulting in the altered post-Sandhi form [(35) (214)]. In the current study, preschoolers' sensitivity to the effects of tone Sandhi when processing familiar words was investigated via a preferential looking paradigm. Words varied in their phonological form: one set of words was labeled with a phonological alternation due to Sandhi (Post Sandhi), one set of words was labeled with an unaltered Sandhi form (Pre Sandhi), one set consisted of non Sandhi words (Correct Pronunciation, and one set were labeled with a tonal alternation not associated with Sandhi rules (Mispronunciation). Post-Sandhi forms and correct pronunciations were associated with visual referents with comparable strength, with only a subtle processing cost observed for post-Sandhi forms in the time course of lexical selection. Likewise, pre-Sandhi forms and true mispronunciations were rejected as labels for visual references with comparable strength, with only subtle differences observed in the time course of lexical selection. Findings are discussed in terms of their impact on prevailing theories of lexical representation. PMID:27199855

  6. Effects of Suprasegmental Phonological Alternations on Early Word Recognition: Evidence from Tone Sandhi

    PubMed Central

    Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D.; Singh, Leher

    2016-01-01

    Early language acquisition is potentially complicated by the presence of many sources of variability in the speech signal. A frequent example of variability is phonological alternations, which can lead to context-driven changes in the realization of a word. The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of a highly frequent yet scarcely researched type of suprasegmental phonological alternation – tone Sandhi – on early spoken word recognition. The tone Sandhi rule investigated herein involves a tone change of the first syllable in a disyllabic unit. In accordance with third tone Sandhi, when two dipping tone syllables are juxtaposed in connected speech, the first syllable is dissimilated to a high rising tone. For example, ‘flour mill’ (unaltered pre-Sandhi form [(214) (214)]) undergoes tonal alternation resulting in the altered post-Sandhi form [(35) (214)]. In the current study, preschoolers’ sensitivity to the effects of tone Sandhi when processing familiar words was investigated via a preferential looking paradigm. Words varied in their phonological form: one set of words was labeled with a phonological alternation due to Sandhi (Post Sandhi), one set of words was labeled with an unaltered Sandhi form (Pre Sandhi), one set consisted of non Sandhi words (Correct Pronunciation, and one set were labeled with a tonal alternation not associated with Sandhi rules (Mispronunciation). Post-Sandhi forms and correct pronunciations were associated with visual referents with comparable strength, with only a subtle processing cost observed for post-Sandhi forms in the time course of lexical selection. Likewise, pre-Sandhi forms and true mispronunciations were rejected as labels for visual references with comparable strength, with only subtle differences observed in the time course of lexical selection. Findings are discussed in terms of their impact on prevailing theories of lexical representation. PMID:27199855

  7. Long-term temporal tracking of speech rate affects spoken-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Baese-Berk, Melissa M; Heffner, Christopher C; Dilley, Laura C; Pitt, Mark A; Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin

    2014-08-01

    Humans unconsciously track a wide array of distributional characteristics in their sensory environment. Recent research in spoken-language processing has demonstrated that the speech rate surrounding a target region within an utterance influences which words, and how many words, listeners hear later in that utterance. On the basis of hypotheses that listeners track timing information in speech over long timescales, we investigated the possibility that the perception of words is sensitive to speech rate over such a timescale (e.g., an extended conversation). Results demonstrated that listeners tracked variation in the overall pace of speech over an extended duration (analogous to that of a conversation that listeners might have outside the lab) and that this global speech rate influenced which words listeners reported hearing. The effects of speech rate became stronger over time. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neural entrainment by speech occurs on multiple timescales, some lasting more than an hour. PMID:24907119

  8. Masked priming by misspellings: Word frequency moderates the effects of SOA and prime-target similarity.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S

    2016-02-01

    University students made lexical decisions to eight- or nine-letter words preceded by masked primes that were the target, an unrelated word, or a typical misspelling of the target. At a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 47 ms, primes that were misspellings of the target produced a priming benefit for low-, medium-, and high-frequency words, even when the misspelled primes were changed to differ phonologically from their targets. At a longer SOA of 80 ms, misspelled primes facilitated lexical decisions only to medium- and low-frequency targets, and a phonological change attenuated the benefit for medium-frequency targets. The results indicate that orthographic similarity can be preserved over changes in letter position and word length, and that the priming effect of misspelled words at the shorter SOA is orthographically based. Orthographic-priming effects depend on the quality of the orthographic learning of the target word. PMID:26530310

  9. Automated target recognition using passive radar and coordinated flight models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrman, Lisa M.; Lanterman, Aaron D.

    2003-09-01

    Rather than emitting pulses, passive radar systems rely on illuminators of opportunity, such as TV and FM radio, to illuminate potential targets. These systems are particularly attractive since they allow receivers to operate without emitting energy, rendering them covert. Many existing passive radar systems estimate the locations and velocities of targets. This paper focuses on adding an automatic target recognition (ATR) component to such systems. Our approach to ATR compares the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of targets detected by a passive radar system to the simulated RCS of known targets. To make the comparison as accurate as possible, the received signal model accounts for aircraft position and orientation, propagation losses, and antenna gain patterns. The estimated positions become inputs for an algorithm that uses a coordinated flight model to compute probable aircraft orientation angles. The Fast Illinois Solver Code (FISC) simulates the RCS of several potential target classes as they execute the estimated maneuvers. The RCS is then scaled by the Advanced Refractive Effects Prediction System (AREPS) code to account for propagation losses that occur as functions of altitude and range. The Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC2) computes the antenna gain pattern, so that the RCS can be further scaled. The Rician model compares the RCS of the illuminated aircraft with those of the potential targets. This comparison results in target identification.

  10. Structural flexibility of intrinsically disordered proteins induces stepwise target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Nobu C.; Kikuchi, Macoto

    2013-12-01

    An intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) lacks a stable three-dimensional structure, while it folds into a specific structure when it binds to a target molecule. In some IDP-target complexes, not all target binding surfaces are exposed on the outside, and intermediate states are observed in their binding processes. We consider that stepwise target recognition via intermediate states is a characteristic of IDP binding to targets with "hidden" binding sites. To investigate IDP binding to hidden target binding sites, we constructed an IDP lattice model based on the HP model. In our model, the IDP is modeled as a chain and the target is modeled as a highly coarse-grained object. We introduced motion and internal interactions to the target to hide its binding sites. In the case of unhidden binding sites, a two-state transition between the free states and a bound state is observed, and we consider that this represents coupled folding and binding. Introducing hidden binding sites, we found an intermediate bound state in which the IDP forms various structures to temporarily stabilize the complex. The intermediate state provides a scaffold for the IDP to access the hidden binding site. We call this process multiform binding. We conclude that structural flexibility of IDPs enables them to access hidden binding sites and this is a functional advantage of IDPs.

  11. Automatic air-to-ground target recognition using LWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadieu, Jean-Louis; Fraysse, Vincent

    1996-06-01

    The theoretical potential of optical sensors in terms of geometrical resolution makes them the ideal solution for achieving the terminal precision guidance of today's missiles. This paper describes such a sensor, working in the 8 to 12 micrometer spectral domain by using a 64 by 64 IRCCD focal plane array, and whose main mission is to recognize various types of armored vehicles within complex scenes that possibly include other vehicles of similar nature. The target recognition process is based upon a Bayesian approach and can be briefly described as follows: after a classical processing stage that performs the filtering and the multi- thresholding, the target recognition algorithm evaluates a similarity level between the objects, including the target, seen in the IR scene and the 'theoretical' target whose some mean, generic features have been implemented in a database. The surroundings of the target and its orientation in the IR scene are 'a priori' unknown. The similarity level is based on calculation of the Mahalanobis distance between the object features vector and the mean features vector of the model; this calculation involves a covariance matrix which is significant of the errors affecting the measured features and that in particular stem form the limited spatial resolution of the sensor, the detector noise and the sensor- to-target range estimation error. With respect to the sensor hardware, its main opto-mechanical characteristics as well as some electro-optics data are indicates; some examples of target acquisition in complex scenes involving different kinds of IR counter measures are also presented.

  12. Automated target recognition technique for image segmentation and scene analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Chris W.; Ciarcia, Christopher A.

    1994-03-01

    Automated target recognition (ATR) software has been designed to perform image segmentation and scene analysis. Specifically, this software was developed as a package for the Army's Minefield and Reconnaissance and Detector (MIRADOR) program. MIRADOR is an on/off road, remote control, multisensor system designed to detect buried and surface- emplaced metallic and nonmetallic antitank mines. The basic requirements for this ATR software were the following: (1) an ability to separate target objects from the background in low signal-noise conditions; (2) an ability to handle a relatively high dynamic range in imaging light levels; (3) the ability to compensate for or remove light source effects such as shadows; and (4) the ability to identify target objects as mines. The image segmentation and target evaluation was performed using an integrated and parallel processing approach. Three basic techniques (texture analysis, edge enhancement, and contrast enhancement) were used collectively to extract all potential mine target shapes from the basic image. Target evaluation was then performed using a combination of size, geometrical, and fractal characteristics, which resulted in a calculated probability for each target shape. Overall results with this algorithm were quite good, though there is a tradeoff between detection confidence and the number of false alarms. This technology also has applications in the areas of hazardous waste site remediation, archaeology, and law enforcement.

  13. Visual word recognition in deaf readers: lexicality is modulated by communication mode.

    PubMed

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castrataro, Marianna; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals) and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language) performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements) and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects. PMID:23554976

  14. Reading as active sensing: a computational model of gaze planning in word recognition.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Marcello; Ognibene, Dimitri; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2010-01-01

    WE OFFER A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF GAZE PLANNING DURING READING THAT CONSISTS OF TWO MAIN COMPONENTS: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database), and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting. PMID:20577589

  15. The role of letter features in visual-word recognition: Evidence from a delayed segment technique.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Eva; Perea, Manuel; Enneson, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Do all visual features in a word's constituent letters have the same importance during lexical access? Here we examined whether some components of a word's letters (midsegments, junctions, terminals) are more important than others. To that end, we conducted two lexical decision experiments using a delayed segment technique with lowercase stimuli. In this technique a partial preview appears for 50ms and is immediately followed by the target item. In Experiment 1, the partial preview was composed of terminals+junctions, midsegments+junctions, or midsegments+terminals - a whole preview condition was used as a control. Results only revealed an advantage of the whole preview condition over the other three conditions. In Experiment 2, the partial preview was composed of the whole word except for the deletion of midsegments, junctions, or terminals - we again employed a whole preview condition as a control. Results showed the following pattern in the latency data: whole preview=delay of terminalsword's constituent letters are more critical for word identification than others. We examine how the present findings help adjust current models of visual word identification or develop new ones. PMID:27289422

  16. Protein analysis meets visual word recognition: a case for string kernels in the brain.

    PubMed

    Hannagan, Thomas; Grainger, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    It has been recently argued that some machine learning techniques known as Kernel methods could be relevant for capturing cognitive and neural mechanisms (Jäkel, Schölkopf, & Wichmann, 2009). We point out that ''String kernels,'' initially designed for protein function prediction and spam detection, are virtually identical to one contending proposal for how the brain encodes orthographic information during reading. We suggest some reasons for this connection and we derive new ideas for visual word recognition that are successfully put to the test. We argue that the versatility and performance of String kernels makes a compelling case for their implementation in the brain. PMID:22433060

  17. [Research on Anti-Camouflaged Target System Based on Spectral Detection and Image Recognition].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Gao, Yu-bin; Lu, Xu-tao

    2015-05-01

    To be able to quickly and efficiently identify Enemy camouflaged maneuvering targets in the wild environment, target recognition system was designed based on spectral detection technology and video target recognition method. System was composed of the visible light image acquisition module and static interferometer module. The system used image recognition technology to obtain two dimensional video images of measurement region, and through spectrum detection technology to identify targets. Ultimately, measured target was rebuilt on the corresponding position in the image, so the visual target recognition was realized. After the theoretical derivation, identifiable target function formula of the system was obtained, and based on the functional relationship to complete the quantitative experiments for target recognition. In the experiments, maneuvering target in the battlefield environment was simulated by a car. At different distances, the background was respectively selected to detect a flat wasteland, bushes and abandoned buildings. Obvious target, coated camouflage target and covered disguises target was respectively spectrum detection. Experimental results show that spectrum detection technology can overcome the shortcomings of unrecognized the camouflaged target by traditional image target recognition method. Testing background had some influence on spectrum detection results, and the continuity of the background was conducive to target recognition. Covered disguises target was the hardest to identify in various camouflage mode. As the distance between the target and the system increases, signal to noise ratio of the system was reduced. In summary, the system can achieve effective recognition of camouflaged targets to meet the design requirements. PMID:26415476

  18. Infrared target recognition based on improved joint local ternary pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junding; Wu, Xiaosheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a simple, efficient, yet robust approach, named joint orthogonal combination of local ternary pattern, for automatic forward-looking infrared target recognition. It gives more advantages to describe the macroscopic textures and microscopic textures by fusing variety of scales than the traditional LBP-based methods. In addition, it can effectively reduce the feature dimensionality. Further, the rotation invariant and uniform scheme, the robust LTP, and soft concave-convex partition are introduced to enhance its discriminative power. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve competitive results compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Exploiting vibration-based spectral signatures for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, Lauren; Kangas, Scott

    2014-06-01

    Feature extraction algorithms for vehicle classification techniques represent a large branch of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) efforts. Traditionally, vehicle ATR techniques have assumed time series vibration data collected from multiple accelerometers are a function of direct path, engine driven signal energy. If data, however, is highly dependent on measurement location these pre-established feature extraction algorithms are ineffective. In this paper, we examine the consequences of analyzing vibration data potentially contingent upon transfer path effects by exploring the sensitivity of sensor location. We summarize our analysis of spectral signatures from each accelerometer and investigate similarities within the data.

  20. Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

    2013-01-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

  1. Aerial target recognition using MRA, GVF snakes, and polygon approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhen Z.; Zhang, Taiyi; Xu, Jian

    2003-04-01

    The traditional method to extract target contour from aerial target image is changing the aerial image into a gray level image with multiple thresholds or binary image with single threshold. From the edge of target, contour can be extracted according to the changed value. The traditional method is useful only when contrast between target and background is in the proper degree. Snakes are curves defined within an image domain that can move under the influence of internal force coming from within the curve itself and external forces are defined so that the snake will conform to an object boundary or other desired features within an image. Snakes have been proved an effective method and widely used in image processing and computer vision. Snakes synthesize parametric curves within an image domain and allow them to move toward desired edges. Particular advantages of the GVF(Gradient Vector Flow) snakes over a traditional snakes are its insensitivity to initialization and its ability to move into boundary concavities. Its initializations can be inside, outside, or across the object"s boundary. The GVF snake does not need prior knowledge about whether to shrink or expand toward the boundary. This increased capture range is achieved through a diffusion process that does not blur the edges of themselves. Affected by the light from different incident angle, the brightness of aerial target surface changed greatly in a complicate mode. So the GVF snakes is not fast, accurate and effective all the time for this kind of images. A new contour extracting method, GVF Snakes Combined with wavelet multi-resolution Analysis is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, bubble wavelet is used iteratively to do the multi resolution analysis in the order of degressive scale before GVF Snakes is used every time to extract accurate contour of target. After accurate contour is extracted, polygon approximation is used to extract characteristics to realize the recognition of aerial target

  2. A Corpus-Based Approach for Automatic Thai Unknown Word Recognition Using Boosting Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techo, Jakkrit; Nattee, Cholwich; Theeramunkong, Thanaruk

    While classification techniques can be applied for automatic unknown word recognition in a language without word boundary, it faces with the problem of unbalanced datasets where the number of positive unknown word candidates is dominantly smaller than that of negative candidates. To solve this problem, this paper presents a corpus-based approach that introduces a so-called group-based ranking evaluation technique into ensemble learning in order to generate a sequence of classification models that later collaborate to select the most probable unknown word from multiple candidates. Given a classification model, the group-based ranking evaluation (GRE) is applied to construct a training dataset for learning the succeeding model, by weighing each of its candidates according to their ranks and correctness when the candidates of an unknown word are considered as one group. A number of experiments have been conducted on a large Thai medical text to evaluate performance of the proposed group-based ranking evaluation approach, namely V-GRE, compared to the conventional naïve Bayes classifier and our vanilla version without ensemble learning. As the result, the proposed method achieves an accuracy of 90.93±0.50% when the first rank is selected while it gains 97.26±0.26% when the top-ten candidates are considered, that is 8.45% and 6.79% improvement over the conventional record-based naïve Bayes classifier and the vanilla version. Another result on applying only best features show 93.93±0.22% and up to 98.85±0.15% accuracy for top-1 and top-10, respectively. They are 3.97% and 9.78% improvement over naive Bayes and the vanilla version. Finally, an error analysis is given.

  3. Signal Recognition Particle: An essential protein targeting machine

    PubMed Central

    Akopian, David; Shen, Kuang; Zhang, Xin; Shan, Shu-ou

    2013-01-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) and its receptor comprise a universally conserved and essential cellular machinery that couples the synthesis of nascent proteins to their proper membrane localization. The past decade has witnessed an explosion in in-depth mechanistic investigations of this targeting machine at increasingly higher resolution. In this review, we summarize recent work that elucidates how the SRP and SRP receptor interact with the cargo protein and the target membrane, respectively, and how these interactions are coupled to a novel GTPase cycle in the SRP•SRP receptor complex to provide the driving force and enhance the fidelity of this fundamental cellular pathway. We also discuss emerging frontiers where important questions remain to be addressed. PMID:23414305

  4. Feature Extraction and Selection Strategies for Automated Target Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, W. Nicholas; Zhang, Yuhan; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2010-01-01

    Several feature extraction and selection methods for an existing automatic target recognition (ATR) system using JPLs Grayscale Optical Correlator (GOC) and Optimal Trade-Off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter were tested using MATLAB. The ATR system is composed of three stages: a cursory region of-interest (ROI) search using the GOC and OT-MACH filter, a feature extraction and selection stage, and a final classification stage. Feature extraction and selection concerns transforming potential target data into more useful forms as well as selecting important subsets of that data which may aide in detection and classification. The strategies tested were built around two popular extraction methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Performance was measured based on the classification accuracy and free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) output of a support vector machine(SVM) and a neural net (NN) classifier.

  5. A structural view of microRNA–target recognition

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Guido; Tramontano, Anna

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the correct identification of the messenger RNA targeted by a given microRNA (miRNA) is a difficult problem, and that available methods all suffer from low specificity. We hypothesize that the correct identification of the pairing should take into account the effect of the Argonaute protein (AGO), an essential catalyst of the recognition process. Therefore, we developed a strategy named MiREN for building and scoring three-dimensional models of the ternary complex formed by AGO, a miRNA and 22 nt of a target mRNA that putatively interacts with it. We show here that MiREN can be used to assess the likelihood that an RNA molecule is the target of a given miRNA and that this approach is more accurate than other existing methods, usually based on sequence or sequence-related features. Our results also suggest that AGO plays a relevant role in the selection of the miRNA targets. Our method can represent an additional step for refining predictions made by faster but less accurate classical methods for the identification of miRNA targets. PMID:26825463

  6. Real-time automatic target recognition using Zernike moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, Wolfgang; von der Fecht, Arno

    2005-10-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) and classification is a computationally demanding task, but with the recent increase in the computing power for industry standard FPGAs and DSPs it has become a feasible and very useful application in military sensing equipment. The ATR method presented here uses Zernike moments of binary representations of infra-red targets for the classification process. Zernike moments are known for their good image representation capabilities based on their orthogonality property. They are often used because the magnitude of the moments provides rotation and scale invariance. For the detection of the target candidates, a given region of interest (ROI) is searched for possible target signatures using a simple threshold segmentation. From the resulting binary objects, the biggest or center-most object can be selected. For this target, the minimum enclosing circle is determined using the bounding box found during the segmentation process. This minimum enclosing circle is scaled to the complex unit disk, where Zernike moments are defined. The moments up to order five are then computed directly from the binary image using a fast recursive algorithm. The resulting twelve-dimensional moment magnitude vector is then classified with a 1-NN algorithm, where a set of class templates has been pre-computed off-line for each class using a simulated annealing approach for cluster analysis.

  7. A structural view of microRNA-target recognition.

    PubMed

    Leoni, Guido; Tramontano, Anna

    2016-05-19

    It is well established that the correct identification of the messenger RNA targeted by a given microRNA (miRNA) is a difficult problem, and that available methods all suffer from low specificity. We hypothesize that the correct identification of the pairing should take into account the effect of the Argonaute protein (AGO), an essential catalyst of the recognition process. Therefore, we developed a strategy named MiREN for building and scoring three-dimensional models of the ternary complex formed by AGO, a miRNA and 22 nt of a target mRNA that putatively interacts with it. We show here that MiREN can be used to assess the likelihood that an RNA molecule is the target of a given miRNA and that this approach is more accurate than other existing methods, usually based on sequence or sequence-related features. Our results also suggest that AGO plays a relevant role in the selection of the miRNA targets. Our method can represent an additional step for refining predictions made by faster but less accurate classical methods for the identification of miRNA targets. PMID:26825463

  8. Does viotin activate violin more than viocin? On the use of visual cues during visual-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Panadero, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of neural and computational models of visual-word recognition assume that lexical access is achieved via the activation of abstract letter identities. Thus, a word's overall shape should play no role in this process. In the present lexical decision experiment, we compared word-like pseudowords like viotín (same shape as its base word: violín) vs. viocín (different shape) in mature (college-aged skilled readers), immature (normally reading children), and immature/impaired (young readers with developmental dyslexia) word-recognition systems. Results revealed similar response times (and error rates) to consistent-shape and inconsistent-shape pseudowords for both adult skilled readers and normally reading children - this is consistent with current models of visual-word recognition. In contrast, young readers with developmental dyslexia made significantly more errors to viotín-like pseudowords than to viocín-like pseudowords. Thus, unlike normally reading children, young readers with developmental dyslexia are sensitive to a word's visual cues, presumably because of poor letter representations. PMID:23948388

  9. Colour invariant target recognition in multiple camera CCTV surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soori, Umair; Yuen, P. W. T.; Ibrahim, I.; Han, J.; Tsitiridis, A.; Hong, K.; Chen, T.; Jackman, J.; James, D.; Richardson, M.

    2011-11-01

    People tracking in crowded scene have been a popular, and at the same time a very difficult topic in computer vision. It is mainly because of the difficulty for the acquisition of intrinsic signatures of targets from a single view of the scene. Many factors, such as variable illumination conditions and viewing angles, will induce illusive modification of intrinsic signatures of targets. The objective of this paper is to verify if colour constancy (CC) approach really helps people tracking in CCTV network system. We have testified a number of CC algorithms together with various colour descriptors, to assess the efficiencies of people recognitions from multi-camera i-LIDS data set via receiver operation characteristics (ROC). It is found that when CC is applied together with some form of colour restoration mechanisms such as colour transfer, it does improve people recognition by at least a factor of 2. An elementary luminance based CC coupled with a pixel based colour transfer algorithm have been developed and it is reported in this paper.

  10. Effect of response context and masker type on word recognition in school-age children and adults.

    PubMed

    Buss, Emily; Leibold, Lori J; Hall, Joseph W

    2016-08-01

    In adults, masked speech recognition improves with the provision of a closed set of response alternatives. The present study evaluated whether school-age children (5-13 years) benefit to the same extent as adults from a forced-choice context, and whether this effect depends on masker type. Experiment 1 compared masked speech reception thresholds for disyllabic words in either an open-set or a four-alternative forced-choice (4AFC) task. Maskers were speech-shaped noise or two-talker speech. Experiment 2 compared masked speech reception thresholds for monosyllabic words in two 4AFC tasks, one in which the target and foils were phonetically similar and one in which they were dissimilar. Maskers were speech-shaped noise, amplitude-modulated noise, or two-talker speech. For both experiments, it was predicted that children would not benefit from the information provided by the 4AFC context to the same degree as adults, particularly when the masker was complex (two-talker) or when audible speech cues were temporally sparse (modulated-noise). Results indicate that young children do benefit from a 4AFC context to the same extent as adults in speech-shaped noise and amplitude-modulated noise, but the benefit of context increases with listener age for the two-talker speech masker. PMID:27586729

  11. Effects of orthographic consistency and homophone density on Chinese spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Fan; Chao, Pei-Chun; Chang, Ya-Ning; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Studies of alphabetic language have shown that orthographic knowledge influences phonological processing during spoken word recognition. This study utilized the Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to differentiate two types of phonology-to-orthography (P-to-O) mapping consistencies in Chinese, namely homophone density and orthographic consistency. The ERP data revealed an orthographic consistency effect in the frontal-centrally distributed N400, and a homophone density effect in central-posteriorly distributed late positive component (LPC). Further source analyses using the standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) demonstrated that the orthographic effect was not only localized in the frontal and temporal-parietal regions for phonological processing, but also in the posterior visual cortex for orthographic processing, while the homophone density effect was found in middle temporal gyrus for lexical-semantic selection, and in the temporal-occipital junction for orthographic processing. These results suggest that orthographic information not only shapes the nature of phonological representations, but may also be activated during on-line spoken word recognition. PMID:27174851

  12. The activation of segmental and tonal information in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuchu; Lin, Candise Y; Wang, Min; Jiang, Nan

    2013-08-01

    Mandarin Chinese has a logographic script in which graphemes map onto syllables and morphemes. It is not clear whether Chinese readers activate phonological information during lexical access, although phonological information is not explicitly represented in Chinese orthography. In the present study, we examined the activation of phonological information, including segmental and tonal information in Chinese visual word recognition, using the Stroop paradigm. Native Mandarin speakers named the presentation color of Chinese characters in Mandarin. The visual stimuli were divided into five types: color characters (e.g., , hong2, "red"), homophones of the color characters (S+T+; e.g., , hong2, "flood"), different-tone homophones (S+T-; e.g., , hong1, "boom"), characters that shared the same tone but differed in segments with the color characters (S-T+; e.g., , ping2, "bottle"), and neutral characters (S-T-; e.g., , qian1, "leading through"). Classic Stroop facilitation was shown in all color-congruent trials, and interference was shown in the incongruent trials. Furthermore, the Stroop effect was stronger for S+T- than for S-T+ trials, and was similar between S+T+ and S+T- trials. These findings suggested that both tonal and segmental forms of information play roles in lexical constraints; however, segmental information has more weight than tonal information. We proposed a revised visual word recognition model in which the functions of both segmental and suprasegmental types of information and their relative weights are taken into account. PMID:23400856

  13. Tracker-aided adaptive multi-frame recognition of a specific target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of recognizing a particular target of interest (i.e. the "correct" target) while rejecting other targets and background clutter. In such instances, the probability of recognizing the correct target (PCT) is a suitable metric for assessing the performance of the target recognition algorithm. We present a definition for PCT and illustrate how it differs from conventional metrics for target recognition by means of an example. It is further shown that an adaptive target recognition algorithm, which relies on track position to obtain multiple looks at the target, can significantly improve PCT while reducing the track uncertainty.

  14. Functional MRI of sentence comprehension in children with dyslexia: beyond word recognition.

    PubMed

    Rimrodt, S L; Clements-Stephens, A M; Pugh, K R; Courtney, S M; Gaur, P; Pekar, J J; Cutting, L E

    2009-02-01

    Sentence comprehension (SC) studies in typical and impaired readers suggest that reading for meaning involves more extensive brain activation than reading isolated words. Thus far, no reading disability/dyslexia (RD) studies have directly controlled for the word recognition (WR) components of SC tasks, which is central for understanding comprehension processes beyond WR. This experiment compared SC to WR in 29, 9-14 year olds (15 typical and 14 impaired readers). The SC-WR contrast for each group showed activation in left inferior frontal and extrastriate regions, but the RD group showed significantly more activation than Controls in areas associated with linguistic processing (left middle/superior temporal gyri), and attention and response selection (bilateral insula, right cingulate gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right parietal lobe). Further analyses revealed this overactivation was driven by the RD group's response to incongruous sentences. Correlations with out-of-scanner measures showed that better word- and text-level reading fluency was associated with greater left occipitotemporal activation, whereas worse performance on WR, fluency, and comprehension (reading and oral) were associated with greater right hemisphere activation in a variety of areas, including supramarginal and superior temporal gyri. Results provide initial foundations for understanding the neurobiological correlates of higher-level processes associated with reading comprehension. PMID:18515796

  15. Conformation of the signal recognition particle in ribosomal targeting complexes

    PubMed Central

    Buskiewicz, Iwona A.; Jöckel, Johannes; Rodnina, Marina V.; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial signal recognition particle (SRP) binds to ribosomes synthesizing inner membrane proteins and, by interaction with the SRP receptor, FtsY, targets them to the translocon at the membrane. Here we probe the conformation of SRP and SRP protein, Ffh, at different stages of targeting by measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorophores placed at various positions within SRP. Distances derived from FRET indicate that SRP binding to nontranslating ribosomes triggers a global conformational change of SRP that facilitates binding of the SRP receptor, FtsY. Binding of SRP to a signal-anchor sequence exposed on a ribosome-nascent chain complex (RNC) causes a further change of the SRP conformation, involving the flexible part of the Ffh(M) domain, which increases the affinity for FtsY of ribosome-bound SRP up to the affinity exhibited by the isolated NG domain of Ffh. This indicates that in the RNC–SRP complex the Ffh(NG) domain is fully exposed for binding FtsY to form the targeting complex. Binding of FtsY to the RNC–SRP complex results in a limited conformational change of SRP, which may initiate subsequent targeting steps. PMID:19029307

  16. Identification of letters in the predesignated target paradigm: a word superiority effect for the common word the.

    PubMed

    Peterzell, D H; Sinclair, G P; Healy, A F; Bourne, L E

    1990-01-01

    The size of the perceptual unit used in reading was addressed using the predesignated target paradigm. Sixteen subjects viewed the following stimuli in random order: the words tee, the, tie, and toe; the nonwords eet, eht, eit, and eot; and the letters e, h, i, and o. Subjects fixated on the location of the center letter and identified the letter as e, h, i, or o, alternatives which were known to them at the onset. A word superiority effect was obtained for the common word the but not for the less common words tee, tie, and toe. The word superiority effect was attributable to bias rather than discriminability: Subjects exhibited a bias to perceive the words in this experiment as the (i.e., there was a bias to perceive h in the t e stimulus presentations). These results suggest that the common word the is processed in reading units that are larger than the letter, and that the system is biased to perceive common rather than uncommon words in data-limited conditions. PMID:2221192

  17. The Effects of Linguistic Context on Word Recognition in Noise by Elderly Listeners Using Spanish Sentence Lists (SSL).

    PubMed

    Cervera, Teresa; Rosell, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the linguistic context on the recognition of words in noise in older listeners using the Spanish Sentence Lists. These sentences were developed based on the approach of the SPIN test for the English language, which contains high and low predictability (HP and LP) sentences. In addition, the relative contribution of peripheral hearing sensitivity, measured by pure-tone hearing thresholds (PTA), to the performance on both types of sentences was assessed in a regression analysis. The results showed that older listeners obtained benefits on word recognition from the linguistic context. PTA contributed significantly to explaining the variance in performance on both HP and LP sentences. PMID:25274285

  18. Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

  19. Concurrent effects of lexical status and letter-rotation during early stage visual word recognition: evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Albert E; Straková, Jana

    2012-08-15

    Recent studies report that the occipito-temporal N170 component of the ERP is enhanced by letter strings, relative to non-linguistic strings of similar visual complexity, with a left-lateralized distribution. This finding is consistent with underlying mechanisms that serve visual word recognition. Conclusions about the level of analysis reflected within the N170 effects, and therefore the timecourse of word recognition, have been mixed. Here, we investigated the timing and nature of brain responses to putatively low- and high-level processing difficulty. Low-level processing difficulty was modulated by manipulating letter-rotation parametrically at 0°, 22.5°, 45°, 67.5°, and 90°. Higher-level processing difficulty was modulated by manipulating lexical status (words vs. word-like pseudowords). Increasing letter-rotation enhanced the N170 led to monotonic increases in P1 and N170 amplitude up to 67.5° but then decreased amplitude at 90°. Pseudowords enhanced the N170 over left occipital-temporal sites, relative to words. These combined findings are compatible with a cascaded, interactive architecture in which lower-level analysis (e.g., word-form feature extraction) leads higher-level analysis (e.g., lexical access) in time, but that by approximately 170 ms, the brain's response to a visual word includes parallel, interactive processing at both low-level feature extraction and higher-order lexical access levels of analysis. PMID:22784511

  20. HMM-based lexicon-driven and lexicon-free word recognition for online handwritten Indic scripts.

    PubMed

    Bharath, A; Madhvanath, Sriganesh

    2012-04-01

    Research for recognizing online handwritten words in Indic scripts is at its early stages when compared to Latin and Oriental scripts. In this paper, we address this problem specifically for two major Indic scripts--Devanagari and Tamil. In contrast to previous approaches, the techniques we propose are largely data driven and script independent. We propose two different techniques for word recognition based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM): lexicon driven and lexicon free. The lexicon-driven technique models each word in the lexicon as a sequence of symbol HMMs according to a standard symbol writing order derived from the phonetic representation. The lexicon-free technique uses a novel Bag-of-Symbols representation of the handwritten word that is independent of symbol order and allows rapid pruning of the lexicon. On handwritten Devanagari word samples featuring both standard and nonstandard symbol writing orders, a combination of lexicon-driven and lexicon-free recognizers significantly outperforms either of them used in isolation. In contrast, most Tamil word samples feature the standard symbol order, and the lexicon-driven recognizer outperforms the lexicon free one as well as their combination. The best recognition accuracies obtained for 20,000 word lexicons are 87.13 percent for Devanagari when the two recognizers are combined, and 91.8 percent for Tamil using the lexicon-driven technique. PMID:22156094

  1. The Syllable as a Source of Error in Multisyllable Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Benton J.; Zimmerman, Joel

    Two-syllable words were presented singly for study followed by a two-alternative, forced-choice test to 120 college students divided into four groups of 30 each. Half of the new words on the test ("I" words) were constructed by combining two syllables taken from two different study words, and half were neutral words ("C" words). If, as a…

  2. Fast cat-eye effect target recognition based on saliency extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Ren, Jianlin; Wang, Xingbin

    2015-09-01

    Background complexity is a main reason that results in false detection in cat-eye target recognition. Human vision has selective attention property which can help search the salient target from complex unknown scenes quickly and precisely. In the paper, we propose a novel cat-eye effect target recognition method named Multi-channel Saliency Processing before Fusion (MSPF). This method combines traditional cat-eye target recognition with the selective characters of visual attention. Furthermore, parallel processing enables it to achieve fast recognition. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs better in accuracy, robustness and speed compared to other methods.

  3. Infant Word Segmentation Revisited: Edge Alignment Facilitates Target Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidl, Amanda; Johnson, Elizabeth K.

    2006-01-01

    In a landmark study, Jusczyk and Aslin (1995 ) demonstrated that English-learning infants are able to segment words from continuous speech at 7.5 months of age. In the current study, we explored the possibility that infants segment words from the edges of utterances more readily than the middle of utterances. The same procedure was used as in…

  4. Multi-Stage System for Automatic Target Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas T.; Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Johnson, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feedforward back-propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and to remove false positives. The system parameter optimizations process has been developed to adapt to various targets and datasets. The objective was to design an efficient computer vision system that can learn to detect multiple targets in large images with unknown backgrounds. Because the target size is small relative to the image size in this problem, there are many regions of the image that could potentially contain the target. A cursory analysis of every region can be computationally efficient, but may yield too many false positives. On the other hand, a detailed analysis of every region can yield better results, but may be computationally inefficient. The multi-stage ATR system was designed to achieve an optimal balance between accuracy and computational efficiency by incorporating both models. The detection stage first identifies potential ROIs where the target may be present by performing a fast Fourier domain OT-MACH filter-based correlation. Because threshold for this stage is chosen with the goal of detecting all true positives, a number of false positives are also detected as ROIs. The verification stage then transforms the regions of interest into feature space, and eliminates false positives using an

  5. Target detection and recognition improvements by use of spatiotemporal fusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Wen; Sutha, Surachai; Olson, Teresa

    2004-01-10

    We developed spatiotemporal fusion techniques for improving target detection and automatic target recognition. We also investigated real IR (infrared) sensor clutter noise. The sensor noise was collected by an IR (256 x 256) sensor looking at various scenes (trees, grass, roads, buildings, etc.). More than 95% of the sensor pixels showed near-stationary sensor clutter noise that was uncorrelated between pixels as well as across time frames. However, in a few pixels (covering the grass near the road) the sensor noise showed nonstationary properties (with increasing or decreasing mean across time frames). The natural noise extracted from the IR sensor, as well as the computer-generated noise with Gaussian and Rayleigh distributions, was used to test and compare different spatiotemporal fusion strategies. Finally, we proposed two advanced detection schemes: the double-thresholding the reverse-thresholding techniques. These techniques may be applied to complicated clutter situations (e.g., very-high clutter or nonstationary clutter situations) where the traditional constant-false-alarm-ratio technique may fail. PMID:14735959

  6. A proposal for combining mapping, localization and target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grönwall, Christina; Hendeby, Gustaf; Sinivaara, Kristian

    2015-10-01

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is a well-known positioning approach in GPS-denied environments such as urban canyons and inside buildings. Autonomous/aided target detection and recognition (ATR) is commonly used in military application to detect threats and targets in outdoor environments. This papers present approaches to combine SLAM with ATR in ways that compensate for the drawbacks in each method. The methods use physical objects that are recognizable by ATR as unambiguous features in SLAM, while SLAM provides the ATR with better position estimates. Landmarks in the form of 3D point features based on normal aligned radial features (NARF) are used in conjunction with identified objects and 3D object models that replace landmarks when possible. This leads to a more compact map representation with fewer landmarks, which partly compensates for the introduced cost of the ATR. We analyze three approaches to combine SLAM and 3D-data; point-point matching ignoring NARF features, point-point matching using the set of points that are selected by NARF feature analysis, and matching of NARF features using nearest neighbor analysis. The first two approaches are is similar to the common iterative closest point (ICP). We propose an algorithm that combines EKF-SLAM and ATR based on rectangle estimation. The intended application is to improve the positioning of a first responder moving through an indoor environment, where the map offers localization and simultaneously helps locate people, furniture and potentially dangerous objects such as gas canisters.

  7. A Not-so-Simple View of Reading: How Oral Vocabulary and Visual-Word Recognition Complicate the Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Gene; Beers, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to clarify the relations amongst serial decoding, irregular word recognition, listening comprehension, facets of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension in two cohorts of children differing in reading level. In the process, the components of the simple view of reading were evaluated. Students in grades 1 (n = 67) and 6…

  8. Voiced Initial Consonant Perception Deficits in Older Listeners with Hearing Loss and Good and Poor Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan L.; Richter, Scott J.; McPherson, David

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined differences in voiced consonant-vowel (CV) perception in older listeners with normal hearing and in 2 groups of older listeners with matched hearing losses: those with good and those with poor word recognition scores. Method: Thirty-six participants identified CVs from an 8-item display from the natural voiced initial…

  9. Morphological Structure Processing during Word Recognition and Its Relationship to Character Reading among Third-Grade Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Duo; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the characteristics of morphological structure processing during word recognition among third grade Chinese children and its possible relationship with Chinese character reading. By using the modified priming lexical decision paradigm, a significant morphological structure priming effect was found in the subject…

  10. Within-Subject Comparison of Word Recognition and Spiral Ganglion Cell Count in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Seyyedi, Mohammad; Viana, Lucas M; Nadol, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although published reports have not demonstrated a positive correlation between the number of residual spiral ganglion cells (SGC) and word recognition scores in patients with unilateral multichannel cochlear implants, this study was designed to retest this hypothesis in patients with bilateral multichannel cochlear implants. Materials and Methods From a pool of 133 temporal bones, all subjects with bilateral multichannel cochlear implants who were deafened bilaterally by the same etiology were studied. A total of 12 temporal bones from 6 subjects were identified and processed after death for histology. The SGCs were counted by standard techniques. The differences between left and right SGC counts as well as the differences in word recognition scores were calculated for each subject. Correlation analysis was performed between the differences of SGC counts and the differences of word recognition scores. Results Differences in SGC counts were highly correlated with the differences in word recognition scores (R=0.934, P-value= 0.006). Conclusion This study suggests higher residual SGCs predicted better performance after implantation in a given patient. The results also support attempts to identify factors which may promote survival of SGCs. PMID:25120196

  11. Asynchrony of Visual-Orthographic and Auditory-Phonological Word Recognition Processes: An Underlying Factor in Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breznitz, Zvia

    2002-01-01

    Investigates whether asynchrony of speed of processing between visual-orthographic and auditory-phonological modalities can account for word recognition deficits among dyslexic readers. Indicates that dyslexic readers were slower than control readers in most of the experimental tasks. Proposes a theory suggesting that asynchrony between the…

  12. Enhanced Recognition and Recall of New Words in 7- and 12-Year-Olds Following a Period of Offline Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Helen; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of adults have found evidence for consolidation effects in the acquisition of novel words, but little is known about whether such effects are found developmentally. In two experiments, we familiarized children with novel nonwords (e.g., "biscal") and tested their recognition and recall of these items. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds…

  13. How Vocabulary Size in Two Languages Relates to Efficiency in Spoken Word Recognition by Young Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda

    2010-01-01

    Research using online comprehension measures with monolingual children shows that speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition are correlated with lexical development. Here we examined speech processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary development in bilingual children learning both Spanish and English (n=26 ; 2 ; 6). Between-language…

  14. Linguistic Units and Instructional Strategies that Facilitate Word Recognition for Latino Kindergarteners Learning to Read in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Cedillo, Gabriela Delagarza; Denton, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the usage of linguistic units and instructional strategies that facilitate word recognition for Latino kindergarten students who are beginning to read in Spanish. This case study was based on coding videotaped reading and language arts instruction of two bilingual kindergarten teachers at the beginning, middle, and end of…

  15. Use of Context in the Word Recognition Process by Adults with a Significant History of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkett, Julie K.; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether university students who report a significant history of reading difficulties (RD; n=24) differed from university students with no history of reading difficulties (NRD; n=31) in how sentence context affects word recognition. Experiment 1 found no differences in how congruent sentence primes or syntactic manipulations of the…

  16. Effects of Employing the Text, SRA Decoding Strategies on the Word Recognition for a High School Student with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lykken, Alyson; Wakeman, Julie; Neyman, Jennifer; McLaughlin, T. F.; Zumwalt, Kim

    2014-01-01

    An objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of employing the SRA Decoding Strategies text on word recognition for a ninth grade male with a learning disability. The student was enrolled in a high school special education resource room in a large urban school district in the Pacific North west in a direct instruction reading resource…

  17. Computer-Mediated Input, Output and Feedback in the Development of L2 Word Recognition from Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Joshua; Cheng, Junyu; O'Toole, John Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the impact of computer-mediated input, output and feedback on the development of second language (L2) word recognition from speech (WRS). A quasi-experimental pre-test/treatment/post-test research design was used involving three intact tertiary level English as a Second Language (ESL) classes. Classes were either assigned to…

  18. The Effects of Linguistic Context on Word Recognition in Noise by Elderly Listeners Using Spanish Sentence Lists (SSL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervera, Teresa; Rosell, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the linguistic context on the recognition of words in noise in older listeners using the Spanish Sentence Lists. These sentences were developed based on the approach of the SPIN test for the English language, which contains high and low predictability (HP and LP) sentences. In addition, the relative contribution…

  19. Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

  20. Word Recognition and Nonword Repetition in Children with Language Disorders: The Effects of Neighborhood Density, Lexical Frequency, and Phonotactic Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne; Duinmeijer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of neighborhood density (ND) and lexical frequency on word recognition and the effects of phonotactic probability (PP) on nonword repetition (NWR) were examined to gain insight into processing at the lexical and sublexical levels in typically developing (TD) children and children with developmental language problems. Method:…

  1. Orthographic Consistency and Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition: New Evidence from Lexical Decision and Rime Detection

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Ana; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Ferrand, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have repeatedly shown an orthographic consistency effect in the auditory lexical decision task. Words with phonological rimes that could be spelled in multiple ways (i.e., inconsistent words) typically produce longer auditory lexical decision latencies and more errors than do words with rimes that could be spelled in only one way (i.e., consistent words). These results have been extended to different languages and tasks, suggesting that the effect is quite general and robust. Despite this growing body of evidence, some psycholinguists believe that orthographic effects on spoken language are exclusively strategic, post-lexical, or restricted to peculiar (low-frequency) words. In the present study, we manipulated consistency and word-frequency orthogonally in order to explore whether the orthographic consistency effect extends to high-frequency words. Two different tasks were used: lexical decision and rime detection. Both tasks produced reliable consistency effects for both low- and high-frequency words. Furthermore, in Experiment 1 (lexical decision), an interaction revealed a stronger consistency effect for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words, as initially predicted by Ziegler and Ferrand (1998), whereas no interaction was found in Experiment 2 (rime detection). Our results extend previous findings by showing that the orthographic consistency effect is obtained not only for low-frequency words but also for high-frequency words. Furthermore, these effects were also obtained in a rime detection task, which does not require the explicit processing of orthographic structure. Globally, our results suggest that literacy changes the way people process spoken words, even for frequent words. PMID:22025916

  2. Hybrid generative-discriminative human action recognition by combining spatiotemporal words with supervised topic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Boliang

    2011-02-01

    We present a hybrid generative-discriminative learning method for human action recognition from video sequences. Our model combines a bag-of-words component with supervised latent topic models. A video sequence is represented as a collection of spatiotemporal words by extracting space-time interest points and describing these points using both shape and motion cues. The supervised latent Dirichlet allocation (sLDA) topic model, which employs discriminative learning using labeled data under a generative framework, is introduced to discover the latent topic structure that is most relevant to action categorization. The proposed algorithm retains most of the desirable properties of generative learning while increasing the classification performance though a discriminative setting. It has also been extended to exploit both labeled data and unlabeled data to learn human actions under a unified framework. We test our algorithm on three challenging data sets: the KTH human motion data set, the Weizmann human action data set, and a ballet data set. Our results are either comparable to or significantly better than previously published results on these data sets and reflect the promise of hybrid generative-discriminative learning approaches.

  3. Attention modulates specificity effects in spoken word recognition: Challenges to the time-course hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Rachel M; Blumstein, Sheila E; Luthra, Sahil

    2015-07-01

    Findings in the domain of spoken word recognition have indicated that lexical representations contain both abstract and episodic information. It has been proposed that processing time determines when each source of information is recruited, with increased processing time being required to access lower-frequency episodic instantiations. The time-course hypothesis of specificity effects has thus identified a strong role for retrieval mechanisms mediating the use of abstract versus episodic information. Here we conducted three recognition memory experiments to examine whether the findings previously attributed to retrieval mechanisms might instead reflect attention during encoding. The results from Experiment 1 showed that talker-specificity effects emerged when subjects attended to the individual speakers, but not when they attended to lexical characteristics, during encoding, even though processing times at retrieval were equivalent. The results from Experiment 2 showed that talker-specificity effects emerged when listeners attended to talker gender but not when they attended to syntactic characteristics, even though the processing times at retrieval were significantly longer in the latter condition. The results from Experiment 3 showed no talker-specificity effects when all listeners attended to lexical characteristics, even when processing at retrieval was slowed by the addition of background noise. Collectively, these results suggest that when processing time during retrieval is decoupled from encoding factors, it fails to predict the emergence of talker-specificity effects. Rather, attention during encoding appears to be the putative variable. PMID:25824889

  4. Attention modulates specificity effects in spoken word recognition: Challenges to the time-course hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Theodore, Rachel M.; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Luthra, Sahil

    2015-01-01

    Findings in the domain of spoken word recognition indicate that lexical representations contain both abstract and episodic information. It has been proposed that processing time determines when each source of information is recruited, with increased processing time required to access lower-frequency episodic instantiations. The time-course hypothesis of specificity effects thus identifies a strong role for retrieval mechanisms mediating the use of abstract versus episodic information. Here we conducted three recognition memory experiments to examine whether findings previously attributed to retrieval mechanisms might reflect attention during encoding. Results from Experiment 1 showed that talker-specificity effects emerged when subjects attended to individual speakers during encoding, but not when they attended to lexical characteristics during encoding, even though processing time at retrieval was equivalent. Results from Experiment 2 showed that talker-specificity effects emerged when listeners attended to talker gender but not when they attended to syntactic characteristics, even though processing time at retrieval was significantly longer in the latter condition. Results from Experiment 3 showed no talker-specificity effects when attending to lexical characteristics even when processing at retrieval was slowed by the addition of background noise. Collectively, these results suggest that when processing time during retrieval is decoupled from encoding factors, it fails to predict the emergence of talker-specificity effects. Rather, attention during encoding appears to be the putative variable. PMID:25824889

  5. Wake-up-word speech recognition application for first responder communication enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Këpuska, Veton; Breitfeller, Jason

    2006-05-01

    Speech Recognition systems, historically, have proven to be cumbersome and insufficiently accurate for a range of applications. The ultimate goal of our proposed technology is to fundamentally change the way current Speech Recognition (SR) systems interact with humans and develop an application that is extremely hardware efficient. Accurate SR and reasonable hardware requirements will afford the average first responder officer, e.g., police officer, a true break-through technology that will change the way an officer performs his duties. The presented technology provides a cutting-edge solution for human-machine interaction through the utilization of a properly solved Wake-Up-Word (WUW) SR problem. This paradigm-shift provides the basis for development of SR systems with truly "Voice Activated" capabilities, impacting all SR based technologies and the way in which humans interact with computers. This shift is a radical departure from the current "push-to-talk" paradigm currently applied to all speech-to-text or speech-recognition applications. To be able to achieve this goal, a significantly more accurate pattern classification and scoring technique is required, which in turn provides SR systems enhanced performance for correct recognition (i.e., minimization of false rejection) as well as correct rejection (i.e., minimization of false acceptance). A revolutionary and innovative classification and scoring technique is used that is a significant enhancement over an earlier method presented in reference [1]. The solution in reference [1] has been demonstrated to meet the stringent requirements of the WUW-SR task. Advanced solution of [1] is a novel technique that is model and algorithm independent. Therefore, it could be used to significantly improve performance of existing recognition algorithms and systems. Reduction of error rates of over 40% are commonly observed for both false rejections and false acceptance. In this paper the architecture of the WUW-SR based

  6. Photon-counting passive 3D image sensing and processing for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Seokwon; Javidi, Bahram; Watson, Edward

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we overview the nonlinear matched filtering for photon counting recognition with 3D passive sensing. The first and second order statistical properties of the nonlinear matched filtering can improve the recognition performance compared to the linear matched filtering. Automatic target reconstruction and recognition are addressed for partially occluded objects. The recognition performance is shown to be improved significantly in the reconstruction space. The discrimination capability is analyzed in terms of Fisher ratio (FR) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

  7. Distinguishing Target From Distractor in Stroop, Picture–Word, and Word–Word Interference Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Schmalz, Xenia; Treccani, Barbara; Mulatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Lexical selection—both during reading aloud and speech production—involves selecting an intended word, while ignoring irrelevant lexical activation. This process has been studied by the use of interference tasks. Examples are the Stroop task, where participants ignore the written color word and name the color of the ink, picture–word interference tasks, where participants name a picture while ignoring a super-imposed written word, or word–word interference (WWI) tasks, where two words are presented and the participants need to respond to only one, based on an pre-determined visual feature (e.g., color, position). Here, we focus on the WWI task: it is theoretically impossible for existing models to explain how the cognitive system can respond to one stimulus and block the other, when they are presented by the same modality (i.e., they are both words). We describe a solution that can explain performance on the WWI task: drawing on the literature on visual attention, we propose that the system creates an object file for each perceived object, which is continuously updated with increasingly complete information about the stimulus, such as the task-relevant visual feature. Such a model can account for performance on all three tasks. PMID:26696927

  8. A Pathogenic Nematode Targets Recognition Proteins to Avoid Insect Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Toubarro, Duarte; Avila, Mónica Martinez; Montiel, Rafael; Simões, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Steinernemacarpocapsae is a nematode pathogenic in a wide variety of insect species. The great pathogenicity of this nematode has been ascribed to its ability to overcome the host immune response; however, little is known about the mechanisms involved in this process. The analysis of an expressed sequence tags (EST) library in the nematode during the infective phase was performed and a highly abundant contig homologous to serine protease inhibitors was identified. In this work, we show that this contig is part of a 641-bp cDNA that encodes a BPTI-Kunitz family inhibitor (Sc-KU-4), which is up-regulated in the parasite during invasion and installation. Recombinant Sc-KU-4 protein was produced in Escherichia coli and shown to inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase activities in a dose-dependent manner by a competitive mechanism with Ki values of 1.8 nM and 2.6 nM, respectively. Sc-KU-4 also inhibited trypsin and thrombin activities to a lesser extent. Studies of the mode of action of Sc-KU-4 and its effects on insect defenses suggest that although Sc-KU-4 did not inhibit the activation of hemocytes or the formation of clotting fibers, it did inhibit hemocyte aggregation and the entrapment of foreign particles by fibers. Moreover, Sc-KU-4 avoided encapsulation and the deposition of clotting materials, which usually occurs in response to foreign particles. We show by protein-protein interaction that Sc-KU-4 targets recognition proteins of insect immune system such as masquerade-like and serine protease-like homologs. The interaction of Sc-KU-4 with these proteins explains the ability of the nematode to overcome host reactions and its large pathogenic spectrum, once these immune proteins are well conserved in insects. The discovery of this inhibitor targeting insect recognition proteins opens new avenues for the development of S. carpocapsae as a biological control agent and provides a new tool to study host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24098715

  9. Recognition of spoken words by native and non-native listeners: Talker-, listener-, and item-related factors

    PubMed Central

    Bradlow, Ann R.; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the interplay between the talker-, listener-, and item-related factors that influence speech perception, a large multi-talker database of digitally recorded spoken words was developed, and was then submitted to intelligibility tests with multiple listeners. Ten talkers produced two lists of words at three speaking rates. One list contained lexically “easy” words (words with few phonetically similar sounding “neighbors” with which they could be confused), and the other list contained lexically “hard” (wordswords with many phonetically similar sounding “neighbors”). An analysis of the intelligibility data obtained with native speakers of English (experiment 1) showed a strong effect of lexical similarity. Easy words had higher intelligibility scores than hard words. A strong effect of speaking rate was also found whereby slow and medium rate words had higher intelligibility scores than fast rate words. Finally, a relationship was also observed between the various stimulus factors whereby the perceptual difficulties imposed by one factor, such as a hard word spoken at a fast rate, could be overcome by the advantage gained through the listener's experience and familiarity with the speech of a particular talker. In experiment 2, the investigation was extended to another listener population, namely, non-native listeners. Results showed that the ability to take advantage of surface phonetic information, such as a consistent talker across items, is a perceptual skill that transfers easily from first to second language perception. However, non-native listeners had particular difficulty with lexically hard words even when familiarity with the items was controlled, suggesting that non-native word recognition may be compromised when fine phonetic discrimination at the segmental level is required. Taken together, the results of this study provide insight into the signal-dependent and signal-independent factors that influence spoken

  10. Joint Effect of Insertion of Spaces and Word Length in Saccade Target Selection in Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xingshan; Shen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how insertion of spaces before and after a word affects saccade target selection in Chinese reading. We found that inserting spaces in Chinese text changes the eye movement behaviour of Chinese readers. They are less likely to fixate on the character near the space and will try their best to process the entire word with…

  11. Activation of p53 Facilitates the Target Search in DNA by Enhancing the Target Recognition Probability.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuji; Murata, Agato; Sakamoto, Seiji; Nanatani, Kei; Wada, Takehiko; Takahashi, Satoshi; Kamagata, Kiyoto

    2016-07-17

    Tumor suppressor p53 binds to the target in a genome and regulates the expression of downstream genes. p53 searches for the target by combining three-dimensional diffusion and one-dimensional sliding along the DNA. To examine the regulation mechanism of the target binding, we constructed the pseudo-wild type (pseudo-WT), activated (S392E), and inactive (R248Q) mutants of p53 and observed their target binding in long DNA using single-molecule fluorescence imaging. The pseudo-WT sliding along the DNA showed many pass events over the target and possessed target recognition probability (TRP) of 7±2%. The TRP increased to 18±2% for the activated mutant but decreased to 0% for the inactive mutant. Furthermore, the fraction of the target binding by the one-dimensional sliding among the total binding events increased from 63±9% for the pseudo-WT to 87±2% for the activated mutant. Control of TRP upon activation, as demonstrated here for p53, might be a general activation mechanism of transcription factors. PMID:27291286

  12. Got rhythm…for better and for worse. Cross-modal effects of auditory rhythm on visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Brochard, Renaud; Tassin, Maxime; Zagar, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    The present research aimed to investigate whether, as previously observed with pictures, background auditory rhythm would also influence visual word recognition. In a lexical decision task, participants were presented with bisyllabic visual words, segmented into two successive groups of letters, while an irrelevant strongly metric auditory sequence was played in a loop. The first group of letters could either be congruent with the syllabic division of the word (e.g. val in val/se) or not (e.g. va in va/lse). In agreement with the Dynamic Attending Theory (DAT), our results confirmed that the presentation of the correct first syllable on-beat (i.e. in synchrony with a peak of covert attention) facilitated visual word recognition compared to when it was presented off-beat. However, when an incongruent first syllable was displayed on-beat, this led to an aggravation of impaired recognition. Thus, our results suggest that oscillatory attention tapped into cognitive processes rather than perceptual or decisional and motor stages. We like to think of our paradigm, which combines background auditory rhythm with segmented visual stimuli, as a sort of temporal magnifying glass which allows for the enlargement of the reaction time differences between beneficial and detrimental processing conditions in human cognition. PMID:23454794

  13. Design and performance of a large vocabulary discrete word recognition system. Volume 1: Technical report. [real time computer technique for voice data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The development, construction, and test of a 100-word vocabulary near real time word recognition system are reported. Included are reasonable replacement of any one or all 100 words in the vocabulary, rapid learning of a new speaker, storage and retrieval of training sets, verbal or manual single word deletion, continuous adaptation with verbal or manual error correction, on-line verification of vocabulary as spoken, system modes selectable via verification display keyboard, relationship of classified word to neighboring word, and a versatile input/output interface to accommodate a variety of applications.

  14. A universal approach to modeling visual word recognition and reading: Not only possible, but also inevitable

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Ram

    2013-01-01

    I have argued that orthographic processing cannot be understood and modeled without considering the manner in which orthographic structure represents phonological, semantic and morphological information in a given writing system. A reading theory, therefore, must be a theory of the interaction of the reader with his/her linguistic environment. This outlines a novel approach to studying and modeling visual word recognition, an approach that focuses on the common cognitive principles involved in processing printed words across different writing systems. These claims were challenged by several commentaries that contested the merits of my general theoretical agenda, the relevance of the evolution of writing systems, and the plausibility of finding commonalities in reading across orthographies. Other commentaries extended the scope of the debate by bringing into the discussion additional perspectives. My response addresses all these issues. By considering the constraints of neurobiology on modeling reading, developmental data, and a large scope of cross-linguistic evidence, I argue that front-end implementations of orthographic processing that do not stem from a comprehensive theory of the complex information conveyed by writing systems do not present a viable approach for understanding reading. The common principles by which writing systems have evolved to represent orthographic, phonological and semantic information in a language reveal the critical distributional characteristics of orthographic structure that govern reading behavior. Models of reading should thus be learning models, primarily constrained by cross-linguistic developmental evidence that describes how the statistical properties of writing systems shape the characteristics of orthographic processing. When this approach is adopted a universal model of reading is possible. PMID:23251930

  15. Stimulus Onset Asynchrony and the Timeline of Word Recognition: Event-Related Potentials during Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dambacher, Michael; Dimigen, Olaf; Braun, Mario; Wille, Kristin; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    Three ERP experiments examined the effect of word presentation rate (i.e., stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA) on the time course of word frequency and predictability effects in sentence reading. In Experiments 1 and 2, sentences were presented word-by-word in the screen center at an SOA of 700 and 490ms, respectively. While these rates are typical…

  16. Impaired Word Recognition in Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Age of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuetos, Fernando; Herrera, Elena; Ellis, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of word production in patients with Alzheimer's disease have identified the age of acquisition of words as an important predictor of retention or loss, with early acquired words remaining accessible for longer than later acquired words. If, as proposed by current theories, effects of age of acquisition reflect the involvement of semantic…

  17. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms. PMID:27483739

  18. Logical metonymy resolution in a words-as-cues framework: evidence from self-paced reading and probe recognition.

    PubMed

    Zarcone, Alessandra; Padó, Sebastian; Lenci, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    Logical metonymy resolution (begin a book → begin reading a book or begin writing a book) has traditionally been explained either through complex lexical entries (qualia structures) or through the integration of the implicit event via post-lexical access to world knowledge. We propose that recent work within the words-as-cues paradigm can provide a more dynamic model of logical metonymy, accounting for early and dynamic integration of complex event information depending on previous contextual cues (agent and patient). We first present a self-paced reading experiment on German subordinate sentences, where metonymic sentences and their paraphrased version differ only in the presence or absence of the clause-final target verb (Der Konditor begann die Glasur → Der Konditor begann, die Glasur aufzutragen/The baker began the icing → The baker began spreading the icing). Longer reading times at the target verb position in a high-typicality condition (baker + icing → spread ) compared to a low-typicality (but still plausible) condition (child + icing → spread) suggest that we make use of knowledge activated by lexical cues to build expectations about events. The early and dynamic integration of event knowledge in metonymy interpretation is bolstered by further evidence from a second experiment using the probe recognition paradigm. Presenting covert events as probes following a high-typicality or a low-typicality metonymic sentence (Der Konditor begann die Glasur → AUFTRAGEN/The baker began the icing → SPREAD), we obtain an analogous effect of typicality at 100 ms interstimulus interval. PMID:24628505

  19. Theories of Spoken Word Recognition Deficits in Aphasia: Evidence from Eye-Tracking and Computational Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Yee, Eiling; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Magnuson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    We used eye tracking to investigate lexical processing in aphasic participants by examining the fixation time course for rhyme (e.g., carrot – parrot) and cohort (e.g., beaker – beetle) competitors. Broca’s aphasic participants exhibited larger rhyme competition effects than age-matched controls. A reanalysis of previously reported data (Yee, Blumstein, & Sedivy, 2008) confirmed that Wernicke’s aphasic participants exhibited larger cohort competition effects. Individual-level analyses revealed a negative correlation between rhyme and cohort competition effect size across both groups of aphasic participants. Computational model simulations were performed to examine which of several accounts of lexical processing deficits in aphasia might account for the observed effects. Simulation results revealed that slower deactivation of lexical competitors could account for increased cohort competition in Wernicke’s aphasic participants; auditory perceptual impairment could account for increased rhyme competition in Broca's aphasic participants; and a perturbation of a parameter controlling selection among competing alternatives could account for both patterns, as well as the correlation between the effects. In light of these simulation results, we discuss theoretical accounts that have the potential to explain the dynamics of spoken word recognition in aphasia and the possible roles of anterior and posterior brain regions in lexical processing and cognitive control. PMID:21371743

  20. Spoken word recognition by Latino children learning Spanish as their first language*

    PubMed Central

    HURTADO, NEREYDA; MARCHMAN, VIRGINIA A.; FERNALD, ANNE

    2010-01-01

    Research on the development of efficiency in spoken language understanding has focused largely on middle-class children learning English. Here we extend this research to Spanish-learning children (n=49; M=2;0; range=1;3–3;1) living in the USA in Latino families from primarily low socioeconomic backgrounds. Children looked at pictures of familiar objects while listening to speech naming one of the objects. Analyses of eye movements revealed developmental increases in the efficiency of speech processing. Older children and children with larger vocabularies were more efficient at processing spoken language as it unfolds in real time, as previously documented with English learners. Children whose mothers had less education tended to be slower and less accurate than children of comparable age and vocabulary size whose mothers had more schooling, consistent with previous findings of slower rates of language learning in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. These results add to the cross-linguistic literature on the development of spoken word recognition and to the study of the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) factors on early language development. PMID:17542157

  1. Emotion effects during reading: Influence of an emotion target word on eye movements and processing.

    PubMed

    Knickerbocker, Hugh; Johnson, Rebecca L; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Scott, O'Donnell and Sereno reported that words of high valence and arousal are processed with greater ease than neutral words during sentence reading. However, this study unsystematically intermixed emotion (label a state of mind, e.g., terrified or happy) and emotion-laden words (refer to a concept that is associated with an emotional state, e.g., debt or marriage). We compared the eye-movement record while participants read sentences that contained a neutral target word (e.g., chair) or an emotion word (no emotion-laden words were included). Readers were able to process both positive (e.g., happy) and negative emotion words (e.g., distressed) faster than neutral words. This was true across a wide range of early (e.g., first fixation durations) and late (e.g., total times on the post-target region) measures. Additional analyses revealed that State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores interacted with the emotion effect and that the emotion effect was not due to arousal alone. PMID:25034443

  2. Target recognition for ladar range image using slice image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wenze; Han, Shaokun; Wang, Liang

    2015-12-01

    A shape descriptor and a complete shape-based recognition system using slice images as geometric feature descriptor for ladar range images are introduced. A slice image is a two-dimensional image generated by three-dimensional Hough transform and the corresponding mathematical transformation. The system consists of two processes, the model library construction and recognition. In the model library construction process, a series of range images are obtained after the model object is sampled at preset attitude angles. Then, all the range images are converted into slice images. The number of slice images is reduced by clustering analysis and finding a representation to reduce the size of the model library. In the recognition process, the slice image of the scene is compared with the slice image in the model library. The recognition results depend on the comparison. Simulated ladar range images are used to analyze the recognition and misjudgment rates, and comparison between the slice image representation method and moment invariants representation method is performed. The experimental results show that whether in conditions without noise or with ladar noise, the system has a high recognition rate and low misjudgment rate. The comparison experiment demonstrates that the slice image has better representation ability than moment invariants.

  3. Task modulation of brain responses in visual word recognition as studied using EEG/MEG and fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y.; Davis, M. H.; Pulvermüller, F.; Hauk, O.

    2013-01-01

    Do task demands change the way we extract information from a stimulus, or only how we use this information for decision making? In order to answer this question for visual word recognition, we used EEG/MEG as well as fMRI to determine the latency ranges and spatial areas in which brain activation to words is modulated by task demands. We presented letter strings in three tasks (lexical decision, semantic decision, silent reading), and measured combined EEG/MEG as well as fMRI responses in two separate experiments. EEG/MEG sensor statistics revealed the earliest reliable task effects at around 150 ms, which were localized, using minimum norm estimates (MNE), to left inferior temporal, right anterior temporal and left precentral gyri. Later task effects (250 and 480 ms) occurred in left middle and inferior temporal gyri. Our fMRI data showed task effects in left inferior frontal, posterior superior temporal and precentral cortices. Although there was some correspondence between fMRI and EEG/MEG localizations, discrepancies predominated. We suggest that fMRI may be less sensitive to the early short-lived processes revealed in our EEG/MEG data. Our results indicate that task-specific processes start to penetrate word recognition already at 150 ms, suggesting that early word processing is flexible and intertwined with decision making. PMID:23888133

  4. The effect of word length on hemispheric word recognition: evidence from unilateral and bilateral-redundant presentations.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Annukka K; Nicholls, Michael E R; Castles, Anne E

    2002-01-01

    Visual half field studies have repeatedly demonstrated the left hemisphere's superiority for language processing. Previous studies examined the effect of word length on bilateral and unilateral performance by comparing foveal and parafoveal presentations. The present study removed the potential confound of acuity by using parafoveal presentations for both unilateral and bilateral trials. Twenty participants named 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-letter words. The results supported previous findings, with right hemisphere performance being particularly degraded with increases in word length. There was no difference between left hemisphere and bihemispheric performance in terms of speed or accuracy, suggesting that bihemispheric performance is reliant upon the strategy of the hemisphere superior for language processing. Overall, the pattern of results supports the notion that the left hemisphere's superior linguistic capacity results from a more parallel processing strategy, while the right hemisphere is reliant upon a more sequential mechanism. PMID:12030486

  5. Recognition memory of neutral words can be impaired by task-irrelevant emotional encoding contexts: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Xuan; An, Wei; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yinan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the effects of emotional context on memory for centrally presented neutral items have obtained inconsistent results. And in most of those studies subjects were asked to either make a connection between the item and the context at study or retrieve both the item and the context. When no response for the contexts is required, how emotional contexts influence memory for neutral items is still unclear. Thus, the present study attempted to investigate the influences of four types of emotional picture contexts on recognition memory of neutral words using both behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measurements. During study, words were superimposed centrally onto emotional contexts, and subjects were asked to just remember the words. During test, both studied and new words were presented without the emotional contexts and subjects had to make “old/new” judgments for those words. The results revealed that, compared with the neutral context, the negative contexts and positive high-arousing context impaired recognition of words. ERP results at encoding demonstrated that, compared with items presented in the neutral context, items in the positive and negative high-arousing contexts elicited more positive ERPs, which probably reflects an automatic process of attention capturing of high-arousing context as well as a conscious and effortful process of overcoming the interference of high-arousing context. During retrieval, significant FN400 old/new effects occurred in conditions of the negative low-arousing, positive, and neutral contexts but not in the negative high-arousing condition. Significant LPC old/new effects occurred in all conditions of context. However, the LPC old/new effect in the negative high-arousing condition was smaller than that in the positive high-arousing and low-arousing conditions. These results suggest that emotional context might influence both the familiarity and recollection processes. PMID:25762916

  6. Visual and Acoustic Confusability of Target Letters and the Word Superiority Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Garvin; And Others

    The hypothesis that word context reduces visual rather than acoustic confusion between possible targets was tested in a series of experiments. All involved tachistoscopic presentation of letter strings followed by a pattern mask. Data from eight college students showed that target letters that are confusable only visually and acoustically ("b" and…

  7. A universal entropy-driven mechanism for thioredoxin-target recognition.

    PubMed

    Palde, Prakash B; Carroll, Kate S

    2015-06-30

    Cysteine residues in cytosolic proteins are maintained in their reduced state, but can undergo oxidation owing to posttranslational modification during redox signaling or under conditions of oxidative stress. In large part, the reduction of oxidized protein cysteines is mediated by a small 12-kDa thiol oxidoreductase, thioredoxin (Trx). Trx provides reducing equivalents for central metabolic enzymes and is implicated in redox regulation of a wide number of target proteins, including transcription factors. Despite its importance in cellular redox homeostasis, the precise mechanism by which Trx recognizes target proteins, especially in the absence of any apparent signature binding sequence or motif, remains unknown. Knowledge of the forces associated with the molecular recognition that governs Trx-protein interactions is fundamental to our understanding of target specificity. To gain insight into Trx-target recognition, we have thermodynamically characterized the noncovalent interactions between Trx and target proteins before S-S reduction using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Our findings indicate that Trx recognizes the oxidized form of its target proteins with exquisite selectivity, compared with their reduced counterparts. Furthermore, we show that recognition is dependent on the conformational restriction inherent to oxidized targets. Significantly, the thermodynamic signatures for multiple Trx targets reveal favorable entropic contributions as the major recognition force dictating these protein-protein interactions. Taken together, our data afford significant new insight into the molecular forces responsible for Trx-target recognition and should aid the design of new strategies for thiol oxidoreductase inhibition. PMID:26080424

  8. Infants Exposed to Fluent Natural Speech Succeed at Cross-Gender Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Heugten, Marieke; Johnson, Elizabeth K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the possibility that early signal-to-word form mapping capabilities are robust enough to handle substantial indexical variation in the realization of words. Method: Two groups of 7.5-month-olds were tested with the Headturn Preference Procedure. Half of the infants were exposed to words embedded in passages spoken by their…

  9. Word Recognition and Vocabulary Understanding Strategies for Literacy Success. Bill Harp Professional Teachers Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Richard

    This book lets readers see how children and youth learn words in the oral and written languages--and how teachers can best assist learners in the understanding, reading, and writing of words for successful literacy development. In the book teachers learn the differing rationales for using sound/symbol or phonics approaches in word learning, for…

  10. Cross-Language Effects in Written Word Recognition: The Case of Bilingual Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, multiple studies have shown that the languages of a bilingual interact during processing. We investigated sign activation as deaf children read words. In a word-picture verification task, we manipulated the underlying sign equivalents. We presented children with word-picture pairs for which the sign translation equivalents varied…

  11. Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith

    2010-01-01

    This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…

  12. What Do Letter Migration Errors Reveal About Letter Position Coding in Visual Word Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2004-01-01

    Dividing attention across multiple words occasionally results in misidentifications whereby letters apparently migrate between words. Previous studies have found that letter migrations preserve within-word letter position, which has been interpreted as support for position-specific letter coding. To investigate this issue, the authors used word…

  13. Shape-and-motion-fused multiple flying target recognition and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Levente; Utasi, Ákos

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an automatic approach for camera/image based detection, recognition and tracking of flying objects (planes, missiles, etc.). The method detects appearing objects, and recognizes re-appearing targets. It uses a feature-based statistical modeling approach (e.g. HMM) for motion-based recognition, and an image feature (e.g. shape) based indexed database of pre-trained object classes, suitable for recognition on known and alerting on unknown objects. The method can be used for detection of flying objects, recognition of the same object category through multiple views/cameras and signal on unusual motions and shape appearances.

  14. On-chip learning of hyper-spectral data for real time target recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, T. A.; Daud, T.; Thakoor, A.

    2000-01-01

    As the focus of our present paper, we have used the cascade error projection (CEP) learning algorithm (shown to be hardware-implementable) with on-chip learning (OCL) scheme to obtain three orders of magnitude speed-up in target recognition compared to software-based learning schemes. Thus, it is shown, real time learning as well as data processing for target recognition can be achieved.

  15. The Processing of Consonants and Vowels during Letter Identity and Letter Position Assignment in Visual-Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Marin, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that there is a processing distinction between consonants and vowels in visual-word recognition. Here we conjointly examine the time course of consonants and vowels in processes of letter identity and letter position assignment. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in…

  16. Charting the Functional Relevance of Broca's Area for Visual Word Recognition and Picture Naming in Dutch Using fMRI-Guided TMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheat, Katherine L.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Sack, Alexander T.; Schuhmann, Teresa; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has shown pseudohomophone priming effects at Broca's area (specifically pars opercularis of left inferior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus; LIFGpo/PCG) within [approximately]100 ms of viewing a word. This is consistent with Broca's area involvement in fast phonological access during visual word recognition. Here we…

  17. Application of point enhancement technique for ship target recognition by HRR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotuk, Nilufen; Ture, Sedat; Cetin, Mujdat

    2003-09-01

    We present an evaluation of the impact of a recently developed point-enhanced high range-resolution (HRR) radar profile reconstruction method on automatic target recognition (ATR) performance. We use several pattern recognition techniques to compare the performance of point-enhanced HRR profiles with conventional Fourier transform-based profiles. We use measured radar data of civilian ships and produce range profiles from such data. We use two types of classifiers to quantify recognition performance. The first type of classifier is based on the nearest neighbor technique. We demonstrate the performance of this classifier using a variety of extracted features, and a number of different distance metrics. The second classifier we use for target recognition involves position specific matrices, which have previously been used in gene sequencing. We compare the classification performance of point-enhanced HRR profiles with conventional profiles, and observe that point enhancement results in higher recognition rates in general.

  18. Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Muses on the power of words and how they shape people's lives. Relates stories from the author's life illustrating this, and relates the author's (a writer of novels for children and young adults) struggles and rewards as she works with words. (SR)

  19. Dynamics of Word Comprehension in Infancy: Developments in Timing, Accuracy, and Resistance to Acoustic Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Zangl, Renate; Klarman, Lindsay; Thal, Donna; Fernald, Anne; Bates, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Online comprehension of naturally spoken and perceptually degraded words was assessed in 95 children ages 12 to 31 months. The time course of word recognition was measured by monitoring eye movements as children looked at pictures while listening to familiar target words presented in unaltered, time-compressed, and low-pass-filtered forms. Success in word recognition varied with age and level of vocabulary development, and with the perceptual integrity of the word. Recognition was best overall for unaltered words, lower for time-compressed words, and significantly lower in low-pass-filtered words. Reaction times were fastest in compressed, followed by unaltered and filtered words. Results showed that children were able to recognize familiar words in challenging conditions and that productive vocabulary size was more sensitive than chronological age as a predictor of children’s accuracy and speed in word recognition. PMID:22072948

  20. Gaussian process classification using automatic relevance determination for SAR target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangrong; Gou, Limin; Hou, Biao; Jiao, Licheng

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a Synthetic Aperture Radar Automatic Target Recognition approach based on Gaussian process (GP) classification is proposed. It adopts kernel principal component analysis to extract sample features and implements target recognition by using GP classification with automatic relevance determination (ARD) function. Compared with k-Nearest Neighbor, Naïve Bayes classifier and Support Vector Machine, GP with ARD has the advantage of automatic model selection and hyper-parameter optimization. The experiments on UCI datasets and MSTAR database show that our algorithm is self-tuning and has better recognition accuracy as well.

  1. Kernel sparse coding method for automatic target recognition in infrared imagery using covariance descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunwei; Yao, Junping; Sun, Dawei; Wang, Shicheng; Liu, Huaping

    2016-05-01

    Automatic target recognition in infrared imagery is a challenging problem. In this paper, a kernel sparse coding method for infrared target recognition using covariance descriptor is proposed. First, covariance descriptor combining gray intensity and gradient information of the infrared target is extracted as a feature representation. Then, due to the reason that covariance descriptor lies in non-Euclidean manifold, kernel sparse coding theory is used to solve this problem. We verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm in terms of the confusion matrices on the real images consisting of seven categories of infrared vehicle targets.

  2. Setting the tone: an ERP investigation of the influences of phonological similarity on spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Malins, Jeffrey G; Joanisse, Marc F

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the influences of phonological similarity on the time course of spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese. Event related potentials were recorded while adult native speakers of Mandarin (N=19) judged whether auditory words matched or mismatched visually presented pictures. Mismatching words were of the following nature: segmental (e.g., picture: hua1 'flower'; sound: hua4 'painting'); cohort (e.g., picture: hua1 'flower'; sound: hui1 'gray'); rhyme (e.g., picture: hua1 'flower'; sound: gua1 'melon'); tonal (e.g., picture: hua1 'flower'; sound: jing1 'whale'); unrelated (e.g., picture: hua1 'flower'; sound: lang2 'wolf'). Expectancy violations in the segmental condition showed an early-going modulation of components (starting at 250 ms post-stimulus onset), suggesting that listeners used tonal information to constrain word recognition as soon as it became available, just like they did with phonemic information in the cohort condition. However, effects were less persistent and more left-lateralized in the segmental than cohort condition, suggesting dissociable cognitive processes underlie access to tonal versus phonemic information. Cohort versus rhyme mismatches showed distinct patterns of modulation which were very similar to what has been observed in English, suggesting onsets and rimes are weighted similarly across the two languages. Last, we did not observe effects for whole-syllable mismatches above and beyond those for mismatches in individual components, suggesting the syllable does not merit a special status in Mandarin spoken word recognition. These results are discussed with respect to modifications needed for existing models to accommodate the tonal languages spoken by a large proportion of the world's speakers. PMID:22595659

  3. Fearful contextual expression impairs the encoding and recognition of target faces: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huiyan; Schulz, Claudia; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that the N170 to faces is modulated by the emotion of the face and its context. However, it is unclear how the encoding of emotional target faces as reflected in the N170 is modulated by the preceding contextual facial expression when temporal onset and identity of target faces are unpredictable. In addition, no study as yet has investigated whether contextual facial expression modulates later recognition of target faces. To address these issues, participants in the present study were asked to identify target faces (fearful or neutral) that were presented after a sequence of fearful or neutral contextual faces. The number of sequential contextual faces was random and contextual and target faces were of different identities so that temporal onset and identity of target faces were unpredictable. Electroencephalography (EEG) data was recorded during the encoding phase. Subsequently, participants had to perform an unexpected old/new recognition task in which target face identities were presented in either the encoded or the non-encoded expression. ERP data showed a reduced N170 to target faces in fearful as compared to neutral context regardless of target facial expression. In the later recognition phase, recognition rates were reduced for target faces in the encoded expression when they had been encountered in fearful as compared to neutral context. The present findings suggest that fearful compared to neutral contextual faces reduce the allocation of attentional resources towards target faces, which results in limited encoding and recognition of target faces. PMID:26388751

  4. Lip-Reading Aids Word Recognition Most in Moderate Noise: A Bayesian Explanation Using High-Dimensional Feature Space

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lars A.; Foxe, John J.; Parra, Lucas C.

    2009-01-01

    Watching a speaker's facial movements can dramatically enhance our ability to comprehend words, especially in noisy environments. From a general doctrine of combining information from different sensory modalities (the principle of inverse effectiveness), one would expect that the visual signals would be most effective at the highest levels of auditory noise. In contrast, we find, in accord with a recent paper, that visual information improves performance more at intermediate levels of auditory noise than at the highest levels, and we show that a novel visual stimulus containing only temporal information does the same. We present a Bayesian model of optimal cue integration that can explain these conflicts. In this model, words are regarded as points in a multidimensional space and word recognition is a probabilistic inference process. When the dimensionality of the feature space is low, the Bayesian model predicts inverse effectiveness; when the dimensionality is high, the enhancement is maximal at intermediate auditory noise levels. When the auditory and visual stimuli differ slightly in high noise, the model makes a counterintuitive prediction: as sound quality increases, the proportion of reported words corresponding to the visual stimulus should first increase and then decrease. We confirm this prediction in a behavioral experiment. We conclude that auditory-visual speech perception obeys the same notion of optimality previously observed only for simple multisensory stimuli. PMID:19259259

  5. Deficits in audiovisual speech perception in normal aging emerge at the level of whole-word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Nelms, Caitlin; Baum, Sarah H.; Zurkovsky, Lilia; Barense, Morgan D.; Newhouse, Paul A.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the next two decades, a dramatic shift in the demographics of society will take place, with a rapid growth in the population of older adults. One of the most common complaints with healthy aging is a decreased ability to successfully perceive speech, particularly in noisy environments. In such noisy environments, the presence of visual speech cues (i.e., lip movements) provide striking benefits for speech perception and comprehension, but previous research suggests that older adults gain less from such audiovisual integration than their younger peers. To determine at what processing level these behavioral differences arise in healthy-aging populations, we administered a speech-in-noise task to younger and older adults. We compared the perceptual benefits of having speech information available in both the auditory and visual modalities and examined both phoneme and whole-word recognition across varying levels of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For whole-word recognition, older relative to younger adults showed greater multisensory gains at intermediate SNRs, but reduced benefit at low SNRs. By contrast, at the phoneme level both younger and older adults showed approximately equivalent increases in multisensory gain as SNR decreased. Collectively, the results provide important insights into both the similarities and differences in how older and younger adults integrate auditory and visual speech cues in noisy environments, and help explain some of the conflicting findings in previous studies of multisensory speech perception in healthy aging. These novel findings suggest that audiovisual processing is intact at more elementary levels of speech perception in healthy aging populations, and that deficits begin to emerge only at the more complex, word-recognition level of speech signals. PMID:25282337

  6. Effects of Training on Speech Recognition Performance in Noise Using Lexically Hard Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Matthew H.; Humes, Larry E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined how repeated presentations of lexically difficult words within a background noise affect a listener's ability to understand both trained (lexically difficult) and untrained (lexically easy) words in isolation and within sentences. Method: In the 1st experiment, 9 young listeners with normal hearing completed a…

  7. The Role of Saccade Preparation in Lateralized Word Recognition: Evidence for the Attentional Bias Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Dorine Vergilino; Lemoine, Christelle; Sieroff, Eric; Ergis, Anne-Marie; Bouhired, Redha; Rigault, Emilie; Dore-Mazars, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Words presented to the right visual field (RVF) are recognized more readily than those presented to the left visual field (LVF). Whereas the attentional bias theory proposes an explanation in terms of attentional imbalance between visual fields, the attentional advantage theory assumes that words presented to the RVF are processed automatically…

  8. Word Recognition and Syntactic Attachment in Reading: Evidence for a Staged Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the author examined how readers' eye movements are influenced by joint manipulations of a word's frequency and the syntactic fit of the word in its context. In the critical conditions of the first 2 experiments, a high- or low-frequency verb was used to disambiguate a garden-path sentence, while in the last experiment, a high- or…

  9. The KEY to the ROCK: Near-Homophony in Nonnative Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Haywood, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that native language (L1) phonology can affect the lexical representations of nonnative words, a visual semantic-relatedness decision task in English was given to native speakers and nonnative speakers whose L1 was Japanese or Arabic. In the critical conditions, the word pair contained a homophone or near-homophone of a…

  10. Acquired Affective Associations Induce Emotion Effects in Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Nathalie; Kuchinke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how contextual learning and in particular emotionality conditioning impacts the neural processing of words, as possible key factors for the acquisition of words' emotional connotation. 21 participants learned on five consecutive days associations between meaningless pseudowords and unpleasant or neutral pictures using an…

  11. See before You Jump: Full Recognition of Parafoveal Words Precedes Skips during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Peter C.; Plummer, Patrick; Choi, Wonil

    2013-01-01

    Serial attention models of eye-movement control during reading were evaluated in an eye-tracking experiment that examined how lexical activation combines with visual information in the parafovea to affect word skipping (where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading). Lexical activation was manipulated by repetition priming created through…

  12. Word Recognition Processing Efficiency as a Component of Second Language Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the application of the speeded lexical decision task to L2 aural processing efficiency. One-hundred and twenty Japanese university students completed an aural word/nonword task. When the variation of lexical decision time (CV) was correlated with reaction time (RT), the results suggested that the single-word recognition…

  13. Revisiting Age-of-Acquisition Effects in Spanish Visual Word Recognition: The Role of Item Imageability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Cuetos, Fernando; Davies, Rob; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Word age-of-acquisition (AoA) affects reading. The mapping hypothesis predicts AoA effects when input--output mappings are arbitrary. In Spanish, the orthography-to-phonology mappings required for word naming are consistent; therefore, no AoA effects are expected. Nevertheless, AoA effects have been found, motivating the present investigation of…

  14. The Mechanisms Underlying the Interhemispheric Integration of Information in Foveal Word Recognition: Evidence for Transcortical Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Haegen, Lise; Brysbaert, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Words are processed as units. This is not as evident as it seems, given the division of the human cerebral cortex in two hemispheres and the partial decussation of the optic tract. In two experiments, we investigated what underlies the unity of foveally presented words: A bilateral projection of visual input in foveal vision, or interhemispheric…

  15. Morphological Decomposition in the Recognition of Prefixed and Suffixed Words: Evidence from Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Say Young; Wang, Min; Taft, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Korean has visually salient syllable units that are often mapped onto either prefixes or suffixes in derived words. In addition, prefixed and suffixed words may be processed differently given a left-to-right parsing procedure and the need to resolve morphemic ambiguity in prefixes in Korean. To test this hypothesis, four experiments using the…

  16. The Shape of Things to Come: Evaluating Word Frequency as a Continuous Variable in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Pernille; Criss, Amy H.

    2013-01-01

    The role of experience in memory, specifically the word frequency (WF) mirror effect showing higher hit rates and lower false alarm rates for low-frequency words, is one of the hallmarks of memory. However, this "regularity of memory" is limited because normative WF has been treated as discrete (low vs. high). We evaluate the extent to…

  17. Automatic target recognition performance losses in the presence of atmospheric and camera effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohan; Schmid, Natalia A.

    2010-04-01

    The importance of networked automatic target recognition systems for surveillance applications is continuously increasing. Because of the requirement of a low cost and limited payload, these networks are traditionally equipped with lightweight, low-cost sensors such as electro-optical (EO) or infrared sensors. The quality of imagery acquired by these sensors critically depends on the environmental conditions, type and characteristics of sensors, and absence of occluding or concealing objects. In the past, a large number of efficient detection, tracking, and recognition algorithms have been designed to operate on imagery of good quality. However, detection and recognition limits under nonideal environmental and/or sensor-based distortions have not been carefully evaluated. We introduce a fully automatic target recognition system that involves a Haar-based detector to select potential regions of interest within images, performs adjustment of detected regions, segments potential targets using a region-based approach, identifies targets using Bessel K form-based encoding, and performs clutter rejection. We investigate the effects of environmental and camera conditions on target detection and recognition performance. Two databases are involved. One is a simulated database generated using a 3-D tool. The other database is formed by imaging 10 die-cast models of military vehicles from different elevation and orientation angles. The database contains imagery acquired both indoors and outdoors. The indoors data set is composed of clear and distorted images. The distortions include defocus blur, sided illumination, low contrast, shadows, and occlusions. All images in this database, however, have a uniform (blue) background. The indoors database is applied to evaluate the degradations of recognition performance due to camera and illumination effects. The database collected outdoors includes a real background and is much more complex to process. The numerical results

  18. [Q:] When would you prefer a SOSSAGE to a SAUSAGE? [A:] At about 100 msec. ERP correlates of orthographic typicality and lexicality in written word recognition.

    PubMed

    Hauk, O; Patterson, K; Woollams, A; Watling, L; Pulvermüller, F; Rogers, T T

    2006-05-01

    Using a speeded lexical decision task, event-related potentials (ERPs), and minimum norm current source estimates, we investigated early spatiotemporal aspects of cortical activation elicited by words and pseudo-words that varied in their orthographic typicality, that is, in the frequency of their component letter pairs (bi-grams) and triplets (tri-grams). At around 100 msec after stimulus onset, the ERP pattern revealed a significant typicality effect, where words and pseudo-words with atypical orthography (e.g., yacht, cacht) elicited stronger brain activation than items characterized by typical spelling patterns (cart, yart). At approximately 200 msec, the ERP pattern revealed a significant lexicality effect, with pseudo-words eliciting stronger brain activity than words. The two main factors interacted significantly at around 160 msec, where words showed a typicality effect but pseudo-words did not. The principal cortical sources of the effects of both typicality and lexicality were localized in the inferior temporal cortex. Around 160 msec, atypical words elicited the stronger source currents in the left anterior inferior temporal cortex, whereas the left perisylvian cortex was the site of greater activation to typical words. Our data support distinct but interactive processing stages in word recognition, with surface features of the stimulus being processed before the word as a meaningful lexical entry. The interaction of typicality and lexicality can be explained by integration of information from the early form-based system and lexicosemantic processes. PMID:16768380

  19. Design of miniature hybrid target recognition system with combination of FPGA+DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shishang; Li, Xiujian; Jia, Hui; Hu, Wenhua; Nie, Yongming; Chang, Shengli

    2010-10-01

    With advantages of flexibility, high bandwidth, high spatial resolution and high-speed parallel operation, the opto-electronic hybrid target recognition system can be applied in many civil and military areas, such as video surveillance, intelligent navigation and robot vision. A miniature opto-electronic hybrid target recognition system based on FPGA+DSP is designed, which only employs single Fourier lens and with a focal length. With the precise timing control of the FPGA and images pretreatment of the DSP, the system performs both Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform with all optical process, which can improve recognition speed and reduce the system volume remarkably. We analyzed the system performance, and a method to achieve scale invariant pattern recognition was proposed on the basis of lots of experiments.

  20. [Biotherapies, immunotherapies, targeted therapies, biopharmaceuticals… which word should be used?].

    PubMed

    Watier, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    The ability to accurately describe and name medical advances is a prerequisite to foster public debates with scientists and physicians, and favour faith over fear among patients and citizens. Therapeutic antibodies are a good example of a medical breakthrough which has met with considerable clinical success, and which terminology has changed over the years. If the appellation serotherapy was appropriate a century ago, it has become obsolete. Recent names such as biotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, biopharmaceuticals have been introduced and are now commonly used, each of those can apply to therapeutic antibodies. It is thus interesting to question the real meaning of these different appellations. Our goal in this manuscript is to analyse the genesis of these terms but also to suggest how to simplify the terminology: biotherapy or targeted therapy need to be eliminated, as well as immunotherapy when communicating with non scientific public. It is recommended to favour the term biopharmaceuticals (biomédicaments in French), which clearly indicates the origin of these molecules, intermediate between chemical drugs and living biologics, whose borders need to be accurately defined also. PMID:24939545

  1. Superconducting gravity gradiometers for underground target recognition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaans, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most formidable intelligence challenges existing in the non-proliferation community is the detection of buried targets. The physical parameter that all buried targets share, whether the target is buried armaments, a tunnel or a bunker, is mass. In the case of buried armaments, there is an excess mass (higher density) compared to the surrounding area; for a tunnel or bunker, the mass is missing. In either case, this difference in mass generates a distinct gravitational signature. The Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer project at Sandia worked toward developing an airborne device for the detection of these underground structures.

  2. Properdin: New roles in pattern recognition and target clearance

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Claudia; Hourcade, Dennis E.

    2008-01-01

    Properdin was first described over 50 years ago by Louis Pillemer and his collaborators as a vital component of an antibody-independent complement activation pathway. In the 1970’s properdin was shown to be a stabilizing component of the alternative pathway convertases, the central enzymes of the complement cascade. Recently we have reported that properdin can also bind to target cells and microbes, provide a platform for convertase assembly and function, and promote target phagocytosis. Evidence is emerging that suggests that properdin interacts with a network of target ligands, phagocyte receptors, and serum regulators. Here we review the new findings and their possible implications. PMID:18692243

  3. The attentional blink is related to phonemic decoding, but not sight-word recognition, in typically reading adults.

    PubMed

    Tyson-Parry, Maree M; Sailah, Jessica; Boyes, Mark E; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2015-10-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the attentional blink (AB) and reading in typical adults. The AB is a deficit in the processing of the second of two rapidly presented targets when it occurs in close temporal proximity to the first target. Specifically, this experiment examined whether the AB was related to both phonological and sight-word reading abilities, and whether the relationship was mediated by accuracy on a single-target rapid serial visual processing task (single-target accuracy). Undergraduate university students completed a battery of tests measuring reading ability, non-verbal intelligence, and rapid automatised naming, in addition to rapid serial visual presentation tasks in which they were required to identify either two (AB task) or one (single target task) target/s (outlined shapes: circle, square, diamond, cross, and triangle) in a stream of random-dot distractors. The duration of the AB was related to phonological reading (n=41, β=-0.43): participants who exhibited longer ABs had poorer phonemic decoding skills. The AB was not related to sight-word reading. Single-target accuracy did not mediate the relationship between the AB and reading, but was significantly related to AB depth (non-linear fit, R(2)=.50): depth reflects the maximal cost in T2 reporting accuracy in the AB. The differential relationship between the AB and phonological versus sight-word reading implicates common resources used for phonemic decoding and target consolidation, which may be involved in cognitive control. The relationship between single-target accuracy and the AB is discussed in terms of cognitive preparation. PMID:26277018

  4. Target recognitions in multiple-camera closed-circuit television using color constancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soori, Umair; Yuen, Peter; Han, Ji Wen; Ibrahim, Izzati; Chen, Wentao; Hong, Kan; Merfort, Christian; James, David; Richardson, Mark

    2013-04-01

    People tracking in crowded scenes from closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage has been a popular and challenging task in computer vision. Due to the limited spatial resolution in the CCTV footage, the color of people's dress may offer an alternative feature for their recognition and tracking. However, there are many factors, such as variable illumination conditions, viewing angles, and camera calibration, that may induce illusive modification of intrinsic color signatures of the target. Our objective is to recognize and track targets in multiple camera views using color as the detection feature, and to understand if a color constancy (CC) approach may help to reduce these color illusions due to illumination and camera artifacts and thereby improve target recognition performance. We have tested a number of CC algorithms using various color descriptors to assess the efficiency of target recognition from a real multicamera Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) data set. Various classifiers have been used for target detection, and the figure of merit to assess the efficiency of target recognition is achieved through the area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC). We have proposed two modifications of luminance-based CC algorithms: one with a color transfer mechanism and the other using a pixel-wise sigmoid function for an adaptive dynamic range compression, a method termed enhanced luminance reflectance CC (ELRCC). We found that both algorithms improve the efficiency of target recognitions substantially better than that of the raw data without CC treatment, and in some cases the ELRCC improves target tracking by over 100% within the AUROC assessment metric. The performance of the ELRCC has been assessed over 10 selected targets from three different camera views of the i-LIDS footage, and the averaged target recognition efficiency over all these targets is found to be improved by about 54% in AUROC after the data are processed by

  5. Advances in Doppler recognition for ground moving target indication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kealey, Paul G.; Jahangir, Mohammed

    2006-05-01

    Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) radar provides a day/night, all-weather, wide-area surveillance capability to detect moving vehicles and personnel. Current GMTI radar sensors are limited to only detecting and tracking targets. The exploitation of GMTI data would be greatly enhanced by a capability to recognize accurately the detections as significant classes of target. Doppler classification exploits the differential internal motion of targets, e.g. due to the tracks, limbs and rotors. Recently, the QinetiQ Bayesian Doppler classifier has been extended to include a helicopter class in addition to wheeled, tracked and personnel classes. This paper presents the performance for these four classes using a traditional low-resolution GMTI surveillance waveform with an experimental radar system. We have determined the utility of an "unknown output decision" for enhancing the accuracy of the declared target classes. A confidence method has been derived, using a threshold of the difference in certainties, to assign uncertain classifications into an "unknown class". The trade-off between fraction of targets declared and accuracy of the classifier has been measured. To determine the operating envelope of a Doppler classification algorithm requires a detailed understanding of the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) performance of the algorithm. In this study the SNR dependence of the QinetiQ classifier has been determined.

  6. Dichotic Word Recognition in Noise and the Right-Ear Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roup, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to compare dichotic right-ear advantages (REAs) of young adults to older adult data (C. M. Roup, T. L. Wiley, & R. H. Wilson, 2006) after matching for overall levels of recognition performance. Specifically, speech-spectrum noise was introduced in order to reduce dichotic recognition performance of young adults to a…

  7. Intelligent target recognition using micro-Doppler radar signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayaparan, Thayananthan; Stankovic, Ljubisa; Djurovic, Igor; Penamati, Suresh; Venkataramaniah, Kamisetti

    2009-05-01

    We present an effective quadratic time-frequency S-method based approach in conjunction with the Viterbi algorithm to extract m-D features. The effectiveness of the S-method in extracting m-D features is demonstrated through the application to indoor and outdoor experimental data sets such as rotating fan and human gait. The Viterbi algorithm for the instantaneous frequency estimation is used to enhance the weak human micro-Doppler features in relatively high noise environments. As such, this paper contributes additional experimental micro-Doppler data and analysis, which should help in developing a better picture of the human gait micro-Doppler research and its applications to indoor and outdoor imaging and automatic gait recognition systems.

  8. Pattern-Recognition System for Approaching a Known Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance; Cheng, Yang

    2008-01-01

    A closed-loop pattern-recognition system is designed to provide guidance for maneuvering a small exploratory robotic vehicle (rover) on Mars to return to a landed spacecraft to deliver soil and rock samples that the spacecraft would subsequently bring back to Earth. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in guiding mobile robots to approach known structures that humans could not approach safely, for such purposes as reconnaissance in military or law-enforcement applications, terrestrial scientific exploration, and removal of explosive or other hazardous items. The system has been demonstrated in experiments in which the Field Integrated Design and Operations (FIDO) rover (a prototype Mars rover equipped with a video camera for guidance) is made to return to a mockup of Mars-lander spacecraft. The FIDO rover camera autonomously acquires an image of the lander from a distance of 125 m in an outdoor environment. Then under guidance by an algorithm that performs fusion of multiple line and texture features in digitized images acquired by the camera, the rover traverses the intervening terrain, using features derived from images of the lander truss structure. Then by use of precise pattern matching for determining the position and orientation of the rover relative to the lander, the rover aligns itself with the bottom of ramps extending from the lander, in preparation for climbing the ramps to deliver samples to the lander. The most innovative aspect of the system is a set of pattern-recognition algorithms that govern a three-phase visual-guidance sequence for approaching the lander. During the first phase, a multifeature fusion algorithm integrates the outputs of a horizontal-line-detection algorithm and a wavelet-transform-based visual-area-of-interest algorithm for detecting the lander from a significant distance. The horizontal-line-detection algorithm is used to determine candidate lander locations based on detection of a horizontal deck that is part of the

  9. Target recognition in passive terahertz image of human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cun-lin; Li, Yue

    2014-11-01

    THz radiation can penetrate through many nonpolar dielectric materials and can be used for nondestructive/noninvasive sensing and imaging of targets under nonpolar, nonmetallic covers or containers. Thus using THz systems to "see through" concealing barriers (i.e. packaging, corrugated cardboard, clothing) has been proposed as a new security screening method. Objects that can be detected by THz include concealed weapons, explosives, and chemical agents under clothing. Passive THz imaging system can detect THz wave from human body without transmit any electromagnetic wave, and the suspicious objects will become visible because the THz wave is blocked by this items. We can find out whether or not someone is carrying dangerous objects through this image. In this paper, the THz image enhancement, segmentation and contour extraction algorithms were studied to achieve effective target image detection. First, the terahertz images are enhanced and their grayscales are stretched. Then we apply global threshold segmentation to extract the target, and finally the targets are marked on the image. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper can extract and mark targets effectively, so that people can identify suspicious objects under clothing quickly. The algorithm can significantly improve the usefulness of the terahertz security apparatus.

  10. Testing of a Composite Wavelet Filter to Enhance Automated Target Recognition in SONAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Automated Target Recognition (ATR) systems aim to automate target detection, recognition, and tracking. The current project applies a JPL ATR system to low resolution SONAR and camera videos taken from Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs). These SONAR images are inherently noisy and difficult to interpret, and pictures taken underwater are unreliable due to murkiness and inconsistent lighting. The ATR system breaks target recognition into three stages: 1) Videos of both SONAR and camera footage are broken into frames and preprocessed to enhance images and detect Regions of Interest (ROIs). 2) Features are extracted from these ROIs in preparation for classification. 3) ROIs are classified as true or false positives using a standard Neural Network based on the extracted features. Several preprocessing, feature extraction, and training methods are tested and discussed in this report.

  11. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  12. Unconscious congruency priming from unpracticed words is modulated by prime-target semantic relatedness.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Marí-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllón, Vanesa

    2013-03-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility were used in all experiments. On 80% of the trials the primes and targets belonged to different categories (incongruent trials), whereas in the remaining 20% (congruent trials) they could be either strong or weak semantically related category members. Positive congruency effects (reaction times faster on congruent than on incongruent trials) were consistently found, but only when the mask immediately followed the primes, and participants reported being unaware of the identity of the primes. Primes followed by a delayed mask (such that participants reported being aware of their identity) produced either nonreliable facilitation or reliable reversed priming (strategic), depending on whether the prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony was either short (200 ms; Experiments 1 and 4) or long (1,000 ms; Experiment 4). Facilitatory priming with immediate mask was found strong (a) even for participants who performed at chance in prime visibility tests; and (b) for high but not for weakly semantically related category coordinates, irrespective of category size (animals, body parts). These findings provide evidence that unconscious congruency priming by unpracticed words from large stimulus sets critically depends on associative strength and/or semantic similarity between category coexemplars. PMID:22686850

  13. Word Recognition Thresholds as a Function of Verbal Ability in Two Experimental Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Larry G.; Platnick, Daniel M.

    1974-01-01

    Among the objectives of the present study was the intention to replicate Spielberger and Denny's (1963) procedure with a different set of words, a different test of verbal ability, and a larger and different group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  14. Further consideration of Advanced Clinical Solutions Word Choice: comparison to the Recognition Memory Test-words and classification accuracy in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jeremy J

    2014-01-01

    Word Choice (WC), a test in the Advanced Clinical Solutions package for Wechsler measures, was examined in two studies. The first study compared WC to the Recognition Memory Test-Words (RMT-W) in a clinical sample (N = 46). WC scores were significantly higher than RMT-W scores overall and in sample subsets grouped by separate validity indicators. In item-level analyses, WC items demonstrated lower frequency, greater imageability, and higher concreteness than RMT-W items. The second study explored WC classification accuracy in a different clinical sample grouped by separate validity indicators into Pass (n = 54), Fail-1 (n = 17), and Fail-2 (n = 8) groups. WC scores were significantly higher in the Pass group (M = 49.1, SD = 1.9) than in the Fail-1 (M = 46.0, SD = 5.3) and Fail-2 (M = 44.1, SD = 4.8) groups. WC demonstrated area under the curve of .81 in classifying Pass and Fail-2 participants. Using the test manual cutoff associated with a 10% false positive rate, sensitivity was 38% and specificity was 96% in Pass and Fail-2 groups with 24% of Fail-1 participants scoring below cutoff. WC may be optimally used in combination with other measures given observed sensitivity. PMID:25372961

  15. Developmental changes in word recognition threshold from two to five years of age in children with different middle ear status.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amanda J; Munro, Kevin J; Heron, Jon

    2007-07-01

    The aims were to: (1) provide word recognition thresholds (WRTs) at 31, 43, and 61 months of age; (2) investigate developmental changes over time; (3) investigate the relationship between OME and WRT, and (4) investigate the relationship between WRT and hearing thresholds. Around 1000 children were tested longitudinally as part of the ALSPAC study, using an adaptive measure of word recognition in quiet. Mean WRTs were 28, 23, and 23 dB (A) at 31, 43, and 61 months, respectively. Normal auditory development is associated with a mean improvement in WRT of 5 dB between age 31 and 61 months. There was a mean increase in WRT of +5 dB and +15 dB when OME was present in one and two ears, respectively. Thus, both unilateral and bilateral OME results in a detrimental effect on hearing ability for speech. Additionally, early and 'persistent' OME is associated with greater disability. However by 61 months, previous OME status was not significant. To our knowledge, this is the largest longitudinal study reporting WRT in preschool children with different middle ear status. PMID:17680467

  16. Effective connectivity of brain regions related to visual word recognition: An fMRI study of Chinese reading.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Fox, Peter T; Tan, Li Hai

    2015-07-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have focused on identifying specialized functional brain systems for processing different components of reading, such as orthography, phonology, and semantics. More recently, a few experiments have been performed to look into the integration and interaction of distributed neural systems for visual word recognition, suggesting that lexical processing in alphabetic languages involves both ventral and dorsal neural pathways originating from the visual cortex. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we tested the multiple pathways model with Chinese character stimuli and examined how the neural systems interacted in reading Chinese. Using dynamic causal modeling, we demonstrated that visual word recognition in Chinese engages the ventral pathway from the visual cortex to the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, but not the dorsal pathway from the visual cortex to the left parietal region. The ventral pathway, however, is linked to the superior parietal lobule and the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) so that a dynamic neural network is formed, with information flowing from the visual cortex to the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex to the parietal lobule and then to the left MFG. The findings suggest that cortical dynamics is constrained by the differences in how visual orthographic symbols in writing systems are linked to spoken language. PMID:25788100

  17. Physical Feature Encoding and Word Recognition Abilities Are Altered in Children with Intractable Epilepsy: Preliminary Neuromagnetic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Pardos, Maria; Korostenskaja, Milena; Xiang, Jing; Fujiwara, Hisako; Lee, Ki H; Horn, Paul S; Byars, Anna; Vannest, Jennifer; Wang, Yingying; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F

    2015-01-01

    Objective evaluation of language function is critical for children with intractable epilepsy under consideration for epilepsy surgery. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate word recognition in children with intractable epilepsy by using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Ten children with intractable epilepsy (M/F 6/4, mean ± SD 13.4 ± 2.2 years) were matched on age and sex to healthy controls. Common nouns were presented simultaneously from visual and auditory sensory inputs in "match" and "mismatch" conditions. Neuromagnetic responses M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 with latencies of ~100 ms, ~150 ms, ~250 ms, ~350 ms, and ~450 ms, respectively, elicited during the "match" condition were identified. Compared to healthy children, epilepsy patients had both significantly delayed latency of the M1 and reduced amplitudes of M3 and M5 responses. These results provide neurophysiologic evidence of altered word recognition in children with intractable epilepsy. PMID:26146459

  18. Physical Feature Encoding and Word Recognition Abilities Are Altered in Children with Intractable Epilepsy: Preliminary Neuromagnetic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pardos, Maria; Korostenskaja, Milena; Xiang, Jing; Fujiwara, Hisako; Lee, Ki H.; Horn, Paul S.; Byars, Anna; Vannest, Jennifer; Wang, Yingying; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective evaluation of language function is critical for children with intractable epilepsy under consideration for epilepsy surgery. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate word recognition in children with intractable epilepsy by using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Ten children with intractable epilepsy (M/F 6/4, mean ± SD 13.4 ± 2.2 years) were matched on age and sex to healthy controls. Common nouns were presented simultaneously from visual and auditory sensory inputs in “match” and “mismatch” conditions. Neuromagnetic responses M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 with latencies of ~100 ms, ~150 ms, ~250 ms, ~350 ms, and ~450 ms, respectively, elicited during the “match” condition were identified. Compared to healthy children, epilepsy patients had both significantly delayed latency of the M1 and reduced amplitudes of M3 and M5 responses. These results provide neurophysiologic evidence of altered word recognition in children with intractable epilepsy. PMID:26146459

  19. Structural basis of diverse membrane target recognitions by ankyrins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Wei, Zhiyi; Chen, Keyu; Ye, Fei; Yu, Cong; Bennett, Vann; Zhang, Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    Ankyrin adaptors together with their spectrin partners coordinate diverse ion channels and cell adhesion molecules within plasma membrane domains and thereby promote physiological activities including fast signaling in the heart and nervous system. Ankyrins specifically bind to numerous membrane targets through their 24 ankyrin repeats (ANK repeats), although the mechanism for the facile and independent evolution of these interactions has not been resolved. Here we report the structures of ANK repeats in complex with an inhibitory segment from the C-terminal regulatory domain and with a sodium channel Nav1.2 peptide, respectively, showing that the extended, extremely conserved inner groove spanning the entire ANK repeat solenoid contains multiple target binding sites capable of accommodating target proteins with very diverse sequences via combinatorial usage of these sites. These structures establish a framework for understanding the evolution of ankyrins' membrane targets, with implications for other proteins containing extended ANK repeat domains. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04353.001 PMID:25383926

  20. On the limits of target recognition in the presence of atmospheric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohan; Schmid, Natalia A.

    2008-04-01

    The importance of Networked Automatic Target Recognition systems for surveillance applications is continuously increasing. Because of the requirement of a low cost and limited payload these networks are traditionally equipped with lightweight, low-cost sensors such as Electro Optical or Infrared sensors. The quality of imagery acquired by these sensors critically depends on the environmental conditions, type and characteristics of sensors, and absence of occluding or concealing objects. In the past a large number of efficient detection, tracking, and recognition algorithms have been designed to operate on imagery of good quality. However, detection and recognition limits under non-ideal environmental and/or sensor based distortions have not been carefully evaluated. This work describes a real image dataset formed by imaging 10 die cast models of military vehicles at different elevation and orientation angles. The dataset contains imagery acquired both indoors and outdoors. The indoors dataset is composed of clear and distorted images. The distortions include defocus blur, sided illumination, low contrast, shadows and occlusions. All images in this dataset, however, have a uniform blue background. The indoors dataset is applied to evaluate the degradations of recognition performance due to camera and illumination effects. The recognition method is based on Bessel K forms. The dataset collected outdoors includes real background and is much more complex to process. This dataset is used to evaluate performance of a fully automatic target recognition system that involves a Haar-based detector to select potential regions of interest within images; performs adjustment and fusion of detected regions; segments potential targets using a region based approach; identifies targets using Bessel K form-based encoding; and performs clutter rejection. The numerical results demonstrate that the complexity of the background and the presence of occlusions lead to substantial detection