Science.gov

Sample records for targeted gadolinium-loaded chitosan

  1. In vitro study of novel gadolinium-loaded liposomes guided by GBI-10 aptamer for promising tumor targeting and tumor diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Meng-Jie; Li, Kun-Feng; Zhang, Lan-Xin; Wang, Huan; Liu, Li-Si; Zheng, Zhuo-Zhao; Han, Nan-Yin; Yang, Zhen-Jun; Fan, Tian-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Novel gadolinium-loaded liposomes guided by GBI-10 aptamer were developed and evaluated in vitro to enhance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis of tumor. Nontargeted gadolinium-loaded liposomes were achieved by incorporating amphipathic material, Gd (III) [N,N-bis-stearylamidomethyl-N?-amidomethyl] diethylenetriamine tetraacetic acid, into the liposome membrane using lipid film hydration method. GBI-10, as the targeting ligand, was then conjugated onto the liposome surface to get GBI-10-targeted gadolinium-loaded liposomes (GTLs). Both nontargeted gadolinium-loaded liposomes and GTLs displayed good dispersion stability, optimal size, and zeta potential for tumor targeting, as well as favorable imaging properties with enhanced relaxivity compared with a commercial MRI contrast agent (CA), gadopentetate dimeglumine. The use of GBI-10 aptamer in this liposomal system was intended to result in increased accumulation of gadolinium at the periphery of C6 glioma cells, where the targeting extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C is overexpressed. Increased cellular binding of GTLs to C6 cells was confirmed by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and MRI, demonstrating the promise of this novel delivery system as a carrier of MRI contrast agent for the diagnosis of tumor. These studies provide a new strategy furthering the development of nanomedicine for both diagnosis and therapy of tumor. PMID:26316749

  2. Synthesis of raloxifene-chitosan conjugate: A novel chitosan derivative as a potential targeting vehicle.

    PubMed

    Samadi, Fatemeh Yazdi; Mohammadi, Zohreh; Yousefi, Maryam; Majdejabbari, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan is a biocompatible, non-toxic and biodegradable biopolymer. Due to the presence of functional groups on its surface, it can be modified and used as a carrier in targeted drug/gene delivery systems. In this study, raloxifene (a selective estrogen receptor ligand) was conjugated to chitosan using different methods. The conjugates were investigated by means of FTIR, TGA and physical properties assessments. Cell viability was evaluated by XTT assay. FTIR and TGA results confirmed that the conjugation between chitosan and raloxifene occurred more efficiently when trimethyl chitosan in the presence of triethylamine and excess amount of linker was used. XTT assay on MCF-7 cell line illustrated that more than 80% of cells were viable after 24h exposure to selected molecules. These findings confirm that the conjugation of raloxifene-chitosan can occur successfully using special synthesis condition and this novel chitosan derivative can be introduced as a potential drug/gene targeting agent. PMID:26552018

  3. Advances in the targeting molecules modified chitosan-based nanoformulations.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongliang; Cai, Xiaoqing; Zhai, Guangxi

    2013-08-01

    Chitosan, a cationic polysaccharide, has prompted the continuous impetus for the development of safe and effective drug delivery systems due to its unique properties such as mucoadhesive feature, absorption enhancement and active functional groups for chemical modifications. By using chitosan-based nanoformulations, many studies have attempted to improve the dispersion of loaded hydrophobic drugs in aqueous environment, protect the encapsulated proteins and genes against enzymatic degradation, and increase their absorption by target tissues. It's noteworthy that the derivatization of chitosan-based carriers with a ligand leads to the selective targeting of the nanoformulations to selected cells, thereby facilitating far more sensitive internalization and localization of nanoformulations for diseases' diagnosis and treatment. As such, this review focuses on some of the most poignant reports of the utility of targeting molecules such as carbohydrates, antibodies, peptides and some small molecules in chitosan-based nanoformulations for targeted delivery. Additionally, the affinity mechanism of different targeting molecules and the pros and cons of their conjugation strategies will be illustrated summarily. PMID:23469876

  4. A dual-functionally modified chitosan derivative for efficient liver-targeted gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Qiu, Zhiye; Ma, Jun; Zhou, Lei; Wan, Ying; Zhang, Shengmin

    2013-07-01

    Galactosylated chitosan-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium (gal-HTCC) was synthesized by galactosylating and quaternizing chitosan to endue chitosan with targeting specificity for potential applications as gene vectors. The composition and physicochemical properties of gal-HTCC were characterized by FT-IR, (1) H NMR, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, and turbidity measurement. It was found that water-soluble gal-HTCC showed a more amorphous structure than chitosan, and it also had a much better plasmid condensation capability than galactosylated chitosan. Cytotoxicity measurements revealed that gal-HTCC showed significantly lower cytotoxicity in HepG2 and HeLa cell lines compared to branched polyethylenimine (bPEI, 25 kDa) which was used as a positive control. The nanoparticles (NPs) consisted of gal-HTCC and plasmid DNA had desirable particle size (around 250 nm) with a narrow size distribution. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed that NPs could be internalized and transported to the nucleus efficiently within 6 h. In vitro gene transfection results indicated that gal-HTCC had significantly higher transfection efficiency (7- to 32-fold) compared to chitosan and gal-chitosan for targetable delivery of pGL3 luciferase plasmid to HepG2, and its transfection efficiency was highly inhibited in the presence of galactose (20 mM). All these results suggest that gal-HTCC can function as a promising nonviral gene vector for efficient liver-targeted gene delivery. PMID:23203540

  5. Targeting silymarin for improved hepatoprotective activity through chitosan nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swati; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Girotra, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Silymarin is one of the best known hepatoprotective drugs, which is obtained from the seeds of Silybum marianum L., Family: Asteraceae or Compositae. The plant has traditionally been used for centuries as a natural remedy for liver and biliary tract diseases. The aim of the present investigation was to enhance the hepatoprotective activity of silymarin by incorporating it in chitosan (Ch) nanoparticles (NPs) for passive targeted delivery, thereby prolonging its retention time. Materials and Methods: Silymarin loaded NPs were prepared by ionic gelation technique, which were then optimized using a central composite design in order to minimize the particle size and maximize the drug entrapment efficiency. The optimized formulation was evaluated for in vitro drug release study and in vitro study on Swiss Albino mice using carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced hepatotoxicity model. Results: In vitro dissolution studies illustrated sustained, zero order drug release from optimized formulation; also its therapeutic potential was amplified during in vitro studies on Swiss Albino mice using CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity model. Conclusion: The results suggested that NPs of silymarin could successfully enhance its hepatoprotective effect by passive targeting and sustained release. PMID:25426436

  6. Design of biocompatible chitosan microgels for targeted pH-mediated intracellular release of cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Mardyani, Sawitri; Chan, Warren C W; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2006-05-01

    We report the rational design of a chitosan-based drug delivery system. The chitosan derivative N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl]chitosan chloride (HTCC) was ionically cross-linked by sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) to form sub-200-nm microgels that are responsive to pH changes. When these microgels were loaded with methotrexate disodium (MTX), a cytotoxic drug for cancer treatment, and conjugated to the targeting biomolecule apo-transferrin, a protein known to enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, enhanced killing of immortalized HeLa cells was observed. In this intracellular delivery method, the microgel was exposed to low-pH environments that caused the chitosan to swell and release the drug. This rational drug delivery design may be useful in enhancing cancer therapy and reducing side effects. PMID:16677040

  7. Chitosan-DNA nanoparticles delivered by intrabiliary infusion enhance liver-targeted gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hui; Jiang, Xuan; Tan, Geoffrey CY; Chen, Yong; Torbenson, Michael; Leong, Kam W; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the efficacy of liver-targeted gene delivery by chitosan-DNA nanoparticles through retrograde intrabiliary infusion (RII). The transfection efficiency of chitosan-DNA nanoparticles, as compared with PEI-DNA nanoparticles or naked DNA, was evaluated in Wistar rats by infusion into the common bile duct, portal vein, or tail vein. Chitosan-DNA nanoparticles administrated through the portal vein or tail vein did not produce detectable luciferase expression. In contrast, rats that received chitosan-DNA nanoparticles showed more than 500 times higher luciferase expression in the liver 3 days after RII; and transgene expression levels decreased gradually over 14 days. Luciferase expression in the kidney, lung, spleen, and heart was negligible compared with that in the liver. RII of chitosan-DNA nanoparticles did not yield significant toxicity and damage to the liver and biliary tree as evidenced by liver function analysis and histopathological examination. Luciferase expression by RII of PEI-DNA nanoparticles was 17-fold lower than that of chitosan-DNA nanoparticles on day 3, but it increased slightly over time. These results suggest that RII is a promising routine to achieve liver-targeted gene delivery by non-viral nanoparticles; and both gene carrier characteristics and mode of administration significantly influence gene delivery efficiency. PMID:17369870

  8. Target gene delivery from targeting ligand conjugated chitosan-PEI copolymer for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joung-Pyo; Nah, Jae-Woon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we designed a novel carrier which was having low cytotoxicity, site-specific target function, and high transfection efficiency using low molecular weight water soluble O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMCh), branched low molecular weight poly(ethyleneimine) (bPEI), and targeting ligand (epitope type, HER-2/neu). OCMCh/bPEI/targeting ligand, HPOCP copolymer, and targeting ligand-modified polyamphoteric polymer, and were prepared by chemical reaction and characterized by (1)H NMR and FT-IR. The binding affinity, protecting efficiency, and releasing ability of gene/HPOCP polyplex were confirmed by gel retardation assay. The pDNA(pEGFP)/HPOCP polyplexes showed high gene transfection efficiency in HCT 119 cell. In addition, siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes formed spherical shape and have particle sizes from 100 to 300nm. The siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes have lower cytotoxicity than PEI in the all of siRNA concentrations ranging from 0 to 2?g/?L in HEK 293 cells. The cell viability of siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes was performed in SK-Br3 cells with VEGF siRNA or BCL2 siRNA. In addition, confocal laser-scanning microscopy and flow cytometry assay were performed for cellular localization and cellular uptake efficiency of siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes. The results of the present study demonstrate that HPOCP copolymer is a good candidate as gene delivery carriers for gene delivery system or gene therapy. PMID:26453863

  9. Dual responsive PNIPAM-chitosan targeted magnetic nanopolymers for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadavalli, Tejabhiram; Ramasamy, Shivaraman; Chandrasekaran, Gopalakrishnan; Michael, Isaac; Therese, Helen Annal; Chennakesavulu, Ramasamy

    2015-04-01

    A dual stimuli sensitive magnetic hyperthermia based drug delivery system has been developed for targeted cancer treatment. Thermosensitive amine terminated poly-N-isopropylacrylamide complexed with pH sensitive chitosan nanoparticles was prepared as the drug carrier. Folic acid and fluorescein were tagged to the nanopolymer complex via N-hydroxysuccinimide and ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide reaction to form a fluorescent and cancer targeting magnetic carrier system. The formation of the polymer complex was confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Gadolinium doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles prepared by a hydrothermal method were encapsulated in the polymer complex to form a magnetic drug carrier system. The proton relaxation studies on the magnetic carrier system revealed a 200% increase in the T1 proton relaxation rate. These magnetic carriers were loaded with curcumin using solvent evaporation method with a drug loading efficiency of 86%. Drug loaded nanoparticles were tested for their targeting and anticancer properties on four cancer cell lines with the help of MTT assay. The results indicated apoptosis of cancer cell lines within 3 h of incubation.

  10. Bioengineered quantum dot/chitosan-tripeptide nanoconjugates for targeting the receptors of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Alexandra A P; de Carvalho, Sandhra M; Mansur, Herman S

    2016-01-01

    Nanobiomaterials can be engineered to recognize cancer-specific receptors at the cellular level for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this work, we report the synthesis of novel multifunctional nanoconjugates composed of fluorescent inorganic semiconductor quantum dot (QD) cores and tripeptide-modified polysaccharide organic shells. These structures were designed for targeting and imaging the ?v?3 integrin receptors of cancer cells. Initially, chitosan was covalently bound with the RGD peptide using a crosslinker to form bioconjugates (RGD-chitosan), which were later utilized as capping ligands for the production of surface-functionalized CdS QDs via a single-step process in aqueous media at room temperature. These core-shell nanostructures were extensively characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential (ZP) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The TEM images and the UV-vis absorption results indicated the formation of ultra-small CdS QD nanocrystals with average diameters between 2.0 and 3.0nm. In addition, the PL results demonstrated that the nanobioconjugates exhibited intense green fluorescence under excitation. The CdS-RGD-chitosan systems were effective at specific targeting integrin when assayed in vitro using two model cell cultures, HEK 293 (non-cancerous human embryonic kidney cell) and SAOS (cancerous sarcoma osteogenic-derived cells) imaged using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:26499085

  11. Development of (153) Sm-folate-polyethyleneimine-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles for targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Mollarazi, Esmail; Jalilian, Amir R; Johari-Daha, Fariba; Atyabi, Fatemeh

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this study was to develop biocompatible, water-soluble (153) Sm-labeled chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) containing folate and polyethyleneimine functionalities i.e. chitosan-graft-PEI-folate (CHI-DTPA-g-PEI-FA), suitable for targeted therapy. The physicochemical properties of the obtained NPs were characterized by dynamic light-scattering analysis for their mean size, size distribution, and zeta potential; scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology; and (1) H-NMR, FT-IR analyses for molecular dispersity of folate in the NPs. NPs were spherical with mean diameter below 250?nm, polydispersity of below 0.15, and positive zeta potential values. The NP complex ((153) Sm-CHI-DTPA-g-PEI-FA) was stable at 25?°C (6-8?h, >90% radiochemical purity, instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC)). Binding studies using fluorescent NPs for internalization also demonstrated significant uptake in MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cell internalization was significantly greater for 4T1. In blocking studies, both MCF-7 and 4T1 cell lines demonstrated specific folate receptor (FR) binding (decreasing 45%). In vivo biodistribution studies indicated major excretion of NPs metabolites and/or free (153) Sm through the kidneys. The preliminary imaging studies in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice showed minor uptake up to 96?h. The present folic acid that functionalized chitosan NP is a candidate material for folate receptor therapy. PMID:26036233

  12. Chitosan-based macrophage-mediated drug targeting for the treatment of experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kunjachan, Sijumon; Gupta, Swati; Dwivedi, Anil K; Dube, Anuradha; Chourasia, Manish K

    2011-01-01

    The potential of chitosan microparticles as a carrier of doxorubicin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis was evaluated by macrophage-mediated drug targeting approach. Cationic charge of doxorubicin was masked by complexing it with dextran sulphate (a poly anion) in order to facilitate its incorporation into cationic chitosan microparticles. Prior to in vitro and in vivo studies, characterization studies were carried out systematically: particle size (?1.049?µm), surface morphology (fluorescence microscopy - spherical structured microparticles), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (to characterize effective cross-linking) and differential scanning calorimetry. In vitro studies were carried out in J774.1 in order to check the effective endocytotic uptake of microparticles by macrophages. In vivo studies were conducted in Syrian golden hamsters as per well-established protocols and the results drawn from in vivo studies displayed substantial reduction in leishmanial parasite load for doxorubicin-encapsulated chitosan microparticles: ?78.2?±?10.4%, when compared to the control (free doxorubicin): 33.3?±?2.4%. PMID:21545321

  13. Chitosan nanoparticles for targeting and sustaining minoxidil sulphate delivery to hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Matos, Breno Noronha; Reis, Thaiene Avila; Gratieri, Taís; Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins

    2015-04-01

    This work developed minoxidil sulphate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (MXS-NP) for targeted delivery to hair follicles, which could sustain drug release and improve the topical treatment of alopecia. Chitosan nanoparticles were obtained using low-molecular weight chitosan and tripolyphosphate as crosslink agent. MXS-NP presented a monomodal distribution with hydrodynamic diameter of 235.5 ± 99.9 nm (PDI of 0.31 ± 0.01) and positive zeta potential (+38.6 ± 6.0 mV). SEM analysis confirmed nanoparticles average size and spherical shape. A drug loading efficiency of 73.0 ± 0.3% was obtained with polymer:drug ratio of 1:1 (w/w). Drug release through cellulose acetate membranes from MXS-NP was sustained in about 5 times in comparison to the diffusion rate of MXS from the solution (188.9 ± 6.0 ?g/cm(2)/h and 35.4 ± 1.8 ?g/cm(2)/h). Drug permeation studies through the skin in vitro, followed by selective recovery of MXS from the hair follicles, showed that MXS-NP application resulted in a two-fold MXS increase into hair follicles after 6h in comparison to the control solution (5.9 ± 0.6 ?g/cm(2) and 2.9 ± 0.8 ?g/cm(2)). MXS-loading in nanoparticles appears as a promising and easy strategy to target and sustain drug delivery to hair follicles, which may improve the topical treatment of alopecia. PMID:25647618

  14. Glucose-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and their specific interaction with tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Ma, Fang-Kui; Dang, Qi-Feng; Liang, Xing-Guo; Chen, Xi-Guang

    2014-12-01

    A novel targeted drug delivery system, glucose-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (GCNPs), was developed for specific recognition and interaction with glucose transporters (Gluts) over-expressed by tumor cells. GC was synthesized by using succinic acid as a linker between glucosamine and chitosan (CS), and successful synthesis was confirmed by NMR and elemental analysis. GCNPs were prepared by ionic crosslinking method, and characterized in terms of morphology, size, and zeta potential. The optimally prepared nanoparticles showed spherical shapes with an average particle size of (187.9 ± 3.8) nm and a zeta potential of (- 15.43 ± 0.31) mV. The GCNPs showed negligible cytotoxicity to mouse embryo fibroblast and 4T1 cells. Doxorubicin (DOX) could be efficiently entrapped into GCNPs, with a loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of 20.11% and 64.81%, respectively. DOX-loaded nanoparticles exhibited sustained-release behavior in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4). In vitro cellular uptake studies showed that the GCNPs had better endocytosis ability than CSNPs, and the antitumor activity of DOX/GCNPs was 4-5 times effectiveness in 4T1 cell killing than that of DOX/CSNPs. All the results demonstrate that nanoparticles decorated with glucose have specific interactions with cancer cells via the recognition between glucose and Gluts. Therefore, Gluts-targeted GCNPs may be promising delivery agents in cancer therapies.

  15. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of chitosan-alginate nanoparticles: a targeted therapy for cutaneous pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Adam J; Phan, Jenny; Schairer, David; Champer, Jackson; Qin, Min; Pirouz, Aslan; Blecher, Karin; Oren, Ami; Liu, Phil; Modlin, Robert L; Kim, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have demonstrated potential application of nanoparticles for effective and targeted drug delivery. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial and immunological properties and the feasibility of using nanoparticles to deliver antimicrobial agents to treat a cutaneous pathogen. Nanoparticles synthesized with chitosan and alginate demonstrated a direct antimicrobial activity in vitro against Propionibacterium acnes, the bacterium linked to the pathogenesis of acne. By electron microscopy imaging, chitosan-alginate nanoparticles were found to induce disruption of the P. acnes cell membrane, providing a mechanism for the bactericidal effect. The chitosan-alginate nanoparticles also exhibited anti-inflammatory properties as they inhibited P. acnes induced inflammatory cytokine production in human monocytes and keratinocytes. Furthermore, benzoyl peroxide, a commonly used anti-acne drug, was effectively encapsulated in the chitosan-alginate nanoparticles and demonstrated superior antimicrobial activity against P. acnes compared to benzoyl peroxide alone while demonstrating less toxicity to eukaryotic cells. Together, these data suggest the potential utility of topical delivery of chitosan-alginate nanoparticle encapsulated drug therapy for the treatment of dermatologic conditions with infectious and inflammatory components. PMID:23190896

  16. Characteristics of a Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) Extracellular Protein Targeting Chitin and Chitosan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Akihiro; Miyashita, Kiyotaka; Biukovi?, Goran; Schrempf, Hildgund

    2001-01-01

    Upstream of the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) chitinase G gene, a small gene (named chb3) is located whose deduced product shares 37% identical amino acids with the previously described CHB1 protein from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis. The chb3 gene and its upstream region were cloned in a multicopy vector and transformed into the plasmid-free Streptomyces lividans TK21 strain. The CHB3 protein (14.9 kDa) was secreted by the S. lividans TK21 transformant during growth in the presence of glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, yeast extract, and chitin. The protein was purified to homogeneity using anionic exchange, hydrophobic interaction chromatographies, and gel filtration. In contrast to CHB1, CHB3 targets ?-chitin, ?-chitin, and chitosan at pH 6.0 but does so relatively loosely. The ecological implications of the divergence of substrate specificity of various types of chitin-binding proteins are described. PMID:11229920

  17. Biodegradable Chitosan Magnetic Nanoparticle Carriers for Sub-Cellular Targeting Delivery of Artesunate for Efficient Treatment of Breast Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Natesan; Abimanyu, Sugumaran; Vinoth, Jeevanesan; Sekar, Ponnusamy Chandra

    2010-12-01

    Artesunate is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, the active principle extracted from Artemisia annua. It possesses good anti-proliferative activity and anti-angiogenic activity with very low toxicity to normal healthy cells. The drawback of most cancer drugs is their inability to accumulate selectively in the cancerous cells. So, large quantities of doses have to be administered to get the required therapeutic concentration in the target site and it resulted in many serious side effects due to the exposure of healthy cells to higher concentrations of cytotoxic drugs. The problem may be solved by selectively and quantitatively accumulating the drug at target site using magnetic nanoparticles guided by an externally applied magnetic field. A modest attempt has been made in this present study, the artesunate magnetic nanoparticle was successfully formulated using two forms of chitosan and evaluated for its in-vitro characteristics like surface morphology, particle size and distribution, zeta potential, magnetic susceptibility, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and in-vitro drug release. The synthesized magnetite size was 73 nm and the size of developed magnetic nanoparticles of artesunate was in the range of 90 to 575 nm. Acetic acid soluble chitosan at low concentration exhibit highest encapsulation efficiency and drug loading whereas increase in water soluble chitosan concentration increases the encapsulation efficiency and drug loading in formulations. The developed chitosan magnetic nanoparticles of artesunate shows better release characteristics and may be screened for its in-vivo breast cancer activity.

  18. Folatereceptor targeted, carboxymethyl chitosan functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles: a novel ultradispersed nanoconjugates for bimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipsikha; Das, Manasmita; Mishra, Debashis; Banerjee, Indranil; Sahu, Sumanta K.; Maiti, Tapas K.; Pramanik, Panchanan

    2011-04-01

    This article delineates the design and synthesis of a novel, bio-functionalized, magneto-fluorescent multifunctional nanoparticles suitable for cancer-specific targeting, detection and imaging. Biocompatible, hydrophilic, magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles with surface-pendant amine, carboxyl and aldehyde groups were designed using o-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMC). The free aminegroups of OCMC stabilized magnetite nanoparticles on the surface allow for the covalent attachment of a fluorescent dye such as rhodamine isothiocyanate (RITC) with the aim to develop a magneto-fluorescent nanoprobe for optical imaging. In order to impart specific cancer cell targeting properties, folic acid and its aminated derivative was conjugated onto these magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles using different pendant groups (-NH2, -COOH, -CHO). These newly synthesized iron-oxide folate nanoconjugates (FA-RITC-OCMC-SPIONs) showed excellent dispersibility, biocompatibility and good hydrodynamic sizes under physiological conditions which were extensively studied by a variety of complementary techniques. The cellular internalization efficacy of these folate-targeted and its non-targeted counterparts were studied using a folate-overexpressed (HeLa) and a normal (L929fibroblast) cells by fluorescence microscopy and magnetically activated cell sorting (MACS). Cell-uptake behaviors of nanoparticles clearly demonstrate that cancer cells over-expressing the human folatereceptor internalized a higher level of these nanoparticle-folate conjugates than normal cells. These folate targeted nanoparticles possess specific magnetic properties in the presence of an external magnetic field and the potential of these nanoconjugates as T2-weighted negative contrast MR imaging agent were evaluated in folate-overexpressed HeLa and normal L929fibroblastcells.

  19. Carboxymethyl chitosan-mediated synthesis of hyaluronic acid-targeted graphene oxide for cancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huihui; Bremner, David H; Tao, Lei; Li, Heyu; Hu, Juan; Zhu, Limin

    2016-01-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency and specificity of anticancer drug delivery and realize intelligently controlled release, a new drug carrier was developed. Graphene oxide (GO) was first modified with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC), followed by conjugation of hyaluronic acid (HA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI). The resulting GO-CMC-FI-HA conjugate was characterized and used as a carrier to encapsulate the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) to study in vitro release behavior. The drug loading capacity is as high as 95% and the drug release rate under tumor cell microenvironment of pH 5.8 is significantly higher than that under physiological conditions of pH 7.4. Cell uptake studies show that the GO-CMC-FI-HA/DOX complex can specifically target cancer cells, which are over-expressing CD44 receptors and effectively inhibit their growth. The above results suggest that the functionalized graphene-based material has potential applications for targeted delivery and controlled release of anticancer drugs. PMID:26453853

  20. Aptamer Recognition Induced Target-Bridged Strategy for Proteins Detection Based on Magnetic Chitosan and Silver/Chitosan Nanoparticles Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Jincan; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yuling

    2015-11-01

    Poor selectivity and biocompability remain problems in applying surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for direct detection of proteins due to similar spectra of most proteins and overlapping Raman bands in complex mixtures. To solve these problems, an aptamer recognition induced target-bridged strategy based on magnetic chitosan (MCS) and silver/chitosan nanoparticles (Ag@CS NPs) using SERS was developed for detection of protein benefiting from specific affinity of aptamers and biocompatibility of chitosan (CS). In this process, one aptamer (or antibody) modified MCS worked as capture probes through the affinity binding site of protein. The other aptamer modified Raman report molecules encapsulated Ag@CS NPs were used as SERS sensing probes based on the other binding site of protein. The sandwich complexes of aptamer (antibody)/protein/aptamer were separated easily with a magnet from biological samples, and the concentration of protein was indirectly reflected by the intensity variation of SERS signal of Raman report molecules. To explore the universality of the strategy, three different kinds of proteins including thrombin, platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF BB) and immunoglobulin E (lgE) were investigated. The major advantages of this aptamer recognition induced target-bridged strategy are convenient operation with a magnet, stable signal expressing resulting from preventing loss of report molecules with the help of CS shell, and the avoidance of slow diffusion-limited kinetics problems occurring on a solid substrate. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed strategy, the method was applied to detection of PDGF BB in clinical samples. The limit of detection (LOD) of PDGF BB was estimated to be 3.2 pg/mL. The results obtained from human serum of healthy persons and cancer patients using the proposed strategy showed good agreement with that of the ELISA method but with wider linear range, more convenient operation, and lower cost. The proposed strategy holds great potential in highly sensitive and selective analysis of target proteins in complex biological samples. PMID:26436541

  1. Brain-targeted delivery of protein using chitosan- and RVG peptide-conjugated, pluronic-based nano-carrier.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ja-Young; Choi, Won Il; Kim, Young Ha; Tae, Giyoong

    2013-01-01

    Brain-targeted delivery of drug or imaging agent is hard to achieve efficiently due to the infiltrative nature of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Moreover, delivery of therapeutic proteins to brain tissue is further limited by the size and physic-chemical properties of proteins. In this work, we developed a chitosan-conjugated Pluronic-based nano-carrier with a specific target peptide for the brain (rabies virus glycoprotein; RVG29) and applied for the protein delivery to the brain. The in-vivo brain accumulation of the nano-carrier in mice followed i.v injection was optically monitored with Cy5.5-conjugation to the nano-carrier, and the result showed that the Pluronic-based nano-carrier conjugated with both chitosan and the peptide was very efficient for the accumulation in brain tissue and was remarkably better than the nano-carrier conjugated with the peptide only. ?-galactosidase, a model protein, was also delivered and accumulated efficiently in the brain by loading in the nano-carrier, analyzed by the bio-distribution of ?-galactosidase. The delivered protein in the brain also maintained its bioactivity. Therefore, RVG29- and chitosan-conjugated Pluronic-based nano-carrier could be potentially useful for the diagnosis and therapy of brain diseases. PMID:23122677

  2. Enhanced stability of oral insulin in targeted peptide ligand trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles against trypsin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiexiu; Liu, Chong; Shan, Wei; Xiao, Zhijian; Guo, Han; Huang, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Oral insulin delivery is often limited by protease degradation. 2-(Dimethylamino)-2-oxoethyl 4-(4-guanidinobenzoyloxy)phenylacetate methanesulphonate (Camostat mesylate) is reported to have the ability to inhibit trypsin activity, which is the main protease responsible for protein degradation. This study attempted to form a novel nanoparticle by covalently conjugating 4-(2-(2-aminoethylamino)-2-oxoethyl)phenyl 4-guanidinobenzoyloxy (FOY-251), an active derivative of camostat mesylate, to the backbone of poly (?-glutamic acid) (?-PGA), in order to improve insulin stability against protease. Goblet cell targeting CSKSSDYQC (CSK) peptide was demonstrated to effectively improve the epithelial absorption of insulin. Therefore, the novel nanoparticle was prepared by mixing cationic peptide modified trimethyl chitosan (TMC-CSK) with anionic ?PGA-FOY conjugate using multi-ion crosslinked method. Results showed that not only the ?PGA-FOY conjugate but also the prepared novel nanoparticle could inhibit trypsin activity both in vitro environment and on the intestinal mucosal surface. This study would be beneficial for peptide modified nanoparticles in oral insulin delivery. PMID:26401551

  3. Chitosan Nanoparticles for Nuclear Targeting: The Effect of Nanoparticle Size and Nuclear Localization Sequence Density.

    PubMed

    Tammam, Salma N; Azzazy, Hassan Me; Breitinger, Hans G; Lamprecht, Alf

    2015-12-01

    Many recently discovered therapeutic proteins exert their main function in the nucleus, thus requiring both efficient uptake and correct intracellular targeting. Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted interest as protein delivery vehicles due to their biocompatibility and ability to escape the endosomes offering high potential for nuclear delivery. Molecular entry into the nucleus occurs through the nuclear pore complexes, the efficiency of which is dependent on NP size and the presence of nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Chitosan nanoparticles of different sizes (S-NPs ? 25 nm; L-NP ? 150 nm) were formulated, and they were modified with different densities of the octapeptide NLS CPKKKRKV (S-NPs, 0.25, 0.5, 2.0 NLS/nm(2); L-NPs, 0.6, 0.9, 2 NLS/nm(2)). Unmodified and NLS-tagged NPs were evaluated for their protein loading capacity, extent of cell association, cell uptake, cell surface binding, and finally nuclear delivery efficiency in L929 fibroblasts. To avoid errors generated with cell fractionation and nuclear isolation protocols, nuclear delivery was assessed in intact cells utilizing Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) fluorometry and microscopy. Although L-NPs showed ?10-fold increase in protein loading per NP when compared to S-NPs, due to higher cell association and uptake S-NPs showed superior protein delivery. NLS exerts a size and density dependent effect on nanoparticle uptake and surface binding, with a general reduction in NP cell surface binding and an increase in cell uptake with the increase in NLS density (up to 8.4-fold increase in uptake of High-NLS-L-NPs (2 NLS/nm(2)) compared to unmodified L-NPs). However, for nuclear delivery, unmodified S-NPs show higher nuclear localization rates when compared to NLS modified NPs (up to 5-fold by FRET microscopy). For L-NPs an intermediate NLS density (0.9 NLS/nm(2)) seems to provide highest nuclear localization (3.7-fold increase in nuclear delivery compared to High-NLS-L-NPs). Results indicate that a higher NLS density does not result in maximum protein nuclear localization and that a universal optimal density for NPs of different sizes does not exist. PMID:26465978

  4. Bufalin loaded biotinylated chitosan nanoparticles: an efficient drug delivery system for targeted chemotherapy against breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin; Yin, Hongzhuan; Zhang, Shichen; Luo, Ying; Xu, Kai; Ma, Ping; Sui, Chengguang; Meng, Fandong; Liu, Yunpeng; Jiang, Youhong; Fang, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Bufalin is a traditional oriental medicine which is known to induce apoptosis in many tumor cells, and it is thus considered as a new anticancer therapeutic. By now, most of the studies of bufalin are in vitro, however in vivo evaluations of its therapeutic efficacy are less and are in great demand for its development toward anticancer drug. One of the problems probably hampering the development of bufalin is the lack of tumor selectivity, which may reduce the therapeutic effect as well as showing side effects. To overcome this drawback, in this study, we designed a tumor-targeted drug delivery system of bufalin based on enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, by using biotinylated chitosan, resulting in bufalin encapsulating nanoparticles (Bu-BCS-NPs) with mean hydrodynamic size of 171.6 nm, as evidenced by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. Bu-BCS-NPs showed a relative slow and almost linear release of bufalin, and about 36.8% of bufalin was released in 24 h when dissolved in sodium phosphate buffer. Compared to native bufalin, Bu-BCS-NPs exhibited a stronger cytotoxicity against breast cancer MCF-7 cells (IC50 of 0.582 ?g/ml vs 1.896 ?g/ml of native bufalin). Similar results were also obtained in intracellular reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis induction, and decrease in mitochondria membrane potential. These results may contribute to the rapid intracellular uptake of nanoparticles, partly benefiting from the highly expressed biotin receptors in tumor cells. In vivo studies using MCF-7 tumor models in nude mice confirmed the remarkable therapeutic effect of Bu-BCS-NPs. These findings suggest the potential of Bu-BCS-NPs as an anticancer drug with tumor targeting property. PMID:24846793

  5. Nanoparticles of deoxycholic acid, polyethylene glycol and folic acid-modified chitosan for targeted delivery of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhonggen; Guo, Rui; Li, Weichang; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Wei; Tang, Yu; Zhang, Yuanming

    2014-03-01

    Chitosan (CS) was first modified hydrophobically with deoxycholic acid (DCA) and then with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to obtain a novel amphiphilic polymer (CS-DCA-PEG). This was covalently bound to folic acid (FA) to develop nanoparticles (CS-DCA-PEG-FA) with tumor cell targeting property. The structure of the conjugates was characterised using Fourier transform infrared and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Based on self-aggregation, the conjugates formed nanoparticles with a low critical aggregation concentration of 0.035 mg/ml. The anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was encapsulated into the nanoparticles with a drug-loading capacity of 30.2 wt%. The mean diameter of the DOX-loaded nanoparticles was about 200 nm, with a narrow size distribution. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the DOX-loaded nanoparticles were spherical. The drug release was studied under different conditions. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activities of DOX in CS-DCA-PEG-FA nanoparticles against folate receptor (FR)-positive HeLa cells and FR-negative fibroblast 3T3 cells were evaluated. These results suggested that the CS-DCA-PEG-FA nanoparticles may be a promising vehicle for the targeting anticancer drug to tumor cells. PMID:24327111

  6. Nasal chitosan microparticles target a zidovudine prodrug to brain HIV sanctuaries.

    PubMed

    Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Fogagnolo, Marco; Ferraro, Luca; Capuzzo, Antonio; Pavan, Barbara; Rassu, Giovanna; Salis, Andrea; Giunchedi, Paolo; Gavini, Elisabetta

    2015-11-01

    Zidovudine (AZT) is an antiretroviral drug that is a substrate of active efflux transporters (AETs) that extrude the drug from the central nervous system (CNS) and macrophages, which are considered to be sanctuaries of HIV. The conjugation of AZT to ursodeoxycholic acid is known to produce a prodrug (UDCA-AZT) that is able to elude the AET systems, indicating the potential ability of this prodrug to act as a carrier of AZT in the CNS and in macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that UDCA-AZT is able to permeate and remain in murine macrophages with an efficiency twenty times higher than that of AZT. Moreover, we propose the nasal administration of this prodrug in order to induce its uptake into the CNS. Chitosan chloride-based microparticles (CP) were prepared by spray-drying and were characterized with respect to size, morphology, density, water uptake and the dissolution profile of UDCA-AZT. The CP sample was then nasally administered to rats. All in vitro and in vivo measurements were also performed for a CP parent physical mixture. The CP sample was able to increase the dissolution rate of UDCA-AZT and to reduce water uptake with respect to its parent physical mixture, inducing better uptake of UDCA-AZT into the cerebrospinal fluid of rats, where the prodrug can act as an AZT carrier in macrophages. PMID:26427553

  7. Intranasal Piperine-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles as Brain-Targeted Therapy in Alzheimer's Disease: Optimization, Biological Efficacy, and Potential Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Elnaggar, Yosra S R; Etman, Samar M; Abdelmonsif, Doaa A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-10-01

    Piperine (PIP) is a phytopharmaceutical with reported neuroprotective potential in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oral PIP delivery suffers from its hydrophobicity and pre-systemic metabolism. In this article, mono-disperse intranasal chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) were elaborated for brain targeting of PIP. Formula optimization was based on particle size (PS), zeta potential (ZP), polydispersity index (PDI), % entrapment efficiency (% EE), release studies, and transmission electron microscopy. AD was induced in 48 male Wistar rats on which full behavioral and biochemical testing was conducted. Brain toxicity was assessed based on Caspase-3 assay for apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor for inflammation. Spherical NPs with optimum % EE (81.70), PS (248.50 nm), PDI (0.24), and ZP (+56.30 mV) were elaborated. PIP-NPs could significantly improve cognitive functions as efficient as standard drug (donpezil injection) with additional advantages of dual mechanism (Ach esterase inhibition and antioxidant effect). CS-NPs could significantly alleviate PIP nasal irritation and showed no brain toxicity. This work was the first to report additional mechanism of PIP in AD via anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory effects. To conclude, mucoadhesive CS-NPs were successfully tailored for effective, safe, and non-invasive PIP delivery with 20-folds decrease in oral dose, opening a gate for a future with lower AD morbidity. PMID:26147711

  8. Novel hydroxybutyl chitosan nanoparticles for siRNA delivery targeting tissue factor inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kang; Li, Jian; Li, Dan; Ge, Junhua; Wang, Yunlong; Li, Xuexun; Guo, Yongfang; Guo, Junjie; Leng, Min; Wang, Pan; An, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Chitosan, a polysaccharide isolated from shrimp and other crustacean shells, has been widely investigated for DNA and siRNA delivery. Despite substantial effort having been made to improve chitosan as a non?viral gene delivery vector, the application is severely limited by its poor solubility under physiological conditions. Hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBC), a modified chitosan, is soluble under neutral conditions. Tissue factor (TF) is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases by promoting thrombus formation and inducing the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Targeting TF is an attractive therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the use of HBC for the transfer of TF?siRNAs into human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (HUVSMCs) was investigated, and the effects of TF knockdown on cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined. HBC/siRNA nanoparticles were produced by mixing HBC and siRNA solutions with the assistance of tripolyphosphate buffer. The transfection efficiency with these nanoparticles was 74±2.5%, which was determined using a fluorescence?labeled siRNA under fluorescence microscopy. The delivery of HBC/TF?siRNA resulted in reductions in the production of cellular and soluble TF protein in HUVMSCs, which were measured using western blotting and enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. TF knockdown led to inhibited cell proliferation, as assessed using a Cell Counting Kit?8 assay, and increased cell apoptosis, determined using Annexin V?fluorescein isothiocyanate staining. These findings suggested that HBC may be a promising vector for siRNA delivery, and that in vivo HBC/siRNA nanoparticle delivery targeting TF may be a potential option for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which warrants further investigation. PMID:26497351

  9. Development and evaluation of thymoquinone-encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles for nose-to-brain targeting: a pharmacoscintigraphic study.

    PubMed

    Alam, Sanjar; Khan, Zeenat I; Mustafa, Gulam; Kumar, Manish; Islam, Fakhrul; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan (CS) nanoparticles of thymoquinone (TQ) were prepared by the ionic gelation method and are characterized on the basis of surface morphology, in vitro or ex vivo release, dynamic light scattering, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) studies. Dynamic laser light scattering and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the particle diameter was between 150 to 200 nm. The results showed that the particle size of the formulation was significantly affected by the drug:CS ratio, whereas it was least significantly affected by the tripolyphosphate:CS ratio. The entrapment efficiency and loading capacity of TQ was found to be 63.3% ± 3.5% and 31.23% ± 3.14%, respectively. The drug-entrapment efficiency and drug-loading capacity of the nanoparticles appears to be inversely proportional to the drug:CS ratio. An XRD study proves that TQ dispersed in the nanoparticles changes its form from crystalline to amorphous. This was further confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry thermography. The flat thermogram of the nanoparticle data indicated that TQ formed a molecular dispersion within the nanoparticles. Optimized nanoparticles were evaluated further with the help of scintigraphy imaging, which ascertains the uptake of drug into the brain. Based on maximum concentration, time-to-maximum concentration, area-under-curve over 24 hours, and elimination rate constant, intranasal TQ-loaded nanoparticles (TQ-NP1) proved more effective in brain targeting compared to intravenous and intranasal TQ solution. The high drug-targeting potential and efficiency demonstrates the significant role of the mucoadhesive properties of TQ-NP1. PMID:23180965

  10. Intracellular targeted co-delivery of shMDR1 and gefitinib with chitosan nanoparticles for overcoming multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiwei; Yang, Guang; Shi, Yijie; Su, Chang; Liu, Ming; Feng, Bo; Zhao, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, multidrug resistance and side effects of drugs limit the effectiveness of chemotherapies in clinics. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (MDR1), as a member of the ATP-binding cassette family, acts on transporting drugs into cell plasma across the membrane of cancer cells and leads to the occurrence of multidrug resistance, thus resulting in the failure of chemotherapy in cancer. The main aims of this research were to design a nanodelivery system for accomplishing the effective co-delivery of gene and antitumor drug and overcoming multidrug resistance effect. In this study, shMDR1 and gefitinib-encapsulating chitosan nanoparticles with sustained release, small particle size, and high encapsulation efficiency were prepared. The serum stability, protection from nuclease, and transfection efficiency of gene in vitro were investigated. The effects of co-delivery of shMDR1 and gefitinib in nanoparticles on reversing multidrug resistance were also evaluated by investigating the cytotoxicity, cellular uptake mechanism, and cell apoptosis on established gefitinib-resistant cells. The results demonstrated that chitosan nanoparticles entrapping gefitinib and shMDR1 had the potential to overcome the multidrug resistance and improve cancer treatment efficacy, especially toward resistant cells. PMID:26648717

  11. Chitosan based micro- and nanoparticles for colon-targeted delivery of vancomycin prepared by alternative processing methods.

    PubMed

    Cerchiara, T; Abruzzo, A; di Cagno, M; Bigucci, F; Bauer-Brandl, A; Parolin, C; Vitali, B; Gallucci, M C; Luppi, B

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare chitosan (CH) based particulate formulations for colon delivery of vancomycin (VM). Chitosan microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with VM were prepared using different CH/tripolyphosphate (TPP) molar ratios and different technological processes. In particular, nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation and freeze-drying to recover these particles, or, alternatively, by spray-drying method. Microparticles were prepared using a different spray-dryer. Micro- and nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size distributions by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), while encapsulation and drug loading efficiencies were studied using a dialysis method. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) was employed to determine the surface composition of the micro- and nanoparticles respectively, and the morphologies of the developed systems were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water uptake as well as drug release profiles were also measured. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive model strain, was evaluated. FT-IR results suggested an electrostatic interaction between VM and CH/TPP particles. Moreover, the particles were found to hold a positive zeta-potential, indicating the presence of CH on the particle surfaces. Particle size and encapsulation efficiency were mainly influenced by the different manufacturing processes employed. Nanoparticles obtained by spray-drying showed the best results in terms of water uptake and drug release rate. Moreover, they showed a good bactericidal activity against S. aureus. PMID:25769679

  12. Synthesis and formulation of methotrexate (MTX) conjugated LaF3:Tb(3+)/chitosan nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Mangaiyarkarasi, Rajendiran; Chinnathambi, Shanmugavel; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2015-02-01

    Chitosan functionalized luminescent rare earth doped terbium nanoparticles (LaF3:Tb(3+)/chi NPs) as a drug carrier for methotrexate (MTX) was designed using a simple chemical precipitation method. The synthesized chitosan functionalized nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape with an average diameter of 10-12nm. They are water soluble and biocompatible, in which the hydroxyl and amino functional groups on its surface are utilized for the bioconjugation of the anticancer drug, the methotrexate. The nature of MTX binding with LaF3:Tb(3+)/chi nanoparticles were examined using X-ray diffraction, zeta potential analyzer and transmission electron microscopy. The other interactions due to complex formation between MTX and LaF3:Tb(3+)/chi NPs were carried out by UV-Visible, steady and excited state fluorescence spectroscopy. The photo-physical characterization revealed that the adsorption and release of MTX from LaF3:Tb(3+)/chi NPs is faster than gold nanoparticles and also confirms that this may be due to weak interaction i.e. the Vander Waals force of attraction between the carboxyl and amino group of drug and nanoparticles. The maximum percentage yield and entrapment efficiency of 85.91±0.71 and 83.82± 0.14 were achieved at a stochiometric ratio of 4:5 of MTX and LaF3:Tb(3+)/chi nanoparticles respectively. In addition, antitumoral activity study reveals that MTX conjugated LaF3:Tb(3+)/chi nanoparticles show higher cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines than that of free MTX. PMID:25661354

  13. Targeted oral delivery of BmpB vaccine using porous PLGA microparticles coated with M cell homing peptide-coupled chitosan.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Singh, Bijay; Li, Hui-Shan; Kim, You-Kyoung; Kang, Sang-Kee; Nah, Jae-Woon; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2014-02-01

    M cells, the key players of the mucosal immunity induction, are one of the intestinal barriers for the efficient delivery of vaccines to mucosal immune tissues. To overcome the barrier, we have developed an efficient oral vaccine carrier that constitutes poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticle coated with M cell targeting peptide. In this study, a membrane protein B of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (BmpB) as a model vaccine against swine dysentery was loaded into porous PLGA microparticles (MPs). The PLGA MPs were further coated with the water-soluble chitosan (WSC) conjugated with M cell homing peptide (CKS9) to prepare BmpB-CKS9-WSC-PLGA MPs. Oral immunization of BmpB vaccine with CKS9-WSC-PLGA MPs in mice showed elevated secretory IgA responses in the mucosal tissues and systemic IgG antibody responses, providing a complete immune response. Specifically, the immunization with these MPs demonstrated to induce both Th1- and Th2-type responses based on elevated IgG1 and IgG2a titers. The elevated immune responses were attributed to the enhanced M cell targeting and transcytosis ability of CKS9-WSC-PLGA MPs to Peyer's patch regions. The high binding affinity of CKS9-WSC-PLGA MPs with the M cells to enter into the Peyer's patch regions of mouse small intestine was investigated by closed ileal loop assay and it was further confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. These results suggest that the M cell targeting approach used in this study is a promising tool for targeted oral vaccine delivery. PMID:24342722

  14. M cell-targeting strategy facilitates mucosal immune response and enhances protection against CVB3-induced viral myocarditis elicited by chitosan-DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ting; Yue, Yan; Fan, Xiangmei; Dong, Chunsheng; Xu, Wei; Xiong, Sidong

    2014-07-31

    Efficient delivery of antigen to mucosal associated lymphoid tissue is a first and critical step for successful induction of mucosal immunity by vaccines. Considering its potential transcytotic capability, M cell has become a more and more attractive target for mucosal vaccines. In this research, we designed an M cell-targeting strategy by which mucosal delivery system chitosan (CS) was endowed with M cell-targeting ability via conjugating with a CPE30 peptide, C terminal 30 amino acids of clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), and then evaluated its immune-enhancing ability in the context of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-specific mucosal vaccine consisting of CS and a plasmid encoding CVB3 predominant antigen VP1. It had shown that similar to CS-pVP1, M cell-targeting CPE30-CS-pVP1 vaccine appeared a uniform spherical shape with about 300 nm diameter and +22 mV zeta potential, and could efficiently protect DNA from DNase I digestion. Mice were orally immunized with 4 doses of CPE30-CS-pVP1 containing 50 ?g pVP1 at 2-week intervals and challenged with CVB3 4 weeks after the last immunization. Compared with CS-pVP1 vaccine, CPE30-CS-pVP1 vaccine had no obvious impact on CVB3-specific serum IgG level and splenic T cell immune responses, but significantly increased specific fecal SIgA level and augmented mucosal T cell immune responses. Consequently, much milder myocarditis and lower viral load were witnessed in CPE30-CS-pVP1 immunized group. The enhanced immunogenicity and immunoprotection were associated with the M cell-targeting ability of CPE30-CS-pVP1 which improved its mucosal uptake and transcytosis. Our findings indicated that CPE30-CS-pVP1 may represent a novel prophylactic vaccine against CVB3-induced myocarditis, and this M cell-targeting strategy indeed could be applied as a promising and universal platform for mucosal vaccine development. PMID:24958702

  15. Development and Mass Production of a Mixture of LAB- and DIN-based Gadolinium-loaded Liquid Scintillator for the NEOS Short-baseline Neutrino Experiment

    E-print Network

    Ba Ro Kim; Boyoung Han; Eun-ju Jeon; Kyung Kwang Joo; H. J. Kim; Hyunsoo Kim; Jinyu Kim; Yeongduk Kim; Youngju Ko; Jaison Lee; Jooyoung Lee; Moohyun Lee; Kyungju Ma; Yoomin Oh; Hyangkyu Park; Kang-soon Park; Kyungmin Seo; Gwang-Min Seon; Kim Siyeon

    2015-11-16

    A new experiment, which is called as NEOS (NEutrino Oscillation at Short baseline), is proposed on the site of Hanbit reactors at Yonggwang, South Korea, to investigate a reactor antineutrino anomaly. A homogeneous NEOS detector having a 1000-L target volume has been constructed and deployed at the tendon gallery ~25 m away from the reactor core. A linear alkylbenzene (LAB) is used as a main base solvent of the NEOS detector. Furthermore, a di-isopropylnaphthalene (DIN) is added to improve the light output and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) ability. The ratio of LAB to DIN is 90:10. PPO (3 g/L) and bis-MSB (30 mg/L) are dissolved to formulate the mixture of LAB- and DIN-based liquid scintillator (LS). Then, ~0.5% gadolinium (Gd) is loaded into the LS by using the solvent-solvent extraction technique. In this paper, we report the characteristics of Gd-loaded LS (GdLS) for the NEOS detector and the handling during mass production.

  16. Chronotherapeutic drug delivery of Tamarind gum, Chitosan and Okra gum controlled release colon targeted directly compressed Propranolol HCl matrix tablets and in-vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Newton, A M J; Indana, V L; Kumar, Jatinder

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this investigation is to develop a chronotherapeutic drug delivery of various natural polymers based colon targeted drug delivery systems to treat early morning sign in BP. The polymers such as Tamarind gum, Okra gum and Chitosan were used in the formulation design. A model drug Propranolol HCl was incorporated in the formulation in order to assess the controlled release and time dependent release potential of various natural polymers. A novel polymer Tamarind gum was extracted and used as a prime polymer in this study to prove the superiority of this polymer over other leading natural polymer. Propranolol HCl was used as a model drug which undergoes hepatic metabolism and witnesses the poor bioavailability. The matrix tablets of Propranolol HCl were prepared by direct compression. The tablets were evaluated for various quality control parameters and found to be within the limits. Carbopol 940 was used as an auxiliary polymer to modify the drug release and physicochemical characteristics of the tablets. The in vitro release studies were performed in 0.1N HCl for 1.5h, followed by pH 6.8 phosphate buffer for 2h and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer till maximum amount of drug release. The in vitro release profile of the formulations were fitted with various pharmacokinetic mathematical models and analyzed for release profile. The formulations prepared with Tamarind gum prolonged the release for an extended period of time compared to other polymer based formulation and showed an excellent compression characteristic. PMID:25936283

  17. Bioinspired Titanium Drug Eluting Platforms Based on a Poly-?-cyclodextrin-Chitosan Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly Targeting Infections.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Anes, Alexandra; Gargouri, Myriem; Laure, William; Van Den Berghe, Hélène; Courcot, Elisabeth; Sobocinski, Jonathan; Tabary, Nicolas; Chai, Feng; Blach, Jean-François; Addad, Ahmed; Woisel, Patrice; Douroumis, Dennis; Martel, Bernard; Blanchemain, Nicolas; Lyskawa, Joël

    2015-06-17

    In the field of implantable titanium-based biomaterials, infections and inflammations are the most common forms of postoperative complications. The controlled local delivery of therapeutics from implants through polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) has recently emerged as a versatile technique that has shown great promise in the transformation of a classical medical implant into a drug delivery system. Herein, we report the design and the elaboration of new biodegradable multidrug-eluting titanium platforms based on a polyelectrolyte multilayer bioactive coating that target infections. These systems were built up in mild conditions according to the layer-by-layer (L-b-L) assembly and incorporate two biocompatible polysaccharides held together through electrostatic interactions. A synthetic, negatively charged ?-cyclodextrin-based polymer (PCD), well-known for forming stable and reversible complexes with hydrophobic therapeutic agents, was exploited as a multidrug reservoir, and chitosan (CHT), a naturally occurring, positively charged polyelectrolyte, was used as a barrier for controlling the drug delivery rate. These polyelectrolyte multilayer films were strongly attached to the titanium surface through a bioinspired polydopamine (PDA) film acting as an adhesive first layer and promoting the robust anchorage of PEMs onto the biomaterials. Prior to the multilayer film deposition, the interactions between both oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, as well the multilayer growth, were monitored by employing surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Several PEMs integrating 5, 10, and 15 bilayers were engineered using the dip coating strategy, and the polyelectrolyte surface densities were estimated by colorimetric titrations and gravimetric analyses. The morphologies of these multilayer systems, as well as their naturally occurring degradation in a physiological medium, were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their thicknesses were measured by means of profilometry and ellipsometry studies. Finally, the ability of the coated titanium multilayer devices to act as a drug-eluting system and to treat infections was validated with gentamicin, a relevant water-soluble antibiotic commonly used in medicine due to its broad bactericidal spectrum. PMID:25992843

  18. Chitosan: a propitious biopolymer for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Duttagupta, Dibyangana S; Jadhav, Varsha M; Kadam, Vilasrao J

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have always been interested in the use of natural polymers for drug delivery. Chitosan, being a natural cationic polysaccharide has received a great deal of attention in the past few years. It is obtained by deacetylation of chitin and is regarded as the second most ubiquitous polymer subsequent to cellulose on earth. Unlike other natural polymers, the cationic charge possessed by chitosan is accountable for imparting interesting physical and chemical properties. Chitosan has been widely exploited for its mucoadhesive character, permeation enhancing properties and controlled release of drugs. Moreover it's non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties make it a good candidate for novel drug delivery system. This review provides an insight on various chitosan based formulations for drug delivery. Some of the current applications of chitosan in areas like ophthalmic, nasal, buccal, sublingual, gastro-retentive, pulmonary, transdermal, colon-specific and vaginal drug delivery have been discussed. In addition, active targeting of drugs to tumor cells using chitosan has been described. Lastly a brief section covering the safety aspects of chitosan has also been reviewed. PMID:25761010

  19. Chitosan Microspheres in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Analava; Dey, Baishakhi

    2011-01-01

    The main aim in the drug therapy of any disease is to attain the desired therapeutic concentration of the drug in plasma or at the site of action and maintain it for the entire duration of treatment. A drug on being used in conventional dosage forms leads to unavoidable fluctuations in the drug concentration leading to under medication or overmedication and increased frequency of dose administration as well as poor patient compliance. To minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side effects and to increase drug bioavailability various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. Handling the treatment of severe disease conditions has necessitated the development of innovative ideas to modify drug delivery techniques. Drug targeting means delivery of the drug-loaded system to the site of interest. Drug carrier systems include polymers, micelles, microcapsules, liposomes and lipoproteins to name some. Different polymer carriers exert different effects on drug delivery. Synthetic polymers are usually non-biocompatible, non-biodegradable and expensive. Natural polymers such as chitin and chitosan are devoid of such problems. Chitosan comes from the deacetylation of chitin, a natural biopolymer originating from crustacean shells. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic natural polymer with excellent film-forming ability. Being of cationic character, chitosan is able to react with polyanions giving rise to polyelectrolyte complexes. Hence chitosan has become a promising natural polymer for the preparation of microspheres/nanospheres and microcapsules. The techniques employed to microencapsulate with chitosan include ionotropic gelation, spray drying, emulsion phase separation, simple and complex coacervation. This review focuses on the preparation, characterization of chitosan microspheres and their role in novel drug delivery systems. PMID:22707817

  20. Hyaluronic acid-decorated dual responsive nanoparticles of Pluronic F127, PLGA, and chitosan for targeted co-delivery of doxorubicin and irinotecan to eliminate cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai; Agarwal, Pranay; Zhao, Shuting; Xu, Ronald X; Yu, Jianhua; Lu, Xiongbin; He, Xiaoming

    2015-12-01

    Dual responsive nanoparticles are developed for co-delivery of multiple anticancer drugs to target the drug resistance mechanisms of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). The nanoparticles consist of four polymers approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for medical use: Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), Pluronic F127 (PF127), chitosan, and hyaluronic acid (HA). By combining PLGA and PF127 together, more stable and uniform-sized nanoparticles can be obtained than using PLGA or PF127 alone. The HA is used for not only actively targeting CSCs to reduce their drug resistance due to dormancy (i.e., slow metabolism), but also replacing the commonly used poly(vinyl alcohol) as a stabilizing agent to synthesize the nanoparticles using the double-emulsion approach and to allow for acidic pH-triggered drug release and thermal responsiveness. Besides minimizing drug efflux from CSCs, the nanoparticles encapsulated with doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX, hydrophilic) and irinotecan (CPT, hydrophobic) to inhibit the activity of topoisomerases II and I, respectively, can fight against the CSC drug resistance associated with their enhanced DNA repair and anti-apoptosis. Ultimately, the two drugs-laden nanoparticles can be used to efficiently destroy the CSCs both in vitro and in vivo with up to ?500 times of enhancement compared to the simple mixture of the two drugs. PMID:26344365

  1. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part I. Molecular insight into the formation of chitosan and poly(acrylic acid) multilayers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M; Tyrode, Eric

    2014-07-29

    Composite polyelectrolyte multilayers of chitosan and low molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) have been assembled by sequential adsorption as a first step toward building a surface anchored chitosan gel. Silane chemistry was used to graft the first chitosan layer to prevent film detachment and decomposition. The assembly process is characterized by nonlinear growth behavior, with different adsorption kinetics for chitosan and PAA. In situ analysis of the multilayer by means of surface sensitive total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, combined with target factor analysis of the spectra, provided information regarding composition, including water content, and ionization state of weak acidic and basic groups present in the thin composite film. Low molecular weight PAA, mainly in its protonated form, diffuses into and out of the composite film during adsorption and rinsing steps. The higher molecular weight chitosan shows a similar behavior, although to a much lower extent. Our data demonstrate that the charged monomeric units of chitosan are mainly compensated by carboxylate ions from PAA. Furthermore, the morphology and mechanical properties of the multilayers were investigated in situ using atomic force microscopy operating in PeakForce tapping mode. The multilayer consists of islands that grow in lateral dimension and height during the build-up process, leading to close to exponentially increasing roughness with deposition number. Both diffusion in and out of at least one of the two components (PAA) and the island-like morphology contribute to the nonlinear growth of chitosan/PAA multilayers. PMID:25007398

  2. Chitosan in Plant Protection

    PubMed Central

    El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Adam, Lorne R.; El Hadrami, Ismail; Daayf, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR) proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:20479963

  3. Antimicrobial and mechanical properties of ?-cyclodextrin inclusion with essential oils in chitosan films.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiuxiu; Sui, Siyao; Ference, Christopher; Zhang, Yifan; Sun, Shi; Zhou, Ninghui; Zhu, Wenjun; Zhou, Kequan

    2014-09-01

    Chitosan films incorporated with various concentrations of the complex of ?-cyclodextrin and essential oils (?-CD/EO) were prepared and investigated for antimicrobial, mechanical, and physical properties. Four bacterial strains that commonly contaminate food products were chosen as target bacteria to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the prepared films. The incorporation of ?-CD/EO significantly increased the antimicrobial activities of the chitosan films against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. It was also found that tensile strength (TS) of chitosan film was significantly increased with the incorporation of the ?-cyclodextrin and 0.75% essential oils complex. The elongation at break (EB) decreased with the increasing concentrations of essential oils. Inclusion of the complex of ?-cyclodextrin and 0.25% essential oils also significantly decreased water vapor permeability (WVP) of chitosan films. Our results suggest that chitosan films containing ?-CD/EO could be used as active food-packaging material. PMID:25141280

  4. Analgesis and wound healing effect of chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan on scalded rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shuya; Han, Baoqin; Shao, Kai; Yu, Miao; Liu, Wanshun

    2014-10-01

    Analgesis and wound healing effect of chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan on scalded rats were investigated. A II degree scald model was established in rats, which was subsequently treated with chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan solution, respectively. The concentration of bradykinin and 5-hydroxytryptophan was detected by assaying enzyme-linked immunosorbent. Healing condition was observed and pathological sections were made to determine the healing effect of chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan. Results showed that the concentration of bradykinin and 5-hydroxytryptophan peaked at the third hour post-wound in all groups, while the concentration of hydroxyproline peaked at the seventh day post-wound in both chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan group. The concentration of bradykinin and 5-hydroxytryptophan of carboxymethyl chitosan group was significantly lower than that of control ( P < 0.05), while that of chitosan group was similar to that of control ( P > 0.05). These findings indicated that carboxymethyl chitosan reduced the concentration of algogenic substances, resulting in analgesia. During the whole recovery process, the hydroxyproline concentration in chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan group on day 3 and 7 was significantly higher than that of control ( P < 0.01); however the significance of such a highness decreased on day 14 ( P < 0.05). These findings indicated that chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan accelerated tissue repair. Meanwhile, chitosan performed better in healing than carboxymethyl chitosan in both decrustation and healing time. In conclusion, carboxymethyl chitosan showed significant analgesis and wound-healing promotion effect, but chitosan only showed wound-healing promotion effect.

  5. Gadolinium loaded plastic scintillators for high efficiency neutron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovechkina, Lena; Riley, Kent; Miller, Stuart; Bell, Zane; Nagarkar, Vivek

    2009-08-01

    Gadolinium has the highest thermal neutron absorption cross section of any naturally occurring element, and emits conversion electrons as well as atomic X-rays in over 50% of its neutron captures, which makes it a useful dopant in scintillators for detecting thermal neutrons. Gadolinium isopropoxide was studied as a possible dopant for styrene-based plastic scintillators as a convenient and inexpensive method to produce high-efficiency thermal neutron detectors. Plastic scintillators with gadolinium weight concentrations of up to 3% were transparent, uniform and defect-free and were characterized with spectral measurements performed under x-ray and neutron irradiation. The new material has the same characteristic emission of styrene with a maximum at approximately 425 nm, and a light output of 76% relative to the undoped plastic. A 13 mm thick sample containing 0.5% gadolinium by weight detected 46% of incident thermal neutrons, which makes this an attractive material for a variety of applications.

  6. Preparation and characterization of magnetic Fe3O4-chitosan nanoparticles loaded with isoniazid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H.; Wang, C. M.; Dong, Q. Q.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Ma, Z. Y.; Han, Q. R.

    2015-05-01

    A novel and simple method has been proposed to prepare magnetic Fe3O4-chitosan nanoparticles loaded with isoniazid (Fe3O4/CS/INH nanocomposites). Efforts have been made to develop isoniazid (INH) loaded chitosan (CS) nanoparticles by ionic gelation of chitosan with tripolyphosphate (TPP). The factors that influence the preparation of chitosan nanoparticles, including the TPP concentration, the chitosan/TPP weight ratio and the chitosan concentration on loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of chitosan nanoparticles were studied. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method of Fe2+ and Fe3+. Then the magnetic Fe3O4/CS/INH nanocomposites were prepared by ionic gelation method. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and magnetic Fe3O4/CS/INH nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, TEM, FTIR and SQUID magnetometry. The in vitro release of Fe3O4/CS/INH nanocomposites showed an initial burst release in the first 10 h, followed by a more gradual and sustained release for 48 h. It is suggested that the magnetic Fe3O4/CS/INH nanocomposites may be exploited as potential drug carriers for controlled-release applications in magnetic targeted drugs delivery system.

  7. Design of Chitosan and Its Water Soluble Derivatives-Based Drug Carriers with Polyelectrolyte Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qing-Xi; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan, the cationic polysaccharide derived from the natural polysaccharide chitin, has been studied as a biomaterial for more than two decades. As a polycationic polymer with favorable properties, it has been widely used to form polyelectrolyte complexes with polyanions for various applications in drug delivery fields. In recent years, a growing number of studies have been focused on the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes based on chitosan and its water soluble derivatives. They have been considered well-suited as biomaterials for a number of vital drug carriers with targeted/controlled release profiles, e.g., films, capsules, microcapsules. In this work, an overview highlights not only the favorable properties of chitosan and its water soluble derivatives but also the good performance of the polyelectrolyte complexes produced based on chitosan. Their various types of applications as drug carriers are reviewed in detail. PMID:25532565

  8. Chitosan based hydrogels: characteristics and pharmaceutical applications

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, F.; Oveisi, Z.; Samani, S. Mohammadi; Amoozgar, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogel scaffolds serve as semi synthetic or synthetic extra cellular matrix to provide an amenable environment for cellular adherence and cellular remodeling in three dimensional structures mimicking that of natural cellular environment. Additionally, hydrogels have the capacity to carry small molecule drugs and/or proteins, growth factors and other necessary components for cell growth and differentiation. In the context of drug delivery, hydrogels can be utilized to localize drugs, increase drugs concentration at the site of action and consequently reduce off-targeted side effects. The current review aims to describe and classify hydrogels and their methods of production. The main highlight is chitosan-based hydrogels as biocompatible and medically relevant hydrogels for drug delivery. PMID:26430453

  9. Environmental applications of chitosan and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yong, Soon Kong; Shrivastava, Manoj; Srivastava, Prashant; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan originates from the seafood processing industry and is one of the most abundant of bio-waste materials. Chitosan is a by-product of the alkaline deacetylation process of chitin. Chemically, chitosan is a polysaccharide that is soluble in acidic solution and precipitates at higher pHs. It has great potential for certain environmental applications, such as remediation of organic and inorganic contaminants, including toxic metals and dyes in soil, sediment and water, and development of contaminant sensors. Traditionally, seafood waste has been the primary source of chitin. More recently, alternative sources have emerged such as fungal mycelium, mushroom and krill wastes, and these new sources of chitin and chitosan may overcome seasonal supply limitations that have existed. The production of chitosan from the above-mentioned waste streams not only reduces waste volume, but alleviates pressure on landfills to which the waste would otherwise go. Chitosan production involves four major steps, viz., deproteination, demineralization, bleaching and deacetylation. These four processes require excessive usage of strong alkali at different stages, and drives chitosan's production cost up, potentially making the application of high-grade chitosan for commercial remediation untenable. Alternate chitosan processing techniques, such as microbial or enzymatic processes, may become more cost-effective due to lower energy consumption and waste generation. Chitosan has proved to be versatile for so many environmental applications, because it possesses certain key functional groups, including - OH and -NH2 . However, the efficacy of chitosan is diminished at low pH because of its increased solubility and instability. These deficiencies can be overcome by modifying chitosan's structure via crosslinking. Such modification not only enhances the structural stability of chitosan under low pH conditions, but also improves its physicochemical characteristics, such as porosity, hydraulic conductivity, permeability, surface area and sorption capacity. Crosslinked chitosan is an excellent sorbent for trace metals especially because of the high flexibility of its structural stability. Sorption of trace metals by chitosan is selective and independent of the size and hardness of metal ions, or the physical form of chitosan (e.g., film, powder and solution). Both -OH and -NH2 groups in chitosan provide vital binding sites for complexing metal cations. At low pH, -NH3 + groups attract and coagulate negatively charged contaminants such as metal oxyanions, humic acids and dye molecules. Grafting certain functional molecules into the chitin structure improves sorption capacity and selectivity for remediating specific metal ions. For example, introducing sulfur and nitrogen donor ligands to chitosan alters the sorption preference for metals. Low molecular weight chitosan derivatives have been used to remediate metal contaminated soil and sediments. They have also been applied in permeable reactive barriers to remediate metals in soil and groundwater. Both chitosan and modified chitosan have been used to phytoremediate metals; however, the mechanisms by which they assist in mobilizing metals are not yet well understood. In addition, microbes have been used in combination with chitosan to remediate metals (e.g., Cu and Zn) in contaminated soils. Chitosan has also been used to remediate organic contaminants, such as oil-based wastewater, dyes, tannins, humic acids, phenols, bisphenoi-A, p-benzoquinone, organo-phosphorus insecticides, among others. Chitosan has also been utilized to develop optical and electrochemical sensors for in-situ detection of trace contaminants. In sensor technology, naturally-derived chitosan is used primarily as an immobilizing agent that results from its enzyme compatibility, and stabilizing effect on nanoparticles. Contaminant-sensing agents, such as enzymes, microbes and nanoparticles, have been homogeneously immobilized in chitosan gels by using coagulating (e.g., alginate, phosphate) or crosslinking agents (e.g., GA, ECH).

  10. Pharmacokinetics and biodegradation of chitosan in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Jiang, Zhiwen; Han, Baoqin; Niu, Shuyi; Dong, Wen; Liu, Wanshun

    2015-10-01

    Chitosan, an excellent biomedical material, has received a widespread in vivo application. In contrast, its metabolism and distribution once being implanted were less documented. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and biodegradation of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled and muscle implantation administrated chitosan in rats were investigated with fluorescence spectrophotometry, histological assay and gel chromatography. After implantation, chitosan was degraded gradually during its distribution to diverse organs. Among the tested organs, liver and kidney were found to be the first two highest in chitosan content, which was followed by heart, brain and spleen. Urinary excretion was believed to be the major pathway of chitosan elimination, yet 80% of chitosan administered to rats was not trackable in their urine. This indicated that the majority of chitosan was degraded in tissues. In average, the molecular weight of the degradation products of chitosan in diverse organs and urine was found to be <65 kDa. This further confirmed the in vivo degradation of chitosan. Our findings provided new evidences for the intensive and safe application of chitosan as a biomedical material.

  11. Chitin, Chitosan, and Glycated Chitosan Regulate Immune Responses: The Novel Adjuvants for Cancer Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaosong; Min, Min; Du, Nan; Gu, Ying; Hode, Tomas; Naylor, Mark; Chen, Dianjun; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-01-01

    With the development of cancer immunotherapy, cancer vaccine has become a novel modality for cancer treatment, and the important role of adjuvant has been realized recently. Chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives have shown their advantages as adjuvants for cancer vaccine. In this paper, the adjuvant properties of chitin and chitosan were discussed, and some detailed information about glycated chitosan and chitosan nanoparticles was also presented to illustrate the trend for future development. PMID:23533454

  12. Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiali; Xia, Wenshui; Liu, Ping; Cheng, Qinyuan; Tahirou, Talba; Gu, Wenxiu; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1) enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2) the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3) synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy. PMID:20714418

  13. Megalin-Mediated Specific Uptake of Chitosan/siRNA Nanoparticles in Mouse Kidney Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells Enables AQP1 Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Hein, San; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Weyer, Kathrin; Yang, Chuanxu; Nielsen, Rikke; Christensen, Erik I; Fenton, Robert A; Kjems, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    RNAi-based strategies provide a great therapeutic potential for treatment of various human diseases including kidney disorders, but face the challenge of in vivo delivery and specific targeting. The chitosan delivery system has previously been shown to target siRNA specifically to the kidneys in mice when administered intravenously. Here we confirm by 2D and 3D bioimaging that chitosan formulated siRNA is retained in the kidney for more than 48 hours where it accumulates in proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs), a process that was strongly dependent on the molecular weight of chitosan. Chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles, administered to chimeric mice with conditional knockout of the megalin gene, distributed almost exclusively in cells that expressed megalin, implying that the chitosan/siRNA particle uptake was mediated by a megalin-dependent endocytotic pathway. Knockdown of the water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP1) by up to 50% in PTECs was achieved utilizing the systemic i.v. delivery of chitosan/AQP1 siRNA in mice. In conclusion, specific targeting PTECs with the chitosan nanoparticle system may prove to be a useful strategy for knockdown of specific genes in PTECs, and provides a potential therapeutic strategy for treating various kidney diseases. PMID:25157280

  14. Echogenic Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles for Ultrasound-Triggered Cancer Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hyun Su; You, Dong Gil; Son, Sejin; Jeon, Sangmin; Park, Jae Hyung; Lee, Seulki; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2015-01-01

    Theranostic nanoparticles hold great promise for simultaneous diagnosis of diseases, targeted drug delivery with minimal toxicity, and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. However, one of the current challenges in developing theranostic nanoparticles is enhancing the tumor-specific targeting of both imaging probes and anticancer agents. Herein, we report the development of tumor-homing echogenic glycol chitosan-based nanoparticles (Echo-CNPs) that concurrently execute cancer-targeted ultrasound (US) imaging and US-triggered drug delivery. To construct this novel Echo-CNPs, an anticancer drug and bioinert perfluoropentane (PFP), a US gas precursor, were simultaneously encapsulated into glycol chitosan nanoparticles using the oil in water (O/W) emulsion method. The resulting Echo-CNPs had a nano-sized particle structure, composing of hydrophobic anticancer drug/PFP inner cores and a hydrophilic glycol chitosan polymer outer shell. The Echo-CNPs had a favorable hydrodynamic size of 432 nm, which is entirely different from the micro-sized core-empty conventional microbubbles (1-10 ?m). Furthermore, Echo-CNPs showed the prolonged echogenicity via the sustained microbubble formation process of liquid-phase PFP at the body temperature and they also presented a US-triggered drug release profile through the external US irradiation. Interestingly, Echo-CNPs exhibited significantly increased tumor-homing ability with lower non-specific uptake by other tissues in tumor-bearing mice through the nanoparticle's enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Conclusively, theranostic Echo-CNPs are highly useful for simultaneous cancer-targeting US imaging and US-triggered delivery in cancer theranostics. PMID:26681985

  15. Visualising impregnated chitosan in Pinus radiata early wood cells using light and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Adya P; Singh, Tripti; Rickard, Catherine L

    2010-04-01

    Chitosan, a deacetylated product of an abundant naturally occurring biopolymer chitin, has been used in a range of applications, particularly in food and health areas, as an antimicrobial agent. In the work reported here Pinus radiata wood was impregnated with chitosan as an environmentally compatible organic biocide (Eikenes et al., 2005a,b) to protect wood against wood deteriorating microorganisms and to thus prolong the service life of wooden products. We developed sample preparation techniques targeted to visualise impregnated chitosan within wood tissues using light microscope and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Sections were viewed with the light microscope without staining with a dye as well as after staining with the dye toluidine blue. Light microscopy was also undertaken on sections that had been stained with 1% aqueous osmium tetroxide (OsO(4)). For SEM observations, the sections were treated with OsO(4) and then examined with the FE-SEM, first in the secondary electron imaging mode (SEI) and then in the backscattered electron imaging (BEI) mode, imaging the same areas of a section in both SEI and BEI modes. The preparation techniques employed and the combined use of light and scanning electron microscopy provided valuable complementary information, revealing that chitosan had penetrated into the cavities (cell lumens, intercellular spaces) of all sizes present within wood tissues and had also impregnated early wood cell walls. The information obtained is discussed in relation to its importance in further development of chitosan formulations and refinement of impregnation technologies to optimise chitosan impregnation into and distribution within wood tissues as well as in assessing chitosan efficacy. PMID:20005729

  16. Combinatorial-Designed Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Targeted Chitosan Nanoparticles for Encapsulation and Delivery of Lipid-Modified Platinum Derivatives in Wild-Type and Resistant Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Ana Vanessa; Singh, Amit; Bousbaa, Hassan; Ferreira, Domingos; Sarmento, Bruno; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2015-12-01

    Development of efficient and versatile drug delivery platforms to overcome the physical and biological challenges in cancer therapeutics is an area of great interest, and novel materials are actively sought for such applications. Recent strides in polymer science have led to a combinatorial approach for generating a library of materials with different functional identities that can be "mixed and matched" to attain desired characteristics of a delivery vector. We have applied the combinatorial design to chitosan (CS), where the polymer backbone has been modified with polyethylene glycol, epidermal growth factor receptor-binding peptide, and lipid derivatives of varying chain length to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs. Cisplatin, cis-([PtCl2(NH3)2]), is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs broadly administered for cancer treatment. Cisplatin is a hydrophilic drug, and in order for it to be encapsulated in the developed nanosystems, it was modified with lipids of varying chain length. The library of four CS derivatives and six platinum derivatives was self-assembled in aqueous medium and evaluated for physicochemical characteristics and cytotoxic effects in platinum-sensitive and -resistant lung cancer cells. The results show that the lipid-modified platinate encapsulation into CS nanoparticles significantly improved cellular cytotoxicity of the drug. In this work, we have also reinforced the idea that CS is a multifaceted system that can be as successful in delivering small molecules as it has been as a nucleic acids carrier. PMID:26523837

  17. Characterization of Chitosan Nanofiber Sheets for Antifungal Application

    PubMed Central

    Egusa, Mayumi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Kaminaka, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan produced by the deacetylation of chitin is a cationic polymer with antimicrobial properties. In this study, we demonstrate the improvement of chitosan properties by nanofibrillation. Nanofiber sheets were prepared from nanofibrillated chitosan under neutral conditions. The Young’s modulus and tensile strength of the chitosan NF sheets were higher than those of the chitosan sheets prepared from dissolving chitosan in acetic acid. The chitosan NF sheets showed strong mycelial growth inhibition against dermatophytes Microsporum and Trichophyton. Moreover, the chitosan NF sheets exhibited resistance to degradation by the fungi, suggesting potentials long-lasting usage. In addition, surface-deacetylated chitin nanofiber (SDCNF) sheets were prepared. The SDCNF sheet had a high Young’s modulus and tensile strength and showed antifungal activity to dermatophytes. These data indicate that nanofibrillation improved the properties of chitosan. Thus, chitosan NF and SDCNF sheets are useful candidates for antimicrobial materials. PMID:26540046

  18. Characterization of Chitosan Nanofiber Sheets for Antifungal Application.

    PubMed

    Egusa, Mayumi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Kaminaka, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan produced by the deacetylation of chitin is a cationic polymer with antimicrobial properties. In this study, we demonstrate the improvement of chitosan properties by nanofibrillation. Nanofiber sheets were prepared from nanofibrillated chitosan under neutral conditions. The Young's modulus and tensile strength of the chitosan NF sheets were higher than those of the chitosan sheets prepared from dissolving chitosan in acetic acid. The chitosan NF sheets showed strong mycelial growth inhibition against dermatophytes Microsporum and Trichophyton. Moreover, the chitosan NF sheets exhibited resistance to degradation by the fungi, suggesting potentials long-lasting usage. In addition, surface-deacetylated chitin nanofiber (SDCNF) sheets were prepared. The SDCNF sheet had a high Young's modulus and tensile strength and showed antifungal activity to dermatophytes. These data indicate that nanofibrillation improved the properties of chitosan. Thus, chitosan NF and SDCNF sheets are useful candidates for antimicrobial materials. PMID:26540046

  19. Characterization of calcium carbonate/chitosan composites

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, K.E.; Zhang, S.

    1995-12-31

    The crystal growth of calcium carbonate on a chitosan substrate was achieved using a supersaturated calcium carbonate solution, by using various additives, polyacrylic acid (PAA). Polyacrylic acid modified the chitosan-film surface and promoted the nucleation of calcium carbonate crystals.

  20. Preparation of itraconazole-loaded liposomes coated by carboxymethyl chitosan and its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinping; Huang, Guihua

    2011-11-01

    Liposomes are potential carriers for targeting and controlled drug delivery by the intravenous route. Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) is a ramification of chitosan with intrinsic water-solubility. The aim of this study is to prepare itraconazole-loaded liposomes coated by carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC-ITZ-Lips), to evaluate its physico-chemical characteristics and the tissue targeting after being injected intravenously (i.v.). This study uses a film dispersion method to prepare itraconazole-loaded liposomes (ITZ-Lips) prior to coating them with CMC. The concentrations of ITZ in selected organs were determined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following i.v. administration of ITZ-Sol, ITZ-Lips, and CMC-ITZ-Lips. CMC-ITZ-Lips had an average diameter of 349.3?±?18?nm with a zeta potential of -35.71?±?0.62 mV and the in vitro antifungal activity was not inhibited by the entrapment. The CMC-ITZ-Lips exhibited a longer elimination half life (t(1/2?)) in vivo compared with ITZ-Sol and ITZ-Lips after i.v. injection to mice. The biodistribution in mice was also changed after ITZ was encapsulated in CMC coated liposomes. CMC-ITZ-Lips performed significant lung targeting efficiency with AUC, Te and Re of lung all showed obvious elevation. In this study itraconazole was successfully encapsulated into carboxymethyl chitosan-modified liposomes for application of injection. PMID:22111976

  1. Chitosan/DsiRNA nanoparticle targeting identifies AgCad1 cadherin in Anopheles gambiae larvae as an in vivo receptor of Cry11Ba toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Hua, Gang; Adang, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    The Cry11Ba protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan crystals has uniquely high toxicity against a spectrum of mosquito species. The high potency of Cry11Ba against Anopheles gambiae is caused by recognition of multiple midgut proteins including glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored alkaline phosphatase AgALP1, aminopeptidase AgAPN2, ?-amylase AgAmy1 and ?-glucosidase Agm3 that bind Cry11Ba with high affinity and function as putative receptors. The cadherin AgCad2 in An. gambiae larvae also binds Cry11Ba with high affinity (Kd = 12 nM) and is considered a putative receptor, while cadherin AgCad1 bound Cry11Ba with low affinity (Kd = 766 nM), a property not supportive for a Cry11Ba receptor role. Here, we show the in vivo involvement of AgCad1 in Cry11Ba toxicity in An. gambiae larvae using chitosan/DsiRNA nanoparticles to inhibit AgCad expression in larvae. Cry11Ba was significantly less toxic to AgCad1-silenced larvae than to control larvae. Because AgCad1 was co-suppressed by AgCad2 DsRNAi, the involvement of AgCad2 in Cry11Ba toxicity could not be ascertained. The ratio of AgCad1:AgCad2 transcript level is 36:1 for gut tissue in 4th instar larvae. Silencing AgCad expression had no effect on transcript levels of other binding receptors of Cry11Ba. We conclude that AgCad1 and possibly AgCad2 in An. gambiae larvae are functional receptors of Cry11Ba toxin in vivo. PMID:25758367

  2. Antioxidant activity of high molecular weight chitosan and N,O-quaternized chitosans.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ajun; Xu, Qing; Sun, Yan; Li, Huili

    2013-07-17

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of high molecular weight chitosan based films. Three kinds of water-soluble quaternized chitosans with high molecular weight, namely N-(2-hydroxyl) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride (400-HTCC and 1240-HTCC), N-(2-hydroxyl) propyl-3-triethyl ammonium chitosan chloride (400-HTEC and 1240-HTEC), and O-(2-hydroxyl) propyl-3- trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride (400-O-HTCC) were prepared from high molecular weight chitosans (400 and 1240 kDa). The in vitro antioxidant activity of a high molecular weight chitosan (1240-CS) and five quaternized chitosans was evaluated and compared as radical scavengers against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and superoxide radical (•O2(-)) using established methods, and the effect of the molecular weight, the concentration, the newly generated hydroxyl group, the extra introduced positive charge of quaternary ammonium salt group, etc., on the antioxidant activity of these high molecular weight chitosans is discussed. The data obtained in vitro models exhibited good antioxidant potency and suggested the possibility that high molecular weight chitosan based films could be effectively employed as natural antioxidant materials for application in the field of food and medicine. PMID:23706102

  3. The hypolipidemic activity of chitosan nanopowder prepared by ultrafine milling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jiali; Jiang, Qixing; Xia, Wenshui

    2013-06-01

    The hypolipidemic activities of high and low molecular weights of chitosan nanopowders (HMW-chitosan-NP: 315 kDa; LMW-chitosan-NP: 51 kDa) prepared by ultrafine milling were evaluated in rats. The results showed that the hypolipidemic activity of chitosan nanopowder was better than ordinary chitosan, and LMW-chitosan-NP was superior to HMW-chitosan-NP in hypolipidimic activity. Compared with ordinary chitosan, chitosan nanopowder increased the fecal lipids and the activities of serum and liver lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) of rats. Rats receiving LMW-chitosan-NP excreted less lipids in feces, but showed higher serum and liver LPL and HL activities compared with those fed HMW-chitosan-NP. These results suggested that compared with ordinary chitosan, the increased hypolipidemic activity of chitosan nanopowder might be attributed to its ability on increasing fecal lipid excretions and stimulating LPL and HL activities, and the better stimulation of LMW-chitosan-NP in activities of these lipases might help it to exceed HMW-chitosan-NP in hypolipidemic activity. PMID:23618297

  4. Functional modification of chitosan for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ruogu

    Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide. Normally commercial chitosan consists of randomly distributed beta-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated proportion) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated proportion) together. Chitosan has been proved to be a multifunctional biopolymer that presents several unique properties due to free amino groups in the repeating unit therefore chitosan has been widely applied in various areas. To be specific, provided by the excellent biocompatibility, chitosan is expected to be used in biological and medical applications including wound dressing, implants, drug carrier/delivery, etc. In this thesis, we worked on chitosan functionalization for biomedical application. The thesis are composed of three parts: In the first part, we focused on modifying the chitosan thin film, chemically introducing the nitric oxide functional groups on chitosan film. We covalently bonded small molecule diazeniumdiolates onto the chitosan films and examined the antimicrobial function and biocompatibility. Commercial chitosan was cast into films from acidic aqueous solutions. Glutaraldehyde reacted with the chitosan film to introduce aldehyde groups onto the chitosan film (GA-CS film). GA-CS reacted with a small molecule NO donor, NOC-18, to covalently immobilize NONO groups onto the polymer (NO-CS film). The-CHO and [NONO] group were verified by FT IR, UV and Griess reagent. The NO releasing rate in aqueous solution and and thermal stability were studied quantitatively to prove its effectiveness. A series of antimicrobial tests indicated that NO-CS films have multiple functions: 1. It could inhibit the bacteria growth in nutrient rich environment; 2. It could directly inactivate bacteria and biofilm; 3. It could reduce the bacteria adherence on the film surface as well as inhibit biofilm formation. In addition, the NO-CS film was proved to be biocompatible with cell and it was also compatible with other antibiotics like Amoxicillin. In the second part, we focused on chitosan treatment on titanium surface. We have covalently immobilized chitosan onto titanium (Ti), a widely used implant material, to manage implant-related infection and poor osseointegration that are two of most serious orthopedic implants. The Ti surface was first treated with sulfuric acid and then covalently reacted with chitosan. Surface properties including roughness, contact angle and zeta potential of the samples were markedly increased by the sulfuric acid treatment and the subsequent chitosan immobilization. We have cooperated with the Dr. Ying Deng group's and demonstrated that the chitosan-immobilized Ti showed two novel antimicrobial roles: It prevented the invasion and internalization of bacteria into the osteoblast-like cells; on the other hand, it significantly increased the susceptibility of adherent bacteria to antibiotics. In addition, the SA-Ti and CS-Ti led to a significantly increased osteoblast-likecell attachment, enhanced cell proliferation, and better osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of cells. Chitosan based nanoparticle for drug loading and delivery is also reported in this thesis. By adopting the self-assembly approach, we have prepared alginate/chitosan nanoparticles where the chlorhexidine/cyclodextrin complex is loaded on. The nanoparticles have been proved to be antimicrobial effective and it can bind on cells.

  5. The effect of chitosan concentration on the electrical property of chitosan-blended cellulose electroactive paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Sang-Dong; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Zhijiang, Cai; Kim, Jaehwan

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of chitosan blending on the electrical property of chitosan-blended cellulose electroactive paper (EAPap) under different humidity conditions. As the chitosan blending ratio increased, the real part of the dielectric constant of chitosan-blended cellulose EAPap increased while the dielectric loss factor decreased. From the curve fitting of the measured data using an electrode polarization model, it was found that increasing the chitosan ratio in the EAPap might promote a decrease in the relaxation time of the EAPap, resulting in an increase of the ion mobility and dc conductivity. Over 30% of the chitosan blending ratio, a gradual increment of the ion mobility of the EAPap was observed at 40% relative humidity, while a quadratic increment of the mobility was found at 60% relative humidity condition. This kind of ion-mobility-enhanced cellulose EAPap can be used not only for bending actuators but also for medical applications such as blood clotting patches.

  6. Chitosan derivatives as novel potential heparin reversal agents.

    PubMed

    Kami?ski, Kamil; Szczubia?ka, Krzysztof; Zazakowny, Karolina; Lach, Rados?aw; Nowakowska, Maria

    2010-05-27

    In emergency cases anticoagulant action of heparin needs to be stopped instantaneously, which is usually achieved by intravenous administration of protamine sulfate (PS). However, PS shows many adverse effects. The objective of the present work was to find out if chitosan (Ch) and a cationically modified chitosan, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC), may be applied for heparin reversal. For chitosan the efficiency of unfractionated heparin (UFH) binding decreases with increasing pH while for cationically modified chitosan heparin binding is efficient even for high pH values. Complexation of UFH and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) by cationically modified chitosan in the aqueous solution at pH = 7.4 was studied. Complexes of the modified chitosan with UFH are smaller and of lower dispersity than those with PS. Cationically modified chitosan was found to bind both UFH and LMWH. The complex formation capability of cationically modified chitosan is comparable to that of PS. PMID:20423087

  7. Coloration of cotton fibers using nano chitosan.

    PubMed

    Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka D; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2015-12-10

    A method of coloration of cotton fabrics with nano chitosan is proposed. Nano chitosan were prepared using crab shell chitin nanofibers through alkaline deacetylation process. Average nano fiber diameters of nano chitosan were 18 nm to 35 nm and the lengths were in the range of 0.2-1.3 ?m according to the atomic force microscope study. The degree of deacetylation of the material was found to be 97.3%. The prepared nano chitosan dyed using acid blue 25 (2-anthraquinonesulfonic acid) and used as the coloration agent for cotton fibers. Simple wet immersion method was used to color the cotton fabrics by nano chitosan dispersion followed by acid vapor treatment. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope study of the treated cotton fiber revealed that the nano chitosan were consistently deposited on the cotton fiber surface and transformed in to a thin polymer layer upon the acid vapor treatment. The color strength of the dyed fabrics could be changed by changing the concentration of dyed nano chitosan dispersion. PMID:26428115

  8. Chitosan as a starting material for wound healing applications.

    PubMed

    Patrulea, V; Ostafe, V; Borchard, G; Jordan, O

    2015-11-01

    Chitosan and its derivatives have attracted great attention due to their properties beneficial for application to wound healing. The main focus of the present review is to summarize studies involving chitosan and its derivatives, especially N,N,N-trimethyl-chitosan (TMC), N,O-carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC) and O-carboxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-chitosan (CMTMC), used to accelerate wound healing. Moreover, formulation strategies for chitosan and its derivatives, as well as their in vitro, in vivo and clinical applications in wound healing are described. PMID:26614560

  9. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3. Die aus Chitosan-Dispersionen hergestellten MCChB-Filme weisen bessere mechanische Eigenschaften (Bruchfestigkeit, Dehnung) und eine höhere Wasseraufnahmefähigkeit auf als Filme, die nach herkömmlichen Methoden aus sauerer Lösung hergestellt werden. Die Einführung von Proteinen ändert die mechanischen Eigenschaften der MCChB-Filme abhängig von der Art, der Proteine sowie des DD und der Mv des eingesetzte Chitosan. Die Zugabe von Protein beschleunigt den biologischen Abbau der MCChB-Filme. Aus den untersuchten MCChB-Filmen mit Proteinzusatz können leichte, reißfeste und dennoch elastische Materialen hergestellt werden. 4. Mit Hilfe von MCChB-Dispersion kann Papier modifiziert werden. Dadurch werden die mechanischen Eigenschaften verbessert und die Wasseraufnahme wird verringert. Die Zugabe von Proteinen verringert das Wasseraufnahmevermögen noch weiter. Ein geringes Wasseraufnahmevermögen ist der bedeutendste Faktor bei der Papierherstellung. Auch Papier, das mit einem MCChB-Protein-Komplexe modifiziert wurde, zeigt gute mechanische Eigenschaften. 5. Wird Chitosan durch unmittelbare Einführung von MCChB auf Cellulose-Fasern aufgebracht, so erhält man eine netzartige Struktur, während durch Ausfällung aufgebrachtes Chitosan eine dünne Schicht auf den Cellulose-Fasern bildet. Die netzartige Struktur erleichtert die Bioabbaubarkeit, während die Schichtstruktur diese erschwert. 6. Die guten mechanischen Eigenschaften, die geringe Wasseraufnahmefähigkeit und die mit Cellulose vergleichbare Bioabbaubarkeit von Papier, das mit MCChB modifiziert wurde, lassen MCChB für die Veredlung von Papier nützlich erscheinen. 1. Deacetylation of the crustacean chitosan causes drastically decrease in the Mv with increasing reaction temperature and time as well as the concentration of sodium hydroxide. However, the DD are relatively less affected. Pandalus borealis is a good source for production of chitosan having high Mv and low DD, whereas chitosan of medium to low Mv can ideally be prepared using krill chitin. Insect chitosan is prepared under milder condition a

  10. Effects of carboxymethyl chitosan on the blood system of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Dawei; Han, Baoqin; Dong, Wen; Yang, Zhao; Lv, You; Liu, Wanshun

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} We report, for the first time, the safety of carboxymethyl chitosan in blood system. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on coagulation function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on anticoagulation performance of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on fibrinolytic function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on hemorheology of rats. -- Abstract: Carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan), a derivative of chitosan, was extensively studied in the biomedical materials field for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CM-chitosan in the blood system are lacking. In this study CM-chitosan was implanted into the abdominal cavity of rats to determine blood indexes at different times and to evaluate the effects of CM-chitosan on the blood system of rats. Coagulation function was reflected by thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) indexes; anti-coagulation performance was assessed by the index of antithrombinIII (ATIII); fibrinolytic function was reflected by plasminogen (PLG) and fibrin degradation product (FDP) indexes; and blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV) indexes reflected hemorheology. Results showed that CM-chitosan has no significant effects on the blood system of rats, and provides experimental basis for CM-chitosan to be applied in the field of biomedical materials.

  11. Chitosan-PEG nanocapsules as new carriers for oral peptide delivery. Effect of chitosan pegylation degree.

    PubMed

    Prego, C; Torres, D; Fernandez-Megia, E; Novoa-Carballal, R; Quiñoá, E; Alonso, M J

    2006-04-10

    We have previously reported the ability of chitosan nanocapsules to enhance and prolong the oral absorption of peptides. In the present work, our goal was to design a new type of nanocapsules, using chitosan chemically modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (0.5% and 1% pegylation degree) and to investigate the consequences of this modification on the in vitro and in vivo behaviour of the nanocapsules. Chitosan-PEG nanocapsules and the control PEG-coated nanoemulsions were obtained by the solvent displacement technique. Their size was in the range of 160-250 nm. Their zeta potential was greatly affected by the nature of the coating, being positive for chitosan-PEG nanocapsules and negative in the case of PEG-coated nanoemulsions. The presence of PEG, whether alone or grafted to chitosan, improved the stability of the nanocapsules in the gastrointestinal fluids. Using the Caco-2 model cell line it was observed that the pegylation of chitosan reduced the cytotoxicity of the nanocapsules. In addition, these nanocapsules did not cause a significant change in the transepithelial resistance of the monolayer. Finally, the results of the in vivo studies showed the capacity of chitosan-PEG nanocapsules to enhance and prolong the intestinal absorption of salmon calcitonin. Additionally, they indicated that the pegylation degree affected the in vivo performance of the nanocapsules. Therefore, by modulating the pegylation degree of chitosan, it was possible to obtain nanocapsules with a good stability, a low cytotoxicity and with absorption enhancing properties. PMID:16481062

  12. Facile synthesis of acyl chitosan isothiocyanates and their application to porphyrin-appended chitosan derivative.

    PubMed

    Shibano, Masaya; Nishida, Shouko; Saito, Yasuko; Kamitakahara, Hiroshi; Takano, Toshiyuki

    2014-11-26

    Chitosan (1) was reacted with phenylisothiocyanate in 5% AcOH/H2O to give N-phenylthiocarbamoyl chitosan (2) with a degree of substitution (DS) of N-phenylthiocarbamoyl groups of 0.86 in 87.1% yield. The following acylation of compound 2 with hexanoyl chloride in the presence of pyridine afforded 3,6-di-O-2,3-hexanoyl chitosan isothiocyanate (4a) with a DS of the isothiocyanate groups of 0.70 in high yield, unexpectedly. Compound 4a exhibited high levels of reactivity toward various amines to give the corresponding N-thiocarbamoyl chitosan derivatives in high yields. Other acyl (decanoyl (4b), myristroyl (4c), stearoyl (4d), benzoyl (4e)) chitosan isothiocyanates were also prepared from chitosan (1) in high yields. To evaluate the potential applications of acyl chitosan isothiocyanates, N-(triphenylporphynyl)thiocarbamoyl chitosan derivative 6 with a DS of the triphenylporphynyl groups of 0.46 was prepared from compound 4b. The Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer film of compound 6 gave a good photon-to-electron conversion performance. PMID:25256486

  13. Effect of chitosan molecular weight on rheological behavious of chitosan modified nanoclay at highly hydrated state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of chitosan molecular weight (M(cs)) on the rheological properties of chitosan modified clay (CMCs) at highly hydrated state was investigated. With special emphasis on its effect on the thixotropy of CMCs, the structure recovery at rest after underwent a pre-shearing process was further perfo...

  14. Chitosan modified with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for magnetic resonance imaging of DNA/chitosan nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    of Biomedical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Que., Canada a r t i c l e i n f o Article history online 22 January 2010 Keywords: Chitosan DTPA Gadolinium Covalent bonding DNA pEGFPLuc Gene delivery of deacetylation (noted DDA)) by covalent linkage of DTPA to chitosan amine groups confirmed by Fourier transform

  15. Plasticized chitosan/polyolefin films produced by extrusion.

    PubMed

    Matet, Marie; Heuzey, Marie-Claude; Ajji, Abdellah; Sarazin, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Plasticized chitosan and polyethylene blends were produced through a single-pass extrusion process. Using a twin-screw extruder, chitosan plasticization was achieved in the presence of an acetic acid solution and glycerol, and directly mixed with metallocene polyethylene, mPE, to produce a masterbatch. Different dilutions of the masterbatch (2, 5 and 10 wt% of plasticized chitosan), in the presence of ethylene vinyl acetate, EVA, were subsequently achieved in single screw film extrusion. Very small plasticized chitosan domains (number average diameter <5 ?m) were visible in the polymeric matrix. The resulting films presented a brown color and increasing haze with chitosan plasticized content. Mechanical properties of the mPE films were affected by the presence of plasticized chitosan, but improvement was observed as a result of some compatibility between mPE and chitosan in the presence of EVA. Finally the incorporation of plasticized chitosan affected mPE water vapor permeability while oxygen permeability remained constant. PMID:25498623

  16. Development and characterization of chitosan-PEG-TAT nanoparticles for the intracellular delivery of siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Kahouli, Imen; Prakash, Satya

    2013-01-01

    Recently, cell-penetrating peptides have been proposed to translocate antibodies, proteins, and other molecules in targeted drug delivery. The proposed study presents the synthesis and characterization of a peptide-based chitosan nanoparticle for small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery, in-vitro. Specifically, the synthesis included polyethylene glycol (PEG), a hydrophilic polymer, and trans-activated transcription (TAT) peptide, which were chemically conjugated on the chitosan polymer. The conjugation was achieved using N-Hydroxysuccinimide-PEG-maleimide (heterobifunctional PEG) as a cross-linker, with the bifunctional PEG facilitating the amidation reaction through its N-Hydroxysuccinimide group and reacting with the amines on chitosan. At the other end of PEG, the maleimide group was chemically conjugated with the cysteine-modified TAT peptide. The degree of substitution on chitosan with PEG and on PEG with TAT was confirmed using colorimetric assays. The resultant polymer was used to form nanoparticles complexing siRNA, which were then characterized for particle size, morphology, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity. The nanoparticles were tested in-vitro on mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro2a). Particle size and surface charge were characterized and an optimal pH condition and PEG molecular weight were determined to form sterically stable nanoparticles. Results indicate 7.5% of the amines in chitosan polymer were conjugated to the PEG and complete conjugation of TAT peptide was observed on the synthesized PEGylated chitosan polymer. Compared with unmodified chitosan nanoparticles, the nanoparticles formed at pH 6 were monodispersed and of <100 nm in size, exhibiting maximum cell transfection ability and very low cytotoxicity. Thus, this research may be of significance in translocating biotherapeutic molecules for intracellular delivery applications. PMID:23723699

  17. Chitosan: An Update on Potential Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho; Chan, Wai Yee

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural polycationic linear polysaccharide derived from chitin. The low solubility of chitosan in neutral and alkaline solution limits its application. Nevertheless, chemical modification into composites or hydrogels brings to it new functional properties for different applications. Chitosans are recognized as versatile biomaterials because of their non-toxicity, low allergenicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. This review presents the recent research, trends and prospects in chitosan. Some special pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are also highlighted. PMID:26287217

  18. Improved antibacterial activity of cephalosporins loaded in magnetic chitosan microspheres.

    PubMed

    Chifiriuc, Carmen Mariana; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Croitoru, Cristina; Mihaiescu, Dan Eduard; Lazar, Veronica

    2012-10-15

    During the present study, we have evaluated magnetic chitosan as a potential drug delivery device, by specifically determining if chitosan could elute antibiotics in an active form that would be efficacious in inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli growth. We have demonstrated that the incorporation of cephalosporins of second, third and fourth generation into magnetic chitosan microspheres can possibly lead to an improved delivery of antibiotics in active forms, probably due to the inherent properties of chitosan. PMID:22732671

  19. Chitosan-vancomysin composite biomaterial as a laser activated surgical adhesive with regional antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Foster, L John R; Thomson, Kyle; Marçal, Helder; Butt, Julian; Watson, Stephanie L; Wakefield, Denis

    2010-12-13

    We have used laser irradiation to enhance the natural adhesiveness of chitosan to form a thin film surgical adhesive. Prevention of infection at surgical sites often utilizes systemic provision of antibiotics with reduced local efficacy and potential side effects. In the work reported here, we investigate the bactericidal properties of laser-irradiated chitosan films and their impregnation with the antibiotic vancomycin. Despite strong efficacy in solution, chitosan films showed no antimicrobial activity against representatives of common pathogens Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , and S. epidermidis . In contrast, a composite of chitosan adhesive and the antibiotic vancomycin showed therapeutically significant release profiles greater that the Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBCs) for the Staphylococci over a 28 day period. These composite films had greater crystallinity, up to 28 ± 3 compared to 8.9 ± 2%, for its unblended counterpart. Despite a significant increase in material strength from 31.4 ± 4 to 77.5 ± 5 MPa, flexibility was still maintained with an elongation to break around 5 ± 2% and fold endurance of approximately 30 ± 3-folds. Laser irradiation had no apparent effect on the release or activity of the antibiotic which survived transient temperatures at the film-tissue interface during infrared irradiation of around 54 °C. Furthermore, significant adhesive strength was still apparent, 15.6 ± 2 KPa. Thus, we have developed a laser-activated bioadhesive with the potential to close wounds while facilitating the prevention of microbial infection through local release of antibiotic targeted to the site of potential infection. PMID:21080623

  20. Pyridine-grafted chitosan derivative as an antifungal agent.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ruixiu; Duan, Yunfei; Fang, Qiang; Wang, Xiangyang; Huang, Jianying

    2016-04-01

    Pyridine moieties were introduced into chitosan by nucleophilic substitution to afford N-(1-carboxybutyl-4-pyridinium) chitosan chloride (pyridine chitosan). The resulting chitosan derivative was well characterized, and its antifungal activity was examined, based on the inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination. The results indicated that pyridine chitosan exhibited enhanced antifungal activity by comparison with pristine chitosan. The values of the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimal fungicidal concentration of pyridine chitosan against Fulvia fulva were 0.13mg/ml and 1mg/ml, respectively, while the corresponding values against Botrytis cinerea were 0.13mg/ml and 4mg/ml, respectively. Severe morphological changes of pyridine chitosan-treated B. cinerea were observed, indicative that pyridine chitosan could damage and deform the structure of fungal hyphae and subsequently inhibit strain growth. Non-toxicity of pyridine chitosan was demonstrated by an acute toxicity study. These results are beneficial for assessing the potential utilization of this chitosan derivative and for exploring new functional antifungal agents with chitosan in the food industry. PMID:26593505

  1. Physicochemical and biological characterization of chitosan-microRNA nanocomplexes for gene delivery to MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Carballal, B.; Aaldering, L. J.; Ritzefeld, M.; Pereira, S.; Sewald, N.; Moerschbacher, B. M.; Götte, M.; Goycoolea, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer gene therapy requires the design of non-viral vectors that carry genetic material and selectively deliver it with minimal toxicity. Non-viral vectors based on cationic natural polymers can form electrostatic complexes with negatively-charged polynucleotides such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Here we investigated the physicochemical/biophysical properties of chitosan–hsa-miRNA-145 (CS–miRNA) nanocomplexes and the biological responses of MCF-7 breast cancer cells cultured in vitro. Self-assembled CS–miRNA nanocomplexes were produced with a range of (+/?) charge ratios (from 0.6 to 8) using chitosans with various degrees of acetylation and molecular weight. The Z-average particle diameter of the complexes was <200?nm. The surface charge increased with increasing amount of chitosan. We observed that chitosan induces the base-stacking of miRNA in a concentration dependent manner. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy shows that complexes formed by low degree of acetylation chitosans are highly stable, regardless of the molecular weight. We found no evidence that these complexes were cytotoxic towards MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, CS–miRNA nanocomplexes with degree of acetylation 12% and 29% were biologically active, showing successful downregulation of target mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells. Our data, therefore, shows that CS–miRNA complexes offer a promising non-viral platform for breast cancer gene therapy. PMID:26324407

  2. In vitro treatments of Echinococcus granulosus with fungal chitosan, as a novel biomolecule

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Fakhar, Mahdi; Chabra, Aroona; Hosseini, Mahboobeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determined the antiparasitic activity of the isolated chitosan from Penicillium viridicatum, Penicillium aurantiogriseum and commercial chitosan against protoscolicidal of hydatid cysts were determined. Methods After isolating chitosan from fungal cell walls, four concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400 µg/mL) of each type of prepared chitosan and commercial chitosan were used for 10, 30, 60, and 180 min, respectively. Results Among different type of chitosan, commercial chitosan with the highest degree of deacetylation showed high scolicidal activity in vitro. Fungal chitosan could be recommended, as good as commercial chitosan, for hydatic cysts control. Conclusions It seems to be a good alternative to synthetic and chemical scolicidal. PMID:24075347

  3. Safety evaluation of chitosan and chitosan acid salts from Panurilus argus lobster.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Merino, Nelson; Valdes, Odalys; Dominguez, Jesus; Spencer, Evelyn; de la Paz, Nilia; Aparicio, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural polymer with excellent properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity and adsorptive abilities. We obtained chitosan derived from Panurilus argus lobster shell and its lactate and acetate salts to introduce in pharmaceutical industry. We examined the single and repeated dose toxicity of chitosan and its lactate and acetate salts. Single oral doses of 2000 mg/kg were well tolerated for all three materials. In the repeat dose tests, animals treated with chitosan only show a slight erythrocytes increase. Variations in erythrocyte and leukocyte count and some biochemical parameters were observed in animals treated with chitosan acid salts. One g/kg orally was found to be the subacute NOAEL for chitosan due to the hematological findings observed were not considered adverse. Chitosans obtained from Panurilus argus lobster shell have low toxicity and may be safe in rats because it did not cause any lethality or changes in the general behavior in both the single and repeated dose toxicity studies. PMID:25450835

  4. Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-? in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  5. Kinetic study on urea uptake with chitosan based sorbent materials.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chen; Wilson, Lee D

    2016-01-01

    A one-pot kinetic uptake study of urea in aqueous solution with various chitosan sorbent materials such as pristine chitosan, cross-linked chitosan with glutaraldehyde from low (C-1) to higher (C-2) glutaraldehyde content, and a Cu(II) complex of a glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan material (C-3) is reported herein. The kinetic uptake profiles were analyzed by the pseudo-first order (PFO) and pseudo-second-order (PSO) models, respectively. The uptake rate constant of urea and the sorption capacity (qe) of high molecular weight (HMW) chitosan, C-1, C-2, and C-3 were best described by the PFO model. The uptake rate constant of urea with the various sorbents is listed in ascending order: HMW chitosanchitosan (48.1)?C-1 (44.7)chitosan displays relatively rapid urea uptake and greater adsorption capacity when compared with pristine chitosan. The observed trends are in agreement with the greater surface accessibility and pore structure properties of cross-linked chitosan based on scanning electron microscopy studies. These results further illustrate the rational design of chitosan-based materials for the controlled uptake of urea in aquatic environments. PMID:26453866

  6. Chitosan in Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery: Focus on Local Vaginal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Toril; Bleher, Stefan; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Tho, Ingunn; Mattsson, Sofia; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug therapy destined for localized drug treatment is gaining increasing importance in today’s drug development. Chitosan, due to its known biodegradability, bioadhesiveness and excellent safety profile offers means to improve mucosal drug therapy. We have used chitosan as mucoadhesive polymer to develop liposomes able to ensure prolonged residence time at vaginal site. Two types of mucoadhesive liposomes, namely the chitosan-coated liposomes and chitosan-containing liposomes, where chitosan is both embedded and surface-available, were made of soy phosphatidylcholine with entrapped fluorescence markers of two molecular weights, FITC-dextran 4000 and 20,000, respectively. Both liposomal types were characterized for their size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and the in vitro release profile, and compared to plain liposomes. The proof of chitosan being both surface-available as well as embedded into the liposomes in the chitosan-containing liposomes was found. The capability of the surface-available chitosan to interact with the model porcine mucin was confirmed for both chitosan-containing and chitosan-coated liposomes implying potential mucoadhesive behavior. Chitosan-containing liposomes were shown to be superior in respect to the simplicity of preparation, FITC-dextran load, mucoadhesiveness and in vitro release and are expected to ensure prolonged residence time on the vaginal mucosa providing localized sustained release of entrapped model substances. PMID:25574737

  7. Chitosan Fibers Modified with HAp/?–TCP Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wawro, Dariusz; Pighinelli, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a method for preparing chitosan fibers modified with hydroxyapatite (HAp), tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), and HAp/?-TCP nanoparticles. Fiber-grade chitosan derived from the northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and nanoparticles of tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) suspended in a diluted chitosan solution were used in the investigation. Diluted chitosan solution containing nanoparticles of Hap/?-TCP was introduced to a 5.16 wt% solution of chitosan in 3.0 wt% acetic acid. The properties of the spinning solutions were examined. Chitosan fibers modified with nanoparticles of HAp/?-TCP were characterized by a level of tenacity and calcium content one hundred times higher than that of regular chitosan fibers. PMID:22174598

  8. Surface structure of chitosan and hybrid chitosan-amylose films-restoration of the antibacterial properties of chitosan in the amylose film.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shiho; Ying, Bo; Yamane, Hideki; Tachi, Hideki; Shimahashi, Katsumasa; Ogawa, Kozo; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2007-11-26

    The surface structure of films prepared by casting aqueous solutions of mixtures of water soluble chitosan (WSC) and amylose as well as a fully deacetylated chitosan was studied. Zeta potential measurements indicated that the surface of WSC and fully deacetylated chitosan films is positively charged but very weakly, whereas, a film of amylose blended with WSC exhibited an obvious positive charge. X-ray photoelectron spectra of these films suggest that less amino groups are exposed on the surface of WSC and fully deacetylated chitosan films, whereas, more amino groups are exposed on the surface of a WSC film blended with amylose. A sheet structure in which free amino groups are less exposed on the surface of the film of WSC or fully deacetylated chitosan is proposed. This accounts for the loss of antibacterial activity of chitosan on the WSC film surface. When blended with amylose, the morphology of the film may be disrupted, resulting in strong antibacterial properties. PMID:17669384

  9. Structural Characterization of Chitosan-Clay Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paluszkiewicz, C.; Weselucha-Birczynska, A.; Stodolak, E.

    2010-08-01

    Novel materials originating from renowable sources mainly consist of biopolymers and their composites or nanocomposites. A typical material belonging to this group is chitosane (CS), which is a cationic natural polysaccharide that can be produced by alkaline N-deacetylation of chitine. Chitosane has a variety of applications in biomedical products, cosmetics, and food processing [1, 2].Organic-inorganic hybrid materials basing on chitosane and nanoclay (montmoryllonite, MMT) were characterized by the vibrational spectrocopy methods (Micro-Raman spectroscopy and FT-Raman spectroscopy) and the thermal analysis methods (TG, DSC). It was shown, that small amount on a nanofiller (MMT, 3 wt.%) used to modify the polymer matrix influences the structure of its polymeric chains.

  10. Quantum dot/glycol chitosan fluorescent nanoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Alexandra Ap; Mansur, Herman S

    2015-01-01

    In this study, novel carbohydrate-based nanoconjugates combining chemically modified chitosan with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) were designed and synthesised via single-step aqueous route at room temperature. Glycol chitosan (G-CHI) was used as the capping ligand aiming to improve the water solubility of the nanoconjugates to produce stable and biocompatible colloidal systems. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterise the synthesis and the relative stability of biopolymer-capped semiconductor nanocrystals. The results clearly demonstrated that the glycol chitosan derivative was remarkably effective at nucleating and stabilising semiconductor CdS quantum dots in aqueous suspensions under acidic, neutral, and alkaline media with an average size of approximately 2.5 nm and a fluorescent activity in the visible range of the spectra. PMID:25897312

  11. Quantum dot/glycol chitosan fluorescent nanoconjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, Alexandra AP; Mansur, Herman S.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, novel carbohydrate-based nanoconjugates combining chemically modified chitosan with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) were designed and synthesised via single-step aqueous route at room temperature. Glycol chitosan (G-CHI) was used as the capping ligand aiming to improve the water solubility of the nanoconjugates to produce stable and biocompatible colloidal systems. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterise the synthesis and the relative stability of biopolymer-capped semiconductor nanocrystals. The results clearly demonstrated that the glycol chitosan derivative was remarkably effective at nucleating and stabilising semiconductor CdS quantum dots in aqueous suspensions under acidic, neutral, and alkaline media with an average size of approximately 2.5 nm and a fluorescent activity in the visible range of the spectra.

  12. Comparison and Characterisation of Regenerated Chitosan from 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride and Chitosan from Crab Shells

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer derived from chitin which is naturally occurring in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. This paper reports dissolution and regeneration of chitosan by directly dissolving in an ionic liquid solvent, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl). This will provide an ideal platform to solubilise these kinds of polymers to achieve the dissolution. The current study dissolved chitosan from crab shell utilising BMIMCl as a solvent and characterised the resultant regenerated polymer. The regenerated chitosan showed increased hydrogen bonding when characterised by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis. In addition, the study also compared the characteristics of regenerated and generic chitosan. The regenerated chitosan was also evaluated for antimicrobial properties and showed to possess antibacterial features similar to the commercial grade. This method can be utilised in future for blending of polymers with chitosan in a dissolved phase. PMID:26090452

  13. Nasal delivery of insulin using chitosan microspheres.

    PubMed

    Varshosaz, J; Sadrai, H; Alinagari, R

    2004-11-01

    Nasal delivery of insulin is an alternative route for administration of this drug. The objective of this study was preparation of chitosan microspheres for insulin nasal delivery. After preparation of insulin chitosan microspheres by emulsification-cross linking process, the effect of chitosan quantity (200-400mg), cross-linker type (ascorbic acid or ascorbyl palmitate) and amount (70-140 mg) were studied on the morphology, particle size, loading efficiency, flow and release of insulin from the microspheres by a factorial design. Optimized formulation was administered nasally in four groups of diabetic rats and their serum insulin levels were analysed by the insulin enzyme immunoassay kit and the serum glucose by the glucose oxidase kits. Insulin loading in microspheres was between 4.7-6.4% w/w, preparation efficiency more than 65% and mean particle size was 20-45 microm. In most cases, drug released followed a Higuchi model. Ascorbic acid caused an increase in stability, particle size and T50%, while decreased the loading efficiency and production efficiency. Increasing the chitosan content, increased particle size, flow and insulin release rate form the microspheres. The increase of cross-linking percentage decreased the flow and size of the microspheres while increase of cross-linking percentage promoted the stability and decreased DE8% of insulin. Microspheres containing 400mg of chitosan and 70mg ascorbyl palmitate caused a 67% reduction of blood glucose compared to i.v. route and absolute bioavaliability of insulin was 44%. The results showed that chitosan microspheres of insulin are absorbable from nasal route. PMID:15799226

  14. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    SciTech Connect

    Fauzi, Iqbal Arcana, I Made

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup ?6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup ?4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup ?3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  15. Effect of chitosan and its derivatives as antifungal and preservative agents on postharvest green asparagus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Miao; Wu, Chu; Ren, Gerui; Liang, Xinle; Wang, Xiangyang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-07-15

    The antifungal activity and effect of high-molecular weight chitosan (H-chitosan), low-molecular weight chitosan (L-chitosan) and carboxymethyl chitosan (C-chitosan) coatings on postharvest green asparagus were evaluated. L-chitosan and H-chitosan efficiently inhibited the radial growth of Fusarium concentricum separated from postharvest green asparagus at 4 mg/ml, which appeared to be more effective in inhibiting spore germination and germ tube elongation than that of C-chitosan. Notably, spore germination was totally inhibited by L-chitosan and H-chitosan at 0.05 mg/ml. Coated asparagus did not show any apparent sign of phytotoxicity and maintained good quality over 28 days of cold storage, according to the weight loss and general quality aspects. Present results inferred that chitosan could act as an attractive preservative agent for postharvest green asparagus owing to its antifungal activity and its ability to stimulate some defense responses during storage. PMID:24594161

  16. 78 FR 70308 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of Chitosan/IL-12 Conjugate as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ...chitosan or a chitosan derivative. Similar compositions are described wherein chitosan or a derivative forms a micro- or nanoparticle, which have resulted in a more immunogenic presentation of antigen compared to antigen in solution. Using a...

  17. Enteric Viral Surrogate Reduction by Chitosan.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Michael Davidson, P; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Enteric viruses are a major problem in the food industry, especially as human noroviruses are the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Chitosan is known to be effective against some enteric viral surrogates, but more detailed studies are needed to determine the precise application variables. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of increasing chitosan concentration (0.7-1.5 % w/v) on the cultivable enteric viral surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and bacteriophages (MS2 and phiX174) at 37 °C. Two chitosans (53 and 222 kDa) were dissolved in water (53 kDa) or 1 % acetic acid (222 KDa) at 0.7-1.5 %, and were then mixed with each virus to obtain a titer of ~5 log plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. These mixtures were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C. Controls included untreated viruses in phosphate-buffered saline and viruses were enumerated by plaque assays. The 53 kDa chitosan at the concentrations tested reduced FCV-F9, MNV-1, MS2, and phi X174 by 2.6-2.9, 0.1-0.4, 2.6-2.8, and 0.7-0.9 log PFU/mL, respectively, while reduction by 222 kDa chitosan was 2.2-2.4, 0.8-1.0, 2.6-5.2, and 0.5-0.8 log PFU/mL, respectively. The 222 kDa chitosan at 1 and 0.7 % w/v in acetic acid (pH 4.5) caused the greatest reductions of MS2 by 5.2 logs and 2.6 logs, respectively. Overall, chitosan treatments showed the greatest reduction of MS2, followed by FCV-F9, phi X174, and MNV-1. These two chitosans may contribute to the reduction of enteric viruses at the concentrations tested but would require use of other hurdles to eliminate food borne viruses. PMID:26162243

  18. New Insights into Chitosan-DNA Interactions Using Isothermal Titration Microcalorimetry

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    New Insights into Chitosan-DNA Interactions Using Isothermal Titration Microcalorimetry Pei Lian Ma of deacetylation (DDA), and molecular weight (Mn) of chitosan, using isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC

  19. Ultrathin Chitosan Films with Tailored Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Chris; Stukalov, Oleg; Dutcher, John

    2004-03-01

    Chitosan is a biodegradable polysaccharide derived from seashell waste products. Though abundant, the industrial use of this polymer has up until recently been limited to water treatment products. The high water absorbency and biocompatibility of chitosan have enabled its use as a hydrogel in specialty applications such as wound dressings and drug delivery systems. The most convenient method of processing chitosan is solution casting to form films, since the polymer is soluble in weakly acidic solvents. Based on previous work with synthetic polymers, we have developed a protocol for preparing thin, uniform films of chitosan by spincoating from solution onto silicon substrates. Films with thicknesses between 30 and 600 nm (as measured by ellipsometry) and rms roughnesses of less than 1 nm (as measured by atomic force microscopy) were prepared. After preparation, these films quickly absorb water in the presence of high humidity. Heating of the films to high temperature causes large reductions in film thickness h and index of refraction n. After cooling the films to room temperature, h and n remain constant in the presence of high humidity. Using this simple procedure, we are able to produce films with tailored thickness, optical properties and water absorbency.

  20. Chitosan-based nanocarriers for antimalarials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Iren; Popa, Adriana; Raita, Oana; Bende, A.; Borodi, Gh.; Bratu, I.

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this research was to synthesize and characterize chitosan-based liquid and solid materials with unique absorptive and mechanical properties as carriers for quinine - one of the most used antimalarial drug. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare solid release systems as sponges is presented. The preparation by double emulsification of CTS hydrogels carrying quinine as anti-malarial drug is reported. The concentration of quinine in the CTS hydrogel was 0.08 mmol. Chitosan - drug loaded hydrogel was used to generate solid sponges by freeze-drying at -610°C and 0.09 atm. Structural investigations of the solid formulations were done by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), spectrofluorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry. The results indicated that the drug molecule is forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) demonstrates the presence of free radicals in a wide range and the antioxidant activity for chitosan - drug supramolecular cross-linked assemblies.

  1. In Brief. ... Sea Lampreys, Chitosan, and an

    E-print Network

    Institute of Tech- nology reports. The film is said to be edible, biodegradable, and relatively strong.... · ...Chitosan, a derivative of chitin, has been successfully turned into trans- parent film which might find use as dye acceptors, food wrappers, and possibly as artificial skin for burn treatment, the Massachusetts

  2. Original Article Electrospun ChitosanAlginate Nanofibers

    E-print Network

    Khan, Saad A.

    Original Article Electrospun Chitosan­Alginate Nanofibers with In Situ Polyelectrolyte Complexation scaffolds was investigated. These nanofibers crosslink in situ during the electrospinning process, and thus) is required for the electrospinning, it can be subsequently removed from the nanofibers simply by incubating

  3. Photochemical tissue bonding with chitosan adhesive films

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB) is a promising sutureless technique for tissue repair. PTB is often achieved by applying a solution of rose bengal (RB) between two tissue edges, which are irradiated by a green laser to crosslink collagen fibers with minimal heat production. In this study, RB has been incorporated in chitosan films to create a novel tissue adhesive that is laser-activated. Methods Adhesive films, based on chitosan and containing ~0.1 wt% RB were manufactured and bonded to calf intestine by a solid state laser (? = 532 nm, Fluence~110 J/cm2, spot size~0.5 cm). A single-column tensiometer, interfaced with a personal computer, tested the bonding strength. K-type thermocouples recorded the temperature (T) at the adhesive-tissue interface during laser irradiation. Human fibroblasts were also seeded on the adhesive and cultured for 48 hours to assess cell growth. Results The RB-chitosan adhesive bonded firmly to the intestine with adhesion strength of 15 ± 2 kPa, (n = 31). The adhesion strength dropped to 0.5 ± 0.1 (n = 8) kPa when the laser was not applied to the adhesive. The average temperature of the adhesive increased from 26°C to 32°C during laser exposure. Fibroblasts grew confluent on the adhesive without morphological changes. Conclusion A new biocompatible chitosan adhesive has been developed that bonds photochemically to tissue with minimal temperature increase. PMID:20825632

  4. Hydrothermally Treated Chitosan Hydrogel Loaded with Copper and Zinc Particles as a Potential Micronutrient-Based Antimicrobial Feed Additive

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Parthiban; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale use of antibiotics in food animal farms as growth promoters is considered as one of the driving factors behind increasing incidence of microbial resistance. Several alternatives are under investigation to reduce the amount of total antibiotics used in order to avoid any potential transmission of drug resistant microbes to humans through food chain. Copper sulfate and zinc oxide salts are used as feed supplement as they exhibit antimicrobial properties in addition to being micronutrients. However, higher dosage of copper and zinc (often needed for growth promoting effect) to animals is not advisable because of potential environmental toxicity arising from excreta. Innovative strategies are needed to utilize the complete potential of trace minerals as growth promoting feed supplements. To this end, we describe here the development and preliminary characterization of hydrothermally treated chitosan as a delivery vehicle for copper and zinc nanoparticles that could act as a micronutrient-based antimicrobial feed supplement. Material characterization studies showed that hydrothermal treatment makes a chitosan hydrogel that rearranged to capture the copper and zinc metal particles. Systemic antimicrobial assays showed that this chitosan biopolymer matrix embedded with copper (57.6??g/ml) and zinc (800??g/ml) reduced the load of model gut bacteria (target organisms of growth promoting antibiotics), such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Lactobacillus fermentum under in vitro conditions. Particularly, the chitosan/copper/zinc hydrogel exhibited significantly higher antimicrobial effect against L. fermentum, one of the primary targets of antibiotic growth promoters. Additionally, the chitosan matrix ameliorated the cytotoxicity levels of metal supplements when screened against a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and in TE-71, a murine thymic epithelial cell line. In this proof-of-concept study, we show that by using chitosan as a delivery platform, micronutrient-based metal feed additives could be used to minimize the undesirable levels of microbial population without causing significant cytotoxic effect under in vitro conditions. These findings provide the platform for further studies in target animal models to quantify the required physiological concentrations of copper and zinc when delivered via a chitosan hydrogel platform to elicit a growth promoting effect without causing any toxicity. PMID:26664989

  5. Flexible fibers wet-spun from formic acid modified chitosan.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinlei; Liu, Dagang; Hu, Chengming; Sun, Fengxiang; Gustave, Williamson; Tian, Huafeng; Yang, Shuguang

    2016-01-20

    The rigidity and low strain of chitosan fibers hindered their broader utility for biomedical applications. In present work, formic acid was employed as an efficient modifier for chitosan to prepare flexible fibers wet-spun from the formic acid modified chitosan solution. The formation of amide linkages between chitosan and formic acid was confirmed by FTIR, (13)C NMR, (1)H NMR and XRD measurements. The degree of formylation evaluated by (1)H NMR spectra was varied from 14.1% to 37.2% as a function of the reaction temperature. The results of the mechanical properties showed that the as-spun fibers exhibited an enhanced ductility with a maximum elongation at break of 21.7% compared with that spun from the chitosan dissolved in diluted acetic acid. The novel flexible chitosan fibers were anticipated to be used as comfortable wound dressing and bandages in biomedical fields. PMID:26572456

  6. Chitosan-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Levengood, Sheeny Lan; Zhang, Miqin

    2014-01-01

    Bone defects requiring grafts to promote healing are frequently occurring and costly problems in health care. Chitosan, a biodegradable, naturally occurring polymer, has drawn considerable attention in recent years as scaffolding material in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Chitosan is especially attractive as a bone scaffold material because it supports the attachment and proliferation of osteoblast cells as well as formation of mineralized bone matrix. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of bone tissue engineering and the unique properties of chitosan as a scaffolding material to treat bone defects for hard tissue regeneration. We present the common methods for fabrication and characterization of chitosan scaffolds, and discuss the influence of material preparation and addition of polymeric or ceramic components or biomolecules on chitosan scaffold properties such as mechanical strength, structural integrity, and functional bone regeneration. Finally, we highlight recent advances in development of chitosan-based scaffolds with enhanced bone regeneration capability. PMID:24999429

  7. The Use of chitosan in The Formation of Silver Nanoparticles, Chitosanic Nanoparticles and Fibrous Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelgawad, Abdelrahman Mohamed

    Nanoscale materials have attracted much attention in the last two decades due to their unique properties. The size effect attains new chemical and physical properties to these materials. Nanoparticles and nanofiber are major component of nanomaterials and they have heavily investigated in the literature for different applications. Nanoparticles could be produced from both metals as well as polymers. Chitosan, which is a natural polymer, can be used as capping agent in the preparation of metallic nanoparticles and itself, can produce nanoparticles. The utilization of nanoparticles and nanofibers for wound dressing materials is a very popular approach. Acquiring antibacterial properties to the wound dressing materials could be obtained either by formulation of nanomaterials composites or direct chemical modification of the substance. To improve the antibacterial properties of chitosan two approaches were applied. First, is through the formulation of chitosan with silver nanoparticles and the formation of nanofiber mats. In this study, the concepts of green chemistry were applied and silver nanoparticles were prepared in high concentration using chitosan as a capping polymer and glucose as a reducing agent. Nanofiber mats of polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan/silvernanoparticles were produced via electrospinning. The antibacterial activity of these fibers shows bactericidal effect against E. coli at low concentrations of Ag-NPs. In the second approach, direct chemical modification of chitosan was performed by grafting of Iodoacetic acid to the amino group at carbon-2. The chemical structure of chitosan Iodoacetamide derivative (CIA) was confirmed by FTIR and H1-NMR. The derivative was amorphous and water soluble at neutral pH. The minimum inhibitory concentration of CIA, against E. coli, was 400ig/mL and the derivative was bacteriostatic after 4h of treatment. Nanofiber mats of polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan/chitosan Iodoacetamide were produced via electrospinning. The antibacterial testing of the nanofiber mats were performed according to AATCC-100 protocol. PVA/CS/CIA system was found to have superior antibacterial action over PVA/CS/thiolchitosan counterparts. In the last part of the thesis, chitosan nanoparticles were prepared; for the first time in the literature instead of Tripolyphosphate (TPP), via ionic crosslinking with hexametaphosphate (HMP). A systematic study was conducted to apply the chitosan/HMP nanoparticles as a hydrophilic drug carrier for protein drugs. Chitosan/HMP systems were found to be unstable in the acidic medium. The optimum complexation conditions were established as pH 5 and the nanoparticles showed better stability at 21 days. Chitosan concentration plays an important role in improving particles stability by increasing zeta potential; however, it adversely affects the particles size. BSA loading capacity of chitosan/HMP was higher, 96.3%, than that of TPP, 91.87%, equivalents due to larger average size.

  8. Chitosan nanocapsules as carriers for oral peptide delivery: effect of chitosan molecular weight and type of salt on the in vitro behaviour and in vivo effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Prego, C; Torres, D; Alonso, M J

    2006-01-01

    We have recently reported preliminary data showing the efficacy of chitosan nanocapsules as carriers for oral peptide delivery. In the present work, our aim was to investigate the influence of some chitosan properties, such as the molecular weight and type of salt, on the interaction of these nanocapsules with the Caco-2 cells and also on their in vivo effectiveness. Chitosan nanocapsules were prepared by the solvent displacement technique using high (450 kDa) and medium (160 kDa) molecular weight chitosan glutamate as well as high molecular weight chitosan hydrochloride (270 kDa). The results indicated that the size of the nanocapsules was dependent on the chitosan molecular weight, whereas the zeta potential and the association efficiency of salmon calcitonin were not affected by the chitosan properties. Upon incubation with the Caco-2 cells, chitosan nanocapsules exhibited a dose-dependent cellular viability, which was hardly affected by, either the chitosan molecular weight or, the type of salt. In addition, it was observed that the transepithelial electrical resistance of the Caco-2 monolayer was not significantly modified upon their exposure to chitosan nanocapsules. The results of the in vivo studies, following oral administration to rats, indicated that chitosan nanocapsules were able to reduce significantly the serum calcium levels, and to prolong this reduction for at least 24 hours, irrespective of the type of chitosan salt and molecular weight of chitosan. Consequently, the performance of chitosan nanocapsules as oral carriers for salmon calcitonin was not affected by the characteristics of chitosan. PMID:17048499

  9. Chitin and Chitosan as Direct Compression Excipients in Pharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Badwan, Adnan A.; Rashid, Iyad; Al Omari, Mahmoud M.H.; Darras, Fouad H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the numerous uses of chitin and chitosan as new functional materials of high potential in various fields, they are still behind several directly compressible excipients already dominating pharmaceutical applications. There are, however, new attempts to exploit chitin and chitosan in co-processing techniques that provide a product with potential to act as a direct compression (DC) excipient. This review outlines the compression properties of chitin and chitosan in the context of DC pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25810109

  10. Receptor-mediated gene delivery using chemically modified chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. H.; Jiang, H. L.; Nah, J. W.; Cho, M. H.; Akaike, T.; Cho, C. S.

    2007-09-01

    Chitosan has been investigated as a non-viral vector because it has several advantages such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and low toxicity with high cationic potential. However, the low specificity and low transfection efficiency of chitosan need to be solved prior to clinical application. In this paper, we focused on the galactose or mannose ligand modification of chitosan for enhancement of cell specificity and transfection efficiency via receptor-mediated endocytosis in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Dual effects of chitosan decoration on the liposomal membrane physicochemical properties as affected by chitosan concentration and molecular conformation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chen; Xue, Jin; Eric, Karangwa; Feng, Biao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Shuqin

    2013-07-17

    This study was devoted to a further understanding of the dependence of liposomal membrane properties on chitosan conformation and proved the dual effects of chitosan. The concentration dependence of chitosan conformation in aqueous solution was illustrated by surface tension and fluorescence probe techniques. Fluorescence and Raman spectra were subsequently employed to investigate the dynamic and structural changes of the liposomal membrane resulting from chitosan decoration. Results showed that the unfolded and crimped chains of chitosan flatly adsorbed onto the membrane surface via electrostatic attraction and favored liposome stability. Furthermore, the adsorption of crimped chains seemed stronger due to the embedding of their hydrophobic moieties. However, the presence of chitosan coils induced the increase in membrane fluidity, the intrachain disorder in lipid molecules, and the gauche conformation change of choline group. Dynamic light scattering and lipid oxidation measurements demonstrated that this perturbation was correlated with the permeation of coils into the lipid bilayer. PMID:23772808

  12. Surface active properties of chitosan and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Elsabee, Maher Z; Morsi, Rania Elsayed; Al-Sabagh, A M

    2009-11-01

    This review discusses the definition of surface active agents and specifically natural polymeric surface active agents. Chitosan by itself was found to have weak surface activity since it has no hydrophobic segments. Chemical modifications of chitosan could improve such surface activity. This is achieved by introducing hydrophobic substituents in its glucosidic group. Several examples of chitosan derivatives with surfactant activity have been surveyed. The surface active polymers form micelles and aggregates which have enormous importance in the entrapment of water-insoluble drugs and consequently applications in the controlled drug delivery and many biomedical fields. Chitosan also interacts with several substrates by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with considerable biomedical applications. PMID:19682870

  13. Pharmacokinetics and biodegradation performance of a hydroxypropyl chitosan derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Kai; Han, Baoqin; Dong, Wen; Song, Fulai; Liu, Weizhi; Liu, Wanshun

    2015-10-01

    Hydroxypropyl chitosan (HP-chitosan) has been shown to have promising applications in a wide range of areas due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability and various biological activities, especially in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. However, it is not yet known about its pharmacokinetics and biodegradation performance, which are crucial for its clinical applications. In order to lay a foundation for its further applications and exploitations, here we carried out fluorescence intensity and GPC analyses to determine the pharmacokinetics mode of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled HP-chitosan (FITC-HP-chitosan) and its biodegradability. The results showed that after intraperitoneal administration at a dose of 10 mg per rat, FITC-HP-chitosan could be absorbed rapidly and distributed to liver, kidney and spleen through blood. It was indicated that FITC-HP-chitosan could be utilized effectively, and 88.47% of the FITC-HP-chitosan could be excreted by urine within 11 days with a molecular weight less than 10 kDa. Moreover, our data indicated that there was an obvious degradation process occurred in liver (< 10 kDa at 24 h). In summary, HP-chitosan has excellent bioavailability and biodegradability, suggesting the potential applications of hydroxypropyl-modified chitosan as materials in drug delivery, tissue engineering and biomedical area.

  14. Chemical modification of graphite surfaces using chitosan as a mediator

    SciTech Connect

    Hatley, M.E.; Albahadily, F.N.

    1995-12-01

    Several techniques for modifying graphite surfaces have been utilized the last two decades. Some of these techniques have a few limitations which include monolayer coverage and nonspecific binding to the graphite surfaces. In this report, we describe a novel approach to modify graphite surfaces using chitosan. The graphite is coated with an acidic chitosan solution. After drying, a chitosan film is formed on the graphite surfaces. Glutaraldehyde is attached to the chitosan through an amide linkage. The desired modifiers which contain amine groups are then attached to the free end of the glutaraldehyde. Utilization of the modified graphite surfaces in paste electrodes will be discussed.

  15. Controlling chitosan-based encapsulation for protein and vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Koppolu, Bhanu Prasanth; Smith, Sean G; Ravindranathan, Sruthi; Jayanthi, Srinivas; Suresh Kumar, Thallapuranam K; Zaharoff, David A

    2014-05-01

    Chitosan-based nano/microencapsulation is under increasing investigation for the delivery of drugs, biologics and vaccines. Despite widespread interest, the literature lacks a defined methodology to control chitosan particle size and drug/protein release kinetics. In this study, the effects of precipitation-coacervation formulation parameters on chitosan particle size, protein encapsulation efficiency and protein release were investigated. Chitosan particle sizes, which ranged from 300 nm to 3 ?m, were influenced by chitosan concentration, chitosan molecular weight and addition rate of precipitant salt. The composition of precipitant salt played a significant role in particle formation with upper Hofmeister series salts containing strongly hydrated anions yielding particles with a low polydispersity index (PDI) while weaker anions resulted in aggregated particles with high PDIs. Sonication power had minimal effect on mean particle size, however, it significantly reduced polydispersity. Protein loading efficiencies in chitosan nano/microparticles, which ranged from 14.3% to 99.2%, were inversely related to the hydration strength of precipitant salts, protein molecular weight and directly related to the concentration and molecular weight of chitosan. Protein release rates increased with particle size and were generally inversely related to protein molecular weight. This study demonstrates that chitosan nano/microparticles with high protein loading efficiencies can be engineered with well-defined sizes and controllable release kinetics through manipulation of specific formulation parameters. PMID:24560459

  16. Chitosan in Molecularly-Imprinted Polymers: Current and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Long; Huang, Yun-An; Zhu, Qiu-Jin; Ye, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is widely used in molecular imprinting technology (MIT) as a functional monomer or supporting matrix because of its low cost and high contents of amino and hydroxyl functional groups. The various excellent properties of chitosan, which include nontoxicity, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and attractive physical and mechanical performances, make chitosan a promising alternative to conventional functional monomers. Recently, chitosan molecularly-imprinted polymers have gained considerable attention and showed significant potential in many fields, such as curbing environmental pollution, medicine, protein separation and identification, and chiral-compound separation. These extensive applications are due to the polymers’ desired selectivity, physical robustness, and thermal stability, as well as their low cost and easy preparation. Cross-linkers, which fix the functional groups of chitosan around imprinted molecules, play an important role in chitosan molecularly-imprinted polymers. This review summarizes the important cross-linkers of chitosan molecularly-imprinted polymers and illustrates the cross-linking mechanism of chitosan and cross-linkers based on the two glucosamine units. Finally, some significant attempts to further develop the application of chitosan in MIT are proposed. PMID:26262607

  17. Chitosan in nasal delivery systems for therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Casettari, Luca; Illum, Lisbeth

    2014-09-28

    There is an obvious need for efficient and safe nasal absorption enhancers for the development of therapeutically efficacious nasal products for small hydrophilic drugs, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, which do not easily cross mucosal membranes, including the nasal. Recent years have seen the development of a range of nasal absorption enhancer systems such as CriticalSorb (based on Solutol HS15) (Critical Pharmaceuticals Ltd), Chisys based on chitosan (Archimedes Pharma Ltd) and Intravail based on alkylsaccharides (Aegis Therapeutics Inc.), that is presently being tested in clinical trials for a range of drugs. So far, none of these absorption enhancers have been used in a marketed nasal product. The present review discusses the evaluation of chitosan and chitosan derivatives as nasal absorption enhancers, for a range of drugs and in a range of formulations such as solutions, gels and nanoparticles and finds that chitosan and its derivatives are able to efficiently improve the nasal bioavailability. The revirtew also questions whether chitosan nanoparticles for systemic drug delivery provide any real improvement over simpler chitosan formulations. Furthermore, the review also evaluates the use of chitosan formulations for the improvement of transport of drugs directly from the nasal cavity to the brain, based on its mucoadhesive characteristics and its ability to open tight junctions in the olfactory and respiratory epithelia. It is found that the use of chitosan nanoparticles greatly increases the transport of drugs from nose to brain over and above the effect of simpler chitosan formulations. PMID:24818769

  18. Rapidly photo-cross-linkable chitosan hydrogel for peripheral neurosurgeries.

    PubMed

    Rickett, Todd A; Amoozgar, Zohreh; Tuchek, Chad A; Park, Joonyoung; Yeo, Yoon; Shi, Riyi

    2011-01-10

    Restoring continuity to severed peripheral nerves is crucial to regeneration and enables functional recovery. However, the two most common agents for coaptation, sutures and fibrin glues, have drawbacks such as inflammation, pathogenesis, and dehiscence. Chitosan-based adhesives are a promising alternative, reported to have good cytocompatibility and favorable immunogenicity. A photo-cross-linkable hydrogel based on chitosan is proposed as a new adhesive for peripheral nerve anastomosis. Two Az-chitosans were synthesized by conjugating 4-azidobenzoic acid with low (LMW, 15 kDa) and high (HMW, 50-190 kDa) molecular weight chitosans. These solutions formed a hydrogel in less than 1 min under UV light. The LMW Az-chitosan was more tightly cross-linked than the HMW variant, undergoing significantly less swelling and possessing a higher rheological storage modulus, and both Az-chitosan gels were stiffer than commercial fibrin glue. Severed nerves repaired by Az-chitosan adhesives tolerated longitudinal forces comparable or superior to fibrin glue. Adhesive exposure to intact nerves and neural cell culture showed both Az-chitosans to be nontoxic in the acute (minutes) and chronic (days) time frames. These results demonstrate that Az-chitosan hydrogels are cytocompatible and mechanically suitable for use as bioadhesives in peripheral neurosurgeries. PMID:21128673

  19. Brain Localization and Neurotoxicity Evaluation of Polysorbate 80-Modified Chitosan Nanoparticles in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhong-Yue; Hu, Yu-Lan; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity evaluation of inorganic nanoparticles has been reported by an increasing number of studies, but toxicity studies concerned with biodegradable nanoparticles, especially the neurotoxicity evaluation, are still limited. For example, the potential neurotoxicity of Polysorbate 80-modified chitosan nanoparticles (Tween 80-modified chitosan nanoparticles, TmCS-NPs), one of the most widely used brain targeting vehicles, remains unknown. In the present study, TmCS-NPs with a particle size of 240 nm were firstly prepared by ionic cross-linking of chitosan with tripolyphosphate. Then, these TmCS-NPs were demonstrated to be entered into the brain and specially deposited in the frontal cortex and cerebellum after systemic injection. Moreover, the concentration of TmCS-NPs in these two regions was found to decrease over time. Although no obvious changes were observed for oxidative stress in the in vivo rat model, the body weight was found to remarkably decreased in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to TmCS-NPs for seven days. Besides, apoptosis and necrosis of neurons, slight inflammatory response in the frontal cortex, and decrease of GFAP expression in the cerebellum were also detected in mouse injected with TmCS-NPs. This study is the first report on the sub-brain biodistribution and neurotoxicity studies of TmCS-NPs. Our results provide new insights into the toxicity evaluation of nanoparticles and our findings would help contribute to a better understanding of the neurotoxicity of biodegradable nanomaterials used in pharmaceutics. PMID:26248340

  20. Multimodal in vivo MRI and NIRF imaging of bladder tumor using peptide conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Jaehong; Dhawan, Deepika; Knapp, Deborah W.; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Choi, Kuiwon; Leary, James F.

    2012-03-01

    Exact detection and complete removal of cancer is a key point to minimize cancer recurrence. However, it is currently very difficult to detect small tumors inside human body and continuously monitor tumors using a non-invasive imaging modality. Presently, positron emission tomography (PET) can provide the most sensitive cancer images in the human body. However, PET imaging has very limited imaging time because they typically use isotopes with short halflives. PET imaging cannot also visualize anatomical information. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide highresolution images inside the body but it has a low sensitivity, so MRI contrast agents are necessary to enhance the contrast of tumor. Near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging has a good sensitivity to visualize tumor using optical probes, but it has a very limited tissue penetration depth. Therefore, we developed multi-modality nanoparticles for MRI based diagnosis and NIRF imaging based surgery of cancer. We utilized glycol chitosan of 350 nm as a vehicle for MRI contrast agents and NIRF probes. The glycol chitosan nanoparticles were conjugated with NIRF dye, Cy5.5 and bladder cancer targeting peptides to increase the internalization of cancer. For MR contrast effects, iron oxide based 22 nm nanocubes were physically loaded into the glycol chitosan nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized and evaluated in bladder tumor bearing mice. Our study suggests the potential of our nanoparticles by both MRI and NIRF imaging for tumor diagnosis and real-time NIRF image-guided tumor surgery.

  1. Chitosan-film enhanced chitosan nerve guides for long-distance regeneration of peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Cora; Stenberg, Lena; Gonzalez-Perez, Francisco; Wrobel, Sandra; Ronchi, Giulia; Udina, Esther; Suganuma, Seigo; Geuna, Stefano; Navarro, Xavier; Dahlin, Lars B; Grothe, Claudia; Haastert-Talini, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthetic nerve grafts are developed in order to complement or replace autologous nerve grafts for peripheral nerve reconstruction. Artificial nerve guides currently approved for clinical use are not widely applied in reconstructive surgery as they still have limitations especially when it comes to critical distance repair. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of fine-tuned chitosan nerve guides (CNGs) enhanced by introduction of a longitudinal chitosan film to reconstruct critical length 15 mm sciatic nerve defects in adult healthy Wistar or diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Short and long term investigations demonstrated that the CNGs enhanced by the guiding structure of the introduced chitosan film significantly improved functional and morphological results of nerve regeneration in comparison to simple hollow CNGs. Importantly, this was detectable both in healthy and in diabetic rats (short term) and the regeneration outcome almost reached the outcome after autologous nerve grafting (long term). Hollow CNGs provide properties likely leading to a wider clinical acceptance than other artificial nerve guides and their performance can be increased by simple introduction of a chitosan film with the same advantageous properties. Therefore, the chitosan film enhanced CNGs represent a new generation medical device for peripheral nerve reconstruction. PMID:26517563

  2. Tyrosinase-Catalyzed Synthesis of a Universal Coil-Chitosan Bioconjugate for Protein Immobilization

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    Tyrosinase-Catalyzed Synthesis of a Universal Coil-Chitosan Bioconjugate for Protein Immobilization June 16, 2008 Chitosan has been reported as a promising material for gene and drug delivery as well peptide (Kcoil) to chitosan (Mn ) 200 kDa) to achieve a universal Kcoil-chitosan scaffold for subsequent

  3. Development and evaluation of chitosan and chitosan derivative nanoparticles containing insulin for oral administration.

    PubMed

    Hecq, J; Siepmann, F; Siepmann, J; Amighi, K; Goole, J

    2015-12-01

    Chitosan and chitosan derivative-based nanoparticles loaded with insulin were prepared by self-assembly, via electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged drug and the positively charged polymers. In the investigated chitosan derivatives, the amine groups were substituted to different extents (33, 52 or 99%) by 2-hydroxypropyl-3-trimethyl ammonium groups, rendering the polymers permanently positively charged, irrespective of the pH. This is an important property for this type of advanced drug delivery system, since the pH value changes throughout the gastrointestinal tract and electrostatic interactions are of crucial importance for the stability of the nanoparticles. Permanent positive charges are also in favor of mucoadhesion. In contrast, the electric charges of chitosan molecules depend on the pH of the surrounding medium. Since the solubility of the chitosan derivatives increased due to the introduction of quaternary ammonium groups, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) was added to the systems to create supplementary cross-links and stabilize the nanoparticles. The presence of TPP influenced both the dissolution of the polymer matrix as well as the resulting release kinetics. The underlying drug release mechanisms were found to be more complex than simple diffusion under constant conditions, likely involving also ionic interactions and matrix dissolution. The most promising formulation was based on a chitosan derivative with 33% substitution degree and characterized by a Z-average of 142?±?10?nm, a zeta potential of 29?±?1?mV, an encapsulation efficacy of 52?±?3% and, most importantly, the release of insulin was sustained for more than 210?min. PMID:26006329

  4. Insights into chitosan multiple functional properties: the role of chitosan conformation in the behavior of liposomal membrane.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chen; Zhang, Yating; Abbas, Shabbar; Feng, Biao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Shuqin; Chang, Dawei

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between chitosan and the liposomal membrane are relevant to the physiological functionality of chitosan, including dietary fiber, antimicrobial action, and fabrication of a delivery system for bioactives. To elucidate the multiple functions of chitosan, the dependence of liposomal membrane properties on the biopolymer conformation was investigated. The concentration dependence of chitosan conformation in aqueous solution was quantified by fluorescence and viscosity measurements. As the concentration increased, the extended chains of chitosan (0-1.0 mg mL(-1)) partially crimped (1.0-1.5 mg mL(-1)), and then self-aggregated forming irregular coils (>1.5 mg mL(-1)). Adsorption of chitosan linear chains on the liposomal membrane surface tended to maintain the morphology of liposomes, decrease the membrane interior micropolarity and rigidify the liposomal membrane. However, these effects were negligible or even opposite in the case of chitosan coils. Analysis on the membrane fluidity revealed that the microviscosity of liposomes decorated by 1.5 mg mL(-1) concentration of chitosan decreased by 17% after being heated at 80 °C for 10 min, in contrast to the decreased percentage of 55 at 4 mg mL(-1). Additionally, compared with the poor oxidative stability of liposomes decorated by chitosan coils, those decorated by chitosan linear chains exhibited slight lipid peroxidation with the TBARS inhibition of around 10% and 6% against oxygen and ferric ions, respectively. These findings suggest that the conformational effects of chitosan on the liposomal membrane are responsible for its multiple functional properties. PMID:26337678

  5. Effects of steam sterilization on thermogelling chitosan-based gels.

    PubMed

    Jarry, C; Chaput, C; Chenite, A; Renaud, M A; Buschmann, M; Leroux, J C

    2001-01-01

    A new thermogelling chitosan-glycerophosphate system has been recently proposed for biomedical applications such as drug and cell delivery. The objectives of this work were to characterize the effect of steam sterilization on the in vitro and in vivo end performances of the gel and to develop a filtration-based method to assess its sterility. Autoclaving 2% (w/v) chitosan solutions for as short as 10 min resulted in a 30% decrease in molecular weight, 3-5-fold decrease in dynamic viscosity, and substantial loss of mechanical properties of the resulting gel. However, sterilization did not impair the ability of the system to form a gel at 37 degrees C. The antimicrobial activity of chitosan against several microorganisms was evaluated after inoculation of chitosan solutions and removal of the cells by filtration. It was found that, although chitosan was bacteriostatic against the heat sterilization bioindicator Bacillus stearothermophilus, the bacteria could rapidly grow after separation from the chitosan solution by filtration. This indicated that B. stearothermophilus is an adequate strain to validate a heat sterilization method on chitosan preparations, and accordingly this strain was used to assess the sterility of chitosan solution following a 10 min autoclaving time. PMID:11153009

  6. Effects of Steam Sterilization on Thermogelling Chitosan-Based Gels

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    to validate a heat sterilization method on chitosan preparations, and accordingly this strain was usedEffects of Steam Sterilization on Thermogelling Chitosan-Based Gels Claire Jarry,1 Cyril Chaput,2 of this work were to characterize the effect of steam sterilization on the in vitro and in vivo end perfor

  7. Cellulose, Chitosan, and Keratin Composite Materials. Controlled Drug Release

    E-print Network

    Reid, Scott A.

    Cellulose, Chitosan, and Keratin Composite Materials. Controlled Drug Release Chieu D. Tran) and/or chitosan (CS) were added to keratin (KER) to enable [CEL/CS+KER] composites to have better intact in the composites. Tensile strength results expectedly show that adding CEL or CS into KER

  8. Enzymolysis of chitosan by papain and its kinetics.

    PubMed

    Pan, A-Dan; Zeng, Hong-Yan; Foua, Gohi Bi; Alain, Claude; Li, Yu-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) was obtained by the enzymolysis of chitosan by papain. Enzymolysis conditions (initial chitosan concentration, temperature, pH and ratio of papain to chitosan) were optimized by conducting experiments at three different levels using the response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain high soluble reducing sugars (SRSs) concentrations. Meanwhile, the influence of chitosan substrate concentration on the activity of papain was assessed in the experiments. The enzymolysis process was analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the experiment data were found to be more consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In addition, the kinetic behavior of the enzymolysis was also investigated by using Haldane model, and chitosan exhibited substrate inhibition. It was clear that the Haldane kinetic model adequately described the dynamic behavior of the chitosan enzymolysis by papain. When the initial chitosan concentration was above 8.0g/L, the papain was overloaded and exhibited significant inhibition. PMID:26453869

  9. Correlation of chitosan's rheological properties and its ability to electrospin.

    PubMed

    Klossner, Rebecca R; Queen, Hailey A; Coughlin, Andrew J; Krause, Wendy E

    2008-10-01

    Chitosan-based, defect-free nanofibers with average diameters ranging from 62 +/- 9 nm to 129 +/- 16 nm were fabricated via electrospinning blended solutions of chitosan and polyethylene oxide (PEO). Several solution parameters such as acetic acid concentration, polymer concentration, and polymer molecular weight were investigated to optimize fiber consistency and diameter. These parameters were evaluated using the rheological properties of the solutions as well as images produced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the electrospun nanofibers. Generally, SEM imaging demonstrated that as total polymer concentration (chitosan + PEO) increased, the number of beads decreased, and as chitosan concentration increased, fiber diameter decreased. Chitosan-PEO solutions phase separate over time; as a result, blended solutions were able to be electrospun with the weakest electric field and the least amount of complications when solutions were electrospun within 24 h of initially being blended. The addition of NaCl stabilized these solutions and increased the time the blended solutions could be stored before electrospinning. Pure chitosan nanofibers with high degrees of deacetylation (about 80%) were unable to be produced. When attempting to electrospin highly deacetylated chitosan from aqueous acetic acid at concentrations above the entanglement concentration, the electric field was insufficient to overcome the combined effect of the surface tension and viscosity of the solution. Therefore, the degree of deacetylation is an extremely important parameter to consider when attempting to electrospin chitosan. PMID:18785774

  10. Biopolymers produced from gelatin and chitosan using polyphenols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chitin, and its derivative chitosan, is an abundant waste product derived from crustaceans (e.g. crab). It has unique properties which enable its use in, but not limited to, cosmetic, medical, and food applications. Chitosan has recently been studied, in conjunction with other waste carbohydrates ...

  11. Electrically conductive chitosan/carbon scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ana M; Eng, George; Caridade, Sofia G; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-02-10

    In this work, carbon nanofibers were used as doping material to develop a highly conductive chitosan-based composite. Scaffolds based on chitosan only and chitosan/carbon composites were prepared by precipitation. Carbon nanofibers were homogeneously dispersed throughout the chitosan matrix, and the composite scaffold was highly porous with fully interconnected pores. Chitosan/carbon scaffolds had an elastic modulus of 28.1 ± 3.3 KPa, similar to that measured for rat myocardium, and excellent electrical properties, with a conductivity of 0.25 ± 0.09 S/m. The scaffolds were seeded with neonatal rat heart cells and cultured for up to 14 days, without electrical stimulation. After 14 days of culture, the scaffold pores throughout the construct volume were filled with cells. The metabolic activity of cells in chitosan/carbon constructs was significantly higher as compared to cells in chitosan scaffolds. The incorporation of carbon nanofibers also led to increased expression of cardiac-specific genes involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling. This study demonstrates that the incorporation of carbon nanofibers into porous chitosan scaffolds improved the properties of cardiac tissue constructs, presumably through enhanced transmission of electrical signals between the cells. PMID:24417502

  12. Fabrication of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip for chromium removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sureshkumar, Vaishnavi; Kiruba Daniel, S. C. G.; Ruckmani, K.; Sivakumar, M.

    2015-03-01

    Environmental pollution caused by heavy metals is a serious threat. In the present work, removal of chromium was carried out using chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip. Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method at 80 °C. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometer, atomic force microscope, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometer, which confirm the size, shape, crystalline nature and magnetic behaviour of nanoparticles. Atomic force microscope revealed that the particle size was 15-30 nm and spherical in shape. The magnetite nanoparticles were mixed with chitosan solution to form hybrid nanocomposite. Chitosan strip was casted with and without nanoparticle. The affinity of hybrid nanocomposite for chromium was studied using K2Cr2O7 (potassium dichromate) solution as the heavy metal solution containing Cr(VI) ions. Adsorption tests were carried out using chitosan strip and hybrid nanocomposite strip at different time intervals. Amount of chromium adsorbed by chitosan strip and chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip from aqueous solution was evaluated using UV-visible spectroscopy. The results confirm that the heavy metal removal efficiency of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip is 92.33 %, which is higher when compared to chitosan strip, which is 29.39 %.

  13. Barrier properties of nano silicon carbide designed chitosan nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Gopal C; Dash, Satyabrata; Swain, Sarat K

    2015-12-10

    Nano silicon carbide (SiC) designed chitosan nanocomposites were prepared by solution technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for studying structural interaction of nano silicon carbide (SiC) with chitosan. The morphology of chitosan/SiC nanocomposites was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The thermal stability of chitosan was substantially increased due to incorporation of stable silicon carbide nanopowder. The oxygen permeability of chitosan/SiC nanocomposites was reduced by three folds as compared to the virgin chitosan. The chemical resistance properties of chitosan were enhanced due to the incorporation of nano SiC. The biodegradability was investigated using sludge water. The tensile strength of chitosan/SiC nanocomposites was increased with increasing percentage of SiC. The substantial reduction in oxygen barrier properties in combination with increased thermal stability, tensile strength and chemical resistance properties; the synthesized nanocomposite may be suitable for packaging applications. PMID:26428100

  14. SOLVENT PURIFICATION AND FLUOR SELECTION FOR GADOLINIUM-LOADED LIQUID SCINTILLATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Kesete, T.; Storm, A.; Hahn, R. L.; Yeh, M.; Seleem, S.

    2007-01-01

    The last decade has seen huge progress in the study of neutrinos, elementary sub-atomic particles. Continued growth in the fi eld of neutrino research depends strongly on the calculation of the neutrino mixing angle ?13, a fundamental neutrino parameter that is needed as an indicative guideline for proposed next-generation neutrino experiments. Experiments involving reactor antineutrinos are favored for the calculation of ?13 because their derivation equation for ?13 is relatively simple and unambiguous. A Gd-loaded liquid scintillator (Gd-LS) is the centerpiece of the detector and it consists of ~99% aromatic solvent, ~0.1% Gd, and < 1% fl uors. Key required characteristics of the Gd-LS are long-term chemical stability, high optical transparency, and high photon production by the scintillator. This summer’s research focused on two important aspects of the detector: (1) purifi cation of two selected scintillation solvents, 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene (PC) and linear alkyl benzene (LAB), to improve the optical transparency and long-term chemical stability of the Gd-LS, and (2) investigation of the added fl uors to optimize the photon production. Vacuum distillation and column separation were used to purify PC and LAB, respectively. Purifi cation was monitored using UV-visible absorption spectra and verifi ed in terms of decreased solvent absorption at 430nm. Absorption in PC at 430nm decreased by a factor slightly >10 while the absorption in LAB was lowered by a factor of ~5. Photon production for every possible combination of two solvents, four primary shifters, and two secondary shifters was determined by measuring the Compton-Scattering excitation induced by an external Cs-137 gamma source (E? ~ 662-keV). The ideal shifter concentration was identifi ed by measuring the photon production as a function of shifter quantity in a series of samples. Results indicate that 6g/L p-terphenyl with 150mg/L 1,4-Bis(2-methylstyryl)-benzene (bis-MSB) produces the maximum light yield for PC and 6g/L 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butyl-phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole with 50mg/L bis-MSB optimizes the light yield for LAB. Future work should focus on obtaining the fl uorescence spectra for each of the shifters and studying the optical transparency of the LS as a function of shifter quantity.

  15. Supramolecular Structures of Chitosan on the Surface of Fumed Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyk, T. V.; Palyanytsya, B. B.; Borodavka, T. V.; Borysenko, M. V.

    The interaction of a chitosan biopolymer with the surface of fumed silica was investigated by temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometry (TPDMS), thermogravimetry (TG), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV/vis), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Mass spectra were used to estimate the number of chitosan segments non-connected and directly connected to the silica surface. The results indicate that as the amount of adsorbed chitosan increases the number of non-connected segments increases. A method was suggested for calculating the p parameter for chitosan adsorbed on silica directly from TPDMS data and without additional sample treatment. The experimental data indicate the formation of supramolecular iodine-chitosan surface complexes arranged in the form of two-layer cylindrically structured units.

  16. Molecular spectroscopic analysis of nano-chitosan blend as biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Medhat; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Osman, Osama; Refaat, Ahmed; El-Sayed, El-Sayed M.

    2010-11-01

    Chitosan/starch and chitosan/gelatin of different ratios were prepared following casting method. FTIR results indicate the formation of hydrogen bonding which dedicates the prepared blends for interaction with wide range of molecules specially those of NH 2 and COOH terminals. The results obtained with molecular modeling PM3 model are in agreement with spectroscopic data. As a result of increasing starch and gelatin in chitosan blends HOMO-LUMO energy slightly decreased while total dipole moment increased. UV-vis spectroscopy indicated the suitability of chitosan/starch blend as a glycine sensor. Further enhancement in the sensing performance of chitosan/starch blend was achieved by introducing 5 nm TiO 2 into the blend.

  17. Active naringin-chitosan films: impact of UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Iturriaga, Leire; Olabarrieta, Idoia; Castellan, Alain; Gardrat, Christian; Coma, Véronique

    2014-09-22

    Bioactive citrus extract-chitosan films were prepared through solvent casting-evaporation method. The impact of near UV irradiation was studied to reach a better understanding of the film behavior. The antimicrobial activity of films against Listeria innocua was maintained after UV irradiation. To study the interaction between chitosan and citrus extract components, naringin (main component) was selected as the model compound. UV treatment caused modifications of the flavanone regardless of the solvent used for its dissolution, depending on the concentration of naringin in the film: the greater the concentration the lower the modification. DSC results suggested cross-links due to UV irradiation and interactions between naringin and chitosan. This was confirmed by a decrease in the naringin release from the irradiated samples. Naringin- and citrus extract-chitosan films showed an increased absorbance in the UV region compared to pure chitosan films, showing potentiality for decreasing the lipid oxidation induced by UV light in foodstuffs. PMID:24906769

  18. Chitosan magnetic microspheres for technological applications: Preparation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podzus, P. E.; Daraio, M. E.; Jacobo, S. E.

    2009-10-01

    One of the major applications of chitosan and its many derivatives are based on its ability to bind strongly heavy and toxic metal ions. In this study chitosan magnetic microspheres have been synthesized. Acetic acid (1%w/v) solution was used as solvent for the chitosan polymer solution (2%w/v) where magnetite nanoparticles were suspended in order to obtain a stable ferrofluid. Glutaraldehyde was used as cross-linker. The magnetic characteristic of these materials allows an easy removal after use if is necessary. The morphological characterization of the microspheres shows that they can be produced in the size range 800-1100 ?m. The adsorption of Cu(II) onto chitosan-magnetite nanoparticles was studied in batch system. A second-order kinetic model was used to fit the kinetic data, leading to an equilibrium adsorption capacity of 19 mg Cu/g chitosan.

  19. Plasma Depolymerization of Chitosan in the Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fengming; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Haitian; Tian, Shuangqi

    2012-01-01

    The depolymerization of chitosan by plasma in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated. The efficiency of the depolymerization was demonstrated by means of determination of viscosity-average molecular weight and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The structure of the depolymerized chitosan was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), ultraviolet spectra (UV) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that chitosan can be effectively degradated by plasma in the presence of H2O2. The chemical structure of the depolymerized chitosan was not obviously modified. The combined plasma/H2O2 method is significantly efficient for scale-up manufacturing of low molecular weight chitosan. PMID:22837727

  20. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of chitosan microgranules with clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Szyma?ska, Emilia; Winnicka, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Mucoadhesive polymers have gained much attention due to the possibility to overcome physiological barriers in long-term drug delivery. Chitosan is a biocompatible and non-toxic chitin derivative, which due to its mucoadhesive properties enables to obtain prolonged drug delivery. The aim of this study was to formulate and in vitro evaluate chitosan microgranules with clotrimazole. Microgranules were prepared by the wet-granulation method using pentabasic tripolyphosphate (TPP) as an ion cross-linker. It was shown that crosslinked chitosan significantly prolonged the release of clotrimazole. Microgranules in formulation F4 (with chitosan:clotrimazole:TPP ratio 5:1:1) not only maintained regular surface morphology, but also ensured prolonged release of clotrimazole over the period of 6 h. The obtained results indicate that chitosan is a suitable polymer for developing a sustained-release dosage form of clotrimazole for local delivery. PMID:22594265

  1. Antibacterial activity of polyacrylonitrile-chitosan electrospun nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sam Soo; Lee, Jaewoong

    2014-02-15

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-chitosan double-face films and nanofibers were manufactured. PAN and a chitosan salt were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, and then thin-layered on a glass plate or electro-spun followed by coagulation in sodium hydroxide solution. The morphology of the PAN-chitosan double-face films and nanofibers was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The thermal behavior and the glass transition temperature of PAN-chitosan blends were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis, respectively. The antibacterial efficacy was measured by a swatch test with bacterial suspensions. The PAN-chitosan nanofibers produced a 5-log reduction against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus. PMID:24507277

  2. Antimicrobial coating of modified chitosan onto cotton fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaoli; Ma, Kaikai; Li, Rong; Ren, Xuehong; Huang, T. S.

    2014-08-01

    Chitosan has been applied as an antibacterial agent to provide biocidal function for textiles but has limitations of application condition and durability. In this study, a new N-halamine chitosan derivative was synthesized by introducing N-halamine hydantoin precursor. The synthesized chitosan derivative 1-Hydroxymethyl-5,5-dimethylhydantoin chitosan (chitosan-HDH) was coated onto cotton fabric with 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) as a crosslinking agent. The coatings were characterized and confirmed by FT-IR and SEM. The treated cotton fabrics can be rendered excellent antimicrobial activity upon exposure to dilute household bleach. The chlorinated coated swatches can inactivate 100% of the Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli O157:H7 with a contact time of 5 min. Almost all the lost chlorine after a month of storage could be recharged upon rechlorination. The crease recovery property of the treated swatches improved while the breaking strength decreased compared with uncoated cotton.

  3. Chitosan removes toxic heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Xu, Ying; Wang, Dongfeng; Zhou, Shilu

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan. Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages. The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad, digested by a microwave digestor, and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions, including As(III/V), Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II). Of these, the percent removal of Ni(II) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan. Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), though with poor efficiency for Pb(II). Except As(III/V), all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Nonetheless, the percent removal of Cr(III/VI) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa, followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Generally, chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions, and the percent removal of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II) was approximately 55%, 45%, 50%, and 16%, respectively. In a word, chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke, improve cigarette safety, and reduce the harm to smokers.

  4. Enhancing and sustaining the topical ocular delivery of fluconazole using chitosan solution and poloxamer/chitosan in situ forming gel.

    PubMed

    Gratieri, Taís; Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; de Freitas, Osvaldo; Rocha, Eduardo Melani; Lopez, Renata F V

    2011-10-01

    Fungal keratitis is a serious disease that can lead to loss of vision. Unfortunately, current therapeutic options often result in poor bioavailability of antifungal agents due to protective mechanisms of the eye. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of a chitosan solution as well as an in situ gel-forming system comprised of poloxamer/chitosan as vehicles for enhanced corneal permeation and sustained release of fluconazole (FLU). For this, in vitro release and ex vivo corneal permeation experiments were carried out as a function of chitosan concentration from formulation containing the chitosan alone and combined with the thermosensitive polymer, poloxamer. Microdialysis was employed in a rabbit model to evaluate the in vivo performance of the formulations. The in vitro release studies showed the sustained release of FLU from the poloxamer/chitosan formulation. Ex vivo permeation studies across porcine cornea demonstrated that the formulations studied have a permeation-enhancing effect that is independent of chitosan concentration in the range from 0.5 to 1.5% w/w. The chitosan solutions alone showed the greatest ex vivo drug permeation; however, the poloxamer/chitosan formulation presented similar in vivo performance than the chitosan solution at 1.0%; both formulations showed sustained release and about 3.5-fold greater total amount of FLU permeated when compared to simple aqueous solutions of the drug. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that both the in situ gelling formulation evaluated and the chitosan solution are viable alternatives to enhance ocular bioavailability in the treatment of fungal keratitis. PMID:21641994

  5. Chitin, Chitosan, and Its Derivatives for Wound Healing: Old and New Materials

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Kazuo; Izumi, Ryotaro; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Minami, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Chitin (?-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine) is widely distributed in nature and is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose. It is often converted to its more deacetylated derivative, chitosan. Previously, many reports have indicated the accelerating effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives on wound healing. More recently, chemically modified or nano-fibrous chitin and chitosan have been developed, and their effects on wound healing have been evaluated. In this review, the studies on the wound-healing effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are summarized. Moreover, the development of adhesive-based chitin and chitosan are also described. The evidence indicates that chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are beneficial for the wound healing process. More recently, it is also indicate that some nano-based materials from chitin and chitosan are beneficial than chitin and chitosan for wound healing. Clinical applications of nano-based chitin and chitosan are also expected. PMID:25780874

  6. Preparation and characterization of catechin-grafted chitosan with antioxidant and antidiabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weili; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, the preparation, characterization, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of catechin-grafted chitosan (catechin-g-chitosan) were investigated. The graft of catechin onto chitosan was achieved by redox system and confirmed using various instrumental methods. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates that catechin has been successfully grafted onto chitosan. The morphology observation shows that chitosan changes to a softened nature with porous surface after grafting. Catechin-g-chitosan also exhibits reduced thermal stability and enhanced crystallinity compared to chitosan. Moreover, catechin-g-chitosan shows 0.51 of reducing power, 46.81% of hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity and 67.08% of DPPH radical-scavenging activity at 1mg/ml, which are much higher than that of chitosan. The antidiabetic activity in vitro assays shows that the ?-glucosidase inhibitory effect decreases in the order of catechin-g-chitosan>catechin>acarbose>chitosan, and the ?-amylase inhibitory effect decreases in the order of acarbose>catechin-g-chitosan>catechin>chitosan. The improved antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of catechin-g-chitosan are attributed to the phenolic groups in the catechin residues. PMID:24995632

  7. Rheological and structural studies of carboxymethyl derivatives of chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstead, Cherese; Katagumpola, Pushpika

    2014-05-01

    The degrees of substitution of chitosan derivatives were varied and the viscoelastic behavior of these biopolymer solutions was studied using rheology. Chitosan is a cationic copolymer of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. Due to its inherent non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, chitosan has gained much interest. However, the poor solubility of the biopolymer in water and most common organic solvents limits its applications. Therefore, the focus of this work is the chemical modification of chitosan via carboxymethylation as well as studying the viscoelastic behavior of these polymer solutions. Varying degrees of substitution (DS) of carboxymethyl chitosan derivatives were synthesized by treating chitosan with monochloroacetic acid under alkylated medium varying the reaction time and temperature. The effect of degree of substitution on the rheology of these polymer solutions was studied as a function of concentration. The viscosity of chitosan derivatives sharply increased with increase in degree of substitution. G' and G" dependence on strain and angular frequency were studied and were found to exhibit predominantly viscous behavior. Additional characterization of the derivatized products were further studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Degree of substitution (DS) was calculated by titrimetric method.

  8. Chitosan-based nanofibrous membranes for antibacterial filter applications.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ashleigh; Oldinski, Rachael; Ma, Hongyan; Bryers, James D; Zhang, Miqin

    2013-01-30

    Nanofibrous membranes have drawn considerable interest for filtration applications due to their ability to withstand high fluid flux while removing micro- and nano-sized particulates from solution. The desire to introduce an antibacterial function into water filter applications presents a challenge to widespread application of fibrous membranes because the addition of chemicals or biocides may produce harmful byproducts downstream. Here, we report the development of chitosan-polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous membranes to utilize the natural antibacterial property of chitosan for antibacterial water filtration. Chitosan-PCL fibers with diameters of 200-400 nm and chitosan contents of 25, 50 and 75 wt% were prepared by electrospinning. In a series of bacterial challenge tests, chitosan-PCL fibrous membranes significantly reduced Staphylococcus aureus adhesion compared to PCL fibrous membranes. In water permeability and particulate size removal tests, fibrous membranes with 25% chitosan supported the greatest water flux (?7000 L/h/m(2)) with 100% removal of 300-nm particulates, while maintaining the membrane integrity. This study demonstrates the potential of chitosan-PCL nanofibrous membranes as pre-filters for water filtration systems that demonstrate combinatorial filtration and intrinsic antibacterial advantages. PMID:23218292

  9. Synthesis and properties of Chitosan-silica hybrid aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, Michael R.; Hunt, Arlon J.

    2001-06-01

    Chitosan, a polymer that is soluble in dilute aqueous acid, is derived from chitin, a natural polyglucosamide. Aquagels where the solid phase consists of both chitosan and silica can be easily prepared by using an acidic solution of chitosan to catalyze the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate. Gels with chitosan/TEOS mass ratios of 0.1-1.1 have been prepared by this method. Standard drying processes using CO{sub 2} give the corresponding aerogels. The amount of chitosan in the gel plays a role in the shrinkage of the aerogel during drying. Gels with the lowest chitosan/silica ratios show the most linear shrinkage, up to 24%, while those with the highest ratios show only a 7% linear shrinkage. Pyrolysis at 700 C under nitrogen produces a darkened aerogel due to the thermal decomposition of the chitosan, however, the aerogel retains its monolithic form. The pyrolyzed aerogels absorb slightly more infrared radiation in the 2-5 {micro}m region than the original aerogels. B.E.T. surface areas of these aerogels range from 470-750 m{sup 2}/g. Biocompatibility screening of this material shows a very high value for hemolysis, but a low value for cytotoxicity.

  10. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of a chitosan scaffold in mice.

    PubMed

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Matthew, Howard W T; DeSilva, Stephen P; Mayton, Lois; Wu, Bin; Wooley, Paul H

    2002-03-01

    Chitosan scaffolds appear to be suitable for a variety of tissue engineering applications. This study addressed the biocompatibility of chitosan in a mouse implantation model. Porous chitosan scaffolds were implanted in mice, and animals were sacrificed after 1, 2, 4, 8, or 12 weeks. Macroscopic inspection of the implantation site revealed no pathological inflammatory responses. Histological assessment indicated marked neutrophil accumulation within the implant, which resolved with increasing implantation time. Gram staining and limulus assays revealed no evidence of infection or endotoxin. Collagen was observed within the chitosan pore spaces, indicating that connective tissue matrix was deposited within the implant. Angiogenic activity associated with the external implant surface was also observed. Cellular immune responses were determined by lymphocyte proliferation assays, and antibody responses were measured using ELISA techniques. These assays indicated a very low incidence of chitosan-specific reactions. Although there was a large migration of neutrophils into the implantation area, there were minimal signs of any inflammatory reaction to the material itself. This preliminary study demonstrates that chitosan has a high degree of biocompatibility in this animal model. Overall, the findings suggest that chitosan may be suitable for the development of implantable materials. PMID:11774317

  11. Evaluation of Hemagglutination Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles Using Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Jefferson Muniz; Sarmento, Ronaldo Rodrigues; de Souza, Joelma Rodrigues; Brayner, Fábio André; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; Padilha, Rafael; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Porto, Isaque Jerônimo; Batista, Roberta Ferreti Bonan Dantas; de Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; de Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed chains of ?-(1-4) D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This compound is obtained by partial or total deacetylation of chitin in acidic solution. The chitosan-based hemostatic agents have been gaining much attention in the management of bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes. The preparation of nanoparticles was achieved by ionotropic gelification technique followed by neutralization with NaOH 1?mol/L?1. The hemagglutination activity was performed on a solution of 2% erythrocytes (pH 7.4 on PBS) collected from five healthy volunteers. The hemolysis determination was made by spectrophotometric analysis. Chitosan nanoparticle solutions without NaOH addition changed the reddish colour of the wells into brown, suggesting an oxidative reaction of hemoglobin and possible cell lysis. All neutralized solutions of chitosan nanoparticles presented positive haemagglutination, without any change in reaction color. Chitosan nanoparticles presented hemolytic activity ranging from 186.20 to 223.12%, while neutralized solutions ranged from 2.56 to 72.54%, comparing to distilled water. Results highlight the need for development of new routes of synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles within human physiologic pH. PMID:25759815

  12. Evaluation of hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Jefferson Muniz; Sarmento, Ronaldo Rodrigues; de Souza, Joelma Rodrigues; Brayner, Fábio André; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; Padilha, Rafael; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Porto, Isaque Jerônimo; Batista, Roberta Ferreti Bonan Dantas; de Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; de Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed chains of ?-(1-4) D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This compound is obtained by partial or total deacetylation of chitin in acidic solution. The chitosan-based hemostatic agents have been gaining much attention in the management of bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes. The preparation of nanoparticles was achieved by ionotropic gelification technique followed by neutralization with NaOH 1?mol/L(-1). The hemagglutination activity was performed on a solution of 2% erythrocytes (pH 7.4 on PBS) collected from five healthy volunteers. The hemolysis determination was made by spectrophotometric analysis. Chitosan nanoparticle solutions without NaOH addition changed the reddish colour of the wells into brown, suggesting an oxidative reaction of hemoglobin and possible cell lysis. All neutralized solutions of chitosan nanoparticles presented positive haemagglutination, without any change in reaction color. Chitosan nanoparticles presented hemolytic activity ranging from 186.20 to 223.12%, while neutralized solutions ranged from 2.56 to 72.54%, comparing to distilled water. Results highlight the need for development of new routes of synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles within human physiologic pH. PMID:25759815

  13. Transglutaminase-catalyzed grafting collagen on chitosan and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lihong; Wu, Huan; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Peng, Min; Tong, Jun; Xie, Weiguo; Liu, Shuhua

    2014-05-25

    Collagen grafted chitosan was prepared with microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) as biocatalyst which showed high efficiency, selectivity, mild reaction condition and environmental friendliness. The reaction conditions that influenced the degree of substitution (DS) were optimized, which included the reaction time, the reaction temperature, the mass ratio of collagen to chitosan and the mass ratio of MTGase to chitosan. In this study, the water-solubility collagen-chitosan could serve not only to reduce the loss of moisture but also to absorb the moisture. And the moisture absorption and moisture retention abilities were closely related to the DS values. In addition, in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of DS values and concentration. Furthermore, L929 mouse fibroblasts were cultured with collagen-chitosan, and methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay exhibited that collagen-chitosan with DS of 0.660 displayed pronounced cell viability at 2.5mg/ml. Therefore, the water-soluble collagen-chitosan showed the potentiality to repair skin in cosmetic, biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. PMID:24708978

  14. Chitosan-based nanofibrous membranes for antibacterial filter applications

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ashleigh; Oldinski, Rachael; Ma, Hongyan; Bryers, James D.; Zhang, Miqin

    2013-01-01

    Nanofibrous membranes have drawn considerable interest for filtration applications due to their ability to withstand high fluid flux while removing micro- and nano-sized particulates from solution. The desire to introduce an antibacterial function into water filter applications presents a challenge to widespread application of fibrous membranes because the addition of chemicals or biocides may produce harmful byproducts downstream. Here, we report the development of chitosan-polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous membranes to utilize the natural antibacterial property of chitosan for antibacterial water filtration. Chitosan-PCL fibers with diameters of 200–400 nm and chitosan contents of 25, 50 and 75 wt% were prepared by electrospinning. In a series of bacterial challenge tests, chitosan-PCL fibrous membranes significantly reduced Staphylococcus aureus adhesion compared to PCL fibrous membranes. In water permeability and particulate size removal tests, fibrous membranes with 25% chitosan supported the greatest water flux (~7000 L/hr/m2) with 100% removal of 300-nm particulates, while maintaining the membrane integrity. This study demonstrates the potential of chitosan-PCL nanofibrous membranes as pre-filters for water filtration systems that demonstrate combinatorial filtration and intrinsic antibacterial advantages. PMID:23218292

  15. Remediation of coal mining wastewaters using chitosan microspheres.

    PubMed

    Geremias, R; Pedrosa, R C; Benassi, J C; Fávere, V T; Stolberg, J; Menezes, C T B; Laranjeira, M C M

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of chitosan and chitosan/poly(vinylalcohol) microspheres incorporating with tetrasulphonated copper (II) phthalocyanine (CTS/PVA/TCP) in the remediation of coal mining wastewaters. The process was monitored by toxicity tests both before and after adsorption treatments with chitosan and microspheres. Physicochemical parameters, including pH and trace-metal concentration, as well as bioindicators of water pollution were used to that end. Wastewater samples colleted from drainage of underground coal mines, decantation pools, and contaminated rivers were scrutinized. Acute toxicity tests were performed using the Brine Shrimp Test (BST) in order to evaluate the remediation efficiency of different treatments. The results showed that the pH of treated wastewater samples were improved to values close to neutrality. Chitosan treatments were also effective in removing trace-metals. Pre-treatment with chitosan followed by microsphere treatment (CTS/PVA/TCP) was more effective in decreasing toxicity than the treatment using only chitosan. This was probably due to the elimination of pollutants other than trace-metals. Thus, the use of chitosan and microspheres is an adequate alternative towards remediation of water pollution from coal mining. PMID:14977147

  16. Rheological and structural studies of carboxymethyl derivatives of chitosan

    SciTech Connect

    Winstead, Cherese; Katagumpola, Pushpika

    2014-05-15

    The degrees of substitution of chitosan derivatives were varied and the viscoelastic behavior of these biopolymer solutions was studied using rheology. Chitosan is a cationic copolymer of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. Due to its inherent non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, chitosan has gained much interest. However, the poor solubility of the biopolymer in water and most common organic solvents limits its applications. Therefore, the focus of this work is the chemical modification of chitosan via carboxymethylation as well as studying the viscoelastic behavior of these polymer solutions. Varying degrees of substitution (DS) of carboxymethyl chitosan derivatives were synthesized by treating chitosan with monochloroacetic acid under alkylated medium varying the reaction time and temperature. The effect of degree of substitution on the rheology of these polymer solutions was studied as a function of concentration. The viscosity of chitosan derivatives sharply increased with increase in degree of substitution. G' and G' dependence on strain and angular frequency were studied and were found to exhibit predominantly viscous behavior. Additional characterization of the derivatized products were further studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), {sup 1}H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Degree of substitution (DS) was calculated by titrimetric method.

  17. One-Step Analysis of DNA/Chitosan Complexes by Field-Flow Fractionation Reveals Particle Size and Free Chitosan Content

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    with chitosan was analyzed by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4) with online UVOne-Step Analysis of DNA/Chitosan Complexes by Field-Flow Fractionation Reveals Particle Size and Free Chitosan Content Pei Lian Ma, Michael D. Buschmann, and Franc¸oise M. Winnik*, Department

  18. Towards a selective adsorbent for arsenate and selenite in the presence of phosphate: Assessment of adsorption efficiency, mechanism, and binary separation factors of the chitosan-copper complex.

    PubMed

    Yamani, Jamila S; Lounsbury, Amanda W; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2016-01-01

    The potential for a chitosan-copper polymer complex to select for the target contaminants in the presence of their respective competitive ions was evaluated by synthesizing chitosan-copper beads (CCB) for the treatment of (arsenate:phosphate), (selenite:phosphate), and (selenate:sulfate). Based on work by Rhazi et al., copper (II) binds to the amine moiety on the chitosan backbone as a monodentate complex (Type I) and as a bidentate complex crosslinking two polymer chains (Type II), depending on pH and copper loading. In general, the Type I complex exists alone; however, beyond threshold conditions of pH 5.5 during synthesis and a copper loading of 0.25 mol Cu(II)/mol chitosan monomer, the Type I and Type II complexes coexist. Subsequent chelation of this chitosan-copper ligand to oxyanions results in enhanced and selective adsorption of the target contaminants in complex matrices with high background ion concentrations. With differing affinities for arsenate, selenite, and phosphate, the Type I complex favors phosphate chelation while the Type II complex favors arsenate chelation due to electrostatic considerations and selenite chelation due to steric effects. No trend was exhibited for the selenate:sulfate system possibly due to the high Ksp of the corresponding copper salts. Binary separation factors, ?12, were calculated for the arsenate-phosphate and selenite-phosphate systems, supporting the mechanistic hypothesis. While, further research is needed to develop a synthesis method for the independent formation of the Type II complexes to select for target contaminants in complex matrices, this work can provide initial steps in the development of a selective adsorbent. PMID:26613182

  19. Chitosan nanoparticles for oral drug and gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Katherine; Leong, Kam W

    2006-01-01

    Chitosan is a widely available, mucoadhesive polymer that is able to increase cellular permeability and improve the bioavailability of orally administered protein drugs. It can also be readily formed into nanoparticles able to entrap drugs or condense plasmid DNA. Studies on the formulation and oral delivery of such chitosan nanoparticles have demonstrated their efficacy in enhancing drug uptake and promoting gene expression. This review summarizes some of these findings and highlights the potential of chitosan as a component of oral delivery systems. PMID:17722528

  20. [Brucine chitosan thermosensitive hydrogel for intra-articular injection].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Wen; Chen, Hong-Xuan; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a sustained release converse thermosensitive hydrogel for intra-articular injection using chitosan-glycerol-borax as matrix, its physical properties and biocompatibility were investigated. Taking gelation time and gelation condition as index, the influence of concentration of chitosan, ratio of chitosan to glycerol, pH on physical properties of hydrogel were investigated. And then the in vitro drug release, rheological properties and biocompatibility were studied. The thermosensitive hydrogel flows easily at room temperature and turns to gelation at body temperature, which can certainly prolong the release of drug and has good biocompatibility. PMID:22812012

  1. Separation of Cr(VI) on chitosan membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Modrzejewska, Z.; Kaminski, W.

    1999-12-01

    Chitosan membranes were used for hexavalent chromium removal. Investigations covered membranes produced by phase inversion (wet-method). The modifications of membranes were made by acetylated and cross-linked Cu(II). In the experiments chitosan produced by the Sea Fisheries Institute, Poland, was used. The metal ions were removed on chitosan membranes during membrane processes. The modifications and the effect of the pH of the solution on the separation properties of membranes were determined. The concentration of metal ions was measured by the method of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry.

  2. Laser based fabrication of chitosan mediated silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamiri, Reza; Azmi, B. Z.; Naseri, Mahmoud Goodarz; Ahangar, Hossein Abbastabar; Darroudi, Majid; Nazarpour, Forough Kalaei

    2011-10-01

    We report fabrication of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by laser ablation technique in different concentrations of aqueous chitosan solution. The ablation process of silver plate was carried out by using a nanosecond Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser and the characterization of Ag NPs was done by Transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. UV-visible plasmon absorption spectra revealed that the formation efficiency as well as the stability of nanoparticles was increased by addition of chitosan. On the other hand, the size decrement of nanoparticles was more remarkable in the higher chitosan concentration.

  3. Structure of chitosan gels mineralized by sorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrzejewska, Z.; Skwarczy?ska, A.; Douglas, T. E. L.; Binia?, D.; Maniukiewicz, W.; Sielski, J.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents the structural studies of mineralized chitosan hydrogels. Hydrogels produced by using sodium beta-glycerophosphate (Na-?-GP) as a neutralizing agent. Mineralization was performed method "post loading", which consisted in sorption to the gels structure Ca ions. In order to obtain - in the structure of gels - compounds similar to the hydroxyapatites present naturally in bone tissue, gels after sorption were modified in: pH 7 buffer and sodium hydrogen phosphate. In order to determine the structural properties of the gels, the following methods were used: infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transformation, FTIR, X-ray diffractometry, XRD, scanning electron microscopy, SEM.

  4. Design of peptide-conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles for near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) in vivo imaging of bladder tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Jaehong; Dhawan, Deepika; Knapp, Deborah W.; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Choi, Kuiwon; Leary, James F.

    2012-03-01

    Enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects for tumor treatment have been utilized as a representative strategy to accumulate untargeted nanoparticles in the blood vessels around tumors. However, the EPR effect itself was not sufficient for the nanoparticles to penetrate into cancer cells. For the improvement of diagnosis and treatment of cancer using nanoparticles, many more nanoparticles need to specifically enter cancer cells. Otherwise, can leave the tumor area and not contribute to treatment. In order to enhance the internalization process, specific ligands on nanoparticles can help their specific internalization in cancer cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. We previously developed glycol chitosan based nanoparticles that suggested a promising possibility for in vivo tumor imaging using the EPR effect. The glycol chitosan nanoparticles showed a long circulation time beyond 1 day and they were accumulated predominantly in tumor. In this study, we evaluated two peptides for specific targeting and better internalization into urinary bladder cancer cells. We conjugated the peptides on to the glycol chitosan nanoparticles; the peptide-conjugated nanoparticles were also labeling with near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye, Cy5.5, to visualize them by optical imaging in vivo. Importantly real-time NIRF imaging can also be used for fluorescence (NIRF)-guided surgery of tumors beyond normal optical penetration depths. The peptide conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles were characterized with respect to size, stability and zeta-potential and compared with previous nanoparticles without ligands in terms of their internalization into bladder cancer cells. This study demonstrated the possibility of our nanoparticles for tumor imaging and emphasized the importance of specific targeting peptides.

  5. Validation of a Janus role of methotrexate-based PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Fanghong; Li, Yang; Jia, Mengmeng; Cui, Fei; Wu, Hongjie; Yu, Fei; Lin, Jinyan; Yang, Xiangrui; Hou, Zhenqing; Zhang, Qiqing

    2014-07-01

    Recently, methotrexate (MTX) has been used to target to folate (FA) receptor-overexpressing cancer cells for targeted drug delivery. However, the systematic evaluation of MTX as a Janus-like agent has not been reported before. Here, we explored the validity of using MTX playing an early-phase cancer-specific targeting ligand cooperated with a late-phase therapeutic anticancer agent based on the PEGylated chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs) as drug carriers. Some advantages of these nanoscaled drug delivery systems are as follows: (1) the NPs can ensure minimal premature release of MTX at off-target site to reduce the side effects to normal tissue; (2) MTX can function as a targeting ligand at target site prior to cellular uptake; and (3) once internalized by the target cell, the NPs can function as a prodrug formulation, releasing biologically active MTX inside the cells. The (MTX + PEG)-CS-NPs presented a sustained/proteases-mediated drug release. More importantly, compared with the PEG-CS-NPs and (FA + PEG)-CS-NPs, the (MTX + PEG)-CS-NPs showed a greater cellular uptake. Furthermore, the (MTX + PEG)-CS-NPs demonstrated a superior cytotoxicity compare to the free MTX. Our findings therefore validated that the MTX-loaded PEGylated CS-NPs can simultaneously target and treat FA receptor-overexpressing cancer cells.

  6. C6-Modifications on chitosan to develop chitosan-based glycopolymers and their lectin-affinities with sigmoidal binding profiles.

    PubMed

    Koshiji, Kazuhiro; Nonaka, Yuki; Iwamura, Maho; Dai, Fumiko; Matsuoka, Ryoji; Hasegawa, Teruaki

    2016-02-10

    Chitosan-based glycopolymers having multiple ?-lactosides exclusively at their C6-positions were successfully synthesized from partially deacetylated chitin through perfect N-deacetylation/phthaloylation and C6-selective bromination/azidation to afford 6-azide-6-deoxy-N-phthaloyl-chitosan and the subsequent Cu(+)-catalyzed Huisgen cycloadditions using alkyne-terminated ?-lactoside and/or quaternary ammonium modules followed by dephthaloylations. Lectin-affinities of the resultant chitosan-based glycopolymers were assessed through fluorescence titration assays to show their unique sigmoidal binding profiles with amplified binding constants. PMID:26686131

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Biodegradable Ultrasonicated Films made from Chitosan/al2o3 Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, B.; Jothirajan, M. A.; Umapathy, S.; Amala, Viji

    Chitosan is a biopolymer which is biodegradable, biocompatible, non toxic and cationic in nature. Due to these interesting properties, it finds advanced applications in sensors, drug delivery vehicle and gene therapy etc., In this present work, the biocompatible Al2O3 Nano particles were embedded into Chitosan Polymer matrix by ultrasonication route. XRD and FTIR studies confirm the presence of Al2O3 nanoparticle in the Chitosan polymer matrix. The morphological, optical, electrical properties of the polymer nano composite films are carried out by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV- Vis, LCR and Impedance studies.

  8. Fabrication of biocompatible and mechanically reinforced graphene oxide-chitosan nanocomposite films

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Graphene oxide (GO)can be dispersed through functionalization, or chemically converted to make different graphene-based nanocomposites with excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Chitosan, a partially deacetylated derivative of chitin, is extensively used for food packaging, biosensors, water treatment, and drug delivery. GO can be evenly dispersed in chitosan matrix through the formation of amide linkages between them, which is different from previous reports focusing on preparing GO/chitosan nanocomposites through physical mixing. Results In this study, free-standing graphene oxide-chitosan (GO-chitosan) nanocomposite films have been prepared. The GO-chitosan films are biologically compatible and mechanically reinforced. Through the formation of amide linkages between GO’s carboxylic acid groups and chitosan's amine groups, GO could be evenly dispersed within the chitosan matrix. We also characterized the GO-chitosan composite films using element analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermo gravimetric analysis. Compared to pristine chitosan film, the tensile strength of GO-chitosan film is improved by 2.5 folds and Young’s modulus increases by nearly 4.6 folds. The glass transition temperature of GO-chitosan composite film shifts from 118°C to 158°C compared to the pristine chitosan, indicating its enhanced thermal stability. GO-chitosan composite film was also evaluated for its biocompatibility with C3H10T1/2 cells by in vitro fluorescent staining. The graphene oxide-reinforced chitosan composite films could have applications in functional biomaterials. Conclusion The present study describes a useful and simple method to chemically attach biocompatible chitosan onto graphene oxide. We envision that the GO-chitosan film will open avenues for next-generation graphene applications in the realm of functional biomaterial. PMID:23442350

  9. Inactivation of heparin by cationically modified chitosan.

    PubMed

    Lorkowska-Zawicka, Barbara; Kami?ski, Kamil; Ciejka, Justyna; Szczubia?ka, Krzysztof; Bia?as, Magdalena; Oko?, Krzysztof; Adamek, Dariusz; Nowakowska, Maria; Jawie?, Jacek; Olszanecki, Rafa?; Korbut, Ryszard

    2014-07-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the ability of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-3-tri methylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC), the cationically modified chitosan, to form biologically inactive complexes with unfractionated heparin and thereby blocking its anticoagulant activity. Experiments were carried out in rats in vivo and in vitro using the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) tests for evaluation of heparin anticoagulant activity. For the first time we have found that HTCC effectively neutralizes anticoagulant action of heparin in rat blood in vitro as well as in rats in vivo. The effect of HTCC on suppression of heparin activity is dose-dependent and its efficacy can be comparable to that of protamine-the only agent used in clinic for heparin neutralization. HTCC administered i.v. alone had no direct effect on any of the coagulation tests used. The potential adverse effects of HTCC were further explored using rat experimental model of acute toxicity. When administered i.p. at high doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight), HTCC induced some significant dose-dependent structural abnormalities in the liver. However, when HTCC was administered at low doses, comparable to those used for neutralization of anticoagulant effect of heparin, no histopathological abnormalities in liver were observed. PMID:24983639

  10. Inactivation of Heparin by Cationically Modified Chitosan

    PubMed Central

    Lorkowska-Zawicka, Barbara; Kami?ski, Kamil; Ciejka, Justyna; Szczubia?ka, Krzysztof; Bia?as, Magdalena; Oko?, Krzysztof; Adamek, Dariusz; Nowakowska, Maria; Jawie?, Jacek; Olszanecki, Rafa?; Korbut, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the ability of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC), the cationically modified chitosan, to form biologically inactive complexes with unfractionated heparin and thereby blocking its anticoagulant activity. Experiments were carried out in rats in vivo and in vitro using the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) tests for evaluation of heparin anticoagulant activity. For the first time we have found that HTCC effectively neutralizes anticoagulant action of heparin in rat blood in vitro as well as in rats in vivo. The effect of HTCC on suppression of heparin activity is dose-dependent and its efficacy can be comparable to that of protamine-the only agent used in clinic for heparin neutralization. HTCC administered i.v. alone had no direct effect on any of the coagulation tests used. The potential adverse effects of HTCC were further explored using rat experimental model of acute toxicity. When administered i.p. at high doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight), HTCC induced some significant dose-dependent structural abnormalities in the liver. However, when HTCC was administered at low doses, comparable to those used for neutralization of anticoagulant effect of heparin, no histopathological abnormalities in liver were observed. PMID:24983639

  11. Chitosan Nanoparticles for SiRNA Delivery In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ragelle, Héloïse; Vanvarenberg, Kevin; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Préat, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference, the process in which small interfering RNAs (SiRNAs) silence a specific gene and thus inhibit the associated protein, has opened new doors for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. However, efficient delivery of SiRNAs remains a challenge, especially due to their instability in biological environments and their inability to cross cell membranes. To protect and deliver SiRNAs to mammalian cells, a variety of polymeric nanocarriers have been developed. Among them, the polysaccharide chitosan has generated great interests. This derivative of natural chitin is biodegradable and biocompatible, and can complex SiRNAs into nanoparticles on account of its positive charges. However, chitosan presents some limitations that need to be taken into account when designing chitosan/SiRNA nanoparticles. Here, we describe a method to prepare SiRNA/chitosan nanoparticles with high gene silencing efficiency and low cytotoxicity by using the ionic gelation technique. PMID:26472448

  12. Synergistic degradation of chitosan by impinging stream and jet cavitation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongchun; Wang, Pengfei; Yuan, Yuan; Ren, Xian'e; Yang, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Chitosan degradation was investigated using a combination of jet cavitation and impinging stream. Different operating parameters such as the initial concentration (1-5 g L(-1)), initial pH (3.2-4.8), solution temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70°C), inlet pressure (0.1-0.45 MPa), and treatment time (0-120 min) were optimized to achieve the maximum degradation of chitosan. After the optimization of jet cavitation parameters, chitosan degradation was carried out using venturi tubes of different structures (the fluidic generator). The efficiency of the jet cavitation degradation was improved significantly by combining with impinging stream. The structures of the degradation products were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. This study has conclusively established that a combination of jet cavitation and impinging stream can be effectively used for the complete degradation of chitosan. PMID:25934127

  13. Biodegradation and biocompatibility of a degradable chitosan vascular prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiaoying; Xu, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    An instrument made by ourselves was used to fabricate biodegradable chitosan-heparin artificial vascular prosthesis with small internal diameter (2 mm) and different crosslinking degree from biodegradable chitosan, chitosan derivates and heparin. In vivo and in vitro degradation studies, inflammatory analysis and electron microscope scanning of this artificial vascular prosthesis were performed. It was observed that 50% of the prosthesis decomposed in vivo and was replaced by natural tissues. The degradation process of the chitosan-heparin artificial vascular prosthesis of small diameter could be controlled by changing the crosslinking degree. This kind of artificial vascular prosthesis shows good biocompatibility that can be controllability designed to achieve desirable in vascular replacement application. PMID:26064241

  14. Properties of Novel Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Films Containing Chitosan Nanoparticles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, chitosan nanoparticles were prepared and incorporated in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films under different conditions. Mechanical properties, water vapor and oxygen permeability, water solubility and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) results were ana...

  15. Chitosan nanofibers fabricated by combined ultrasonic atomization and freeze casting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihan; Wakisaka, Minato

    2015-05-20

    Aligned chitosan nanofibers exhibiting diameters smaller than 100 nm were easily prepared by combining ultrasonic atomization with freeze casting. A major advantage of this approach is the use of distilled water as main solvent. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that fiber diameter and morphology mainly depended on the atomizing tools, freezing temperature, and chitosan solution viscosity. Minimum diameter and uniform orientation were achieved using an electric flosser as an atomizing tool, liquid nitrogen as a coolant, 0.4 wt% aqueous chitosan solution (molecular weight = 22 kDa), and a small amount of lactic acid as solvent at 0 °C. The resulting chitosan nanofibers may find application in biomedical and food engineering. Moreover, this new technology may be applicable to other natural and synthetic water-soluble polymers. PMID:25817638

  16. Preparation of alginate-chitosan fibers with potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sibaja, Bernal; Culbertson, Edward; Marshall, Patrick; Boy, Ramiz; Broughton, Roy M; Solano, Alejandro Aguilar; Esquivel, Marianelly; Parker, Jennifer; Fuente, Leonardo De La; Auad, Maria L

    2015-12-10

    The preparation of alginate-chitosan fibers, through wet spinning technique, as well as the study of their properties as a function of chitosan's molecular weight and retention time in the coagulation bath, is presented and discussed in this work. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the fibers presented irregular and rough surfaces, with a grooved and heavily striated morphology distributed throughout the structure. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that, with the exception of elongation at break, the incorporation of chitosan into the fibers improved their tensile properties. The in vitro release profile of sulfathiazole as a function of chitosan's molecular weight indicated that the fibers are viable carriers of drugs. Kinetic models showed that the release of the model drug is first-order, and the release mechanism is governed by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. Likewise, fibers loaded with sulfathiazole showed excellent inhibition of Escherichia coli growth after an incubation time of 24h at 37°C. PMID:26428163

  17. Microscopic and spectroscopic analysis of chitosan-DNA conjugates.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, D; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2016-02-10

    Conjugations of DNA with chitosans 15kD (ch-15), 100kD (ch-100) and 200kD (ch-200) were investigated in aqueous solution at pH 5.5-6.5. Multiple spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to locate the chitosan binding sites and the effect of polymer conjugation on DNA compaction and particle formation. Structural analysis showed that chitosan-DNA conjugation is mainly via electrostatic interactions through polymer cationic charged NH2 and negatively charged backbone phosphate groups. As polymer size increases major DNA compaction and particle formation occurs. At high chitosan concentration major DNA structural changes observed indicating a partial B to A-DNA conformational transition. PMID:26686122

  18. Emerging chitin and chitosan nanofibrous materials for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fuyuan; Deng, Hongbing; Du, Yumin; Shi, Xiaowen; Wang, Qun

    2014-07-01

    Over the past several decades, we have witnessed significant progress in chitosan and chitin based nanostructured materials. The nanofibers from chitin and chitosan with appealing physical and biological features have attracted intense attention due to their excellent biological properties related to biodegradability, biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, low immunogenicity and wound healing capacity. Various methods, such as electrospinning, self-assembly, phase separation, mechanical treatment, printing, ultrasonication and chemical treatment were employed to prepare chitin and chitosan nanofibers. These nanofibrous materials have tremendous potential to be used as drug delivery systems, tissue engineering scaffolds, wound dressing materials, antimicrobial agents, and biosensors. This review article discusses the most recent progress in the preparation and application of chitin and chitosan based nanofibrous materials in biomedical fields.

  19. Mechanism of Au(III) reduction by chitosan: comprehensive study with 13C and 1H NMR analysis of chitosan degradation products.

    PubMed

    Pestov, Alexander; Nazirov, Alexander; Modin, Evgeny; Mironenko, Alexander; Bratskaya, Svetlana

    2015-03-01

    The mechanism of Au(III) reduction by chitosan has been proposed on the basis of comprehensive study of kinetics of Au(III) reduction and chitosan chain degradation using UV-vis spectroscopy and viscosimetry, and identification of reaction products using colloid titration and (13)C, (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We have shown that formation of gold nanoparticles in H[AuCl4]/chitosan solutions starts with hydrolysis of chitosan catalyzed by Au(III). The products of chitosan hydrolysis rather than chitosan itself act as the main reducing species. According to (13)C and (1)H NMR spectroscopy data, chitosan/Au(0) composites contain chitosan with reduced molecular weight and acetylation degree, whereas water-soluble by-products consist of chitosan oligomers with higher acetylation degree, derivatives of glucosamine acids, and formate ion. Chitosan degradation has significantly contributed to the decrease of its efficiency as a gold nanoparticles stabilizer. The gold particle size increased from 6.9 nm to 16.2 nm, when Au(III)/chitosan molar ratio changed from 1:80 to 1:10. PMID:25498610

  20. Advances in characterisation and biological activities of chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Zou, Pan; Yang, Xin; Wang, Jing; Li, Yongfei; Yu, Hailong; Zhang, Yanxin; Liu, Guangyang

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) have been reported to possess various biomedical properties, including antimicrobial activities, immuno-enhancing effects, and anti-tumour activities. COS have attracted considerable interest due to their physicochemical properties, and potential applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries, especially in cancer therapies. This paper describes the preparation of COS and their physicochemical properties, and modification, which aids understanding of their biological activities. Based on the latest reports, several biological and anti-tumour activities of COS will be discussed. The proposed anti-tumour mechanisms of COS are summarised, to provide comprehensive insights into research on the molecular level. Finally, the potential applications and future development of the biopolymer will be discussed. PMID:26213092

  1. pH dependent reversible aggregation of Chitosan and glycol-Chitosan stabilized silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, R. K.; Srivastava, A. K.; Gupta, P. K.; Das, K.

    2011-08-01

    Aggregation behaviour of Chitosan and glycol-Chitosan stabilized silver nanoparticles was investigated over the pH range of 3.4-13. With increasing pH, the charge of the particle reduces and approaches zero beyond 6.5 (the p Ka of the amino group) inducing aggregation that was confirmed by absorption spectroscopy, hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) and TEM measurements. Interestingly the HRS intensity increased till pH 9.0 ± 2.0 and beyond this it dropped dramatically. This correlated with the formation of centrosymmetric spherical aggregates as evidenced by TEM pictures. The aggregation process was found to be reversible over at least 10 pH cycles by absorption and HRS measurements.

  2. Effect of Chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R.; Morgan, Marion J.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×105 colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 105 CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6?h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment. PMID:24237042

  3. A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla; Madelung, Peter; Jacobsen, Jette

    2014-01-30

    Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems can enhance rapid drug absorption by providing an increased retention time at the site of absorption and a steep concentration gradient. An understanding of the mechanisms behind mucoadhesion of polymers, e.g. chitosan, is necessary for improving the mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models and the approach to add a buffer to chitosan based drug delivery systems is a means to optimize and enhance buccal drug absorption. The CCM demonstrated optimal interactions between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2. The ITC experiments showed a significantly increase in affinity between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.3 and that the interactions were entropy driven. The TDM showed a significantly increase in strength of adhesion between chitosan discs and an artificial mucosal surface at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.8, addition of PGM increased the total work of adhesion by a factor of 10 as compared to the wetted surface without PGM. These findings suggest that chitosan and PGM are able to interact by electrostatic interactions and by improving the conditions for electrostatic interactions, the adhesion between chitosan and PGM becomes stronger. Also, the three complementary methods were utilized to conclude the pH dependency on mucoadhesiveness. PMID:24291123

  4. Effect of chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R; Morgan, Marion J; Bielke, Lisa R; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2014-02-01

    Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×10? colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 10? CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6?h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment. PMID:24237042

  5. Intracellular sorting of differently charged chitosan derivatives and chitosan-based nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubareva, A. A.; Shcherbinina, T. S.; Varlamov, V. P.; Svirshchevskaya, E. V.

    2015-04-01

    Chitosan (Chi) is a biodegradable nontoxic polycation with multiple reactive groups that is easily used to obtain derivatives with a desired charge and hydrophobic properties. The aim of this work was to study the intracellular traffic of positively charged hexanoyl-chitosan (HC) or HC-based nanoparticles (HCNPs) and negatively charged succinoyl-chitosan (SC) and SCNPs in epithelial and macrophage cell lines. By using flow cytometry we demonstrated that positively charged HC adhered to cell membranes quicker and more efficiently than negatively charged SC or NPs. However confocal studies showed that SC and SCNPs penetrated cells much more efficiently than HC while HCNPs did not enter the epithelial cells. Macrophages also phagocyted better negatively charged material but were able to engulf both HC and HCNPs. Upon entering the cells, SC and SCNPs were co-localized with endosomes and lysosomes while HC was found in mitochondria and, to a lesser extent, in lysosomes of epithelial cells. Macrophages, RAW264.7, more efficiently transported all Chi samples to the lysosomal compartment while some positively charged material was still found in mitochondria. Incubation of Chi derivatives and ChiNPs at pH specific to mitochondria (8.0) and lysosomes (4.5) demonstrated the neutralization of Chi charge. We concluded that epithelial cells and, to a lesser extent, macrophages sort charged material to the organelles neutralizing Chi charge.

  6. A biomimetic chitosan derivates: preparation, characterization and transdermal enhancement studies of N-arginine chitosan.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hui-Xia; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Pan; Cheng, Qing-Qing; Wang, Wei; Huang, Xu-Hui; Zhou, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Qiang; Hou, Lu-Lu; Huo, Wei

    2011-01-01

    A novel arginine-rich chitosan (CS) derivates mimicked cell penetration peptides; N-Arginine chitosan (N-Arg-CS) was prepared by two reaction methods involving activated L-arginine and the amine group on the chitosan. FTIR spectra showed that arginine was chemically coupled with CS. Elemental analysis estimated that the degrees of substitution (DS) of arginine in CS were 6%, 31.3% and 61.5%, respectively. The drug adefovir was chosen as model and its permeation flux across excised mice skin was investigated using a Franz diffusion cell. The results showed that the most effective enhancer was 2% (w/v) concentration of 10 kDa N-Arg-CS with 6% DS. At neutral pH, the cumulative amount of adefovir permeated after 12 hours was 2.63 ± 0.19 mg cm(-2) which was 5.83-fold more than adefovir aqueous solution. Meanwhile N-Arg-CS was 1.83, 2.22, and 2.45 times more effective than Azone, eucalyptus and peppermint, respectively. The obtained results suggest that N-Arg-CS could be a promising transdermal enhancer. PMID:21829153

  7. Chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticle mediated gene silencing in disease vector mosquito larvae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Mysore, Keshava; Flannery, Ellen; Michel, Kristin; Severson, David W.; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-01-01

    SHORT ABSTRACT Here we describe a procedure for inhibiting gene function in disease vector mosquitoes through the use of chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticles that are ingested by larvae. LONG ABSTRACT Vector mosquitoes inflict more human suffering than any other organism—and kill more than one million people each year. The mosquito genome projects facilitated research in new facets of mosquito biology, including functional genetic studies in the primary African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti. RNA interference- (RNAi-) mediated gene silencing has been used to target genes of interest in both of these disease vector mosquito species. Here, we describe a procedure for preparation of chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticles that are combined with food and ingested by larvae. This technically straightforward, high-throughput, and relatively inexpensive methodology, which is compatible with long double stranded RNA (dsRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules, has been used for the successful knockdown of a number of different genes in A. gambiae and A. aegypti larvae. Following larval feedings, knockdown, which is verified through qRT-PCR or in situ hybridization, can persist at least through the late pupal stage. This methodology may be applicable to a wide variety of mosquito and other insect species, including agricultural pests, as well as other non-model organisms. In addition to its utility in the research laboratory, in the future, chitosan, an inexpensive, non-toxic and biodegradable polymer, could potentially be utilized in the field. PMID:25867635

  8. Electrophoretic deposition of composite hydroxyapatite-silica-chitosan coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Grandfield, K.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2008-01-15

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the fabrication of nanocomposite silica-chitosan coatings. Cathodic deposits were obtained on various conductive substrates using suspensions of silica nanoparticles in a mixed ethanol-water solvent, containing dissolved chitosan. Co-deposition of silica and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles resulted in the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings. The deposition yield has been studied at a constant voltage mode at various deposition durations. The method enabled the formation of coatings of different thickness in the range of up to 100 {mu}m. Deposit composition, microstructure and porosity can be varied by variation of HA and silica concentration in the suspensions. It was demonstrated that EPD can be used for the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings of graded composition and laminates. The method enabled the deposition of coatings containing layers of silica-chitosan and HA-chitosan nanocomposites using suspensions with different HA and silica content. Obtained coatings were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mechanism of deposition is discussed.

  9. Development of thermoplastic starch blown film by incorporating plasticized chitosan.

    PubMed

    Dang, Khanh Minh; Yoksan, Rangrong

    2015-01-22

    The objective of the present work was to improve blown film extrusion processability and properties of thermoplastic starch (TPS) film by incorporating plasticized chitosan, with a content of 0.37-1.45%. The effects of chitosan on extrusion processability and melt flow ability of TPS, as well as that on appearance, optical properties, thermal properties, viscoelastic properties and tensile properties of the films were investigated. The possible interactions between chitosan and starch molecules were evaluated by FTIR and XRD techniques. Chitosan and starch molecules could interact via hydrogen bonds, as confirmed from the blue shift of OH bands and the reduction of V-type crystal formation. Although the incorporation of chitosan caused decreased extensibility and melt flow ability, as well as increased yellowness and opacity, the films possessed better extrusion processability, increased tensile strength, rigidity, thermal stability and UV absorption, as well as reduced water absorption and surface stickiness. The obtained TPS/chitosan-based films offer real potential application in the food industry, e.g. as edible films. PMID:25439934

  10. Oxidative Degradation of Chitosan to the Low Molecular Water-Soluble Chitosan over Peroxotungstate as Chemical Scissors

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhanwei; Wang, Wenyan; Wu, Ying; He, Yiming; Wu, Tinghua

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular water-soluble chitosan was prepared by the depolymerization of chitosan in the presence of a series of catalysts with active W(O2) sites. Both the peroxo species [W2O3(O2)4]2- and {PO4[WO(O2)2]4}3- showed high efficiency in the degradation of chitosan, indicating that the degradation mechanism did not follow the radical mechanism. That means •OH is not the active species, which has been proven by the fluorescence spectra. H2O2 acted as an oxidant to regenerate the active W(O2) sites in the depolymerization of chitosan. The developed catalyst (TBA)3{PO4[WO(O2)2]4} is recoverable. PMID:24971631

  11. Immobilisation of Fenugreek ?-amylase on chitosan/PVP blend and chitosan coated PVC beads: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Garima; Roy, Sonam; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2015-04-01

    A Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was utilised for optimisation of parameters affecting immobilisation of Fenugreek ?-amylase on chitosan coated PVC (polyvinyl chloride) beads and beads made from chitosan/PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) blend, which resulted in 85.2% and 81% immobilisation efficiency, respectively. Immobilisation resulted in shift of pH optima while the optimum temperature remained unaffected. Enhancement in thermal stability of the enzyme was observed on conjugation with both the matrices. The immobilised enzyme appeared suitable for industrial applications due to the non-toxic nature of chosen matrices, ease of immobilisation procedure, enhanced stability and reusability with retention of 72% and 60% residual activity after 10 uses for the enzyme immobilised on chitosan coated PVC beads and on the beads of chitosan/PVP blend, respectively. PMID:25442629

  12. Cytocompatible gel formation of chitosan-glycerol phosphate solutions supplemented with hydroxyl ethyl

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    engineering; chitosan hydrogel; mosaic arthroplasty; MTT assay; cell viability INTRODUCTION Chitosan-GP/HEC gel. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of gelation to maximally control gel

  13. Stability of Chitosan—A Challenge for Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Szyma?ska, Emilia; Winnicka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan—one of the natural multifunctional polymers—due to its unique and versatile biological properties is regarded as a useful compound in medical and pharmaceutical technology. Recently, considerable research effort has been made in order to develop safe and efficient chitosan products. However, the problem of poor stability of chitosan-based systems restricts its practical applicability; thus, it has become a great challenge to establish sufficient shelf-life for chitosan formulations. Improved stability can be assessed by controlling the environmental factors, manipulating processing conditions (e.g., temperature), introducing a proper stabilizing compound, developing chitosan blends with another polymer, or modifying the chitosan structure using chemical or ionic agents. This review covers the influence of internal, environmental, and processing factors on the long-term stability of chitosan products. The aim of this paper is also to highlight the latest developments which enable the physicochemical properties of chitosan-based applications to be preserved upon storage. PMID:25837983

  14. The efficient hemostatic effect of Antarctic krill chitosan is related to its hydration property.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuai; Huang, Zhuoyao; Yue, Jianhui; Liu, Di; Wang, Ting; Ezanno, Pierre; Ruan, Changshun; Zhao, Xiaoli; Lu, William W; Pan, Haobo

    2015-11-01

    Antarctic krill chitosan (A-Chitosan) was first evaluated in its hemostatic effect in this study. The prepared A-Chitosan powder showed low level of crystallinity and significantly high water binding capacity as 1293% (w/w). By mice tail amputation model and blood coagulation timing experiment, it is showed that this chitosan accelerated the tail hemostasis by 55% and shortened the blood clotting time by 38%. This efficacy was better than two other commercial chitosans investigated and was corresponding to their water binding capacities. Through examining the effect of chitosan on blood components, it could be found that platelets adhesion was mainly affected by the water binding capacity, and red blood cells aggregation was dependent on their deacetylation degree. The physicochemical properties resulted in better hydration property of chitosan would improve its hemostatic effect. These results suggested that Antarctic krill chitosan is a good candidate for hemostatic application. PMID:26256352

  15. A purification process for heparin and precursor polysaccharides using the pH responsive behavior of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Ujjwal; Hickey, Anne M; Li, Guoyun; Mundra, Ruchir V; Zhang, Fuming; Fu, Li; Cai, Chao; Ou, Zhimin; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    The contamination crisis of 2008 has brought to light several risks associated with use of animal tissue derived heparin. Because the total chemical synthesis of heparin is not feasible, a bioengineered approach has been proposed, relying on recombinant enzymes derived from the heparin/HS biosynthetic pathway and Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide. Intensive process engineering efforts are required to achieve a cost-competitive process for bioengineered heparin compared to commercially available porcine heparins. Towards this goal, we have used 96-well plate based screening for development of a chitosan-based purification process for heparin and precursor polysaccharides. The unique pH responsive behavior of chitosan enables simplified capture of target heparin or related polysaccharides, under low pH and complex solution conditions, followed by elution under mildly basic conditions. The use of mild, basic recovery conditions are compatible with the chemical N-deacetylation/N-sulfonation step used in the bioengineered heparin process. Selective precipitation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) leads to significant removal of process related impurities such as proteins, DNA and endotoxins. Use of highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analytical techniques reveal a minimum impact of chitosan-based purification on heparin product composition. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 31:1348-1359, 2015. PMID:26147064

  16. Transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide- chitosan functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a potential drug delivery vehicle for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xia; Liu, Lanxia; Zhu, Dunwan; Zhang, Hailing; Leng, Xigang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based drug delivery vehicles might find great potential in cancer therapy via the combination of chemotherapy with photothermal therapy due to the strong optical absorbance of CNTs in the near-infrared region. However, the application of CNTs in cancer therapy was considerably constrained by their lack of solubility in aqueous medium, as well as the cytotoxicity caused by their hydrophobic surface. Intracellular delivery efficiency is another factor determining the application potential of CNTs in cancer therapy. In the present study, low-molecular-weight chitosan conjugated with transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide was used for noncovalent functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), aiming at providing a more efficient drug delivery vehicle for cancer therapy. The TAT-chitosan-conjugated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-TC) were further investigated for their water solubility, cytotoxicity, cell-penetrating capability, and accumulation in tumor. It was found that MWCNTs-TC were essentially nontoxic with satisfying water solubility, and they were more efficient in terms of cancer-targeted intracellular transport both in vitro and in vivo as compared with chitosan-modified MWCNTs (MWCNTs-CS), suggesting the great application potential of MWCNTs-TC in cancer therapy. PMID:26082633

  17. Transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide– chitosan functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a potential drug delivery vehicle for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xia; Liu, Lanxia; Zhu, Dunwan; Zhang, Hailing; Leng, Xigang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based drug delivery vehicles might find great potential in cancer therapy via the combination of chemotherapy with photothermal therapy due to the strong optical absorbance of CNTs in the near-infrared region. However, the application of CNTs in cancer therapy was considerably constrained by their lack of solubility in aqueous medium, as well as the cytotoxicity caused by their hydrophobic surface. Intracellular delivery efficiency is another factor determining the application potential of CNTs in cancer therapy. In the present study, low-molecular-weight chitosan conjugated with transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide was used for noncovalent functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), aiming at providing a more efficient drug delivery vehicle for cancer therapy. The TAT–chitosan-conjugated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-TC) were further investigated for their water solubility, cytotoxicity, cell-penetrating capability, and accumulation in tumor. It was found that MWCNTs-TC were essentially nontoxic with satisfying water solubility, and they were more efficient in terms of cancer-targeted intracellular transport both in vitro and in vivo as compared with chitosan-modified MWCNTs (MWCNTs-CS), suggesting the great application potential of MWCNTs-TC in cancer therapy. PMID:26082633

  18. A Purification Process for Heparin and Precursor Polysaccharides Using the pH Responsive Behavior of Chitosan

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Ujjwal; Hickey, Anne M.; Li, Guoyun; Mundra, Ruchir V.; Zhang, Fuming; Fu, Li; Cai, Chao; Ou, Zhimin; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The contamination crisis of 2008 has brought to light several risks associated with use of animal tissue derived heparin. Because the total chemical synthesis of heparin is not feasible, a bioengineered approach has been proposed, relying on recombinant enzymes derived from the heparin/HS biosynthetic pathway and Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide. Intensive process engineering efforts are required to achieve a cost-competitive process for bioengineered heparin compared to commercially available porcine heparins. Towards this goal, we have used 96-well plate based screening for development of a chitosan-based purification process for heparin and precursor polysaccharides. The unique pH responsive behavior of chitosan enables simplified capture of target heparin or related polysaccharides, under low pH and complex solution conditions, followed by elution under mildly basic conditions. The use of mild, basic recovery conditions are compatible with the chemical Ndeacetylation/N-sulfonation step used in the bioengineered heparin process. Selective precipitation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) leads to significant removal of process related impurities such as proteins, DNA and endotoxins. Use of highly sensitive liquid chromatographymass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analytical techniques reveal a minimum impact of chitosan-based purification on heparin product composition. PMID:26147064

  19. In situ synthesis of new magnetite chitosan/carrageenan nanocomposites by electrostatic interactions for protein delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Long, Jie; Yu, Xiaoqin; Xu, Enbo; Wu, Zhengzong; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-10-20

    We present a simple method to develop magnetite chitosan/carrageenan nanocomposites by in situ synthesis under mild conditions, and then their potential for controlled release of macromolecules was also evaluated. The structural, morphological and magnetic properties of the as-prepared materials were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyzer and transmission electron microscopy. With the varying mass ratio (chitosan to Fe3O4-carrageenan nanocomposite), the developed nanocarriers presented sizes within 73-355nm and zeta potentials of -42-32mV. Using bovine serum albumin as model protein, the adsorption and release behaviors were investigated. Nanocarriers evidenced excellent loading capacity of 181mgg(-1) at protein concentration of 0.2mgmL(-1), and demonstrated capacity to provide a sustained release up to 85% of adsorbed protein in 30min in intestinal medium rather than acidic medium. These results suggest that the developed magnetite chitosan/carrageenan nanocomposites are promising in the application of magnetically targeted delivery of therapeutic macromolecules. PMID:26256165

  20. Emerging Biomedical Applications of Nano-Chitins and Nano-Chitosans Obtained via Advanced Eco-Friendly Technologies from Marine Resources

    PubMed Central

    Muzzarelli, Riccardo A. A.; El Mehtedi, Mohamad; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The present review article is intended to direct attention to the technological advances made in the 2010–2014 quinquennium for the isolation and manufacture of nanofibrillar chitin and chitosan. Otherwise called nanocrystals or whiskers, n-chitin and n-chitosan are obtained either by mechanical chitin disassembly and fibrillation optionally assisted by sonication, or by e-spinning of solutions of polysaccharides often accompanied by poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(caprolactone). The biomedical areas where n-chitin may find applications include hemostasis and wound healing, regeneration of tissues such as joints and bones, cell culture, antimicrobial agents, and dermal protection. The biomedical applications of n-chitosan include epithelial tissue regeneration, bone and dental tissue regeneration, as well as protection against bacteria, fungi and viruses. It has been found that the nano size enhances the performances of chitins and chitosans in all cases considered, with no exceptions. Biotechnological approaches will boost the applications of the said safe, eco-friendly and benign nanomaterials not only in these fields, but also for biosensors and in targeted drug delivery areas. PMID:25415349

  1. Bilayered (silica-chitosan) coatings for studying dye release in aqueous media: The role of chitosan properties.

    PubMed

    Dabóczi, Mátyás; Albert, Em?ke; Agócs, Emil; Kabai-Faix, Márta; Hórvölgyi, Zoltán

    2016-01-20

    Chitosan and bilayered - Rhodamine 6G impregnated silica-chitosan - coatings (300-3000nm thick) were prepared and investigated as a model for controlled drug release. Properties of native, ionically (sodium triphosphate) and covalently (glutaraldehyde) cross-linked layers of chitosan in contact with aqueous phase (modeling human blood pH of ca. 7.3) were investigated. The cross-linking was confirmed by attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and solid state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The evolution of advancing water contact angles as a function of time was measured, and from the results restricted mobility of polymer segments in the interfacial layer of cross-linked chitosan coatings were assumed. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements showed that covalent cross-linking leads to a lowered, while ionic cross-linking to an increased swelling degree of chitosan layers. Despite the swelling behavior both cross-linked chitosan layers showed significant retard effect on dye release from the bilayered coatings. PMID:26572339

  2. Modulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells by chitosan and quaternized chitosan.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qiuxia; Deng, Jing; Yu, Xinbo; Xu, Quanchen; Wu, Hong; Pan, Jianfeng

    2013-01-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan and quaternized chitosan (HTCC) modulate IL-1? and TNF-? in LPS-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs). MTT assay revealed that chitosan stimulated the proliferation of HPDLCs. However, HTCC inhibited the proliferation of HPDLCs at concentrations of 1000 and 100 ?g/mL more than the control, especially after 5d (P<0.001). ELISA assay exhibited that chitosan inhibited the production of IL-1? and TNF-? at 24, 48 and 72 h. IL-1? and TNF-? secreted by HPDLCs with LPS and treated with 1000 ?g/mL of HTCC significantly increased compared to both the control and the chitosan group (P<0.001). The bioactive role for bFGF in modulating the responses of HPDLCs cells to LPS via inhibiting IL-1? and TNF-? production was demonstrated. All results were necessary to enhance our understanding of the biomedical properties of chitosan and HTCC for modulation of pro-inflammatory mediators. PMID:23218372

  3. Chitosan solution enhances the immunoadjuvant properties of GM-CSF

    PubMed Central

    Zaharoff, David A.; Rogers, Connie J.; Hance, Kenneth W.; Schlom, Jeffrey; Greiner, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Sustained, local delivery of immunomodulatory cytokines is under investigation for its ability to enhance vaccine and anti-tumor responses both clinically and preclinically. This study evaluates the ability of chitosan, a biocompatible polysaccharide, to (1) control the dissemination of a cytokine, GM-CSF, and (2) enhance the immunoadjuvant properties of GM-CSF. While cytokines have previously been delivered in lipid-based adjuvants and other vehicles, these do not have the clinical safety profile or unique properties of chitosan. We found that chitosan solution maintained a measurable depot of recombinant GM-CSF (rGM-CSF) at a subcutaneous injection site for up to 9 days. In contrast, when delivered in a saline vehicle, rGM-CSF was undetectable in 12 to 24 hours. Furthermore, a single s.c. injection of 20?g rGM-CSF in chitosan solution (chitosan/rGM-CSF(20?g)) transiently expanded lymph nodes up to 4.6-fold and increased the number of MHC class II expressing cells and dendritic cells by 7.4-fold and 6.8-fold, respectively. These increases were significantly greater than those measured when rGM-CSF was administered in saline at the standard preclinical dose and schedule, i.e. 4 daily s.c. injections of 20?g. Furthermore, lymph node cells from mice injected with chitosan/rGM-CSF(20?g) induced greater allogeneic T cell proliferation, indicating enhanced antigen presenting capability, than lymph node cells from mice injected with rGM-CSF alone. Finally, in vaccination experiments, chitosan/rGM-CSF was superior to either chitosan or rGM-CSF alone in enhancing the induction of antigen-specific CD4+ proliferation, peptide-specific CD8+ pentamer staining and cytotoxic T cell lysis. Altogether, chitosan/rGM-CSF outperformed standard rGM-CSF administrations in dendritic cell recruitment, antigen presentation and vaccine enhancement. We conclude that chitosan solution is a promising delivery platform for the sustained, local delivery of rGM-CSF. PMID:18037196

  4. Preparation, Evaluation and Optimization of Multiparticulate System of Mebendazole for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery by Using Natural Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Hemraj Ramteke, Kuldeep; Balaji Jadhav, Varsha; Kulkarni, Nilesh Shrikant; Kharat, Amol Rameshrao; Diwate, Sonali Bhima

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A Multiparticulate system of Mebendazole was developed for colon targeted drug delivery by using natural polysaccharides like Chitosan and Sodium-alginate beads. Methods: Chitosan microspheres were formulated by using Emulsion crosslinking method using Glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. Sodium-alginate beads were formulated by using Calcium chloride as gelling agent. Optimization for Chitosan microspheres was carried out by using 23 full factorial design. 32 full factorial design was used for the optimization of Sodium-alginate beads. The formulated batches were evaluated for percentage yield, particle size measurement, flow properties, percent entrapment efficiency, Swelling studies. The formulations were subjected to Stability studies and In-vitro release study (with and without rat caecal content). Release kinetics data was subjected to different dissolution models. Results: The formulated batches showed acceptable particle size range as well as excellent flow properties. Entrapment efficiency for optimized batches of Chitosan microspheres and sodium alginate beads was found to be 74.18% and 88.48% respectively. In-vitro release of drug for the optimized batches was found to be increased in presence of rat caecal content. The best-fit models were koresmeyer-peppas for Chitosan microspheres and zero order for sodium-alginate beads. Conclusion: Chitosan and Sodium-alginate was used successfully for the formulation of Colon targeted Multiparticulate system. PMID:26504758

  5. RESEARCH PAPER Chitosan Film Containing Poly(D,L-Lactic-Co-Glycolic

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Purpose To characterize and evaluate chitosan film containing PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) as a platform into PLGA NPs. FPTX-loaded PLGA NPs and Carboxyfluorescein (CF), a hydrophilic model drug, were embedded into chitosan films. Release of CF and NPs from chitosan and release of FPTX from PLGA NPs were monitored

  6. Inactivation of Salmonella on whole cantaloupe by application of an antimicrobial coating containing chitosan and allyl isothiocyanate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the antimicrobial effect of a chitosan coating + allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) and nisin against Salmonella on whole fresh cantaloupes. Cantaloupes were inoculated with a cocktail of three Salmonella strains and treated with chitosan, chitosan + AIT, chitosan + nisin, and chitos...

  7. Chitosan for gene delivery and orthopedic tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Rosanne; O'Brien, Fergal J; Cryan, Sally-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy involves the introduction of foreign genetic material into cells in order exert a therapeutic effect. The application of gene therapy to the field of orthopaedic tissue engineering is extremely promising as the controlled release of therapeutic proteins such as bone morphogenetic proteins have been shown to stimulate bone repair. However, there are a number of drawbacks associated with viral and synthetic non-viral gene delivery approaches. One natural polymer which has generated interest as a gene delivery vector is chitosan. Chitosan is biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic. Much of the appeal of chitosan is due to the presence of primary amine groups in its repeating units which become protonated in acidic conditions. This property makes it a promising candidate for non-viral gene delivery. Chitosan-based vectors have been shown to transfect a number of cell types including human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and human cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Aside from its use in gene delivery, chitosan possesses a range of properties that show promise in tissue engineering applications; it is biodegradable, biocompatible, has anti-bacterial activity, and, its cationic nature allows for electrostatic interaction with glycosaminoglycans and other proteoglycans. It can be used to make nano- and microparticles, sponges, gels, membranes and porous scaffolds. Chitosan has also been shown to enhance mineral deposition during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss the use of chitosan as a gene delivery vector with emphasis on its application in orthopedic tissue engineering. PMID:23676471

  8. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite/PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Jaime; Melendres, Julio; Almada, Mario; Burboa, María G.; Taboada, Pablo; Juárez, Josué; Valdez, Miguel A.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new hybrid nanoparticles system performed by magnetite nanoparticles, loaded in a PLGA matrix, and stabilized by different concentrations of chitosan. Magnetite nanoparticles were hydrophobized with oleic acid and entrapped in a PLGA matrix by the emulsion solvent evaporation method, after that, magnetite/PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by adding dropwise magnetite/PLGA nanoparticles in chitosan solutions. Magnetite/PLGA nanoparticles produced with different molar ratios did not show significant differences in size and the 3:1 molar ratio showed best spherical shapes as well as uniform particle size. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies demonstrated that the first stage of PLGA-chitosan interaction is mostly regulated by electrostatic forces. Based on a single set of identical sites model, we obtained for the average number of binding sites a value of 3.4, which can be considered as the number of chitosan chains per nanoparticle. This value was confirmed by using a model based on the DLVO theory and fitting zeta potential measurements of magnetite/PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles. From the adjusted parameters, we found that an average number of chitosan molecules of 3.6 per nanoparticle are attached onto the surface of the PLGA matrix. Finally, we evaluated the effect of surface charge of nanoparticles on a membrane model of endothelial cells performed by a mixture of three phospholipids at the air-water interface. Different isotherms and adsorption curves show that cationic surface of charged nanoparticles strongly interact with the phospholipids mixture and these results can be the basis of future experiments to understand the nanoparticles- cell membrane interaction.

  9. Understanding the adsorption mechanism of chitosan onto poly(lactide-co-glycolide) particles

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunqiang; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte-coated nanoparticles or microparticles interact with bioactive molecules (peptides, proteins or nucleic acids) and have been proposed as delivery systems for these molecules. However, the mechanism of adsorption of polyelectrolyte onto particles remains unsolved. In this study, cationic poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles were fabricated by adsorption of various concentrations of a biodegradable polysaccharide, chitosan (0–2.4 g/L), using oil-in-water emulsion and solvent evaporation techniques. The particle diameter, zeta-potential, and chitosan adsorption of chitosan coated PLGA nanoparticles confirmed the increase of polyelectrolyte adsorption. Five adsorption isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Halsey, Henderson and Smith) were applied to the experimental data in order to better understand the mechanism of adsorption. Both particle diameter and chitosan adsorption increased with chitosan concentration during adsorption. A good correlation was obtained between PLGA-chitosan nanoparticle size and adsorbed chitosan on the surface, suggesting the increased particle size was primarily due to the increased chitosan adsorption. The zeta-potential of chitosan-coated PLGA nanoparticles was positive and increased with chitosan adsorbed until a maximum value (+55 mV) was reached at approximately 0.4–0.6 g/L; PLGA nanoparticles had a negative zeta-potential (?20 mV) prior to chitosan adsorption. Chitosan adsorption on PLGA nanoparticles followed a multilayer adsorption behavior, although the Langmuir monolayer equation held at low concentrations of chitosan. The underlying reasons for adsorption of chitosan on PLGA nanoparticles were thought to be the cationic nature of chitosan, high surface energy and microporous non-uniform surface of PLGA nanoparticles. PMID:18602994

  10. Radiation synthesis of chitosan stabilized gold nanoparticles comparison between e- beam and ? irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Khoa Dang Nguyen; Kowandy, Christelle; Dupont, Laurent; Coqueret, Xavier; Hien, Nguyen Quoc

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized via radiolytic reduction of Au(III) salts induced by e- beam or ?-irradiation, using chitosan as a stabilizer. The effect of irradiation dose, chitosan concentration and the conditioning of HAuCl4-chitosan solutions were studied. UV-visible absorption measurements reveal that the size of Au clusters formed immediately after irradiation is correlated with the extent of chitosan scission chain of chitosan and fall with the increase of dose absorbed. This effect is more pronounced with solution conditioned under Argon (Ar). Au clusters coalesce to form stable nanoparticles after two weeks.

  11. Effect of chitosan-based edible coating on preservation of white shrimp during partially frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-04-01

    Chitosan and chitooligosaccharides are preservatives with proven antibacterial activity, while glutathione has antioxidant activity. This study investigated the effects of chitosan coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione (0.8% glutathione+1% chitooligosaccharides+1% chitosan) on preservation of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Chitosan-based coating treatments effectively inhibited bacterial growth, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen and malondialdehyde, and basically maintained the sensory properties of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Therefore, chitosan-based edible coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione could be a promising antimicrobial and oxidant method to prevent metamorphism of white shrimp with extended shelf life. PMID:24491494

  12. Modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds, methods of making the same and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Venditti, Richard A; Pawlak, Joel J; Salam, Abdus; El-Tahlawy, Khaled Fathy

    2015-03-10

    Compositions of matter are provided that include chitosan and a modified carbohydrate. The modified carbohydrate includes a carbohydrate component and a cross linking agent. The modified carbohydrate has increased carboxyl content as compared to an unmodified counterpart carbohydrate. A carboxyl group of the modified carbohydrate is covalently bonded with an amino group of chitosan. The compositions of matter provided herein may include cross linked starch citrate-chitosan and cross linked hemicellulose citrate-chitosan, including foams thereof. These compositions yield excellent absorbency and metal chelation properties. Methods of making cross linked modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds are also provided.

  13. In vitro damage of Candida albicans biofilms by chitosan

    PubMed Central

    PU, YU; LIU, AIBO; ZHENG, YUQIANG; YE, BIN

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing usage of indwelling medical devices in clinical practice, the frequency of fungal infections has increased, such as that of Candida albicans (C. albicans). Biofilms, a protected niche for microorganisms, are resistant to a range of current antifungal agents. Chitosan is a polyatomic biopolymer with advantageous biocompatibility, biodegradation, nontoxicity and antibacterial properties. To investigate the inhibitory effect of chitosan on biofilms formed by C. albicans, cell viability, 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-caboxanilide reduction, and morphological assays, including fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were employed. As assessed by cell viability assay, chitosan showed significant inhibitory effects on the planktonic cells and the biofilm of C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner. Fluorescence microscopy and SEM assays confirmed that the chitosan-treated group showed delayed C. albicans biofilm formation with defect morphological features, due to the inhibitory effects of the vast majority of fungal cell growth. In conclusion, C. albicans biofilms were compromised by the treatment with chitosan, providing an alternative therapeutic strategy against the fungal biofilms in the medical devices. PMID:25120626

  14. Electrophoretic deposition of composite hydroxyapatite-chitosan coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Pang Xin; Zhitomirsky, Igor . E-mail: zhitom@mcmaster.ca

    2007-04-15

    Cathodic electrophoretic deposition has been utilized for the fabrication of composite hydroxyapatite-chitosan coatings on 316L stainless steel substrates. The addition of chitosan to the hydroxyapatite suspensions promoted the electrophoretic deposition of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and resulted in the formation of composite coatings. The obtained coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was shown that the deposit composition can be changed by a variation of the chitosan or hydroxyapatite concentration in the solutions. Experimental conditions were developed for the fabrication of hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocomposites containing 40.9-89.8 wt.% hydroxyapatite. The method enabled the formation of adherent and uniform coatings of thicknesses up to 60 {mu}m. X-ray studies revealed that the preferred orientation of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the chitosan matrix increases with decreasing hydroxyapatite content in the composite coatings. The obtained coatings provided the corrosion protection for the 316L stainless steel substrates00.

  15. Antimicrobial finish of textiles by chitosan UV-curing.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Franco; Periolatto, Monica

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this research work was to develop a textile finish based on the radical UV-curing of chitosan on textiles to confer antimicrobial properties. Chitosan is a biopolymer with unique properties such as biodegradability, non-toxicity, antimicrobial activity. In this work cotton or silk fabrics and synthetic filter fabrics were impregnated with an acid solution of chitosan added of the photoinitiator in the proper amount and cured at room temperature by exposure to UV lamp. Process conditions such as percentage add-on, dilution, chitosan-fabric contact time, irradiation time and power, were optimized. The antimicrobial activity of finished fabrics was tested according to ASTM E 2149-01 standard test performed with Escherichia Coli ATCC 8739. Moreover dyeing test with Turquoise Telon dye were carried out to evaluate the treatment homogeneity while the amino group content was determined by ninhydrin assay. Moreover on cotton and silk fabrics the treatment fastness to domestic laundering was tested, according to UNI EN ISO105-C01. Obtained results showed a strong antimicrobial activity conferred by the treatment, homogeneous on fabric surface. It is evident already at low add-on, without affecting the hand properties of natural fabrics and the filtration characteristics of the synthetic filter fabrics. Finally, washing fastness was better for samples prepared with a better penetration of chitosan inside the fibers. PMID:22905533

  16. Thiopyrazole preactivated chitosan: combining mucoadhesion and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christiane; Ma, Benjamin N; Gust, Ronald; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a preactivated chitosan derivative by the introduction of thioglycolic acid followed by 3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazole-5-thiol (MPPT) coupling via disulfide bond formation. The newly synthesized conjugate was characterized in terms of water-absorbing capacity, cohesive properties, mucoadhesion and drug release kinetics. Further in vitro characterization was conducted regarding permeation enhancement of the model compound fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD4) and cytotoxic effects on Caco-2 cells. Based on the attachment of the hydrophobic residue, chitosan-S-S-MPPT test discs showed increased stability of the polymer matrix as well as improved water uptake and liberation of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD4) compared to chitosan only. The mucoadhesive qualities on porcine intestinal mucosa could be improved 38-fold based on the enhanced bonding between chitosan-S-S-MPPT and mucus through the thiol/disulfide exchange reaction of polymer and mucosal cysteine-rich domains supported by MPPT as the leaving group. This novel biomaterial presents a disulfide conjugation-based delivery system that releases the antibacterial thiopyrazole when the polymer comes into contact with the intestinal mucosa. These properties, together with the safe toxicological profile, make chitosan-S-S-MPPT a valuable carrier for mucoadhesive drug delivery systems and a promising matrix for the development of antimicrobial excipients. PMID:23321304

  17. Correlation of chitosan's rheological properties to its ability to electrospin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Wendy E.; Queen, Hailey A.; Klossner, Rebecca R.; Coughlin, Andrew J.

    2007-03-01

    Chitosan, derived from chitin found in the exoskeleton of crustaceans, has been investigated extensively for use in biomedical applications ranging from drug delivery to scaffolds for tissue engineering. Therefore, forming nanofibers of this linear polysaccharide is desirable for use in such applications, because the nanofibers can be tailored to mimic the size and porosity of the extracellular matrix. Electrostatic spinning (electrospinning) is a convenient method to produce nonwoven mats of nanofibers. The ability of the solutions to successfully electospin is closely correlated with the rheological properties of the solutions. Chitosan is challenging to electrospin due to its relatively high viscosity at modest concentrations. Solutions of chitosan blended with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) have been electrospun successfully with freshly prepared solutions. If the blended solutions are stored, they do not readily electrospin. Moreover, chitosan/PEO blend solutions show a drastic decrease in zero shear rate viscosity over time, which can be attributed to phase separation. The challenges associated with electrospinning charged biopolymers (chitosan is cationic) will be discussed in terms of their rheological properties. Successes and failures will be highlighted and compared results for readily electrospun neutral polymers.

  18. Chitosan-based mucosal adjuvants: Sunrise on the ocean.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yufei; Fan, Qingze; Hao, Dongxia; Wu, Jie; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2015-11-01

    Mucosal vaccination, which is shown to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses, serves as a non-invasive and convenient alternative to parenteral administration, with stronger capability in combatting diseases at the site of entry. The exploration of potent mucosal adjuvants is emerging as a significant area, based on the continued necessity to amplify the immune responses to a wide array of antigens that are poorly immunogenic at the mucosal sites. As one of the inspirations from the ocean, chitosan-based mucosal adjuvants have been developed with unique advantages, such as, ability of mucosal adhesion, distinct trait of opening the junctions to allow the paracellular transport of antigen, good tolerability and biocompatibility, which guaranteed the great potential in capitalizing on their application in human clinical trials. In this review, the state of art of chitosan and its derivatives as mucosal adjuvants, including thermo-sensitive chitosan system as mucosal adjuvant that were newly developed by author's group, was described, as well as the clinical application perspective. After a brief introduction of mucosal adjuvants, chitosan and its derivatives as robust immune potentiator were discussed in detail and depth, in regard to the metabolism, safety profile, mode of actions and preclinical and clinical applications, which may shed light on the massive clinical application of chitosan as mucosal adjuvant. PMID:26271831

  19. The safety of chitosan as a pharmaceutical excipient.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul

    2010-04-01

    Interest in use of the polysaccharide chitosan as a pharmaceutical excipient by different dose routes and for a number of applications is not new but it still does not appear to be present in any marketed drugs. Including a novel excipient in a new drug formulation requires a number of safety considerations. Review of the published literature showed that chitosan has low oral toxicity and local tolerance potential supporting use in non-parenteral formulations. Prior human oral exposure has occurred through use of chitosan dietary supplements and food additive, medical device and cosmetic applications. Although systemic exposure to parent chitosan may be limited (due to digestion in the gastrointestinal tract), any that is absorbed will likely undergo enzyme degradation to naturally occurring glucosamine, and N-acetylglucosamine, its copolymers, which are excreted or used in the amino sugar pool. Chitosan has local biological activity in the form of haemostatic action and, together with its ability to activate macrophages and cause cytokine stimulation (which has resulted in interest in medical device and wound healing applications), may result in a more careful assessment of its safety as a parenteral excipient. PMID:19788905

  20. Carbon and nitrogen limitation increase chitosan antifungal activity in Neurospora crassa and fungal human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Moya, Federico; Colom-Valiente, Maria F; Martinez-Peinado, Pascual; Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E; Puelles, Eduardo; Sempere-Ortells, Jose M; Lopez-Llorca, Luis V

    2015-03-01

    Chitosan permeabilizes plasma membrane and kills sensitive filamentous fungi and yeast. Membrane fluidity and cell energy determine chitosan sensitivity in fungi. A five-fold reduction of both glucose (main carbon (C) source) and nitrogen (N) increased 2-fold Neurospora crassa sensitivity to chitosan. We linked this increase with production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plasma membrane permeabilization. Releasing N. crassa from nutrient limitation reduced chitosan antifungal activity in spite of high ROS intracellular levels. With lactate instead of glucose, C and N limitation increased N. crassa sensitivity to chitosan further (4-fold) than what glucose did. Nutrient limitation also increased sensitivity of filamentous fungi and yeast human pathogens to chitosan. For Fusarium proliferatum, lowering 100-fold C and N content in the growth medium, increased 16-fold chitosan sensitivity. Similar results were found for Candida spp. (including fluconazole resistant strains) and Cryptococcus spp. Severe C and N limitation increased chitosan antifungal activity for all pathogens tested. Chitosan at 100 ?g ml(-1) was lethal for most fungal human pathogens tested but non-toxic to HEK293 and COS7 mammalian cell lines. Besides, chitosan increased 90% survival of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans. These results are of paramount for developing chitosan as antifungal. PMID:25749367

  1. Photocrosslinkable chitosan modified with angiopoietin-1 peptide, QHREDGS, promotes survival of neonatal rat heart cells.

    PubMed

    Rask, Fiona; Dallabrida, Susan M; Ismail, Nesreen S; Amoozgar, Zohreh; Yeo, Yoon; Rupnick, Maria A; Radisic, Milica

    2010-10-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) results in the death of cardiomyocytes (CM), which causes scar formation and pathological remodeling of the heart. The delivery of healthy myocytes or bone marrow cells reduces pathological remodeling after MI, however, current cell injection methods have low cell survival rates and high cell loss. The main objective of this work was to develop a novel hydrogel that can promote survival of CMs. Photocrosslinkable azidobenzoic acid modified chitosan (Az-chitosan) was conjugated with the angiopoietin-1-derived peptide, QHREDGS. This novel peptide is thought to mediate attachment and survival responses of CM to angiopoietin-1 via integrin binding. Thin layers of Az-chitosan, Az-chitosan-QHREDGS, and Az-chitosan-DGQESHR (scrambled peptide control) were spin coated on glass slides and photocrosslinked with application of UV light (365 nm). Neonatal rat heart cells cultured up to 5 days, demonstrated significantly higher attachment and viability on Az-chitosan-QHREDGS compared to cells on other hydrogel controls. Surfaces were also stained for the CM-specific marker troponin I, demonstrating significantly higher percentage of CMs on Az-chitosan-QHREDGS compared to Az-chitosan. The cells cultivated on Az-chitosan-QHREDGS demonstrated significantly lower levels of caspase 3/7 activation after taxol treatment in comparison to cells cultivated on the control hydrogels, glass substrate, or Az-chitosan linked to RGD, an established integrin binding peptide that did not protect against apoptosis. Thus, Az-chitosan-QHREDGS supports attachment and survival of neonatal rat heart cells. PMID:20540095

  2. Does the Use of Chitosan Contribute to Oxalate Kidney Stone Formation?

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Moacir Fernandes; Teodosio Melo, Karoline Rachel; Sabry, Diego Araujo; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan is widely used in the biomedical field due its chemical and pharmacological properties. However, intake of chitosan results in renal tissue accumulation of chitosan and promotes an increase in calcium excretion. On the other hand, the effect of chitosan on the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) has not been described. In this work, we evaluated the antioxidant capacity of chitosan and its interference in the formation of CaOx crystals in vitro. Here, the chitosan obtained commercially had its identity confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. In several tests, this chitosan showed low or no antioxidant activity. However, it also showed excellent copper-chelating activity. In vitro, chitosan acted as an inducer mainly of monohydrate CaOx crystal formation, which is more prevalent in patients with urolithiasis. We also observed that chitosan modifies the morphology and size of these crystals, as well as changes the surface charge of the crystals, making them even more positive, which can facilitate the interaction of these crystals with renal cells. Chitosan greatly influences the formation of crystals in vitro, and in vivo analyses should be conducted to assess the risk of using chitosan. PMID:25551781

  3. Degradation of chitosan by gamma ray with presence of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Maznah; Naziri, Muhammad Ihsan; Yacob, Norzita; Talip, Norhashidah; Abdullah, Zahid

    2014-02-01

    The radiation degraded chitosan samples were prepared by swelling the chitosan powder in water and exposed for gamma irradiation. The ratio chitosan to water was 1:6 with the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 1%-5%. These chitosan-water mixtures were irradiated at 6kGy, which is the lowest irradiation dose that facility can offered. All samples were purified and proceed with characterization. The molecular weight (MW) study was monitored by size exclusion chromatography-multi angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS). Results showed that MW of chitosan reduced as the dose increased. Application of H2O2 enhanced the degradation rate of chitosan even at very low irradiation dose. Homogenous degradation also occurred during treatment with H2O2based on the polydispersity index (PDI) derived from the calculation of weight average molecular weight over number average molecular weight (Mw/Mn). Mechanism of chitosan radiation degradation with and without hydrogen peroxide was also discussed in this paper. Structure of degraded products was characterized with Fourier-transform infrared spectra. The degree of deacetylation (DDA) values of the samples was determined by acid-base titration. Solubility test results showed that, chitosan powder even at low Mw was insoluble in water even at low pH water. Chitosan as well as irradiated chitosan powder are soluble in strong and weak acid solution. Further discussion on behaviours of radiation degraded chitosan will be elaborated more in this paper.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of a hydroxyethyl derivative of chitosan and evaluation of its biosafety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Kai; Han, Baoqin; Gao, Jinning; Song, Fulai; Yang, Yan; Liu, Wanshun

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyethyl chitosan (HE-chitosan) is a water-soluble derivative of chitosan with many apparent biological properties. For example, it is non-toxic and rapidly biodegradable. Moreover, HE-chitosan has advantages in water-solubility, moisture retention and gelling property due to its hydroxyethyl group. However, the biocompatibility and biodegradability of this multifunctional derivative have rarely been documented although they are critical for its application in biomedical and clinical treatments. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the biosafety of HE-chitosan, and draw important clues for its diverse applications. HE-chitosan was synthesized and characterized its chemical structure with FTIR. Its molecular weight (MW) was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and its deacetylation degree (DD) was investigated through potentiometric analysis. The cytotoxicity of HE-chitosan on mouse fibroblast cell L929 was tested. The biocompatibility and biodegradability of HE-chitosan in rat and rabbit were evaluated. The FTIR results indicated that the hydroxyethyl groups were linked to C6 of chitosan. The GPC analysis confirmed that its Mw was about 90.01 kDa. It was also demonstrated that HE-chitosan had excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability in vivo and had no cytotoxicity on L929. These findings indicated that HE-chitosan can potentially be applied as a biomaterial in tissue engineering, drug delivery, and other biomedical fields.

  5. Improving effects of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds on osteoblast proliferation and maturation

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming-Hua; Liao, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Yi-Ling; Lai, Chien-Hao; Lin, Pei-I; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Osteoblast maturation plays a key role in regulating osteogenesis. Electrospun nanofibrous products were reported to possess a high surface area and porosity. In this study, we developed chitosan nanofibers and examined the effects of nanofibrous scaffolds on osteoblast maturation and the possible mechanisms. Macro- and micro observations of the chitosan nanofibers revealed that these nanoproducts had a flat surface and well-distributed fibers with nanoscale diameters. Mouse osteoblasts were able to attach onto the chitosan nanofiber scaffolds, and the scaffolds degraded in a time-dependent manner. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy further showed mouse osteoblasts adhered onto the scaffolds along the nanofibers, and cell–cell communication was also detected. Mouse osteoblasts grew much better on chitosan nanofiber scaffolds than on chitosan films. In addition, human osteoblasts were able to adhere and grow on the chitosan nanofiber scaffolds. Interestingly, culturing human osteoblasts on chitosan nanofiber scaffolds time-dependently increased DNA replication and cell proliferation. In parallel, administration of human osteoblasts onto chitosan nanofibers significantly induced osteopontin, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) messenger (m)RNA expression. As to the mechanism, chitosan nanofibers triggered runt-related transcription factor 2 mRNA and protein syntheses. Consequently, results of ALP-, alizarin red-, and von Kossa-staining analyses showed that chitosan nanofibers improved osteoblast mineralization. Taken together, results of this study demonstrate that chitosan nanofibers can stimulate osteoblast proliferation and maturation via runt-related transcription factor 2-mediated regulation of osteoblast-associated osteopontin, osteocalcin, and ALP gene expression. PMID:25246786

  6. Effect of low-molecular-weight chitosans on the adhesive properties of oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Tarsi, R; Corbin, B; Pruzzo, C; Muzzarelli, R A

    1998-08-01

    It was previously shown that a low-molecular-weight chitosan and its derivatives N-carboxymethyl chitosan and imidazolyl chitosan inhibit Streptococcus mutans adsorption to hydroxyapatite. The ability of the same molecules to interfere with adhesive properties of other oral streptococci (Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus vestibularis) was tested. When saliva-coated or -uncoated hydroxyapatite beads were treated with N-carboxymethyl chitosan, a reduction varying from 60% to 98% depending on strains was observed. Low-molecular-weight chitosans and imidazolyl chitosan did not have any effect. Growth in N-carboxymethyl chitosan-supplemented medium (final concentrations ranging from 20 to 500 micrograms.ml-1) caused a dose related reduction in the adsorption of all strains to hydroxyapatite and in their affinity towards xylene. No effect was observed with low-molecular-weight chitosans and imidazolyl chitosan. In contrast to what observed with S. mutans, the three polysaccharides did not affect detachment from hydroxyapatite beads and adherence to cheek epithelial cells of the other streptococci. These results suggest that low-molecular-weight chitosans and/or imidazolyl chitosan, selectively affecting S. mutans adsorption to hydroxyapatite, may be very interesting as potential anti-dental caries agents. PMID:10093536

  7. Chitosan-Copper (II) complex as antibacterial agent: synthesis, characterization and coordinating bond- activity correlation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekahlia, S.; Bouzid, B.

    2009-11-01

    The antimicrobial activity of chitosan is unstable and sensitive to many factors such as molecular weight. Recent investigations showed that low molecular weight chitosan exhibited strong bactericidal activities compared to chitosan with high molecular weight. Since chitosan degradation can be caused by the coordinating bond, we attempt to synthesize and characterize the chitosan-Cu (II) complex, and thereafter study the coordinating bond effect on its antibacterial activity against Salmonella enteritidis. Seven chitosan-copper complexes with different copper contents were prepared and characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis, XRD and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results indicated that for chitosan-Cu (II) complexes with molar ratio close to 1:1, the inhibition rate reached 100%.

  8. Synthesis, antioxidant and cathepsin D inhibition activity of quaternary ammonium chitosan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjuan; Duan, Yunfei; Huang, Jianying; Zheng, Qunxiong

    2016-01-20

    Two (2-hydroxypropyl) trimethyl ammonium and/or imidazole-based quaternary ammonium chitosan derivatives (NHT-chitosan and Im-OHT-chitosan) were synthesized by using nucleophilic substitution reaction. These two synthesized chitosan derivatives were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, NMR spectra, and UV-visible spectra. The applications as antioxidant agents and cathepsin D inhibitors were further investigated. Both of quaternary ammonium chitosan derivatives exhibited good antioxidant activity upon scavenging against hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide as well as the lipid peroxidation inhibition in the linoleic acid emulsion system. They also exhibited good inhibition activity of cathepsin D protease. NHT-chitosan and Im-OHT-chitosan are potential the natural, healthy and safe preservatives in food industry. PMID:26572425

  9. Improving the hydrogen peroxide bleaching efficiency of aspen chemithermomechanical pulp by using chitosan.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongquan; Dou, Hongyan; Fu, Yingjuan; Qin, Menghua

    2015-11-01

    The presence of transition metals during the hydrogen peroxide bleaching of pulp results in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, which decreases the bleaching efficiency. In this study, chitosans were used as peroxide stabilizer in the alkaline hydrogen peroxide bleaching of aspen chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP). The results showed that the brightness of the bleached CTMP increased 1.5% ISO by addition of 0.1% chitosan with 95% degree of deacetylation during peroxide bleaching. Transition metals in the form of ions or metal colloid particles, such as iron, copper and manganese, could be adsorbed by chitosans. Chitosans could inhibit the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by different transition metals under alkaline conditions. The ability of chitosans to inhibit peroxide decomposition depended on the type of transition metals, chitosan concentration and degree of deacetylation applied. The addition of chitosan slightly reduced the concentration of the hydroxyl radical formed during the hydrogen peroxide bleaching of aspen CTMP. PMID:26256367

  10. Study of polyelectrolyte complexes of chitosan and sulfoethyl cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Baklagina, Yu. G. Kononova, S. V.; Petrova, V. A.; Kruchinina, E. V.; Nud'ga, L. A.; Romanov, D. P.; Klechkovskaya, V. V.; Orekhov, A. S.; Bogomazov, A. V.; Arkhipov, S. N.

    2013-03-15

    The complexing of polycation chitosan and polyanion sulphoethyl cellulose during the formation of polyelectrolyte simplex membranes using the layer-by-layer deposition of a solution of one polyion on a gel-like film of another one has been studied. The structural characteristics of the multilayer composites and their components have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. A technique is proposed for studying the structure of surface layers of thin polymer films (15-20 {mu}m) using a portable DIFREI-401 diffractometer. It is shown that the sequence of layer deposition during the formation of membrane films does not affect their structural characteristics. The interaction between positively charged chitosan groups (-NH{sub 3}{sup +}) and negatively charged sulfoethyl cellulose groups (-SO{sub 3}{sup -}) during the growth of polyelectrolyte complexes results in a packing of chitosan chains in the multilayer film.

  11. Composite chitosan hydrogels for extended release of hydrophobic drugs.

    PubMed

    Delmar, Keren; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2016-01-20

    A composite chitosan hydrogel durable in physiological conditions intended for sustained release of hydrophobic drugs was investigated. The design is based on chitosan crosslinked with genipin with embedded biocompatible non-ionic microemulsion (ME). A prolonged release period of 48h in water, and of 24h in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) of pH 7.4 was demonstrated for Nile red and curcumin. The differences in release patterns in water and PBS were attributed to distinct dissimilarities in the swelling behaviors; in water, the hydrogels swell enormously, while in PBS they expel water and shrink. The release mechanism dominating this system is complex due to intermolecular bonding between the oil droplets and the polymeric network, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) experiments. This is the first time that oil in water microemulsions were introduced into a chitosan hydrogels for the creation of a hydrophobic drug delivery system. PMID:26572389

  12. Review of antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of chitosans in food.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Juneja, Vijay K

    2010-09-01

    Interest in chitosan, a biodegradable, nontoxic, non-antigenic, and biocompatible biopolymer isolated from shellfish, arises from the fact that chitosans are reported to exhibit numerous health-related beneficial effects, including strong antimicrobial and antioxidative activities in foods. The extraordinary interest in the chemistry and application in agriculture, horticulture, environmental science, industry, microbiology, and medicine is attested by about 17,000 citations on this subject in the Scopus database. A special need exists to develop a better understanding of the role of chitosans in ameliorating foodborne illness. To contribute to this effort, this overview surveys and interprets our present knowledge of the chemistry and antimicrobial activities of chitosan in solution, as powders, and in edible films and coating against foodborne pathogens, spoilage bacteria, and pathogenic viruses and fungi in several food categories. These include produce, fruit juices, eggs and dairy, cereal, meat, and seafood products. Also covered are antimicrobial activities of chemically modified and nanochitosans, therapeutic properties, and possible mechanisms of the antimicrobial, antioxidative, and metal chelating effects. Further research is suggested in each of these categories. The widely scattered data on the multifaceted aspects of chitosan microbiology, summarized in the text and in 10 tables and 8 representative figures, suggest that low-molecular-weight chitosans at a pH below 6.0 presents optimal conditions for achieving desirable antimicrobial and antioxidative-preservative effects in liquid and solid foods. We are very hopeful that the described findings will be a valuable record and resource for further progress to improve microbial food safety and food quality. PMID:20828484

  13. Preparation of curcumin-loaded pluronic F127/chitosan nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuc Le, Thi Minh; Phuc Pham, Van; Lua Dang, Thi Minh; Huyen La, Thi; Hanh Le, Thi; Huan Le, Quang

    2013-06-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven to be an effective delivery system with few side effects for anticancer drugs. In this study, curcumin-loaded NPs have been prepared by an ionic gelation method using chitosan (Chi) and pluronic®F-127 (PF) as carriers to deliver curcumin to the target cancer cells. Prepared NPs were characterized using Zetasizer, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was approximately 50%. The average size of curcumin-loaded PF/Chi NPs was 150.9 nm, while the zeta potential was 5.09 mV. Cellular uptake of curcumin-loaded NPs into HEK293 cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy.

  14. Active Targeted Nanoparticles for Oral Administration of Gastric Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Zih-Rou; Lai, Chih-Ho; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Feng, Chun-Lung

    2015-09-14

    Gastric carcinogenesis is a commonly diagnosed type of cancer and has a dismal prognosis because of the rate at which it aggressively spreads and because of the lack of effective therapies to stop its progression. This study evaluated a type of oral drug delivery system of a potential target-activated nanosizer comprising a fucose-conjugated chitosan and polyethylene glycol-conjugated chitosan complex with gelatin containing encapsulated green tea polyphenol extract epigallocatechin-3-gallate, allowing oral administration of the drug through a site-specific release in gastric cancer cells. The results demonstrated that the nanoparticles effectively reduced drug release within gastric acids and that a controlled epigallocatechin-3-gallate release inhibited gastric cancer cell growth, induced cell apoptosis, and reduced vascular endothelial growth factor protein expression. Furthermore, in vivo assay results indicated that the prepared epigallocatechin-3-gallate-loaded fucose-chitosan/polyethylene glycol-chitosan/gelatin nanoparticles significantly affected gastric tumor activity and reduced gastric and liver tissue inflammatory reaction in an orthotopic gastric tumor mouse model. PMID:26286711

  15. Synthesis and antioxidant properties of chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan-stabilized selenium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wanwen; Li, Yanfang; Yang, Shuo; Yue, Lin; Jiang, Qixing; Xia, Wenshui

    2015-11-01

    Monodispersible selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were synthesized by using chitosan (CS) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CCS) as the stabilizer and capping agent using a facile synthetic approach. The structure, size, morphology and antioxidant activity of the nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results revealed that the monodispersible SeNPs (mean particle size of about 50 nm) were ligated with CS and CCS to form nanocomposites in aqueous solution for at least 30 days, and for 120 days the nanoparticles increased to 180 nm or so in size. The DPPH scavenging ability of CS-SeNPs was higher than that of CCS-SeNPs, and could reach 93.5% at a concentration of 0.6 mmol/L. Moreover, SeNPs, CS-SeNPs and CCS-SeNPs exhibited a higher ABTS scavenging ability in comparison to Na2SeO3. PMID:26256384

  16. In vitro evaluation of the biomedical properties of chitosan and quaternized chitosan for dental applications.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qiu Xia; Zhong, De Yu; Lü, Rui; Zhang, Wen Qing; Deng, Jing; Chen, Xi Guang

    2009-07-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential dental applications of chitosan (CS) and N-[1-hydroxy-3-(trimethylammonium)propyl]chitosan chloride (HTCC). HTCC was prepared by reacting CS with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC). CS and HTCC were characterized by infrared (FITR) and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity of CS and HTCC against oral pathogens, their proliferation activity and effects on the ultrastructure of human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs) were investigated. The results indicated that four oral strains were susceptible to CS and HTCC with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.25 to 2.5mg/mL. The in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thizolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay determined that CS at 2000, 1000, 100, and 50microg/mL could stimulate the proliferation of HPDLCs. Instead, HTCC inhibited the proliferation at the same concentrations but accelerated the proliferation of HPDLCs at relatively low concentrations (10, 3, 1.5, 1, and 0.3microg/mL). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that the ultra-architecture of HPDLC was seriously destroyed by HTCC treatment at 1000microg/mL. Taken together, these results contribute information necessary to enhance our understanding of CS and HTCC in the dental field. PMID:19535044

  17. Injectable thermosensitive hydrogel based on chitosan and quaternized chitosan and the biomedical properties.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qiu Xia; Chen, Xi Guang; Zhao, Qing Sheng; Liu, Cheng Sheng; Cheng, Xiao Jie; Wang, Ling Chong

    2009-08-01

    A novel injectable thermosensitive hydrogel (CS-HTCC/alpha beta-GP) was successfully designed and prepared using chitosan (CS), quaternized chitosan (HTCC) and alpha,beta-glycerophosphate (alpha,beta-GP) without any additional chemical stimulus. The gelation point of CS-HTCC/alpha beta-GP can be set at a temperature close to normal body temperature or other temperature above 25 degrees C. The transition process can be controlled by adjusting the weight ratio of CS to HTCC, or different final concentration of alpha,beta-GP. The optimum formulation is (CS + HTCC) (2% w/v), CS/HTCC (5/1 w/w) and alpha,beta-GP 8.33% or 9.09% (w/v), where the sol-gel transition time was 3 min at 37 degrees C. The drug released over 3 h from the CS-HTCC/alpha,beta-GP thermosensitive hydrogel in artificial saliva pH 6.8. In addition, CS-HTCC/alpha,beta-GP thermosensitive hydrogel exhibited stronger antibacterial activity towards two periodontal pathogens (Porphyromonas gingivalis, P.g and Prevotella intermedia, P.i). CS-HTCC/alpha, beta-GP thermosensitive hydrogel was a considerable candidate as a local drug delivery system for periodontal treatment. PMID:19322644

  18. Biocompatibility assessment of porous chitosan-Nafion and chitosan-PTFE composites in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo-Ji; Ma, Li-Nan; Su, Juan; Jing, Wei-Wei; Wei, Min-Jie; Sha, Xian-Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Chitosan (CS) is widely used as a scaffold material in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to test whether porous chitosan membrane (PCSM) coating for Nafion used in implantable sensor reduced fibrous capsule (FC) density and promoted superior vascularization compared with PCSM coating for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). PCSM was fabricated with solvent casting/particulate leaching method using silica gel as porogen and characterized in vitro. Then, PCSM-Nafion and PCSM-PTFE composites were assembled with hydrated PCSM and implanted subcutaneously in rats. The histological analysis was performed in comparison with Nafion and PTFE. Implants were explanted 35, 65, and 100 days after the implantation. Histological assessments indicated that both composites achieved presumed effects of porous coatings on decreasing collagen deposition and promoting angiogenesis. PCSM-PTFE exerted higher collagen deposition by area ratio, both within and outside, compared with that of PCSM-Nafion. Angiogenesis within and outside the PCSM-Nafion both increased over time, but that of the PCSM-PTFE within decreased. PMID:23765695

  19. Irradiated PVAl membrane swelled with chitosan solution as dermal equivalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodas, A. C. D.; Ohnuki, T.; Mathor, M. B.; Lugao, A. B.

    2005-07-01

    Synthetic membranes as dermal equivalent can be applied at in vitro studies for developing new transdermal drugs or cosmetics. These membranes could be composed to mimic the dermis and seed cultivated keratinocytes as epidermal layer on it. The endothelial cells ingrowth to promote neovascularization and fibroblasts ingrowth to promote the substitution of this scaffold by natural components of the dermis. As, they can mimic the scaffold function of dermis; the membranes with biological interaction could be used for in vivo studies as dermal equivalent. For this application, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAl) membranes crosslinked by gamma radiation were swelled with chitosan solution. PVAl do not interact with the organism when implanted and is intended to mimic the mechanical characteristics of the dermal scaffold. The chitosan as a biocompatible biosynthetic polysaccharide were incorporated into PVAl membranes to improve the organism response. Degradation of chitosan by the organism occurs preferably by hydrolysis or enzymatic action, for example, by lysozyme. For this purpose the swelling kinetic of PVAl membranes with chitosan solution were performed and it was verified their degradation in vitro. The results showed that the swelling equilibrium of the PVAl membranes with chitosan membranes was reached in 120 h with average swelling of 1730%. After swelling, PVAl and chitosan/PVAl membranes were dried and immersed in phosphate buffer solution pH 5.7 and pH 7.4, with and without lysozyme, as those pH values are the specific physiologic pH for external skin and the general physiological pH for the organism, respectively. It was verified that the pure PVAl membrane did not showed change in their mass during 14 days. PVAl membranes swelled with chitosan solution showed mass decrease from 1 to 14 days inside these solutions. The highest mass decrease was verified at pH 5.7 in phosphate buffer solution without lysozyme. The smallest mass decrease was verified at pH 7.4 in phosphate buffer solution without lysozyme. In general, PVAl membranes swelled with chitosan solution showed a clear mass decrease at pH 5.7.

  20. Chitosan coated cotton gauze for antibacterial water filtration.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Franco; Periolatto, Monica; Vineis, Claudia; Varesano, Alessio

    2014-03-15

    Communicable diseases can be transmitted by contaminated water. Water decontamination process is fundamental to eliminate microorganisms. In this work, cotton gauzes were coated with chitosan using an UV-curing process or cationized by introduction of quaternary ammonium groups and tested, in static and dynamic conditions, as water filter for biological disinfection against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Both materials showed good antibacterial activity, in static assessment, instead in dynamic conditions, chitosan treated gauze showed a high antimicrobial efficiency in few seconds of contact time. This composite could be a good candidate for application as biological filter. PMID:24528721

  1. Chitosan as an adjuvant for a Helicobacter pylori therapeutic vaccine

    PubMed Central

    GONG, YANFENG; TAO, LIMING; WANG, FUCAI; LIU, WEI; JING, LEI; LIU, DONGSHENG; HU, SIJUN; XIE, YONG; ZHOU, NANJIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to delineate the therapeutic effect of a Helicobacter pylori vaccine with chitosan as an adjuvant, as well as to identify the potential mechanism against H. pylori infection when compared with an H. pylori vaccine, with cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. Mice were first infected with H. pylori and, following the establishment of an effective infection model, were vaccinated using an H. pylori protein vaccine with chitosan as an adjuvant. Levels of H. pylori colonization, H. pylori-specific antibodies and cytokines were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The TLR4 and Foxp3 mRNA and protein levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. It was identified that the H. pylori elimination rate of the therapeutic vaccine with chitosan as an adjuvant (58.33%) was greater than the therapeutic vaccine with CT as an adjuvant (45.45%). The therapeutic H. pylori vaccine with chitosan as an adjuvant induced significantly greater antibody and cytokine levels when compared with the control groups. Notably, the IL-10 and IL-4 levels in the groups with chitosan as an adjuvant to the H. pylori vaccine were significantly greater than those in the groups with CT as an adjuvant. The mRNA expression levels of TLR4 and Foxp3 were significantly elevated in the mice that were vaccinated with chitosan as an adjuvant to the H. pylori vaccine, particularly in mice where the H. pylori infection had been eradicated. The H. pylori vaccine with chitosan as an adjuvant effectively increased the H. pylori elimination rate, the humoral immune response and the Th1/Th2 cell immune reaction; in addition, the therapeutic H. pylori vaccine regulated the Th1 and Th2 response. The significantly increased TLR4 expression and decreased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cell number contributed to the immune clearance of the H. pylori infection. Thus, the present findings demonstrate that in mice the H. pylori vaccine with chitosan as an adjuvant exerts an equivalent immunotherapeutic effect on H. pylori infection when compared with the H. pylori vaccine with CT as an adjuvant. PMID:26095723

  2. Femtosecond laser induced synthesis of Au nanoparticles mediated by chitosan.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, P H D; Vivas, M G; De Boni, L; dos Santos, D S; Balogh, D T; Misoguti, L; Mendonca, C R

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of Au nanoparticles by 30-fs pulses irradiation of a sample containing HAuCl4 and chitosan, a biopolymer used as reducing agent and stabilizer. We observed that it is a multi-photon induced process, with a threshold irradiance of 3.8 × 10(11) W/cm2 at 790 nm. By transmission electron microscopy we observed nanoparticles from 8 to 50 nm with distinct shapes. Infrared spectroscopy indicated that the reduction of gold and consequent production of nanoparticles is related to the fs-pulse induced oxidation of hydroxyl to carbonyl groups in chitosan. PMID:22274373

  3. Novel complex hydrogels based on N-carboxyethyl chitosan and quaternized chitosan and their controlled in vitro protein release property.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hebing; Yu, Lin; Tan, Songwei; Tu, Kehua; Wang, Li-Qun

    2010-02-26

    A novel pH-responsive hydrogel (CHC) composed of N-carboxyethyl chitosan (CEC) and N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl] chitosan chloride (HTCC) was synthesized by the redox polymerization technique. Turbidimetric titrations were used to determine the stoichiometric ratio of these two chitosan derivatives. The hydrogel was characterized by FT-IR, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dynamic transport of water showed that the hydrogel reached equilibrium within 48h. The swelling ratio of CHC hydrogel depended significantly on the pH of the buffer solution. The performance of the CHC as a matrix for the controlled release of BSA was investigated. It was found that the release behavior was determined by pH value of the medium as well as the intermolecular interaction between BSA and the hydrogels. PMID:20096400

  4. Optimized synthesis of glycyrrhetinic acid-modified chitosan 5-fluorouracil nanoparticles and their characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mingrong; Chen, Houxiang; Wang, Yong; Xu, Hongzhi; He, Bing; Han, Jiang; Zhang, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    The nanoparticle drug delivery system, which uses natural or synthetic polymeric material as a carrier to deliver drugs to targeted tissues, has a broad prospect for clinical application for its targeting, slow-release, and biodegradable properties. Here, we used chitosan (CTS) and hepatoma cell-specific binding molecule glycyrrhetinic acid to synthesize glycyrrhetinic acid-modified chitosan (GA-CTS). The synthetic product was confirmed by infrared (IR) spectra and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance. The GA-CTS/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) nanoparticles were synthesized by combining GA-CTS and 5-FU and conjugating 5-FU onto the GA-CTS nanomaterial. The central composite design was performed to optimize the preparation process as CTS:tripolyphosphate sodium (TPP) weight ratio =5:1, 5-FU:CTS weight ratio =1:1, TPP concentration =0.05% (w/v), and cross-link time =50 minutes. GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticles had a mean particle size of 193.7 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.003, a zeta potential of +27.4 mV, and a drug loading of 1.56%. The GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticle had a protective effect on the drug against plasma degrading enzyme, and provided a sustained release system comprising three distinct phases of quick, steady, and slow release. Our study showed that the peak time, half-life time, mean residence time and area under the curve of GA-CTS/5-FU were longer or more than those of the 5-FU group, but the maximum concentration (C(max)) was lower. We demonstrated that the nanoparticles accumulated in the liver and have significantly inhibited tumor growth in an orthotropic liver cancer mouse model. PMID:24493926

  5. Optimized synthesis of glycyrrhetinic acid-modified chitosan 5-fluorouracil nanoparticles and their characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Mingrong; Chen, Houxiang; Wang, Yong; Xu, Hongzhi; He, Bing; Han, Jiang; Zhang, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    The nanoparticle drug delivery system, which uses natural or synthetic polymeric material as a carrier to deliver drugs to targeted tissues, has a broad prospect for clinical application for its targeting, slow-release, and biodegradable properties. Here, we used chitosan (CTS) and hepatoma cell-specific binding molecule glycyrrhetinic acid to synthesize glycyrrhetinic acid-modified chitosan (GA-CTS). The synthetic product was confirmed by infrared (IR) spectra and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance. The GA-CTS/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) nanoparticles were synthesized by combining GA-CTS and 5-FU and conjugating 5-FU onto the GA-CTS nanomaterial. The central composite design was performed to optimize the preparation process as CTS:tripolyphosphate sodium (TPP) weight ratio =5:1, 5-FU:CTS weight ratio =1:1, TPP concentration =0.05% (w/v), and cross-link time =50 minutes. GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticles had a mean particle size of 193.7 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.003, a zeta potential of +27.4 mV, and a drug loading of 1.56%. The GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticle had a protective effect on the drug against plasma degrading enzyme, and provided a sustained release system comprising three distinct phases of quick, steady, and slow release. Our study showed that the peak time, half-life time, mean residence time and area under the curve of GA-CTS/5-FU were longer or more than those of the 5-FU group, but the maximum concentration (Cmax) was lower. We demonstrated that the nanoparticles accumulated in the liver and have significantly inhibited tumor growth in an orthotropic liver cancer mouse model. PMID:24493926

  6. Emulsion Electrospinning as an Approach to Fabricate PLGA/Chitosan Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tavanai, Hossein; Hilborn, Jöns; Donzel-Gargand, Olivier; Leifer, Klaus; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2014-01-01

    Novel nanofibers from blends of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and chitosan have been produced through an emulsion electrospinning process. The spinning solution employed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the emulsifier. PVA was extracted from the electrospun nanofibers, resulting in a final scaffold consisting of a blend of PLGA and chitosan. The fraction of chitosan in the final electrospun mat was adjusted from 0 to 33%. Analyses by scanning and transmission electron microscopy show uniform nanofibers with homogenous distribution of PLGA and chitosan in their cross section. Infrared spectroscopy verifies that electrospun mats contain both PLGA and chitosan. Moreover, contact angle measurements show that the electrospun PLGA/chitosan mats are more hydrophilic than electrospun mats of pure PLGA. Tensile strengths of 4.94?MPa and 4.21?MPa for PLGA/chitosan in dry and wet conditions, respectively, illustrate that the polyblend mats of PLGA/chitosan are strong enough for many biomedical applications. Cell culture studies suggest that PLGA/chitosan nanofibers promote fibroblast attachment and proliferation compared to PLGA membranes. It can be assumed that the nanofibrous composite scaffold of PLGA/chitosan could be potentially used for skin tissue reconstruction. PMID:24689041

  7. Beta-chitosan extracted from Loligo Japonica for a potential use to inhibit Newcastle disease.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaofei; Xing, Ronge; Li, Kecheng; Qin, Yukun; Zou, Ping; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-01-01

    Beta-chitosan has a parallel structure, which differs from alpha-chitosan's antiparallel structure while producing different properties and difficulties. In this paper, we prepared the beta-chitosan through acid and alkali methods and the resultant material was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, HPLC, XRD, NMR and AFS. To increase the solubility and biological activity of the beta-chitosan, we degraded it through microwave-assisted process. After characterization, we determined that the chitosan had not changed its configuration during the reaction with H2O2 under microwave irradiation. The inhibitory activity of the degraded chitosan for Newcastle disease was revealed by a hemagglutination test and RT-PCR. The yield of the beta-chitosan was approximately 30%, and its molecular weight can be degraded to 1000 to 10,000g/mol. Moreover, the degraded ?-chitosan has higher antiviral activity, reducing the hemagglutination titre to zero, compared with alpha-chitosan. Therefore, beta-chitosan has good development prospects during the development of veterinary drugs for Newcastle disease. PMID:26526178

  8. A study on antifungal activity of water-soluble chitosan against Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sudipta; Chatterjee, Bishnu P; Guha, Arun K

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate antifungal effect of water-soluble chitosan (s-chitosan) on Macrophomina phaseolina (M. phaseolina) causing jute seedling infection and monitor the change in activity of released enzymes during infection. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of s-chitosan for M. phaseolina was found at 12.5g/l and s-chitosan exhibited fungistatic mode of action against this pathogen. The application of s-chitosan (12.5g/l) during infection of jute seedlings by M. phaseolina inhibited fungal infection and length of the seedlings was found almost similar to seedlings without infection. M. phaseolina infected jute seedlings showed length of 22mm over 10 days of incubation and it increased to 58mm in presence of s-chitosan (12.5g/l) during incubation for 10 days. TEM study indicated presence of hyphae in the cortical and epidermal cells of fungus infected jute seedlings indicating colonization by the fungus and it disappeared after treatment with s-chitosan. The changes in enzyme profiles of jute seedling during prevention of fungal infection using s-chitosan helped in proper understanding of mode of action of s-chitosan as antifungal agent. The activity of defense related enzymes like chitosanase and peroxidase in infected seedlings was observed to be enhanced after treatment with s-chitosan. PMID:24747381

  9. Electrospun chitosan microspheres for complete encapsulation of anionic proteins: controlling particle size and encapsulation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Suk; Kim, Younghee; Kang, Jihyun; Jeong, Seo Young; Yoo, Hyuk Sang

    2013-06-01

    Electrospinning was employed to fabricate chitosan microspheres by a single-step encapsulation of proteins without organic solvents. Chitosan in acetic acid was electrospun toward a grounded sodium carbonate solution at various electric potential and feeding rates. Electrospun microspheres became insoluble and solidified in the sodium carbonate solution by neutralization of chitosan acetate. When the freeze-dried microspheres were examined by scanning electron microscopy, the small particle size was obtained at higher voltages. This is explained by the chitosan droplet size at the electrospinning needle was clearly controllable by the electric potential. The recovery yield of chitosan microspheres was dependent on the concentration of chitosan solution due to the viscosity is the major factor affecting formation of chitosan droplet during curling of the electrospinning jets. For protein encapsulation, fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) was codissolved with chitosan in the solution and electrospun. At higher concentration of sodium carbonate solution and longer solidification time in the solution, the encapsulation efficiency of the protein was confirmed to be significantly high. The high encapsulation efficiency was achievable by instant solidification of microspheres and electrostatic interactions between chitosan and BSA. Release profiles of BSA from the microspheres showed that the protein release was faster in acidic solution due to dissolution of chitosan. Reversed-phase chromatography of the released fractions confirmed that exposure of BSA to acidic solution during the electrospinning did not result in structural changes of the encapsulated protein. PMID:23636817

  10. Chitosan solution enhances both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to subcutaneous vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Zaharoff, David A.; Rogers, Connie J.; Hance, Kenneth W.; Schlom, Jeffrey; Greiner, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The development of safe, novel adjuvants is necessary to maximize the efficacy of new and/or available vaccines. Chitosan is a non-toxic, biocompatible, biodegradable, natural polysaccharide derived from the exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects. Chitosan’s biodegradability, immunological activity and high viscosity make it an excellent candidate as a depot/adjuvant for parenteral vaccination. To this end, we explored chitosan solution as an adjuvant for subcutaneous vaccination of mice with a model protein antigen. We found that chitosan enhanced antigen-specific antibody titers over 5-fold and antigen-specific splenic CD4+ proliferation over 6-fold. Strong increases in antibody titers together with robust delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses revealed that chitosan induced both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. When compared with traditional vaccine adjuvants, chitosan was equipotent to incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA) and superior to aluminum hydroxide. Mechanistic studies revealed that chitosan exhibited at least two characteristics that may allow it to function as an immune adjuvant. First, the viscous chitosan solution created an antigen depot. More specifically, less than 9% of a protein antigen, when delivered in saline, remained at the injection site after 8 hours. However, more than 60% of a protein antigen delivered in chitosan remained at the injection site for 7 days. Second, chitosan induced a transient 67% cellular expansion in draining lymph nodes. The expansion peaked between 14 and 21 days after chitosan injection and diminished as the polysaccharide was degraded. These mechanistic studies, taken together with the enhancement of a vaccine response, demonstrate that chitosan is a promising and safe platform for parenteral vaccine delivery. PMID:17258843

  11. Development of 4-sulfated N-acetyl galactosamine anchored chitosan nanoparticles: A dual strategy for effective management of Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Priyanka; Dwivedi, Pankaj; Khatik, Renuka; Jaiswal, Anil Kumar; Dube, Anuradha; Shukla, Poonam; Mishra, Prabhat Ranjan

    2015-12-01

    The present investigation reports the modification of chitosan nanoparticles with a ligand 4-sulfated N-acetyl galactosamine (4-SO4GalNAc) for efficient chemotherapy in leishmaniasis (SCNPs) by using dual strategy of targeting. These (SCNPs) were loaded with amphotericin B (AmB) for specific delivery to infected macrophages. Developed AmB loaded SCNPs (AmB-SCNPs) had mean particle size of 333±7nm, and showed negative zeta potential (-13.9±0.016mV). Flow cytometric analysis revealed enhanced uptake of AmB-SCNPs in J774A.1, when compared to AmB loaded unmodified chitosan NPs (AmB-CNPs). AmB-SCNPs provide significantly higher localization of AmB in liver and spleen as compared to AmB-CNPs after i.v. administration. The study stipulates that 4-SO4GalNAc assures of targeting, resident macrophages. Highly significant anti-leishmanial activity (P<0.05 compared with AmB-CNPs) was observed with AmB-SCNPs, causing 75.30±3.76% inhibition of splenic parasitic burdens. AmB-CNPs and plain AmB caused only 63.89±3.44% and 47.56±2.37% parasite inhibition, respectively, in Leishmania-infected hamsters (P<0.01 for AmB-SCNPs versus plain AmB and AmB-CNPs versus plain AmB). PMID:26381698

  12. Synthesis of size-tunable chitosan encapsulated gold-silver nanoflowers and their application in SERS imaging of living cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guannan; Li, Junrong; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2015-09-01

    Anisotropic metallic nanoparticles (NPs) possess unique optical properties, which lend them to applications such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). However, their preparation by an efficient, biocompatible and high yield synthetic method is still challenging. In this work, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible way to produce chitosan (CS) encapsulated gold-silver nanoflowers by sequentially adding chitosan, chloroauric acid, silver nitrate, and ascorbic acid to water at room temperature. This is a one-pot, seed- and surfactant-free synthetic method, which is simple and credible. CS is used to modulate the size of NPs, while AgNO3 is introduced to improve the monodispersity and homogeneity of NPs. Highly sensitive, spectrally and physically stable SERS tags are developed in virtue of the cooperative effect of CS and Ag(+). Cresyl violet (CV) is applied as a Raman reporter to test the SERS property of NPs, and the results demonstrated that the nanoflowers exhibited stronger and more stable SERS signals than those of spherical gold nanoparticles. Importantly, after being modified by tumor cell-specific targeting ligands (folic acid), the sensitive and stable labeled nanoflowers are applied for cancer cell targeting and SERS imaging. PMID:25622685

  13. Chitosan-starch nanocomposite particles as a drug carrier for the delivery of bis-desmethoxy curcumin analog.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sindhuja Bala; Francis, Arul Prakash; Devasena, Thiyagarajan

    2014-12-19

    The conventional drug delivery system has serious limitations such as lack of target specificity, altered effects and diminished potency. These limitations can be overcome by using biocompatible polymer as an effective drug delivery system. In this study, bis-demethoxy curcumin analog loaded Chitosan-starch (BDMCA-CS) nanocomposite particles were developed using different ratios of Chitosan and starch (3:1, 1:1 & 1:3) by ionic gelation method. The entrapment efficiency and drug loading capacity were found to be high for the formulation with the ratio 3:1 of BDMCA:CS. Physical characterization of the nanocomposite particles was determined using DLS and FTIR. The morphology of the BDMCA-CS nanocomposite particles were found to be spherical and regular by SEM analysis. In-vitro drug release profile of the BDMCA-CS nanocomposite particles showed a very slow and sustained diffusion controlled release of the drug. The cancer cells targeting ability of the BDMCA-CS nanocomposite particles were confirmed by performing MTT assay on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and VERO cell lines. PMID:25263878

  14. Uptake and cytotoxicity of chitosan nanoparticles in human liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, Jing Wen; Yeoh, George; Saunders, Martin; Lim, Lee-Yong

    2010-12-01

    Despite extensive research into the biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of nanoparticles, and the liver being the main detoxifying organ in the human body, there are limited studies which delineate the hepatotoxicity of nanoparticles. This paper reports on the biological interactions between liver cells and chitosan nanoparticles, which have been widely recognised as biocompatible. Using the MTT assay, human liver cells were shown to tolerate up to 4 h of exposure to 0.5% w/v of chitosan nanoparticles (18 {+-} 1 nm, 7.5 {+-} 1.0 mV in culture medium). At nanoparticle concentrations above 0.5% w/v, cell membrane integrity was compromised as evidenced by leakage of alanine transaminase into the extracellular milieu, and there was a dose-dependent increase in CYP3A4 enzyme activity. Uptake of chitosan nanoparticles into the cell nucleus was observed by confocal microscopic analysis after 4 h exposure with 1% w/v of chitosan nanoparticles. Electron micrographs further suggest necrotic or autophagic cell death, possibly caused by cell membrane damage and resultant enzyme leakage.

  15. Chitosan as template for the synthesis of ceria nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sifontes, A.B.; Gonzalez, G.; Ochoa, J.L.; Tovar, L.M.; Zoltan, T.; Canizales, E.

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Cerium oxide nanoparticles with cubic fluorite structure were prepared using chitosan as template, cerium nitrate as a starting material and sodium hydroxide as a precipitating agent. Calcinated powders at 350 {sup o}C contain agglomerated particles with average particle size of {approx}4 nm, very high porosity and foam-like morphology formed by open and close pores. Highlights: {yields} Pure CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles can take place using chitosan as template. {yields} A porous material was obtained. {yields} Blueshifts in the ultraviolet absorption spectra have been observed in cerium oxide nanocrystallites. -- Abstract: Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}), nanoparticles were prepared using chitosan as template, cerium nitrate as a starting material and sodium hydroxide as a precipitating agent. The resultant ceria-chitosan spheres were calcined at 350 {sup o}C. The synthesized powders were characterized by, XRD, HRTEM, UV-vis, FTIR, and TG-DTA. The average size of the nanoparticles obtained was {approx}4 nm and BET specific surface area {approx}105 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Blueshifts in the ultraviolet absorption spectra have been observed in cerium oxide nanocrystallites. The band-gap was found to be 4.5 eV. The blueshifts are well explained for diameters down to less than a few nanometers by the change in the electronic band structure.

  16. Abatement of Azo Dye from Wastewater Using Bimetal-Chitosan

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, Ghorban; Farjadfard, Sima

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new adsorbent, bimetallic chitosan particle (BCP) that is successfully synthesized and applied to remove the orange II dye from wastewater. The effects of pH, BCP quantity, and contact time are initially verified on the basis of the percentage of orange II removed from the wastewater. Experimental data reveal that the Cu/Mg bimetal and chitosan have a synergistic effect on the adsorption process of the adsorbate, where the dye adsorption by Cu/Mg bimetal, chitosan alone, and bimetal-chitosan is 10, 49, and 99.5%, respectively. The time required for the complete decolorization of orange II by 1?mg/L of BCP is 10?min. The Langmuir model is the best fit for the experimental data, which attains a maximum adsorption capacity of 384.6?mg/g. The consideration of the kinetic behavior indicates that the adsorption of orange II onto the BCP fits best with the pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. Further, the simulated azo dye wastewater can be effectively treated using a relatively low quantity of the adsorbent, 1?mg/L, within a short reaction time of 20?min. Overall, the use of BCP can be considered a promising method for eliminating the azo dye from wastewater effectively. PMID:24348163

  17. Thermodynamic properties of chitosan dodecahydro- closo-dodecaborate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldin, V. I.; Buznik, V. M.; Mikhailov, Yu. M.; Ganina, L. V.

    2014-03-01

    Combustion enthalpies of chitosan dodecahydro- closo-dodecaborate corresponding to -13194 kJ/mol are measured via combustion in an AKS-3M automatic calorimeter. The standard enthalpy of formation corresponding to -5223 kJ/mol is calculated from the resulting experimental data.

  18. Chitosan multiple addition enhances laccase production from Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Adekunle, Abiodun Emmanuel; Wang, Feng; Hu, Jianhua; Ma, Anzhou; Guo, Chen; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Chitosan multiple addition strategy was developed to improve laccase production from Trametes versicolor cultures. The optimized multiple addition strategy was carried out by two-time addition of 0.1 g L(-1) chitosan to a 2-day-old culture media, with 24-h interval between the treatments. Under these conditions, laccase activity of 644.9 U l(-1) was achieved on the seventh day and laccase production was improved by 93.5 % higher than the control. Chitosan treatment increased reactive oxygen species generation and extracellular protein concentration in the treated mycelia. In contrast, the inducer inhibited the mycelia growth. The result of the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that the copy number of the laccase gene transcript increased by 16.7-fold in the treated mycelia relative to the control. This study provides insight into some of the intrinsic metabolic processes involved in the upregulation of laccase production in the presence of chitosan inducer in fungal culture. PMID:26178243

  19. Virus adsorption of water-stable quaternized chitosan nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Mi, Xue; Vijayaragavan, K Saagar; Heldt, Caryn L

    2014-03-31

    The burden of unsafe drinking water is responsible for millions of deaths each year. To relieve this burden, we are in search of an inexpensive material that can adsorb pathogens from drinking water. In this pursuit, we have studied the natural carbohydrate, chitosan. To impart virus removal features, chitosan has been functionalized with a quaternary amine to form quaternized chitosan N-[(2-hydroxyl-3-trimethylammonium) propyl] chitosan (HTCC). HTCC can be electrospun into nanofibers with the non-ionogenic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), creating a high surface area mat. High surface area is a major requirement for effective adsorption processes. HTCC is antiviral and antimicrobial, making it a good material for water purification. However, HTCC dissolves in water. We have explored the parameters to crosslink the nanofibers with glutaraldehyde. We have imparted water stability so there is a maximum of 30% swelling of the fibers after 6h in water. The water stable fibers retain their ability to adsorb virus, as shown for an enveloped and nonenveloped virus. HTCC now has the potential to be incorporated into a microfiltration membrane that can remove viruses. This could create an inexpensive, low pressure filtration membrane for drinking water purification. PMID:24561959

  20. The current view on biological potency of cationically modified chitosan.

    PubMed

    Stefan, J; Lorkowska-Zawicka, B; Kaminski, K; Szczubialka, K; Nowakowska, M; Korbut, R

    2014-06-01

    Chitosan is biocompatible polymer obtained from chitin, the building component of the crustacean shells. In this paper we make an attempt to review the current state of knowledge on some biological effects of chitosan in comparison with those of cationically modified chitosan, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) that was recently synthetized by us by covalent attachment of glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC). Biological effects of HTCC and non-modified polymer are very similar. However, HTCC shows some unique beneficial properties which have not been found in its non-modified counterpart. One such example is that HTCC has the ability to bind heparin at physiological pH. HTCC having the degree of substitution almost 63.6% is easily absorbed within 1 hour after oral administration as found in C57BL/6j mice using FITC-labeled polymer. HTCC is distributed to lung, heart, and kidneys. HTCC stimulates and enhances blood platelet aggregation and decreases erythrocyte deformability (RBC). Moreover, HTCC seems to decrease both plasma total cholesterol level and LDL-cholesterol level in apoE-knockout mice fed with a diet containing HTCC. HTCC possibly down-regulates the HMG-CoAR mRNA level after 24 hour incubation with HepG2 cells in vitro. PMID:24930505

  1. Preparation and Evaluation of Carrageenan/Chitosan Multilayer Beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marudova, M. G.; Zsivanovits, G.; Popchev, I. G.; Petrovska, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) of chitosan and carrageenan were used for preparation of multilayered microbeads. The optimal conditions of complex formation—pH and molar ratio between the polyelectrolyte partners, were preliminary investigated by viscometry. It was found that the yield of the complex is the highest at pH 5 where both of the partners were highly charged. Chitosan was used as a core of the beads and carrageenan/chitosan multilayers were deposited by layer-by-layer technique. Swelling and stability of the beads were investigated in dependence on the pH of the media. The multilayer deposition let to modification of the swelling behaviour—the equilibrium degree of swelling decreased at pH 3 and increased at basic pH. These changes were attributed to the polyelectrolyte properties of carrageenan/chitosan PECs—the impact of the effective charges in PECs network. Mehanical properties of the swelled beads were evaluated by Stable Micro Systems table penetrometer, with flat-plate compression test. The test was carried out with low deformation speed, until the full rupture. The diameter of measure cylinder was chosen to be bigger then the diameter of beads. The different swellings caused differences in elastic properties of the multilayered beads.

  2. Chitosan and its antimicrobial potential – a critical literature survey

    PubMed Central

    Raafat, Dina; Sahl, Hans?Georg

    2009-01-01

    Summary Chitosan, an aminopolysaccharide biopolymer, has a unique chemical structure as a linear polycation with a high charge density, reactive hydroxyl and amino groups as well as extensive hydrogen bonding. It displays excellent biocompatibility, physical stability and processability. The term ‘chitosan’ describes a heterogenous group of polymers combining a group of physicochemical and biological characteristics, which allow for a wide scope of applications that are both fascinating and as yet uncharted. The increased awareness of the potentials and industrial value of this biopolymer lead to its utilization in many applications of technical interest, and increasingly in the biomedical arena. Although not primarily used as an antimicrobial agent, its utility as an ingredient in both food and pharmaceutical formulations lately gained more interest, when a scientific understanding of at least some of the pharmacological activities of this versatile carbohydrate began to evolve. However, understanding the various factors that affect its antimicrobial activity has become a key issue for a better usage and a more efficient optimization of chitosan formulations. Moreover, the use of chitosan in antimicrobial systems should be based on sufficient knowledge of the complex mechanisms of its antimicrobial mode of action, which in turn would help to arrive at an appreciation of its entire antimicrobial potential. PMID:21261913

  3. Chitosan-gold-Lithium nanocomposites as solid polymer electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Begum, S N Suraiya; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Aswal, Vinod K; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal

    2014-08-01

    Lithium micro batteries are emerging field of research. For environmental safety biodegradable films are preferred. Recently biodegradable polymers have gained wide application in the field of solid polymer electrolytes. To make biodegradable polymers films plasticizers are usually used. However, use of plasticizers has disadvantages such as inhomogenities in phases and mechanical instability that will affect the performance of Lithium micro batteries. We have in this research used gold nanoparticles that are environmentally friendly, instead of plasticizers. Gold nanoparticles were directly template upon chitosan membranes by reduction process so as to enhance the interactions of Lithium with the polymer. In this article, for the first time the characteristics of Chitosan-gold-Lithium nanocomposite films are investigated. The films were prepared using simple solution casting technique. We have used various characterization tools such as Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), XRD, FTIR, Raman, FESEM, and AFM, Light scattering, Dielectric and electrical conductivity measurements. Our investigations show that incorporation of gold results in enhancement of conductivity in Lithium containing Chitosan films. Also it affects the dielectric characteristics of the films. We conclude through various characterization tools that the enhancement in the conductivity was due to the retardation of crystal growth of lithium salt in the presence of gold nanoparticles. A model is proposed regarding the formation of the new nanocomposite. The conductivity of these biodegradable films is comparable to those of the current inorganic Lithium micro batteries. This new chitosan-Au-Li nanocomposite has potential applications in the field of Lithium micro batteries. PMID:25936000

  4. Effect of deacetylation degree in chitosan composite membranes on pervaporation performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.M.; Park, H.B.; Nam, S.Y.; Won, J.M.; Kim, H.

    1998-06-01

    The effect of the degree of deacetylation in chitosan composite membranes on their pervaporation performance for ethanol dehydration was investigated. The degree of deacetylation of chitosans was measured by using an infrared spectroscopic method and elemental analysis. The chitosan composite membranes were prepared by coating a chitosan solution onto a microporous polyethersulfone membrane with 3--7 nm pore sizes. Then the surface of the top layer (chitosan) of well-dried membranes was crosslinked with sulfuric acid, and pervaporation experiments for binary mixtures (water-ethanol) were carried out at various conditions. In the case of a chitosan membrane with a high degree of deacetylation, the flux increases while the separation factor decreases compared with membranes with a low degree of deacetylation.

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and controlled release of selenium nanoparticles stabilized by chitosan of different molecular weights.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyue; Zhai, Xiaona; Zhao, Guanghua; Ren, Fazheng; Leng, Xiaojing

    2015-12-10

    Chitosan-stabilized selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have been reported, but there is no information on the effect of the chitosan molecular weight on the structure, stability, and selenium release properties of the SeNPs. Herein, we compared the uniform Se(0) spherical nanoparticles prepared through the reduction of seleninic acid with ascorbic acid in the presence of chitosan with different molecular weights (Mws). We found that both low and high molecular weight chitosan-stabilized selenium nanoparticles exhibited core-shell microstructures with a size of about 103 nm after 30 days growing through the "bottom-up approach" and "top-down approach," respectively. Moreover, both chitosan SeNPs processed excellent stability towards pH and enzyme treatment. In contrast, selenium was easily released to different extents from these two chitosan SeNPs upon treatment with different free radicals. This makes these materials potentially useful as oral antioxidant supplements. PMID:26428112

  6. Should chitosan and tranexamic acid be combined for improved hemostasis after sinus surgery?

    PubMed

    Bartley, Jim

    2013-12-01

    Chitosan, a ?-1,4-linked polymer of glucosamine with lesser amounts of N-acetylglucosamine, has well-recognized hemostatic properties. Chitosan is also able to open tight cellular junctions, facilitating paracellular drug transport and delivery. Chitosan, through topical application, facilitates the systemic delivery of analgesic drugs. Theoretically this ability could be used to enhance the local delivery of hemostatic drugs, such as tranexamic acid, improving chitosan's role as a topical dressing. Individually a chitosan-dextran gel and tranexamic acid have been shown to improve hemostasis after endoscopic sinus surgery. A combination of both should lead to improved hemostasis and better postsurgical outcomes. The use of a chitosan/tranexamic acid dressing could have a wide range of potential beneficial applications in a number of other clinical surgical settings. While the initial main application might be as an improved external hemostatic dressing, it should also be useful on a range of internal surgical wounds. PMID:24125578

  7. Tissue repair strength using chitosan adhesives with different physical-chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthew J; Morley, John W; Mahns, David A; Mawad, Damia; Wuhrer, Richard; Fania, David; Frost, Samuel J; Loebbe, Christian; Lauto, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    A range of chitosan-based biomaterials have recently been used to perform sutureless, laser-activated tissue repair. Laser-activation has the advantage of bonding to tissue through a non-contact, aseptic mechanism. Chitosan adhesive films have also been shown to adhere to sheep intestine strongly without any chemical modification to chitosan. In this study, we continue to investigate chitosan adhesive films and explore the impact on the tissue repair strength and tensile strength characteristics of four types of adhesive film based on chitosan with different molecular weight and degree of deacetylation. Results showed that adhesives based on chitosan with medium molecular weight achieved the highest bonding strength, tensile strength and E-modulus when compared to the other adhesives. PMID:24395818

  8. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial properties against E. coli K88 of chitosan nanoparticle loaded copper ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wen-Li; Xu, Ying-Lei; Xu, Zi-Rong; Fan, Cheng-Li

    2008-02-01

    The present study was conducted to prepare and characterize chitosan nanoparticle loaded copper ions, and evaluate their antibacterial activity. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared based on ionotropic gelation, and then the copper ions were loaded. The particle size, zeta potential and morphology were determined. Antibacterial activity was evaluated against E. coli K88 by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) in vitro. Results showed that the antibacterial activity was significantly enhanced by the loading of copper ions compared to those of chitosan nanoparticles and copper ions. The MIC and MBC of chitosan nanoparticle loaded copper ions were 21 times and 42 times lower than those of copper ions, respectively. To confirm the antibacterial mechanism, morphological changes of E. coli K88 treated by chitosan nanoparticle loaded copper ions were dynamically observed with an atomic force microscope (AFM). It was found that chitosan nanoparticle loaded copper ions killed E. coli K88 through damage to the cell membrane.

  9. Chitosan-PVP-nano silver oxide wound dressing: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Archana, D; Singh, Brijesh K; Dutta, Joydeep; Dutta, P K

    2015-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to prepare wound healing material with chitosan, poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), silver oxide nanoparticles. The prepared chitosan, chitosan-PVP-nano silver oxide (CPS) films were characterized for their thermal behaviour, morphological properties, mechanical properties, antibacterial properties and wound healing properties. The CPS film found higher antibacterial activity because the materials both chitosan as well as silver oxide poses good antibacterial activity. L929 cell lines were for cytotoxicity study and Adult male albino rats (140-180 g) were used for wound healing study. The prepared film has more wound healing property than of cotton gauge, 100% chitosan and other reported chitosan based dressings. PMID:25450048

  10. Lipase entrapment in PVA/Chitosan biodegradable film for reactor coatings.

    PubMed

    Batista, Karla A; Lopes, Flavio Marques; Yamashita, Fabio; Fernandes, Kátia Flávia

    2013-04-01

    This study reports the development and characterization of novel biodegradable film, based on chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol containing lipase entrapped. The films showed a thickness of 70.4 and 79 ?m to PVA/Chitosan and PVA/Chitosan/Lipase, respectively. The entrapment of lipase in PVA/Chitosan film resulted in increasing of 69.4% tensile strength (TS), and 52.4% of elongation. SEM images showed the formation of a continuous film, without pores or cracks. The lipase entrapment efficiency was estimated in 92% and the films were repeatedly used for 25 hydrolytic cycles, maintaining 62% of initial activity. The PVA/Chitosan/Lipase film was used for olive oil hydrolysis of high performance. These results indicate that PVA/Chitosan/Lipase is a promising material for biotechnology applications such as triacylglycerol hydrolysis and biodiesel production. PMID:23827626

  11. Cytotoxicity of monodispersed chitosan nanoparticles against the Caco-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, Jing Wen; Saunders, Martin; Lim, Lee-Yong; School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley 6009

    2012-08-01

    Published toxicology data on chitosan nanoparticles (NP) often lack direct correlation to the in situ size and surface characteristics of the nanoparticles, and the repeated NP assaults as experienced in chronic use. The aim of this paper was to breach these gaps. Chitosan nanoparticles synthesized by spinning disc processing were characterised for size and zeta potential in HBSS and EMEM at pHs 6.0 and 7.4. Cytotoxicity against the Caco-2 cells was evaluated by measuring the changes in intracellular mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, TEER and sodium fluorescein transport data and cell morphology. Cellular uptake of NP was observed under the confocal microscope. Contrary to established norms, the collective data suggest that the in vitro cytotoxicity of NP against the Caco-2 cells was less influenced by positive surface charges than by the particle size. Particle size was in turn determined by the pH of the medium in which the NP was dispersed, with the mean size ranging from 25 to 333 nm. At exposure concentration of 0.1%, NP of 25 ± 7 nm (zeta potential 5.3 ± 2.8 mV) was internalised by the Caco-2 cells, and the particles were observed to inflict extensive damage to the intracellular organelles. Concurrently, the transport of materials along the paracellular pathway was significantly facilitated. The Caco-2 cells were, however, capable of recovering from such assaults 5 days following NP removal, although a repeat NP exposure was observed to produce similar effects to the 1st exposure, with the cells exhibiting comparable resiliency to the 2nd assault. -- Highlights: ? Chitosan nanoparticles reduced mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. ? Cellular uptake of chitosan nanoparticles was observed. ? Chitosan nanoparticles inflicted extensive damage to the cell morphology. ? The transport of materials along the paracellular pathway was facilitated.

  12. LUVs recovered with Chitosan: a new preparation for vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Marón, Liliam Becherán; Covas, Carlos Peniche; da Silveira, Nadya Pesce; Pohlmann, Adriana; Mertins, Omar; Tatsuo, Leonardo Nakamaru; Santanna, Osvaldo A B; Moro, Ana Maria; Takata, Célia S; de Araujo, Pedro Soares; da Costa, Maria Helena Bueno

    2007-01-01

    Chitosan, alpha-(1-4)-amino-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucan, is a deacetylated form of chitin, an abundant natural polysaccharide present in crustacean shells. Its unique characteristics such as positive charge, biodegradability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity, and rigid linear molecular structure make this macromolecule ideal as drug carrier. The association between chitosan and liposomes was carefully described, where REVs (reverse phase evaporation vesicles) were sandwiched by chitosan. The usage of these particles in vaccine formulation is here proposed for the first time in the literature. The Chitosan-REVs now stabilized by polyvinilic alcohol were the vehicle for Diphtheria toxoid (Dtxd). Round chitosan-sandwiched REVs (REVs-Chi) particles of 373 +/- 17 nm containing 65% Dtxd were obtained. After 200 min of incubation in a simulated gastric fluid, 70% of the Dtxd was liberated from REVs-Chi in comparison to 100% of Dtxd liberated from pure REVs. In PBS, the Dtxd liberation from REVS-Chi was about 60%. Mice were immunized with Dtxd encapsulated within REVs-Chi and with other REVs/Dtxd formulations adsorbed onto Freund adjuvant or alumen [AIF and Al(OH)(3)]. The response patterns and the immune maturity were measured by IgG(1) and IgG(2a) titrations. REVs-Chi containing Dtxd elicited both antibodies production giving the animals higher immune response and selectivity. It was interesting that the memory of those mice immunized with REVs-Chi containing Dtxd enhanced, after booster, antibody production by 47% in contrast with 17 and 7% in mice immunized with the antigen vehiculated in REVs-AIF or REVs-Al(OH)(3), respectively. PMID:18027235

  13. Collagen/chitosan film containing biotinylated glycol chitosan nanoparticles for localized drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Mao; Huang, Yu-Qing; Cao, Huan; Liu, Yan; Guo, Hao; Chen, Lillian S; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to design a drug delivery system consisting of biotinylated cholesterol-modified glycol chitosan (Bio-CHGC) nanoparticles and fish collagen/chitosan (Col/Ch) film for localized chemotherapy. Bio-CHGC was synthesized, and then its self-assembled nanoparticles were prepared by probe sonication. Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded Bio-CHGC (DBC) nanoparticles prepared by dialysis had spherical shape, and their sizes were in the range of 330-397 nm. Col/Ch/DBC nanoparticle films were fabricated by freeze-drying. SEM showed that the DBC nanoparticles were uniformly distributed into the films, and the films retained their structural integrity. A higher degradation and swelling rate of the drug films led to a higher diffusion rate of the nanoparticles from the films, resulting in an increase in the drug release from nanoparticles. The release of DOX from the films or Bio-CHGC nanoparticles was sensitive to the pH value of the release medium. In addition, the DOX release ratio of the drug films was lower than that of the nanoparticles alone, suggesting that the drug films had a double-sustained effect on the drug release. MTT assay implied that the DBC nanoparticle film showed a higher inhibitory ratio than the film containing nanoparticles without biotin, indicating that biotin moieties in the nanoparticles played an important role in exerting a cytotoxic effect. These data demonstrate that Col/Ch/DBC nanoparticle film has the potential to be used as a localized delivery system for hydrophobic antitumor drugs. PMID:25784300

  14. Selective antimicrobial activity of chitosan on beer spoilage bacteria and brewing yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gil, Gabriela; del Mónaco, Silvana; Cerrutti, Patricia; Galvagno, Miguel

    2004-04-01

    Chitosan (0.1 g l(-1)), assayed in a simple medium, reduced the viability of four lactic acid bacteria isolated during the beer production process by 5 logarithmic cycles, whereas activity against seven commercial brewing yeasts required up to 1 g chitosan l(-1). Antimicrobial activity was inversely affected by the pH of the assay medium. In brewery wort, chitosan (0.1 g l(-1)) selectively inhibited bacterial growth without altering yeast viability or fermenting performance. PMID:15168856

  15. Effects of different forms of chitosan on intercellular junctions of mouse fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Uslu, B; Biltekin, B; Denir, S; Özba?-Turan, S; Arbak, S; Akbu?a, J; Bilir, A

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide that has many biomedical applications. We compared the effects of chitosan, in both solution and membranous form, on intercellular adhesion of Swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Cells were grown as spheroidal cell cultures. Some control cell spheroids were cultured without chitosan and two experimental groups were cultured with chitosan. Chitosan in solution was used for one experimental group and chitosan in membranous form was used for the other. For each group, intercellular adhesion was investigated on days 5 and 10 of culture. Transmission electron microscopy revealed well-defined cellular projections that were more prominent in cells exposed to either membranous or solution forms of chitosan than to the chitosan-free control. Immunocytochemical staining of ICAM-1 and e-cadherin was used to determine the development of intercellular junctions. Compared to the weakly stained control, strong reactions were observed in both chitosan exposed groups at both 5 and 10 days. Cells were treated with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and incubated with anti-BrdU primary antibody to assess proliferation. Both the solution and membranous forms of chitosan increased proliferation at both 5 and 10 days. Cellular viability was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). The MTT assay indicated high cell viability; maximum viability was obtained with the solution form of chitosan at day 5. Chitosan exposure increased the number of intercellular junctions and showed a significant proliferative effect on 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. PMID:26523482

  16. Development and Characterization of Novel Films Based on Sulfonamide-Chitosan Derivatives for Potential Wound Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Dragostin, Oana Maria; Samal, Sangram Keshari; Lupascu, Florentina; Pânzariu, Andreea; Dubruel, Peter; Lupascu, Dan; Tuchilus, Cristina; Vasile, Cornelia; Profire, Lenuta

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop new films based on chitosan functionalized with sulfonamide drugs (sulfametoxydiazine, sulfadiazine, sulfadimetho-xine, sulfamethoxazol, sulfamerazine, sulfizoxazol) in order to enhance the biological effects of chitosan. The morphology and physical properties of functionalized chitosan films as well the antioxidant effects of sulfonamide-chitosan derivatives were investigated. The chitosan-derivative films showed a rough surface and hydrophilic properties, which are very important features for their use as a wound dressing. The film based on chitosan-sulfisoxazol (CS-S6) showed the highest swelling ratio (197%) and the highest biodegradation rate (63.04%) in comparison to chitosan film for which the swelling ratio was 190% and biodegradation rate was only 10%. Referring to the antioxidant effects the most active was chitosan-sulfamerazine (CS-S5) which was 8.3 times more active than chitosan related to DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging ability. This compound showed also a good ferric reducing power and improved total antioxidant capacity. PMID:26694354

  17. Structure and characteristics of chitosan cobalt-containing hybrid systems, the catalysts of olefine oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekhaev, A. V.; Pestov, A. V.; Molochnikov, L. S.; Kovaleva, E. G.; Pervova, M. G.; Yaltuk, Yu. G.; Grigor'ev, I. A.; Kirilyuk, I. A.

    2011-07-01

    Cobalt-containing hybrid organo-inorganic materials based on the chitosan-SiO2, chitosan-Al2O3, and chitosan-cellulose systems were obtained. The surface structure and processes that occur during the formation of metal-containing materials, the catalytic properties of which were studied in the oxidation reactions of alkene, were investigated by EPR spectroscopy using a stable pH-sensitive nitroxyl radical, 4-dimethylamino-2-ethyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-(pyridin-4-yl)-2,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-1-oxyl, as the adsorbed probe molecules.

  18. Grafting of chitosan as a biopolymer onto wool fabric using anhydride bridge and its antibacterial property.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Marziyeh; Arami, Mokhtar; Bahrami, Hajir; Mazaheri, Firoozmehr; Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad

    2010-04-01

    Weak binding of chitosan on the wool constitutes the main problem in its application. In this paper, the surface modification of wool fabric using anhydrides to graft the chitosan was studied. Weight gain, antibacterial and antifelting properties of the chitosan grafted-acylated wool fabric were investigated. Wool fabrics were acylated with two anhydrides, succinic anhydride (SA) and phthalic anhydride (PA), using different solvents (dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF)). The effects of anhydrides, solvents, anhydride concentration, liquor ratio (L:R) and reaction time on acylation of wool were investigated. Chitosan was grafted to the acylated wool and the effects of pH, chitosan concentration, and reaction time on chitosan grafting of acylated wool were evaluated. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) and weight gain analyses provided evidence that chitosan was grafted on to the acylated wool through the formation of new covalent bonds. The grafted samples have antibacterial potential due to existence of the antibacterial property of chitosan. In addition, the chitosan grafted-acylated wool samples have antifelting property. The findings of this research support the potential production of new environmentally friendly textile fabrics. PMID:20022732

  19. Chitosan as an edible invisible film for quality preservation of herring and atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    Jeon, You-Jin; Kamil, Janak Y V A; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2002-08-28

    The effect of chitosan with different molecular weights as coatings for shelf-life extension of fresh fillets of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and herring (Clupea harengus) was evaluated over a 12-day storage at refrigerated temperature (4 +/- 1 degrees C). Three chitosan preparations from snow crab (Chinoecetes opilio) processing wastes, differing in viscosities and molecular weights, were prepared; their apparent viscosities (360, 57, and 14 cP) depended on the deacetylation time (4, 10, and 20 h, respectively) of the chitin precursor. Upon coating with chitosans, a significant (p < or = 0.05) reduction in relative moisture losses of 37, 29, 29, 40, and 32% was observed for cod samples coated with 360 cP chitosan after 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 days of storage, respectively. Chitosan coating significantly (p < or = 0.05) reduced lipid oxidation as displayed in peroxide value, conjugated dienes, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and headspace volatiles, chemical spoilage as reflected in total volatile basic nitrogen, trimethylamine, and hypoxanthine, and growth of microorganisms as reflected in total plate count in both fish model systems compared to uncoated samples. The preservative efficacy and the viscosity of chitosan were inter-related; the efficacy of chitosans with viscosities of 57 and 360 cP was superior to that of chitosan with a 14 cP viscosity. Thus, chitosan as edible coating would enhance the quality of seafoods during storage. PMID:12188625

  20. N-carboxyethyl chitosan fibers prepared as potential use in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuoshuo; Dong, Qi; Yang, Hongjun; Liu, Xin; Gu, Shaojin; Zhou, Yingshan; Xu, Weilin

    2016-01-01

    To improve the hydrophilicity of chitosan fiber, N-carboxyethyl chitosan fiber was prepared through Michael addition between chitosan fiber with acrylic acid. The structure was studied by (1)H NMR. The degree of N-substitution, measured via (1)H NMR, was easily varied from 0.10 to 0.51 by varying the molar ratio of acrylic acid to chitosan. Series of properties of N-carboxyethyl chitosan fiber including mechanical property, crystallinity, thermal property and in vitro degradation were investigated by Instron machine, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The results showed that, introducing the carboxyethyl group into the backbone chain of chitosan fiber destroyed the intra/intermolecular hydrogen bonding, leading to loss of the intra/intermolecular hydrogen bonding and improvement of hydrophilicity. Indirect cytotoxicity assessment of carboxyethyl chitosan fibers was investigated using a L929 cell line. And the obtained results clearly suggested that N-carboxyethyl chitosan fiber was nontoxic to L929 cells. The N-carboxyethyl chitosan fibers are potential as tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:26522245

  1. Tyrosinase-containing chitosan gels: A combined catalyst and sorbent for selective phenol removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, W.Q.; Payne, G.F.

    1996-07-05

    There are a series of examples in which phenols appear as contaminants in process streams and their selective removal is required for waste minimization. For the selective removal of a phenol from a mixture, the authors are exploiting the substrate specificity of the enzyme tyrosinase to convert phenols into reactive o-quinones which are then adsorbed onto the amine-containing polymer chitosan. To effectively package the enzyme and sorbent, tyrosinase was immobilized between two chitosan gel films. The entrapment of tyrosinase between the films led to little loss of activity during immobilization, while tyrosinase leakage during incubation was limited. The chitosan gels rapidly adsorb the tyrosinase-generated product(s) of phenol oxidation while the capacity of the gels is substantially greater than the capacity of chitosan flakes. The performance of tyrosinase-containing chitosan gels significantly depends on the ratio of tyrosinase-to-chitosan. High tyrosinase-to-chitosan ratios result in less efficient use of tyrosinase, presumably due to suicide inactivation. However, the efficiency of chitosan use increases with increased tyrosinase-to-chitosan ratios.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of chitosan-gelatin blend nanofibers for skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Dhandayuthapani, Brahatheeswaran; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2010-07-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds produced by electrospinning feature a structural similarity to the natural extracellular matrix. Polymer blending is one of the effective methods to provide new and desirable biocomposites for tissue engineering applications. In this study chitosan was blended with gelatin and the effect of processing parameters of electrospinning and the solution properties of the polymer on the morphology of the fibers obtained were investigated. The morphology of the electrospun chitosan, gelatin and the chitosan-gelatin blend were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The miscibility of the blend was determined using a SEM, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Fourier transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Further the tensile properties of the blend nanofibers were studied and compared with chitosan and gelatin fibers. In this study we have been able to electrospin defect-free chitosan, gelatin and chitosan-gelatin blend nanofibers with smooth morphology and diameter ranging from 120 to 200 nm, 100 to 150 nm, and 120-220 nm, respectively by optimizing the process and solution parameters. Chitosan and gelatin formed completely miscible blends as evidenced from DSC and FTIR measurements. The tensile strength of the chitosan-gelatin blend nanofibers (37.91 +/- 4.42 MPa) was significantly higher than the gelatin nanofibers (7.23 +/- 1.15 MPa) (p < 0.05) and comparable with that of normal human skin. Thus the novel chitosan-gelatin blend nanofiber system has potential application in skin regeneration. PMID:20524203

  3. Enhancing the biological activity of chitosan and controlling the degradation by nanoscale interaction with bioglass.

    PubMed

    Ravarian, Roya; Craft, Michaela; Dehghani, Fariba

    2015-09-01

    A nonuniform degradation of physical mixture of organic-inorganic biomaterials increases their risk of failure. In this study a chemical bonding between chitosan and bioglass was used as an alternative product to address this issue. To prepare a homogenous composite, chitosan was functionalized with ?-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane and chemically bonded with bioglass during sol-gel method. The gelation time of these hybrids samples was optimized by varying parameters such as composition of chitosan and temperature. It was shown that gelation time was reduced from 7 days for pure bioglass at 25°C to less than six minutes at 70°C for chitosan 40 vol % bioglass hybrid. Furthermore, the enzymatic degradation after 4 weeks was decreased from 80% mass loss for pure chitosan to 32% for chitosan 40 vol % bioglass hybrid. The results of in vitro study demonstrated that the presence of nanoscale interaction enhanced the bioactivity of chitosan. Additionally, hybrid scaffolds were fabricated with pore sizes in the range of 200-400 µm. These scaffolds were prepared by the addition of sodium bicarbonate during sol-gel method as a gas foaming agent and a neutralizer that resulted in decreasing the gelation time of hybrids to less than three minutes. The hybrids fabricated in this study possessed superior characteristics compared to chitosan, also physical mixture of chitosan-bioglass and are promising alternatives for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25690303

  4. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction study of BSA-loaded quaternized chitosan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wan, A-jun; Sun, Yan; Li, Wen-tao; Li, Hui-li

    2008-07-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles, O-(2-hydroxyl) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride (O-HTCC) nanoparticles and bovine serum albumin (BSA) loaded chitosan and O-HTCC nanoparticles of a size (about 200-600 nm) were obtained through the process of ionic gelation between chitosan or O-HTCC and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The physicochemical properties of nanoparticles made from chitosan, O-HTCC, BSA loaded chitosan, and BSA loaded O-HTCC were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), polarized optical microscopy (POM), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. Zeta potential was also performed to understand the surface properties of nanoparticles and their ability to bind negatively charged BSA. TEM, POM, and XRD suggested that ionic-gelation process significantly influenced the crystallinity of BSA, and greater chain realignment in the BSA-loaded chitosan and O-HTCC nanoparticles. PCS revealed that BSA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were bigger than chitosan nanoparticles in size and BSA-loaded O-HTCC nanoparticles were smaller than O-HTCC nanoparticles in size. PMID:18161791

  5. Green Conversion of Agroindustrial Wastes into Chitin and Chitosan by Rhizopus arrhizus and Cunninghamella elegans Strains

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lúcia Raquel Ramos; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; Stamford-Arnaud, Thatiana Montenegro; de Alcântara, Sergio Roberto Cabral; da Silva, Antonio Cardoso; da Silva, Adamares Marques; do Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out a method for producing chitin and chitosan by Cunninghamella elegans and Rhizopus arrhizus strains using a green metabolic conversion of agroindustrial wastes (corn steep liquor and molasses). The physicochemical characteristics of the biopolymers and antimicrobial activity are described. Chitin and chitosan were extracted by alkali-acid treatment, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, viscosity and X-ray diffraction. The effectiveness of chitosan from C. elegans and R. arrhizus in inhibiting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC). The highest production of biomass (24.60 g/L), chitin (83.20 mg/g) and chitosan (49.31 mg/g) was obtained by R. arrhizus. Chitin and chitosan from both fungi showed a similar degree of deacetylation, respectively of 25% and 82%, crystallinity indices of 33.80% and 32.80% for chitin, and 20.30% and 17.80% for chitosan. Both chitin and chitosan presented similar viscosimetry of 3.79–3.40 cP and low molecular weight of 5.08 × 103 and 4.68 × 103 g/mol. They both showed identical MIC and MBC for all bacteria assayed. These results suggest that: agricultural wastes can be produced in an environmentally friendly way; chitin and chitosan can be produced economically; and that chitosan has antimicrobial potential against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24853288

  6. Adsorption of allura red dye by cross-linked chitosan from shrimp waste.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Duarte, Reyna G; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Correa-Murrieta, Ma A

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the chitosan, which has been obtained by deacetylation of chitin, as a biosorbent. The chitin was isolated from fermented shrimp waste by an important local industrial food biopolymer. The aim of this work was the characterization of chitosan and preparation of cross-linked chitosan- tripolyphosphate (chitosan-TPP) beads for the removal of allura red food dye from aqueous solutions. Conditions of batch adsorption such as pH, time and adsorbent dose were examined. The effectiveness of cross-linked chitosan beads for dye removal was found to be higher for pH 2 (98%, percentage of dye removal) and tends to decrease at pHs of 3 to 11 (up to 49%). The values of percentage removal show that the adsorption capacity increases with time of contact and dosage of chitosan-TPP, but red dye adsorption is mainly influenced by pH level. The cross-linked chitosan-TPP beads can significantly adsorb allura red monoazo dye from aqueous solutions even at acidic pHs unlike raw chitosan beads that tend to dissolve in acidic solutions. Consequently, this modified chitosan has characteristics that allow minimization of environmental pollution and widening the valorization of shrimp waste. PMID:22277220

  7. Isolation and characterization of chitosan from different local insects in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Marei, Narguess H; El-Samie, Emtithal Abd; Salah, Taher; Saad, Gamal R; Elwahy, Ahmed H M

    2016-01-01

    Chitin was extracted from four different local sources: the shrimp (Penaeus monodon), the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria), the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and the beetles (Calosoma rugosa). Chitosan was then obtained by deacetylation of chitin and physicochemically characterized using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction. The moisture content, water binding capacity, fats binding capacity, ash content were determined and chitosans morphology was visualized using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The difference between the obtained chitosans from three insect sources and ?-chitosan from shrimp in terms of crystallinity, fibrous structure was discussed. PMID:26459168

  8. Electrophoretic deposition of hydroxyapatite-CaSiO3-chitosan composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xin; Casagrande, Travis; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2009-02-15

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the fabrication of hydroxyapatite (HA)-CaSiO(3) (CS)-chitosan composite coatings for biomedical applications. The use of chitosan enabled the co-deposition of HA and CS particles and offered the advantage of room temperature processing of composite materials. The coating composition was varied by the variation of HA and CS concentrations in the chitosan solutions. Cathodic deposits were obtained as HA-CS-chitosan monolayers, HA-chitosan/chitosan multilayers or functionally graded materials (FGM) containing HA-chitosan and CS-chitosan layers of different composition. The thickness of the individual layers was varied in the range of 0.1-20 microm. The deposition yield was studied at different experimental conditions and compared with the results of modeling. It was shown that the moving boundary model for the two component system can explain the non-linear increase in the deposition yield with increasing HA concentration in chitosan solutions. The obtained coatings were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies showed that these coatings provided corrosion protection of stainless steel substrates in Ringer's physiological solution. The deposition mechanism and kinetics of deposition have been discussed. PMID:19012892

  9. Biodegradable polymer blends based on corn starch and thermoplastic chitosan processed by extrusion.

    PubMed

    Mendes, J F; Paschoalin, R T; Carmona, V B; Sena Neto, Alfredo R; Marques, A C P; Marconcini, J M; Mattoso, L H C; Medeiros, E S; Oliveira, J E

    2016-02-10

    Blends of thermoplastic cornstarch (TPS) and chitosan (TPC) were obtained by melt extrusion. The effect of TPC incorporation in TPS matrix and polymer interaction on morphology and thermal and mechanical properties were investigated. Possible interactions between the starch molecules and thermoplastic chitosan were assessed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses showed a homogeneous fracture surface without the presence of starch granules or chitosan aggregates. Although the incorporation of thermoplastic chitosan caused a decrease in both tensile strength and stiffness, films with better extensibility and thermal stability were produced. PMID:26686150

  10. Chitosan-ionic liquid modified single-use sensor for electrochemical monitoring of sequence-selective DNA hybridization.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Arzum; Muti, Mihrican; Mese, Fehmi; Eksin, Ece

    2014-02-01

    Chitosan-(CHIT) and ionic liquid- (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (IL)) modified single-use graphite electrodes (PGEs) were developed for the first time in the present study for the enhanced monitoring of DNA, and also for sequence-selective DNA hybridization by measuring the guanine oxidation signal. The electrochemical behaviour of the CHIT-IL modified electrodes was first investigated (with unmodified electrodes as controls) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Sequence-selective DNA hybridization related to Hepatitis B virus (HBV) was also evaluated in the case of hybridization between amino-linked HBV probe and its complementary (target), a noncomplementary (NC) sequence, single base mismatch (MM), and also in the medium of target/mismatch (MM) mixtures (1:1). CHIT-IL modified PGEs presented a very effective discrimination of DNA hybridization owing to their superior selectivity and sensitivity. PMID:24211827

  11. 40 CFR 180.1072 - Poly-D-glucosamine (chitosan); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Poly-D-glucosamine (chitosan); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180...From Tolerances § 180.1072 Poly-D -glucosamine (chitosan); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance....

  12. 40 CFR 180.1072 - Poly-D-glucosamine (chitosan); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Poly-D-glucosamine (chitosan); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180...From Tolerances § 180.1072 Poly-D -glucosamine (chitosan); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance....

  13. Amplified fluorescence quenching of lucigenin self-assembled inside silica/chitosan nanoparticles by Cl?.

    PubMed

    Tian, Rui; Qu, Yingjuan; Zheng, Xingwang

    2014-09-16

    Fluorescence sensing of an analyte based on the fluorophore collective effect is a reliable, sensitive sensing approach. Many ultralow targets can be detected on the basis of the high sensitivity and signal amplification of the fluorescence sensing system. However, the complicated synthesis procedures, harsh conditions required to design and control the fluorescence molecular probes and conjugated chain length, and the higher cost of synthesis are still challenges. To address these issues, we developed a simple, rapid, and sensitive collective effect based fluorescence sensing platform. In this sensing platform, the fluorophore unit was self-assembled on the wall of the nanopores of the porous structural silica/chitosan nanoparticles (SCNPs) on the basis of the electrostatic interaction and supermolecular interaction between the fluorophores and SiO(-) groups and chitosan. Since these self-assembled fluorophores are close enough to communicate with each other on the basis of the space confinement effect of the pore size, many fluorophore units could interact with a single analyte and produce an amplified fluorescence sensing ability. Chloride ion, an important anion in biological fluids, and lucigenin, a typical fluorescent dye, were used as a model to confirm the proof-of-concept strategy. Our results showed that, compared to free-state lucigenin in solution, the assembled-state lucigenin in SCNPs presented an about 10-fold increase in its Stern-Volmer constant when the concentration of Cl(-) was lower than 10 mM, and this fluorescence nanosensor was also successfully used to sense the chloride ion in living cells. PMID:25135186

  14. Application of chitosan microparticles for reduction of vibrio species in seawater and live oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Wolmarans, Bernhard; Kang, Minyoung; Jeong, Kwang C; Wright, Anita C

    2015-01-01

    Human Vibrio infections associated with consumption of raw shellfish greatly impact the seafood industry. Vibrio cholerae-related disease is occasionally attributed to seafood, but V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are the primary targets of postharvest processing (PHP) efforts in the United States, as they pose the greatest threat to the industry. Most successful PHP treatments for Vibrio reduction also kill the molluscs and are not suitable for the lucrative half-shell market, while nonlethal practices are generally less effective. Therefore, novel intervention strategies for Vibrio reduction are needed for live oyster products. Chitosan is a bioactive derivative of chitin that is generally recognized as safe as a food additive by the FDA, and chitosan microparticles (CMs) were investigated in the present study as a potential PHP treatment for live oyster applications. Treatment of broth cultures with 0.5% (wt/vol) CMs resulted in growth cessation of V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus, reducing culturable levels to nondetectable amounts after 3 h in three independent experiments. Furthermore, a similar treatment in artificial seawater at 4, 25, and 37°C reduced V. vulnificus levels by ca. 7 log CFU/ml after 24 h of exposure, but 48 h of exposure and elevated temperature were required to achieve similar results for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae. Live oysters that either were artificially inoculated or contained natural populations of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus showed significant and consistent reductions following CM treatment (5%) compared to the amounts in the untreated controls. Thus, the results strongly support the promising potential for the application of CMs as a PHP treatment to reduce Vibrio spp. in intact live oysters. PMID:25381244

  15. Effect of Chitosan Dissolved in Different Acids on its Ability to Control Postharvest Gray Mold of Table Grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chitosan is a natural biopolymer that must be dissolved in an acid solution to activate its antimicrobial and eliciting properties. Among 15 acids, chitosan dissolved in 1% solutions of acetic, L-ascorbic, formic, L-glutamic, hydrochloric, lactic, maleic, malic, phosphorous, and succinic. Chitosan s...

  16. Development of silver/titanium dioxide/chitosan adipate nanocomposite as an antibacterial coating for fruit storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel nanocomposite of silver/titanium dioxide/chitosan adipate (Ag/TiO2/CS) was developed through photochemical reduction using a chitosan adipate template. Chitosan served as a reducing agent for the metal ions, and anchored metal ions by forming Ag–N coordination bonds and electrostatic attract...

  17. Degradation of chitosan by gamma ray with presence of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmud, Maznah; Yacob, Norzita; Talip, Norhashidah; Abdullah, Zahid; Naziri, Muhammad Ihsan

    2014-02-12

    The radiation degraded chitosan samples were prepared by swelling the chitosan powder in water and exposed for gamma irradiation. The ratio chitosan to water was 1:6 with the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), 1%–5%. These chitosan-water mixtures were irradiated at 6kGy, which is the lowest irradiation dose that facility can offered. All samples were purified and proceed with characterization. The molecular weight (MW) study was monitored by size exclusion chromatography-multi angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS). Results showed that MW of chitosan reduced as the dose increased. Application of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} enhanced the degradation rate of chitosan even at very low irradiation dose. Homogenous degradation also occurred during treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}based on the polydispersity index (PDI) derived from the calculation of weight average molecular weight over number average molecular weight (Mw/Mn). Mechanism of chitosan radiation degradation with and without hydrogen peroxide was also discussed in this paper. Structure of degraded products was characterized with Fourier-transform infrared spectra. The degree of deacetylation (DDA) values of the samples was determined by acid-base titration. Solubility test results showed that, chitosan powder even at low Mw was insoluble in water even at low pH water. Chitosan as well as irradiated chitosan powder are soluble in strong and weak acid solution. Further discussion on behaviours of radiation degraded chitosan will be elaborated more in this paper.

  18. Effect of ?-irradiation on the thermomechanical and morphological properties of chitosan obtained from prawn shell: Evaluation of potential for irradiated chitosan as plant growth stimulator for Malabar spinach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur; Kabir, Shahriar; Rashid, Taslim Ur; Nesa, Bodrun; Nasrin, Romana; Haque, Papia; Khan, Mubarak A.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have synthesized chitosan from waste prawn shell via ?-irradiation of chitin and subsequent alkaline treatment. The detailed experimental studies demonstrated that nonirradiated chitin deacetylated by 40% NaOH solution showed 72% degree of deacetylation (DD), however 50 kGy irradiated chitin, deacetylated by 20% NaOH demonstrated 81.5% DD. Chitosan in solid state as obtained from ?-irradiation of chitin was further irradiated by different doses (2-100 kGy) of gamma irradiation and the effects of irradiation on the molecular weight, thermo-mechanical by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and antimicrobial properties were evaluated with respect to nonirradiated chitosan sample. Gamma irradiation of chitosan with a dose of 100 kGy caused a decrease in average molecular weight from 1.9×105 to 6.5×104 Da and thus increased its solubility in water. Nonirradiated and ?-irradiated chitosan at concentration 1% (w/w) in water were prepared and used to evaluate of its potentiality for growth stimulation of Malabar spinach. The chitosan solution was sprayed on the specimen plants and neighboring soil where germinations were taken place and various plant growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf areas, dry and wet weight of the plants and roots were investigated. The details study revealed that application of 30 kGy irradiated chitosan yielded 60% higher growth of the Malabar spinach than that obtained from nonirradiated chitosan. The data are consistent with preliminary results from field experiments and unambiguously confirms that a minor amount of chitosan has a profound effect on the growth and development of Malabar spinach.

  19. Barley mildew and its elicitor chitosan promote closed stomata by stimulating guard-cell S-type anion channels.

    PubMed

    Koers, Sandra; Guzel-Deger, Aysin; Marten, Irene; Roelfsema, M Rob G

    2011-11-01

    Stomatal closure is known to be associated with early defence responses of plant cells triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these guard-cell responses have not yet been elucidated. We therefore studied pathogen-induced changes in ion channel activity in Hordeum vulgare guard cells. Barley mildew (Blumeria graminis) hyphae growing on leaves inhibited light-induced stomatal opening, starting at 9 h after inoculation, when appressoria had developed. Alternatively, stomatal closure was induced by nano-infusion of chitosan via open stomata into the sub-stomatal cavity. Experiments using intracellular double-barreled micro-electrodes revealed that mildew stimulated S-type (slow) anion channels in guard cells. These channels enable the efflux of anions from guard cells and also promote K(+) extrusion by altering the plasma membrane potential. Stimulation of S-type anion channels was also provoked by nano-infusion of chitosan. These data suggest that MAMPs of mildew hyphae penetrating the cuticle provoke activation of S-type anion channels in guard cells. In response, guard cells extrude K(+) salts, resulting in stomatal closure. Plasma membrane anion channels probably represent general targets of MAMP signaling in plants, as these elicitors depolarize the plasma membrane of various cell types. PMID:21781196

  20. Enhanced cellular uptake and gene silencing activity of siRNA molecules mediated by chitosan-derivative nanocomplexes.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Villanueva, Diana; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M; Vlassov, Alexander V; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2014-10-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) constitutes a conservative mechanism in eukaryotic cells that induces silencing of target genes. In mammalians, the RNAi is triggered by siRNA (small interfering RNA) molecules. Due to its potential in silencing specific genes, the siRNA has been considered a potential alternative for the treatment of genetic and acquired diseases. However, the siRNA therapy has been limited by its low stability and rapid degradation in presence of nucleases, low cellular uptake, and immune response activation. In order to overcome these drawbacks, we propose the synthesis and characterization of non-viral delivery systems using chitosan derivatives to obtain siRNA complexes (polyplexes). The non-viral delivery systems synthesized included PEG-g-OCs (oligochitosan) and PEG-g-Cs (chitosan medium molecular weight). Both systems allowed the formation of siRNA polyplexes, increased the stability of siRNA in the presence of nucleases, enhanced cellular internalization, and showed low toxicity in the A549 cell line. Finally, the complexes obtained with the PEG-g-OCs system showed silencing activity in a GFP model in the cell line A549 in comparison with naked siRNA. PMID:25063077

  1. Regioselective Sequential Modification of Chitosan via Azide-Alkyne Click Reaction: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Derivatives and Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Atif; Katas, Haliza; Samsudin, Siti Noradila; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the attention of researchers has been drawn toward the synthesis of chitosan derivatives and their nanoparticles with enhanced antimicrobial activities. In this study, chitosan derivatives with different azides and alkyne groups were synthesized using click chemistry, and these were further transformed into nanoparticles by using the ionotropic gelation method. A series of chitosan derivatives was successfully synthesized by regioselective modification of chitosan via an azide-alkyne click reaction. The amino moieties of chitosan were protected during derivatization by pthaloylation and subsequently unblocked at the end to restore their functionality. Nanoparticles of synthesized derivatives were fabricated by ionic gelation to form complexes of polyanionic penta-sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and cationic chitosan derivatives. Particle size analysis showed that nanoparticle size ranged from 181.03 ± 12.73 nm to 236.50 ± 14.32 nm and had narrow polydispersity index and positive surface charge. The derivatives and corresponding nanoparticles were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial and antifungal activities against three gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and three fungal strains, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all derivatives ranged from 31.3 to 250 µg/mL for bacteria and 188 to1500 µg/mL for fungi and was lower than that of native chitosan. The nanoparticles with MIC ranging from 1.56 to 25 µg/mLfor bacteria and 94 to 750 µg/mL for fungi exhibited higher activity than the chitosan derivatives. Chitosan O-(1-methylbenzene) triazolyl carbamate and chitosan O-(1-methyl phenyl sulfide) triazolyl carbamate were the most active against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. The hemolytic assay on erythrocytes and cell viability test on two different cell lines (Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells V79 and Human hepatic cell line WRL68) demonstrated the safety; suggesting that these derivatives could be used in future medical applications. Chitosan derivatives with triazole functionality, synthesized by Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, and their nanoparticles showed significant enhancement in antibacterial and antifungal activities in comparison to those associated with native, non-altered chitosan. PMID:25928293

  2. Photonic monitoring of chitosan nanostructured alginate microcapsules for drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajuria, Deepak Kumar; Konnur, Manish C.; Vasireddi, Ramakrishna; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2015-02-01

    By using a novel microfluidic set-up for drug screening applications, this study examines delivery of a novel risedronate based drug formulation for treatment of osteoporosis that was developed to overcome the usual shortcomings of risedronate, such as its low bioavailability and adverse gastric effects. Risedronate nanoparticles were prepared using muco-adhesive polymers such as chitosan as matrix for improving the intestinal cellular absorption of risedronate and also using a gastric-resistant polymer such as sodium alginate for reducing the gastric inflammation of risedronate. The in-vitro characteristics of the alginate encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles are investigated, including their stability, muco-adhesiveness, and Caco-2 cell permeability. Fluorescent markers are tagged with the polymers and their morphology within the microcapsules is imaged at various stages of drug release.

  3. The potential of chitosan for the oral administration of peptides.

    PubMed

    Prego, Cecilia; Torres, Dolores; Alonso, Maria Jose

    2005-09-01

    Over recent years, a major challenge in drug delivery has been the design of appropriate vehicles for the oral administration of macromolecular drugs (peptides and proteins). Indeed, despite the increasing market value of these complex molecules, their clinical use has been highly limited by their reduced oral bioavailability. Among the different delivery approaches explored so far, those based on the use of the polysaccharide chitosan have opened promising alternatives towards this ambitious goal. This is due to the interesting physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of this polymer. This article describes the advances that have been made in the design of chitosan-based systems specially adapted for the oral administration of peptides. These systems include solutions, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanocapsules and liposomes. More specifically, this article discusses the efficacy of the different delivery approaches for improving the absorption of peptides, and analyses the various mechanisms that have been proposed for the understanding of their efficacy. PMID:16296782

  4. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-silver nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindan, S.; Nivethaa, E. A. K.; Saravanan, R.; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A.

    2012-09-01

    Chitosan-silver (CS-Ag) nanocomposite materials were synthesized by a simple chemical method. The synthesized CS-Ag nanocomposite contains 20 wt% silver. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method as well. The CS-Ag nanocomposite was characterized using Field emission scanning electronic microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD pattern indicated the presence of both silver and chitosan in the nanocomposite. It is observed from the XRD pattern of silver that it is of cubic structure. The spherical morphology of silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the FESEM image. FTIR spectroscopy was used for the structural elucidation. CS-Ag nanocomposite exhibits good antimicrobial and antitumor properties.

  5. Self-repairing oxetane-substituted chitosan polyurethane networks.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Urban, Marek W

    2009-03-13

    Polyurethanes have many properties that qualify them as high-performance polymeric materials, but they still suffer from mechanical damage. We report the development of polyurethane networks that exhibit self-repairing characteristics upon exposure to ultraviolet light. The network consists of an oxetane-substituted chitosan precursor incorporated into a two-component polyurethane. Upon mechanical damage of the network, four-member oxetane rings open to create two reactive ends. When exposed to ultraviolet light, chitosan chain scission occurs, which forms crosslinks with the reactive oxetane ends, thus repairing the network. These materials are capable of repairing themselves in less than an hour and can be used in many coatings applications, ranging from transportation to packaging or fashion and biomedical industries. PMID:19286550

  6. Enhanced arsenic removal using mixed metal oxide impregnated chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Yamani, Jamila S; Miller, Sarah M; Spaulding, Matthew L; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2012-09-15

    Mixed metal oxide impregnated chitosan beads (MICB) containing nanocrystalline Al?O? and nanocrystalline TiO? were successfully developed. This adsorbent exploits the high capacity of Al?O? for arsenate and the photocatalytic activity of TiO? to oxidize arsenite to arsenate, resulting in a removal capacity higher than that of either metal oxide alone. The composition of the beads was optimized for maximum arsenite removal in the presence of UV light. The mechanism of removal was investigated and a mode of action was proposed wherein TiO? oxidizes arsenite to arsenate which is then removed from solution by Al?O?. Pseudo-second order kinetics were used to validate the proposed mechanism. MICB is a more efficient and effective adsorbent for arsenic than TiO?-impregnated chitosan beads (TICB), previously reported on, yet maintains a desirable life cycle, free of complex synthesis processes, toxic materials, and energy inputs. PMID:22743162

  7. Glycol Chitosan-Based Fluorescent Theranostic Nanoagents for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Park, Ok Kyu; Lee, Aeju; Yang, Dae Hyeok; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2014-01-01

    Theranostics is an integrated nanosystem that combines therapeutics with diagnostics in attempt to develop new personalized treatments with enhanced therapeutic efficacy and safety. As a promising therapeutic paradigm with cutting-edge technologies, theranostic agents are able to simultaneously deliver therapeutic drugs and diagnostic imaging agents and also monitor the response to therapy. Polymeric nanosystems have been intensively explored for biomedical applications to diagnose and treat various cancers. In recent years, glycol chitosan-based nanoagents have been developed as dual-purpose materials for simultaneous diagnosis and therapy. They have shown great potential in cancer therapies, such as chemotherapeutics and nucleic acid and photodynamic therapies. In this review, we summarize the recent progress and potential applications of glycol chitosan-based fluorescent theranostic nanoagents for cancer treatments and discuss their possible underlying mechanisms. PMID:25522316

  8. Reinforcement of waterborne polyurethane with chitosan-modified halloysite nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Heqing; Wang, Yin; Chen, Weifeng; Xiao, Jing

    2015-08-01

    Waterborne polyurethane/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites were prepared by modified halloysite nanotubes (HTs) with chitosan (CS). Modified HTs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetry, which verified that CS was successfully assembled onto the HTs surface. The chitosan-modified halloysite nanotubes (CHTs) were uniformly dispersed in WPU matrix through the reaction with polyurethane prepolymer, and acted as chain cross-linker as well as reinforcing filler, which increased the cross-linking density of nanocomposites. The experimental results showed that the strong interfacial interaction and hydrogen bonding interaction between CHTs and WPU improved the degree of micro-phase separation, thermal properties, mechanical properties and surface properties of nanocomposites. The tensile strength and elongation at break were simultaneously enhanced when the CHTs loading was below 2 wt%.

  9. A chitosan-arginine conjugate as a novel anticoagulation biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Liu, W G; Zhang, J R; Cao, Z Q; Xu, F Y; Yao, K D

    2004-11-01

    Chitosan (CS) was modified with arginine using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as coupling agents. FTIR and 13C NMR spectra showed that arginine was chemically coupled to CS to form a chitosan-arginine conjugate (CS-ArgC). The substitution degree of arginine in CS estimated from elemental analysis was 20.1%. The circular dichroism spectra indicated that the incorporation of arginine significantly altered the conformation of thrombin; while no obvious variation in the conformation of thrombin was observed with the addition of CS. The anticoagulation activity of glucose aldehyde crosslinked CS-ArgC and CS membranes was evaluated by assaying prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). The APTT of CS-ArgC membrane was prolonged two times as that of CS counterpart, suggesting that the CS-ArgC is a promising candidate as an anticoagulation biomaterial. PMID:15880928

  10. Graphene/AuNPs/chitosan nanocomposites film for glucose biosensing.

    PubMed

    Shan, Changsheng; Yang, Huafeng; Han, Dongxue; Zhang, Qixian; Ivaska, Ari; Niu, Li

    2010-01-15

    A novel glucose biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase in thin films of chitosan containing nanocomposites of graphene and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at a gold electrode was developed. The resulting graphene/AuNPs/chitosan composites film exhibited good electrocatalytical activity toward H(2)O(2) and O(2). The wide linear response to H(2)O(2) ranging from 0.2 to 4.2 mM (R=0.998) at -0.2V, high sensitivity of 99.5 microA mM(-1) cm(-2) and good reproducibility were obtained. The good electrocatalytical activity might be attributed to the synergistic effect of graphene and AuNPs. With glucose oxidase (GOD) as a model, the graphene/AuNPs/GOD/chitosan composite-modified electrode was constructed through a simple casting method. The resulting biosensor exhibited good amperometric response to glucose with linear range from 2 to 10 mM (R=0.999) at -0.2V and from 2 to 14 mM (R=0.999) at 0.5 V, good reproducibility and detection limit of 180 microM. Glucose concentration in human blood was studied preliminarily. From 2.5 to 7.5 mM, the cathodic peak currents of the biosensor decrease linearly with increasing the glucose concentrations. The graphene/AuNPs/GOD/chitosan composites film shows prominent electrochemical response to glucose, which makes a promising application for electrochemical detection of glucose. PMID:19883999

  11. A Cellular Compatible Chitosan Nanoparticle Surface for Isolation and In Situ Culture of Rare Number CTCs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Na; Wang, Jine; Ji, Liya; Hong, Shanni; Dong, Jingjin; Guo, Yahui; Zhang, Kunchi; Pei, Renjun

    2015-10-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) isolation has attracted a great deal of research interest in recent years. However, there are still some challenges, including purity as well as viability of the captured CTCs, resulting from nanoscale structures and inorganic nanomaterials. Here, a chitosan nanoparticle surface is first fabricated by electrospray to provide a cellular compatible interface. The "soft" substrate, further modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an antifouling molecule and DNA aptamer as a specific capture molecule, has a hydrophilic nature and is capable of specific capture of viable rare CTCs from artificial white blood cell (WBC) samples. Furthermore, a subsequent in situ culture strategy based on the developed cellular compatible soft interface is introduced for further purification and proliferation of the captured rare number target cells. The WBCs are weeded out after 2 d, and after a 7 d proliferation nearly 200 MCF-7 cells are obtained from 7 target cells with more than 90% purity. This work provides a promising strategy for viable isolation and purification of rare CTCs and it has great potential for achieving clinical validity. PMID:26313660

  12. Properties of chitosan microencapsulated orange oil prepared by spray-drying and its stability to detergents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fragrance encapsulated in small particles of less than 20 µm diameter is preferred for use in textiles. In this study, aromatic orange oil was emulsified in a continuous phase of chitosan and spray-dried to produce microcapsules. The most effective combination of emulsifiers, ratio of chitosan to oi...

  13. Adjuvant effects of chitosan and calcium phosphate particles in an inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adjuvant activity of chitosan and calcium phosphate-particles (CAP) was studied following intranasal coadministration of commercial chickens with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. After three vaccinations with inactivated NDV in combination with chitosan or CAP an increase in an...

  14. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 107 (2001) 167175 Reduction of transpiration through foliar application of chitosan

    E-print Network

    Flury, Markus

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 107 (2001) 167­175 Reduction of transpiration through foliar of chitosan, a natural beta-1-4-linked glucosamine polymer, to reduce plant transpiration. Chitosan-chambers, where transpiration was measured by weighing pots. In an accompanying field study, water use

  15. Antifungal Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Correlation with Their Physical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ing, Ling Yien; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad; Sarwar, Atif; Katas, Haliza

    2012-01-01

    The need of natural antimicrobials is paramount to avoid harmful synthetic chemicals. The study aimed to determine the antifungal activity of natural compound chitosan and its nanoparticles forms against Candida albicans, Fusarium solani and Aspergillus niger. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared from low (LMW), high molecular weight (HMW) chitosan and its derivative, trimethyl chitosan (TMC). Particle size was increased when chitosan/TMC concentration was increased from 1 to 3 mg/mL. Their zeta potential ranged from +22 to +55?mV. Chitosan nanoparticles prepared from different concentrations of LMW and HMW were also found to serve a better inhibitory activity against C. albicans (MICLMW = 0.25–0.86?mg/mL and MICHMW = 0.6–1.0?mg/mL) and F. solani (MICLMW = 0.86–1.2?mg/mL and MICHMW = 0.5–1.2?mg/mL) compared to the solution form (MIC = 3?mg/mL for both MWs and species). This inhibitory effect was also influenced by particle size and zeta potential of chitosan nanoparticles. Besides, Aspergillus niger was found to be resistant to chitosan nanoparticles except for nanoparticles prepared from higher concentrations of HMW. Antifungal activity of nanoparticles prepared from TMC was negligible. The parent compound therefore could be formulated and applied as a natural antifungal agent into nanoparticles form to enhance its antifungal activity. PMID:22829829

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Derivatives Containing N-Quaternized Moieties in Its Backbone: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Alessandro F.; Facchi, Suelen P.; Follmann, Heveline D. M.; Pereira, Antonio G. B.; Rubira, Adley F.; Muniz, Edvani C.

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan, which is derived from a deacetylation reaction of chitin, has attractive antimicrobial activity. However, chitosan applications as a biocide are only effective in acidic medium due to its low solubility in neutral and basic conditions. Also, the positive charges carried by the protonated amine groups of chitosan (in acidic conditions) that are the driving force for its solubilization are also associated with its antimicrobial activity. Therefore, chemical modifications of chitosan are required to enhance its solubility and broaden the spectrum of its applications, including as biocide. Quaternization on the nitrogen atom of chitosan is the most used route to render water-soluble chitosan-derivatives, especially at physiological pH conditions. Recent reports in the literature demonstrate that such chitosan-derivatives present excellent antimicrobial activity due to permanent positive charge on nitrogen atoms side-bonded to the polymer backbone. This review presents some relevant work regarding the use of quaternized chitosan-derivatives obtained by different synthetic paths in applications as antimicrobial agents. PMID:25402643

  17. Complete Physicochemical Characterization of DNA/Chitosan Complexes by Multiple Detection

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    Complete Physicochemical Characterization of DNA/Chitosan Complexes by Multiple Detection Using´bec, Canada H3C 3J7 Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with UV-vis spectrophotometry dispersions of DNA/ rhodamine B labeled chitosan (Ch-rho) complexes frequently used as gene delivery vectors

  18. Chitosans for delivery of nucleic acids Michael D. Buschmann, Abderrazzak Merzouki, Marc Lavertu, Marc

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    .addr.2013.07.005 Reference: ADR 12480 To appear in: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews Accepted date: 5 July Thibault, Myriam Jean, Vincent Darras, Chitosans for delivery of nucleic acids, Advanced Drug DeliveryÔØ Å ÒÙ× Ö ÔØ Chitosans for delivery of nucleic acids Michael D. Buschmann, Abderrazzak Merzouki

  19. Copper on Chitosan: A Recyclable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Azide-alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Copper sulfate is immobilized over chitosan by simply stirring an aqueous suspension of chitosan in water with copper sulfate; the ensuing catalyst has been utilized for the azide-alkyne cycloaddition in aqueous media and it can be recycled and reused many time without loosing it...

  20. Environmentally friendly surface modification of silk fiber: Chitosan grafting and dyeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davarpanah, Saideh; Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Arami, Mokhtar; Bahrami, Hajir; Mazaheri, Firoozmehr

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the surface modification of silk fiber using anhydrides to graft the polysaccharide chitosan and dyeing ability of the grafted silk were studied. Silk fiber was degummed and acylated with two anhydrides, succinic anhydride (SA) and phthalic anhydride (PA), in different solvents (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF)). The effects of anhydrides, solvents, anhydride concentration, liquor ratio (L:R) and reaction time on acylation of silk were studied. The polysaccharide chitosan was grafted to the acylated silk fiber and dyed by acid dye (Acid Black NB.B). The effects of pH, chitosan concentration, and reaction time on chitosan grafting of acylated silk were investigated. The physical properties show sensible changes regardless of weight gain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed the presence of foreign materials firmly attached to the surface of silk. FTIR spectroscopy provided evidence that chitosan was grafted onto the acylated silk through the formation of new covalent bonds. The dyeing of the chitosan grafted-acylated silk fiber indicated the higher dye ability in comparison to the acylated and degummed silk samples. The mechanism of chitosan grafting over degummed silk through anhydride linkage was proposed. The findings of this research support the potential production of new environmentally friendly textile fibers. It is worthwhile to mention that the grafted samples have antibacterial potential due to the antibacterial property of chitosan molecules.

  1. Inactivation of salmonella on tomato stem scars by edible chitosan and organic Acid coatings.

    PubMed

    Jin, T; Gurtler, J B

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of antimicrobial coatings for inactivation of Salmonella on the surface of tomato stem scars. Scars were inoculated with a four-strain cocktail of Salmonella (serovars Montevideo, Newport, Saintpaul, and Typhimurium) and coated with acid-chitosan solutions. The chitosan coating with three acids (3A plus chitosan), the chitosan coating with one acid, and the three-acid solution without chitosan reduced the populations of Salmonella by 6.0, 3.6, and 5.3 log CFU per stem scar, respectively. Addition of allyl isothiocyanate (10 ?l/ml) to the 3A plus chitosan coating did not significantly increase (P > 0.05) the antimicrobial efficacy. Although the populations of Salmonella in the controls (ca. 7.5 log CFU per stem scar) did not change significantly throughout the 14-day storage period at 10° C, Salmonella cells were reduced to undetectable levels (< 0.7 log CFU per stem scar) in the samples treated with 3A plus chitosan coating after two days of storage, and no growth was observed for the remaining storage period. Results from this study demonstrate that coatings of acid plus chitosan provide an alternative antimicrobial intervention for decontamination of tomatoes. PMID:22856559

  2. Hybrid films from blends of chitosan and egg phosphatidylcholine for localized delivery of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Grant, J; Blicker, M; Piquette-Miller, M; Allen, C

    2005-07-01

    Chitosan and egg phosphatidylcholine (ePC) were used as a unique combination to prepare composite films for localized drug delivery. In comparison to other phospholipids analyzed, ePC was found to produce chitosan-based films with minimal swelling and a high degree of stability. The properties of the chitosan-ePC films were characterized and found to be dependent on the ratio of chitosan:ePC present. FTIR analysis of chitosan-ePC films revealed that their high stability may be attributed to interactions present between these two biomaterials. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxicity and protein adsorption properties of the films were used to provide a preliminary indication of their biocompatibility. The chitosan-ePC film was also evaluated as a matrix for the localized delivery of the anti-cancer agent, paclitaxel. Nanoparticles containing paclitaxel were dispersed throughout the chitosan-ePC film to result in a drug:material ratio of 1:8 (wt/wt). The film was found to provide a sustained release of paclitaxel over a 4-month period in biologically relevant media. The biological activity of paclitaxel loaded in the chitosan-ePC film was confirmed in SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer cells. PMID:15920770

  3. Preparation and adsorption properties of magnetic CoFe2O4-chitosan composite microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Qi; Zheng, Xue-Fang; Hu, Tie-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic chitosan microspheres made from novel polymer materials show outstanding applied characteristics. Magnetic chitosan microspheres are rather cheap, non-toxic, tasteless, alkali resistant, corrosion resistant, easily degradable, easily recyclable, and so on. It can be widely used in many fields. In this paper, magnetic CoFe2O4/chitosan core-shell microspheres are prepared by means of emulsification cross-linking technique using CoFe2O4 as core and glutaric dialdehyde as crosslinking agent. The results demonstrated that the different calcining temperature of magnetic (CoFe2O4) particles, CoFe2O4/chitosan ratio and stirring time of the suspension medium are the most effective parameters that control the size, size distribution, morphology and magnetism of the described microspheres. Finally, the size, morphology and chemical structure of the prepared materials are studied by different methods. The results show that the optimal calcination temperature of magnetic particles is 700°C, the optimal ratio of CoFe2O4/chitosan is 1: 1, ultrasonic dispersion time is 30 min. The prepared chitosan magnetic microspheres have small size and are well dispersed when the stirring time is 3 h. The prepared magnetic chitosan microspheres are well shaped spheres with a diameter from 1 to 50 ?m, in which CoFe2O4 particles are dispersed uniformly. The magnetic chitosan microspheres show excellent magnetic response and have good adsorption characteristics.

  4. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by ?-ray irradiation in acetic water solution containing chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Song, Linyong; Liu, Yankuan; Fang, Yue-e.

    2007-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by ?-ray irradiation of acetic water solutions containing AgNO 3 and chitosan. The resulting particles with the average diameter of 4-5 nm were densely dispersed in the solution due to the protection of chitosan chains. UV-vis spectra showed that the irradiation dose would affect the size distribution of nanoparticles.

  5. Monolithic gelation of chitosan solutions via enzymatic hydrolysis of urea A. Chenite a,

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    Monolithic gelation of chitosan solutions via enzymatic hydrolysis of urea A. Chenite a, *, S. Gori hydrolysis of urea is shown to produce pH-induced hydrogels with monolithic and homogeneous coherent 3D presented. q 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Chitosan; Monolithic hydrogel; Rheology; p

  6. CHITOSAN PROTECTS COOKED GROUND BEEF AND TURKEY AGAINST CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS SPORES DURING CHILLING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by the biopolymer chitosan during abusive chilling of cooked ground beef (25% fat) and turkey (7% fat) obtained from a retail store. Chitosan was mixed into the thawed beef or turkey at concentrations of 0.5, ...

  7. Modification of chitosan with monomethyl fumaric acid in an ionic liquid solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaodong; Zheng, Liuchun; Li, Chuncheng; Zhang, Dong; Xiao, Yaonan; Guan, Guohu; Zhu, Wenxiang

    2015-03-01

    Antibacterial and antioxidant monomethyl fumaric acid (MFA) was selected to modify chitosan, using aqueous solution of an ionic liquid as a homogeneous and green reaction media. The chemical structures of resulting polymers were systematically characterized by (1)H NMR, diffusion ordered spectroscopy, solid (13)C NMR and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The results show that two kinds of MFA modified chitosan materials with totally different chemical structures have been synthesized. One product was a MF-chitosan salt composed of chitosan cation and MFA anion, which was obtained with the mediation of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide. The other one synthesized with the mediation of EDC was a MF-chitosan amide in which MFA and chitosan are covalently attached. Solubility of chitosan has been improved, and MF-chitosan salt can be readily dissolved in water. The antioxidant activity has been enhanced with the introduction of MFA, irrespective of the chemical structure. PMID:25498724

  8. Effect of Changes in Relative Humidity and Temperature on Ultrathin Chitosan Films

    E-print Network

    Dutcher, John

    of bound water and a chemical change similar to acetylation at elevated temperatures. Introduction own weight in water.9 In addition, the ability of chitosan hydrogels to absorb water depends on the pEffect of Changes in Relative Humidity and Temperature on Ultrathin Chitosan Films Christopher A

  9. Chitosan preparations for wounds and burns: antimicrobial and wound-healing effects

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Since its discovery approximately 200 years ago, chitosan, as a cationic natural polymer, has been widely used as a topical dressing in wound management owing to its hemostatic, stimulation of healing, antimicrobial, nontoxic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties. This article covers the antimicrobial and wound-healing effects of chitosan, as well as its derivatives and complexes, and its use as a vehicle to deliver biopharmaceuticals, antimicrobials and growth factors into tissue. Studies covering applications of chitosan in wounds and burns can be classified into in vitro, animal and clinical studies. Chitosan preparations are classified into native chitosan, chitosan formulations, complexes and derivatives with other substances. Chitosan can be used to prevent or treat wound and burn infections not only because of its intrinsic antimicrobial properties, but also by virtue of its ability to deliver extrinsic antimicrobial agents to wounds and burns. It can also be used as a slow-release drug-delivery vehicle for growth factors to improve wound healing. The large number of publications in this area suggests that chitosan will continue to be an important agent in the management of wounds and burns. PMID:21810057

  10. Functionalization of Titanium with Chitosan via Silanation: Evaluation of Biological and Mechanical Performances

    PubMed Central

    Renoud, Pauline; Toury, Bérangère; Benayoun, Stéphane; Attik, Ghania; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Complications in dentistry and orthopaedic surgery are mainly induced by peri-implant bacterial infections and current implant devices do not prevent such infections. The coating of antibacterial molecules such as chitosan on its surface would give the implant bioactive properties. The major challenge of this type of coating is the attachment of chitosan to a metal substrate. In this study, we propose to investigate the functionalization of titanium with chitosan via a silanation. Firstly, the surface chemistry and mechanical properties of such coating were evaluated. We also verified if the coated chitosan retained its biocompatibility with the peri-implant cells, as well as its antibacterial properties. FTIR and Tof-SIMS analyses confirmed the presence of chitosan on the titanium surface. This coating showed great scratch resistance and was strongly adhesive to the substrate. These mechanical properties were consistent with an implantology application. The Chitosan-coated surfaces showed strong inhibition of Actinomyces naeslundii growth; they nonetheless showed a non significant inhibition against Porphyromonas gingivalis after 32 hours in liquid media. The chitosan-coating also demonstrated good biocompatibility to NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Thus this method of covalent coating provides a biocompatible material with improved bioactive properties. These results proved that covalent coating of chitosan has significant potential in biomedical device implantation. PMID:22859940

  11. Dry-powder form of chitosan nanospheres containing influenza virus and adjuvants for nasal immunization.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, S; Tavassoti Kheiri, M; Tabatabaiean, M; Darzi, S; Tafaghodi, M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and statistically optimize chitosan nanospheres. For this purpose chitosan powder was turned into nanospheres using tripolyphosphate as a crosslinker and through ionic gelation. D-optimal response surface design was applied to optimize the nanospheres. Their size and polydispersity index (PDI) were measured as the dependant variables. Then the inactivated influenza virus and/or CpG ODN or Quillaja saponin (QS) were incorporated into the chitosan nanospheres. The release profiles of the antigen and both adjuvants were obtained. The toxicity of the formulations was tested by XTT using Calu 6 cell lines. The size distribution and PDI of plain chitosan nanospheres was 581.1 ± 32.6 and 0.478 ± 0.04. After 4 h the release of antigen, QS and CpG from the chitosan matrix were 33, 36 and 62%, respectively. The inactivated virus remained intact during preparation, as revealed by the SDS-PAGE method. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy indicated no serious structural changes in the chitosan carrier in the presence of either the antigen or the immunoadjuvants. Although the antigen loaded into chitosan nanospheres showed slight cytotoxicity on lung-cancer cells, co-encapsulation of the adjuvant (especially CpG) lowered this effect. The results demonstrated that chitosan as a carrier and immunostimulator, along with CpG or QS adjuvants, creates a potential influenza vaccine delivery system which can be administered nasally. PMID:23568383

  12. Eco-friendly Rot and Crease Resistance Finishing of Jute Fabric using Citric Acid and Chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, A. K.; Bagchi, A.

    2013-03-01

    Citric acid (CA) along with chitosan was used on bleached jute fabrics to impart anti crease and rot resistance properties in one step. The treatment was carried out by pad-dry-cure method in presence of sodium hypophosphite monohydrate catalyst. Curing at 150° Centigrade for 5 min delivered good crease resistant property (dry crease recovery angle is 244°) and high rot resistance simultaneously by a single treatment, which are durable for five washings with distilled water. Strength retention of jute fabric after 21 days soil burial was found to be 81 % and the loss (%) in strength due to this treatment was 15-18 %. The results showed that chitosan and CA treated-fabric exhibited higher rot resistance (as indicated by soil burial test) when compared to either CA or chitosan by individual treatment. The effect of CA and chitosan combination on the resistance to rotting of jute fabric was found to be synergistic which is higher than the sum of the effects of individual chemicals. CA possibly reacts with hydroxyl groups in cellulose or chitosan to form ester. The CA and chitosan finished fabric has adverse effect on stiffness. Thermal studies showed that final residue left at 500° C was much higher for CA and chitosan treated fabric than untreated jute fabric. FTIR spectroscopy suggested the formation of ester cross-linkage between the jute fibre, CA and chitosan and hence it is understood that this rot resistant finish on jute fabric become durable by this mechanism.

  13. Development of Thermosensitive Hydrogels of Chitosan, Sodium and Magnesium Glycerophosphate for Bone Regeneration Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lisková, Jana; Ba?aková, Lucie; Skwarczy?ska, Agata L.; Musial, Olga; Bliznuk, Vitaliy; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Modrzejewska, Zofia; Douglas, Timothy E.L.

    2015-01-01

    Thermosensitive injectable hydrogels based on chitosan neutralized with sodium beta-glycerophosphate (Na-?-GP) have been studied as biomaterials for drug delivery and tissue regeneration. Magnesium (Mg) has been reported to stimulate adhesion and proliferation of bone forming cells. With the aim of improving the suitability of the aforementioned chitosan hydrogels as materials for bone regeneration, Mg was incorporated by partial substitution of Na-?-GP with magnesium glycerophosphate (Mg-GP). Chitosan/Na-?-GP and chitosan/Na-?-GP/Mg-GP hydrogels were also loaded with the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which induces hydrogel mineralization. Hydrogels were characterized physicochemically with respect to mineralizability and gelation kinetics, and biologically with respect to cytocompatibility and cell adhesion. Substitution of Na-?-GP with Mg-GP did not negatively influence mineralizability. Cell biological testing showed that both chitosan/Na-?-GP and chitosan/Na-?-GP/Mg-GP hydrogels were cytocompatible towards MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Hence, chitosan/Na-?-GP/Mg-GP hydrogels can be used as an alternative to chitosan/Na-?-GP hydrogels for bone regeneration applications. However the incorporation of Mg in the hydrogels during hydrogel formation did not bring any appreciable physicochemical or biological benefit. PMID:25859630

  14. Chitosan and alginate types of bio-membrane in fuel cell application: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaari, N.; Kamarudin, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    The major problems of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell technology that need to be highlighted are fuel crossovers (e.g., methanol or hydrogen leaking across fuel cell membranes), CO poisoning, low durability, and high cost. Chitosan and alginate-based biopolymer membranes have recently been used to solve these problems with promising results. Current research in biopolymer membrane materials and systems has focused on the following: 1) the development of novel and efficient biopolymer materials; and 2) increasing the processing capacity of membrane operations. Consequently, chitosan and alginate-based biopolymers seek to enhance fuel cell performance by improving proton conductivity, membrane durability, and reducing fuel crossover and electro-osmotic drag. There are four groups of chitosan-based membranes (categorized according to their reaction and preparation): self-cross-linked and salt-complexed chitosans, chitosan-based polymer blends, chitosan/inorganic filler composites, and chitosan/polymer composites. There are only three alginate-based membranes that have been synthesized for fuel cell application. This work aims to review the state-of-the-art in the growth of chitosan and alginate-based biopolymer membranes for fuel cell applications.

  15. Ruthenium on chitosan: A recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for aqueous hydration of nitriles to amides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ruthenium has been immobilized over chitosan by simply stirring an aqueous suspension of chitosan in water with ruthenium chloride and has been utilized for the oxidation of nitriles to amides; the hydration of nitriles occurs in high yield and excellent selectivity, which procee...

  16. Effects of the composite nanovesicles on the physical properties and cellular adhesion of chitosan films.

    PubMed

    Lionzo, Maria I Z; Lorenzini, Giulia C; Tomedi, Joelson; Pranke, Patricia; Silveira, Nádya P

    2012-04-01

    Chitosan films were prepared by the casting of a chitosan gel in absence and presence of composite nanovesicles. The microscopy images showed the occurrence of agglomerates on the surface and internal pores when the nanovesicles were added to the films, differently from the smooth surface of the pure chitosan films. Despite the hydrophobic character that composite nanovesicles gave to the chitosan films, as showed by the reduction of the water permeation at prolonged times, there was a reduction on the contact angle values for these samples related to the roughness of the surface. The peak of water desorption observed on calorimetric analysis of chitosan was shifted to higher values when the nanovesicles were added to the films. Furthermore, the desappearance of Tg on the films containing nanovesicles denoted their plastifier effect in the chitosan film. The swelling results showed higher water diffusion at the first times for the films containing nanovesicles because of the pores observed by microscopy. However, at prolonged times, there was a reduction on the swelling because of the lipofilic composition of the nanovesicles. Furthermore, the presence of nanovesicles led to a reduction on the water content in the chitosan films. Due to the effect on the physical properties of the chitosan films, the addition of nanovesicles on discrete concentrations contributed to the cell adhesion. PMID:22515086

  17. One-step electrospinning of cross-linked chitosan fibers.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Jessica D; Schauer, Caroline L

    2007-09-01

    Chitin is a nitrogen-rich polysaccharide that is abundant in crustaceans, mollusks, insects, and fungi and is the second most abundant organic material found in nature next to cellulose. Chitosan, the N-deacetylated derivative of chitin, is environmentally friendly, nontoxic, biodegradable, and antibacterial. Fibrous mats are typically used in industries for filter media, catalysis, and sensors. Decreasing fiber diameters within these mats causes many beneficial effects such as increased specific surface area to volume ratios. When the intrinsically beneficial effects of chitosan are combined with the enhanced properties of nanofibrous mats, applications arise in a wide range of fields, including medical, packaging, agricultural, and automotive. This is particularly important as innovative technologies that focus around bio-based materials are currently of high urgency, as they can decrease dependencies on fossil fuels. We have demonstrated that Schiff base cross-linked chitosan fibrous mats can be produced utilizing a one-step electrospinning process that is 25 times faster and, therefore, more economical than a previously reported two-step vapor-cross-linking method. These fibrous mats are insoluble in acidic, basic, and aqueous solutions for 72 h. Additionally, this improved production method results in a decreased average fiber diameter, which measures 128 +/- 40 nm. Chemical and structural analyses were conducted utilizing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solubility studies, and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:17696400

  18. Flocculation of algal cells by amphoteric chitosan-based flocculant.

    PubMed

    Dong, Changlong; Chen, Wei; Liu, Cheng

    2014-10-01

    A kind of amphoteric chitosan-based flocculant (quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan, denoted as QCMC) has been prepared. QCMC presented significant improvement of water solubility in the whole pH range. The effects of pH, dosage, temperature and original turbidity of algal water on the flocculation performance were investigated. The optimal dosages of QCMC at pH 5, 9 and 12 with original turbidity of 20NTU at 20°C were 0.1, 0.6 and 2.0mg/L, respectively, which were much less than that of chitosan, PAM, Al2(SO4)3 and FeCl3. The floc properties during grow, breakage and regrow period were also evaluated at different pH values in terms of floc size, strength and density. It was demonstrated that QCMC produced larger, stronger and denser flocs than Al2(SO4)3. There is every indication that QCMC is more suitable for algal harvesting than other traditional coagulants or flocculants. PMID:25146316

  19. Chitosan-Montmorillonite microspheres: A sustainable fertilizer delivery system.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Bruna Rodrigues; Bacalhau, Fabiana Britti; Pereira, Tamires dos Santos; Souza, Claudinei Fonseca; Faez, Roselena

    2015-08-20

    Controlled release fertilizers are efficient tools that increase the sustainability of agricultural practices. However, the biodegradability of the matrices and the determination of the release into soil still require some investigation. This paper describes the preparation of potassium-containing microspheres based on chitosan and montmorillonite clay and the in situ soil release. The chitosan-montmorillonite microspheres were prepared using a coagulation method and different proportions of montmorillonite. The structural, thermal and morphological properties as well the water swelling and fertilizer sorption capacity were evaluated. The best formulations were applied in soil, and the fertilizer release was monitored using time-domain reflectometry (TDR). Montmorillonite clay provides better sorption properties than the chitosan microspheres because of the rough and porous surface. Due to these properties, high levels of fertilizer were sorbed onto the material. ChMMT33-containing potassium shows two specific periods of fertilizer release: the first one lasted approximately three days and was assigned to the external fertilizer on the microspheres. The second was assigned to the internal fertilizer. TDR is an important and fast tool and was used to determine the fertilizer release and the ion movement in the soil. PMID:25965492

  20. Biocompatibility of chitosan carriers with application in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Susana; Dionísio, Marita; López, Carmen Remuñán; Grenha, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan is one of the most used polysaccharides in the design of drug delivery strategies for administration of either biomacromolecules or low molecular weight drugs. For these purposes, it is frequently used as matrix forming material in both nano and micron-sized particles. In addition to its interesting physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, which include high mucoadhesion and a great capacity to produce drug delivery systems, ensuring the biocompatibility of the drug delivery vehicles is a highly relevant issue. Nevertheless, this subject is not addressed as frequently as desired and even though the application of chitosan carriers has been widely explored, the demonstration of systems biocompatibility is still in its infancy. In this review, addressing the biocompatibility of chitosan carriers with application in drug delivery is discussed and the methods used in vitro and in vivo, exploring the effect of different variables, are described. We further provide a discussion on the pros and cons of used methodologies, as well as on the difficulties arising from the absence of standardization of procedures. PMID:24955636

  1. Characterization of Chitin and Chitosan Molecular Structure in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Franca, Eduardo D.; Lins, Roberto D.; Freitas, Luiz C.; Straatsma, TP

    2008-12-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to characterize the structure of chitin and chitosan fibers in aqueous solutions. Chitin fibers, whether isolated or in the form of a ?-chitin nanoparticle, adopt the so-called 2-fold helix with ? and ? values similar to its crystalline state. In solution, the intramolecular hydrogen bond HO3(n)?O5(n+1) responsible for the 2-fold helical motif is stabilized by hydrogen bonds with water molecules in a well-defined orientation. On the other hand, chitosan can adopt five distinct helical motifs and its conformational equilibrium is highly dependent on pH. The hydrogen bond pattern and solvation around the O3 atom of insoluble chitosan (basic pH) are nearly identical to these quantities in chitin. Our findings suggest that the solubility and conformation of these polysaccharides are related to the stability of the intrachain HO3(n)?O5(n+1) hydrogen bond, which is affect by the water exchange around the O3-HO3 hydroxyl group.

  2. Chitosan microspheres of aceclofenac: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nagda, Chirag; Chotai, Narendra; Patel, Sandip; Nagda, Dhruti; Patel, Upendra; Soni, Tejal

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to achieve controlled drug release of Aceclofenac (ACE) microspheres and to minimize local side-effects in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Sustained release chitosan microspheres containing ACE were prepared using double-emulsion solvent evaporation method (O/W/O). Chitosan microspheres were prepared by varying drug to polymer ratio (1:3, 1:4, 1:5 and 1:6). Microspheres were characterized for morphology, swelling behavior, mucoadhesive properties, FTIR and DSC study, drug loading efficiency, in vitro release, release kinetics, and in vivo study was performed on rat model. ACE-loaded microspheres were successfully prepared having production yield, 57-70% w/w. Drug encapsulation efficiency was ranging from 53-72% w/w, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed particle size of microspheres was between 39 and 55 mum. FTIR spectra and DSC thermograms demonstrated no interaction between drug and polymer. The in vitro release profiles of drug from chitosan microspheres showed sustained-release pattern of the drug in phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. In vitro release data showed correlation (r2 > 0.98), good fit with Higuchi/Korsmeyer-Peppas models, and exhibited Fickian diffusion. ACE microspheres demonstrated controlled delivery of aceclofenac and apparently, no G.I.T. erosion was noticed. PMID:20735299

  3. Alginate Hydrogels Coated with Chitosan for Wound Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Straccia, Maria Cristina; Gomez d’Ayala, Giovanna; Romano, Ida; Oliva, Adriana; Laurienzo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a coating of chitosan onto alginate hydrogels was realized using the water-soluble hydrochloride form of chitosan (CH-Cl), with the dual purpose of imparting antibacterial activity and delaying the release of hydrophilic molecules from the alginate matrix. Alginate hydrogels with different calcium contents were prepared by the internal setting method and coated by immersion in a CH-Cl solution. Structural analysis by cryo-scanning electron microscopy was carried out to highlight morphological alterations due to the coating layer. Tests in vitro with human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) were assessed to check the absence of toxicity of CH-Cl. Swelling, stability in physiological solution and release characteristics using rhodamine B as the hydrophilic model drug were compared to those of relative uncoated hydrogels. Finally, antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli was tested. Results show that alginate hydrogels coated with chitosan hydrochloride described here can be proposed as a novel medicated dressing by associating intrinsic antimicrobial activity with improved sustained release characteristics. PMID:25969981

  4. Laser photolysis of fluorone dyes in a chitosan matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Slyusareva, E A; Sizykh, A G; Gerasimova, M A; Slabko, V V; Myslivets, S A

    2012-08-31

    Kinetics of laser-induced photobleaching of fluorone dyes (fluorescein, dibromofluorescein, eosin Y, erythrosin B, Rose Bengal) is studied in a chitosan matrix. For all dyes the bleaching kinetics at the intensities of laser radiation 0.7 - 11.9 W cm{sup -2} demonstrates quasi-monomolecular behaviour. The results are analysed using a kinetic model, based on the four-level (S{sub 0}, S{sub 1}, T{sub 1}, T{sub n}) scheme of the dye with chemically active triplet states taken into account. It is shown that the rate constants of the chemical reaction involving higher triplet states in the dyes studied amount to (3.9 - 18.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} and exceed the analogous values for the reaction involving the first lower triplet states by nine orders of magnitude. The rate of reaction involving the first triplet states appeared to be higher by one - two orders of magnitude than that in the case of higher triplet states involved because of low population of the latter. The possible mechanism of dye bleaching with participation of chitosan that consists in reduction of the dye to the leuco form by transfer of hydrogen from the chitosan matrix is discussed. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasmas)

  5. Investigation of Chitosan for Decorporation of 60Co in the Rat

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Curry, Terry L.; Luders, Teresa; Morris, James E.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Woodstock, Angela D.; Thrall, Karla D.

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: The reported investigation is a part of our on-going research aimed at identifying effective in vivo non-toxic decorporation agents and developing new therapies to treat internal contamination with radionuclides. The non-toxic nature of chitosan makes it an especially attractive candidate for unsupervised treatment of the general population in case of radiological/nuclear emergency. In this study, chemically unmodified water-soluble chitosan oligosaccharide of low molecular weight was tested for decorporation of cobalt-60 (Co-60) using a rodent model. Methods: Affinity of chitosan oligosaccharide for Co(II) was tested in vitro under conditions of physiological pH range and ionic strength using combined spectrophotometric and potentiometric titration techniques. Fisher F344 rat model was used for in vivo studies. To evaluate effect of chitosan on ingested Co-60, animals received single oral dose of Co-60 chloride (7 – 13.2 kBq per animal) followed by oral administration of chitosan material (288 – 366 mg per kg body weight); chitosan dosing was repeated in 24 hours. Chitosan was also tested for removal of internalized Co-60. In this study, Co-60 single intravenous injection (7 – 8 kBq per animal) was followed by repetitive oral (300 mg per kg body weight) or intravenous (195 mg per kg body weight) administration of the chitosan material once daily for 5 days. Control animal groups received a single dose of Co-60 without chelator treatment. Excreta was collected daily. Tissues were collected postmortem and analyzed for radioactivity by gamma counting technique. Results: In vitro experiments confirmed binding of Co(II) by chitosan oligosaccharide, formation of mixed cobalt-chitosan-hydroxide complex species was proposed, and stability constants was calculated. Control in vivo studies indicated that about 71% of ingested Co-60 was excreted in two days predominantly through the gastrointestinal tract. For intravenously administered Co-60, urinal excretion was dominant and was found to decrease linearly with time. The oral administration of chitosan appeared to reduce absorption of ingested Co-60; radioactivity in liver and kidney was reduced by over 50%. Intravenously administered chitosan reduced Co-60 levels (after intravenous dosing) in multiple tissues by 15 – 30 %. Decorporation efficacy of oral chitosan was weak. Conclusion: Commercial chemically-unmodified chitosan oligosaccharide exhibited strong potential for the treatment of oral or systemic cobalt exposure. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the dosing regiment.

  6. Role of pH in metal adsorption from aqueous solutions containing chelating agents on chitosan

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, F.C.; Tseng, R.L.; Juang, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    The role of pH in adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions containing chelating agents on chitosan was emphasized. Four chelating agents including ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, tartaric acid, and sodium gluconate were used. It was shown that the adsorption ability of Cu(II) on chitosan from its chelated solutions varied significantly with pH variations. The competition between coordination of Cu(II) with unprotonated chitosan and electrostatic interaction of the Cu(II) chelates with protonated chitosan took place because of the change in solution pH during adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity was obtained within each optimal pH range determined from titration curves of the chelated solutions. Coordination of Cu(II) with the unprotonated chitosan was found to dominate at pH below such an optimal pH value.

  7. Facile Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Under ?-Irradiation: Effect of Chitosan Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, N. M.; Radiman, S.; Lim, H. N.; Khiew, P. S.; Chiu, W. S.; Tan, T. K.; Ahmad, A.; Idris, H.

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, a biopolymer, low molecular weight chitosan had been utilized as a "green" stabilizing agent for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles under ?-irradiation. The as-synthesized silver nanoparticles have particle diameters in the range of 5 nm-30 nm depending on the percentage of chitosan used (0.1 wt%, 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% & 2.0 wt%). It was found that the yield of the silver nanoparticles was in accordance with the concentration of chitosan presence in the solution due to the reduction by the chitosan radical during irradiation. The highly stable chitosan encapsulated silver nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD).

  8. Radiation synthesis and characterization of nanosilver/gelatin/carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Yinghui; Wang, Lu; Xu, Ling; Zhai, Maolin; Wei, Shicheng

    2012-05-01

    A series of antibacterial hydrogels were fabricated from an aqueous solution of AgNO3, gelatin and carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) by radiation-induced reduction and crosslinking at ambient temperature. The nanosilver particles were in situ synthesized accompanying with the formation of gelatin/CM-chitosan hydrogel. Transmission Electron Microscope and UV-vis analysis have verified the formation and homogeneous distribution of nanosilver particles in the hydrogel matrix. The nanosilver/gelatin/CM-chitosan hydrogels possessed interconnected porous structure, had a compressive modulus of 44 to 56 kPa, and could absorb 62 to 108 times of deionized water to its dry weight. Furthermore, the hydrogels were found to have sound antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli (E. coli), and their antibacterial ability could be significantly enhanced by the increasing of AgNO3 content. The comprehensive results of this study suggest that nanosilver/gelatin/CM-chitosan hydrogels have potential as an antibacterial wound dressing.

  9. Modification of mechanical and thermal property of chitosan-starch blend films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuhin, Mohammad O.; Rahman, Nazia; Haque, M. E.; Khan, Ruhul A.; Dafader, N. C.; Islam, Rafiqul; Nurnabi, Mohammad; Tonny, Wafa

    2012-10-01

    Chitosan-starch blend films (thickness 0.2 mm) of different composition were prepared by casting and their mechanical properties were studied. To improve the properties of chitosan-starch films, glycerol and mustard oil of different composition were used. Chitosan-starch films, incorporated with glycerol and mustard oil, were further modified with monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) using gamma radiation. The modified films showed improvement in both tensile strength and elongation at break than the pure chitosan-starch films. Water uptake of the films reduced significantly than the pure chitosan-starch film. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that the modified films experience less thermal degradation than the pure films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FTIR were used to investigate the morphology and molecular interaction of the blend film, respectively.

  10. Facile Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Under {gamma}-Irradiation: Effect of Chitosan Concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, N. M.; Radiman, S.; Ahmad, A.; Idris, H.; Lim, H. N.; Khiew, P. S.; Chiu, W. S.; Tan, T. K.

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, a biopolymer, low molecular weight chitosan had been utilized as a 'green' stabilizing agent for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles under {gamma}-irradiation. The as-synthesized silver nanoparticles have particle diameters in the range of 5 nm-30 nm depending on the percentage of chitosan used (0.1 wt%, 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 2.0 wt%). It was found that the yield of the silver nanoparticles was in accordance with the concentration of chitosan presence in the solution due to the reduction by the chitosan radical during irradiation. The highly stable chitosan encapsulated silver nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD)

  11. Disruption and eradication of P. aeruginosa biofilms using nitric oxide-releasing chitosan oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Reighard, Katelyn P.; Hill, David B.; Dixon, Graham A.; Worley, Brittany; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm disruption and eradication were investigated as a function of nitric oxide- (NO) releasing chitosan oligosaccharide dose with results compared to control (ie non-NO-releasing) chitosan oligosaccharides and tobramycin. Quantification of biofilm expansion/contraction and multiple-particle tracking microrheology were used to assess the structural integrity of the biofilm before and after antibacterial treatment. While tobramycin had no effect on the physical properties of the biofilm, NO-releasing chitosan oligosaccharides exhibited dose-dependent behavior with biofilm degradation. Control chitosan oligosaccharides increased biofilm elasticity, indicating that the scaffold may mitigate the biofilm disrupting power of nitric oxide somewhat. The results from this study indicate that nitric oxide-releasing chitosan oligosaccharides act as dual-action therapeutics capable of eradicating and physically disrupting P. aeruginosa biofilms. PMID:26610146

  12. Optimized synthesis of O-carboxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan.

    PubMed

    Patrulea, V; Applegate, Lee Ann; Ostafe, V; Jordan, O; Borchard, G

    2015-05-20

    We present here the synthesis of a highly O-carboxymethylated chitosan derivative. First, an improved protocol for the two-step synthesis of N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) from chitosan was developed, yielding a maximum degree of quaternization (DQ) of up to 46.6%. Successively, the chitosan derivative O-carboxymethyl-N-trimethyl chitosan (CMTMC) was synthesized from the TMC obtained by applying an optimized synthesis pathway. In contrast to previous reports, the optimized protocol was shown to yield very high rates (>85%) of O-carboxymethylation of CMTMC, as shown by (1)H NMR and heteronuclear single quantum correlation ((1)H-(13)C HSQC). Finally, in vitro cytocompatibility (viability >80%) of the polymer was demonstrated using human fibroblasts. PMID:25817641

  13. Facile fabrication of mesoporous poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol)/chitosan blend monoliths.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guowei; Xin, Yuanrong; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH)/chitosan blend monoliths were fabricated by thermally-induced phase separation method. Chitosan was successfully incorporated into the polymeric monolith by selecting EVOH as the main component of the monolith. SEM images exhibit that the chitosan was located on the inner surface of the monolith. Fourier-transform infrared analysis and elemental analysis indicate the successful blend of EVOH and chitosan. BET results show that the blend monoliths had high specific surface area and uniform mesopore structure. Good adsorption ability toward various heavy metal ions was found in the blend monoliths due to the large chelation capacity of chitosan. The blend monoliths have potential application for waste water purification or bio-related applications. PMID:26256358

  14. Production of chitosan-based non-woven membranes using the electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakravan Lonbani, Mehdi

    Chitosan is a modified natural polymer mainly produced from chitin, one of the most abundant organic materials in the world. Highly porous chitosan mats present the specific physicochemical properties of the base material and also benefit from the physical characteristics of nanoporous membranes. Electrospinning is a novel technique developed long time ago and revisited recently that can generate polymeric fibers with nanometric size. The ultimate purpose of this work is to fabricate microporous non-woven chitosan membranes for wound healing dressings and heavy metal ion removal from drinking water. In this dissertation, two approaches have been utilized to prepare chitosan-based nanofibers; blending and co-axial electrospinning of chitosan solution with a readily electrospinnable solution, i.e. an aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide (PEO). Consequently, understanding the phase behavior and miscibility of aqueous acidic solutions of chitosan and PEO and their blends is of crucial importance, as any phase separation occurring during the electrospinning process greatly changes the morphology and physico-mechanical properties of the final products. First we employed the rheological approach on a well-known aqueous PEO solution to develop the experimental protocol. By comparing these critical points with that obtained from other experimental techniques, we showed that rheological measurements can sensitively detect early stages of phase separation. Subsequently the method was applied to 50 wt% aqueous acetic acid solutions of PEO, chitosan and their blends at different ratios. These solutions showed a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase diagram that is attributed to the existence of hydrogen bonds between active groups on chitosan and PEO backbone and the solvent. Critical decomposition temperatures for binodal and spinodal points were estimated from isochronal temperature sweep experiments. The obtained binodal temperatures confirmed that chitosan/PEO solutions are miscible and stable at moderate temperatures and phase separate at higher temperatures of 60-75 °C. Then, we intended to obtain a thorough understanding of chitosan/PEO solution properties that lead to a successful electrospinning process, i.e. continuous and stable, and which produces defect free uniform beadless nanofibers. The effect of blend composition and acetic acid concentration on properties such as surface tension and conductivity and, ultimately, on electrospinnability were investigated. A highly deacetylated chitosan (DDA=97.5 %) in 50% acetic acid was used, which is the maximum deacetylated chitosan grade that has been reported for the preparation of electrospun chitosan-based nanofibers. The rheological characteristics of the chitosan/PEO solutions as a controlling parameter in the electrospinning process were examined and their relationships to electrospinnability presented. As we showed that chitosan/PEO solutions are miscible and stable at moderate temperatures, a modified electrospinning set up to electrospin at temperatures of 25-70 °C was designed to achieve content as high as 90 wt% of chitosan in beadless chitosan/PEO nanofibers of 60-80 nm in diameter. It was also found that increasing chitosan/PEO ratio from 50/50 to 90/10 led to a remarkable diameter reduction from 123 to 63 nm at room temperature. Additionally, we found that moderate process temperatures help to stabilize the electrospinning process of these solutions and produce beadless nanofibers. However, at higher temperatures, the electrospun jet became unstable and beaded fiber morphology was obtained. This phenomena occurs closely at the temperature range of phase separation, previously determined by rheology studies. Therefore, temperature-induced phase separation of these solutions is considered as the reason for that observation. On the other hand, an FTIR study at room temperature on cast films and nanofibers of chitosan/PEO blends at room temperature showed the presence of hydrogen bonding interactions between chitosan and PEO that could be an another indic

  15. Design and fabrication of a chitosan based integrated optical device for humidity sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironenko, Alexander; Sergeev, Alexander A.; Bratskaya, Svetlana; Nepomnyashiy, Alexander; Avramenko, Valentin; Voznesenskiy, Sergey

    2011-09-01

    Here we report on preparation of planar optical waveguides based on chitosan (DD=80.5%, MW=500kDa) in different salt forms, chitosan/gold nanoparticles, chitosan/gold nanoparticles/silica hybrids with layered structure and modification of Na/K ion-exchange waveguides with thin chitosan/carrageenan multilayers. Chitosan-based optical waveguides with thickness of 0.5- 1.5 ?m were obtained on quartz, glass and MgF2 substrates by spin-coating and dip-coating. For investigation of optical properties, light (wavelength 632 or 532 nm) was coupled into the planar waveguide via the flint glass prism using goniometer. A number of modes, effective refractive index, waveguide propagation losses were determined for all samples in the range of relative humidity 10-99%.

  16. Antimicrobial, mechanical, and barrier properties of cassava starch-chitosan films incorporated with oregano essential oil.

    PubMed

    Pelissari, Franciele M; Grossmann, Maria V E; Yamashita, Fabio; Pineda, Edgardo Alfonso G

    2009-08-26

    The physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of starch-chitosan films incorporated with oregano essential oil (OEO) have been investigated. The antimicrobial effects of starch-chitosan-OEO films against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined by the disk inhibition zone method. The film mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), and thermograms (TGA) were also determined. Films added with OEO effectively inhibited the four microorganisms tested and demonstrated improved barrier properties. The presence of OEO in starch-chitosan films led to the formation of more flexible films. Chitosan was not effective against the tested organisms, but it decreased film rigidity and WVP. TGA analysis demonstrated that the addition of chitosan and OEO did not affect the thermal stability of the films. PMID:19627142

  17. Chitosan-g-lactide copolymers for fabrication of 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demina, T. S.; Zaytseva-Zotova, D. S.; Timashev, P. S.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Bardakova, K. N.; Sevrin, Ch; Svidchenko, E. A.; Surin, N. M.; Markvicheva, E. A.; Grandfils, Ch; Akopova, T. A.

    2015-07-01

    Chitosan-g-oligo (L, D-lactide) copolymers were synthesized and assessed to fabricate a number of 3D scaffolds using a variety of technologies such as oil/water emulsion evaporation technique, freeze-drying and two-photon photopolymerization. Solid-state copolymerization method allowed us to graft up to 160 wt-% of oligolactide onto chitosan backbone via chitosan amino group acetylation with substitution degree reaching up to 0.41. Grafting of hydrophobic oligolactide side chains with polymerization degree up to 10 results in chitosan amphiphilic properties. The synthesized chitosan-g-lactide copolymers were used to design 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering such as spherical microparticles and macroporous hydrogels.

  18. Chitosan as a Biomaterial: Influence of Degree of Deacetylation on Its Physiochemical, Material and Biological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Leslie John Ray; Ho, Sonia; Hook, James; Basuki, Monica; Marçal, Helder

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a biomaterial with a range of current and potential biomedical applications. Manipulation of chitosan degree of deacetylation (DDA) to achieve specific properties appears feasible, but studies investigating its influence on properties are often contradictory. With a view to the potential of chitosan in the regeneration of nerve tissue, the influence of DDA on the growth and health of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) was investigated. There was a linear increase in OEC proliferation as the DDA increased from 72 to 85%. This correlated with linear increases in average surface roughness (0.62 to 0.78 ?m) and crystallinity (4.3 to 10.1%) of the chitosan films. Mitochondrial activity and membrane integrity of OECs was significantly different for OECs cultivated on chitosan with DDAs below 75%, while those on films with DDAs up to 85% were similar to cells in asynchronous growth. Apoptotic indices and cell cycle analysis also suggested that chitosan films with DDAs below 75% were cytocompatible but induced cellular stress, while OECs grown on films fabricated from chitosan with DDAs above 75% showed no significant differences compared to those in asynchronous growth. Tensile strength and elongation to break varied with DDA from 32.3 to 45.3 MPa and 3.6 to 7.1% respectively. DDA had no significant influence on abiotic and biotic degradation profiles of the chitosan films which showed approximately 8 and 20% weight loss respectively. Finally, perceived patterns in property changes are subject to change based on potential variations in DDA analysis. NMR examination of the chitosan samples here revealed significant differences depending upon which peaks were selected for integration; 6 to 13% in DDA values within individual samples. Furthermore, differences between DDA values determined here and those reported by the commercial suppliers were significant and this may also be a source of concern when selecting commercial chitosans for biomaterial research. PMID:26305690

  19. Chitosan as a Biomaterial: Influence of Degree of Deacetylation on Its Physiochemical, Material and Biological Properties.

    PubMed

    Foster, Leslie John Ray; Ho, Sonia; Hook, James; Basuki, Monica; Marçal, Helder

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a biomaterial with a range of current and potential biomedical applications. Manipulation of chitosan degree of deacetylation (DDA) to achieve specific properties appears feasible, but studies investigating its influence on properties are often contradictory. With a view to the potential of chitosan in the regeneration of nerve tissue, the influence of DDA on the growth and health of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) was investigated. There was a linear increase in OEC proliferation as the DDA increased from 72 to 85%. This correlated with linear increases in average surface roughness (0.62 to 0.78 ?m) and crystallinity (4.3 to 10.1%) of the chitosan films. Mitochondrial activity and membrane integrity of OECs was significantly different for OECs cultivated on chitosan with DDAs below 75%, while those on films with DDAs up to 85% were similar to cells in asynchronous growth. Apoptotic indices and cell cycle analysis also suggested that chitosan films with DDAs below 75% were cytocompatible but induced cellular stress, while OECs grown on films fabricated from chitosan with DDAs above 75% showed no significant differences compared to those in asynchronous growth. Tensile strength and elongation to break varied with DDA from 32.3 to 45.3 MPa and 3.6 to 7.1% respectively. DDA had no significant influence on abiotic and biotic degradation profiles of the chitosan films which showed approximately 8 and 20% weight loss respectively. Finally, perceived patterns in property changes are subject to change based on potential variations in DDA analysis. NMR examination of the chitosan samples here revealed significant differences depending upon which peaks were selected for integration; 6 to 13% in DDA values within individual samples. Furthermore, differences between DDA values determined here and those reported by the commercial suppliers were significant and this may also be a source of concern when selecting commercial chitosans for biomaterial research. PMID:26305690

  20. The effect of radiation on the thermal properties of chitosan/mimosa tenuiflora and chitosan/mimosa tenuiflora/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel-Estrada, S. A.; Santos-Rodríguez, E.; Olivas-Armendáriz, I.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Martínez-Pérez, C. A.

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of gamma radiation and UV radiation on the microstructure, chemical structure and thermal stability of Chitosan/Mimosa Tenuiflora and Chitosan/Mimosa Tenuiflora/MWCNT composites scaffolds produced by thermally induced phase separation. The composites were irradiated and observed to undergo radiation-induced degradation through chain scission. Morphology, thermal properties and effects on chemical and semi-crystalline structures were obtained by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), FT-IR analysis and X-ray Diffraction. A relationship between radiation type and the thermal stability of the composites, were also established. This relationship allows a more accurate and precise control of the life span of Chitosan/Mimosa Tenuiflora and Chitosan/Mimosa Tenuiflora/MWCNT composites through the use of radiation in materials for use in tissue engineering.

  1. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of a water-soluble chitosan derivative with a fiber-reactive group.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sang-Hoon; Hudson, Samuel M

    2004-01-22

    A novel fiber-reactive chitosan derivative was synthesized in two steps from a chitosan of low molecular weight and low degree of acetylation. First, a water-soluble chitosan derivative, N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl]chitosan chloride (HTCC), was prepared by introducing quaternary ammonium salt groups on the amino groups of chitosan. This derivative was further modified by introducing functional (acrylamidomethyl) groups, which can form covalent bonds with cellulose under alkaline conditions, on the primary alcohol groups (C-6) of the chitosan backbone. The fiber-reactive chitosan derivative, O-acrylamidomethyl-HTCC (NMA-HTCC), showed complete bacterial reduction within 20 min at the concentration of 10ppm, when contacted with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (1.5-2.5 x 10(5) colony forming units per milliliter [CFU/mL]). PMID:14698889

  2. Sputter target

    DOEpatents

    Gates, Willard G. (Kansas City, MO); Hale, Gerald J. (Overland Park, KS)

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  3. Preparation and characterization of biofunctionalized chitosan/Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for application in liver magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiadan; Zhang, Qingqing; Zhu, Aiping; Ji, Lijun; Yan, Caifeng

    2015-08-01

    Biofunctionalized chitosan@Fe3O4 nanoparticles are synthesized by combining Fe3O4 and CS chemically modified with PEG and lactobionic acid in one step. The biofunctionalized nanoparticles are characterized by TEM, X-ray, DLS, zeta-potential and magnetic measurements. The in vitro and in vivo behaviors of the biofunctionalized nanoparticles, especially, the cytotoxicity, the protein resistance, metabolism and iron toxicity are assessed. The functional groups, PEG enable the nanoparticles more biocompatible and the lactobionic acid groups enable liver targeting. The potential applications of the nanoparticles in liver magnetic resonance imaging are confirmed. The results demonstrated that the nanoparticles are suspension stability, non-cytotoxicity, non-tissue toxicity and sensitive in liver magnetic resonance imaging, representing potential tools for applications in the biomedical field.

  4. Proliferation and enrichment of CD133+ glioblastoma cancer stem cells on 3D chitosan-alginate scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Kievit, Forrest M.; Florczyk, Stephen J.; Leung, Matthew C.; Wang, Kui; Wu, Jennifer D.; Silber, John R.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Lee, Jerry S.H.; Zhang, Miqin

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates cancer stem cells (CSCs) as primary determinants of the clinical behavior of human cancers, representing an ideal target for next-generation anticancer therapies. However CSCs are difficult to propagate in vitro, severely limiting the study of CSC biology and drug development. Here we report that growing cells from glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines on three dimensional (3D) porous chitosan-alginate (CA) scaffolds dramatically promotes the proliferation and enrichment of cells possessing the hallmarks of CSCs. CA scaffold-grown cells were found more tumorigenic in nude mouse xenografts than cells grown from monolayers. Growing in CA scaffolds rapidly promoted expression of genes involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that has been implicated in the genesis of CSCs. Our results indicate that CA scaffolds have utility as a simple and inexpensive means to cultivate CSCs in vitro in support of studies to understand CSC biology and develop more effective anti-cancer therapies. PMID:25109438

  5. The biocompatible polysaccharide chitosan enhances the oral tolerance to type II collagen

    PubMed Central

    Porporatto, C; Canali, M M; Bianco, I D; Correa, S G

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan is a mucoadhesive polysaccharide that promotes the transmucosal absorption of peptides and proteins. At mucosal sites chitosan exhibits immunomodulatory activities and stimulates the release of regulatory cytokines. Herein we evaluated the effect of the co-administration of chitosan in the tolerance to type II collagen (CII) using an experimental model of arthritis. Rats were fed diluent (acetic acid), 1 mg CII, 1 mg chitosan or 1 mg CII + 1 mg chitosan during 5 days before immunization with CII in Freund's complete adjuvant. Systemic effects were evaluated in draining lymph nodes after antigenic challenge or during the clinical evolution of arthritis. Specific antibodies, proliferation against CII and the production of interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin-10 were assessed. Clinical signs were observed 13–15 days after primary immunization. The CII : chitosan group presented the lowest incidence and developed moderate arthritis, with reduced levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G2a anti-CII, a limited proliferation in draining lymph nodes and a lower release of IFN-? after restimulation with CII. Our results demonstrate that chitosan enhances the tolerance to an articular antigen with a decrease in the inflammatory responses and, as a consequence, an improvement in clinical signs. PMID:19076832

  6. Synthesis, physiochemical and optical properties of chitosan based dye containing naphthalimide group.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Koh, Joonseok

    2013-04-15

    A new biopolymer dye containing naphthalimide moiety was synthesized by reaction of N-naphthaloyl chitosan with 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-piperazino-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid. N-naphthaloyl chitosan was synthesized by reaction of chitosan with 4-bromo-1,8-naphthalic anhydride in aqueous media by greener approach. The degree of substitution of chitosan biopolymer dye is 0.55 with a yield of 70%. The synthesized materials were characterized by using UV-vis, (1)H NMR, FTIR, and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Some physical properties and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical properties of chitosan biopolymer dye were evaluated by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy that showed red shift (?(em)) peak at 442 nm and 551 nm at excitation wavelength 325 nm in comparison to chitosan. The solubility of chitosan biopolymer dye increased in most of the organic solvents. These results may provide new perspectives in biomedical applications as an optical and sensitive biosensor material. PMID:23544532

  7. Sonoelectrochemical Synthesis of PPy-MWCNTs-Chitosan Nanocomposite Coatings: Characterization and Corrosion Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, Habib; Bagheri, Robabeh; Rezaei-moghadam, Babak

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of co-incorporation of a kind of nanomaterials and organic additives in a polymer matrix coating on corrosion performance of St-12 steel. We synthesized sonoelectrochemically the polypyrrole (PPy), polypyrrole/chitosan (PPy-chitosan), polypyrrole/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PPy/MWCNTs), and polypyrrole/MWCNTs/chitosan (PPy-MWCNTs-chitosan) films on the base alloy. In-situ polymerization carried out in a solution containing 0.1 mol/L oxalic acid, 100 mg/L dodecylbenzen sulfonic acid, and 0.1 mol/L pyrrole in the absence and presence of a certain amount of MWCNTs and chitosan. The corrosion protection behavior of the synthesized coatings in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution was studied by the evolution of the open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The results revealed that PPy-MWCNTs-chitosan nanocomposite coating exhibits significantly better corrosion protection than others. The PPy-MWCNTs-chitosan film acts as a physical barrier against the corrosive species, because it has a very dense and more compact structure. The surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Electrospun aligned poly(propylene carbonate) microfibers with chitosan nanofibers as tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xin; Mi, Hao-Yang; Peng, Jun; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    In this study, parallel-aligned poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) microfibers with a fiber diameter of 1.48±0.42 ?m were prepared by electrospinning and modified by oxygen plasma treatment. Next, chitosan nanofibers with a fiber diameter size of 278±98 nm were introduced into the PPC fiber mats by freeze drying. Morphological analyses showed that the PPC scaffolds treated with 0.05 mg/ml chitosan solution provided the best micro and nanofiber structure with abundant chitosan nanofibers but without the formation of films. Surface chemical properties were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The initial water contact angle of the scaffolds decreased from 122.3±0.4° for neat PPC scaffolds to 53.8±1.6° for scaffolds with plasma treatment and chitosan nanofibers. The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were affected by plasma treatment with Young's modulus experiencing a reduction of 63%. Meanwhile, Young's modulus experienced a 26% improvement after the introduction of chitosan nanofibers. Fibroblast cells were cultured on the scaffolds to study the effects of both the plasma treatment and the introduction of chitosan nanofibers on cell adhesion, proliferation, and morphology. The scaffolds with PPC microfibers and chitosan nanofibers showed a superior cell response in terms of cell attachment, cell proliferation, and cell-scaffold interactions over the other scaffolds. PMID:25498720

  9. Nanostructured biocomposite films of high toughness based on native chitin nanofibers and chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushi, Ngesa; Utsel, Simon; Berglund, Lars

    2014-11-01

    Chitosan is widely used in films for packaging applications. Chitosan reinforcement by stiff particles or fibers is usually obtained at the expense of lowered ductility and toughness. Here, chitosan film reinforcement by a new type of native chitin nanofibers is reported. Films are prepared by casting from colloidal suspensions of chitin in dissolved chitosan. The nanocomposite films are chitin nanofiber networks in chitosan matrix. Characterization is carried out by dynamic light scattering, quartz crystal microbalance, field emission scanning electron microscopy, tensile tests and dynamic mechanical analysis. The nanostructured biocomposite was produced in volume fractions of 0, 8, 22 and 56% chitin nanofibers. Favorable chitin-chitosan synergy for colloidal dispersion is demonstrated. Also, lowered moisture sorption is observed for the composites, probably due to the favorable chitin-chitosan interface. The highest toughness (area under stress-strain curve) was observed at 8 vol% chitin content. The toughening mechanisms and the need for well-dispersed chitin nanofibers is discussed. Finally, desired structural characteristics of ductile chitin biocomposites are discussed.

  10. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash ( Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa; Yossen, Mariana; Cifone, Norma; Agulló, Enrique; Andreucetti, Noemi

    2011-12-01

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes ( Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan.

  11. Functional enhancement of chitosan and nanoparticles in cell culture, tissue engineering, and pharmaceutical applications

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wenjuan; Lai, James C. K.; Leung, Solomon W.

    2012-01-01

    As a biomaterial, chitosan has been widely used in tissue engineering, wound healing, drug delivery, and other biomedical applications. It can be formulated in a variety of forms, such as powder, film, sphere, gel, and fiber. These features make chitosan an almost ideal biomaterial in cell culture applications, and cell cultures arguably constitute the most practical way to evaluate biocompatibility and biotoxicity. The advantages of cell cultures are that they can be performed under totally controlled environments, allow high throughput functional screening, and are less costly, as compared to other assessment methods. Chitosan can also be modified into multilayer composite by combining with other polymers and moieties to alter the properties of chitosan for particular biomedical applications. This review briefly depicts and discusses applications of chitosan and nanoparticles in cell culture, in particular, the effects of chitosan and nanoparticles on cell adhesion, cell survival, and the underlying molecular mechanisms: both stimulatory and inhibitory influences are discussed. Our aim is to update the current status of how nanoparticles can be utilized to modify the properties of chitosan to advance the art of tissue engineering by using cell cultures. PMID:22934070

  12. Nanostructured biocomposite films of high toughness based on native chitin nanofibers and chitosan

    PubMed Central

    Mushi, Ngesa E.; Utsel, Simon; Berglund, Lars A.

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan is widely used in films for packaging applications. Chitosan reinforcement by stiff particles or fibers is usually obtained at the expense of lowered ductility and toughness. Here, chitosan film reinforcement by a new type of native chitin nanofibers is reported. Films are prepared by casting from colloidal suspensions of chitin in dissolved chitosan. The nanocomposite films are chitin nanofiber networks in chitosan matrix. Characterization is carried out by dynamic light scattering, quartz crystal microbalance, field emission scanning electron microscopy, tensile tests and dynamic mechanical analysis. The polymer matrix nanocomposites were produced in volume fractions of 8, 22, and 56% chitin nanofibers. Favorable chitin-chitosan synergy for colloidal dispersion is demonstrated. Also, lowered moisture sorption is observed for the composites, probably due to the favorable chitin-chitosan interface. The highest toughness (area under stress-strain curve) was observed at 8 vol% chitin content. The toughening mechanisms and the need for well-dispersed chitin nanofibers is discussed. Finally, desired structural characteristics of ductile chitin biocomposites are discussed. PMID:25478558

  13. Green chitosan-carbon dots nanocomposite hydrogel film with superior properties.

    PubMed

    Konwar, Achyut; Gogoi, Neelam; Majumdar, Gitanjali; Chowdhury, Devasish

    2015-01-22

    In this work we report novel chitosan-carbon dots nanocomposite hydrogel films. A new green source "tea" was used as precursor for carbon dots (CDs). The electrostatic interaction of positive charge on chitosan and negative charge on CDs prepared from tea was used for the successful preparation of a stable and robust chitosan-carbon dots nanocomposite hydrogel film. The hydrogel films were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), fluorescent microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and contact angle analysis. It was observed that chitosan-carbon dots hydrogel films are soft but tough with superior UV-visible blocking, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties in comparison to chitosan hydrogel film. Moreover chitosan-carbon dots films are more water repellent (hydrophobic) as indicated by their high contact angle values. Thus, fabrication of such green soft but tough biocompatible chitosan-carbon dots nanocomposite hydrogel films offers tremendous bio-medical and industrial applications. PMID:25439891

  14. A versatile chitosan/ZnO nanocomposite with enhanced antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Malini, Madasamy; Thirumavalavan, Munusamy; Yang, Wen-Yi; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2015-09-01

    Porous chitosan membrane was fabricated by casting method using silica particles. Simultaneously nano ZnO was synthesized by green-synthesis method using tung ting oolong tea extract. Chitosan membrane was combined with nano ZnO in order to increase its antimicrobial activity. Through observations obtained from various techniques such as XRD, SEM, FT-IR, UV-visible and fluorescence emission analyses, chitosan was seen to be able to incorporate nano ZnO in the nanocomposite membrane. A blue shift (from 360 to 335 nm) was observed in the UV-visible spectrum of nanocomposite and fluorescence emission intensity of nanocomposite was considerably lower than that of nano ZnO. Gram negative organism Klebsiella planticola (MTCC2727) and Gram positive organism Bacillus substilis (MTCC3053) were used to test the antibacterial and antifouling activities of newly synthesized nanocomposite chitosan/ZnO membrane. The nanocomposite chitosan/ZnO membrane promisingly inhibited the bacterial growth when compared with as-synthesized chitosan. Gram negative K. planticola (MTCC2727) was comparatively more susceptible for inhibition than that of Gram positive Bacillus substilis (MTCC3053). In conclusion, nanocomposite obtained in this study showed enhanced antibacterial and antifouling activities. We believed that the enhanced physical properties of nanocomposite achieved by incorporating nano ZnO in the chitosan matrix could be beneficial in various applications. PMID:26111911

  15. Probing neural cell behaviors through micro-/nano-patterned chitosan substrates.

    PubMed

    Sung, Chun-Yen; Yang, Chung-Yao; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Yang-Kao; Yeh, J Andrew; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we describe the development of surface-modified chitosan substrates to examine topographically related Neuro-2a cell behaviors. Different functional groups can be modified on chitosan surfaces to probe Neuro-2a cell morphology. To prepare chitosan substrates with micro/nano-scaled features, we demonstrated an easy-to-handle method that combined photolithography, inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, Ag nanoparticle-assisted etching, and solution casting. The results show that Neuro-2a cells preferred to adhere to a flat chitosan surface rather than a nanotextured chitosan surface as evidenced by greater immobilization and differentiation, suggesting that surface topography is crucial for neural patterning. In addition, we developed chitosan substrates with different geometric patterns and flat region depth; this allowed us to re-arrange or re-pattern Neuro-2a cell colonies at desired locations. We found that a polarity-induced micropattern provided the most suitable surface pattern for promoting neural network formation on a chitosan substrate. The cellular polarity of single Neuro-2a cell spreading correlated to a diamond-like geometry and neurite outgrowth was induced from the corners toward the grooves of the structures. This study provide greater insight into neurobiology, including neurotransmitter screening, electrophysiological stimulation platforms, and biomedical engineering. PMID:26685015

  16. Carboxymethyl chitosan/clay nanocomposites and their copper complexes: Fabrication and property.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongcan; Huang, Jiancong; Cai, Jihai; Lin, Wensheng; Lin, Qixuan; Wu, Fangchengyuan; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-12-10

    To obtain environmentally friendly antifouling agent, an effort was made to intercalate carboxymethyl chitosan into the interlayer of organic montmorillonite to prepare carboxymethyl chitosan/organic montmorillonite nanocomposites and their copper complexes. In comparison, carboxymethyl chitosan-copper complexes were also obtained. Their structures were characterized by X-ray diffaraction, transmittance electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared, and their thermal behavior and antimicrobial activity were discussed. The results revealed that the interlayer distance of carboxymethyl chitosan/organic montmorillonite nanocomposites enlarged with the increasing mass ratio of carboxymethyl chitosan to organic montmorillonite, when the mass ratio was at 20:1, the layer spacing of carboxymethyl chitosan/organic montmorillonite nanocomposites reached the maximum of 3.68nm. As compared to other samples, carboxymethyl chitosan/organic montmorillonite-copper nanocomposites showed much higher thermal stability and inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, the lowest minimum inhibition concentration was only 0.0003125% (w/v). The study provides a new method to find novel antifouling agent. PMID:26428139

  17. Improvement of antioxidant activity of chitosan by chemical treatment and ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rehim, Hassan A; El-Sawy, Naeem M; Hegazy, El-Sayed A; Soliman, El-Sayed A; Elbarbary, Ahmed M

    2012-03-01

    Modification of chitosan (CS) to N-maleoylchitosan (NMCS), N-phthaloylchitosan (NPhCS) and sulfonated-chitosan (SCS) was done using maleic anhydride, phthalic anhydride and chlorosulfonic acid, respectively followed by exposing them to ?-rays at different doses. The molecular weights and structural changes of irradiated chitosan derivatives were determined by GPC, FT-IR and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The molecular weights decreased with increasing irradiation dose. Results revealed that the main polysaccharide structure remained after irradiation. To investigate the enhancement of antioxidant activity of chitosan and its derivatives of different molecular weights, radical mediated lipid peroxidation inhibition, scavenging effect of DPPH radicals, reducing power and ferrous ion chelating activity assays were used. Chitosan derivatives with different molecular weights exhibit antioxidant activity. The lower the molecular weights of chitosan and its derivatives, the higher the antioxidant activity. NMCS possessed high scavenging effect on DPPH radicals compared with NPhCS, SCS and ascorbic acid. The irradiated chitosan and its derivatives could be used as natural antioxidants. PMID:22222149

  18. Photochemical and antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticle-encapsulated chitosan functionalized with photoactive groups.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Thomas V; Kuriakose, Sunny

    2013-10-01

    Chitosan was functionalized with 4-((E)-2-(3-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)diazen-1-yl)benzoic acid by the coupling of the hydroxyl functional groups of chitosan with carboxylic acid group of the dye by DCC coupling method. The silver nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method of nanoparticle synthesis. Silver nanoparticle-encapsulated functionalized chitosan was prepared by the phase transfer method. The products were characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, fluorescence and NMR spectroscopic methods and by SEM and TEM analysis. The photochemical properties of silver nanoparticle-encapsulated chitosan functionalized with 4-((E)-2-(3-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)diazen-1-yl)benzoic acid was studied in detail. The light-fastening properties of the chromophoric system was enhanced when attached to chitosan, and it can be further improved by the encapsulation of silver nanoparticles. The antibacterial analysis of silver nanoparticle-encapsulated functionalized chitosan was carried out against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and against fungal species such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus. This study showed that silver nanoparticles-encapsulated functionalized chitosan can be used for antibacterial and antifungal applications. PMID:23910360

  19. A comparative study of sorption of chromium (III) onto chitin and chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pooja; Nagendran, R.

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals have always been the most hazardous components in the wastewater of industries like electroplating, automobiles, mining facilities and fertilizer manufacturers. Treatment of heavy metal laden wastewater requires expensive operational and maintenance systems. Food processing industries create a huge amount of shell waste which is sold to poultry farms in powdered form but the quantity thus used is still not comparable to the left over waste. The shell contains chitin which acts as an adsorbent for the heavy metals and can be used to treat heavy metal wastewater. The paper presents a study on the use of chitin and its processed product, chitosan, to remove chromium. Shake flask experiment was conducted to compare the adsorptive capacity of chitin and chitosan for chromium removal from simulated solution and isotherm studies were carried out. The studies showed that the chitosan was a better adsorbent than chitin. Both chitin and chitosan gave best adsorption results at pH 3. Chitin exhibited maximum chromium removal of 49.98 % in 20 min, whereas chitosan showed 50 % removal efficiency at a contact time of 20 min showing higher adsorptive capacity for chromium than chitin. The Langmiur and Freundlich isotherm studies showed very good adsorption capacity and monolayer interaction according to the regression coefficient 0.973 for chitosan and 0.915 for chitin. The regression coefficient for Freundlich isotherm was 0.894 and 0.831 for chitosan and chitin, respectively.

  20. The use of chitosan as a coagulant in the pre-treatment of turbid sea water.

    PubMed

    Altaher, Hossam

    2012-09-30

    One of the problems that encounters desalination industry is the fouling that takes place due to the poor quality of the sea water received, especially when it rains. In such a situation, the sea water reaches the desalination plant having high turbidity. Chitosan was tested as a coagulant in the removal of the turbidity of sea water to replace inorganic coagulants having hazardous effects. Jar test was performed to test some factors that may affect the coagulation process. The factors tested were dose of coagulant (0-370 mg/L), initial pH (2-11), type of coagulant (chitosan versus metal coagulants), and the chitosan solvent. Chitosan's turbidity removal efficiency was found to be greater than ferrous sulfate and comparable to that of alum. While most researches emphasize the use of chitosan in acidic or neutral media, it worked well in the alkaline pH. The highest turbidity removal efficiency of 97.5% was obtained at initial pH of 8.1. The optimum dose was found to be 18 mg/L. Chitosan dissolved in HCl was found to perform better than that dissolved in acetic acid. Comparable turbidity removal efficiencies were obtained using alum and chitosan. However, much higher doses were used when using alum which implies higher cost and increase of residual aluminum concentration in treated water. PMID:22819482

  1. Chitosan as a Modifying Component of Artificial Scaffold for Human Skin Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Romanova, O A; Grigor'ev, T E; Goncharov, M E; Rudyak, S G; Solov'yova, E V; Krasheninnikov, S T; Saprykin, V P; Sytina, E V; Chvalun, S N; Pal'tsev, M A; Panteleev, A A

    2015-08-01

    We compared the structure and mechanical properties of scaffolds based on pure collagen, pure chitosan, and a mixture of these polymers. The role of the composition and structure of scaffolds in the maintenance of cell functions (proliferation, differentiation, and migration) was demonstrated in two experimental models: homogeneous tissue analogues (scaffold populated by fibroblasts) and complex skin equivalents (fibroblasts and keratinocytes). In contrast to collagen scaffolds, pure chitosan inhibited the growth of fibroblasts that did not form contacts with chitosan fibers, but formed specific cellular conglomerates, spheroids, and lose their ability to synthesize natural extracellular matrix. However, the use of chitosan as an additive stimulated proliferative activity of fibroblasts on collagen, which can be associated with improvement of mechanical properties of the collagen scaffolds. The effectiveness of chitosan as an additional cross-linking agent also manifested in its ability to improve significantly the resistance of collagen scaffolds to fibroblast contraction in comparison with glutaraldehyde treatment. Polymer scaffolds (without cells) accelerated complete healing of skin wounds in vivo irrespective of their composition healing, pure chitosan sponge being most effective. We concluded that the use of chitosan as the scaffold for skin equivalents populated with skin cells is impractical, whereas it can be an effective modifier of polymer scaffolds. PMID:26395628

  2. Antibacterial activity of optically transparent nanocomposite films based on chitosan or its derivatives and silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ricardo J B; Fernandes, Susana C M; Freire, Carmen S R; Sadocco, Patrizia; Causio, Jessica; Neto, Carlos Pascoal; Trindade, Tito

    2012-02-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using the citrate and borohydride reduction methods and were then investigated as fillers in three matrices: unmodified chitosan, water-soluble chitosan and a N-alkyl chitosan derivative. The nanocomposites were used to prepare cast thin films (9-19 ?m thickness) and characterized for their optical and antimicrobial properties. The optical properties of the materials were adjusted either by varying the Ag NPs content in the films (0.5-3.9% w/w) or by using samples of Ag NPs with distinct particle size distributions. The antibacterial activity towards both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli) was investigated for the various composites. For the unmodified chitosan nanocomposites, the bactericidal effect depended on their Ag content while such an effect was always observed for water-soluble chitosan and N-alkyl chitosan based materials. This research provides a basis for the evaluation of chitosan/silver composites in applications requiring flexible films with tuned optical properties and antimicrobial activity. PMID:22154478

  3. On-site treatment of turbid river water using chitosan, a natural organic polymer coagulant.

    PubMed

    Sekine, M; Takeshita, A; Oda, N; Ukita, M; Imai, T; Higuchi, T

    2006-01-01

    Chitosan, acetylate of chitin, is a biodegradable cationic polymer. The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of chitosan as an on-site treatment agent of turbid water caused by river construction works and other diffused pollutions. The results of jar-tests indicate that floc of chitosan is much larger than that of aluminium sulfate, and turbidity treated by chitosan under moving water conditions is much lower than that of aluminium sulfate. Chitosan is applied to Imou River in Yamaguchi prefecture, where river construction work is going on. St.1 is located just below the construction work, St.2 is located about 250 m downstream from St.1, and St.3 is located about 350 m downstream from St.2. Initial turbidity of each station is 1,100, 937 and 313 NTU, respectively. By applying chitosan at St.1, turbidity of each station is drastically reduced to 1,100, 12 and 0 NTU. Chitosan could be helpful to reduce problems caused by turbidity in rivers. PMID:16594334

  4. Effect of molecular weight reduction by gamma irradiation on chitosan film properties.

    PubMed

    García, Mario A; Pérez, Liliam; de la Paz, Nilia; González, Juan; Rapado, Manuel; Casariego, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    The present work aimed the influence of molecular weight (MW) reduction by irradiation with (60)Co and polymer concentration on some physical properties of chitosan films. Irradiation of chitosan with a MW of 275.221kDa and 74.74% of deacetylation degree was performed using a (60)Co source to provide doses of 5, 10, 20 and 50kGy to obtain chitosans with molecular weights of 247.847, 221.563, 126.469 and 77.063kDa, respectively. Films were prepared via the solution casting method. Film-forming solutions (FFS) of chitosan irradiated or not, were prepared at 1.5 and 2% (w/v) in a solution of lactic acid at 1% (v/v) and 0.1% (v/v) of Tween 80. The FFS were poured into glass plates of 400cm(2) and dried at 60°C during 10h without airflow. The decrease of MW and increase of chitosan concentration increased the tensil strength and water vapor permeability while decreased the elongation at break of the films. The chitosan MW did not significantly influence (p>0.05) the water solubility of films within a same polymer concentration. There was a decrease in the films' brightness with the increase of concentration and a decrease of the MW of irradiated chitosan, while the b* values of films increased and there was an increasing tendency of their apparent opacity. PMID:26117752

  5. Dispersion of chitosan on perlite for enhancement of copper(II) adsorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Shameem; Ghosh, Tushar K; Viswanath, Dabir S; Boddu, Veera M

    2008-04-01

    Chitosan coated perlite beads were prepared by drop-wise addition of slurry, made of chitosan dissolved in oxalic acid and perlite, to an alkaline bath (0.7 M NaOH). The beads that contained 32% chitosan enhanced the accessibility of OH and amine groups present in chitosan for adsorption of copper ions. The experiments using Cu(II) ions were carried out in the concentration range of 50-4100 mg/L (0.78-64.1 mmol/L). Adsorption capacity for Cu(II) was pH dependent and a maximum uptake of 104 mg/g of beads (325 mg/g of chitosan) was obtained at pH 4.5 when its equilibrium concentration in the solution was 812.5 mg/L at 298 K. The XPS and TEM data suggested that copper was mainly adsorbed as Cu(II) and was attached to amine groups. The adsorption data could be fitted to one-site Langmuir adsorption model. Anions in the solution had minimal effect on Cu(II) adsorption by chitosan coated perlite beads. EDTA was used effectively for the regeneration of the bed. The diffusion coefficient of Cu(II) onto chitosan coated beads was calculated from the breakthrough curve and was found to be 2.02 x 10(-8) cm(2)/s. PMID:17850957

  6. Packaging performance of organic acid incorporated chitosan films on dried anchovy (Stolephorus indicus).

    PubMed

    Vimaladevi, S; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Xavier, K A Martin; Bindu, J

    2015-08-20

    Antimicrobial chitosan films were prepared with acetic acid and propionic acid with glycerol as plasticizer and its efficiency was compared with polyester-polyethylene laminate (PEST/LDPE). The tensile strength of acetic acid/chitosan (ACS) films were higher than propionic acid/chitosan (PCS) films. The elongation percentage (6.43-11.3) and water vapour permeability (0.015-0.03 g/m(2)/day) were significantly lower (p<0.05) for chitosan films when compared to control. Oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of control and propionic acid/chitosan (PCS) films were significantly higher (p<0.05) than acetic acid/chitosan (ACS) films. Dried anchovy (Stolephorus indicus) wrapped in these films were stored at ambient temperature for three months. Quality indices like peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) and microbiological parameters such as aerobic plate count (APC) and total fungal count (TFC) were periodically determined. In terms of microbial and chemical indices, anchovies wrapped in ACS and PCS films were superior to those wrapped with PEST/LDPE films during storage. Study revealed the suitability of chitosan film as wraps for increasing storage stability of dried fish. PMID:25965473

  7. Ascorbyl palmitate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: characteristic and polyphenol oxidase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Kim, Kwang Yup; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to produce ascorbyl palmitate (AP)-loaded nanoparticles in order to inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in bananas. AP-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using acetic acid and citric acid (denoted as CS/AA and CS/CA nanoparticles, respectively). As the initial AP concentration increases, the particle size significantly decreases, and the zeta potential, entrapment and loading efficiency significantly increases. The PPO inhibitory activity of AP was effectively improved when AP was nano-encapsulated by chitosan compared to no encapsulation. These results suggest that chitosan nano-encapsulation can be used to enhance the PPO inhibitory activity of AP. PMID:23247266

  8. Electrical transport and thermochromic properties of polyaniline/chitosan/Co3O4 ternary nano composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V, Mini; Kamath, Archana; S, Raghu; Chapi, Sharanappa; H, Devendrappa

    2015-06-01

    A new Polyaniline/ chitosan/ Co3O4 (CPAESCO) ternary nanocomposite is prepared by in situ oxidation polymerization of aniline in the presence of (NH4)2S2O8, chitosan and Co3O4. The Structural, Thermal, Optical and Electrical features of Polyaniline (PANI), Polyaniline/ chitosan (CPANI) and CPAESCO were analyzed using FT-IR, TGA, UV-vis analysis and Impedance spectroscopy by varying temperature. The results show that the introduction of the Co3O4 nanoparticles into CPANI matrix enhanced its properties. Mott's parameters show 3D -VRH Type conduction in it.

  9. Conductivity enhancement by controlled percolation of inorganic salt in multiphase hexanoyl chitosan/polystyrene polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winie, Tan; Mohd Shahril, Nur Syuhada

    2015-04-01

    Hexanoyl chitosan and polystyrene blends are immiscible by the elucidation of the glass transition temperature (T g) as well as the viscometric and morphological analyses. Selective localization of the lithium salt in hexanoyl chitosan phase as the percolation pathway enhanced the conductivity in the blends as compared to the neat hexanoyl chitosan. The ionic conductivity of a polymer electrolyte is described by ? = enµ. Thus, estimation of charge carrier density (n) and mobility (µ) is important in order to assess the performance. In this work, these parameters are calculated using impedance spectroscopy and FTIR.

  10. Blends of chitin and chitosan with polyamide 66

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, V.; Guerrero, C.

    1996-12-31

    For several years, intense interest has been focused on polymer blends in which both components are synthetic polymers. However, few studies have been made on blends in which one component is chitin (QA), or chitosan (QN), the most abundant natural polymers after cellulose. Its chemical structure, based in partially acetilated {beta}-aminosaccharide units, permits the formation of natural blends with proteins and inorganic salts were the intermolecular hydrogen bonds play an important role. The choice of a partner for these natural polymers was made expecting strong interaction between the two polymers. For this reason, on this work, polyamide 66 (P66), has been chosen.

  11. Chitosan Oligosaccharides Inhibit/Disaggregate Fibrils and Attenuate Amyloid ?-Mediated Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xueling; Hou, Wanqi; Sun, Yaxuan; Gao, Zhaolan; Zhu, Shigong; Jiang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by a large number of amyloid-? (A?) deposits in the brain. Therefore, inhibiting A? aggregation or destabilizing preformed aggregates could be a promising therapeutic target for halting/slowing the progression of AD. Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) have previously been reported to exhibit antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. Recent study shows that COS could markedly decrease oligomeric A?-induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in rat hippocampal neurons. However, the potential mechanism that COS reduce A?-mediated neurotoxicity remains unclear. In the present study, our findings from circular dichroism spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope and thioflavin T fluorescence assay suggested that COS act as an inhibitor of A? aggregation and this effect shows dose-dependency. Moreover, data from thioflavin T assay indicated that COS could significantly inhibit fibrils formation and disrupt preformed fibrils in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the addition of COS attenuated A?1-42-induced neurotoxicity in rat cortical neurons. Taken together, our results demonstrated for the first time that COS could inhibit A?1-42 fibrils formation and disaggregate preformed fibrils, suggesting that COS may have anti-A? fibrillogenesis and fibril-destabilizing properties. These findings highlight the potential role of COS as novel therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:26006224

  12. Cell selective chitosan microparticles as injectable cell carriers for tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Custódio, C A; Cerqueira, M T; Marques, A P; Reis, R L; Mano, J F

    2015-03-01

    The detection, isolation and sorting of cells holds an important role in cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Also, injectable systems have been explored for tissue regeneration in vivo, because it allows repairing complex shaped tissue defects through minimally invasive surgical procedures. Here we report the development of chitosan microparticles with a size of 115.8 ?m able to capture and expand a specific cell type that can also be regarded as an injectable biomaterial. Monoclonal antibodies against cell surface antigens specific to endothelial cells and stem cells were immobilized on the surface of the microparticles. Experimental results showed that particles bioconjugated with specific antibodies provide suitable surfaces to capture a target cell type and subsequent expansion of the captured cells. Primarily designed for an application in tissue engineering, three main challenges are accomplished with the herein presented microparticles: separation, scale-up expansion of specific cell type and successful use as an injectable system to form small tissue constructs in situ. PMID:25591958

  13. Characterization of films based on chitosan lactate and its blends with oxidized starch and gelatin.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Dariusz; Kordowska-Wiater, Monika; Nowak, Jakub; Baraniak, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chitosan lactate (CHL) was tested against bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi. Then, the structural, physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of films based on CHL, oxidized potato starch (OPS), and gelatin (GEL) were investigated. With the exception of Rhizopus nigricans, CHL was effective against the target organisms. Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) were more sensitive to CHL than Gram-negative bacteria (Pectobacterium carotovorum and Escherichia coli). Cryo-SEM images showed total miscibility between the polymers in the blends and the ATR-FTIR spectra revealed that there was an interaction among the polymeric components. Pure CHL films displayed the highest moisture content (25.51%), water vapor permeability (48.78gmmm(-2)d(-1)kPa(-1)), and the lowest tensile and puncture strength (2.00 and 1.45MPa, respectively) among the studied films. CHL50/GEL50 films had lower permeability, higher mechanical strength, and lower elongation compared to CHL50/OPS50 films. Films obtained from CHL and CHL50/GEL50 were completely water-soluble and did not show sorbitol recrystallization. The incorporation of CHL into OPS and GEL films did not affect their transparency and improved UV-blocking capacity. CHL films were the only ones that exhibited antibacterial efficiency. Antifungal activities against Alternaria alternata and Monilinia fructigena were detected for CHL and CHL50/GEL50 films. PMID:25841370

  14. Silver nanoaggregates on chitosan functionalized graphene oxide for high-performance surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Wan, Mingming; Liu, Zhiming; Li, Shaoxin; Yang, Biwen; Zhang, Wen; Qin, Xiaochu; Guo, Zhouyi

    2013-07-01

    Herein we describe a self-assembly synthesis of graphene oxide/Ag nanoparticles nano-composites (GO/CS/AgNPs) by non-covalent attachment of AgNPs to chitosan (CS) functionalized graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The negatively charged AgNPs are prone to form aggregates on GO/CS via electrostatic interaction, which is extremely beneficial to the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of aromatic molecules. Taking advantage of the enrichment of target molecules on GO, the obtained hybrids exhibit strong SERS activity to aromatic molecules (trypan blue and methylene blue). Furthermore, SERS signals of a negatively charged molecule (trypan blue) are stronger than signals of a positively charged molecule (methylene blue) due to the different adsorption capacity of GO/CS/AgNPs for the two opposite charged molecules through electrostatic interaction. Moreover, GO/CS/AgNPs remarkably enhance the main peaks of l-phenylalanine, in comparison with the silver nanoparticles, showing great potential for biomedical applications. PMID:23816129

  15. Glutamine-chitosan modified calcium phosphate nanoparticles for efficient siRNA delivery and osteogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bogyu; Cui, Zhong-Kai; Kim, Soyon; Fan, Jiabing; Wu, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapy using small interfering RNA (siRNA) exhibits great potential to treat diseases. Although calcium phosphate (CaP)-based systems are attractive options to deliver nucleic acids due to their good biocompatibility and high affinity with nucleic acids, they are limited by uncontrollable particle formation and inconsistent transfection efficiencies. In this study, we developed a stable CaP nanocarrier system with enhanced intracellular uptake by adding highly cationic, glutamine-conjugated oligochitosan (Gln-OChi). CaP nanoparticles coated with Gln-OChi (CaP/Gln-OChi) significantly enhanced gene transfection and knockdown efficiency in both immortalized cell line (HeLa) and primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with minimal cytotoxicity. The osteogenic bioactivity of siRNA-loaded CaP/Gln-OChi particles was further confirmed in three-dimensional environments by using photocrosslinkable chitosan hydrogels encapsulating MSCs and particles loaded with siRNA targeting noggin, a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist. These findings suggest that our CaP/Gln-OChi nanocarrier provides an efficient and safe gene delivery system for therapeutic applications. PMID:26413302

  16. A prodrug strategy based on chitosan for efficient intracellular anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Jiang-Ling; Han, Xue; Song, Fei; Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-06-27

    Doxorubicin (DOX), one of the most widely used anticancer drugs, is restricted in clinical application due to its severe side effects and inefficient cellular uptake. To overcome the drawbacks, herein, an endosomal pH-activated prodrug was designed and fabricated by conjugating DOX with chitosan via an acid-cleavable hydrazone bond. The resulting DOX conjugates can self-assemble into nano-sized particles, which were very stable and presented no burst release of DOX at a neutral pH condition. Notably, the nanoparticles exhibited excellent cell uptake properties and a remarkable drug accumulation in tumor cells. Once internalized into the cells, moreover, DOX can be fast released from the nanoparticles, and the release mechanism changed from the anomalous transport at pH 7.4 to the combination pattern of diffusion- and erosion-controlled release at pH 6.0 or 5.0. The prodrugs showed obvious cytotoxicity for HeLa cells with fairly low IC50 values, offering a new platform for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:24896540

  17. Targeted Audio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, Dirk

    Targeted audio aims at creating personal listening zones by utilizing adequate measurements. A person inside this listening zone shall be able to perceive acoustically submitted information without disturbing other persons outside the desired listening zone. In order to fulfill this demand, the use of a highly directional audible sound beam is favored. The sound beam shall be aimed at the respective listening zone target, thus implicating the expression targeted audio.

  18. Modification of Decellularized Goat-Lung Scaffold with Chitosan/Nanohydroxyapatite Composite for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sweta K.; Dinda, Amit K.; Potdar, Pravin D.; Mishra, Narayan C.

    2013-01-01

    Decellularized goat-lung scaffold was fabricated by removing cells from cadaver goat-lung tissue, and the scaffold was modified with chitosan/nanohydroxyapatite composite for the purpose of bone tissue engineering applications. MTT assay with osteoblasts, seeded over the chitosan/nanohydroxyapatite-modified decellularized scaffold, demonstrated significantly higher cell growth as compared to the decellularized scaffold without modification. SEM analysis of cell-seeded scaffold, after incubation for 7 days, represented a good cell adhesion, and the cells spread over the chitosan/nanohydroxyapatite-modified decellularized scaffold. Expression of bone-tissue-specific osteocalcin gene in the osteoblast cells grown over the chitosan/nanohydroxyapatite-modified decellularized scaffold clearly signifies that the cells maintained their osteoblastic phenotype with the chitosan/nanohydroxyapatite-modified decellularized scaffold. Therefore, it can be concluded that the decellularized goat-lung scaffold-modified with chitosan/nanohydroxyapatite composite, may provide enhanced osteogenic potential when used as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23841083

  19. Postharvest chitosan-g-salicylic acid application alleviates chilling injury and preserves cucumber fruit quality during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youzuo; Zhang, Meiling; Yang, Huqing

    2015-05-01

    The effect of salicylic acid with and without chitosan, or a chitosan-g-salicylic acid complex, on chilling injury and post-harvest quality of cucumber stored at 2 °C for 12 days plus 2 days at 20 °C was investigated. The results showed the chitosan-g-salicylic acid coating inhibited chilling injury better than salicylic acid alone or with chitosan. Chitosan-g-salicylic acid also reduced weight loss and respiration rate, limited increases in malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, and maintained higher total soluble solids, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content. Furthermore, this coating increased the endogenous salicylic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cucumber during storage. Our study suggests that chitosan-g-salicylic acid alleviated chilling injury in cucumber through sustained-release of salicylic acid and the higher antioxidant enzymes concentrations. PMID:25529719

  20. Antioxidative effect of folate-modified chitosan nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Sahu, Sumanta Kumar; Pramanik, Panchanan; Roy, Somenath

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potency of carboxymethyl chitosan-2, 2? ethylenedioxy bis-ethylamine-folate (CMC-EDBE-FA) on tissue injury, antioxidant status and glutathione system in tissue mitochondria and serum against nicotine-induced oxidative stress in mice. Methods CMC-EDBE-FA was prepared on basis of carboxymethyl chitosan tagged with folic acid by covalently linkage through 2, 2? ethylenedioxy bis-ethylamine. Animals were divided into four groups, i.e., control, nicotine (1 mg/kg bw/day), CMC-EDBE-FA (1 mg/kg bw/day) and nicotine (1 mg/kg bw/day) and CMC-EDBE-FA (1 mg/kg bw/day) for 7 days. Levels of lipid peroxidation, oxidized glutathione level, antioxidant enzyme status and DNA damage were observed and compared. Results The significantly increase of lipid peroxidation, oxidized glutathione levels and DNA damage was observed in nicotine treated group as compared with control group; those were significantly reduced in CMC-EDBE-FA supplemented group. Moreover, significantly reduced antioxidant status in nicotine treated group was effectively ameliorated by the supplementation of CMC-EDBE-FA. Only CMC-EDBE-FA treated groups showed no significant change as compared with control group; rather than it repairs the tissue damage of nicotine treated group. Conclusions These findings suggest that CMC-EDBE-FA is non-toxic and ameliorates nicotine-induced toxicity. PMID:23569721

  1. Properties of radiation-synthesized polyvinylpyrrolidone/chitosan hydrogel blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Maznah; Daik, Rusli; Adam, Zainah

    2015-09-01

    Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-crosslinked chitosan hydrogels were prepared by gamma radiation at various doses; 1, 3 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30kGy. Gamma radiation was used as a crosslinking tool which requires no chemical initiator, no heating process and need no purification step on the end products obtained. The hydrogel formulations were composed of 6% chitosan with average molecular weight (Mw) = 48 800 g/mol and 14% PVP with Mw = 10 000 g/mol in 2% lactic acid. Physical properties of hydrogels such as gel fraction and swelling property at pH 5.5 and pH 7.0 as well as syneresis activity were determined. It was found that different radiation dose induces different effect on hydrogels' network formed. Morphological study of hydrogels has been carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM). From these preliminary evaluations, it can be concluded that gamma radiation is an effective tool for network development of hydrogels and it also induces enhancement on characteristics of hydrogels synthesized.

  2. Molybdate sorption by cross-linked chitosan beads: Dynamic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Guibal, E.; Milot, C.; Roussy, J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent trends in environmental monitoring have induced increasing development of new wastewater treatment techniques. Membrane processes, electrochemical techniques, or ion-exchange systems are widely used, but biosorption has been recognized in the last 30 years as a promising way to reduce the contamination of surface water issued from industrial effluent. Chitosan, a biopolymer extracted from crustacean shells, exhibits high sorption capacities for metal ion recovery. Sorption efficiency and removal rates are controlled by several diffusion mechanisms. Chitosan gel beads have been prepared and have shown enhanced sorption performance in batch systems. This study shows that, in continuous systems, sorption capacities can reach 700 mg/g, a level close to that obtained in batch studies. The effects of metal concentration, flow velocity, and column size are investigated and demonstrate that, because of diffusion mechanisms, the optimum concentration range is approximately 50 to 100 mg/L. In column systems, the Biot number, though greater than 1, is lower than the Biot number obtained in batch systems, indicating that external mass transfer influences mass transfer at the low superficial velocity investigated in this work.

  3. Preparation and antibacterial activity of quaternized chitosan with iodine.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yang; Xie, Linlin; Sai, Mingze; Xu, Ningning; Ding, Derun

    2015-03-01

    Chitosan (CTS) is a natural polymer with active groups such as -NH2 which can be functionalized to introduce new positively charged N-atoms and protonated amino group for better use. In this study, to improve the stability of iodine, a novel complex (CTS-CTA-I2) was prepared by mixing N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (CTS-CTA) with iodine in ethanol solution. The CTS-CTA-I2 was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), Ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectra and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG). Besides, the interaction of iodine with CTS-CTA was also studied. The mole ratio of CTS-CTA with iodine was measured by iodometric titration method and the max mole ratio of CTS-CTA with iodine was 1:1.33. The antimicrobial activity of CTS, CTS-CTA and CTS-CTS-I2 complexes was investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and the antibacterial property of CTS-CTA-I2 was superior to CTS-CTA. PMID:25579889

  4. Bioadhesive nanoparticles of fungal chitosan for oral DNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Plapied, Laurence; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Vroman, Benoît; Préat, Véronique; des Rieux, Anne

    2010-10-15

    Chitosan is an ideal candidate for oral DNA delivery due to its mucoadhesive properties. Chitosan (CS) produced under GMP conditions from fungal source was used to encapsulate a plasmid DNA coding for a reporter gene. Nanoparticles made by complex coacervation of CS and DNA had a size around 200 nm, a positive zeta potential, a high association of DNA and protected the plasmid against nuclease degradation. Their transfection ability was assessed in differentiated intestinal Caco-2 cells. An N/P ratio of 4 and a DNA concentration of 8 microg/ml were the optimal conditions leading to a transfection efficiency similar to the one reached with polyethyleneimine (PEI)-DNA complexes without cytotoxicity. M cells in monolayers influenced DNA uptake up to 8 microg of DNA/ml when complexed with CS. Fungal trimethylchitosan was also tested but the complexes interactions were too strong to induce transfection in vitro. Confocal microscopy studies showed that CS/DNA and PEI/DNA nanoparticles were found at the apical surface of cell monolayers and DNA was co-localized within the nucleus. Quantification seemed to show that more DNA was associated with the cells when incubated with CS nanoparticles and that the presence of M cells slightly influenced DNA uptake when complexed with CS. In conclusion, we developed a new nanocarrier made of fungal CS promising for oral gene delivery and oral DNA vaccination. PMID:20674728

  5. Mercury(II) removal with modified magnetic chitosan adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Kyzas, George Z; Deliyanni, Eleni A

    2013-01-01

    Two modified chitosan derivatives were prepared in order to compare their adsorption properties for Hg(II) removal from aqueous solutions. The one chitosan adsorbent (CS) is only cross-linked with glutaraldehyde, while the other (CSm), which is magnetic, is cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and functionalized with magnetic nanoparticles (Fe?O?). Many possible interactions between materials and Hg(II) were observed after adsorption and explained via characterization with various techniques (SEM/EDAX, FTIR, XRD, DTG, DTA, VSM, swelling tests). The adsorption evaluation was done studying various parameters as the effect of pH (optimum value 5 for adsorption and 2 for desorption), contact time (fitting to pseudo-first, -second order and Elovich equations), temperature (isotherms at 25, 45, 65 °C), in line with a brief thermodynamic analysis (?G? < 0, ?H? > 0, ?S? > 0). The maximum adsorption capacity (fitting with Langmuir and Freundlich model) of CS and CSm at 25 °C was 145 and 152 mg/g, respectively. The reuse ability of the adsorbents prepared was confirmed with sequential cycles of adsorption-desorption. PMID:23708232

  6. Chitosan and silver nanoparticles: promising anti-toxoplasma agents.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, M R; Mady, R F; Diab, R G; Shalaby, Th I

    2014-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which is Toxoplasma gondii. Chitosan and silver nanoparticles were synthesized to be evaluated singly or combined for their anti-toxoplasma effects as prophylaxis and as treatment in the experimental animals. Results were assessed through studying the parasite density and the ultrastructural parasite changes, and estimation of serum gamma interferon. Weight of tissue silver was assessed in different organs. Results showed that silver nanoparticles used singly or combined with chitosan have promising anti-toxoplasma potentials. The animals that received these compounds showed statistically significant decrease in the mean number of the parasite count in the liver and the spleen, when compared to the corresponding control group. Light microscopic examination of the peritoneal exudates of animals receiving these compounds showed stoppage of movement and deformity in shape of the tachyzoites, whereas, by scanning electron microscope, the organisms were mutilated. Moreover, gamma interferon was increased in the serum of animals receiving these compounds. All values of silver detected in different tissues were within the safe range. Thus, these nanoparticles proved their effectiveness against the experimental Toxoplasma infection. PMID:24852215

  7. Substrate specificity and enzyme recycling using chitosan immobilized laccase.

    PubMed

    Skoronski, Everton; Fernandes, Mylena; Magalhães, Maria de Lourdes Borba; da Silva, Gustavo Felippe; João, Jair Juarez; Soares, Carlos Henrique Lemos; Júnior, Agenor Fúrigo

    2014-01-01

    The immobilization of laccase (Aspergillus sp.) on chitosan by cross-linking and its application in bioconversion of phenolic compounds in batch reactors were studied. Investigation was performed using laccase immobilized via chemical cross-linking due to the higher enzymatic operational stability of this method as compared to immobilization via physical adsorption. To assess the influence of different substrate functional groups on the enzyme's catalytic efficiency, substrate specificity was investigated using chitosan-immobilized laccase and eighteen different phenol derivatives. It was observed that 4-nitrophenol was not oxidized, while 2,5-xylenol, 2,6-xylenol, 2,3,5-trimethylphenol, syringaldazine, 2,6-dimetoxyphenol and ethylphenol showed reaction yields up 90% at 40 °C. The kinetic of process, enzyme recyclability and operational stability were studied. In batch reactors, it was not possible to reuse the enzyme when it was applied to syringaldazne bioconversion. However, when the enzyme was applied to bioconversion of 2,6-DMP, the activity was stable for eight reaction batches. PMID:25329872

  8. Chitosan/bioactive glass nanoparticles scaffolds with shape memory properties.

    PubMed

    Correia, Cristina O; Leite, Álvaro J; Mano, João F

    2015-06-01

    We propose a combination of chitosan (CHT) with bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) in order to produce CHT/BG-NPs scaffolds that combine the shape memory properties of chitosan and the biomineralization ability of BG-NPs for applications in bone regeneration. The addition of BG-NPs prepared by a sol-gel route to the CHT polymeric matrix improved the bioactivity of the nanocomposite scaffold, as seen by the precipitation of bone-like apatite layer upon immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Shape memory tests were carried out while the samples were immersed in varying compositions of water/ethanol mixtures. Dehydration with ethanol enables to fix a temporary shape of a deformed scaffold that recovers the initial geometry upon water uptake. The scaffolds present good shape memory properties characterized by a recovery ratio of 87.5% for CHT and 89.9% for CHT/BG-NPs and a fixity ratio of 97.2% for CHT and 98.2% for CHT/BG-NPs (for 30% compressive deformation). The applicability of such structures was demonstrated by a good geometrical accommodation of a previously compressed scaffold in a bone defect. The results indicate that the developed CHT/BG-NPs nanocomposite scaffolds have potential for being applied in bone tissue engineering. PMID:25843832

  9. Recyclable synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of chitosan-based polysaccharide composite materials

    E-print Network

    Reid, Scott A.

    Recyclable synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of chitosan-based polysaccharide material, ionic liquid, recyclable synthesis, antimicrobial activities How to cite this article: Tran CD, Duri S, Harkins AL. 2013. Recyclable synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity

  10. Poly (lactic acid)/chitosan fiber mats: investigation of effects of the support on lipase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Nataly M; Garcia, Ketlin C; Bussamara, Roberta; Both, Fernanda S; Vainstein, Marilene H; Soares, Rosane M D

    2015-01-01

    The greatest challenge for biotechnological processes is to have immobilized enzymes acting as good green catalysts with high reusability rates. In this work, we have produced electrospun fibers from poly (lactic acid)/chitosan blends. Further, we evaluated the influence of these materials as support for lipase immobilization. The PLA/chitosan fiber mats were composed by non-woven nanofibers, with diameters ranging from 200 nm to 1.3 ?m. The solvent (TFA) as well as the chitosan addition influenced morphology, hydrophobicity and mechanical properties of PLA nanofibers. It was observed that even for lower concentration of lipase (5 U) higher enzyme activity retention was detected in the PLA/chitosan blends. In addition, a remarkable improvement of lipase activity on pure PLA fiber mat was verified, indicating that most of the enzymes were probably in their active form. PMID:25290984

  11. WTA 2011 PLENARY PAPER Determination of efficacy of novel modified chitosan sponge

    E-print Network

    Raghavan, Srinivasa

    groin injury model in swine, the hemostatic properties of an unmodified standard chitosan sponge) for hemostatic control. A complex groin injury involving arterial puncture (4.4-mm punch) of the femoral artery

  12. Curcumin/cellulose micro crystals/chitosan films: water absorption behavior and in vitro cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Chand, Navin; Ahuja, Sonam; Roy, M K

    2015-04-01

    A new technique, called vapor induced phase inversion (VIPI), has been employed to fabricate cellulose micro crystals (CMC)-loaded chitosan (Ch) films. The method involves immediate exposure of CMC-dispersed chitosan solution to NH3 gas. The films were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis. The swelling ratio (SR) of films showed negative dependence on the cellulose content in the films. The dynamic water uptake data were interpreted by various kinetic models. Finally, the release of curcumin from the films was investigated. The CMC-loaded chitosan film showed slower release as compared to the plain chitosan film, suggesting that cellulose micro crystals acted as diffusion barrier. The films were non-cytotoxic, non-thrombogenic and non-hemolytic. PMID:25643996

  13. Large-Area, Highly Ordered Array of Graphitic Carbon Materials Using Surface Active Chitosan Prepatterns.

    PubMed

    Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Dae Woo; Yang, Seung Bo; Lee, Jung-Goo; Kim, Young Kuk; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate that chitosan prepatterns can generate not only highly periodic DNA pattern but also various types of graphitic carbon materials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence imaging and Raman spectroscopic results revealed that the graphitic carbon materials were selectively deposited on the surface of the periodic chitosan patterns by the electrostatic interaction between protonated amine groups of chitosan and the negative charged carbon materials. One proof-of-concept application of the system to the fabrication of electrical devices based on the micropatterns of SWNTs and RGO was also demonstrated. The strategy to use highly surface active chitosan pattern that can easily fabricate highly periodic pattern via a variety of lithographic tools may pave the way for the production of periodic arrays of graphitic carbon materials for large area device integration. PMID:26353637

  14. Influence of collagen addition on the thermal and morphological properties of chitosan/xanthan hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Horn, Marilia M; Martins, Virginia C A; Plepis, Ana Maria de Guzzi

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the collagen influence on thermal and morphological characteristics of chitosan/xanthan hydrogels for potential tissue engineering applications. Anionic collagen was prepared by selective hydrolysis of type I collagen found in bovine tendons. Chitosan was obtained from the partial deacetylation of squid pen ?-chitin and xanthan was acquired from Fluka. The hydrogels were obtained in different ratios and were characterized by thermal and morphological analysis. FT-IR suggested only electrostatic interactions between NH3(+) groups of chitosan and COO(-) groups of xanthan and collagen. Thermogravimetric curves showed that hydrogels contain a great amount of water (above 98%) and the presence of collagen does not change this characteristic. Freezing-bound water transition in DSC curves was shifted to higher values due to the increase of water/polymer interaction, mainly when different ratios of chitosan and xanthan were used. SEM images showed sheet-form structures with the presence of collagen promoting an increase in pore size. PMID:26123817

  15. Effect of Chitosan on the Induction of DNA Damage Response by Selenium Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium (Se), a nutrient trace mineral, plays important roles in optimizing human health. Chitosan is an effective, natural-oriented material for synthesizing nanopolymers, with preferable properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradation and resistance to certain enzymes. In this study, encapsul...

  16. Novel anti-infective activities of chitosan immobilized titanium surface with enhanced osteogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Niranjan; Luo, Jie; Tang, Ruogu; Sun, Yuyu; Deng, Ying

    2014-10-01

    We have covalently immobilized chitosan onto a titanium (Ti) surface to manage implant-related infection and poor osseointegration, two of the major complications of orthopedic implants. The Ti surface was first treated with sulfuric acid (SA) and then covalently grafted with chitosan. Surface roughness, contact angle and surface zeta potential of the samples were markedly increased by the sulfuric acid treatment and the subsequent chitosan immobilization. The chitosan-immobilized Ti (SA-CS-Ti) showed two novel antimicrobial roles: it (a) prevented the invasion and internalization of bacteria into the osteoblast-like cells, and (b) significantly increased the susceptibility of adherent bacteria to antibiotics. In addition, the sulfuric acid-treated Ti (SA-Ti) and SA-CS-Ti led to significantly increased (P<0.05) osteoblast-like cell attachment, enhanced cell proliferation, and better osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast-like cells. PMID:25033432

  17. Electrospinning of curcumin loaded chitosan/poly (lactic acid) nanofilm and evaluation of its medicinal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhurai, Bhaarathi; Saraswathy, Nachimuthu; Maheswaran, Ramasamy; Sethupathi, Ponnusamy; Vanitha, Palanisamy; Vigneshwaran, Sukumar; Rameshbabu, Venugopal

    2013-12-01

    The curcumin loaded chitosan/poly (lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers were produced using electrospinning. Box—Behnken experimental design was used for the optimization of variables (-1, 0, + 1 coded level) like chitosan/PLA strength (% w/v), curcumin strength (% w/v) and applied voltage (kV) to obtain uniform fiber diameter. The morphology of nanofibers was shown by SEM. Molecular interactions and the presence of each chemical compound of curcumin loaded chitosan/PLA fibers were characterized by FTIR and EDX analysis. Antioxidant, drug release and in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed to evaluate the suitability of nanofibers that would be used for wound healing. In vivo wound healing studies on excision and incision wounds created on rat model showed significant reduction of wound area when compared to untreated. The better healing efficiency can be attributed to the presence of curcumin and chitosan.

  18. Fine microstructure of processed chitosan nanofibril networks preserving directional packing and high molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Madrazo, Anayancy; David, Laurent; Peniche-Covas, Carlos; Rochas, Cyrille; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Trombotto, Stéphane; Alcouffe, Pierre; Domard, Alain

    2015-10-20

    Crystalline chitosan nanofibril networks were prepared, preserving the native structural packing and the polymer high molecular weight. The fine microstructure of the nanomaterial, obtained by mild hydrolysis of chitosan (CHI), was characterized by using synchrotron small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction. Hydrolysis of chitosan yielded a network of crystalline nanofibrils, containing both allomorphs of chitosan: hydrated and anhydrous. The comparison of WAXS data in transmission and reflection mode revealed the preferential orientation of the CHI crystals when subjected to mechanical compression constrains. The results are in agreement with the existence of a network nanostructure containing fiber-like crystals with the principal axis parallel to the polymer chain axis. The evolution of the CHI allomorphic composition with temperature was studied to further elucidate the mechanism of structural transitions occurring during CHI nanofibril network processing. PMID:26256153

  19. Effect of chitosan-lemon essential oil coatings on volatile profile of strawberries during storage.

    PubMed

    Perdones, Ángela; Escriche, Isabel; Chiralt, Amparo; Vargas, Maria

    2016-04-15

    Chitosan coatings containing lemon essential oils were described as effective at controlling fruit fungal decay at 20°C during 7days. In this work, GC-MS was used to characterise the volatile compounds of strawberries during cold storage in order to analyse the influence of fruit coatings with chitosan, containing or not containing lemon essential oil, on the volatile profile of the fruits. The coatings affected the metabolic pathways and volatile profile of the fruits. Pure chitosan promoted the formation of esters and dimethyl furfural in very short time after coating, while coatings containing lemon essential oil incorporated terpenes (limonene, ?-terpinene, p-cymene and ?-citral) to the fruit volatiles and enhanced the fermentative process, modifying the typical fruit aroma composition. No effect of chitosan coatings was sensorially perceived, the changes induced by lemon essential oil were notably appreciated. PMID:26617043

  20. Synthesis and anti-fungal effect of silver nanoparticles–chitosan composite particles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lung-Shuo; Wang, Chih-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hui; Hsieh, Chen-Ling; Chen, Szu-Yu; Shen, Chi-Yen; Wang, Jia-Jung; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been used in various fields, and several synthesis processes have been developed. The stability and dispersion of the synthesized nanoparticles is vital. The present article describes a novel approach for one-step synthesis of silver nanoparticles–embedded chitosan particles. The proposed approach was applied to simultaneously obtain and stabilize silver nanoparticles in a chitosan polymer matrix in-situ. The diameter of the synthesized chitosan composite particles ranged from 1.7 mm to 2.5 mm, and the embedded silver nanoparticles were measured to be 15±3.3 nm. Further, the analyses of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were employed to characterize the prepared composites. The results show that the silver nanoparticles were distributed over the surface and interior of the chitosan spheres. The fabricated spheres had macroporous property, and could be used for many applications such as fungicidal agents in the future. PMID:25878501

  1. Preservation properties of in situ modified CaCO3-chitosan composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Hao, Wen-ting; Li, Jian-rong; Dong, Zhi-jian; Wu, Chao-ling

    2015-09-15

    To improve the dispersibility, hydrophilia constraints of primitive particle size, and reduce the economic cost, in situ modified CaCO3-chitosan composite coatings were prepared by tape-casting with different modifiers. The coating structures were characterised, and the preservation properties of the coatings were evaluated by fresh indices of Sciaenops ocellatus. The results revealed that the coatings were homogeneous and compact when the in situ modifier was sodium stearate. Besides, the amide I group of chitosan disappeared and hydrogen bonds were formed between the nano-CaCO3 and the chitosan. Meanwhile, the preservation effects to S. ocellatus of the coatings modified in situ by sodium stearate and sodium citrate were better. This was because the coatings effectively prevented oxygen and bacteria from reaching S. ocellatus, and thus inhibited the degradation of the proteins and lipids. The in situ modified method is conducive to chitosan coating properties, which will be widely used in the food preservation field. PMID:25863631

  2. Chitosan scaffolds containing chicken feather keratin nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, S; Sameera, D K; Moorthi, A; Selvamurugan, N

    2013-11-01

    Chicken feathers are considered as major waste from poultry industry. They are mostly constituted by a protein called keratin. In this study, keratin was prepared from chicken feathers and from where keratin nanoparticles (nKer) were synthesized. Since chitosan has excellent properties like controlled biodegradation and biocompatibility, we used keratin nanoparticles along with chitosan matrix as scaffolds (CS/nKer) and they were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and XRD analyses. There was a porous architecture in the scaffolds in the range to support cell infiltration and tissue ingrowth. The keratin nanoparticles had interaction with chitosan matrix and did not alter the semi crystalline nature of chitosan scaffolds. The biodegradation and protein adsorption of the scaffolds were significantly increased upon addition of keratin nanoparticles. The scaffolds were also found to be non-cytotoxic to human osteoblastic cells. Thus, CS/nKer scaffolds could serve as a potential biomimetic substrate for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:24095711

  3. Ultrastructure of Hybrid ChitosanGlycerol Phosphate Blood Clots by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    in a large animal model. The mix- ture of chitosan­GP and blood forms a viscous liquid, which solidifies of the ultrastructure in hydrated conditions simulating the natural state. By examina- tion of unfixed specimens using

  4. Ultrastructure of Hybrid Chitosan-Glycerol Phosphate Blood Clots by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    the repair of articular cartilage lesions in a large animal model. The mixture of chitosan-GP and blood forms observation of the ultrastructure in hydrated conditions simulating the natural state. By examination

  5. Effect of Microgravity on Fungistatic Activity of an ?-Aminophosphonate Chitosan Derivative against Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yang Soo; Kim, Byoung-Suhk

    2015-01-01

    Biocontamination within the international space station is ever increasing mainly due to human activity. Control of microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria are important to maintain the well-being of the astronauts during long-term stay in space since the immune functions of astronauts are compromised under microgravity. For the first time control of the growth of an opportunistic pathogen, Aspergillus niger, under microgravity is studied in the presence of ?-aminophosphonate chitosan. A low-shear modelled microgravity was used to mimic the conditions similar to space. The results indicated that the ?-aminophosphonate chitosan inhibited the fungal growth significantly under microgravity. In addition, the inhibition mechanism of the modified chitosan was studied by UV-Visible spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. This work highlighted the role of a bio-based chitosan derivative to act as a disinfectant in space stations to remove fungal contaminants. PMID:26468641

  6. In vivo Evaluation of Single Dose Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Formulation with Chitosan Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, R; Dhanaraj, S A; Rao, Y Udaya Bhaskara; Balasubramaniam, A; Gowrishankar, N L; Jawahar, N; Jubie, S

    2008-01-01

    Chitosan adsorbed microspheres containing tetanus toxoid were prepared in the size range of 10 mum to 75 mum, by emulsion-cross linking technique at different speeds of agitation. The amount of tetanus toxoid incorporated into chitosan microspheres were estimated by limes flocculation test and in vivo evaluation of tetanus toxoid adsorbed chitosan microspheres were determined by toxin neutralization method using albino mice. The results of in vivo release for the batches of 10 mum and 25 mum correlates with the results of in vitro in which both the batches passes the limit of IP standard (4 Lf) where as, for the batches of 50 mum and 75 mum, the in vitro release of tetanus toxoid was 2 Lf. But our in vivo studies for the batches of 50 mum and 75 mum fail to pass the limit stated in IP. The release of tetanus toxoid from the chitosan microspheres was found to be sustained for the period of 6 months. PMID:20390074

  7. The processing of chitosan and its derivatives and their application for postoperative anti-adhesion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Peng, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The formation of peritoneal adhesions represents one of the most common complications after abdominal surgery, and it increases the difficulty of re-operation. Thus, preventing postoperative adhesions is a major problem in the field of surgical medicine. Due to a lack of good predictive animal models and the complexity of adhesion pathogenesis, attempts to prevent or reduce peritoneal adhesions have been largely unsuccessful. As a result, the study of anti-adhesion drugs and materials has become a hot topic for experts and scholars. The processing and development of chitosan and its derivatives as new anti-adhesion materials is highly valued because chitosan is inexpensive, highly biocompatible, and not cytotoxic, making it a promising anti-adhesion material. Here, we review the sources and preparation of chitosan and the progress made toward producing different types of chitosan and its derivatives for preventing adhesion. PMID:25723456

  8. Synthesis and properties of nanosized silver catalyst supported on chitosan-silica nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighizadeh, A.; Tan, W. L.; Bakar, M. Abu; Ghani, S. Ab

    2012-11-01

    This work described the immobilization of noble metal nanoparticles on silica microspheres mediated by chitosan. The dual support system is comprised of organicinorganic materials prepared via core-shell method. Chitosan/silica nanocomposites were successfully synthesized with different chitosan concentrations in order to get the optimized shell thickness. When high concentration of chitosan was employed, it was found that the shell completely coats the silica. The silver nanoparticles were then immobilized on the shell of the support through a sol-gel method. Various quantities of silver were studied in order to get the maximum loading thereby it is related to coating thickness. The catalyst was then tested by employing hydrogenation of cyclohexene in methanol as a model reaction.

  9. Synthesis and anti-fungal effect of silver nanoparticles-chitosan composite particles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lung-Shuo; Wang, Chih-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hui; Hsieh, Chen-Ling; Chen, Szu-Yu; Shen, Chi-Yen; Wang, Jia-Jung; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been used in various fields, and several synthesis processes have been developed. The stability and dispersion of the synthesized nanoparticles is vital. The present article describes a novel approach for one-step synthesis of silver nanoparticles-embedded chitosan particles. The proposed approach was applied to simultaneously obtain and stabilize silver nanoparticles in a chitosan polymer matrix in-situ. The diameter of the synthesized chitosan composite particles ranged from 1.7 mm to 2.5 mm, and the embedded silver nanoparticles were measured to be 15 ± 3.3 nm. Further, the analyses of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were employed to characterize the prepared composites. The results show that the silver nanoparticles were distributed over the surface and interior of the chitosan spheres. The fabricated spheres had macroporous property, and could be used for many applications such as fungicidal agents in the future. PMID:25878501

  10. Antimicrobial wound dressing nanofiber mats from multicomponent (chitosan/silver-NPs/polyvinyl alcohol) systems.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Abdelrahman M; Hudson, Samuel M; Rojas, Orlando J

    2014-01-16

    Novel hybrid nanomaterials have been developed for antimicrobial applications. Here we introduce a green route to produce antibacterial nanofiber mats loaded with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs, 25 nm diameter) enveloped in chitosan after reduction with glucose. The nanofiber mats were obtained from colloidal dispersions of chitosan-based Ag-NPs blended with polyvinyl alcohol. Nanofibers (150 nm average diameter and narrow size distribution) were obtained by electrospinning and cross-linked with glutaraldhyde. The effect of crosslinking on the release of silver was studied by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity was studied by the viable cell-counting; mats loaded with silver and control samples (chitosan/PVA) with different degrees of cross-linking were compared for their effectiveness in reducing or halting the growth of aerobic bacteria. The results showed superior properties and synergistic antibacterial effects by combining chitosan with Ag-NPs. PMID:24188851

  11. The influence of UV irradiation on the surface of chitosan films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sionkowska, A.; Kaczmarek, H.; Wisniewski, M.; Skopinska, J.; Lazare, S.; Tokarev, V.

    2006-09-01

    The surface properties of chitosan films before and after UV-irradiation ( ? = 254 nm and 248 nm, respectively) were investigated using the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by means of contact angle measurements allowing the calculation of surface free energy. Moreover, in order to determine the film mass changes, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements were performed. Measurements of the contact angle for diiodomethane (D), formamide (F) and glycerol (G) on the surface of chitosan films were made. The chemical and structural changes during UV irradiation were studied by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. The contact angle and the surface free energy were altered by UV irradiation of chitosan films. The microscopy images have shown that the KrF excimer laser irradiation caused visible damages on the surface in comparison with the surface exposed to the mercury UV lamp. The surface modification of chitosan films can be achieved using both, the low intensity UV lamp and the excimer laser.

  12. Novel Anti-infective Activities of Chitosan Immobilized Titanium Surface with Enhanced Osteogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Niranjan; Luo, Jie; Tang, Ruogu; Sun, Yuyu; Deng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    We have covalently immobilized chitosan onto a titanium (Ti) surface to manage implant-related infection and poor osseointegration, two of the major complications of orthopedic implants. The Ti surface was first treated with sulfuric acid (SA) and then covalently grafted with chitosan. Surface roughness, contact angle and surface zeta potential of the samples were markedly increased by the sulfuric acid treatment and the subsequent chitosan immobilization. The chitosan-immobilized Ti (SA-CS-Ti) showed two novel antimicrobial roles: it a) prevented the invasion and internalization of bacteria into the osteoblast-like cells, and b) significantly increased the susceptibility of adherent bacteria to antibiotics. In addition, the sulfuric acid-treated Ti (SA-Ti) and SA-CS-Ti led to significantly increased (P<0.05) osteoblast-like cell attachment, enhanced cell proliferation, and better osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast-like cells. PMID:25033432

  13. Novel atmospheric plasma enhanced chitosan nanofiber/gauze composite wound dressings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrospun chitosan nanofibers were deposited onto atmospheric plasma treated cotton gauze to create a novel composite bandage with higher adhesion, better handling properties, enhanced bioactivity, and moisture management. Plasma treatment of the gauze substrate was performed to improve the durabi...

  14. ORIGINAL PAPER Electrospinning of chitosan/poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic

    E-print Network

    Hasýrcý, Vasýf

    ORIGINAL PAPER Electrospinning of chitosan/poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid: 2 September 2014 Ó Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 Abstract Electrospinning, which is a fiber hydroxyapatite (HAp), were prepared by electrospinning technique. Morphological, chemical, thermal

  15. Improved barrier and mechanical properties of novel hydroxypropyl methylcellulose edible films with chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles were prepared and incorporated in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films. FT-IR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses of the nanoparticles, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability, thermal stability, scanning electron microscopy (SEM...

  16. Assessment of palmitoyl and sulphate conjugated glycol chitosan for development of polymeric micelles

    PubMed Central

    Ullah Khan, Ikram; Ayub, Gohar; Ranjha, Nazar M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:Amphiphilic copolymers are capable of forming core shell-like structures at the critical micellar concentration (CMC); hence, they can serve as drug carriers. Thus, in the present work, polymeric micelles based on novel chitosan derivative were synthesized. Methods:Block copolymer of palmitoyl glycol chitosan sulfate (PGCS) was prepared by grafting palmitoyl and sulfate groups serving as hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively. Then, fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and spectral changes in iodine/iodide mixture were carried out. Results:FTIR studies confirmed the formation of palmitoyl glycol chitosan sulfate (PGCS) and spectral changes in iodine/iodide mixture indicated CMC which lies in the range of 0.003-0.2 mg/ml. Conclusion: Therefore, our study indicated that polymeric micelles based on palmitoyl glycol chitosan sulphate could be used as a prospective carrier for water insoluble drugs. PMID:23878793

  17. Three dimensional chitosan scaffolds influence the extra cellular matrix expression in Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chuang-Yu; Li, Li-Tzu; Su, Wen-Ta

    2014-09-01

    Chitosan is a choice material for scaffolds in regenerative medicine. One of the applications is to bridge the damaged peripheral nerves. Previous studies showed that combination of chitosan conduits and cultured Schwann cells could increase the opportunity for re-connection of broken nerves. It has also been known that Schwann cells can produce the ECM components which are critical for nerve regeneration. In this study, we used the rat Schwann cells (RSCs) grown on porous chitosan scaffolds for quantitative analysis of ECM protein expression. The RSCs grown on chitosan scaffolds secreted higher amount of laminin and collagen 4 than those grown on the plane. The increased laminin and collagen 4 produced by Schwann cells could create a preferable condition for stimulating peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:25063144

  18. Development of edible bioactive coating based on modified chitosan for increasing shelf life of strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For increasing the shelf life of strawberries during storage, bioactive coatings were applied using modified polysaccharides of chitosan. First, antimicrobial tests were performed with selected essential oils to evaluate their antimicrobial capacities against moulds and total flora isolated from str...

  19. Effect of Microgravity on Fungistatic Activity of an ?-Aminophosphonate Chitosan Derivative against Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Devarayan, Kesavan; Sathishkumar, Yesupatham; Lee, Yang Soo; Kim, Byoung-Suhk

    2015-01-01

    Biocontamination within the international space station is ever increasing mainly due to human activity. Control of microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria are important to maintain the well-being of the astronauts during long-term stay in space since the immune functions of astronauts are compromised under microgravity. For the first time control of the growth of an opportunistic pathogen, Aspergillus niger, under microgravity is studied in the presence of ?-aminophosphonate chitosan. A low-shear modelled microgravity was used to mimic the conditions similar to space. The results indicated that the ?-aminophosphonate chitosan inhibited the fungal growth significantly under microgravity. In addition, the inhibition mechanism of the modified chitosan was studied by UV-Visible spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. This work highlighted the role of a bio-based chitosan derivative to act as a disinfectant in space stations to remove fungal contaminants. PMID:26468641

  20. Application of Spectroscopic Methods for Structural Analysis of Chitin and Chitosan

    PubMed Central

    Kumirska, Jolanta; Czerwicka, Ma?gorzata; Kaczy?ski, Zbigniew; Bychowska, Anna; Brzozowski, Krzysztof; Thöming, Jorg; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Chitin, the second most important natural polymer in the world, and its N-deacetylated derivative chitosan, have been identified as versatile biopolymers for a broad range of applications in medicine, agriculture and the food industry. Two of the main reasons for this are firstly the unique chemical, physicochemical and biological properties of chitin and chitosan, and secondly the unlimited supply of raw materials for their production. These polymers exhibit widely differing physicochemical properties depending on the chitin source and the conditions of chitosan production. The presence of reactive functional groups as well as the polysaccharide nature of these biopolymers enables them to undergo diverse chemical modifications. A complete chemical and physicochemical characterization of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives is not possible without using spectroscopic techniques. This review focuses on the application of spectroscopic methods for the structural analysis of these compounds. PMID:20559489

  1. Effects of processing on the properties of chitosan/cellulose nanocrystal films.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Hande; Kurt, Ayse

    2015-11-20

    Biocomposites of chitosan (CS)/cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were prepared by using solution casting method. Influences of solution preparation method and CN content on the properties of composites were investigated. Mechanical stirring/ultrasonication or microfluidization were used to disperse nanocrystals in the chitosan matrix. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, DSC, TGA, TMA and contact angle measurements. SEM analysis revealed that microfluidization decreased CN aggregates in matrix. Formation of hydrogen bonds between CS and CN in nanocomposites prepared by using microfluidization was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. This high interaction led to an increment of the crystallinity of chitosan films. Tg values within a range of 53-58°C were obtained in DSC and TMA measurements. The thermal stability of CS film showed no significant effect of CN addition, whereas contact angle measurements revealed that CN addition resulted in an increment of hydrophilicity of chitosan films. PMID:26344283

  2. Effect of quaternization degree on physiochemical and biological activities of chitosan from squid pens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Cheng, Zhen-Hua; Xie, Hai-Hua; Gong, Jin-Yan; Lou, Jian; Ge, Qing; Wang, Yong-Jiang; Wu, Yuan-Feng; Liu, Shi-Wang; Sun, Pei-Long; Mao, Jian-Wei

    2014-09-01

    Chitosan was prepared by alkaline N-deacetylation of ?-chitin from squid pens, and N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) derivatives, with different degrees of quaternization (DQ) ranging from 0.77 to 1.06, were synthesized. It was identified by FT-IR, 1H NMR and XRD analysis. All of the HTCC showed good water solubility in a wide pH range. The moisture absorption and retention abilities of all the HTCC were much better than that of the chitosan. The moisture absorption and retention values of all the HTCC at 43% RH for 24 h were above 49% and 92%, respectively. The scavenging ability of HTCC against hydroxyl and ABTS radicals improved with increasing concentration. The effectiveness of HTCC against hydroxyl radicals was lower than that of chitosan. These results indicated that HTCC, which has a much better moisture absorption and retention capacity, may act as a potential moisturizer in vitro. PMID:25077838

  3. Comparison of chitosan/starch composite film properties before and after cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihong; Gao, Xiaochen; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xiaobo; Tong, Zhiwei

    2013-01-01

    Unmodified and cross-linked chitosan/starch composite films were prepared using the solvent evaporation method. The properties of the films were studied to obtain useful information about the possible applications of composite films. FT-IR, SEM, and swelling property investigations show that the cross-linking agent glutaraldehyde reacts in the chitosan and starch blend. The compatibility of chitosan and starch blends before and after cross-linking was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy. The compatibility of the blends deteriorated after cross-linking. This finding was confirmed by the results of mechanical properties. The films show improved water barrier performance after cross-linking. The use of trace concentrations of glutaraldehyde in chitosan/starch films allows for possible application in the biomedical field. PMID:23107802

  4. Recent Modifications of Chitosan for Adsorption Applications: A Critical and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kyzas, George Z.; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is considered to be one of the most promising and applicable materials in adsorption applications. The existence of amino and hydroxyl groups in its molecules contributes to many possible adsorption interactions between chitosan and pollutants (dyes, metals, ions, phenols, pharmaceuticals/drugs, pesticides, herbicides, etc.). These functional groups can help in establishing positions for modification. Based on the learning from previously published works in literature, researchers have achieved a modification of chitosan with a number of different functional groups. This work summarizes the published works of the last three years (2012–2014) regarding the modification reactions of chitosans (grafting, cross-linking, etc.) and their application to adsorption of different environmental pollutants (in liquid-phase). PMID:25584681

  5. Enzyme encapsulation in magnetic chitosan-Fe3O4 microparticles.

    PubMed

    Costa-Silva, Tales Alexandre; Marques, Polyana Samorano; Souza, Cláudia Regina Fernandes; Said, Suraia; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Two simple procedures for the preparation of magnetic chitosan enzyme microparticles have been investigated and used for the immobilisation of endophytic fungus Cercospora kikuchii lipase as model enzyme. In the first case, lipase was entrapped in Fe3O4-chitosan microparticles by cross-linking method, while in the second case magnetic immobilised derivatives were produced using spray drying. Immobilised enzymes showed high enzyme activity retention and stability during storage without significant loss of activity. Glutaraldehyde Fe3O4-chitosan powders presented a higher lipase activity retention and storage stability than the others preparations. However, the immobilised derivatives produced by cross-linking showed higher enzyme activity after reuse cycles. The results proved that the magnetic Fe3O4-chitosan microparticles are an effective support for the enzyme immobilisation since the immobilised lipase showed best properties than the free form. PMID:25198912

  6. Effects of chitosan on nutrient digestibility, methane emissions, and in vitro fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Henry, D D; Ruiz-Moreno, M; Ciriaco, F M; Kohmann, M; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; DiLorenzo, N

    2015-07-01

    Chitosan was evaluated as a feed additive to mitigate in vivo CH emissions in beef cattle. Twenty-four crossbred heifers (BW = 318 ± 35 kg) were used in a randomized block design replicated in 2 periods. The design included a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, which included diet (high concentrate [HC] or low concentrate [LC]) and 0.0, 0.5, or 1.0% of chitosan inclusion (DM basis). Diets were offered ad libitum and individual intake was recorded. An in vitro experiment to analyze chitosan's effect on fermentation parameters and gas production kinetics was performed. A diet effect ( < 0.01) was observed for CH emissions expressed as grams/day, grams/kilogram of BW, and grams/kilogram of DMI. Heifers consuming the LC diet produced 130 g of CH/d vs. 45 g of CH/d in those consuming the HC diet. Incubation fluid pH increased linearly ( < 0.05) when chitosan was included in HC substrates. In vitro CH production was not affected ( > 0.10) by chitosan in HC substrate; however, when incubated with the LC substrate, CH production increased quadratically ( < 0.01) as chitosan inclusion increased. A digestibility marker × diet interaction occurred ( < 0.05) for DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility. Diet × chitosan interactions ( < 0.05) occurred for DM, OM, NDF, and ADF digestibility when CrO was used. When TiO was used, diet × chitosan interactions ( < 0.05) were observed for NDF and ADF. However, using indigestible NDF as an internal marker, DM and OM digestibility were improved ( < 0.05) by 21 and 19%, respectively, when chitosan was included in LC diets. In conclusion, feeding up to 1% of chitosan (DM basis) to heifers consuming a LC diet increased apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients. Enteric CH emissions were not affected by chitosan feeding, regardless of type of diet, and heifers consuming a 36% concentrate diet produced 2.6 times more methane per day than those consuming an 85% concentrate diet. PMID:26440023

  7. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan on representative dental pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Chih-YU; CHUNG, Ying-CHIEN

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is still a major oral health problem in most industrialized countries. The development of dental caries primarily involves Lactobacilli spp. and Streptococcus mutans. Although antibacterial ingredients are used against oral bacteria to reduce dental caries, some reports that show partial antibacterial ingredients could result in side effects. Objectives The main objective is to test the antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan while the evaluation of the mouthwash appears as a secondary aim. Material and Methods The chitosan was obtained from the Application Chemistry Company (Taiwan). The authors investigated the antibacterial effects of water-soluble chitosan against oral bacteria at different temperatures (25-37ºC) and pH values (pH 5-8), and evaluated the antibacterial activities of a self-made water-soluble chitosan-containing mouthwash by in vitro and in vivo experiments, and analyzed the acute toxicity of the mouthwashes. The acute toxicity was analyzed with the pollen tube growth (PTG) test. The growth inhibition values against the logarithmic scale of the test concentrations produced a concentrationresponse curve. The IC50 value was calculated by interpolation from the data. Results The effect of the pH variation (5-8) on the antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan against tested oral bacteria was not significant. The maximal antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan occurred at 37ºC. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of water-soluble chitosan on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis were 400 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL, respectively. Only 5 s of contact between water-soluble chitosan and oral bacteria attained at least 99.60% antibacterial activity at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. The water-soluble chitosan-containin g mouthwash significantly demonstrated antibacterial activity that was similar to that of commercial mouthwashes (>99.91%) in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In addition, the alcohol-free mouthwash exhibited no cytotoxicity and no oral stinging. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to combine in vitro and in vivo investigations to analyze the antibacterial properties of water-soluble chitosan-containing mouthwash. Conclusions This study illustrated that water-soluble chitosan may be a viable alternative to commercial mouthwashes in the future. PMID:23329243

  8. Thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Liqin; Li, Xuemin; Liu, Lingrong; Zhang, Qiqing

    2013-02-01

    Oral chemotherapy is a key step towards `chemotherapy at home', a dream of cancer patients, which will radically change the clinical practice of chemotherapy and greatly improve the quality of life of the patients. In this research, three types of nanoparticle formulation from commercial PCL and self-synthesized d-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-PCL-TPGS) random copolymer were prepared in this research for oral delivery of antitumor agents, including thiolated chitosan-modified PCL nanoparticles, unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles, and thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. Firstly, the PLA-PCL-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized and characterized. Thiolated chitosan greatly increases its mucoadhesiveness and permeation properties, thus increasing the chances of nanoparticle uptake by the gastrointestinal mucosa and improving drug absorption. The PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles were found by FESEM that they are of spherical shape and around 200 nm in diameter. The surface charge of PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles was reversed from anionic to cationic after thiolated chitosan modification. The thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles have significantly higher level of the cell uptake than that of thiolated chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles and unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. In vitro cell viability studies showed advantages of the thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles over Taxol® in terms of cytotoxicity against A549 cells. It seems that the mucoadhesive nanoparticles can increase paclitaxel transport by opening tight junctions and bypassing the efflux pump of P-glycoprotein. In conclusion, PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles modified by thiolated chitosan could enhance the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, which revealed a potential application for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer.

  9. Effects of chitosan on the alignment, morphology and shape of calcite crystals nucleating under Langmuir monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyungil; Uysal, Ahmet; Kewalramani, Sumit; Stripe, Benjamin; Dutta, Pulak

    2009-04-22

    The growth of calcium carbonate crystals under Langmuir monolayers was investigated in the presence of chitosan, a soluble derivative of chitin added to the subphase to better simulate the polyelectrolyte-containing in vivo environment. Chitosan causes distinct concentration-dependent changes in the orientation, shape and morphology of the calcite crystals nucleating under acid and sulfate monolayers. Our results suggest that polyelectrolytes may play essential roles in controlling the growth of biogenic calcite crystals.

  10. Effects of Chitosan on the Morphology and Alignment of Calcite Crystals Nucleating Under Langmuir Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Uysal, A; Kewalramani, S; Stripe, B; Dutta, P

    2009-01-01

    The growth of calcium carbonate crystals under Langmuir monolayers was investigated in the presence of chitosan, a soluble derivative of chitin added to the subphase to better simulate the polyelectrolyte-containing in vivo environment. Chitosan causes distinct concentration-dependent changes in the orientation, shape and morphology of the calcite crystals nucleating under acid and sulfate monolayers. Our results suggest that polyelectrolytes may play essential roles in controlling the growth of biogenic calcite crystals.

  11. Mechanoresponsive system based on sub-micron chitosan-functionalized ferromagnetic disks.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D-H.; Karavayev, P.; Rozhkova, E. A.; Pearson, J.; Yefremenko, V.; Bader, S. D.; Novosad, V.

    2011-01-01

    We report a doxorubicin loaded chitosan biopolymer-ferromagnetic disks hybrid system capable of on-demand magnetomechanically induced release of drug molecules. Gold covered ferromagnetic disks were encapsulated into the polymer scaffold through the assembly of the thiolated chitosan on the disk's gold surface followed by entrapping of the doxorubicin drug within a cross-linked polymer matrix. We demonstrate that the release process can be effectively tuned and controlled by varying the magnetic field characteristics: orientation, amplitude, frequency and duration.

  12. Correlating Physicochemical Properties of Boronic Acid-Chitosan Conjugates to Glucose Adsorption Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Asantewaa, Yaa; Aylott, Jonathan; Burley, Jonathan C.; Billa, Nashiru; Roberts, Clive J.

    2012-01-01

    Phenyl boronic acid (PBA), which is known to interact with glucose, was covalently bonded to chitosan by direct reductive N-alkylation of chitosan with 4-formylphenylboronic acid (4-FPBA). Evidence of PBA bonding on chitosan was assessed by FTIR, ToF-SIMS, SEM, DSC and glucose adsorption sensitivity measurements. FTIR spectra showed strong signals at 1560 and 630 cm?1 indicating the formation of p-substituted benzene. Similarly, ToF-SIMS analyses on the conjugates registered fragments of boron ion (B?) at 11.0 m/z whose intensity increased in proportion to 4-FPBA loading. The degree to which PBA was bonded to chitosan was related to the 4-FPBA load used in the reaction (termed F1 through to F6 with increasing 4-FPBA load). Glucose adsorption sensitivity to PBA-bonded chitosan was directly related to the amount of PBA functionality within the conjugates and the physical nature of the matrices (porous or crystalline). Topographic analysis by SEM revealed that PBA-chitosan conjugates F1, F2 and F3 have porous matrices and their sensitivity to glucose adsorption was directly proportional to the degree of PBA substitution onto chitosan. Conversely, conjugates F4, F5 and F6 appeared crystalline under SEM and glucose adsorption sensitivity decreased in proportion to amount of PBA bonded to chitosan. The crystalline nature of the conjugates was confirmed by DSC, where the exothermic event related to the melting of the bonded PBA moiety, occurred at 338 °C. Thus, decreased sensitivity to glucose adsorption by the conjugates can be ascribed to the crystallinity imparted by increased content of the bonded PBA moiety, providing an optimal loading of PBA in terms of maximizing response to glucose. PMID:24300397

  13. Potential of chitosan from Mucor rouxxi UCP064 as alternative natural compound to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Roberta A.; Stamford, Tânia L.M.; de Campos-Takaki, Galba M.; Stamford, Thayza C.M.; de Souza, Evandro L.

    2009-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is widely distributed in nature and the infection listeriosis is recognized as a potential threat for human health because of its mortality rate. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth profile and chitosan production by Mucor rouxxi UCP 064 grown in yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban) medium. It was also to assess the anti-L. monocytogenes efficacy of the obtained chitosan. Higher values of biomass of M. rouxxi (16.9 g.L-1) and best yield of chitosan (62 mg.g-1) were found after 48 h of cultivation. Residual glucose and nitrogen in the growth media were 4.1 and 0.02 g.L-1 after 96 h, respectively. Obtained chitosan presented 85 % of degree of deacetylation and 2.60 x 104 g.mol-1 of viscosimetric molecular weight. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values of chitosan against L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 were, respectively, 2.5 and 5.0 mg.mL-1. At 2.5 and 5.0 mg.mL-1 chitosan caused cidal effect in a maximum time of 4 h. Bacterial count below 2 log cfu.mL-1 were found from 2 h onwards and no recovery in bacterial growth was noted in the remainder period. These results show the biotechnological potential of yam bean medium for chitosan production by Mucor rouxxi and support the possible rational use of chitosan from fungi as natural antimicrobial to control L. monocytogenes. PMID:24031403

  14. Potential of chitosan from Mucor rouxxi UCP064 as alternative natural compound to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Bento, Roberta A; Stamford, Tânia L M; de Campos-Takaki, Galba M; Stamford, Thayza C M; de Souza, Evandro L

    2009-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is widely distributed in nature and the infection listeriosis is recognized as a potential threat for human health because of its mortality rate. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth profile and chitosan production by Mucor rouxxi UCP 064 grown in yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban) medium. It was also to assess the anti-L. monocytogenes efficacy of the obtained chitosan. Higher values of biomass of M. rouxxi (16.9 g.L(-1)) and best yield of chitosan (62 mg.g(-1)) were found after 48 h of cultivation. Residual glucose and nitrogen in the growth media were 4.1 and 0.02 g.L(-1) after 96 h, respectively. Obtained chitosan presented 85 % of degree of deacetylation and 2.60 x 10(4) g.mol(-1) of viscosimetric molecular weight. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values of chitosan against L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 were, respectively, 2.5 and 5.0 mg.mL(-1). At 2.5 and 5.0 mg.mL(-1) chitosan caused cidal effect in a maximum time of 4 h. Bacterial count below 2 log cfu.mL(-1) were found from 2 h onwards and no recovery in bacterial growth was noted in the remainder period. These results show the biotechnological potential of yam bean medium for chitosan production by Mucor rouxxi and support the possible rational use of chitosan from fungi as natural antimicrobial to control L. monocytogenes. PMID:24031403

  15. Specific features of chitosan waveguides optical response formation to changes in the values of relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, A.; Voznesenskiy, S.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we report about numerical simulation of optical response of chitosan waveguide to the change in the relative humidity value. It is shown that optical response occurs by changing of waveguide propagation conditions. Herein, at a lower humidity value (less than 30%) chitosan waveguide has an asymmetric refractive index profile. The humidity level increasing leads to appearing a gradient profile of refractive index. Obtained numerical data has good agreement with experimental results.

  16. Formation of calcium carbonate films on chitosan substrates in the presence of polyacrylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    He, Linghao; Xue, Rui; Song, Rui

    2009-05-15

    In this investigation, chitosan membranes with different surface average degrees of deacetylation (DA) are prepared and then are employed as the support matrix to culture calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}). In the presence of high concentration of polyacrylic acid (PAA), the CaCO{sub 3} films obtained on the surface of all chitosan films mainly consisted of vaterite, which suggests the presence of bulk PAA plays an overwhelming part in stabilizing the vaterite. As a comparison, the influences of active groups indicate that only in case of low concentration PAA the thin CaCO{sub 3} films grown on chitosan with 8% DA mainly consisted of vaterite owing to the strong nucleation ability of -NH{sub 2} group, whereas, for those grown on chitosan with 80% DA the CaCO{sub 3} films mainly consisted of aragonite. A more complex scenario revealed that in the case of intermediate concentration of PAA the formed polymorphs behave as mixtures of vaterite and aragonite. - Graphical abstract: Chitosan membranes with different degrees of deacetylation (DA) are employed as support to culture calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}). In high concentration of polyacrylic acid (PAA), the CaCO{sub 3} films obtained consisted of vaterite. However, the CaCO{sub 3} film grown on chitosan with 8% DA mainly consisted of vaterite as opposed to aragonite for chitosan with 8% DA. The schematic presentation of the formation of calcium carbonate on chitosan films with different degrees of acetylation in the presence of PAA with low-, mid- and high concentrations.

  17. The spacer arm length in cell-penetrating peptides influences chitosan/siRNA nanoparticle delivery for pulmonary inflammation treatment.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eun Ju; Choi, Moonhwan; Lee, Jangwook; Rhim, Taiyoun; Lee, Kuen Yong

    2015-12-21

    Although chitosan and its derivatives have been frequently utilized as delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), it is challenging to improve the gene silencing efficiency of chitosan-based nanoparticles. In this study, we hypothesized that controlling the spacer arm length between a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and a nanoparticle could be critical to enhancing the cellular uptake as well as the gene silencing efficiency of conventional chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. A peptide consisting of nine arginine units (R9) was used as a CPP, and the spacer arm length was controlled by varying the number of glycine units between the peptide (R9Gn) and the nanoparticle (n = 0, 4, and 10). Various physicochemical characteristics of R9Gn-chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles were investigated in vitro. Increasing the spacing arm length did not significantly affect the complex formation between R9Gn-chitosan and siRNA. However, R9G10-chitosan was much more effective in delivering genes both in vitro and in vivo compared with non-modified chitosan (without the peptide) and R9-chitosan (without the spacer arm). Chitosan derivatives modified with oligoarginine containing a spacer arm can be considered as potential delivery vehicles for various genes. PMID:26568525

  18. Chitosan oligosaccharides in combination with Agaricus blazei Murill extract reduces hepatoma formation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    YEH, MING YANG; SHANG, HUNG SHENG; LU, HSU FENG; CHOU, JASON; YEH, CHUN; CHANG, JIN BIOU; HUNG, HSIAO FANG; KUO, WAN LIN; WU, LUNG YUAN; CHUNG, JING GUNG

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan and Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) extracts possess antitumor activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chitosan, ABM extract or the two in combination were effective against tumors in tumor-bearing mice. The mice were subcutaneously injected with SK-Hep 1 cells and were then were divided into the following six groups: Group 1, control group; group 2, chitosan 5 mg/kg/day; group 3, chitosan 20 mg/kg/day; group 4, ABM (246 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) combined; group 5, ABM (984 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (20 mg/kg/day) combined; and group 6, ABM (984 mg/kg/day). The mice were treated with the different concentrations of chitosan, ABM or combinations of the two for 6 weeks. The levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tissue histopathological features were examined in the surviving animals. Based on the results of the investigation, the treatments performed in groups 2, 3 and 4 were identified as being capable of reducing the weights of the tumors, however, group 4, which was treated with chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) in combination with ABM (246 mg/kg/day) was able to reduce the levels of GOT and VEGF. As a result, treatment with chitosan in combination with ABM may offer potential in cancer therapy and requires further investigation. PMID:25760985

  19. Application of chitosan for improvement of quality and shelf life of table eggs under tropical room conditions.

    PubMed

    Suresh, P V; Raj, K Rathina; Nidheesh, T; Pal, Gaurav Kumar; Sakhare, P Z

    2015-10-01

    The current investigation was conducted to study the effectiveness of chitosan coating in preserving the internal quality of table eggs stored under tropical room conditions of 32?±?1 °C and 60-70 % r. h. Internal, physical and microbiological quality of eggs coated with chitosan was evaluated during 5-week storage at different temperature (22?±?1 and 32?±?1 °C). Chitin was extracted from shrimp processing raw byproducts and deacetylated to high quality chitosan. The prepared chitosan was analyzed for its characteristic properties. The chitosan with a viscosity of 2206 mPa.S was used to prepare the coating solution. The weight loss, Haugh unit, and yolk index values suggested that coating of eggs with shrimp ?-chitosan increased the shelf life of eggs by almost 4-week at 22?±?1 °C and 3-week at 32?±?1 °C compared with controls (non chitosan coated and acetic acid coated) eggs. Three-time repeated coating was more effective in preserving the internal quality and preventing weight loss than with single-time coating of chitosan on egg. Therefore, three-time coating of eggs with 2206 mPa.S chitosan offer a protective barrier for preserving the internal quality of eggs stored at tropical room conditions and concomitantly prevent contamination with microorganisms. PMID:26396379

  20. pH Effects on solubility, zeta potential, and correlation between antibacterial activity and molecular weight of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shun-Hsien; Lin, Hong-Ting Victor; Wu, Guan-James; Tsai, Guo Jane

    2015-12-10

    Six chitosans with molecular weights (MWs) of 300, 156, 72.1, 29.2, 7.1, and 3.3 kDa were prepared by cellulase degradation of chitosan (300 kDa) and ultrafiltration techniques. We examined the correlation between activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and chitosan MW, and provided the underlying explanation. In acidic pH conditions, the chitosan activity increased with increasing MW, irrespective of the temperature and bacteria tested. However, at neutral pH, chitosan activity increased as the MW decreased, and little activity was observed for chitosans with MW >29.2 kDa. At pH 5.0 and 6.0, chitosans exhibited good water solubility and zeta potential (ZP) decreased with the MW, whereas the solubility and ZP of the chitosans decreased with increasing MW at pH 7.0. Particularly, low solubility and negative ZP values were determined for chitosans with MW >29.2 kDa, which may explain the loss of their antibacterial activity at pH 7.0. PMID:26428102

  1. Toxicity of naturally occurring Bio-fly and chitosan compounds to control the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann).

    PubMed

    Rabea, E I; Nasr, H M; Badawy, M E I; El-Gendy, I R

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of five compounds of a biopolymer chitosan and Bio-fly (Beauveria bassiana fungus) as biopesticide was evaluated on Ceratitis capitata under laboratory conditions. The inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) as biochemical indicators were also determined in vivo. The results indicated that B. bassiana based Bio-fly exhibited significant toxicity against C. capitata (LC50 = 3008 and 3126 mg/L after 48 h in females and males, respectively) followed by the derivatives of chitosan, N-(4-propylbenzyl)chitosan and N-(2-nitrobenzyl)chitosan. Bio-fly displayed remarkable inhibition of AChE activity (IC50 = 2220 mg/L) while N-(2-chloro,6-flourobenzyl)chitosan, N-(4-propylbenzyl)chitosan and N-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) chitosan had no significant difference in inhibitory action. In adult males, N-(2-nitrobenzyl)chitosan exhibited the highest inhibitory action (IC50 = 6569 mg/L). In addition, the toxic effects of the tested compounds on the activity of ATPase indicated that highly significant inhibition was found with N-(4-propylbenzyl)chitosan with an IC50 of 8194 and 8035 mg/L, in females and males, respectively. PMID:25117027

  2. Crosslinking chitosan into H3PO4/HNO3-NANO2 oxidized cellulose fabrics as antibacterial-finished material.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunhui; Qiu, Chen; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Weiwei

    2014-11-01

    The primary hydroxyl groups on C6 position in glucose units of cellulose with H3PO4/HNO3-NaNO2 mediated oxidation produced monocarboxy cellulose and binding sites, subsequent amide reaction with chitosan solution to obtain chitosan crosslinked cotton fabrics. Scanning electron microscope and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to detect the fiber morphology and chemical bonding between chitosan and oxidized cellulose, respectively. The influences of H3PO4/HNO3-NaNO2 oxidation and chitosan treatment on physical properties of cotton fabrics were examined by determining carboxyl content, weight loss and mechanical properties of fabrics, as well as chitosan content in the composite fabrics. Antibacterial performance of chitosan-cellulose fabrics against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated. As a result, chitosan was bonded into cotton fiber via the amido bond of CN formed between amino groups of chitosan and carboxyl groups on oxidized cellulose, and these resultant chitosan-cotton fabrics showed high antimicrobial activity and excellent antibacterial washing durability. PMID:25129734

  3. Chitosan Derivatives as Important Biorefinery Intermediates. Quaternary Tetraalkylammonium Chitosan Derivatives Utilized in Anion Exchange Chromatography for Perchlorate Removal

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Shakeela; Jardine, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    There has recently been great interest in the valorization of biomass waste in the context of the biorefinery. The biopolymer chitosan, derived from chitin, is present in large quantities of crustacean waste. This biomass can be converted into value-added products with applications in energy, fuel, chemicals and materials manufacturing. The many reported applications of this polymer can be attributed to its unique properties, such as biocompatibility, chemical versatility, biodegradability and low toxicity. Cost effective water filters which decontaminate water by removal of specific impurities and microbes are in great demand. To address this need, the development of ion exchange resins using environmentally friendly, renewable materials such as biopolymers as solid supports was evaluated. The identification and remediation of perchlorate contaminated water using an easy, inexpensive method has come under the spotlight recently. Similarly, the use of a low cost perchlorate selective solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge that can be rapidly employed in the field is desirable. Chitosan based SPE coupled with colorimetric analytical methods showed promise as a renewable anion exchange support for perchlorate analysis or removal. The polymers displayed perchlorate retention comparable to the commercial standard whereby the quaternized iron loaded polymer TMC-Fe(III) displayed the best activity. PMID:25915024

  4. Process optimization studies of 10-Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT)-loaded folate-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles by SAS-ionic crosslink combination using response surface methodology (RSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiuhua; Jiang, Ru; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Qi; Zu, Baishi; Zhao, Dongmei; Wang, Meixiang; Sun, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    10-Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) is a well-established topoisomerase I inhibitor of a broad spectrum of cancers. However, poor aqueous solubility, low instability, and toxicity to normal tissues have limited its clinical development. A novel HCPT-containing drug carrier system was developed to overcome these disadvantages. The response surface methodology was used to optimize the process of preparing HCPT-chitosan nanoparticles (HCPT-CSNPs) by the SAS-ionic crosslink (supercritical antisolvent SAS) combination method; the resulting HCPT-CSNPs were then conjugated with folate for specific targeting. A central composite design, composed of four independent variables, namely, chitosan concentration, TPP concentration, HCPT nanoparticle concentration, and crosslink time, was applied in the modeling process. The mean particle size and drug entrapment efficiency (DEE) of HCPT-CSNPs were chosen as response variables. The interactive effects of the four independent variables on the response variables were also studied. Nanoparticle characteristics such as morphology, DEE, and mean particle size were investigated. The optimum conditions for preparing HCPT-CSNPs were determined as follows: folate-coupled chitosan concentration 2.46 mg/ml, TPP concentration 7.73 mg/ml, HCPT nanoparticle concentration 0.48 mg/ml, and crosslinking time 47.4 min. Optimum conditions for preparing desired HCPT-CSNPs with a mean particle size of 173.5 nm and entrapment efficiency of 77.3% were obtained. The resulting folate-conjugated HCPT-CSNPs (FA-HCPT-CSNPs) reveal that the amount of folate conjugation was 197.64 mg/g CS. FA-HCPT-CSNPs used in drug carrier systems could have potential value in HCPT-sensitive tumors.

  5. The influence of selected excipients on the rheological behaviour of chitosan based ocular pharmaceutical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budai, L.; Szabadi, E.; Hajdú, M.; Budai, M.; Klebovich, I.; Antal, I.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: Chitosan, a modified natural carbohydrate polymer, has received great attention in diverse scientific fields including pharmaceutical and biomedical research areas. Besides its low toxicity, mucoadhesiveness and biodegradability its special favourable rheological feature makes it a unique gelling agent for the design of ocular systems. Chitosan based (2.0 w/v %) ocular systems containing selected excipients were formulated in order to investigate the rheological influence of applied auxiliary materials. Rotational and oscillatory rheological properties of propylene glycol (1.0-20.0 w/v %), glycerin (1.0-5.0 w/v %) and castor oil (1.0-5.0 w/v %) containing chitosan gels were evaluated. The rheological behaviour of formulated ocular gels were compared before and after steam sterilization. Methods: Rotational and oscillatory rheological measurements were carried out with Kinexus Pro Rheometer. Comparison of flow curves and oscillatory frequency sweep measurements in the linear viscoelastic region made possible the evaluation of rheological effect of selected excipients. Results: In the applied concentration range the effect of propylene glycol among the selected excipients presents the most significant impact on rheology of chitosan formulations. Steam sterilization results in reduced viscosity in most of chitosan gels. However, the presence of polyols appears to prevent the degradation of chitosan after steam sterilization.

  6. Structural investigation of chitosan-based microspheres with some anti-inflammatory drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Iren; Popa, Adriana; Raita, Oana; Dragan, Felicia; Bende, A.; Borodi, Gh.; Bratu, I.

    2011-06-01

    The use of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations, as a drug delivery vehicle for ulcerogenic anti-inflammatory drugs and as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare solid release systems as sponges was investigated. The preparation by double emulsification of chitosan hydrogels carrying diclofenac, acetyl-salycilic acid and hydrocortisone acetate as anti-inflammatory drugs is reported. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the chitosan hydrogel generating the sponges was 0.08 mmol. Chitosan-drug loaded sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -60 °C and 0.009 atm. Structural investigations of the solid formulations were done by Fourier-transformed infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. The results indicated that the drug molecules are forming temporary chelates in chitosan hydrogels and sponges. Electron paramagnetic resonance demonstrates the presence of free radicals in a wide range and the antioxidant activity for chitosan-drug supramolecular cross-linked assemblies.

  7. Chitin and chitosan from Brazilian Atlantic Coast: Isolation, characterization and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Rasha M; Hrdina, Radim; Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Fouda, Moustafa M G; Soliman, A Y; Mohamed, F K; Mohsin, Kazi; Pinto, Tiago Dinis

    2015-09-01

    Chitin and chitosan were obtained by chemical treatments of shrimp shells. Different particle sizes (50-1000 ?m) of the raw material were used to study their effect on size distribution, demineralization, deproteinization and deacetylation of chitin and chitosan isolation process. The particle size in the range of 800-1000 ?m was selected to isolate chitin, which was achieved by measuring nitrogen, protein, ash, and yield %. Hydrochloric acid (5%, v/v) was optimized in demineralization step to remove the minerals from the starting material. Aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (5%, w/v) at 90 °C for (20 h) was used in deproteinization step to remove the protein. Pure chitin was consequently impregnated into high concentration of sodium hydroxide (50%) for 3.5 h at 90 °C to remove the acetyl groups in order to form high pure chitosan. The degree of deacetylation (DDA) of chitosan was controlled and evaluated by different analytical tools. The chemical structure of chitin and chitosan was confirmed by elemental analysis, ATR-FTIR, H/C NMR, XRD, SEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, TGA, and acid-base titration. The isolated chitin and chitosan from shrimp shell showed excellent antibacterial activity against Gram (-ve) bacteria (Escherichia coli) comparing with commercial biopolymers. PMID:26093316

  8. Chitosan controls postharvest anthracnose in bell pepper by activating defense-related enzymes.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, Madushani; Ali, Asgar; Maqbool, Mehdi; Alderson, Peter G

    2014-12-01

    Anthracnose, a postharvest disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum capsici is the most devastating disease of bell pepper that causes great economic losses especially in tropical climates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of chitosan (low molecular weight from crab shell, Mw: 50 kDa and 75-85 % deacetylated) against anthracnose by inducing defense-related enzymes. The concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan were used to control the fungus in vitro and postharvest. There was a reduction in C. capsici mycelial growth and the highest chitosan concentration (2.0 %) reduced the growth by 70 % after 7 days incubation. In germination test, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan reduced spore germination in C. capsici between 80 % and 84 %, respectively. In postharvest trial the concentration of 1.5 % decreased the anthracnose severity in pepper fruit by approximately 76 % after 28 days of storage (10?±?1 °C; 80 % RH). For enzymatic activities, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan increased the polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and total phenolics in inoculated bell pepper during storage. Based on these results, the chitosan presents antifungal properties against C. capsici, as well as potential to induce resistance on bell pepper. PMID:25477684

  9. Hydrothermal fabrication of hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carbon porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Long, Teng; Liu, Yu-Tai; Tang, Sha; Sun, Jin-Liang; Guo, Ya-Ping; Zhu, Zhen-An

    2014-11-01

    Porous carbon fiber felts (PCFFs) have great applications in orthopedic surgery because of the strong mechanical strength, low density, high stability, and porous structure, but they are biologically inert. To improve their biological properties, we developed, for the first time, the hydroxyapatite (HA)/chitosan/carbon porous scaffolds (HCCPs). HA/chitosan nanohybrid coatings have been fabricated on PCFFs according to the following stages: (i) deposition of chitosan/calcium phosphate precursors on PCFFs; and (ii) hydrothermal transformation of the calcium phosphate precursors in chitosan matrix into HA nanocrystals. The scanning electron microscopy images indicate that PCFFs are uniformly covered with elongated HA nanoplates and chitosan, and the macropores in PCFFs still remain. Interestingly, the calcium-deficient HA crystals exist as plate-like shapes with thickness of 10-18 nm, width of 30-40 nm, and length of 80-120 nm, which are similar to the biological apatite. The HA in HCCPs is similar to the mineral of natural bone in chemical composition, crystallinity, and morphology. As compared with PCFFs, HCCPs exhibit higher in vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility because of the presence of the HA/chitosan nanohybrid coatings. HCCPs not only promote the formation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid, but also improve the adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of human bone marrow stromal cells. Hence, HCCPs have great potentials as scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering and implantation. PMID:24687547

  10. Synthesis and in vitro antifungal efficacy of Cu-chitosan nanoparticles against pathogenic fungi of tomato.

    PubMed

    Saharan, Vinod; Sharma, Garima; Yadav, Meena; Choudhary, Manju Kumari; Sharma, S S; Pal, Ajay; Raliya, Ramesh; Biswas, Pratim

    2015-04-01

    Cu-chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized and evaluated for their growth promotory and antifungal efficacy in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill). Physico-chemical characterization of the developed Cu-chitosan nanoparticles was carried out by DLS, FTIR, TEM, SEM-EDS and AAS. The study highlighted the stability and porous nature of Cu-chitosan nanoparticles. Laboratory synthesized nanoparticles showed substantial growth promotory effect on tomato seed germination, seedling length, fresh and dry weight at 0.08, 0.10 and 0.12% level. At 0.12% concentration these nanoparticles caused 70.5 and 73.5% inhibition of mycelia growth and 61.5 and 83.0% inhibition of spore germination in Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively, in an in vitro model. In pot experiments, 0.12% concentration of Cu-chitosan nanoparticles was found most effective in percentage efficacy of disease control (PEDC) in tomato plants with the values of 87.7% in early blight and 61.1% in Fusarium wilt. The overall results confirm the significant growth promotory as well as antifungal capabilities of Cu-chitosan nanoparticles. Our model demonstrated the synthesis of Cu-chitosan nanoparticles and open up the possibility to use against fungal disease at field level. Further, developed porous nanomaterials could be exploited for delivery of agrochemicals. PMID:25617841

  11. Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Kristan L. S.; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Mapuskar, Kranti A.; Joshi, Vijaya B.; Guymon, C. Allan; Spitz, Douglas R.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Thorne, Peter S.; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2013-10-01

    Despite their potential for a variety of applications, copper nanoparticles induce very strong inflammatory responses and cellular toxicity following aerosolized delivery. Coating metallic nanoparticles with polysaccharides, such as biocompatible and antimicrobial chitosan, has the potential to reduce this toxicity. In this study, copper nanoparticles were coated with chitosan using a newly developed and facile method. The presence of coating was confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, rhodamine tagging of chitosan followed by confocal fluorescence imaging of coated particles and observed increases in particle size and zeta potential. Further physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated using dissolution and x-ray diffraction studies. The chitosan coating was shown to significantly reduce the toxicity of copper nanoparticles after 24 and 52 h and the generation of reactive oxygen species as assayed by DHE oxidation after 24 h in vitro. Conversely, inflammatory response, measured using the number of white blood cells, total protein, and cytokines/chemokines in the bronchoalveolar fluid of mice exposed to chitosan coated versus uncoated copper nanoparticles, was shown to increase, as was the concentration of copper ions. These results suggest that coating metal nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan) could increase their potential for use in controlled release of copper ions to cells, but will result in a higher inflammatory response if administered via the lung.

  12. Chitosan use in chemical conditioning for dewatering municipal-activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Zemmouri, H; Mameri, N; Lounici, H

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate the potential use of chitosan as an eco-friendly flocculant in chemical conditioning of municipal-activated sludge. Chitosan effectiveness was compared with synthetic cationic polyelectrolyte Sedipur CF802 (Sed CF802) and ferric chloride (FeCl?). In this context, raw sludge samples from Beni-Messous wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were tested. The classic jar test method was used to condition sludge samples. Capillary suction time (CST), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), cakes dry solid content and filtrate turbidity were analyzed to determine filterability, dewatering capacity of conditioned sludge and the optimum dose of each conditioner. Data exhibit that chitosan, FeCl?and Sed CF802 improve sludge dewatering. Optimum dosages of chitosan, Sed CF802 and FeCl?allowing CST values of 6, 5 and 9 s, were found, respectively, between 2-3, 1.5-3 and 6 kg/t ds. Both polymers have shown faster water removal with more permeable sludge. SRF values were 0.634 × 10¹², 0.932 × 10¹² and 2 × 10¹² m/kg for Sed CF802, chitosan and FeCl?respectively. A reduction of 94.68 and 87.85% of the filtrate turbidity was obtained with optimal dosage of chitosan and Sed CF802, respectively. In contrast, 54.18% of turbidity abatement has been obtained using optimal dosage of FeCl?. PMID:25812088

  13. Effect of the intramolecular hydrogen bond on the spectral and optical properties in chitosan oligosaccharide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Yang, Mengshi; Shi, Xiao; Chu, Xiuxiang; Chen, Liang; Wu, Qiang; Wang, Yueyue

    2015-05-01

    The geometric structures, hydrogen bond types, IR spectra and nonlinear optical properties of chitosan oligosaccharide (degree of polymerization 2-5) are studied by density-functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level. We have analyzed the statistics of relationship between IR spectra and bond lengths, and angles of amino, hydroxyl. The results show that: (1) the active groups C3-OH, C6-OH and -NH2 can form intramolecular hydrogen bond in chitosan oligosaccharide; (2) the IR spectra of three active groups have size effect in growth process, however, its IR intensity increases significantly and IR frequencies are red shifted obviously when the active hydroxyl form hydrogen bonds, because the bond length of active hydroxyl becomes longer; (3) the effect of hydrogen bond on intensity and frequency of the three vibration mode of amino is the main factor and complication. The paper also provides the nonlinear optical properties of chitosan oligosaccharide. The reason why hydrogen bond can make an appreciable difference to IR spectra, and the nonlinear optical properties of chitosan oligosaccharide are discussed. This research has important significance in the characterization of chitosan oligosaccharide, the properties of chitosan material and hydrogen bond by infrared spectroscopy.

  14. Macroscopic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical comparison of hysterorrhaphy using catgut and chitosan suture wires.

    PubMed

    Huaixan, Lucio N; Arruda, Silvana S B; Leonardo, André S; Viana, Janiny C; Barreto-Vianna, André R C; Ximenes, Fábio H B; Agreste, Fernanda R; Godoy, Roberta F; Lima, Eduardo M M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current article was to compare the quality of the healing process after hysterorrhaphy with catgut and chitosan suture wires via macroscopic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical evaluations. Seven ewes were submitted to a video-assisted laparotomy. A hysterectomy was performed with subsequent catgut and chitosan hysterorrhaphy in both horns. Then, macroscopic evaluation and biopsies of the hysterorrhaphy and control areas were carried out after 30 days. Although postoperative adhesion was observed in five animals of the catgut group, no adhesions were detected in the chitosan one. Additionally, there was a significant difference in increasing collagen type III and connective tissue for the chitosan group when compared to the control and catgut groups. A larger amount of blood vessels was also observed in the control group in comparison with the catgut and chitosan groups. Collagen type I and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) were significantly different among groups. Thus, chitosan promoted a preventive effect on postoperative adhesion formation in the hysterorrhaphy areas, with increasing collagen type III deposition during tissue mending, which granted an enhanced healing process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 50-57, 2016. PMID:25612064

  15. Design and application of chitosan microspheres as oral and nasal vaccine carriers: an updated review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Firdous, Jannatul; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Cho, Chong-Su

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan, a natural biodegradable polymer, is of great interest in biomedical research due to its excellent properties including bioavailability, nontoxicity, high charge density, and mucoadhesivity, which creates immense potential for various pharmaceutical applications. It has gelling properties when it interacts with counterions such as sulfates or polyphosphates and when it crosslinks with glutaraldehyde. This characteristic facilitates its usefulness in the coating or entrapment of biochemicals, drugs, antigenic molecules as a vaccine candidate, and microorganisms. Therefore, chitosan together with the advance of nanotechnology can be effectively applied as a carrier system for vaccine delivery. In fact, chitosan microspheres have been studied as a promising carrier system for mucosal vaccination, especially via the oral and nasal route to induce enhanced immune responses. Moreover, the thiolated form of chitosan is of considerable interest due to its improved mucoadhesivity, permeability, stability, and controlled/extended release profile. This review describes the various methods used to design and synthesize chitosan microspheres and recent updates on their potential applications for oral and nasal delivery of vaccines. The potential use of thiolated chitosan microspheres as next-generation mucosal vaccine carriers is also discussed. PMID:23271909

  16. Electrospun chitosan-P(LLA-CL) nanofibers for biomimetic extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Mo, Xiumei; He, Chuanglong; Wang, Hongsheng; Ikada, Yoshito

    2008-01-01

    Chitosan-poly(L-lactic acid-co-epsilon-caprolactone)(50:50) (P(LLA-CL)) (CS/P(LLA-CL)) blends were electrospun into nanofibers using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as solvents. Chitosan, which is difficult to electrospin into nanofibers, could be easily electrospun into nanofibers with addition of a small portion of P(LLA-CL). The fiber diameter depended on both the polymer concentration and the blend ratio of chitosan to P(LLA-CL). The average fiber diameter increased with increasing polymer concentration and decreasing the blend ratio of chitosan to P(LLA-CL). X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra were measured to characterize blended nanofibers. The porosity of CS/P(LLA-CL) nanofiber mats increased with increasing the weight ratio of chitosan to P(LLA-CL), while both the tensile strength and the ultimate strain increased with increasing P(LLA-CL) ratio. Fibroblast cell growth on nanofiber mats were investigated with MTT assay and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation. The highest cell proliferation was observed on the nanofiber mats when the weight ratio of chitosan to P(LLA-CL) was 1:2. As SEM images shown, fibroblast cells showed a polygonal shape on blend nanofiber mats and migrated into the nanofiber mats. PMID:18419945

  17. Lotus-leaf-like structured chitosan-polyvinyl pyrrolidone films as an anti-adhesion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jin Ik; Kang, Min Ji; Lee, Woo-Kul

    2014-11-01

    For postsurgical anti-adhesion barrier applications, lotus-leaf-like structured chitosan-PVP films were prepared using a solution casting method with dodecyltrichloro-immobilized SiO2 nanoparticles. We evaluated whether the lotus-leaf-like structured chitosan-PVP films (L-chitosan-PVP) could be applied as postsurgical anti-adhesion barriers. A recovery test using a tensile strength testing machine and measurement of crystallinity using X-ray diffraction indicated that films with 75% PVP were the optimal composition of the chitosan-PVP films. Also, dodecyltrichloro-immobilized SiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized and sprayed on the film after pretreatment with the instant bio-glue. Analysis of cell adhesion, proliferation, and anti-thrombus efficiency were performed via a WST assay, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and hemacytometry. The contact angle with the lotus-leaf-like surface was of approximately 150°. Furthermore, the L-chitosan-PVP film yielded a lower cell and platelet adhesion rate (around less than 4%) than that yielded by the untreated film. These results indicate that the lotus-leaf-like structure has a unique property and that this novel L-chitosan-PVP film can be applied as a blood/tissue-compatible, biodegradable material for implantable medical devices that need an anti-adhesion barrier.

  18. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Golkar, Poorandokht; Zamani, Akram

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0-5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the cell wall, as a representative for chitosan, followed similar but sharper changes, compared to the biomass. The highest level was 221% higher than that obtained without hormones. The sum of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine (chitin and chitosan) was noticeably enhanced in the presence of the hormones. Increase of chitosan was accompanied by a decrease in the phosphate content, with the lowest phosphate (0.01 g/g cell wall) being obtained when the chitosan was at the maximum (0.45 g/g cell wall). In conclusion, IAA and KIN significantly enhanced the M. indicus growth and chitosan production, while at the same time decreasing the ethanol yield to some extent. This study shows that plant growth hormones have a high potential for the improvement of fungal chitosan production by M. indicus. PMID:26204839

  19. Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties and Drug Permeability of Chitosan/Eudragit RL Composite Film

    PubMed Central

    Kouchak, Maryam; Handali, Somayeh; Naseri Boroujeni, Basireh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a chitosan-based film that has properties required for successful wound dressing, and can control drug penetration and maintenance time in the location. Methods Several formulations of a film containing chitosan (3%) and different concentrations of Eudragit RL (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) were prepared using the casting/solvent evaporating technique. Mechanical properties, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), oxygen permeability, water uptake, and nitrofurazone permeability through the films were investigated. Results The study results showed that by increasing the Eudragit RL content of composite films, their thickness and tensile strength were enhanced, while their elongation was decreased. No significant difference was observed between the oxygen permeability, WVTR, and water uptake results of pure chitosan films and different composite films containing Eudragit RL. Nitrofurazone permeability of chitosan films was increased by the inclusion of Eudragit RL in composite films, while by increasing the concentration of Eudragit RL, the permeation rate of drug was decreased. Conclusion In conclusion, addition of Eudragit RL can improve mechanical properties of chitosan films without any undesirable effect on their water uptake, oxygen permeability, and WVTR qualities. The permeation rate of drugs through the composite films can be modified by changing Eudragit RL/chitosan ratio. PMID:25737826

  20. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Chitosan/Polyvinyl Alcohol Electrospun Nanofibers Containing Mafenide Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspour, Mohammadreza; Sharif Makhmalzadeh, Behzad; Rezaee, Behjat; Shoja, Saeed; Ahangari, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chitosan, an important biodegradable and biocompatible polymer, has demonstrated wound-healing and antimicrobial properties. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of mafenide acetate-loaded nanofibrous films, prepared by the electrospinning technique, using chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Materials and Methods: A 32 full factorial design was used for formulating electrospinning solutions. The chitosan percentage in chitosan/PVA solutions (0%, 10%, and 30%) and the drug content (0%, 20%, and 40%) were chosen as independent variables. The release rate of mafenide acetate from nanofibrous films and their microbial penetration were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of different nanofibrous film formulations against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied. Results: The results indicated that all nanofibrous films, with and without drug, can prevent bacterial penetration. Incorporation of mafenide acetate into chitosan/PVA nanofibers enhanced their antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Conclusions: Overall, the results showed that chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous films are applicable for use as a wound dressing with protective, healing, and antimicrobial effects. PMID:26587214

  1. Sonolytic, sonocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of chitosan in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Mohammad Taghi; Abdollahi, Reza

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of chitosan by means of ultrasound irradiation and its combination with heterogeneous (TiO(2)) was investigated. Emphasis was given on the effect of additives on degradation rate constants. Ultrasound irradiation (24 kHz) was provided by a sonicator, while an ultraviolet source of 16 W was used for UV irradiation. The extent of sonolytic degradation increased with increasing ultrasound power (in the range 30-90 W), while the presence of TiO(2) in the dark generally had little effect on degradation. On the other hand, TiO(2) sono-photocatalysis led to complete chitosan degradation in 60 min with increasing catalyst loading. TiO(2) sonophotocatalysis was always faster than the respective individual processes due to the enhanced formation of reactive radicals as well as the possible ultrasound-induced increase of the active surface area of the catalyst. The degraded chitosans were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and average molecular weight of ultrasonicated chitosan was determined by measurements of relative viscosity of samples. The results show that the total degree of deacetylation (DD) of chitosan did not change after degradation and the decrease of molecular weight led to transformation of crystal structure. A negative order for the dependence of the reaction rate on total molar concentration of chitosan solution within the degradation process was suggested. PMID:20466578

  2. Performance of a novel casing made of chitosan under traditional sausage manufacturing conditions.

    PubMed

    Adzaly, Noor Zainah; Jackson, Andrea; Kang, Iksoon; Almenar, Eva

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to validate the commercial feasibility of a novel casing formed from chitosan containing cinnamaldehyde (2.2%, w/v), glycerol (50%, w/w) and Tween 80 (0.2% w/w) under traditional sausage manufacturing conditions. Meat batter was stuffed into both chitosan and collagen (control) casings and cooked in a water bath. Before and after cooking, both casings were compared for mechanical, barrier, and other properties. Compared to collagen, the chitosan casing was a better (P?0.05) barrier to water, oxygen, liquid smoke, and UV light. In mechanical and other properties, the chitosan casing had higher (P?0.05) tensile strength, lower (P?0.05) elongation at break and tensile energy to break, and better (P?0.05) transparency whereas a similar (P>0.05) water solubility to the collagen casing. Overall, the chitosan casing was less affected by sausage manufacturing conditions than the collagen casing, indicating that chitosan casing has potential as an alternative to the current collagen casing in the manufacture of sausages. PMID:26656870

  3. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Golkar, Poorandokht; Zamani, Akram

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0–5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the cell wall, as a representative for chitosan, followed similar but sharper changes, compared to the biomass. The highest level was 221% higher than that obtained without hormones. The sum of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine (chitin and chitosan) was noticeably enhanced in the presence of the hormones. Increase of chitosan was accompanied by a decrease in the phosphate content, with the lowest phosphate (0.01 g/g cell wall) being obtained when the chitosan was at the maximum (0.45 g/g cell wall). In conclusion, IAA and KIN significantly enhanced the M. indicus growth and chitosan production, while at the same time decreasing the ethanol yield to some extent. This study shows that plant growth hormones have a high potential for the improvement of fungal chitosan production by M. indicus. PMID:26204839

  4. Modulation of cationicity of chitosan for tuning mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Wu, Fang; Wang, Dong; Yao, Ruijuan; Wu, Yao; Wu, Fang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to modulate the cationicity of chitosan to influence the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) responses in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The authors prepared water-soluble carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogels using genipin as the crosslinking agent. The chitosan cationicity was modulated by varying the genipin content from 0.5 to 10?wt. %. The results indicated that the cationicity exerted a striking modulation effect on various MSC responses. The increase of the genipin content, i.e., decrease of the free amino group content (cationicity), overall promoted the MSC adhesion, cytoskeleton organization, proliferation, and differentiation into the osteogenic lineage. A surprising cell alignment effect was also observed on chitosan samples with high genipin concentrations (>2.5%). The chitosan sample with the highest genipin concentrations (10%) exhibited the best MSC proliferation and highest protein expression levels toward osteogenic lineages. The genipin content also showed a strong modulation effect on MSC condensation, and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, as suggested by the expressions of the sry related HMG box9 (Sox9), intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and N-Cadherin. Overall, the authors have demonstrated that modulation of cationicity (amino content) of chitosan is an effective and simple approach to tuning various MSC responses, including adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, as well as cell-cell interactions. Such findings might have important implications in biomaterial design for various biomedical applications. PMID:26433366

  5. Polysaccharides for colon targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, M K; Jain, S K

    2004-01-01

    Colon targeted drug delivery has the potential to deliver bioactive agents for the treatment of a variety of colonic diseases and to deliver proteins and peptides to the colon for their systemic absorption. Various strategies, currently available to target the release of drugs to colon, include formation of prodrug, coating of pH-sensitive polymers, use of colon-specific biodegradable polymers, timed released systems, osmotic systems, and pressure controlled drug delivery systems. Among the different approaches to achieve targeted drug release to the colon, the use of polymers especially biodegradable by colonic bacteria holds great promise. Polysaccharidases are bacterial enzymes that are available in sufficient quantity to be exploited in colon targeting of drugs. Based on this approach, various polysaccharides have been investigated for colon-specific drug release. These polysaccharides include pectin, guar gum, amylose, inulin, dextran, chitosan, and chondroitin sulphate. This family of natural polymers has an appeal to drug delivery as it is comprised of polymers with a large number of derivatizable groups, a wide range of molecular weights, varying chemical compositions, and, for the most part, low toxicity and biodegradability yet high stability. The most favorable property of these materials is their approval as pharmaceutical excipients. PMID:15200012

  6. Development of Cy5.5-Labeled Hydrophobically Modified Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles for Protein Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Amanda

    Therapeutic proteins are often highly susceptible to enzymatic degradation, thus restricting their in vivo stability. To overcome this limitation, delivery systems designed to promote uptake and reduce degradation kinetics have undergone a rapid shift from macro-scale systems to nanomaterial based carriers. Many of these nanomaterials, however, elicit immune responses and may have cytotoxic effects both in vitro and in vivo. The naturally derived polysaccharide chitosan has emerged as a promising biodegradable material and has been utilized for many biomedical applications; nevertheless, its function is often constrained by poor solubility. Glycol chitosan, a derivative of chitosan, can be hydrophobically modified to impart amphiphilic properties that enable the self-assembly into nanoparticles in aqueous media at neutral pH. This nanoparticle system has shown initial success as a therapeutic agent in several model cell culture systems, but little is known about its stability against enzymatic degradation. Therefore, the goal of this research was to investigate the resistance of hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan against enzyme-catalyzed degradation using an in vivo simulated system containing lysozyme. To synthesize the nanoparticles, hydrophobic cholanic acid was first covalently conjugated to glycol chitosan using of N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Conjugates were purified by dialysis, lyophilized, and ultra-sonicated to form nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the binding of 5beta-cholanic acid to the glycol chitosan. Particle size and stability over time were determined with dynamic light scattering (DLS), and particle morphology was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average diameter of the nanoparticles was approximately 200 nm, which remained stable at 4°C for up to 10 days. Additionally, a near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye, Cy5.5, was used to label the glycol chitosan nanoparticles to enable the noninvasive imaging of living cells. A model protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA) was encapsulated within the glycol chitosan nanoparticles, and its loading efficiency was calculated to be 88%. Release profile of the BSA showed that only 4% (cumulative mass) was achieved by day 7. Minimal cytotoxicity was observed after delivery of the chitosan vehicle alone. To test degradation kinetics, the BSA-loaded nanoparticles were incubated with lysozyme for up to 3 hours and were applied in SDS-PAGE to determine if enzyme-catalyzed degradation triggered premature release of the encapsulated protein. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the spatiotemporal distribution of FITC-BSA-loaded glycol chitosan nanoparticles after delivery to the rat osteosarcoma (ROS17/2.8) and mouse calvaria-derived (MC3T3-E1) cells.

  7. [Adsorption behavior of anionic dyes onto magnetic chitosan derivatives].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong-lu; Hu, Xiao-min; Zhao, Yan; Su, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption of acid red 1 (AR1) and xylenol orange (XO) onto magnetic quaternary chitosan particles were studied through the static adsorption method. The results showed that, the maximal adsorption capacities calculated by Langmuir equations were 781.55 mg x g(-1) for AR1, 537.40 mg x g(-1) for XO at pH 3.0 and 25 degrees C. The constant n obtained by Frendlich equations were 1.71 and 1.92 respectively, which reflected the favourable adsorption of the dyes onto CS/EPTAC/Fe3O4. Temkin equations showed that heterogeneous surface of adsorbent was the main adsorption point. The adsorption kinetics of two kinds of dyes followed the pseudo-second-order model, which indicated the process was mainly chemical adsorption. Compared with the powder activated carbon, CS/EPTAC/Fe3O4 showed advantages of excellent adsorption performance, rapid separation and easy regeneration. PMID:25898668

  8. Electrical and magnetic properties of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Aarti S.; Krishna Bhat, D.; Santosh, M. S.

    2010-04-01

    Magnetite powders in nanometer size have been synthesized by the hydrothermal process. Various magnetic films of chitosan and the synthesized magnetite nanopowders containing different concentrations of the latter were prepared by ultrasonication route. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the synthesized magnetite particles had 80 nm dimensions. The band gap of the composites was evaluated using the UV-visible Spectroscopy. The influence of magnetite content on the magnetic properties of the composite showed a decrease in the saturation magnetization with the decrease in the magnetic content. The effect of magnetite content on the dielectric properties of the polymer film at different frequencies from 0.01 to 105 Hz was studied using an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The possible mechanism for the observed electrical properties of the composite films was discussed.

  9. Immobilization of lipase on porous monodisperse chitosan microspheres.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Liu, Junteng; Xia, Chunjie; Zhao, Chenxi; Ren, Zhongqi; Zhang, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Porous monodisperse chitosan microspheres were synthesized for enzyme immobilization. The microspheres were prepared using microchannels and modified with glutaraldehyde. The microspheres had a mean diameter of 495 µm; the polydispersity indices were less than 0.08, and the specific surface area was between 121 and 173 m(2) /g. Candida sp. 1619 lipase was selected as a model lipase. Immobilization conditions such as enzyme loading, glutaraldehyde concentration, and immobilization time were optimized. The temperature, pH, and storage stability of the free and immobilized enzymes were also investigated. The immobilized enzyme had broad-ranging pH and temperature optima as compared with free enzyme. The storage stability of the immobilized enzyme was higher than that of the free enzyme. PMID:24823273

  10. Production of palatinose using Serratia plymuthica cells immobilized in chitosan.

    PubMed

    Krastanov, Albert; Yoshida, Toshiomi

    2003-10-01

    In recent decades, the production of palatinose has aroused great interest since this structural isomer of sucrose has interesting potential. We describe a simple and effective method of immobilizing Serratia plymuthica cells in chitosan. The sucrose isomerase activity of immobilized preparations was enhanced many times by activation with fresh nutrient medium and subsequent drying. The preparations obtained were physically very stable with high enzyme activity and excellent operational stability. The effect of temperature, pH and substrate concentration on enzyme activity of the immobilized cells was investigated. Using immobilized cells, a complete conversion of sucrose (40% solution) into palatinose was achieved in 4 h in a "batch"-type enzyme reactor. The use of free or immobilized cells had no effect on the composition of the solution, in particular the sugar content. The palatinose content was 80% and that of trehalulose 7%. PMID:12955543

  11. Chitosan-collagen/organomontmorillonite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xianshuo; Wang, Jun; Liu, Min; Chen, Yong; Cao, Yang; Yu, Xiaolong

    2015-11-01

    A novel composite scaffold based on chitosan-collagen/organomontmorillonite (CS-COL/OMMT) was prepared to improve swelling ratio, biodegradation ratio, biomineralization and mechanical properties for use in tissue engineering applications. In order to expend the basal spacing, montmorillonite (MMT) was modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and was characterized by XRD, TGA and FTIR. The results indicated that the anionic surfactants entered into interlayer of MMT and the basal spacing of MMT was expanded to 4.85 nm. The prepared composite scaffolds were characterized by FTIR, XRD and SEM. The swelling ratio, biodegradation ratio and mechanical properties of composite scaffolds were also studied. The results demonstrated that the scaffold decreased swelling ratio, degradation ratio and improved mechanical and biomineralization properties because of OMMT.

  12. Bioactivity and viscoelastic characterization of chitosan/bioglass® composite membranes.

    PubMed

    Caridade, Sofia G; Merino, Esther G; Alves, Natália M; Mano, João F

    2012-08-01

    Membranes of chitosan (CTS) and composite membranes of CTS with bioglass are prepared by solvent casting. The composite membranes are shown to induce the precipitation of apatite upon immersion in SBF. The biomineralization process is followed by measuring the variation of the viscoelastic properties of the membranes immersed in SBF, both online and offline. Non-conventional DMA is used to measure the change in the storage modulus, E', and the loss factor, tan ?, as a function of the immersion in SBF. A simple model is used to estimate the E' of the apatite layer formed in vitro that is about 130?MPa. This work shows that innovate mechanical tests can be useful to characterize the mechanical performance of composites under physiological conditions. PMID:22707301

  13. Preparation and characterizations of EGDE crosslinked chitosan electrospun membranes.

    PubMed

    Aqil, A; Tchemtchoua, V T; Colige, A; Atanasova, G; Poumay, Y; Jérôme, C

    2015-07-01

    Composite Crosslinked nanofibrous membranes of chitosan, ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) and polyethylene oxide was successfully prepared with bead free morphology via electrospinning technique followed by heat mediated chemical crosslinking. Architectural stability of nanofiber mat in aqueous medium was achieved by chemical crosslinking of only 1% EGDE, and tensile strength tests revealed that increasing EGDE content has considerably enhance the elastic modulus of nanofibers. The structure, morphology and mechanical properties of nanofibers were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Instron machine, respectively. Skin fibroblasts and endothelial cells showed good attachment, proliferation and viability on crosslinked electrospun membranes. The results indicate a good biocompatibility and non-toxic nature of the resulted membrane. PMID:25818149

  14. Activity of glycated chitosan and other adjuvants to PDT vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Banáth, Judit; ?iplys, Evaldas; Szulc, Zdzislaw; Bielawska, Alicja; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Glycated chitosan (GC), a water soluble galactose-conjugated natural polysaccharide, has proven to be an effective immunoadjuvant for treatment of tumors based on laser thermal therapy. It was also shown to act as adjuvant for tumor therapy with high-intensity ultrasound and in situ photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the present study, GC was examined as potential adjuvant to PDT-generated cancer vaccine. Two other agents, pure calreticulin protein and acid ceramidase inhibitor LCL521, were also tested as prospective adjuvants for use in conjunction with PDT vaccines. Single treatment with GC, included with PDT vaccine cells suspension, improved the therapeutic efficacy when compared to vaccine alone. This attractive prospect of GC application remains to be carefully optimized and mechanistically elucidated. Both calreticulin and LCL521 proved also effective adjuvants when combined with PDT vaccine tumor treatment.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Covalently Linked Graphene/Chitosan Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyar, S.; Murray, E.; Gambhir, S.; Spinks, G.; Wallace, G. G.; Officer, D. L.

    2015-08-01

    Chitosan, a naturally derived polysaccharide, was covalently linked to chemically converted graphene (CCG) and the properties of the resulting composites were investigated. The composites were prepared using a stable dispersion of CCG in aqueous solvent. The CCG sheets are stabilised in solution by a small number of peripheral charged groups that can be used to form amide linkages with the polymer matrix. Apart from processability and swellability, the synthesized composites exhibited improved mechanical properties and conductivity by the addition of graphene. Graphene incorporation also introduced a control over the extent of swelling in the composites. The synthesized graphene/composites are promising materials for a variety of applications, for example as conducting substrates for the electrically stimulated growth of cells.

  16. Immobilization of tyrosinase on chitosan-clay composite beads.

    PubMed

    Dinçer, Ay?e; Becerik, Seda; Aydemir, Tülin

    2012-04-01

    Tyrosinase was immobilized on glutaraldehyde crosslinked chitosan-clay composite beads and used for phenol removal. Immobilization yield, loading efficiency and activity of tyrosinase immobilized beads were found as 67%, 25% and 1400 U/g beads respectively. Optimum pH of the free and immobilized enzyme was found as pH 7.0. Optimum temperature of the free and immobilized enzyme was determined as 25-30 °C and 25 °C respectively. The kinetic parameters of free and immobilized tyrosinase were calculated using l-catechol as a substrate and K(m) value for free and immobilized tyrosinase were found as 0.93 mM and 1.7 mM respectively. After seven times of repeated tests, each over 150 min, the efficiency of phenol removal using same immobilized tyrosinase beads were decreased to 43%. PMID:22155214

  17. Chitosan coated vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes: Characterizations and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenlei; Liu, Junli; Gao, Jinhua; Chen, Shilei; Huang, Guihua

    2015-11-10

    The present work evaluated the feasibility of chitosan coated liposomes (c-Lips) for the intravenous delivery of vancomycin hydrochloride (VANH), a water-soluble antibiotic for the treatment of gram-positive bacterial infections like osteomyelitis, arthritis, endocarditis, pneumonia, etc. The objective of this research was to develop a suitable drug delivery system in vivo which could improve therapeutic efficacy and decrease side effects especially nephrotoxicity. Firstly, the vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes (VANH-Lips) were prepared by modified reverse phase evaporation method, then the chitosan wrapped vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes (c-VANH-Lips) nanosuspension was formulated by the method of electrostatic deposition. Based on the optimized results of single-factor screening experiment, the c-VANH-Lips were found to be relatively uniform in size (220.40±3.56nm) with a narrow polydispersity index (PI) (0.21±0.03) and a positive zeta potential (25.7±1.12mV). The average drug entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL) were 32.65±0.59% and 2.18±0.04%, respectively. The in vitro release profile of c-VANH-Lips possessed a sustained release Characterization and the release behavior was in accordance with the Weibull equation. Hemolysis experiments showed that its intravenous injection had preliminary safety. In vivo, after intravenous injection to mice, c-VANH-Lips showed a longer retention time and higher AUC values compared with the VANH injection (VANH-Inj) and VANH-Lips. In addition, biodistribution results clearly demonstrated that c-VANH-Lips preferentially decreased the drug distribution in kidney of mice after intravenous injection. These results revealed that injectable c-VANH-Lips may serve as a promising carrier for VANH to increase therapeutic efficacy on gram-positive bacterial infections and reduce nephrotoxicity, which provides significantly clinical value for long-term use of VANH. PMID:26325316

  18. Evaluation of microcrystalline chitosans for gastro-retentive drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Säkkinen, Mia; Tuononen, Tiina; Jürjenson, Heidi; Veski, Peep; Marvola, Martti

    2003-08-01

    In vivo absorption studies were carried out in human volunteers to evaluate whether microcrystalline chitosan (MCCh) granules would be gastro-retentive. Furosemide, which is site-specifically absorbed from the upper gastrointestinal tract, was used as model drug. The rate of release of furosemide in vitro could be prolonged by increasing the molecular weight (M(w)) or amount of MCCh (150 to 240 kDa; 80 to 95%) in the granules, and also by addition of acidic excipients to the formulations. No marked changes in the in vivo absorption rate (t(max)) were noted, but the amounts of furosemide absorbed (AUC(0- infinity ) and C(max)) decreased as the in vitro release rate decreased, although this was not statistically significant in the case of AUC. The highest AUC(0- infinity ) (3050 micro g l(-1) h) for furosemide (40 mg) was achieved with granules containing 80% MCCh of 150 kDa M(w). With MCCh of 240 kDa M(w) AUC(0- infinity ) was 1890 micro g l(-1) h. This kind of pharmacokinetic profile of furosemide suggests that the gastric retention time of the granules is too short in relation to the release rate, and a large amount of the drug passes its "absorption window" before being released. The in vivo study produced no evidence that the chitosan formulations studied can be used as mucoadhesive gastro-retentive drug delivery systems. The results of in vitro mucoadhesion studies did not predict the results of in vivo studies. PMID:12907285

  19. FT-IR study of montmorillonite-chitosan nanocomposite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paluszkiewicz, C.; Stodolak, E.; Hasik, M.; Blazewicz, M.

    2011-08-01

    Bone defect is one of the most frequent problems in bone tissue reconstruction in which application of a biomaterial filling is necessary. It creates a still rising demand of biomaterials for bone surgery. Polymer-ceramic nanocomposites (e.g. based on chitosan matrix) is a group of novel materials whose properties such as strength, Young's modulus, bioactivity and controlled degradation time make them suitable materials for filling bone defects. Investigations of nanocomposite foils which consisted of biopolymer-chitosan (CS) matrix and montmorillonite (MMT) as a nano-filler was the subject of the work. The nanocomposite materials were produced by a two-step dispersion of the nanoparticles in the biopolymer matrix. The first stage involved mechanical stirring and the second one - ultrasonic agitation. Mechanical tests were performed on the nanocomposites and their Young's modulus was estimated. Significant improvement of mechanical properties of the nanocomposites in comparison with the pure polymer (CS) was observed. The nanocomposite foils (CS/MMT) were subjected to FT-IR spectroscopy investigations whose objective was to explain the reason of the change in mechanical characteristics of the nanocomposites. Transmission and ATR techniques operating in MIR range were used to study the nanocomposites. The FT-IR techniques were used to determine interactions at nanoparticle-biopolymer matrix interface. A pure unmodified CS foil was used as a reference material for FT-IR studies. It was proven that application of FT-IR techniques allows not only to identify phases, but also to explain structural changes in the systems studied.

  20. Cytotoxicity and intracellular fate of PLGA and chitosan-coated PLGA nanoparticles in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and human colorectal adenocarcinoma (Colo 205) cells.

    PubMed

    Trif, Mihaela; Florian, Paula E; Roseanu, Anca; Moisei, Magdalena; Craciunescu, Oana; Astete, Carlos E; Sabliov, Cristina M

    2015-11-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) are known to facilitate intracellular uptake of drugs to improve their efficacy, with minimum bioreactivity. The goal of this study was to assess cellular uptake and trafficking of PLGA NPs and chitosan (Chi)-covered PLGA NPs in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and human colorectal adenocarcinoma (Colo 205) cells. Both PLGA and Chi-PLGA NPs were not cytotoxic to the studied cells at concentrations up to 2500 ?g/mL. The positive charge conferred by the chitosan deposition on the PLGA NPs improved NPs uptake by MDBK cells. In this cell line, Chi-PLGA NPs colocalized partially with early endosomes compartment and showed a more consistent perinuclear localization than PLGA NPs. Kinetic uptake of PLGA NPs by Colo 205 was slower than that by MDBK cells, detected only at 24 h, exceeding that of Chi-PLGA NPs. This study offers new insights on NP interaction with target cells supporting the use of NPs as novel nutraceuticals/drug delivery systems in metabolic disorders or cancer therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 3599-3611, 2015. PMID:25976509