Sample records for targeted nanogel delivery

  1. Polyelectrolyte Nanogels Decorated with Monoclonal Antibody for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Nukolova, Nataliya V.; Yang, Zigang; Kim, Jong Oh; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana K.

    2010-01-01

    Novel surface-functionalized cross-linked nanogels were developed as a platform to allow conjugation of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) for targeted drug delivery. Well-defined diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(methacrylic acid) (PEG-b-PMA) with PEG terminal aldehyde functionality were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and characterized by GPC and 1H NMR. These copolymers were used to prepare nanogels via condensation of PEG-b-PMA with Ca2+ ions into micelle-like aggregates, cross-linking of the PMA/Ca2+ cores and removal of Ca2+ ions. The resulting nanogels represent highly swollen spherical polyelectrolyte particles with free terminal aldehyde functionalities at the nonionic PEG chains. A reductive amination reaction between aldehyde groups and amino groups of mAb resulted in effective conjugation to the nanogels of mAb CC49 against tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72). The mAb retained the binding affinity to bovine submaxillary mucin after conjugation as shown by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Therefore, aldehyde functionalized nanogels can be linked to mAb using a simple, one-step approach. They may have potential for targeted delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to tumors. PMID:21503276

  2. Nanogels for delivery, imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Sivaram, Amal J; Rajitha, P; Maya, S; Jayakumar, R; Sabitha, M

    2015-07-01

    Nanogels are hydrogels having size in nanoregime, which is composed of cross-linked polymer networks. The advantages of nanogels include stimuli-responsive nature, easy drug loading, and higher drug-loading capacity, physical stability, versatility in design, stability of entrapped drug, and controlled release of the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, protein, peptide and anticancer drugs. Stimuli-responsive nature of nanogel is of particular importance in anticancer and anti-inflammatory drug delivery, as cancer and inflammation are associated with acidic pH, heat generation, and change in ionic content. Nanogels composed of muco-adhesive polymers provide prolonged residence time and increase the ocular availability of loaded drugs. By forming suitably sized complex with proteins or by acting as artificial chaperones, they thus help to keep the proteins and enzymes in proper confirmation necessary for exerting biological activity; nanogels can increase the stability and activity of protein/peptide drugs. Better drug penetrations achieved by prolonged contact with skin contribute much in transdermal drug delivery. When it comes to cancer drug delivery, the presence of multiple interactive functional groups in nanogels different targeting agents can be conjugated for delivery of the selective drugs. This review focuses on applications of nanogels in cancer drug delivery and imaging, anti-inflammatory, anti-psoriatic, transdermal, ocular and protein/peptide drug delivery and therapy. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2015, 7:509-533. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1328 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:25581024

  3. Polymer nanogels: a versatile nanoscopic drug delivery platform

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Reuben T.; Ventura, Judy; Zhuang, Jiaming; Thayumanavan, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this review we put the spotlight on crosslinked polymer nanogels, a promising platform that has the characteristics of an “ideal” drug delivery vehicle. Some of the key aspects of drug delivery vehicle design like stability, response to biologically relevant stimuli, passive targeting, active targeting, toxicity and ease of synthesis are discussed. We discuss several delivery systems in this light and highlight some examples of systems, which satisfy some or all of these design requirements. In particular, we point to the advantages that crosslinked polymeric systems bring to drug delivery. We review some of the synthetic methods of nanogel synthesis and conclude with the diverse applications in drug delivery where nanogels have been fruitfully employed. PMID:22342438

  4. Smart stimuli sensitive nanogels in cancer drug delivery and imaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Maya, S; Sarmento, Bruno; Nair, Amrita; Rejinold, N Sanoj; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2013-01-01

    Nanogels are nanosized hydrogel particles formed by physical or chemical cross-linked polymer networks. The advantageous properties of nanogels related to the ability of retaining considerable amount of water, the biocompatibility of the polymers used, the ability to encapsulate and protect a large quantity of payload drugs within the nanogel matrix, the high stability in aqueous media, their stimuli responsively behavior potential, and the versatility in release drugs in a controlled manner make them very attractive for use in the area of drug delivery. The materials used for the preparation of nanogels ranged from natural polymers like ovalbumin, pullulan, hyaluronic acid, methacrylated chondroitin sulfate and chitosan, to synthetic polymers like poly (N-isopropylacrylamide), poly (Nisopropylacrylamide- co-acrylic acid) and poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (methacrylic acid). The porous nanogels have been finding application as anti-cancer drug and imaging agent reservoirs. Smart nanogels responding to external stimuli such as temperature, pH etc can be designed for diverse therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The nanogels have also been surface functionalized with specific ligands aiding in targeted drug delivery. This review focus on stimuli-sensitive, multi-responsive, magnetic and targeted nanogels providing a brief insight on the application of nanogels in cancer drug delivery and imaging in detail. PMID:23489200

  5. Functionalizable and ultrastable zwitterionic nanogels.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gang; Mi, Luo; Cao, Zhiqiang; Xue, Hong; Yu, Qiuming; Carr, Louisa; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2010-05-18

    Multifunctional biomimetic nanogels based on zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (pCBMA) were synthesized by inverse microemulsion free-radical polymerization. pCBMA nanogels exhibited excellent stability in 100% fetal bovine serum. Dextran labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-dextran) was encapsulated in nanogels as a model drug. Encapsulated FITC-dextran exhibited controlled release from the pCBMA nanogel. Additionally, pCBMA nanogels carry abundant carboxylate groups as functional groups used to conjugate ligands to the nanogels for targeted drug delivery. Flow cytometry results obtained showed that pCBMA nanogels conjugated with cyclo[Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys] ligands dramatically improved the nanogel uptake by primary human umbilical vein endothelium cells. Functionalizable zwitterionic pCBMA nanogels hold great potential as targeted drug-delivery vectors for biomedical applications. PMID:20405859

  6. Surface-Modified P(HEMA-co-MAA) Nanogel Carriers for Oral Vaccine Delivery: Design, Characterization, and In Vitro Targeting Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Durán-Lobato, Matilde; Carrillo-Conde, Brenda; Khairandish, Yasmine; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Oral drug delivery is a route of choice for vaccine administration because of its noninvasive nature and thus efforts have focused on efficient delivery of vaccine antigens to mucosal sites. An effective oral vaccine delivery system must protect the antigen from degradation upon mucosal delivery, penetrate mucosal barriers, and control the release of the antigen and costimulatory and immunomodulatory agents to specific immune cells (i.e., APCs). In this paper, mannan-modified pH-responsive P(HEMA-co-MAA) nanogels were synthesized and assessed as carriers for oral vaccination. The nanogels showed pH-sensitive properties, entrapping and protecting the loaded cargo at low pH values, and triggered protein release after switching to intestinal pH values. Surface decoration with mannan as carbohydrate moieties resulted in enhanced internalization by macrophages as well as increasing the expression of relevant costimulatory molecules. These findings indicate that mannan-modified P(HEMA-co-MAA) nanogels are a promising approach to a more efficacious oral vaccination regimen. PMID:24955658

  7. Nanogel-based delivery of mycophenolic acid ameliorates systemic lupus erythematosus in mice

    PubMed Central

    Look, Michael; Stern, Eric; Wang, Qin A.; DiPlacido, Leah D.; Kashgarian, Michael; Craft, Joe; Fahmy, Tarek M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to selectively inactivate immune cells with immunosuppressants is a much sought-after modality for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmunity in general. Here, we designed and tested a novel nanogel drug delivery vehicle for the immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid (MPA). Treatment with MPA-loaded nanogels increased the median survival time (MST) of lupus-prone NZB/W F1 mice by 3 months with prophylactic use (MST was 50 weeks versus 38 weeks without treatment), and by 2 months when administered after the development of severe renal damage (MST after proteinuria onset was 12.5 weeks versus 4 weeks without treatment). Equivalent and greater doses of MPA administered in buffer were not efficacious. Nanogels had enhanced biodistribution to organs and association with immune cells. CD4-targeted nanogels yielded similar therapeutic results compared with nontargeted formulations, with protection from glomerulonephritis and decreases in IFN-?–positive CD4 T cells. DCs that internalized nanogels helped mediate immunosuppression, as they had reduced production of inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-? and IL-12. Our results demonstrate efficacy of nanogel-based lupus therapy and implicate a mechanism by which immunosuppression is enhanced, in part, by the targeting of antigen-presenting cells. PMID:23454752

  8. Nanogel-based delivery of mycophenolic acid ameliorates systemic lupus erythematosus in mice.

    PubMed

    Look, Michael; Stern, Eric; Wang, Qin A; DiPlacido, Leah D; Kashgarian, Michael; Craft, Joe; Fahmy, Tarek M

    2013-04-01

    The ability to selectively inactivate immune cells with immunosuppressants is a much sought-after modality for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmunity in general. Here, we designed and tested a novel nanogel drug delivery vehicle for the immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid (MPA). Treatment with MPA-loaded nanogels increased the median survival time (MST) of lupus-prone NZB/W F1 mice by 3 months with prophylactic use (MST was 50 weeks versus 38 weeks without treatment), and by 2 months when administered after the development of severe renal damage (MST after proteinuria onset was 12.5 weeks versus 4 weeks without treatment). Equivalent and greater doses of MPA administered in buffer were not efficacious. Nanogels had enhanced biodistribution to organs and association with immune cells. CD4-targeted nanogels yielded similar therapeutic results compared with nontargeted formulations, with protection from glomerulonephritis and decreases in IFN-?-positive CD4 T cells. DCs that internalized nanogels helped mediate immunosuppression, as they had reduced production of inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-? and IL-12. Our results demonstrate efficacy of nanogel-based lupus therapy and implicate a mechanism by which immunosuppression is enhanced, in part, by the targeting of antigen-presenting cells. PMID:23454752

  9. ICAM-1 Targeted Nanogels Loaded with Dexamethasone Alleviate Pulmonary Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Coll Ferrer, M. Carme; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Zern, Blaine J.; Composto, Russell J.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.; Eckmann, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Lysozyme dextran nanogels (NG) have great potential in vitro as a drug delivery platform, combining simple chemistry with rapid uptake and cargo release in target cells with “stealth” properties and low toxicity. In this work, we study for the first time the potential of targeted NG as a drug delivery platform in vivo to alleviate acute pulmonary inflammation in animal model of LPS-induced lung injury. NG are targeted to the endothelium via conjugation with an antibody (Ab) directed to Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM-NG), whereas IgG conjugated NG (IgG-NG) are used for control formulations. The amount of Ab conjugated to the NG and distribution in the body after intravenous (IV) injection have been quantitatively analyzed using a tracer isotope-labeled [125I]IgG. As a proof of concept, Ab-NG are loaded with dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory therapeutic, and the drug uptake and release kinetics are measured by HPLC. In vivo studies in mice showed that: i) ICAM-NG accumulates in mouse lungs (?120% ID/g vs ?15% ID/g of IgG-NG); and, ii) DEX encapsulated in ICAM-NG, but not in IgG-NG practically blocks LPS-induced overexpression of pro-inflammatory cell adhesion molecules including ICAM-1 in the pulmonary inflammation. PMID:25019304

  10. Doxorubicin-chitin-poly(caprolactone) composite nanogel for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Arunraj, T R; Sanoj Rejinold, N; Ashwin Kumar, N; Jayakumar, R

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we developed a pH responsive chitin-poly(caprolactone) composite nanogels (chitin-PCL CNGs) system for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A hydrophilic drug, doxorubicin (Dox) was loaded in Chitin-PCL CNGs (Dox-chitin-PCL CNGs). Both control and drug loaded systems were analyzed by DLS, SEM, FTIR and TG/DTA. The size ranges of the control composite nanogels and their drug loaded counterparts were found to be 70 ± 20 and 240 ± 20 nm, respectively. The control chitin-PCL CNGs and Dox-chitin-PCL CNGs showed higher swelling and degradation in acidic pH. Drug entrapment efficiency and in-vitro drug release studies were carried out and showed a higher drug release at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. Cellular internalization of the nanogel systems was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. Dox-Chitin-PCL CNGs showed dose dependent cytotoxicity toward A549 (adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells) cancer cells. Furthermore, the results of in-vitro hemolytic assay and coagulation assay substantiate the blood compatibility of the system. These results indicate that chitin-PCL CNGs is a novel carrier for delivery of anticancer drugs. PMID:23973498

  11. Dual thermoresponsive and pH-responsive self-assembled micellar nanogel for anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daquan; Yu, Hongyun; Sun, Kaoxiang; Liu, Wanhui; Wang, Hongbo

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we prepared a dual thermoresponsive and pH-responsive self-assembled micellar nanogel for anticancer drug delivery by using a degradable pH-responsive ketal derivative, mPEG2000-Isopropylideneglycerol (mPEG-IS, PI) polymer. The purpose of this study is to develop an injectable dual-responsive micellar nanogel system which has a sol-gel phase transition by the stimulation of body temperature with improved stability and biocompatibility as a controlled drug delivery carrier for cancer therapy. The pH-responsive PI was designed with pH-responsive ketal group as hydrophobic moieties and PEG group as hydrophilic moieties. The PI micelles encapsulated paclitaxel (PTX) was fabricated. Then, the PI micelles were formed in a thermo-nanogel. The micellar nanogel could improve the solubility and stability of PTX. The physiochemical properties of PI micelles and micellar nanogel were characterized. The results showed that dual-responsive micellar nanogel could carry out sol-gel transition at 37?°C. The PI polymer can spontaneously self-assemble into micellar structure with size of 100-200 nm. The dual-responsive micellar nanogel could be degraded under lower pH condition. The test in vitro PTX release showed that dual-responsive micellar nanogel could release about 70% for 70 h under pH 5.0 while about 10% release at pH 7.4 and pH 9.0. The dual-responsive micellar nanogel was of lower cytotoxicity and suppressed tumor growth most efficiently. The micellar nanogel will be a new potential dual-responsive drug delivery system for cancer therapy. PMID:24102086

  12. Construction of pH-sensitive lysozyme/pectin nanogel for tumor methotrexate delivery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liufeng; Xu, Wei; Liang, Hongshan; He, Lei; Liu, Shilin; Li, Yan; Li, Bin; Chen, Yijie

    2015-02-01

    Novel nano-particles were developed from lysozyme-pectin through self-assembly, and the nanogels could be used as a carrier for the antitumor agent, methotrexate (MTX). The nanogels exhibited spherical with diameters about 109 ± 2 nm and narrow particle size distribution, as well as negative surface charge. Furthermore, the particle size and morphology of the nanogels hardly changed with the incorporation of MTX. The loading capacity of MTX in nanogels could reach 17.58 ± 0.85%. MTX-loaded nanogels were pH-dependent, accelerated release of MTX at a decreasing pH from 7.4 to 5.3. The MTT assay indicated that encapsulated MTX exhibited higher anticancer activity than free MTX. Meanwhile, MTX-loaded nanogels could be effectively endocytosed by HepG2 cells, resulting in enhanced cancer-cell apoptosis comparing to free MTX. It indicated that the nanogels had good biocompatibility and low toxicity. The obtained nanogels had great potential in the development of a new nanocarrier for anti-cancer drug delivery. PMID:25601095

  13. Block and graft copolymers and NanoGel copolymer networks for DNA delivery into cell.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, P; Vinogradov, S V; Gebhart, C L; Guérin, N; Paradis, G; Nguyen, H K; Ochietti, B; Suzdaltseva, Y G; Bartakova, E V; Bronich, T K; St-Pierre, Y; Alakhov, V Y; Kabanov, A V

    2000-01-01

    Self-assembling complexes from nucleic acids and synthetic polymers are evaluated for plasmid and oligonucleotide (oligo) delivery. Polycations having linear, branched, dendritic. block- or graft copolymer architectures are used in these studies. All these molecules bind to nucleic acids due to formation of cooperative systems of salt bonds between the cationic groups of the polycation and phosphate groups of the DNA. To improve solubility of the DNA/polycation complexes, cationic block and graft copolymers containing segments from polycations and non-ionic soluble polymers, for example, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were developed. Binding of these copolymers with short DNA chains, such as oligos, results in formation of species containing hydrophobic sites from neutralized DNA polycation complex and hydrophilic sites from PEO. These species spontaneously associate into polyion complex micelles with a hydrophobic core from neutralized polyions and a hydrophilic shell from PEO. Such complexes are very small (10-40 nm) and stable in solution despite complete neutralization of charge. They reveal significant activity with oligos in vitro and in vivo. Binding of cationic copolymers to plasmid DNA forms larger (70-200 nm) complexes. which are practically inactive in cell transfection studies. It is likely that PEO prevents binding of these complexes with the cell membranes ("stealth effect"). However attaching specific ligands to the PEO-corona can produce complexes, which are both stable in solution and bind to target cells. The most efficient complexes were obtained when PEO in the cationic copolymer was replaced with membrane-active PEO-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-PEO molecules (Pluronic 123). Such complexes exhibited elevated levels of transgene expression in liver following systemic administration in mice. To increase stability of the complexes, NanoGel carriers were developed that represent small hydrogel particles synthesized by cross-linking of PEI with double end activated PEO using an emulsification/solvent evaporation technique. Oligos are immobilized by mixing with NanoGel suspension, which results in the formation of small particles (80 nm). Oligos incorporated in NanoGel are able to reach targets within the cell and suppress gene expression in a sequence-specific fashion. Further. loaded NanoGel particles cross-polarized monolayers of intestinal cells (Caco-2) suggesting potential usefulness of these systems for oral administration of oligos. In conclusion the approaches using polycations for gene delivery for the design of gene transfer complexes that exhibit a very broad range of physicochemical and biological properties, which is essential for design of a new generation of more effective non-viral gene delivery systems. PMID:10852341

  14. A novel crosslinked hyaluronic acid nanogel for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Sílvia Santos; Gonçalves, Catarina; David, Laurent; Gama, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    An amphiphilic hyaluronic acid conjugate is successfully developed based on grafting a thiolated hydrophobic molecule to the polysaccharide backbone. The engineered conjugate is capable of assembling into nanostructures once dispersed in water, with average diameter of 80.2?±?0.4?nm (n?=?5), stable up to 6 months. The thiolated HyA conjugate is reticulated by dissulfide bond with a homofunctional crosslinker-1,4-Bis(3-[2-pyridyldithio]propionamido)butane (DPDPB). The drug loading efficiency of the reticulated and non-reticulated nanogel is accessed with two hydrophobic drugs, curcumin and simvastatin. Results suggest that crosslinked nanogel exhibit higher stability upon dilution and drug loading efficiency and proves to be a redox sensitive material. The nanogels hold great potential as stealth carriers of lipophilic drugs. PMID:25088667

  15. Polypeptide nanogels with hydrophobic moieties in the cross-linked ionic cores: synthesis, characterization and implications for anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Oh; Oberoi, Hardeep S; Desale, Swapnil; Kabanov, Alexander V; Bronich, Tatiana K

    2013-12-01

    Polymer nanogels have gained considerable attention as a potential platform for drug delivery applications. Here we describe the design and synthesis of novel polypeptide-based nanogels with hydrophobic moieties in the cross-linked ionic cores. Diblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-glutamic acid), hydrophobically modified with L-phenylalanine methyl ester moieties was used for controlled template synthesis of nanogels with small size (ca. 70 nm in diameter) and narrow particle size distribution. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence studies using coumarin C153 indicated the existence of hydrophobic domains in the ionic cores of the nanogels. Stable doxorubicin-loaded nanogels were prepared at high drug capacity (30 w/w%). We show that nanogels are enzymatically-degradable leading to accelerated drug release under simulated lysosomal acidic pH. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the nanogel-based formulation of doxorubicin is well tolerated and exhibit an improved antitumor activity compared to a free doxorubicin in an ovarian tumor xenograft mouse model. Our results signify the point to a potential of these biodegradable nanogels as attractive carriers for delivery of chemotherapeutics. PMID:23998716

  16. Designing Nanogel Carriers for Antibacterial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, M. Carme Coll; Dastgheyb, Sana; Hickok, Noreen J.; Eckmann, David M.; Composto, Russell J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we developed a novel and simple synthesis route to create nanosized (~ 5 nm) silver nanoparticles (NP) embedded in a biocompatible nanogel (NG) comprised of degradable, natural polymers, namely, dextran and lysozyme. In this study, we prepare hybrid nanogels with varying lysozyme content, evaluate their potential to reduce Ag NPs in situ (UV-Vis, cryo-TEM, TGA and FTIR) and determine their antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Lysozyme enhances nucleation and stabilization of Ag NPs while limiting their growth. As lysozyme concentration increases, larger nanogels with greater loading of smaller Ag NPs are obtained. The antibacterial properties of hybrid NGs depend upon nanogel type and bacterial conditions. Hybrid nanogels with the largest Ag NPs show the lowest minimum inhibition concentration (MIC). However, the greatest bacterial killing efficiency (up to 100%) occurs within one hour if the bacteria are exposed to hybrid nanogels with smaller Ag NPs while agitating the medium. These results suggest that nanogel properties as well as antibacterial activity can be tuned by varying lysozyme content. By targeting drug delivery (e.g., ligand grafted surface), these nanogels can be used to prevent biofilm formation and control infection without the complications (i.e., over exposure) associated with classical antibiotic delivery platforms. PMID:24434534

  17. Novel core shell magnetic nanogels synthesized in an emulsion-free aqueous system under UV irradiation for targeted radiopharmaceutical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hanwen; Yu, Jiahui; Gong, Peijun; Xu, Dongmei; Zhang, Chunfu; Yao, Side

    2005-07-01

    Novel core-shell poly(acrylamide) magnetic nanogels with controllable particle size produced via a photochemical method in an emulsion-free aqueous system at room temperature have been developed for the first time. After Hoffmann elimination of carbonyl, nanogels with amino groups, or poly(acrylamide-vinyl amine) magnetic nanogels, were also obtained. Particle size, size distributions and zeta potential of the magnetic nanogels before and after Hoffmann elimination were measured by photo-correlation spectroscopy (PCS). The structure and morphology of the magnetic nanogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The higher dispersibility and stability of the magnetic nanogels suggest promising potential applications in targeted radiopharmaceuticals carriers for cancer therapy, and in biological and medical studies as well.

  18. Design and engineering of nanogels for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yallapu, Murali Mohan; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash

    2011-01-01

    Here, we provide a comprehensive insight into current advances in the use of nanogel-mediated chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Nanogels are composed of cross-linked three-dimensional polymer chain networks that are formed via covalent linkages or self-assembly processes. The porosity between the cross-linked networks of nanogels not only provides an ideal reservoir for loading drugs, oligonucleotides and imaging agents, but also protects them from environmental degradation and hazards. Here, we focus mainly on novel synthetic strategies and key considerations in the design of nanogel-based drug delivery systems for controlled and targeted cancer therapeutic applications. PMID:21414419

  19. Biodistribution and Renal Clearance of Biocompatible Lung Targeted Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) Nanogel Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Manjeet; Kutscher, Hilliard L.; Gao, Dayuan; Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Malaviya, Rama; Vayas, Kinal; Stein, Stanley; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    A novel stabilized aggregated nanogel particle (SANP) drug delivery system was prepared for injectable passive lung targeting. Gel nanoparticles (GNPs) were synthesized by irreversibly cross-linking 8 Arm PEG thiol with 1,6-Hexane-bis-vinylsulfone (HBVS) in phosphate buffer (PB, pH 7.4) containing 0.1% v/v Tween™ 80. Aggregated nanogel particles (ANPs) were generated by aggregating GNPs to micron-size, which were then stabilized (i.e., SANPs) using a PEG thiol polymer to prevent further growth-aggregation. The size of SANPs, ANPs and GNPs was analyzed using a Coulter counter and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Stability studies of SANPs were performed at 37 °C in rat plasma, phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) and PB (pH 7.4). SANPs were stable in rat plasma, PBS and PB over 7 days. SANPs were covalently labeled with HiLyteFluor™750 (DYE-SANPs) to facilitate ex vivo imaging. Biodistribution of intravenous DYE-SANPs (30 ?m, 4 mg in 500 ?L PBS) in male Sprague-Dawley rats was compared to free HiLyteFluor™750 DYE alone (1 mg in 500 ?L PBS) and determined using a Xenogen IVIS®100 Imaging System. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that free DYE was rapidly eliminated from the body by renal filtration, whereas DYE-SANPs accumulated in the lung within 30 minutes and persisted for 48 h. DYE-SANPs were enzymatically degraded to their original principle components (i.e., DYE-PEG-thiol and PEG-VS polymer) and were then eliminated from the body by renal filtration. Histological evaluation using H & E staining and broncho alveolar lavage (BAL) confirmed that these flexible SANPs were not toxic. This suggests that because of their flexible and non-toxic nature, SANPs may be a useful alternative for treating pulmonary diseases such as asthma, pneumonia, tuberculosis and disseminated lung cancer. PMID:23041417

  20. Skin permeating nanogel for the cutaneous co-delivery of two anti-inflammatory drugs

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Punit; Desai, Pinaki; Patel, Apurva; Singh, Mandip

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an effective drug delivery system for the simultaneous topical delivery of two anti-inflammatory drugs, spantide II (SP) and ketoprofen (KP). To achieve this primary goal we have developed a skin permeating nanogel system (SPN) containing surface modified polymeric bilayered nanoparticles along with a gelling agent. Poly-(lactide-co-glycolic acid) and chitosan were used to prepare bilayered nanoparticles (NPS) and the surface was modified with oleic acid (NPSO). Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol with the desired viscosity were utilized to prepare the nanogels. The nanogel system was further investigated for in vitro skin permeation, drug release and stability studies. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriatic plaque like model were used to assess the effectiveness of SPN. Dispersion of NPSO in HPMC (SPN) produced a stable and uniform dispersion. In vitro permeation studies revealed increase in deposition of SP for the SP-SPN or SP+KP-SPN in the epidermis and dermis by 8.5 and 9.5 folds, respectively than SP-gel. Further, the deposition of KP for KP-SPN or SP+KP-SPN in epidermis and dermis was 9.75 and 11.55 folds higher, respectively than KP-gel. Similarly the amount of KP permeated for KP-SPN or SP+KP-SPN was increased by 9.92 folds than KP-gel. The ear thickness in ACD model and the expression of IL-17 and IL-23; PASI score and TEWL values in psoriatic plaque like model were significantly less (p<0.001) for SPN compared to control gel. Our results suggest that SP+KP-SPN have significant potential for the percutaneous delivery of SP and KP to the deeper skin layers for treatment of various skin inflammatory disorders. PMID:22118820

  1. Targeted nanogel conjugate for improved stability and cellular permeability of curcumin: synthesis, pharmacokinetics, and tumor growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Senanayake, Thulani H; Bohling, Anna; Vinogradov, Serguei V

    2014-09-01

    Curcumin (CUR) is a unique natural compound with promising anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin was challenged in clinical trials, mostly due to its low bioavailability, rapid metabolism, and elimination. We designed a nanodrug form of curcumin, which makes it stable and substantially enhances cellular permeability and anticancer activity at standard oral administration. Curcumin was conjugated as an ester to cholesteryl-hyaluronic acid (CHA) nanogel that is capable of targeted delivery to CD44-expressing drug-resistant cancer cells. CHA-CUR nanogels demonstrated excellent solubility and sustained drug release in physiological conditions. It induced apoptosis in cancer cells, suppressing the expression of NF-?B, TNF-?, and COX-2 cellular targets similar to free curcumin. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies also revealed improved circulation parameters of CHA-CUR at oral, i.p. and i.v. administration routes. CHA-CUR showed targeted tumor accumulation and effective tumor growth inhibition in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma MiaPaCa-2 and aggressive orthotropic murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 animal models. CHA-CUR treatment was well-tolerated and resulted in up to 13-fold tumor suppression, making this nanodrug a potential candidate for cancer prevention and therapeutic treatment. PMID:25072100

  2. Nanogels as Pharmaceutical Carriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander V. Kabanov; Serguei V. Vinogradov

    Nanogels are nanosized networks of chemically or physically cross-linked polymers that swell in a good solvent. The term “nanogel”\\u000a (NanoGel™) was first introduced by us to define cross-linked bifunctional networks of a polyion and a nonionic polymer for\\u000a delivery of polynucleotides (cross-linked polyethyleneimine (PEI) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or PEG-cl-PEI) (Lemieux et al., 2000; Vinogradov et al., 1999). However, some

  3. Photoregulation of drug release in azo-dextran nanogels.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Satyakam; Sharma, Ashwani K; Garg, B S; Gandhi, R P; Gupta, K C

    2007-09-01

    A simple photoresponsive azo-dextran polymer has been investigated for its ability to act as a nanogel drug carrier. Self aggregation of the azo-dextran polymer leads to the formation of nanogels, AD (5 and 10) in aqueous media, which were characterized by TEM and DLS. When examined under UV light (365 nm), the unloaded nanogels, which were observed to be in the range of 120-290 nm, show dependence on the degree of crosslinking, pH and ionic concentration of the dispersed media. Nanogels, AD (5 and 10), have been loaded with a model fluorophore, rhodamine B and a drug, aspirin, by freeze drying an aqueous dispersion of the nanogels in the presence of the substrate dissolved in water or PBS buffer. The release pattern of the encapsulated bio-active molecules from these nanogels was regulated by (trans-cis) photoisomerization of the azobenzene moiety present in the crosslinker. A comparison of the release behavior of the loaded (rhodamine, aspirin) AD (5 and 10) nanogels reveal that the rate of release of the encapsulated active molecules from the nanogels was slower when the azo moiety was in E-configuration as compared to that the azo in the Z-configuration. The in vitro release behavior of drug from these polymeric micellar systems is revelative of the potential of the nanogels for targeted drug delivery in nanomedicine. PMID:17574354

  4. A magnetic nanogel based on O-carboxymethylchitosan for antitumor drug delivery: synthesis, characterization and in vitro drug release.

    PubMed

    Demarchi, Carla Albetina; Debrassi, Aline; Buzzi, Fátima de Campos; Corrêa, Rogério; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Rodrigues, Clovis Antonio; Nedelko, Nataliya; Demchenko, Pavlo; ?lawska-Waniewska, Anna; D?u?ewski, Piotr; Greneche, Jean-Marc

    2014-05-21

    This paper studied the synthesis, characterization and use of the magnetic chitosan nanogel for carrying meleimidic compounds. The hydrogel polymer was prepared using O-carboxymethylchitosan, which was crosslinked with epichlorohydrin for subsequent incorporation of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. The characterization revealed that the magnetic material comprises about 10% of the hydrogel. This material is comprised of magnetite and maghemite and exhibits ferro-ferrimagnetic behavior. The average particle size is 4.2 nm. There was high incorporation efficiency of maleimides in the magnetic nanogel. The release was of sustained character and there was a greater release when an external magnetic field was applied. The mathematical model that best explained the process of drug release by the magnetic hydrogel was that of Peppas-Sahlin. The magnetic nanogel proved to be an excellent candidate for use in drug-delivery systems. PMID:24647530

  5. Self-assembled lysozyme/carboxymethylcellulose nanogels for delivery of methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenshun; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Chunlan; Chen, Yijie; Li, Bin

    2015-04-01

    Nanogels (NGs) were fabricated with lysozyme and carboxymethylcellulose via a green self-assembly method. The prepared NGs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Pyrene and isothiocyanate were introduced as fluorescent probes to research the hydrophobic area of the NGs and cells endocytosis, respectively. Methotrexate (MTX) was used to investigate the drug encapsulation property of the NGs. It turned out to be that the drug loaded NGs were regular spherical shape with a hydrodynamic diameter of about 123 nm. The drug loading efficiency was about 14.2%. The NGs can slowly release the drug and increase the bioavailability of the loaded drug. The NGs are promising carriers for the delivery of drugs and other bioactive molecules. PMID:25637692

  6. Quantum dots loaded nanogels for low cytotoxicity, pH-sensitive fluorescence, cell imaging and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenshun; Xu, Wei; Wang, Yuntao; Shah, Bakht Ramin; Zhang, Chunlan; Chen, Yijie; Li, Yan; Li, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Nanogels (NGs) with drug tracking and delivery possess promising usage in clinical treatment. In this study, an available, low toxic and facile approach was developed to synthesize CdTe quantum dots loaded nanogels (QDs-NGs). The QDs-NGs retained the intrinsic pH sensitivity of the QDs with regard to the fluorescence intensity. The QDs-NGs were easily internalized by the cells as fluorescence probes, and acted as carriers for delivering methotrexate (MTX). The cellular uptake indicated that the QDs-NGs can protect QDs from decomposition in cytoplasm and retain the native fluorescence intensity. MTT assay demonstrated that the QDs-NGs greatly decreased the cytotoxicity of the QDs. The MTX loaded QDs-NGs exhibited slow release property in PBS buffer. Moreover, the MTX loaded QDs-NGs distinctly enhanced the availability of drug. The QDs-NGs are potential nanocarriers for the cell imaging and drug delivery. PMID:25659723

  7. pH-Triggered Magnetic-Chitosan Nanogels (MCNs) For Doxorubicin Delivery: Physically vs. Chemically Cross Linking Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sadighian, Somayeh; Hosseini-Monfared, Hassan; Rostamizadeh, Kobra; Hamidi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper evaluates the impact of cross linking strategy on the characteristics of magnetic chitosan nanogels (MCNs) as targeted drug delivery system for doxorubicin. Methods: Sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and glutaraldehyde were used as physical (electrostatic) and chemical (covalent binding) cross-linker agents, respectively. MCNs were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated the formation of spherical nanostructures with the final average particle size of around 35-40 nm. Results: The finding proved the superparamagnetic properties of the MCNs with relatively high-magnetization values which indicate that the MCNs were enough sensitive to external magnetic fields as a magnetic drug carrier. To understand the differences between the drug delivery properties of chemically and physically cross linked MCNs, the drug release studies were also conducted. Altogether, the results of this study clearly indicate that, however, both MCNs exhibited sustained drug release behaviour, the chemically cross linked MCNs provided enhanced controlled drug release characteristics in comparison to physically cross linked MCNs. Besides, according to the drug release behaviour of MCNs in buffer solutions in two different medium with the pH values of 5.3 and 7.4, it was clear that both nanoparticles exhibited pH sensitivity where the extent of drug release in the acidic media was significantly higher than neutral media. Conclusion: It can be concluded that chemically cross linked MCNs may serve as an ideal carrier for stimuli-triggered and controlled anticancer drug delivery. PMID:25789228

  8. Smart thermo/pH responsive magnetic nanogels for the simultaneous delivery of doxorubicin and methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Roya; Rasouli, Sepideh; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2015-06-20

    Two novel dual temperature/pH-sensitive superparamagnetic nanogels were developed with the aim of simultaneously delivering two different anticancer drugs, doxorubicin (DOX) and methotrexate (MTX). The studied copolymers were characterized by (1)H NMR, SEM, and FTIR spectroscopy. Morphological investigations showed that both blank and drug-loaded nanogels had uniform shapes with a mean diameter of less than 30nm. The drug storage/release behaviors were investigated. The nanogels showed an encapsulation efficiency of about 95% for both drugs. The cumulative in vitro release of the DOX/MTX-loaded nanogels exhibited an apparent thermo/pH-triggered controlled drug release in a sustained manner that was able to distinguish between tumor tissues. The cytotoxicity assay of a blank carrier to MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines indicated that the nanogels were suitable as drug carriers. Cell viability experiments further confirmed that the co-administration of DOX with MTX had a superior cytotoxicity to the mentioned cells compared with free dual drug- or single drug-loaded forms. Therefore, dual anticancer drug-loaded thermo/pH-sensitive nanogels have the potential to be used for cancer therapy, because they maintain a low premature drug release during blood circulation while having a rapid release upon reaching tumorous tissue. PMID:25895723

  9. Therapeutic Effect of Nanogel-Based Delivery of Soluble FGFR2 with S252W Mutation on Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Masako; Kobayashi, Yukiho; Morita, Jumpei; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Yoshihide; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Moriyama, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    Apert syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder caused by missense mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2). Surgical procedures are frequently required to reduce morphological and functional defects in patients with Apert syndrome; therefore, the development of noninvasive procedures to treat Apert syndrome is critical. Here we aimed to clarify the etiological mechanisms of craniosynostosis in mouse models of Apert syndrome and verify the effects of purified soluble FGFR2 harboring the S252W mutation (sFGFR2IIIcS252W) on calvarial sutures in Apert syndrome mice in vitro. We observed increased expression of Fgf10, Esrp1, and Fgfr2IIIb, which are indispensable for epidermal development, in coronal sutures in Apert syndrome mice. Purified sFGFR2IIIcS252W exhibited binding affinity for fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 2 but also formed heterodimers with FGFR2IIIc, FGFR2IIIcS252W, and FGFR2IIIbS252W. Administration of sFGFR2IIIcS252W also inhibited Fgf2-dependent proliferation, phosphorylation of intracellular signaling molecules, and mineralization of FGFR2S252W-overexpressing MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. sFGFR2IIIcS252W complexed with nanogels maintained the patency of coronal sutures, whereas synostosis was observed where the nanogel without sFGFR2S252W was applied. Thus, based on our current data, we suggest that increased Fgf10 and Fgfr2IIIb expression may induce the onset of craniosynostosis in patients with Apert syndrome and that the appropriate delivery of purified sFGFR2IIIcS252W could be effective for treating this disorder. PMID:25003957

  10. Efficient siRNA delivery based on PEGylated and partially quaternized polyamine nanogels: enhanced gene silencing activity by the cooperative effect of tertiary and quaternary amino groups in the core.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Atsushi; Oishi, Motoi; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2010-09-15

    For the development of an siRNA delivery system using polyion complexes (PICs) based on PEGylated nanogel consisting of a cross-linked poly[2-(N,N-diethylaminoethyl) methacrylate] (PEAMA) gel core and tethered poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains, quaternary ammonium groups were introduced in the polyamine gel core to enhance the binding ability with siRNA and the stability of the PICs. Consequently, the quaternization of the polyamine core of the nanogel facilitated the binding ability with siRNA at a low N/P ratio, and the stability against polyanion displacement was enhanced as the degree of quaternization (DQ) of the nanogel increased. Although the installation of the positively charged quaternary ammonium moieties in the core of the nanogel resulted in the increment of the xi-potential of the PICs (e.g. + 23 mV for DQ=100%), the cytotoxicity was reduced with the increase of DQ presumably due to the hydrophilic character of the quaternary ammonium groups. The installation of quaternary ammonium groups in the core of the nanogel enhanced the endogenous gene silencing activity against the survivin gene in human hepatocarcinoma (HuH-7 cells), especially, the partly quaternized polyamine nanogel (DQ=10%) showed the highest gene silencing ability among the quaternized polyamine nanogels, including the tertiary amine nanogel. The cellular uptake analysis of the Rhodamine B-labeled Q-nanogel/fluorescein-labeled siRNA complex revealed that the quaternization of PEAMA moieties enhanced the cellular uptake level of fluorescein-labeled siRNA with the increase in DQ, whereas the cellular uptake of the Rhodamine B-labeled Q-nanogels was almost of the same level regardless of the DQ value, indicating that significant cellular uptake of the fluorescein-labeled siRNA is most likely due to the enhancement of the binding ability with siRNA in the serum-containing medium. Note that the endosomal escape efficiency was reduced with increase in the DQ value due to the decrease in the buffering capacity (tertiary amino groups) of the PEAMA core. On the basis of these results, the ratio of quaternary ammonium groups to tertiary amino groups in the core of the nanogel plays a pivotal role in the achievement of significant gene silencing through enhanced cellular uptake (quaternary ammonium groups) and subsequent endosomal escape (tertiary amino groups). PMID:20621664

  11. Magnetic and pH dual responsive core-shell hybrid nanogels: a single nano-object for pH-dependent magnetic manipulation, fluorescent pH-sensing, and drug delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weitai [City University of New York (CUNY); Shen, Jing [City University of New York (CUNY); Gai, Zheng [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Banerjeea, Probal [City University of New York (CUNY); Zhou, Shuiqin [City University of New York (CUNY)

    2011-01-01

    Remotely optical sensing and drug delivery using an environmentally-guided magnetically-driven hybrid nanogel particle could allow for medical diagnostics and treatment. Such multifunctional hybrid nanogels (<200 nm) were prepared through the first synthesis of magnetic Ni NPs, followed by a moderate growth of fluorescent metallic Ag on the surface of Ni NPs, and then a coverage of a pH-responsive copolymer gel shell of poly(ethylene glycol-co-methacrylic acid) [p(EG-MAA)] onto the Ni-Ag bimetallic NP cores (18 {+-} 5 nm). The introduction of the pH-responsive p(EG-MAA) gel shell onto the magnetic and fluorescent Ni-Ag NPs makes the polymer-bound Ni-Ag NPs responsive to pH over the physiologically important range 5.0-7.4. The hybrid nanogels can adapt to surrounding pH and regulate the sensitivity in response to external magnetic field (such as a small magnet of 0.1 T), resulting in the accumulation of the hybrid nanogels within the duration from hours to a few seconds as the pH value decreases from 7.4 to 5.0. The pH-dependent magnetic response characteristic of the hybrid nanogels were further integrated with the pH change to fluorescent signal transduction and pH-regulated anticancer drug (a model drug 5-fluorouracil) delivery functions. The hybrid nanogels can overcome cellular barriers to enter the intracellular region and light up the mouse melanoma B16F10 cells. The multiple responsive hybrid nanogel that can be manipulated in tandem endogenous and exogenous activation should enhance our ability to address the complexity of biological systems.

  12. Core-shell hybrid nanogels for integration of optical temperature-sensing, targeted tumor cell imaging, and combined chemo-photothermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weitai; Shen, Jing; Banerjee, Probal; Zhou, Shuiqin

    2010-10-01

    We report a class of core-shell structured hybrid nanogels to demonstrate the conception of integrating the functional building blocks into a single nanoparticle system for simultaneously optical temperature-sensing, cancer cell targeting, fluorescence imaging, and combined chemo-photothermal treatment. The hybrid nanogels were constructed by coating the Ag-Au bimetallic NP core with a thermo-responsive nonlinear poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel as shell, and semi-interpenetrating the targeting ligands of hyaluronic acid chains into the surface networks of gel shell. The Ag-Au NP core can emit strong visible fluorescence for imaging of mouse melanoma B16F10 cells. The reversible thermo-responsive volume phase transition of the nonlinear PEG-based gel shell cannot only modify the physicochemical environment of the Ag-Au NP core to manipulate the fluorescence intensity for sensing the environmental temperature change, but also provide a high loading capacity for a model anticancer drug temozolomide and offer a thermo-triggered drug release. The drug release can be induced by both the heat generated by external NIR irradiation and the temperature increase of local environmental media. The ability of the hybrid nanogels to combine the local specific chemotherapy with external NIR photothermal treatment significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy due to a synergistic effect. PMID:20643481

  13. Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery

    E-print Network

    Chow, Gan-Moog

    Nanoparticles were synthesized and modified for target drug delivery. The research involved the aqueous synthesis of near infrared (NIR) sensitive Au-Au2S nanoparticles. An anti-cancer drug (cis-platin) ...

  14. Stimuli-responsive polyamine-DNA blend nanogels for co-delivery in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Costa, Diana; Valente, Artur J M; Queiroz, João

    2015-08-01

    Polyamine plasmid DNA (pDNA) hydrogels have been synthesized by an original approach which conjugates pDNA condensation by polyamines and cross-linking reaction with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether. In an attempt to design more sophisticated vectors with enhanced transfection efficiency and targeting ability, the cell-binding ligand transferrin has been incorporated into polyethylenimine formulations. All systems are photodegradable which allows for the controlled release of different plasmids (pVAX1-LacZ and pcDNA3-FLAG-p53) and anticancer drugs (doxorubicin, epirubicin and paclitaxel). The tumoral treatment through the combined action of pcDNA3-FLAG-p53 gene and an anticancer drug has a stronger potential to suppress the development of cancer cells. The effect is greatly improved when transferrin is encapsulated into the carriers. This study is a relevant contribution for the design of novel generation of plasmid biopharmaceuticals for progresses in gene cancer therapy, feeding the hope of cancer cure. PMID:26047882

  15. Ex vivo skin permeation and retention studies on chitosan-ibuprofen-gellan ternary nanogel prepared by in situ ionic gelation technique-a tool for controlled transdermal delivery of ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Abioye, Amos Olusegun; Issah, Sureya; Kola-Mustapha, Adeola Tawakalitu

    2015-07-25

    The chemical potentials of drug-polymer electrostatic interaction have been utilized to develop a novel ternary chitosan-ibuprofen-gellan nanogel as controlled transdermal delivery tool for ibuprofen. The ternary nanogels were prepared by a combination of electrostatic nanoassembly and ionic gelation techniques. The electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions as well as hydrogen bonding between ibuprofen and chitosan were confirmed with FTIR, while DSC, TGA and SEM confirmed the physical state, thermal and morphological characteristics, respectively. The ex vivo delivery of ibuprofen onto and across the skin was evaluated based on system specific drug release parameters such as steady state permeation rate, permeability coefficient, permeability enhancement ratio, skin/gel partition coefficient, diffusion coefficient, lag time and release rate constant and mechanisms of release were determined using mathematical models. Interaction between ibuprofen and chitosan produced new spherical eutectic nanoconjugates with remarkable decrease in particle size of ibuprofen from 4580 (length-to-breadth aspect ratio) to a minimum of 14.15nm (324-times), and thermally stable amorphous characteristics. The nanogels exhibited significant elastic and pseudoplastic characteristics dictated by the concentration of chitosan with maximum swelling capacity of 775% w/w at 6.55mM chitosan compared with 281.16 and 506.50% for plain gellan and control ibuprofen hydrogel, respectively. Chitosan enhanced the skin penetration, permeability and the rate of transdermal release of ibuprofen by a factor of 4, dictated by the extent of ibuprofen-chitosan ionic interaction and its concentration. The major mechanism of ibuprofen release through the pig skin was drug diffusion however drug partition and matrix erosion also occurred. It was evident that ternary nanogels are novel formulations with potential application in controlled transdermal delivery of ibuprofen. PMID:25997660

  16. Aptamers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Partha; White, Rebekah R.

    2010-01-01

    Aptamers are a class of therapeutic oligonucleotides that form specific three-dimensional structures that are dictated by their sequences. They are typically generated by an iterative screening process of complex nucleic acid libraries employing a process termed Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). SELEX has traditionally been performed using purified proteins, and cell surface receptors may be challenging to purify in their properly folded and modified conformations. Therefore, relatively few aptamers have been generated that bind cell surface receptors. However, improvements in recombinant fusion protein technology have increased the availability of receptor extracellular domains as purified protein targets, and the development of cell-based selection techniques has allowed selection against surface proteins in their native configuration on the cell surface. With cell-based selection, a specific protein target is not always chosen, but selection is performed against a target cell type with the goal of letting the aptamer choose the target. Several studies have demonstrated that aptamers that bind cell surface receptors may have functions other than just blocking receptor-ligand interactions. All cell surface proteins cycle intracellularly to some extent, and many surface receptors are actively internalized in response to ligand binding. Therefore, aptamers that bind cell surface receptors have been exploited for the delivery of a variety of cargoes into cells. This review focuses on recent progress and current challenges in the field of aptamer-mediated delivery.

  17. Preparation and characterisation of gelatin-gum arabic aldehyde nanogels via inverse miniemulsion technique.

    PubMed

    Sarika, P R; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2015-05-01

    Gelatin-gum arabic aldehyde nanogels designed by a nanoreactor concept using inverse miniemulsion technique were reported. Stable separate miniemulsions were prepared from gelatin (Gel) and gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). These emulsions were intermixed under sonication to obtain cross-linked nanogels. During fusion, cross-linking occurred between aldehyde groups of GAA and amino groups of gelatin. The concentration of the surfactant and weight fraction of water in the inverse miniemulsion was optimised so as to yield nanogels with controlled particle size. Properties of the nanogels were studied by FT-IR spectroscopy, particle size analysis and XRD. Surface morphology of the nanogels was established by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM and particle size analysis confirmed that nanogels possess spherical morphology with an average diameter of 151±6nm. Hemolysis property of the nanogels was examined and the results indicated that the nanogels were hemocompatible. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the nanogels towards MCF-7 cells was evaluated by MTT assay and the nanogels showed nontoxic behaviour towards the cells. All these studies confirm that these nanogels are potential candidates in applications such as drug and gene delivery. PMID:25748843

  18. Application of chitosan-based nanocarriers in tumor-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ghaz-Jahanian, Mohammad Ali; Abbaspour-Aghdam, Farzin; Anarjan, Navideh; Berenjian, Aydin; Jafarizadeh-Malmiri, Hoda

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is one of the major malignant diseases in the world. Current anti tumor agents are restricted during the chemotherapy due to their poor solubility in aqueous media, multidrug resistance problems, cytotoxicity, and serious side effects to healthy tissues. Development of targeted drug nanocarriers would enhance the undesirable effects of anticancer drugs and also selectively deliver them to cancerous tissues. Variety of nanocarriers such as micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes nanogels, dendrimers, and carbon nanotubes have been used for targeted delivery of anticancer agents. These nanocarriers transfer loaded drugs to desired sites through passive or active efficacy mechanisms. Chitosan and its derivatives, due to their unique properties such as hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, have attracted attention to be used in nanocarriers. Grafting cancer-specific ligands onto the Chitosan nanoparticles, which leads to ligand-receptor interactions, has been successfully developed as active targeting. Chitosan-conjugated components also respond to external or internal physical and chemical stimulus in targeted tumors that is called environment triggers. In this study, mechanisms of targeted tumor deliveries via nanocarriers were explained; specifically, chitosan-based nanocarriers in tumor-targeting drug delivery were also discussed. PMID:25385004

  19. Aptamer-targeted Antigen Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wengerter, Brian C; Katakowski, Joseph A; Rosenberg, Jacob M; Park, Chae Gyu; Almo, Steven C; Palliser, Deborah; Levy, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Effective therapeutic vaccines often require activation of T cell-mediated immunity. Robust T cell activation, including CD8 T cell responses, can be achieved using antibodies or antibody fragments to direct antigens of interest to professional antigen presenting cells. This approach represents an important advance in enhancing vaccine efficacy. Nucleic acid aptamers present a promising alternative to protein-based targeting approaches. We have selected aptamers that specifically bind the murine receptor, DEC205, a C-type lectin expressed predominantly on the surface of CD8?+ dendritic cells (DCs) that has been shown to be efficient at facilitating antigen crosspresentation and subsequent CD8+ T cell activation. Using a minimized aptamer conjugated to the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA), DEC205-targeted antigen crosspresentation was verified in vitro and in vivo by proliferation and cytokine production by primary murine CD8+ T cells expressing a T cell receptor specific for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I-restricted OVA257–264 peptide SIINFEKL. Compared with a nonspecific ribonucleic acid (RNA) of similar length, DEC205 aptamer-OVA-mediated antigen delivery stimulated strong proliferation and production of interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-2. The immune responses elicited by aptamer-OVA conjugates were sufficient to inhibit the growth of established OVA-expressing B16 tumor cells. Our results demonstrate a new application of aptamer technology for the development of effective T cell-mediated vaccines. PMID:24682172

  20. Application of activated nucleoside analogs for the treatment of drug-resistant tumors by oral delivery of nanogel-drug conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, Thulani H.; Warren, Galya; Wei, Xin; Vinogradov, Serguei V.

    2013-01-01

    A majority of nanoencapsulated drugs that have shown promise in cancer chemotherapy are administered intravenously. Development of effective oral nanoformulations presents a very challenging medical goal. Here, we describe successful applications of innovative polymeric nanogels in the form of conjugates with activated nucleoside analogs for oral administration in cancer chemotherapy. Previously, we reported the synthesis of amphiphilic polyvinyl alcohol and dextrin-based nanogel conjugates with the phosphorylated 5-FU nucleoside Floxuridine and demonstrated their enhanced activity against regular and drug-resistant cancers[1]. In this study, we synthesized and evaluated oral applications of nanogel conjugates of a protected Gemcitabine, the drug never used in oral therapies. These conjugates were able to quickly release an active form of the drug (Gemcitabine 5?-mono-, di- and triphosphates) by specific enzymatic activities, or slowly during hydrolysis. Gemcitabine conjugates demonstrated up to 127 times higher in vitro efficacy than the free drug against various cancer cells, including the lines resistant to nucleoside analogs. Surprisingly, these nanogel-drug conjugates were relatively stable in gastric conditions and able to actively penetrate through the gastrointestinal barrier based on permeability studies in Caco-2 cell model. In tumor xenograft models of several drug-resistant human cancers, we observed an efficient inhibition of tumor growth and extended the life-span of the animals by 4 times that of the control with orally treated Gemcitabine- or Floxuridine-nanogel conjugates. Thus, we have demonstrated a potential of therapeutic nanogel conjugates with the activated and stabilized Gemcitabine as a successful oral drug form against Gemcitabine-resistant and other drug-resistant tumors. PMID:23385032

  1. Tumor-targeting nanogel that can function independently for both photodynamic and photothermal therapy and its synergy from the procedure of PDT followed by PTT.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ja-Young; Choi, Won Il; Kim, Manse; Tae, Giyoong

    2013-10-28

    A dual-function nano-system for synergistic photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) was constructed. Gold nanorods (GNRs) as a PTT agent and chlorin e6 (Ce6) as a photosensitizer (PS) for PDT were loaded into a chitosan-functionalized, Pluronic-based nanogel that was proven to be an efficient delivery vehicle to the tumor site in vivo. Previously reported combined therapy systems relied on quenching and de-quenching of PS for PDT upon thermo-impact of PTT, thus only PTT followed by PDT procedure was possible. In contrast, the present dual-acting system has no quenching between PS and GNRs by preventing direct contact and self-aggregation of photo-sensitizers, allowing independent PDT or PTT procedure. In both in vitro cell culture and in vivo tumor-bearing mice experiments, a remarkably enhanced tumor ablation compared to the treatment of PDT or PTT only was observed by the treatment of PDT followed by PTT, but not significantly by the treatment of PTT followed by PDT. Thus, the present study demonstrated the synergistic effect of PDT and PTT in a sequence-dependent manner, and our system is a promising dual function nano system to achieve the enhanced phototherapy in vivo. PMID:23860187

  2. Targeted Delivery Systems for Oligonucleotide Therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Yu; Xiaobin Zhao; L. James Lee; Robert J. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Oligonucleotides including antisense oligonucleotides and siRNA are emerging as promising therapeutic agents against a variety\\u000a of diseases. Effective delivery of these molecules is critical to their successful clinical application. Targeted systems\\u000a can greatly improve the efficiency and specificity of oligonucleotides delivery. Meanwhile, an effective delivery system must\\u000a successfully overcome a multitude of biological barriers to enable the oligonucleotides to reach

  3. Polymers for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rajpurohit, H.; Sharma, P.; Sharma, S.; Bhandari, A.

    2010-01-01

    The colon targeted drug delivery has a number of important implications in the field of pharmacotherapy. Oral colon targeted drug delivery systems have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration. Targeting of drugs to the colon via oral administration protect the drug from degradation or release in the stomach and small intestine. It also ensures abrupt or controlled release of the drug in the proximal colon. Various drug delivery systems have been designed that deliver the drug quantitatively to the colon and then trigger the release of drug. This review will cover different types of polymers which can be used in formulation of colon targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:21969739

  4. Nanogel scavengers for drugs: Local anesthetic uptake by thermoresponsive nanogels

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, Todd; Sivakumaran, Daryl; Stefanescu, Cristina; Lawlor, Michael W.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    The use of functional nanogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for effectively scavenging compounds (here, the model drug bupivacaine) is demonstrated using an in vitro cell-based assay. Nanogels containing higher loadings of acidic functional groups or more core-localized functional group distributions bound more bupivacaine, while nanogel size had no significant effect on drug binding. Increasing the dose of nanogel applied also facilitated more bupivacaine binding for all nanogel compositions tested. Binding was driven predominantly by acid-base interactions between the nanogels (anionic) and bupivacaine (cationic) at physiological pH, although both non-specific absorption and hydrophobic partitioning also contributed to drug scavenging. Nanogels exhibited minimal cytotoxicity to multiple cell types and were well-tolerated in vivo via peritoneal injections, although larger nanogels caused limited splenic toxicity at higher concentrations. The cell-based assay described herein is found to facilitate more robust drug uptake measurements for nanogels than conventional centrifugation-based assays, in which nanogels can be compressed (and thus drug released) during the measurement. PMID:22244983

  5. ENDOCYTIC MECHANISMS FOR TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Bareford, Lisa M.; Swaan, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in the delivery of targeted drug systems have evolved to enable highly regulated site specific localization to subcellular organelles. Targeting therapeutics to individual intracellular compartments has resulted in benefits to therapies associated with these unique organelles. Endocytosis, a mechanism common to all cells in the body, internalizes macromolecules and retains them in transport vesicles which traffic along the endolysosomal scaffold. An array of vesicular internalization mechanisms exist, therefore understanding the key players specific to each pathway has allowed researchers to bioengineer macromolecular complexes for highly specialized delivery. Membrane specific receptors most frequently enter the cell through endocytosis following the binding of a high affinity ligand. High affinity ligands interact with membrane receptors, internalize in membrane bound vesicles, and traffic through cells in different manners to allow for accumulation in early endosomal fractions or lysosomally associated fractions. Although most drug delivery complexes aim to avoid lysosomal degradation, more recent studies have shown the clinical utility in directed protein delivery to this environment for the enzymatic release of therapeutics. Targeting nanomedicine complexes to the endolysosomal pathway have serious potential for improving drug delivery for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease. Although several issues remain for receptor specific targeting, current work is investigating a synthetic receptor approach for high affinity binding of targeted macromolecules. PMID:17659804

  6. Nanoparticles for intracellular-targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, Cristiana S. O.; Pires das Neves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Lino S.

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are very promising for the intracellular delivery of anticancer and immunomodulatory drugs, stem cell differentiation biomolecules and cell activity modulators. Although initial studies in the area of intracellular drug delivery have been performed in the delivery of DNA, there is an increasing interest in the use of other molecules to modulate cell activity. Herein, we review the latest advances in the intracellular-targeted delivery of short interference RNA, proteins and small molecules using NPs. In most cases, the drugs act at different cellular organelles and therefore the drug-containing NPs should be directed to precise locations within the cell. This will lead to the desired magnitude and duration of the drug effects. The spatial control in the intracellular delivery might open new avenues to modulate cell activity while avoiding side-effects.

  7. Nanogels based on alginic aldehyde and gelatin by inverse miniemulsion technique: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sarika, P R; Anil Kumar, P R; Raj, Deepa K; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2015-03-30

    Nanogels were developed from alginic aldehyde and gelatin by an inverse miniemulsion technique. Stable inverse miniemulsions were prepared by sonication of noncontinuous aqueous phase (mixture of alginic aldehyde and gelatin) in a continuous organic phase (Span 20 dissolved in cyclohexane). Cross-linking occurred between alginic aldehyde (AA) and gelatin (gel) in the presence of borax by Schiff's base reaction during the formation of inverse miniemulsion. The effects of surfactant (Span 20) concentration, volume of the aqueous phase and AA/gel weight ratio on the size of the alginic aldehyde-gelatin (AA-gel) nanoparticles were studied. Nanogels were characterized by DLS, FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA, SEM and TEM. DLS, TEM and SEM studies demonstrated nanosize and spherical morphology of the nanogels. Hemocompatibility and in vitro cytocompatibility analyses of the nanogels proved their nontoxicity. The results indicated the potential of the present nanogel system as a candidate for drug- and gene-delivery applications. PMID:25563951

  8. Targeted drug delivery via the folate receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Sudimack; Robert J Lee

    2000-01-01

    The folate receptor is a highly selective tumor marker overexpressed in greater than 90% of ovarian carcinomas. Two general strategies have been developed for the targeted delivery of drugs to folate receptor-positive tumor cells: by coupling to a monoclonal antibody against the receptor and by coupling to a high affinity ligand, folic acid. First, antibodies against the folate receptor, including

  9. Colloidal microgels in drug delivery applications

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei V.

    2005-01-01

    Colloidal microgels have recently received attention as environmentally responsive systems and now are increasingly used in applications as carriers for therapeutic drugs and diagnostic agents. Synthetic microgels consist of a crosslinked polymer network that provides a depot for loaded drugs, protection against environmental hazards and template for post-synthetic modification or vectorization of the drug carriers. The aim of this manuscript is to review recent attempts to develop new microgel formulations for oral drug delivery, to design metal-containing microgels for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, and to advance approaches including the systemic administration of microgels. Novel nanogel drug delivery systems developed in the authors’ laboratory are discussed in details including aspects of their synthesis, vectorization and recent applications for encapsulation of low molecular weight drugs or formulation of biological macromolecules. The findings reviewed here are encouraging for further development of the nanogels as intelligent drug carriers with such features as targeted delivery and triggered drug release. PMID:17168773

  10. Macromolecules in drug delivery Macromolecular targeting agents, carriers, and drugs

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    Macromolecules in drug delivery Macromolecular targeting agents, carriers, and drugs 1gauthier@emt.inrs.ca #12;Why macromolecules in drug delivery? 2gauthier@emt.inrs.ca Classic chemotherapy Drug delivery? Targeting A carrier for small drugs A release mechanism (if necessary) Protection of drug cargo #12;How? 3

  11. Liposome-templated supramolecular assembly of responsive alginate nanogels.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jennifer S; Vreeland, Wyatt N; Lacerda, Silvia H DePaoli; Locascio, Laurie E; Gaitan, Michael; Raghavan, Srinivasa R

    2008-04-15

    Nanosized gel particles (nanogels) are of interest for a variety of applications, including drug delivery and single-molecule encapsulation. Here, we employ the cores of nanoscale liposomes as reaction vessels to template the assembly of calcium alginate nanogels. For our experiments, a liposome formulation with a high bilayer melting temperature (Tm) is selected, and sodium alginate is encapsulated in the liposomal core. The liposomes are then placed in an aqueous buffer containing calcium chloride, and the temperature is raised up to Tm. This allows permeation of Ca2+ ions through the bilayer and into the core, whereupon these ions gel the encapsulated alginate. Subsequently, the lipid bilayer covering the gelled core is removed by the addition of a detergent. The resulting alginate nanogels have a size distribution consistent with that of the template liposomes (ca. 120-200 nm), as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and light scattering. Nanogels of different average sizes can be synthesized by varying the template dimensions, and the gel size can be further tuned after synthesis by the addition of monovalent salt to the solution. PMID:18338908

  12. Targeted estrogen delivery reverses the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Finan, Brian; Yang, Bin; Ottaway, Nickki; Stemmer, Kerstin; Müller, Timo D; Yi, Chun-Xia; Habegger, Kirk; Schriever, Sonja C; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Kabra, Dhiraj G; Hembree, Jazzminn; Holland, Jenna; Raver, Christine; Seeley, Randy J; Hans, Wolfgang; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrab?; Tiano, Joseph P; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Pfluger, Paul; Zhang, Lianshan; Gelfanov, Vasily; DiMarchi, Richard D; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2012-12-01

    We report the development of a new combinatorial approach that allows for peptide-mediated selective tissue targeting of nuclear hormone pharmacology while eliminating adverse effects in other tissues. Specifically, we report the development of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-estrogen conjugate that has superior sex-independent efficacy over either of the individual hormones alone to correct obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in mice. The therapeutic benefits are driven by pleiotropic dual hormone action to improve energy, glucose and lipid metabolism, as shown by loss-of-function models and genetic action profiling. Notably, the peptide-based targeting strategy also prevents hallmark side effects of estrogen in male and female mice, such as reproductive endocrine toxicity and oncogenicity. Collectively, selective activation of estrogen receptors in GLP-1-targeted tissues produces unprecedented efficacy to enhance the metabolic benefits of GLP-1 agonism. This example of targeting the metabolic syndrome represents the discovery of a new class of therapeutics that enables synergistic co-agonism through peptide-based selective delivery of small molecules. Although our observations with the GLP-1-estrogen conjugate justify translational studies for diabetes and obesity, the multitude of other possible combinations of peptides and small molecules may offer equal promise for other diseases. PMID:23142820

  13. Targeted estrogen delivery reverses the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Brian; Yang, Bin; Ottaway, Nickki; Stemmer, Kerstin; Müller, Timo D; Yi, Chun-Xia; Habegger, Kirk; Schriever, Sonja C; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Kabra, Dhiraj G; Hembree, Jazzminn; Holland, Jenna; Raver, Christine; Seeley, Randy J; Hans, Wolfgang; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrab?; Tiano, Joseph P; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Pfluger, Paul; Zhang, Lianshan; Gelfanov, Vasily; DiMarchi, Richard D; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a new combinatorial approach that allows for peptide-mediated selective tissue targeting of nuclear hormone pharmacology while eliminating adverse effects in other tissues. Specifically, we report the development of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-estrogen conjugate that has superior sex-independent efficacy over either of the individual hormones alone to correct obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in mice. The therapeutic benefits are driven by pleiotropic dual hormone action to improve energy, glucose and lipid metabolism, as shown by loss-of-function models and genetic action profiling. Notably, the peptide-based targeting strategy also prevents hallmark side effects of estrogen in male and female mice, such as reproductive endocrine toxicity and oncogenicity. Collectively, selective activation of estrogen receptors in GLP-1–targeted tissues produces unprecedented efficacy to enhance the metabolic benefits of GLP-1 agonism. This example of targeting the metabolic syndrome represents the discovery of a new class of therapeutics that enables synergistic co-agonism through peptide-based selective delivery of small molecules. Although our observations with the GLP-1–estrogen conjugate justify translational studies for diabetes and obesity, the multitude of other possible combinations of peptides and small molecules may offer equal promise for other diseases. PMID:23142820

  14. Progress in Aptamer-Mediated Drug Delivery Vehicles for Cancer Targeting and Its Implications in Addressing Chemotherapeutic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Huang, He; Dong, Shiwu; Ge, Liang; Zhang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are novel oligonucleotides with flexible three-dimensional configurations that recognize and bind to their cognate targets, including tumor surface receptors, in a high-affinity and highly specific manner. Because of their unique intrinsic properties, a variety of aptamer-mediated nanovehicles have been developed to directionally transport anti-cancer drugs to tumor sites to minimize systemic cytotoxicity and to enhance permeation by these tumoricidal agents. Despite advances in the selection and synthesis of aptamers and in the conjugation and self-assembly of nanotechnologies, current chemotherapy and drug delivery systems face great challenges. These challenges are due to the limitations of aptamers and vehicles and because of complicated tumor mechanisms, including heterogeneity, anti-cancer drug resistance, and hypoxia-induced aberrances. In this review, we will summarize current approaches utilizing tumor surface hallmarks and aptamers and their roles and mechanisms in therapeutic nanovehicles targeting tumors. Delivery forms include nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanogels, aptamer-drug conjugates, and novel molecular trains. Moreover, the obstacles posed by the aforementioned issues will be highlighted, and possible solutions will be acknowledged. Furthermore, future perspectives will be presented, including cutting-edge integration with RNA interference nanotechnology and personalized chemotherapy, which will facilitate innovative approaches to aptamer-based therapeutics. PMID:25057317

  15. Application of nanogel systems in the administration of local anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jeremy PK; Tan, Maureen BH; Tam, Michael KC

    2010-01-01

    Nanogels are robust nanoparticles that could be used to deliver active drug compounds in controlled drug delivery applications. This review discusses the design, synthesis, loading, and release of local anesthetics using polymeric nanoparticles produced via various types of polymerization techniques. The strategy of using layer-by-layer approach to control the burst release of procaine hydrochloride (PrHy; a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group) is described and discussed. PMID:22915875

  16. Thermoresponsive hyaluronic acid nanogels as hydrophobic drug carrier to macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fernandes Stefanello, Talitha; Szarpak-Jankowska, Anna; Appaix, Florence; Louage, Benoit; Hamard, Lauriane; De Geest, Bruno G; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Auzély-Velty, Rachel

    2014-11-01

    Delivery systems for macrophages are particularly attractive since these phagocytic cells play a important role in immunological and inflammatory responses, also acting as host cells for microorganisms that are involved in deadly infectious diseases, such as leishmaniasis. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is specifically recognized by macrophages that are known to express HA receptors. Therefore, in this study, we focused on HA-based nanogels as drug carriers for these cells. The drug delivery was validated in an in vivo study on mice using intravital two-photon laser scanning microscopy. HA derivatives were modified with a biocompatible oligo(ethylene glycol)-based thermoresponsive polymer to form nanogels. These HA conjugates were readily prepared by varying the molar mass of initial HA and the degree of substitution via radical-mediated thiol-ene chemistry in aqueous solution. The derivatives were shown to self-assemble into spherical gel particles with diameters ranging from 150 to 214 nm above 37 °C. A poorly water-soluble two-photon dye was successfully loaded into the nanogels during this self-assembly process. In vitro cellular uptake tests using a RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line showed successful intracellular delivery of the hydrophobic dye. After intravenous injection in mice, the nanogels circulated freely in the blood but were rapidly phagocytized within 13 min by circulating macrophages and stored in the liver and spleen, as observed by two-photon microscopy. Benefit can be thus expected in using such a delivery system for the liver and spleen macrophage-associated diseases. PMID:25110287

  17. Thermoresponsive nanogels for prolonged duration local anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, Todd; Young, Stuart; Lawlor, Michael W.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Nanogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) are attractive vehicles for prolonged duration local anesthesia because of their tunable size, number of functional groups, thermoresponsiveness, and their anionic charge. Nerve block durations of up to nine hours were achieved using acrylic acid-loaded nanogels loaded with bupivacaine. Increasing the anionic charge density of the nanogels or (for more highly acid-functionalized nanogels) decreasing the nanogel size facilitated longer duration anesthetic release. Small (<300 nm diameter) nanogels formed dense aggregates upon injection in vivo and induced only mild inflammatory responses, while large (>500 nm diameter) nanogels typically remained as liquid-like residues in vivo and induced more severe inflammatory reactions. PMID:22732383

  18. Mitochondrial biology, targets, and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Milane, Lara; Trivedi, Malav; Singh, Amit; Talekar, Meghna; Amiji, Mansoor

    2015-06-10

    In recent years, mitochondrial medicine has emerged as a new discipline resting at the intersection of mitochondrial biology, pathology, and pharmaceutics. The central role of mitochondria in critical cellular processes such as metabolism and apoptosis has placed mitochondria at the forefront of cell science. Advances in mitochondrial biology have revealed that these organelles continually undergo fusion and fission while functioning independently and in complex cellular networks, establishing direct membrane contacts with each other and with other organelles. Understanding the diverse cellular functions of mitochondria has contributed to understanding mitochondrial dysfunction in disease states. Polyplasmy and heteroplasmy contribute to mitochondrial phenotypes and associated dysfunction. Residing at the center of cell biology, cellular functions, and disease pathology and being laden with receptors and targets, mitochondria are beacons for pharmaceutical modification. This review presents the current state of mitochondrial medicine with a focus on mitochondrial function, dysfunction, and common disease; mitochondrial receptors, targets, and substrates; and mitochondrial drug design and drug delivery with a focus on the application of nanotechnology to mitochondrial medicine. Mitochondrial medicine is at the precipice of clinical translation; the objective of this review is to aid in the advancement of mitochondrial medicine from infancy to application. PMID:25841699

  19. Toward Intracellular Targeted Delivery of Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Hetal; Debinski, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    A number of anti-cancer drugs have their targets localized to particular intracellular compartments. These drugs reach the targets mainly through diffusion, dependent on biophysical and biochemical forces that allow cell penetration. This means that both cancer cells and normal cells will be subjected to such diffusion; hence many of these drugs, like chemotherapeutics, are potentially toxic and the concentration achieved at the site of their action is often suboptimal. The same relates to radiation that indiscriminately affects normal and diseased cells. However, nature-designed systems enable compounds present in the extracellular environment to end up inside the cell and even travel to more specific intracellular compartments. For example, viruses and bacterial toxins can more or less specifically recognize eukaryotic cells, enter these cells, and direct some protein portions to designated intracellular areas. These phenomena have led to creative thinking, such as employing viruses or bacterial toxins for cargo delivery to cells and, more specifically, to cancer cells. Proteins can be genetically engineered in order to not only mimic what viruses and bacterial toxins can do, but also to add new functions, extending or changing the intracellular routes. It is possible to make conjugates or, more preferably, single-chain proteins that recognize cancer cells and deliver cargo inside the cells, even to the desired subcellular compartment. These findings offer new opportunities to deliver drugs/labels only to cancer cells and only to their site of action within the cells. The development of such dual-specificity vectors for targeting cancer cells is an attractive and potentially safer and more efficacious way of delivering drugs. We provide examples of this approach for delivering brain cancer therapeutics, using a specific biomarker on glioblastoma tumor cells. PMID:22671766

  20. Cellular uptake of functional nanogels prepared by inverse miniemulsion ATRP with encapsulated proteins, carbohydrates, and gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Siegwart, Daniel J; Srinivasan, Abiraman; Bencherif, Sidi A; Karunanidhi, Anuradha; Oh, Jung Kwon; Vaidya, Swaroopa; Jin, Rongchao; Hollinger, Jeffrey O; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2009-08-10

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was used to produce a versatile drug delivery system capable of encapsulating a range of molecules. Inverse miniemulsion ATRP permitted the synthesis of biocompatible and uniformly cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide)-based nanogels entrapping gold nanoparticles, bovine serum albumin, rhodamine B isothiocyanate-dextran, or fluoresceine isothiocyanate-dextran. These moieties were entrapped to validate several biological outcomes and to model delivery of range of molecules. Cellular uptake of nanogels was verified by transmission electron microscopy, gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry. Fluorescent colocalization of nanogels with a fluorophore-conjugated antibody for clathrin indicated clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, internalization of nanogels either with or without GRGDS cell attachment-mediating peptides was quantified using flow cytometry. After 45 min of incubation, the uptake of unmodified FITC-Dx-loaded nanogels was 62%, whereas cellular uptake increased to >95% with the same concentration of GRGDS-modified FITC-Dx nanogels. In addition, a spheroidal coculture of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) validated cell endocytosis. Application of ATRP enabled the synthesis of a functionalized drug delivery system with a uniform network that is capable of encapsulating and delivering inorganic, organic, and biological molecules. PMID:19572639

  1. Nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajesh; Lillard, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology could be defined as the technology that has allowed for the control, manipulation, study, and manufacture of structures and devices in the “nanometer” size range. These nano-sized objects, e.g., “nanoparticles”, take on novel properties and functions that differ markedly from those seen from items made of identical materials. The small size, customized surface, improved solubility, and multi-functionality of nanoparticles will continue to open many doors and create new biomedical applications. Indeed, the novel properties of nanoparticles offer the ability to interact with complex cellular functions in new ways. This rapidly growing field requires cross-disciplinary research and provides opportunities to design and develop multifunctional devices that can target, diagnose, and treat devastating diseases such as cancer. This article presents an overview of nanotechnology for the biologist and discusses the attributes of our novel XPclad© nanoparticle formulation that has shown efficacy in treating solid tumors, for single dose vaccination, and oral delivery of therapeutic proteins. PMID:19186176

  2. Preparation and characterization of tri-block poly(lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) nanogels for controlled release of naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Asadi, H; Rostamizadeh, K; Salari, D; Hamidi, M

    2011-09-15

    Tri-block poly(lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (PLA-PEG-PLA) copolymers and related acrylated derivative were synthesized and used to prepare micelles and nanogels for controlled release of naltrexone. The resulting copolymers, micelles and nanogels were characterized by various techniques such as proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, fluorescence spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, photon correlation spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The nanogels exhibited high encapsulation efficiency around 60% and excellent stability for long periods of time. The drug release profiles of micelles and nanogels were compared and it was found that the naltrexone loaded nanogels offered a steady and long-term release pattern for different periods of time up to 35 days, depending on the crosslinker concentration, compared to the micelles. The size of nanogels could be manipulated easily in the range of 128-200nm by variations in polymer concentration used in the nanogels preparation step. From the results obtained it can be concluded that PLA-PEG-PLA nanogels can be considered as a promising carrier for drug delivery purpose. PMID:21729744

  3. Antiproliferative activity of fucan nanogel.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Almeida-Lima, Jailma; Vidal, Arthur Anthunes Jacome; Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; Oliveira, Ruth Medeiros; Santos Pedrosa, Silvia; Pereira, Paula; Gama, Francisco Miguel; Oliveira Rocha, Hugo Alexandre

    2012-09-01

    Sulfated fucans comprise families of polydisperse natural polysaccharides based on sulfated L-fucose. Our aim was to investigate whether fucan nanogel induces cell-specific responses. To that end, a non toxic fucan extracted from Spatoglossum schröederi was chemically modified by grafting hexadecylamine to the polymer hydrophilic backbone. The resulting modified material (SNFuc) formed nanosized particles. The degree of substitution with hydrophobic chains was close to 100%, as estimated by elemental analysis. SNFfuc in aqueous media had a mean diameter of 123 nm and zeta potential of -38.3 ± 0.74 mV, as measured by dynamic light scattering. Nanoparticles conserved their size for up to 70 days. SNFuc cytotoxicity was determined using the MTT assay after culturing different cell lines for 24 h. Tumor-cell (HepG2, 786, H-S5) proliferation was inhibited by 2.0%-43.7% at nanogel concentrations of 0.05-0.5 mg/mL and rabbit aorta endothelial cells (RAEC) non-tumor cell line proliferation displayed inhibition of 8.0%-22.0%. On the other hand, nanogel improved Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and monocyte macrophage cell (RAW) non-tumor cell line proliferation in the same concentration range. The antiproliferative effect against tumor cells was also confirmed using the BrdU test. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the fucan nanogel inhibited 786 cell proliferation through caspase and caspase-independent mechanisms. In addition, SNFuc blocks 786 cell passages in the S and G2-M phases of the cell cycle. PMID:23118717

  4. Synthesis of Nanogel-Protein Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Reuben T.; Maynard, Heather D.; Thayumanavan, S.

    2014-01-01

    The covalent conjugation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to disulfide cross-linked polymeric nanogels is reported. Polymeric nanogel precursors were synthesized via a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) random copolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) and pyridyl disulfide methacrylate (PDSMA). Reaction of the p(PEGMA-co-PDSMA) with dithiothreitol resulted in the formation of nanogels. PDSMA serves as both a crosslinking agent and a reactive handle for the surface modification of the nanogels. Lipophilic dye, DiI, was sequestered within the nanogels by performing the crosslinking reaction in the presence of the hydrophobic molecule. Thiol-enriched BSA was conjugated to nanogels loaded with DiI via a disulfide reaction between the BSA and the surface exposed nanogel pyridyl disulfides. Conjugation was confirmed by fast protein liquid chromatography, dynamic light scattering, and agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We expect that this methodology is generally applicable to the preparation of nanogel-protein therapeutics. PMID:24761162

  5. Targeted Therapeutics and Nanodevices for Vascular Drug Delivery: Quo Vadis?

    PubMed Central

    Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary This issue of the journal is dedicated to targeted delivery of therapeutics in the vasculature, an approach that holds promise to optimize treatment of diverse pathological conditions ranging from ischemia and tumor growth to metabolic and genetic diseases. From the standpoint of drug delivery, circulation system represents the natural route to the targets, whereas its components (blood and vascular cells) represent targets, carriers or barriers for drug delivery. Diverse nanodevices and targeted therapeutic agents that are designed and tested in animal and early clinical studies to achieve optimal and precise spatiotemporal control of the pharmacokinetics, destination, metabolism and effect of pharmacological agents will be discussed in this introductory essay and subsequent critical reviews in this series. PMID:21721101

  6. Targeting strategies for delivery of anti-HIV drugs.

    PubMed

    Ramana, Lakshmi Narashimhan; Anand, Appakkudal R; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

    2014-10-28

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection remains a significant cause of mortality globally. Though antiretroviral therapy has significantly reduced AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, there are several drawbacks in the current therapy, including toxicity, drug-drug interactions, development of drug resistance, necessity for long-term drug therapy, poor bio-availability and lack of access to tissues and reservoirs. To circumvent these problems, recent anti-HIV therapeutic research has focused on improving drug delivery systems through drug delivery targeted specifically to host cells infected with HIV or could potentially get infected with HIV. In this regard, several surface molecules of both viral and host cell origin have been described in recent years, that would enable targeted drug delivery in HIV infection. In the present review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the need for novel drug delivery systems, and the successes and challenges in the identification of novel viral and host-cell molecules for the targeted drug delivery of anti-HIV drugs. Such targeted anti-retroviral drug delivery approaches could pave the way for effective treatment and eradication of HIV from the body. PMID:25119469

  7. Nanoparticles for oral delivery: Targeted nanoparticles with peptidic ligands for oral protein delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeonhee; Cho, Yong Woo; Park, Kinam

    2012-01-01

    As the field of biotechnology has advanced, oral protein delivery has also made significant progress. Oral delivery is the most common method of drug administration with high levels of patient acceptance. Despite the preference of oral delivery, administration of therapeutic proteins has been extremely difficult. Increasing the bioavailability of oral protein drugs to the therapeutically acceptable level is still a challenging goal. Poor membrane permeability, high molecular weight, and enzymatic degradation of protein drugs have remained unsolved issues. Among diverse strategies, nanotechnology has provided a glimpse of hope in oral delivery of protein drugs. Nanoparticles have advantages, such as small size, high surface area, and modification using functional groups for high capacity or selectivity. Nanoparticles with peptidic ligands are especially worthy of notice because they can be used for specific targeting in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This article reviews the transport mechanism of the GI tract, barriers to protein absorption, current status and limitations of nanotechnology for oral protein delivery system. PMID:23123292

  8. Functionalized Nanosystems for Targeted Mitochondrial Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Durazo, Shelley A.; Kompella, Uday B.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction including oxidative stress and DNA mutations underlies the pathology of various diseases including Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes, necessitating the development of mitochondria targeted therapeutic agents. Nanotechnology offers unique tools and materials to target therapeutic agents to mitochondria. As discussed in this paper, a variety of functionalized nanosystems including polymeric and metallic nanoparticles as well as liposomes are more effective than plain drug and non-functionalized nanosystems in delivering therapeutic agents to mitochondria. Although the field is in its infancy, studies to date suggest the superior therapeutic activity of functionalized nanosystems for treating mitochondrial defects. PMID:22138492

  9. 'Smart' non-viral delivery systems for targeted delivery of RNAi to the lungs.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Joanne M; Hibbitts, Alan; Barlow, James; Kelly, Ciara; Sivadas, Neeraj; Cryan, Sally-Ann

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of RNAi offers a potentially exciting new therapeutic paradigm for respiratory diseases. However, effective delivery remains a key requirement for their translation into the clinic and has been a major factor in the limited clinical success seen to date. Inhalation offers tissue-specific targeting of the RNAi to treat respiratory diseases and a diminished risk of off-target effects. In order to deliver RNAi directly to the respiratory tract via inhalation, 'smart' non-viral carriers are required to protect the RNAi during delivery/aerosolization and enhance cell-specific uptake to target cells. Here, we review the state-of-the-art in therapeutic aerosol bioengineering, and specifically non-viral siRNA delivery platforms, for delivery via inhalation. This includes developments in inhaler device engineering and particle engineering, including manufacturing methods and excipients used in therapeutic aerosol bioengineering that underpin the development of smart, cell type-specific delivery systems to target siRNA to respiratory epithelial cells and/or alveolar macrophages. PMID:23323781

  10. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Forte, Trudy M. (Berkeley, CA); Nikanjam, Mina (Richmond, CA)

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  11. Untethered magnetic millirobot for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Iacovacci, Veronica; Lucarini, Gioia; Ricotti, Leonardo; Dario, Paolo; Dupont, Pierre E; Menciassi, Arianna

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports the design and development of a novel millimeter-sized robotic system for targeted therapy. The proposed medical robot is conceived to perform therapy in relatively small diameter body canals (spine, urinary system, ovary, etc.), and to release several kinds of therapeutics, depending on the pathology to be treated. The robot is a nearly-buoyant bi-component system consisting of a carrier, in which the therapeutic agent is embedded, and a piston. The piston, by exploiting magnetic effects, docks with the carrier and compresses a drug-loaded hydrogel, thus activating the release mechanism. External magnetic fields are exploited to propel the robot towards the target region, while intermagnetic forces are exploited to trigger drug release. After designing and fabricating the robot, the system has been tested in vitro with an anticancer drug (doxorubicin) embedded in the carrier. The efficiency of the drug release mechanism has been demonstrated by both quantifying the amount of drug released and by assessing the efficacy of this therapeutic procedure on human bladder cancer cells. PMID:26009273

  12. Clinical implementation of target tracking by breathing synchronized delivery.

    PubMed

    Tewatia, Dinesh; Zhang, Tiezhi; Tome, Wolfgang; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Metha, Minesh

    2006-11-01

    Target-tracking techniques can be categorized based on the mechanism of the feedback loop. In real time tracking, breathing-delivery phase correlation is provided to the treatment delivery hardware. Clinical implementation of target tracking in real time requires major hardware modifications. In breathing synchronized delivery (BSD), the patient is guided to breathe in accordance with target motion derived from four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). Violations of mechanical limitations of hardware are to be avoided at the treatment planning stage. Hardware modifications are not required. In this article, using sliding window IMRT delivery as an example, we have described step-by-step the implementation of target tracking by the BSD technique: (1) A breathing guide is developed from patient's normal breathing pattern. The patient tries to reproduce this guiding cycle by following the display in the goggles; (2) 4D-CT scans are acquired at all the phases of the breathing cycle; (3) The average tumor trajectory is obtained by deformable image registration of 4D-CT datasets and is smoothed by Fourier filtering; (4) Conventional IMRT planning is performed using the images at reference phase (full exhalation phase) and a leaf sequence based on optimized fluence map is generated; (5) Assuming the patient breathes with a reproducible breathing pattern and the machine maintains a constant dose rate, the treatment process is correlated with the breathing phase; (6) The instantaneous average tumor displacement is overlaid on the dMLC position at corresponding phase; and (7) DMLC leaf speed and acceleration are evaluated to ensure treatment delivery. A custom-built mobile phantom driven by a computer-controlled stepper motor was used in the dosimetry verification. A stepper motor was programmed such that the phantom moved according to the linear component of tumor motion used in BSD treatment planning. A conventional plan was delivered on the phantom with and without motion. The BSD plan was also delivered on the phantom that moved with the prescheduled pattern and synchronized with the delivery of each beam. Film dosimetry showed underdose and overdose in the superior and inferior regions of the target, respectively, if the tumor motion is not compensated during the delivery. BSD delivery resulted in a dose distribution very similar to the planned treatments. PMID:17153412

  13. Clinical implementation of target tracking by breathing synchronized delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Tewatia, Dinesh; Zhang Tiezhi; Tome, Wolfgang; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Metha, Minesh [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumant Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Target-tracking techniques can be categorized based on the mechanism of the feedback loop. In real time tracking, breathing-delivery phase correlation is provided to the treatment delivery hardware. Clinical implementation of target tracking in real time requires major hardware modifications. In breathing synchronized delivery (BSD), the patient is guided to breathe in accordance with target motion derived from four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). Violations of mechanical limitations of hardware are to be avoided at the treatment planning stage. Hardware modifications are not required. In this article, using sliding window IMRT delivery as an example, we have described step-by-step the implementation of target tracking by the BSD technique: (1) A breathing guide is developed from patient's normal breathing pattern. The patient tries to reproduce this guiding cycle by following the display in the goggles; (2) 4D-CT scans are acquired at all the phases of the breathing cycle; (3) The average tumor trajectory is obtained by deformable image registration of 4D-CT datasets and is smoothed by Fourier filtering; (4) Conventional IMRT planning is performed using the images at reference phase (full exhalation phase) and a leaf sequence based on optimized fluence map is generated; (5) Assuming the patient breathes with a reproducible breathing pattern and the machine maintains a constant dose rate, the treatment process is correlated with the breathing phase; (6) The instantaneous average tumor displacement is overlaid on the dMLC position at corresponding phase; and (7) DMLC leaf speed and acceleration are evaluated to ensure treatment delivery. A custom-built mobile phantom driven by a computer-controlled stepper motor was used in the dosimetry verification. A stepper motor was programmed such that the phantom moved according to the linear component of tumor motion used in BSD treatment planning. A conventional plan was delivered on the phantom with and without motion. The BSD plan was also delivered on the phantom that moved with the prescheduled pattern and synchronized with the delivery of each beam. Film dosimetry showed underdose and overdose in the superior and inferior regions of the target, respectively, if the tumor motion is not compensated during the delivery. BSD delivery resulted in a dose distribution very similar to the planned treatments.

  14. Delivery of Polymeric Nanoparticles to Target Vascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Agyare, Edward; Kandimalla, Karunyna

    2015-01-01

    Current advances in nanotechnology have paved the way for the early detection, prevention and treatment of various diseases such as vascular disorders and cancer. These advances have provided novel approaches or modalities of incorporating or adsorbing therapeutic, biosensor and targeting agents into/on nanoparticles. With significant progress, nanomedicine for vascular therapy has shown significant advantages over traditional medicine because of its ability to selectively target the disease site and reduce adverse side effects. Targeted delivery of nanoparticles to vascular endothelial cells or the vascular wall provides an effective and more efficient way for early detection and/or treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis and Cerebrovascular Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA). Clinical applications of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers in areas such as vascular graft, implantable drug delivery, stent devices and tissue engineering scaffolds have advanced the candidature of polymers as potential nano-carriers for vascular-targeted delivery of diagnostic agents and drugs. This review focuses on the basic aspects of the vasculature and its associated diseases and relates them to polymeric nanoparticle-based strategies for targeting therapeutic agents to diseased vascular site.

  15. Bioresponsive nanohydrogels based on HEAA and NIPA for poorly soluble drugs delivery.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Elena; Martínez, Ana; Teijón, César; Teijón, Jose M; Blanco, M Dolores

    2014-08-15

    Environmentally sensitive hydrogels have gained considerable attention in recent years as one of the most promising drug delivery systems. In the present study, two new formulations of pH and temperature stimuli-responsive nanogels (NGs) based on poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA), N-hydroxyethyl acrylamide (HEAA) and tert-butyl 2-acrylamidoethyl carbamate (2AAECM) were synthesized and evaluated for passive targeting of paclitaxel (PTX). Nanogels were prepared by microemulsion polymerization method using N-methylenebis(acrylamide) (NMBA) as crosslinking agent. TEM images and DLS results showed nanosized spherical hydrogels. FTIR spectra confirmed the synthesis of nanogels by radical polymerization among vinyl groups of monomers. The PTX loading capacity, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release were analyzed by HPLC. The cumulative release profile of the PTX-loaded nanohydrogels within 144h showed a faster drug release at acid pH (pH 5), similar to those observed at lysosome compartment, whereas a fewer PTX amount was released from NGs at pH similar to plasma levels. Cellular uptake assays revealed rapid penetration and intracellular accumulation of those nanogels in MCF7, HeLa and T47D cells after 48h incubation. MTT assays showed cell viability dependence on concentration and time incubation. Finally, the PTX effect on cell viability showed a G2/M cell arrest after using PTX-loaded NGs and pure PTX. PMID:24813784

  16. Targeted Cellular Drug Delivery using Tailored Dendritic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kolhe, Parag; Kannan, Sujatha; Lieh-Lai, Mary

    2002-03-01

    Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers possess highly branched architectures, with a large number of controllable, tailorble, ‘peripheral’ functionalities. Since the surface chemistry of these materials can be modified with relative ease, these materials have tremendous potential in targeted drug and gene delivery. The large number of end groups can also be tailored to create special affinity to targeted cells, and can also encapsulate drugs and deliver them in a controlled manner. We are developing tailor-modified dendritic systems for drug delivery. Synthesis, in-vitro drug loading, in-vitro drug delivery, and the targeting efficiency to the cell are being studied systematically using a wide variety of experimental tools. Polyamidoamine and Polyol dendrimers, with different generations and end-groups are studied, with drugs such as Ibuprofen and Methotrexate. Our results indicate that a large number of drug molecules can be encapsulated/attached to the dendrimers, depending on the end groups. The drug-encapsulated dendrimer is able to enter the cells rapidly and deliver the drug. Targeting strategies being explored

  17. Targeted Delivery of NK007 to Macrophages to Treat Colitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siming; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Hao; Guo, Wenjun; Yu, Min; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Zhenzhou; Zhao, Liqing; Yin, Zhinan; Hong, Zhangyong

    2015-07-01

    Macrophages are important therapeutic targets for various disorders, including infectious diseases, inflammatory diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. In this study, we report a novel oral delivery system for the targeted delivery of anti-inflammatory therapeutics to macrophages. Using this formulation, the model drug tylophorine malate (NK007) was tightly incorporated inside beta-glucan particle shells by the formation of colloidal particles with chitosan, tripolyphosphate, and alginate via electrostatic interactions. This formulation specifically delivered NK007 to macrophages in vivo after oral gavage and effectively cured colitis in the dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine colitis model, highlighting the utility of beta-glucan particles as an oral anti-inflammation drug delivery system by targeting macrophages. In this work, NK007 was selected as the model drug. However, this novel oral carrier system has the potential to be applied as a platform for the treatment of many other diseases for which macrophages are the therapeutic targets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:2276-2284, 2015. PMID:25964181

  18. Nanostructured materials for selective recognition and targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrotsiou, O.; Kotti, K.; Dini, E.; Kammona, O.; Kiparissides, C.

    2005-01-01

    Selective recognition requires the introduction of a molecular memory into a polymer matrix in order to make it capable of rebinding an analyte with a very high specificity. In addition, targeted drug delivery requires drug-loaded vesicles which preferentially localize to the sites of injury and avoid uptake into uninvolved tissues. The rapid evolution of nanotechnology is aiming to fulfill the goal of selective recognition and optimal drug delivery through the development of molecularly imprinted polymeric (MIP) nanoparticles, tailor-made for a diverse range of analytes (e.g., pharmaceuticals, pesticides, amino acids, etc.) and of nanostructured targeted drug carriers (e.g., liposomes and micelles) with increased circulation lifetimes. In the present study, PLGA microparticles containing multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), and MIP nanoparticles were synthesized to be employed as drug carriers and synthetic receptors respectively.

  19. Nanofabricated biomimetic structures for smart targeting and drug delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alma Dudia; Johannes S. Kanger; Vinod Subramaniam

    2005-01-01

    We present a new approach to hybrid artificial cells (AC) designed for specific targeting and active drug delivery by combining\\u000a an impermeable non-biological scaffold with an artificial bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) that supports the functioning bio-molecules\\u000a required to provide AC functionality. We report on the fabrication of the scaffold using nanotechnology, as well as on loading\\u000a of the scaffold and

  20. Progress toward a Colon Targeting Nanoparticle Based Drug Delivery System 

    E-print Network

    Yu, Xiao

    2012-07-16

    ......................................................... 11 2.2.1 Colon targeting oral drug delivery ....................................................... 11 2.2.2 Polysaccharide based pH sensitive and biodegradable hydrogels ....... 12 2.3 In vitro drug release models... of particles? size and surface charges .................... 20 3.3.1.2 Encapsulation efficiency and stability of PAX NPs in different pH of the aqueous solutions ........................................................ 22 3.3.2 LbL self...

  1. Magnetically Targeted Stem Cell Delivery for Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cores, Jhon; Caranasos, Thomas G; Cheng, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells play a special role in the body as agents of self-renewal and auto-reparation for tissues and organs. Stem cell therapies represent a promising alternative strategy to regenerate damaged tissue when natural repairing and conventional pharmacological intervention fail to do so. A fundamental impediment for the evolution of stem cell therapies has been the difficulty of effectively targeting administered stem cells to the disease foci. Biocompatible magnetically responsive nanoparticles are being utilized for the targeted delivery of stem cells in order to enhance their retention in the desired treatment site. This noninvasive treatment-localization strategy has shown promising results and has the potential to mitigate the problem of poor long-term stem cell engraftment in a number of organ systems post-delivery. In addition, these same nanoparticles can be used to track and monitor the cells in vivo, using magnetic resonance imaging. In the present review we underline the principles of magnetic targeting for stem cell delivery, with a look at the logic behind magnetic nanoparticle systems, their manufacturing and design variants, and their applications in various pathological models. PMID:26133387

  2. Multifunctional inorganic nanoparticles for imaging, targeting, and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Liong, Monty; Lu, Jie; Kovochich, Michael; Xia, Tian; Ruehm, Stefan G; Nel, Andre E; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2008-05-01

    Drug delivery, magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging, magnetic manipulation, and cell targeting are simultaneously possible using a multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticle. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals were encapsulated inside mesostructured silica spheres that were labeled with fluorescent dye molecules and coated with hydrophilic groups to prevent aggregation. Water-insoluble anticancer drugs were delivered into human cancer cells; surface conjugation with cancer-specific targeting agents increased the uptake into cancer cells relative to that in non-cancerous fibroblasts. The highly versatile multifunctional nanoparticles could potentially be used for simultaneous imaging and therapeutic applications. PMID:19206485

  3. A hyaluronic acid nanogel for photo-chemo theranostics of lung cancer with simultaneous light-responsive controlled release of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Zehedina; Nurunnabi, Md; Nafiujjaman, Md; Reeck, Gerald R; Khan, Haseeb A; Cho, Kwang Jae; Lee, Yong-Kyu

    2015-06-28

    The combined delivery of photo- and chemo-therapeutic agents is an emerging strategy to overcome drug resistance in treating cancer, and controlled light-responsive drug release is a proven tactic to produce a continuous therapeutic effect for a prolonged duration. Here, a combination of light-responsive graphene, chemo-agent doxorubicin and pH-sensitive disulfide-bond linked hyaluronic acid form a nanogel (called a graphene-doxorubicin conjugate in a hyaluronic acid nanogel) that exerts an activity with multiple effects: thermo and chemotherapeutic, real-time noninvasive imaging, and light-glutathione-responsive controlled drug release. The nanogel is mono-dispersed with an average diameter of 120 nm as observed by using TEM and a hydrodynamic size analyzer. It has excellent photo-luminescence properties and good stability in buffer and serum solutions. Graphene itself, being photoluminescent, can be considered an optical imaging contrast agent as well as a heat source when excited by laser irradiation. Thus the nanogel shows simultaneous thermo-chemotherapeutic effects on noninvasive optical imaging. We have also found that irradiation enhances the release of doxorubicin in a controlled manner. This release synergizes therapeutic activity of the nanogel in killing tumor cells. Our findings demonstrate that the graphene-doxorubicin conjugate in the hyaluronic acid nanogel is very effective in killing the human lung cancer cell line (A549) with limited toxicity in the non-cancerous cell line (MDCK). PMID:26030737

  4. Chlorotoxin Labeled Magnetic Nanovectors for Targeted Gene Delivery to Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Kievit, Forrest M.; Veiseh, Omid; Fang, Chen; Bhattarai, Narayan; Lee, Donghoon; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Zhang, Miqin

    2010-01-01

    Glioma accounts for 80% of brain tumors, and currently remains one of the most lethal forms of cancers. Gene therapy could potentially improve the dismal prognosis of patients with glioma, but this treatment modality has not yet reached the bedside from the laboratory due to the lack of safe and effective gene delivery vehicles. In this study we investigate targeted gene delivery to C6 glioma cells in a xenograft mouse model using chlorotoxin (CTX) labeled nanoparticles. The developed nanovector consists of an iron oxide nanoparticle core, coated with a copolymer of chitosan, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylenimine (PEI). Green fluorescent protein (GFP) encoding DNA was bound to these nanoparticles, and CTX was then attached using a short PEG linker. Nanoparticles without CTX were also prepared as a control. Mice bearing C6 xenograft tumors were injected intravenously with the DNA bound nanoparticles. Nanoparticle accumulation in the tumor site was monitored using magnetic resonance imaging and analyzed by histology, and GFP gene expression was monitored through Xenogen IVIS fluorescence imaging and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Interestingly, the CTX did not affect the accumulation of nanoparticles at the tumor site, but specifically enhanced their uptake into cancer cells as evidenced by higher gene expression. These results indicate that this targeted gene delivery system may potentially improve treatment outcome of gene therapy for glioma and other deadly cancers. PMID:20731441

  5. Liver-targeted gene delivery through retrograde intrabiliary infusion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuan; Ren, Yong; Williford, John-Michael; Li, Zhiping; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Retrograde intrabiliary infusion (RII) has recently been characterized as a safe and effective administration route for liver-targeted gene delivery. Efficient transgene expression in the liver has been achieved by infusing a variety of gene vectors including adenovirus, retrovirus, lipoplexes, polyplexes, and naked DNA through the common bile duct. Here, we describe the RII technique and key infusion parameters for delivering plasmid DNA and DNA nanoparticles to the rat liver. After RII of plasmid DNA, the level of transgene expression in rat liver is comparable to that achieved by hydrodynamic injection of plasmid DNA, which is considered to be "gold standard" for liver-targeted gene delivery. RII has also been shown to significantly enhance the gene delivery efficiency by polymer/DNA nanoparticles in comparison with intravenous and intraportal infusions. This method induces minimal level of cytotoxicity and damage to the liver and bile duct. Due to these advantages, RII has the potential to be used for delivering various gene vectors in clinical setting through the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedure. PMID:23070777

  6. Delivery and targeting of nanoparticles into hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chia-Lang; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Li, Yi-Ching; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that nanoparticles used for follicular delivery provide some advantages over conventional pathways, including improved skin bioavailability, enhanced penetration depth, prolonged residence duration, fast transport into the skin and tissue targeting. This review describes recent developments using nanotechnology approaches for drug delivery into the follicles. Different types of nanosystems may be employed for management of follicular permeation, such as polymeric nanoparticles, metallic nanocrystals, liposomes, and lipid nanoparticles. This review systematically introduces the mechanisms of follicles for nanoparticulate penetration, highlighting the therapeutic potential of drug-loaded nanoparticles for treating skin diseases. Special attention is paid to the use of nanoparticles in treating appendage-related disorders, in particular, nanomedical strategies for treating alopecia, acne, and transcutaneous immunization. PMID:25375342

  7. Targeting and delivery of platinum-based anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyong; Guo, Zijian

    2013-01-01

    Platinum-based anticancer drugs occupy a crucial role in the treatment of various malignant tumours. However, the efficacy and applicability of platinum drugs are heavily restricted by severe systemic toxicities and drug resistance. Different drug targeting and delivery (DTD) strategies have been developed to prevent the shortcomings of platinum-based chemotherapy. These approaches can be roughly categorized into two groups; namely, active and passive tactics. Active DTD is realized through specific molecular interactions between the drugs and cell or tissue elements, while passive DTD is achieved by exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention effect in tumour tissues. The principal methods for active DTD include conjugation of platinum drugs with selective targeting moieties or encapsulation of platinum drugs in host molecules. Bioactive substances such as hormones, carbohydrates, bisphosphonates, peptides and proteins are commonly used in active DTD. Passive DTD generally involves the fabrication of functionalized polymers or nanoparticles and the subsequent conjugation of platinum drugs with such entities. Polymeric micelles, liposomes, nanotubes and nanoparticles are frequently used in passive DTD. In some cases, both active and passive mechanisms are involved in one DTD system. This review concentrates on various targeting and delivery techniques for improving the efficacy and reducing the side effects of platinum-based anticancer drugs. The content covers most of the related literatures published since 2006. These innovative tactics represent current state-of-the-art developments in platinum-based anticancer drugs. PMID:23042411

  8. The ability of retention, drug release and rheological properties of nanogel bioadhesives based on cellulose derivatives.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, M; Kaffashi, B

    2014-12-01

    The rheological and drug release behavior of biopolymer nanocomposite gels based on the cellulose derivatives, formulated as the bioadhesive drug delivery platforms, were investigated. The bioadhesive gel is composed of the microcrystalline cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and phosphate buffered saline (pH?=?7.4 at 20?°C) as the dissolution and release medium. The reinforcing nanofillers such as MMT-clay, fumed porous silica and porous starch were used as additives in the nanogel bioadhesive. The constant steady state viscosities of this nanogels upon incorporation of various nanofillers into the systems is the sign of structural stability. Hence, this system is suitable for use in the controlled drug delivery systems in contact with the biological tissues. Based on the rheological measurements, the shear flow properties (i.e. zero shear viscosity and yield stress) were influenced by the concentration of polymers and nanoparticles. The results indicate that the nonlinear rheological data are fitted properly by the Giesekus model. Furthermore, the results showed that the nonlinear viscoelastic parameters (? and ?) are highly affected by the biogel and nanoparticles concentrations. Finally, the drug release was measured, and the results indicated that the biopolymer-clay nanocomposites have appropriate release pattern as the release is better controlled compared to the other nanogel formulations. PMID:24160773

  9. Nanogel-Based PspA Intranasal Vaccine Prevents Invasive Disease and Nasal Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Il Gyu; Sato, Ayuko; Nochi, Tomonori; Takahashi, Haruko; Sawada, Shinichi; Mejima, Mio; Kurokawa, Shiho; Okada, Kazunari; Sato, Shintaro; Briles, David E.; Kunisawa, Jun; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2013-01-01

    To establish a safer and more effective vaccine against pneumococcal respiratory infections, current knowledge regarding the antigens common among pneumococcal strains and improvements to the system for delivering these antigens across the mucosal barrier must be integrated. We developed a pneumococcal vaccine that combines the advantages of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) with a nontoxic intranasal vaccine delivery system based on a nanometer-sized hydrogel (nanogel) consisting of a cationic cholesteryl group-bearing pullulan (cCHP). The efficacy of the nanogel-based PspA nasal vaccine (cCHP-PspA) was tested in murine pneumococcal airway infection models. Intranasal vaccination with cCHP-PspA provided protective immunity against lethal challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae Xen10, reduced colonization and invasion by bacteria in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, and induced systemic and nasal mucosal Th17 responses, high levels of PspA-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), and nasal and bronchial IgA antibody responses. Moreover, there was no sign of PspA delivery by nanogel to either the olfactory bulbs or the central nervous system after intranasal administration. These results demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of the nanogel-based PspA nasal vaccine system as a universal mucosal vaccine against pneumococcal respiratory infection. PMID:23460513

  10. DNA Nuclear Targeting Sequences for Non-Viral Gene Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethlinn V. B. van Gaal; Ronald S. Oosting; Roel van Eijk; Marta Bakowska; Dries Feyen; Robbert Jan Kok; Wim E. Hennink; Daan J. A. Crommelin; Enrico Mastrobattista

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  To evaluate if introduction of DNA nuclear Targeting Sequences (DTS; i.e. recognition sequences for endogenous DNA-binding\\u000a proteins) in plasmid DNA (pDNA) leads to increased transfection efficiency of non-viral gene delivery by virtue of enhanced\\u000a nuclear import of the pDNA.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A set of DTS was identified and cloned into EGFP-reporter plasmids controlled by the CMV-promoter. These pDNA constructs were\\u000a delivered into

  11. An Efficient Targeted Drug Delivery through Apotransferrin Loaded Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Golla; Kondapi, Anand Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancerous state is a highly stimulated environment of metabolically active cells. The cells under these conditions over express selective receptors for assimilation of factors essential for growth and transformation. Such receptors would serve as potential targets for the specific ligand mediated transport of pharmaceutically active molecules. The present study demonstrates the specificity and efficacy of protein nanoparticle of apotransferrin for targeted delivery of doxorubicin. Methodology/Principal Findings Apotransferrin nanoparticles were developed by sol-oil chemistry. A comparative analysis of efficiency of drug delivery in conjugated and non-conjugated forms of doxorubicin to apotransferrin nanoparticle is presented. The spherical shaped apotransferrin nanoparticles (nano) have diameters of 25–50 ?m, which increase to 60–80 ?m upon direct loading of drug (direct-nano), and showed further increase in dimension (75–95 ?m) in conjugated nanoparticles (conj-nano). The competitive experiments with the transferrin receptor specific antibody showed the entry of both conj-nano and direct-nano into the cells through transferrin receptor mediated endocytosis. Results of various studies conducted clearly establish the superiority of the direct-nano over conj-nano viz. (a) localization studies showed complete release of drug very early, even as early as 30 min after treatment, with the drug localizing in the target organelle (nucleus) (b) pharmacokinetic studies showed enhanced drug concentrations, in circulation with sustainable half-life (c) the studies also demonstrated efficient drug delivery, and an enhanced inhibition of proliferation in cancer cells. Tissue distribution analysis showed intravenous administration of direct nano lead to higher drug localization in liver, and blood as compared to relatively lesser localization in heart, kidney and spleen. Experiments using rat cancer model confirmed the efficacy of the formulation in regression of hepatocellular carcinoma with negligible toxicity to kidney and liver. Conclusions The present study thus demonstrates that the direct-nano is highly efficacious in delivery of drug in a target specific manner with lower toxicity to heart, liver and kidney. PMID:19806207

  12. Synthesis and structural characterization of chitosan nanogels.

    PubMed

    Brunel, Fabrice; Véron, Laurent; Ladavière, Catherine; David, Laurent; Domard, Alain; Delair, Thierry

    2009-08-18

    Colloidal physical gels of pure chitosan were obtained via an ammonia-induced gelation in a reverse phase emulsion. The water weight fraction and the chitosan concentration in the water phase were optimized so as to yield nanogels with controlled particle size and size distribution. The spherical morphology of the nanogels was established by transmission electron microscopy with negative staining. Wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments showed that these gels were partially crystalline. The electrophoretic mobilities of the particles remained positive up to pH 7, above which the particles aggregated due to the charge neutralization. From the investigation on the colloidal stability of these nanogels in various conditions (pH, salt concentration, temperature), an electrosteric stabilization process of the particles was pointed out, related to the conformation of mobile chitosan chains at the gel-liquid interface. Therefore, the structure of the nanogels was deduced as being core-shell type, a gelified core of neutralized chitosan chains surrounded by partially protonated chains. PMID:19572536

  13. Modular Nanotransporters for Targeted Intracellular Delivery of Drugs: Folate Receptors as Potential Targets

    PubMed Central

    Slastnikova, Tatiana A.; Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Sobolev, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to a subcellular drug delivery system, modular nanotransporters (MNT) that can penetrate into target cells and deliver a therapeutic into their subcellular compartments, particularly into the nucleus. The therapeutics which need such type of delivery belong to two groups: (i) those that exert their effect only when delivered into a certain cell compartment (like DNA delivered into the nucleus); and (ii) those drugs that are capable of exerting their effect in different parts of the cells, however there can be found a cell compartment that is the most sensitive to their effect. A particular interest attract such cytotoxic agents as Auger electron emitters which are known to be ineffective outside the cell nucleus, whereas they possess high cytotoxicity in the vicinity of nuclear DNA through the induction of non-reparable double-strand DNA breaks. The review discusses main approaches permitting to choose internalizable receptors permitting both recognition of target cells and penetration into them. Special interest attract folate receptors which become accessible to blood circulating therapeutics after malignant transformation or on activated macrophages which makes them an attractive target for both several oncological and inflammatory diseases, like atherosclerosis. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that MNT is a promising platform for targeted delivery of different therapeutics into the nuclei of target cells. PMID:25312738

  14. Tumor Regression by Targeted Gene Delivery to the Neovasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, John D.; Bednarski, Mark; Frausto, Ricardo; Guccione, Samira; Reisfeld, Ralph A.; Xiang, Rong; Cheresh, David A.

    2002-06-01

    Efforts to influence the biology of blood vessels by gene delivery have been hampered by a lack of targeting vectors specific for endothelial cells in diseased tissues. Here we show that a cationic nanoparticle (NP) coupled to an integrin ?v?3-targeting ligand can deliver genes selectively to angiogenic blood vessels in tumor-bearing mice. The therapeutic efficacy of this approach was tested by generating NPs conjugated to a mutant Raf gene, ATP?-Raf, which blocks endothelial signaling and angiogenesis in response to multiple growth factors. Systemic injection of the NP into mice resulted in apoptosis of the tumor-associated endothelium, ultimately leading to tumor cell apoptosis and sustained regression of established primary and metastatic tumors.

  15. Nanostructured porous Si-based nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Herranz, Barbara; Santos, Hélder A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the backbones in nanomedicine is to deliver drugs specifically to unhealthy cells. Drug nanocarriers can cross physiological barriers and access different tissues, which after proper surface biofunctionalization can enhance cell specificity for cancer therapy. Recent developments have highlighted the potential of mesoporous silica (PSiO2) and silicon (PSi) nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery. In this review, we outline and discuss the most recent advances on the applications and developments of cancer therapies by means of PSiO2 and PSi nanomaterials. Bio-engineering and fine tuning of anti-cancer drug vehicles, high flexibility and potential for sophisticated release mechanisms make these nanostructures promising candidates for “smart” cancer therapies. As a result of their physicochemical properties they can be controllably loaded with large amounts of drugs and coupled to homing molecules to facilitate active targeting. The main emphasis of this review will be on the in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:23507894

  16. Potential of magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hung-Wei; Hua, Mu-Yi; Liu, Hao-Li; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) play an important role in the molecular diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of therapeutic outcomes in various diseases. Their nanoscale size, large surface area, unique capabilities, and negligible side effects make NPs highly effective for biomedical applications such as cancer therapy, thrombolysis, and molecular imaging. In particular, nontoxic superparamagnetic magnetic NPs (MNPs) with functionalized surface coatings can conjugate chemotherapeutic drugs or be used to target ligands/proteins, making them useful for drug delivery, targeted therapy, magnetic resonance imaging, transfection, and cell/protein/DNA separation. To optimize the therapeutic efficacy of MNPs for a specific application, three issues must be addressed. First, the efficacy of magnetic targeting/guidance is dependent on particle magnetization, which can be controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions during synthesis. Second, the tendency of MNPs to aggregate limits their therapeutic use in vivo; surface modifications to produce high positive or negative charges can reduce this tendency. Finally, the surface of MNPs can be coated with drugs which can be rapidly released after injection, resulting in targeting of low doses of the drug. Drugs therefore need to be conjugated to MNPs such that their release is delayed and their thermal stability enhanced. This chapter describes the creation of nanocarriers with a high drug-loading capacity comprised of a high-magnetization MNP core and a shell of aqueous, stable, conducting polyaniline derivatives and their applications in cancer therapy. It further summarizes some newly developed methods to synthesize and modify the surfaces of MNPs and their biomedical applications. PMID:24198498

  17. Targeted and heat-triggered doxorubicin delivery to tumors by dual targeted cationic thermosensitive liposomes.

    PubMed

    Dicheva, Bilyana M; ten Hagen, Timo L M; Schipper, Debby; Seynhaeve, Ann L B; van Rhoon, Gerard C; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Koning, Gerben A

    2014-12-10

    Liposomal nanoparticles can circumvent toxicity of encapsulated chemotherapeutic drugs, but fall short in tumor-specific and efficient intracellular drug delivery. To overcome these shortcomings, we designed a multifunctional dual targeted, heat-responsive nanocarrier encapsulating doxorubicin (Dox) as a chemotherapeutic content. Dox-loaded cationic thermosensitive liposomes (Dox-CTSL) carry targeting functions addressing tumor cells and tumor vasculature and have a heat-responsive lipid bilayer. Targeted Dox-CTSL demonstrated superior uptake by and toxicity to different tumor cell lines and endothelial cells compared to non-targeted TSL. Heat triggered intracellular Dox release in acidic cell compartments was visualized as fluorescent Dox nanobursts by live cell confocal microscopy. In vivo, using high resolution intravital microscopy, we demonstrated that Dox-CTSL upon an external heat-trigger delivered 3-fold higher Dox quantity to tumors than TSL. Dox-CTSL bound specifically to tumor vasculature, which in combination with the heat-triggered drug release caused significant tumor vessel damage, which was not observed when non-targeted TSL were administered. Therefore, Dox-CTSL have strong potency to increase drug efficacy due to targeted delivery and heat-triggered drug release in tumors. PMID:25176578

  18. Design and Application of Nanogel-Based Polymer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailing, Eric Alan

    Crosslinked polymer networks have wide application in biomaterials, from soft hydrogel scaffolds for cell culture and tissue engineering to glassy, high modulus dental restoratives. Composite materials formed with nanogels as a means for tuning network structure on the nanoscale have been reported, but no investigation into nanogels as the primary network component has been explored to this point. This thesis was dedicated to studying network formation from the direct polymerization of nanogels and investigating applications for these unique materials. Covalently crosslinked polymer networks were synthesized from polymerizable nanogels without the use of reactive small monomers or oligomers. Network properties were controlled by the chemical and physical properties of the nanogel, allowing for materials to be designed from nanostructured macromolecular precursors. Nanogels were synthesized from a thermally initiated solution free radical polymerization of a monomethacrylate, a dimethacrylate, and a thiol-based chain transfer agent. Monomers with a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic character were copolymerized, and polymerizable groups were introduced through an alcohol-isocyanate click reaction. Nanogels were dispersible in water up to 75 wt%, including nanogels that contained a relatively high fraction of a conventionally water-insoluble component. Nanogels with molecular weights that ranged from 10's to 100's of kDa and hydrodynamic radii between 4 and 10 nm were obtained. Macroscopic crosslinked polymer networks were synthesized from the photopolymerization of methacrylate-functionalized nanogels in inert solvent, which was typically water. The nanogel composition and internal branching density affected both covalent and non-covalent interparticle interactions, which dictated the final mechanical properties of the networks. Nanogels with progressively disparate hydrophilic and hydrophobic character were synthesized to explore the potential for creating densely crosslinked, small monomer free dental materials. Nanogel-based networks showed no decrease in flexural modulus between the dry and water-equilibrated states in contrast to nanogel-monomer composites that exhibited a decrease in modulus upon water infiltration. The nanogel networks also exhibited higher conversion and lower volumetric shrinkage compared to the composite networks. Adhesive nanogels were designed with amphiphilic character and specific hydrogen-bonding groups. These nanogels gelled within 10 s of low intensity UV light exposure and demonstrated the ability to bond strongly to both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates that were dry or under water. Nanogel-based coatings were explored as a means to create multistructured, multifunctional polymer networks. Shape memory polymers were coated with nanogels through a dip-coating and subsequent photocrosslinking method. The presence of the coating did not affect the shape recovery of the polymer, and coatings formed with dexamethasone-loaded nanogels were demonstrated to release a physiologically relevant amount of the anti-inflammatory drug. These materials have potential application as minimally invasive implantable devices. Coatings were also formed from interfacial redox polymerizations. Nanogels with varying crosslinking density were coated onto dexamethasone-loaded networks, which had the effect of changing the diffusion coefficient of dexamethasone as it was released from the core network. A fluorescein-loaded nanogel was coated onto a rhodamine-loaded network, which provided multidrug release from both the coating and the core material through two distinct release profiles.

  19. Conatumumab (AMG 655) coated nanoparticles for targeted pro-apoptotic drug delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francois Fay; Kirsty M. McLaughlin; Donna M. Small; Dean A. Fennell; Patrick G. Johnston; Daniel B. Longley; Christopher J. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal nanoparticle drug delivery systems have attracted much interest for their ability to enable effective formulation and delivery of therapeutic agents. The selective delivery of these nanoparticles to the disease site can be enhanced by coating the surface of the nanoparticles with targeting moieties, such as antibodies. In this current work, we demonstrate that antibodies on the surface of the

  20. Targeted Spinal Cord Therapeutics Delivery: Stabilized Platform and Microelectrode Recording Guidance Validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Riley; John Butler; Kenneth B. Baker; Shearwood McClelland III; Qingshan Teng; Jun Yang; Mary Garrity-Moses; Thais Federici; Nicholas M. Boulis

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: No validated delivery technique exists for accurate, reproducible delivery of biological therapies to discrete spinal cord targets. To address this unmet need, we have constructed a stabilized platform capable of supporting physiologic mapping, through microelectrode recording, and cellular or viral payload delivery to the ventral horn. Methods: A porcine animal model (n = 7) has been chosen based upon

  1. Preparation and characterization of amino-functionalized magnetic nanogels via photopolymerization for MRI applications.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yanbao; Fan, Mingxia; Gao, Feng; Hong, Jun; Liu, Shunying; Luo, Shufang; Yu, Jiahui; Huang, Jin

    2009-07-01

    To design peptide-targeted iron oxide as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, amino-functionalized magnetic nanogels were prepared by using N-(2-aminoethyl) methacrylamide hydrochloride (AEM x HCl) as monomer via new photochemical approach. Their chemical structure and composition were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The core-shell structure of magnetic nanogels was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The good storage stability, high magnetic content (88.7%), high saturation magnetizations and superparamagnetic behavior suggested their great potentials as MRI contrast agents, which were confirmed by their measurements of r(2) and coronal image of the crossing of mouse kidney. PMID:19278838

  2. Self-organized pullulan\\/deoxycholic acid nanogels: Physicochemical characterization and anti-cancer drug-releasing behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun Na; Kyong Mi Park; Eun Ae Jo; Kwan Shik Lee

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop new self-organized nanogels as a means of drug delivery in patients with cancer.\\u000a Pullulan (PUL) and deoxycholic acid (DOCA) were conjugated through an ester linkage between the hydroxyl group in PUL and\\u000a the carboxyl group in DOCA. Three types of PUL\\/DOCA conjugates were obtained, differing in the number of DOCA substitutions\\u000a (DS;

  3. Role of nanotechnology in targeted drug delivery and imaging: a concise review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otilia M. Koo; Israel Rubinstein; Hayat Onyuksel

    2005-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology in drug delivery and imaging in vivo is a rapidly expanding field. The emphases of this review are on biophysical attributes of the drug delivery and imaging platforms as well as the biological aspects that enable targeting of these platforms to injured and diseased tissues and cells. The principles of passive and active targeting of nanosized

  4. Chimeric aptamers in cancer cell-targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Jagat R; Roy, Kislay; Kanwar, Rupinder K

    2011-01-01

    Aptamers are single-stranded structured oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) that can bind to a wide range of targets ("apatopes") with high affinity and specificity. These nucleic acid ligands, generated from pools of random-sequence by an in vitro selection process referred to as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), have now been identified as excellent tools for chemical biology, therapeutic delivery, diagnosis, research, and monitoring therapy in real-time imaging. Today, aptamers represent an interesting class of modern Pharmaceuticals which with their low immunogenic potential mimic extend many of the properties of monoclonal antibodies in diagnostics, research, and therapeutics. More recently, chimeric aptamer approach employing many different possible types of chimerization strategies has generated more stable and efficient chimeric aptamers with aptamer-aptamer, aptamer-nonaptamer biomacromolecules (siRNAs, proteins) and aptamer-nanoparticle chimeras. These chimeric aptamers when conjugated with various biomacromolecules like locked nucleic acid (LNA) to potentiate their stability, biodistribution, and targeting efficiency, have facilitated the accurate targeting in preclinical trials. We developed LNA-aptamer (anti-nucleolin and EpCAM) complexes which were loaded in iron-saturated bovine lactofeerin (Fe-blf)-coated dopamine modified surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (SPIONs). This complex was used to deliver the specific aptamers in tumor cells in a co-culture model of normal and cancer cells. This review focuses on the chimeric aptamers, currently in development that are likely to find future practical applications in concert with other therapeutic molecules and modalities. PMID:21955150

  5. Electrospun Nanofibers of Guar Galactomannan for Targeted Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hsiao Mei Annie

    2011-12-01

    Guar galactomannan is a biodegradable polysaccharide used widely in the food industry but also in the cosmetics, pharmaceutical, oil drilling, textile and paper industries. Guar consists of a mannose backbone and galactose side groups that are both susceptible to enzyme degradation, a unique property that can be explored for targeted drug delivery especially since those enzymes are naturally secreted by the microflora in human colon. The present study can be divided into three parts. In the first part, we discuss ways to modify guar to produce nanofibers by electrospinning, a process that involves the application of an electric field to a polymer solution or melt to facilitate production of fibers in the sub-micron range. Nanofibers are currently being explored as the next generation of drug carriers due to its many advantages, none more important than the fact that nanofibers are on a size scale that is a fraction of a hair's width and have large surface-to-volume ratio. The incorporation and controlled release of nano-sized drugs is one way in which nanofibers are being utilized in drug delivery. In the second part of the study, we explore various methods to crosslink guar nanofibers as a means to promote water-resistance in a potential drug carrier. The scope and utility of water-resistant guar nanofibers can only be fully appreciated when subsequent drug release studies are carried out. To that end, the third part of our study focuses on understanding the kinetics and diffusion mechanisms of a model drug, Rhodamine B, through moderately-swelling (crosslinked) hydrogel nanofibers in comparison to rapidly-swelling (non-crosslinked) nanofibers. Along the way, our investigations led us to a novel electrospinning set-up that has a unique collector designed to capture aligned nanofibers. These aligned nanofiber bundles can then be twisted to hold them together like yarn. From a practical standpoint, these yarns are advantageous because they come freely suspended and without any attached support. As composites of aligned nanofibers, yarns potentially combine the inherent advantages of nanofibers with the strength and pliability of larger sized fibers. As such, we became interested in exploring the potential of nanofiber yarns as drug carriers. Our study evolved to accommodate comparative studies between the behavior of traditional nonwoven mats and nanofiber yarns. Throughout the process, we sought to answer the bigger question: Can guar galactomannan nanofibers be used as a new biodegradable platform for drug delivery?

  6. Oligoperoxide Based Physically Detectable Nanocomposites for Cell Targeting, Visualization and Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaichenko, A.; Mitina, N.; Shevchuk, O.; Shapoval, O.; Boiko, N.; Bilyy, R.; Stoika, R.; Voloshinovskii, A.; Horak, D.

    2010-10-01

    Novel promising routes for the obtaining luminescent, magnetic, plasmon resonance capable nanocomposites as well as drug delivery systems are proposed and studied. These routes are based on the synthesis and application of original type of functional oligoperoxides, their coordinating complexes of transition including rare earth metal cations for controlled synthesis of block, comb-like or nanogel oligoelectrolytes as well as for template synthesis of functional polymer and polymer-mineral nanoparticles. Developed nanoscale delivery systems were tested as medicines for cancer administration in vitro and in vivo. Physically detectable lectin-conjugated nanocomposites were studied as biomarkers for pathological cell targeting and visualization.

  7. Polymeric nanogels containing the triphosphate form of cytotoxic nucleoside analogues show antitumor activity against breast and colorectal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Galmarini, Carlos M.; Warren, Galya; Kohli, Ekta; Zeman, Arin; Mitin, Anton; Vinogradov, Serguei V.

    2008-01-01

    Background The therapeutic efficiency of anticancer NA strongly depends on their intracellular accumulation and conversion into 5’-triphosphates. Since active NATP cannot be directly administrated due to instability, we present here a strategy of nanoencapsulation of these active drugs for efficient delivery to tumors. Methods Stable lyophilized formulations of 5’-triphosphates of cytarabine (araCTP), gemcitabine (dFdCTP) and floxuridine (FdUTP) encapsulated in biodegradable PEG- or F127-cl-PEI nanogel networks (NGC and NGM, respectively) were prepared by a self-assembly procedure. Cellular penetration, in vitro cytotoxicity and drug-induced cell cycle perturbations of these nanoformulations were analyzed in breast and colorectal cancer cell lines. Cellular accumulation and NATP release from nanogel was studied by confocal microscopy and direct HPLC analysis of cellular lysates. Antiproliferative effect of dFdCTP-nanoformulations was evaluated in human breast carcinoma MCF7 xenograft animal model. Results Nanoencapsulated araCTP, dFdCTP and FdUTP demonstrated similar to NA cytotoxicity and cell cycle perturbations. Nanogels without drugs showed very low cytotoxicity, although NGM was more toxic than NGC. Treatment by NATP nanoformulations induced fast increase of free intracellular drug concentration. In human breast carcinoma MCF7 xenograft animal model, intravenous dFdCTP-nanogel was equally effective in inhibiting tumor growth at four times lower administered drug dose compared to free gemcitabine. Conclusions Active triphosphates of NA encapsulated in nanogels exhibit similar cytotoxicity and cell cycle perturbations in vitro, faster cell accumulation and equal tumor growth inhibitory activity in vivo at much lower dose compared to parental drugs, illustrating their therapeutic potential for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:18852140

  8. Efficient Inhibition of Ovarian Cancer by Gelonin Toxin Gene Delivered by Biodegradable Cationic Heparin-polyethyleneimine Nanogels

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yu; Gou, Maling; Yi, Tao; Yang, Li; Liu, Lili; Lin, Xiaojuan; Su, Dan; Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Xia

    2015-01-01

    The use of toxins for cancer therapy has great promise. Gelonin, a potent plant toxin, causes cell death by inactivating the 60S ribosomal subunit. Recently, we developed a novel gene delivery system using biodegradable cationic heparin-polyethyleneimine (HPEI) nanogels. In the current study, the antitumor activity of a recombinant plasmid expressing gelonin (pGelonin) on human ovarian cancer was assessed. The application of HPEI nanogels, was also evaluated. Gelonin-cDNA was cloned into the pVAX1 plasmid vector and transfected into SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells using biodegradable cationic HPEI nanogels. The expression of gelonin in vitro and in vivo was confirmed using RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Cell viability and apoptosis were examined using an MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. For the in vivo study, an SKOV3 intraperitoneal ovarian carcinomatosis model was established, and nude mice were randomly assigned into four groups receiving i.p. administration of pGelonin/HPEI complexes, pVAX/HPEI complexes, HPEI alone and 5% glucose solution. The tumor weight was monitored, and a TUNEL assay and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate apoptosis and cell proliferation in the tumor tissue sections, respectively. Gelonin was efficiently expressed in SKOV3 cancer cells in vitro and in vivo using pGelonin incorporated with HPEI nanogels. The pGelonin/HPEI complexes inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in the cell culture. Treatment for intraperitoneal carcinomatosis with pGelonin/HPEI complexes reduced the tumor weight by ~58.55% compared to the control groups (P<0.05). The antitumor effect was accompanied by increased apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation (P<0.05). No significant side effects were observed with i.p. administration of the pGelonin/HPEI complexes. Our data indicate that HPEI nanogel-delivered pGelonin may have promising applications against human ovarian cancer. PMID:26005374

  9. Buparvaquone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for targeted delivery in theleriosis

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Maheshkumar P.; Shelkar, Nilakash; Gaikwad, Rajiv V.; Vanage, Geeta R.; Samad, Abdul; Devarajan, Padma V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Buparvaquone (BPQ), a hydroxynaphthoquinone derivative, has been investigated for the treatment of many infections and is recommended as the gold standard for the treatment of theileriosis. Theileriosis, an intramacrophage infection is localized mainly in reticuloendotheileial system (RES) organs. The present study investigates development of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of BPQ for targeted delivery to the RES. Materials and Methods: BPQ SLN was prepared using melt method by adding a molten mixture into aqueous Lutrol F68 solution (80°C). Larger batches were prepared up to 6 g of BPQ with GMS: BPQ, 2:1. SLN of designed size were obtained using ultraturrax and high pressure homogenizer. A freeze and thaw study was used to optimize type and concentration of cryoprotectant with Sf: Mean particle size, Si: Initial particle size <1.3. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) study was performed on optimized formulation. Formulation was investigated for in vitro serum stability, hemolysis and cell uptake study. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study was performed in Holtzman rat. Results: Based on solubility in lipid; glyceryl monostearate (GMS) was selected for preparation of BPQ SLN. Batches of BPQ SLN were optimized for average particle size and entrapment efficiency at <100 mg solid content. A combination of Solutol HS-15 and Lutrol F68 at 2% w/v and greater enabled the desired Sf/Si < 1.3. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction revealed decrease in crystallinity of BPQ in BPQ SLN while, scanning electron microscope revealed spherical morphology. BPQ SLN revealed good stability at 4°C and 25°C. Low hemolytic potential (<8%) and in vitro serum stability up to 5 h was observed. Cytotoxicity of SLN to the U937 cell was low. The macrophage cell line revealed high (52%) uptake of BPQ SLN in 1 h suggesting the potential to RES uptake. SLN revealed longer circulation and biodistrbution study confirmed high RES uptake (75%) in RES organs like liver lung spleen etc. Conclusion: The high RES uptake suggests BPQ SLN as a promising approach for targeted and improved delivery in theileriosis. PMID:24459400

  10. Transporter targeted gatifloxacin prodrugs: Synthesis, permeability, and topical ocular delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vooturi, Sunil K.; Kadam, Rajendra S.; Kompella, Uday B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To design and synthesize prodrugs of gatifloxacin targeting OCT, MCT, and ATB (0, +) transporters and to identify a prodrug with enhanced delivery to the back of the eye. Method Dimethylamino-propyl, carboxy-propyl, and amino-propyl(2-methyl) derivatives of gatifloxacin (GFX), DMAP-GFX, CP-GFX, and APM-GFX, were designed and synthesized to target OCT, MCT, and ATB (0, +) transporters, respectively. LC-MS method was developed to analyze drug and prodrug levels in various studies. Solubility and Log D (pH 7.4) were measured for prodrugs and the parent drug. Permeability of the prodrugs was determined in cornea, conjunctiva, and sclera-choroidretinal pigment epitheluim (SCRPE) and compared with gatifloxacin using Ussing chamber assembly. Permeability mechanisms were elucidated by determining the transport in the presence of transporter specific inhibitors. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide (MPP+), nicotinic acid sodium salt, and ?-methyl-DL-tryptophan were used to inhibit OCT, MCT, and ATB (0, +) transporters, respectively. A prodrug selected based on in vitro studies was administered as an eye drop to pigmented rabbits and the delivery to various eye tissues including vitreous humor was compared with gatifloxacin dosing. Results DMAP-GFX exhibited 12.8-fold greater solubility than GFX. All prodrugs were more lipophilic, with the measured Log D (pH 7.4) values ranging from 0.05 to 1.04, when compared to GFX (Log D: -1.15). DMAP-GFX showed 1.4-, 1.8-, and 1.9-fold improvement in permeability across cornea, conjunctiva, as well as SCRPE when compared to GFX. Moreover, it exhibited reduced permeability in the presence of MPP+ (competitive inhibitor of OCT), indicating OCT-mediated transport. CP-GFX showed 1.2-, 2.3- and 2.5-fold improvement in permeability across cornea, conjunctiva and SCRPE, respectively. In the presence of nicotinic acid (competitive inhibitor of MCT), permeability of CP-GFX was reduced across conjunctiva. However, cornea and SCRPE permeability of CP-GFX was not affected by nicotinic acid. APM-GFX did not show any improvement in permeability when compared to GFX across cornea, conjunctiva, and SCRPE. Based on solubility and permeability, DMAP-GFX was selected for in vivo studies. DMAP-GFX showed 3.6- and 1.95-fold higher levels in vitreous humor and CRPE compared to that of GFX at 1 hour after topical dosing. In vivo conversion of DMAP-GFX prodrug to GFX was quantified in tissues isolated at 1 hour after dosing. Prodrug-to-parent drug ratio was 8, 70, 24, 21, 29, 13, 55, and 60 % in cornea, conjunctiva, iris-ciliary body, aqueous humor, sclera, CRPE, retina, and vitreous humor, respectively. Conclusions DMAP-GFX prodrug enhanced solubility, Log D, as well as OCT mediated delivery of gatifloxacin to the back of the eye. PMID:23003105

  11. Folate conjugated silk fibroin nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Subia, Bano; Chandra, Sourov; Talukdar, Sarmistha; Kundu, Subhas C

    2014-02-01

    Disease treatment processes mainly focus on the development of nontoxic, biodegradable, non-immunogenic, biocompatible materials capable of controlled and long-term release of biomolecules. In this work silk protein fibroin from non-mulberry tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, is used to prepare nanoparticles as a drug delivery system. Folate is a vitamin, which is brought into healthy and cancerous cells by folate receptors. The efficiency of silk fibroin-folate nanoparticles loaded with anticancer drug doxorubicin was evaluated by analysing the cell viability, proliferation and endocytosis. Consequently the effects of pro-inflammatory responses by cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-1? and nitric oxide were checked by stimulating the macrophages with folate conjugated silk fibroin nanoparticles. The fibroin-folate nanocarriers are nontoxic, easily taken up by cells and capable of sustained drug release. Nanoparticles loaded with anticancer drug doxorubicin target cancer cells. The results show that silk fibroin-folate nanoparticles may serve as promising nanocarriers for different biomedical and nanotechnology applications in cancer research. PMID:24345855

  12. Functionalized polymersomes with outlayered polyelectrolyte gels for potential tumor-targeted delivery of multimodal therapies and MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wen-Hsuan; Huang, Wen-Chia; Chang, Chien-Wen; Shen, Ming-Yin; Shih, Zong-Fu; Huang, Yi-Fong; Lin, Sung-Chyr; Chiu, Hsin-Cheng

    2013-06-28

    A novel tumor-targeting polymersome carrier system capable of delivering magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and chemotherapy is presented in this study. The doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded magnetic polymersomes were first attained by the self-assembly of lipid-containing copolymer, poly(acrylic acid-co-distearin acrylate), in aqueous solution containing citric acid-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), and followed by DOX loading via electrostatic attraction. To further functionalize these artificial vesicles with superior in vivo colloidal stability, pH-tunable drug release and active tumor-targeting, chitosan and poly(?-glutamic acid-co-?-glutamyl oxysuccinimide)-g-poly(ethyleneglycol)-folate (FA) were deposited in sequence onto the assembly outer surfaces. The interfacial nanogel layers via complementary electrostatic interactions and in-situ covalent cross-linking were thus produced. These nanogel-caged polymersomes (NCPs) show excellent anti-dilution and serum proteins-repellent behaviors. Triggerable release of the encapsulated DOX was governed by dual external stimuli, pH and temperature. When these theranostic NCPs were effectively internalized by HeLa cells via FA receptor-mediated endocytosis and then exposed to high frequency magnetic fields (HFMF), the combined effects of both pH and magnetic hyperthermia-triggered drug release and thermo-therapy resulted in greater cytotoxicity than the treatment by DOX alone. By virtue of the SPION clustering effect in the assembly inner aqueous compartments, the SPION/DOX-loaded NCPs displayed an r? relaxivity value (255.2 F emM?¹ S?¹) higher than Resovist (183.4 F emM?¹ S?¹), a commercial SPION-based T? contrast agent. The high magnetic relaxivity of the tumor-targeting NCPs coupled with their enhanced cellular uptake considerably promoted the MRI contrast of targeted cancer cells. These results demonstrate the great potential of the FA-decorated SPION/DOX-loaded NCPs as an advanced cancer theranostic nanodevice. PMID:23562635

  13. Exploring targeted pulmonary delivery for treatment of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Amit; Baboota, Sanjula; Sahni, Jasjeet K; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most malignant cancer today. The treatment of lung cancer continues to be a challenge for oncologists. The direct delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the lungs could represent a novel therapeutic approach for patients with pulmonary metastases. The large alveolar surface area, the low thickness of the epithelial barrier, and an extensive vascularization make the pulmonary route an ideal route for administration of oncolytics. This paper reviews the research performed over the last and current decades on the delivery of various oncolytics for pulmonary delivery for the treatment of lung cancer. Inhaled drug delivery devices in cancer therapy are also discussed in the present manuscript. PMID:23799201

  14. Engineering targeted proteins for intracellular delivery of biotherapeutics

    E-print Network

    Pirie, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    Biotherapeutics have revolutionized medicine with their ability to achieve unprecedented molecular recognition and mediate complex biological responses. The intracellular delivery of biotherapeutics is an unmet scientific ...

  15. Convection-enhanced delivery for glioblastoma: targeted delivery of antitumor therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ung, Timothy H; Malone, Hani; Canoll, Peter; Bruce, Jeffrey N

    2015-07-01

    SUMMARY? Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and carries a dismal prognosis despite advancements in treatment. Diffuse tumor infiltration precludes curative surgical resection and necessitates advancements in drug delivery mechanisms. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) enables continuous local drug delivery for a diverse population of antitumor agents. Importantly, CED circumvents therapeutic challenges posed by the blood-brain barrier by facilitating concentrated local therapeutic drug delivery with limited systemic effects. Here, we present a concise review of properties essential for safe and efficient convection-enhanced drug delivery, as well as a focused review of clinical studies evaluating CED in the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26103989

  16. A hyaluronic acid nanogel for photo-chemo theranostics of lung cancer with simultaneous light-responsive controlled release of doxorubicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatun, Zehedina; Nurunnabi, Md; Nafiujjaman, Md; Reeck, Gerald R.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Cho, Kwang Jae; Lee, Yong-Kyu

    2015-06-01

    The combined delivery of photo- and chemo-therapeutic agents is an emerging strategy to overcome drug resistance in treating cancer, and controlled light-responsive drug release is a proven tactic to produce a continuous therapeutic effect for a prolonged duration. Here, a combination of light-responsive graphene, chemo-agent doxorubicin and pH-sensitive disulfide-bond linked hyaluronic acid form a nanogel (called a graphene-doxorubicin conjugate in a hyaluronic acid nanogel) that exerts an activity with multiple effects: thermo and chemotherapeutic, real-time noninvasive imaging, and light-glutathione-responsive controlled drug release. The nanogel is mono-dispersed with an average diameter of 120 nm as observed by using TEM and a hydrodynamic size analyzer. It has excellent photo-luminescence properties and good stability in buffer and serum solutions. Graphene itself, being photoluminescent, can be considered an optical imaging contrast agent as well as a heat source when excited by laser irradiation. Thus the nanogel shows simultaneous thermo-chemotherapeutic effects on noninvasive optical imaging. We have also found that irradiation enhances the release of doxorubicin in a controlled manner. This release synergizes therapeutic activity of the nanogel in killing tumor cells. Our findings demonstrate that the graphene-doxorubicin conjugate in the hyaluronic acid nanogel is very effective in killing the human lung cancer cell line (A549) with limited toxicity in the non-cancerous cell line (MDCK).The combined delivery of photo- and chemo-therapeutic agents is an emerging strategy to overcome drug resistance in treating cancer, and controlled light-responsive drug release is a proven tactic to produce a continuous therapeutic effect for a prolonged duration. Here, a combination of light-responsive graphene, chemo-agent doxorubicin and pH-sensitive disulfide-bond linked hyaluronic acid form a nanogel (called a graphene-doxorubicin conjugate in a hyaluronic acid nanogel) that exerts an activity with multiple effects: thermo and chemotherapeutic, real-time noninvasive imaging, and light-glutathione-responsive controlled drug release. The nanogel is mono-dispersed with an average diameter of 120 nm as observed by using TEM and a hydrodynamic size analyzer. It has excellent photo-luminescence properties and good stability in buffer and serum solutions. Graphene itself, being photoluminescent, can be considered an optical imaging contrast agent as well as a heat source when excited by laser irradiation. Thus the nanogel shows simultaneous thermo-chemotherapeutic effects on noninvasive optical imaging. We have also found that irradiation enhances the release of doxorubicin in a controlled manner. This release synergizes therapeutic activity of the nanogel in killing tumor cells. Our findings demonstrate that the graphene-doxorubicin conjugate in the hyaluronic acid nanogel is very effective in killing the human lung cancer cell line (A549) with limited toxicity in the non-cancerous cell line (MDCK). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: In vitro stability study method and results, FT-IR data, optical properties and thermal stability (TGA and DTA), cell image and in vivo optical image and histological images. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01075f

  17. Nasal-nanotechnology: revolution for efficient therapeutics delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amrish; Pandey, Aditya Nath; Jain, Sunil Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Abstract Context: In recent years, nanotechnology-based delivery systems have gained interest to overcome the problems of restricted absorption of therapeutic agents from the nasal cavity, depending upon the physicochemical properties of the drug and physiological properties of the human nose. Objective: The well-tolerated and non-invasive nasal drug delivery when combined with the nanotechnology-based novel formulations and carriers, opens the way for the effective systemic and brain targeting delivery of various therapeutic agents. To accomplish competent drug delivery, it is imperative to recognize the interactions among the nanomaterials and the nasal biological environment, targeting cell-surface receptors, drug release, multiple drug administration, stability of therapeutic agents and molecular mechanisms of cell signaling involved in patho-biology of the disease under consideration. Methods: Quite a few systems have been successfully formulated using nanomaterials for intranasal (IN) delivery. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), chitosan, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and PLGA-based nanosystems have also been studied in vitro and in vivo for the delivery of several therapeutic agents which shown promising concentrations in the brain after nasal administration. Results and conclusion: The use of nanomaterials including peptide-based nanotubes and nanogels (NGs) for vaccine delivery via nasal route is a new approach to control the disease progression. In this review, the recent developments in nanotechnology utilized for nasal drug delivery have been discussed. PMID:24901207

  18. Multifunctional magnetic silica nanotubes for MR imaging and targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang; Ao, Lijiao; Wang, Wei; Hu, Dehong; Sheng, Zonghai; Su, Wu

    2015-03-01

    A multifunctional drug delivery vehicle consisting of a tubular shaped silica host, a compact superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle layer and a hyaluronic acid surface coating was developed as a theranostic platform, for in vivo MR imaging and magnetically guided/cancer targeted drug delivery. PMID:25656155

  19. Improved genetic immunization via micromechanical disruption of skin-barrier function and targeted epidermal delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason B. Alarcon; John M. Brittingham; Diane E. Sutter; Ronald J. Pettis; Noel G. Harvey; John A. Mikszta

    2002-01-01

    Skin is an attractive target for delivery of genetic therapies and vaccines. However, new approaches are needed to access this tissue more effectively. Here, we describe a new delivery technology based on arrays of structurally precise, micron-scale silicon projections, which we term microenhancer arrays (MEAs). In a human clinical study, these devices effectively breached the skin barrier, allowing direct access

  20. Quantification of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) Delivery to a Target Site Using In Vivo Confocal Microscopy

    E-print Network

    Mortensen, Luke J.

    The ability to deliver cells to appropriate target tissues is a prerequisite for successful cell-based therapy. To optimize cell therapy it is therefore necessary to develop a robust method of in vivo cell delivery ...

  1. Stimuli responsive magnetic nanogels for biomedical application

    SciTech Connect

    Craciunescu, I.; Petran, A.; Turcu, R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Daia, C.; Marinica, O.; Vekas, L. [Romanian Academy, Timisoara Branch, Magnetic Fluids Laboratory, Timisoara (Romania)] [Romanian Academy, Timisoara Branch, Magnetic Fluids Laboratory, Timisoara (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    We report the synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanogels based on magnetite nanoparticles sterically stabilized by double layer oleic acid in water carrier and chemically cross linked poly (N-isopropylacril amide) (pNIPA) and poly (acrylic acid) (pAAc). In this structure the magnetite nanoparticles are attached to the flexible network chain by adhesive forces, resulting in a direct coupling between magnetic and elastic properties. Stable water suspensions of dual responsive magnetic nanogels based on temperature-responsive N-isopropyl acryl amide, pH responsive acrylic acid were obtained. The FTIR spectra of p(NIPA-AAc) ferrogel samples, showed the absorption region of the specific chemical groups associated with pNIPA, pAAc and the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles. The morphology and the structure of the as prepared materials were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the size distribution was determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The magnetic microgels have high magnetization and superparamagnetic behaviour being suitable materials for biomedical application.

  2. Targeted delivery of a poorly water-soluble compound to hair follicles using polymeric nanoparticle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Morgen, Michael; Lu, Guang Wei; Du, Daniel; Stehle, Randall; Lembke, Franz; Cervantes, Jessica; Ciotti, Susan; Haskell, Roy; Smithey, Dan; Haley, Kevin; Fan, Conglin

    2011-09-15

    This study explored the utility of topically applied polymeric nanoparticle suspensions to target delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs to hair follicles. Several formulations of amorphous drug/polymer nanoparticles were prepared from ethyl cellulose and UK-157,147 (systematic name (3S,4R)-[6-(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-2,2,3-trimethyl-4-(2-methyl-3-oxo-2,3-dihydropyridazin-6-yloxy)-3-chromanol), a potassium channel opener, using sodium glycocholate (NaGC) as a surface stabilizer. Nanoparticle suspensions were evaluated to determine if targeted drug delivery to sebaceous glands and hair follicles could be achieved. In in vitro testing with rabbit ear tissue, delivery of UK-157,147 to the follicles was demonstrated with limited distribution to the surrounding dermis. Delivery to hair follicles was also demonstrated in vivo, based on stimulation of hair growth in tests of 100-nm nanoparticles with a C3H mouse model. The nanoparticles were well-tolerated, with no visible skin irritation. In vivo tests of smaller nanoparticles with a hamster ear model also indicated targeted delivery to sebaceous glands. The nanoparticles released drug rapidly in in vitro nonsink dissolution tests and were stable in suspension for 3 months. The present results show selective drug delivery to the follicle by follicular transport of nanoparticles and rapid release of a poorly water-soluble drug. Thus, nanoparticles represent a promising approach for targeted topical delivery of low-solubility compounds to hair follicles. PMID:21722722

  3. Coupled Particulate and Continuum Model for Nanoparticle Targeted Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jifu; Wang, Shunqiang; Yang, Jie; Liu, Yaling

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of nanoparticle (NP) distribution in a vasculature involves transport phenomena at various scales and is crucial for the evaluation of NP delivery efficiency. A combined particulate and continuum model is developed to model NP transport and delivery processes. In the particulate model ligand-receptor binding kinetics is coupled with Brownian dynamics to study NP binding on a microscale. An analytical formula is derived to link molecular level binding parameters to particulate level adhesion and detachment rates. The obtained NP adhesion rates are then coupled with a convection-diffusion-reaction model to study NP transport and delivery at macroscale. The binding results of the continuum model agree well with those from the particulate model. The effects of shear rate, particle size and vascular geometry on NP adhesion are investigated. Attachment rates predicted by the analytical formula also agree reasonably well with the experimental data reported in literature. The developed coupled model that links ligand-receptor binding dynamics to NP adhesion rate along with macroscale transport and delivery processes may serve as a faster evaluation and prediction tool to determine NP distribution in complex vascular networks. PMID:23729869

  4. Advances in nanotechnology-based delivery systems for curcumin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Su, Xun; Ding, Buyun; He, Xiuli; Liu, Xiuju; Yu, Aihua; Lou, Hongxiang; Zhai, Guangxi

    2012-07-01

    Curcumin (CUR), a bioactive component of turmeric, which is a commonly used spice and nutritional supplement, is isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae). In recent years, the potential pharmacological actions of CUR in inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease and neurological disorders have been shown. However, the clinical application of CUR is severely limited by its main drawbacks such as instability, low solubility, poor bioavailability and rapid metabolism. Multifarious nanotechnology-based delivery approaches have been used to enhance the oral bioavailability, biological activity or tissue-targeting ability of CUR. This article reviews potential novel drug delivery systems for CUR including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, nanogels, nanosuspensions, nanoemulsions, complexes and dendrimer/dimer, which provide promising results for CUR to improve its biological activities. PMID:22846093

  5. Implications of nanoscale based drug delivery systems in delivery and targeting tubulin binding agent, noscapine in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ramesh; Madan, Jitender; Singh, Prashant; Chandra, Ankush; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, Vartika; Dass, Sujata K

    2012-12-01

    Noscapine, a tubulin binding anticancer agent undergoing Phase I/II clinical trials, inhibits tumor growth in nude mice bearing human xenografts of breast, lung, ovarian, brain, and prostrate origin. The analogues of noscapine like 9-bromonoscapine (EM011) are 5 to 10-fold more active than parent compound, noscapine. Noscapinoids inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells that are resistant to paclitaxel and epothilone. Noscapine also potentiated the anticancer activity of doxorubicin in a synergistic manner against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, physicochemical and pharmacokinetic (ED50˜300-600 mg/kg bodyweight) limitations of noscapine present hurdle in development of commercial anticancer formulations. Therefore, objectives of the present review are to summarize the chemotherapeutic potential of noscapine and implications of nanoscale based drug delivery systems in enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of noscapine in cancer cells. We have constructed noscapine-enveloped gelatin nanoparticles, NPs and poly (ethylene glycol) grafted gelatin NPs as well as inclusion complex of noscapine in ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and evaluated their physicochemical characteristics. The Fe3O4 NPs were also used to incorporate noscapine in its polymeric nanomatrix system where molecular weight of the polymer governed the encapsulation efficiency of drug. The enhanced noscapine delivery using ?PAR-targeted optical-MR imaging trackable NPs offer a great potential for image directed targeted delivery of noscapine. Human Serum Albumin NPs (150-300 nm) as efficient noscapine drug delivery systems have also been developed for potential use in breast cancer. PMID:22571485

  6. Targeted Delivery of siRNA-Generating DNA Nanocassettes Using Multifunctional Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Y.-S.; Lee, G. Y.; Sajja, H. K.; Qian, W.; Cao, Z.; He, W.; Karna, P.; Chen, X.; Mao, H.; Wang, Y. A.; Yang, L.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular therapy using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) has shown promise in the development of novel therapeutics. Various formulations have been used for in vivo delivery of siRNAs. However, the stability of short double-stranded RNA molecules in the blood and efficiency of siRNA delivery into target organs or tissues following systemic administration have been the major issues that limit applications of siRNA in human patients. In this study, multifunctional siRNA delivery nanoparticles are developed that combine imaging capability of nanoparticles with urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-targeted delivery of siRNA expressing DNA nanocassettes. This theranostic nanoparticle platform consists of a nanoparticle conjugated with targeting ligands and double-stranded DNA nanocassettes containing a U6 promoter and a shRNA gene for in vivo siRNA expression. Targeted delivery and gene silencing efficiency of firefly luciferase siRNA nanogenerators are demonstrated in tumor cells and in animal tumor models. Delivery of survivin siRNA expressing nanocassettes into tumor cells induces apoptotic cell death and sensitizes cells to chemotherapy drugs. The ability of expression of siRNAs from multiple nanocassettes conjugated to a single nanoparticle following receptor-mediated internalization should enhance the therapeutic effect of the siRNA-mediated cancer therapy. PMID:23292656

  7. Magnetic Targeted Delivery of Dexamethasone Acetate across the Round Window Membrane in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaoping; Chen, Kejian; Kuriyavar, Satish; Kopke, Richard D.; Grady, Brian P.; Bourne, David H.; Li, Wei; Dormer, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis Magnetically susceptible PLGA nanoparticles will effectively target the round window membrane (RWM) for delivery of dexamethasone-acetate (Dex-Ac) to the scala tympani. Background Targeted delivery of therapeutics to specific tissues can be accomplished using different targeting mechanisms. One technology includes iron oxide nanoparticles, susceptible to external magnetic fields. If a nanocomposite composed of biocompatible polymer (PLGA), magnetite, and Dex-Ac can be pulled into and across the mammalian RWM, drug delivery can be enhanced. Method In vitro targeting and release kinetics of PLGA-magnetite-Dex-Ac nanoparticles first were measured using a RWM model. Next, these optimized nanocomposites were targeted to the RWM by filling the niche in anesthetized guinea pigs. A permanent magnet was placed opposite the RWM for 1 hour. Cochlear soft tissues, perilymph, and RWM were harvested after euthanasia and steroid levels were measured using HPLC. Results Membrane transport, in vitro, proved optimal targeting using a lower particle magnetite concentration (1 versus 5 or 10 mg/ml). In vivo targeted PLGA-magnetite-Dex-Ac particles had an average size of 482.8 ± 158 nm (DLS) and an average zeta potential ?19.9 ± 3.3 mV. In 1 hour, there was significantly increased cochlear targeted delivery of Dex or Dex-Ac, compared with diffusion alone. Conclusion Superparamagnetic PLGA-magnetite-Dex-Ac nanoparticles under an external magnetic field (0.26 mT) for 1 hour significantly increased Dex-Ac delivery to the inner ear. The RWM was not completely permeated and also became loaded with nanocomposites, indicating that delivery to the cochlea would continue for weeks by PLGA degradation and passive diffusion. PMID:23187928

  8. Nanomicellar carriers for targeted delivery of anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Huang, Yixian; Li, Song

    2014-01-01

    Clinical application of anticancer drugs is limited by problems such as low water solubility, lack of tissue-specificity and toxicity. Formulation development represents an important approach to these problems. Among the many delivery systems studied, polymeric micelles have gained considerable attention owing to ease in preparation, small sizes (10-100 nm), and ability to solubilize water-insoluble anticancer drugs and accumulate specifically at the tumors. This article provides a brief review of several promising micellar systems and their applications in tumor therapy. The emphasis is placed on the discussion of the authors' recent work on several nanomicellar systems that have both a delivery function and antitumor activity, named dual-function drug carriers. PMID:24341817

  9. Nanomicellar carriers for targeted delivery of anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Huang, Yixian; Li, Song

    2014-01-01

    Clinical application of anticancer drugs is limited by problems such as low water solubility, lack of tissue-specificity and toxicity. Formulation development represents an important approach to these problems. Among the many delivery systems studied, polymeric micelles have gained considerable attention owing to ease in preparation, small sizes (10–100 nm), and ability to solubilize water-insoluble anticancer drugs and accumulate specifically at the tumors. This article provides a brief review of several promising micellar systems and their applications in tumor therapy. The emphasis is placed on the discussion of the authors’ recent work on several nanomicellar systems that have both a delivery function and antitumor activity, named dual-function drug carriers. PMID:24341817

  10. Magnetic nanoparticle drug delivery systems for targeting tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mody, Vicky V.; Cox, Arthur; Shah, Samit; Singh, Ajay; Bevins, Wesley; Parihar, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Tumor hypoxia, or low oxygen concentration, is a result of disordered vasculature that lead to distinctive hypoxic microenvironments not found in normal tissues. Many traditional anti-cancer agents are not able to penetrate into these hypoxic zones, whereas, conventional cancer therapies that work by blocking cell division are not effective to treat tumors within hypoxic zones. Under these circumstances the use of magnetic nanoparticles as a drug delivering agent system under the influence of external magnetic field has received much attention, based on their simplicity, ease of preparation, and ability to tailor their properties for specific biological applications. Hence in this review article we have reviewed current magnetic drug delivery systems, along with their application and clinical status in the field of magnetic drug delivery.

  11. Protein engineering for targeted delivery of radionuclides to tumors

    E-print Network

    Orcutt, Kelly Davis

    2010-01-01

    Traditional cancer treatment strategies include systemic chemotherapy, external beam radiation, and surgical excision. Chemotherapy is nonspecific, and targets all rapidly dividing cells. External beam radiation and surgery ...

  12. Local delivery of nitric oxide: targeted delivery of therapeutics to bone and connective tissues

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Scott P.; Storm, Wesley L.; Koh, Ahyeon; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive treatment of injuries and disorders affecting bones and connective tissue is a significant challenge facing the medical community. A treatment route that has recently been proposed is nitric oxide (NO) therapy. Nitric oxide plays several roles in physiology with many conditions lacking adequate levels of NO. As NO is a radical, localized delivery via NO donors is essential to promoting biological activity. Herein, we review current literature related to therapeutic NO delivery in the treatment of bone, skin and tendon repair. PMID:22433782

  13. Claudin 4-targeted protein incorporated into PLGA nanoparticles can mediate M cell targeted delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksa, Thejani E.; Stover-Hamer, Mary; Fernandez, Xiomara; Eckelhoefer, Holly A.; Lo, David D.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer-based microparticles are in clinical use mainly for their ability to provide controlled release of peptides and compounds, but they are also being explored for their potential to deliver vaccines and drugs as suspensions directly into mucosal sites. It is generally assumed that uptake is mediated by epithelial M cells, but this is often not directly measured. To study the potential for optimizing M cell uptake of polymer microparticles in vivo, we produced sub-micron size PLGA particles incorporating a recombinant protein. This recombinant protein was produced with or without a c-terminal peptide previously shown to have high affinity binding to Claudin 4, a protein associated with M cell endocytosis. While the PLGA nanoparticles incorporate the protein throughout the matrix, much of the protein was also displayed on the surface, allowing us to take advantage of the binding activity of the targeting peptide. Accordingly, we found that instillation of these nanoparticles into the nasal passages or stomach of mice was found to significantly enhance their uptake by upper airway and intestinal M cells. Our results suggest that a reasonably simple nanoparticle manufacture method can provide insight into developing an effective needle-free delivery system. PMID:19896996

  14. Targeted delivery of oligodeoxynucleotides to parenchymal liver cells in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik A. L. BIESSEN; Helene VIETSCH; Erik T. RUMP; Kees FLUITER; Johan KUIPER; Martin K. BIJSTERBOSCH; Theo J. C. VAN BERKEL

    1999-01-01

    Anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) hold great promise for correcting the biosynthesis of clinically relevant proteins. The potential of ODNs for modulating liver-specific genes might be increased by preventing untimely elimination and by improving the local bioavailability of ODNs in the target tissue. In the present study we have assessed whether the local ODN con- centration can be enhanced by the targeted

  15. Naltrexone: a review of existing sustained drug delivery systems and emerging nano-based systems.

    PubMed

    Goonoo, Nowsheen; Bhaw-Luximon, Archana; Ujoodha, Reetesh; Jhugroo, Anil; Hulse, Gary K; Jhurry, Dhanjay

    2014-06-10

    Narcotic antagonists such as naltrexone (NTX) have shown some efficiency in the treatment of both opiate addiction and alcohol dependence. A few review articles have focused on clinical findings and pharmacogenetics of NTX, advantages and limitations of sustained release systems as well as pharmacological studies of NTX depot formulations for the treatment of alcohol and opioid dependency. To date, three NTX implant systems have been developed and tested in humans. In this review, we summarize the latest clinical data on commercially available injectable and implantable NTX-sustained release systems and discuss their safety and tolerability aspects. Emphasis is also laid on recent developments in the area of nanodrug delivery such as NTX-loaded micelles and nanogels as well as related research avenues. Due to their ability to increase the therapeutic index and to improve the selectivity of drugs (targeted delivery), nanodrug delivery systems are considered as promising sustainable drug carriers for NTX in addressing opiate and alcohol dependence. PMID:24704710

  16. Aptamer-targeted DNA nanostructures for therapeutic delivery.

    PubMed

    Charoenphol, Phapanin; Bermudez, Harry

    2014-05-01

    DNA-based nanostructures have been widely used in various applications due to their structural diversity, programmability, and uniform structures. Their intrinsic biocompatibility and biodegradability further motivates the investigation of DNA-based nanostructures as delivery vehicles. Incorporating AS1411 aptamers into DNA pyramids leads to enhanced intracellular uptake and selectively inhibits the growth of cancer cells, achieved without the use of transfection reagents. Furthermore, aptamer-displaying pyramids are found to be substantially more resistant to nuclease degradation than single-stranded aptamers. These findings, along with their modularity, reinforce the potential of DNA-based nanostructures for therapeutic applications. PMID:24739136

  17. Polymeric micelles: nanocarriers for cancer-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifei; Huang, Yixian; Li, Song

    2014-08-01

    Polymeric micelles represent an effective delivery system for poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs. With small size (10-100 nm) and hydrophilic shell of PEG, polymeric micelles exhibit prolonged circulation time in the blood and enhanced tumor accumulation. In this review, the importance of rational design was highlighted by summarizing the recent progress on the development of micellar formulations. Emphasis is placed on the new strategies to enhance the drug/carrier interaction for improved drug-loading capacity. In addition, the micelle-forming drug-polymer conjugates are also discussed which have both drug-loading function and antitumor activity. PMID:24700296

  18. Aptamer-Targeted DNA Nanostructures for Therapeutic Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA-based nanostructures have been widely used in various applications due to their structural diversity, programmability, and uniform structures. Their intrinsic biocompatibility and biodegradability further motivates the investigation of DNA-based nanostructures as delivery vehicles. Incorporating AS1411 aptamers into DNA pyramids leads to enhanced intracellular uptake and selectively inhibits the growth of cancer cells, achieved without the use of transfection reagents. Furthermore, aptamer-displaying pyramids are found to be substantially more resistant to nuclease degradation than single-stranded aptamers. These findings, along with their modularity, reinforce the potential of DNA-based nanostructures for therapeutic applications. PMID:24739136

  19. Challenges in design and characterization of ligand-targeted drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Muro, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Targeting of therapeutic agents to molecular markers expressed on the surface of cells requiring clinical intervention holds promise to improve specificity of delivery, enhancing therapeutic effects while decreasing potential damage to healthy tissues. Drug targeting to cellular receptors involved in endocytic transport facilitates intracellular delivery, a requirement for a number of therapeutic goals. However, after several decades of experimental design, there is still considerable controversy on the practical outcome of drug targeting strategies. The plethora of factors contributing to the relative efficacy of targeting makes the success of these approaches hardly predictable. Lack of fully specific targets, along with selection of targets with spatial and temporal expression well aligned to interventional requirements, pose difficulties to this process. Selection of adequate sub-molecular target epitopes determines accessibility for anchoring of drug conjugates and bulkier drug carriers, as well as proper signaling for uptake within the cell. Targeting design must adapt to physiological variables of blood flow, disease status, and tissue architecture by accommodating physicochemical parameters such as carrier composition, functionalization, geometry, and avidity. In many cases, opposite features need to meet a balance, e.g., sustained circulation versus efficient targeting, penetration through tissues versus uptake within cells, internalization within endocytic compartment to avoid efflux pumps versus accessibility to molecular targets within the cytosol, etc. Detailed characterization of these complex physiological factors and design parameters, along with a deep understanding of the mechanisms governing the interaction of targeted drugs and carriers with the biological environment, are necessary steps toward achieving efficient drug targeting systems. PMID:22709588

  20. Challenges in design and characterization of ligand-targeted drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Muro, Silvia

    2012-12-10

    Targeting of therapeutic agents to molecular markers expressed on the surface of cells requiring clinical intervention holds promise to improve specificity of delivery, enhancing therapeutic effects while decreasing potential damage to healthy tissues. Drug targeting to cellular receptors involved in endocytic transport facilitates intracellular delivery, a requirement for a number of therapeutic goals. However, after several decades of experimental design, there is still considerable controversy on the practical outcome of drug targeting strategies. The plethora of factors contributing to the relative efficacy of targeting makes the success of these approaches hardly predictable. Lack of fully specific targets, along with selection of targets with spatial and temporal expression well aligned to interventional requirements, pose difficulties to this process. Selection of adequate sub-molecular target epitopes determines accessibility for anchoring of drug conjugates and bulkier drug carriers, as well as proper signaling for uptake within the cell. Targeting design must adapt to physiological variables of blood flow, disease status, and tissue architecture by accommodating physicochemical parameters such as carrier composition, functionalization, geometry, and avidity. In many cases, opposite features need to meet a balance, e.g., sustained circulation versus efficient targeting, penetration through tissues versus uptake within cells, internalization within endocytic compartment to avoid efflux pumps versus accessibility to molecular targets within the cytosol, etc. Detailed characterization of these complex physiological factors and design parameters, along with a deep understanding of the mechanisms governing the interaction of targeted drugs and carriers with the biological environment, are necessary steps toward achieving efficient drug targeting systems. PMID:22709588

  1. Targeted delivery of Tet1 peptide functionalized polymersomes to the rat cochlear nerve

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya; Zhang, Weikai; Johnston, Alexander H; Newman, Tracey A; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Zou, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Polymersomes are nanosized vesicles formed from amphiphilic block copolymers, and have been identified as potential drug delivery vehicles to the inner ear. The aim of this study was to provide targeting to specific cells within the inner ear by functionalizing the polymersome surface with Tet1 peptide sequence. Tet1 peptide specifically binds to the trisialoganglioside clostridial toxin receptor on neurons and was expected to target the polymersomes toward the cochlear nerve. The Tet1 functionalized PEG-b-PCL polymersomes were administered using routine drug delivery routes: transtympanic injection and cochleostomy. Delivery via cochleostomy of Tet1 functionalized polymersomes resulted in cochlear nerve targeting; in contrast this was not seen after transtympanic injection. PMID:22403485

  2. Targeted delivery of Tet1 peptide functionalized polymersomes to the rat cochlear nerve.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya; Zhang, Weikai; Johnston, Alexander H; Newman, Tracey A; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Zou, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Polymersomes are nanosized vesicles formed from amphiphilic block copolymers, and have been identified as potential drug delivery vehicles to the inner ear. The aim of this study was to provide targeting to specific cells within the inner ear by functionalizing the polymersome surface with Tet1 peptide sequence. Tet1 peptide specifically binds to the trisialoganglioside clostridial toxin receptor on neurons and was expected to target the polymersomes toward the cochlear nerve. The Tet1 functionalized PEG-b-PCL polymersomes were administered using routine drug delivery routes: transtympanic injection and cochleostomy. Delivery via cochleostomy of Tet1 functionalized polymersomes resulted in cochlear nerve targeting; in contrast this was not seen after transtympanic injection. PMID:22403485

  3. Expert Review Functionalized Micellar Systems for Cancer Targeted Drug Delivery

    E-print Network

    Gao, Jinming

    nanomedicine platform for cancer therapeutic applications due to their small size (10Y100 nm), in vivo targeting; cancer nanomedicine; micelle pharmacokinetics; polymer micelles; responsive drug release. INTRODUCTION Recently, polymer micelles have gained considerable attention as a versatile nanomedicine platform

  4. Impacts of Blood-Brain Barrier in Drug Delivery and Targeting of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Yadollah; Barar, Jaleh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Entry of blood circulating agents into the brain is highly selectively con-trolled by specific transport machineries at the blood brain barrier (BBB), whose excellent barrier restrictiveness make brain drug delivery and targeting very challenging. Methods Essential information on BBB cellular microenvironment were reviewed and discussed towards impacts of BBB on brain drug delivery and targeting. Results Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) form unique biological structure and architecture in association with astrocytes and pericytes, in which microenvironment the BCECs express restrictive tight junctional complexes that block the paracellular inward/outward traverse of biomolecules/compounds. These cells selectively/specifically control the transportation process through carrier and/or receptor mediated transport machineries that can also be exploited for the delivery of pharmaceuticals into the brain. Intelligent molecular therapies should be designed using such transport machineries for the efficient delivery of designated drugs into the brain. For better clinical outcomes, these smart pharmaceuticals should be engineered as seamless nanosystems to provide simultaneous imaging and therapy (multimodal theranostics). Conclusion The exceptional functional presence of BBB selectively controls inward and outward transportation mechanisms, thus advanced smart multifunctional nanomedicines are needed for the effective brain drug delivery and targeting. Fully understanding the biofunctions of BBB appears to be a central step for engineering of intelligent seamless therapeutics consisting of homing device for targeting, imaging moiety for detecting, and stimuli responsive device for on-demand liberation of therapeutic agent. PMID:23678437

  5. Tuning pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of a targeted drug delivery system through incorporation of a passive targeting component.

    PubMed

    Kudgus, Rachel A; Walden, Chad A; McGovern, Renee M; Reid, Joel M; Robertson, J David; Mukherjee, Priyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Major challenges in the development of drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been the short half-life, poor bioavailability, insufficient accumulation and penetration of the DDSs into the tumor tissue. Understanding the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of the DDS is essential to overcome these challenges. Herein we investigate how surface chemistry affects the PK profile and organ distribution of a gold nanoparticle-based DDS containing both a passive and active targeting moiety via two common routes of administration: intravenous and intraperitoneal injections. Using LC/MS/MS, ELISA and INAA we report the half-life, peak plasma concentrations, area under the curve, ability to cross the peritoneal barrier and biodistribution of the nanoconjugates. The results highlight the design criteria for fine-tuning the PK parameters of a targeted drug delivery system that exploits the benefits of both active and passive targeting. PMID:25011609

  6. Dendritic polymer-based nanodevices for targeted drug delivery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, R. M.; Kolhe, Parag; Gurdag, Sezen; Khandare, Jayant; Lieh-Lai, Mary

    2004-03-01

    Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers are unimolecular micellar nanostructures, characterized by globular shape ( ˜ 20 nm) and large density of functional groups at periphery. The tailorable end groups make them ideal for conjugation with drugs, ligands, and imagining agents, making them an attractive molecular nanodevices for drug delivery. Compared to linear polymers and nanoparticles, these nanodevices enter cells rapidly, carrying drugs and delivering them inside cells. Performance of nanodevices prepared for asthma and cancer drug delivery will be discussed. Our conjugation procedure produced very high drug payloads. Dendritic polymer-drug conjugates were very effective in transporting methotrexate (a chemotherapy drug) into both sensitive (CCRF-CEM cell line) and resistant cell line (CEM-MTX). The conjugate nanodevice was 3 times more effective than free drug in the sensitive line, and 9 times more effective in the resistant cell line (based on IC50). The physics of cell entry and drug release from these nanodevices are being investigated. The conjugates appear to enter cells through endocytosis, with the rate of entry dependent on end-group, molecular weight, the pH of the medium, and the cancerous nature of the cells.

  7. Tumor Vasculature Targeted Photodynamic Therapy for Enhanced Delivery of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Delivery of nanoparticle drugs to tumors relies heavily on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. While many consider the effect to be equally effective on all tumors, it varies drastically among the tumors’ origins, stages, and organs, owing much to differences in vessel leakiness. Suboptimal EPR effect represents a major problem in the translation of nanomedicine to the clinic. In the present study, we introduce a photodynamic therapy (PDT)-based EPR enhancement technology. The method uses RGD-modified ferritin (RFRT) as “smart” carriers that site-specifically deliver 1O2 to the tumor endothelium. The photodynamic stimulus can cause permeabilized tumor vessels that facilitate extravasation of nanoparticles at the sites. The method has proven to be safe, selective, and effective. Increased tumor uptake was observed with a wide range of nanoparticles by as much as 20.08-fold. It is expected that the methodology can find wide applications in the area of nanomedicine. PMID:24806291

  8. New approaches to targeted drug delivery to tumour cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Basic approaches to the design of targeted drugs for the treatment of human malignant tumours have been considered. The stages of the development of these approaches have been described in detail and theoretically substantiated, and basic experimental results have been reported. Considerable attention is paid to the general characteristic of nanopharmacological drugs and to the description of mechanisms of cellular interactions with nanodrugs. The potentialities and limitations of application of nanodrugs for cancer therapy and treatment of other diseases have been considered. The use of nanodrugs conjugated with vector molecules seems to be the most promising trend of targeted therapy of malignant tumours. The bibliography includes 122 references.

  9. Delivery of Small Interfering RNA by Peptide-Targeted Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle-Supported Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Carlee E.; Carnes, Eric C.; Epler, Katharine E.; Padilla, David P.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Castillo, Robert E.; Wilkinson, Dan C.; Wilkinson, Brian S.; Burgard, Cameron A.; Sewell, Robin M.; Townson, Jason L.; Chackerian, Bryce; Willman, Cheryl L.; Peabody, David S.; Wharton, Walker; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is severely limited by the availability of delivery platforms that protect siRNA from degradation, deliver it to the target cell with high specificity and efficiency, and promote its endosomal escape and cytosolic dispersion. Here we report that mesoporous silica nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers (or ‘protocells’), exhibit multiple properties that overcome many of the limitations of existing delivery platforms. Protocells have a 10- to 100-fold greater capacity for siRNA than corresponding lipid nanoparticles and are markedly more stable when incubated under physiological conditions. Protocells loaded with a cocktail of siRNAs bind to cells in a manner dependent on the presence of an appropriate targeting peptide and, through an endocytic pathway followed by endosomal disruption, promote delivery of the silencing nucleotides to the cytoplasm. The expression of each of the genes targeted by the siRNAs was shown to be repressed at the protein level, resulting in a potent induction of growth arrest and apoptosis. Incubation of control cells that lack expression of the antigen recognized by the targeting peptide with siRNA-loaded protocells induced neither repression of protein expression nor apoptosis, indicating the precise specificity of cytotoxic activity. In terms of loading capacity, targeting capabilities, and potency of action, protocells provide unique attributes as a delivery platform for therapeutic oligonucleotides. PMID:22309035

  10. An Evolved Adeno-associated Viral Variant Enhances Gene Delivery and Gene Targeting in Neural Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Hyung Jang; James T Koerber; Jung-Suk Kim; Prashanth Asuri; Tandis Vazin; Melissa Bartel; Albert Keung; Inchan Kwon; Kook In Park; David V Schaffer

    2011-01-01

    Gene delivery to, and gene targeting in, stem cells would be a highly enabling technology for basic science and biomedical application. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have demonstrated the capacity for efficient delivery to numerous cells, but their application to stem cells has been limited by low transduction efficiency. Due to their considerable advantages, however, engineering AAV delivery systems to enhance

  11. Click conjugated polymeric immuno-nanoparticles for targeted siRNA and antisense oligonucleotide delivery.

    PubMed

    Chan, Dianna P Y; Deleavey, Glen F; Owen, Shawn C; Damha, Masad J; Shoichet, Molly S

    2013-11-01

    Efficient and targeted cellular delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) is a major challenge facing oligonucleotide-based therapeutics. The majority of current delivery strategies employ either conjugated ligands or oligonucleotide encapsulation within delivery vehicles to facilitate cellular uptake. Chemical modification of the oligonucleotides (ONs) can improve potency and duration of activity, usually as a result of improved nuclease resistance. Here we take advantage of innovations in both polymeric delivery vehicles and ON stabilization to achieve receptor-mediated targeted delivery of siRNAs or AONs for gene silencing. Polymeric nanoparticles comprised of poly(lactide-co-2-methyl, 2-carboxytrimethylene carbonate)-g-polyethylene glycol-furan/azide are click-modified with both anti-HER2 antibodies and nucleic acids on the exterior PEG corona. Phosphorothioate (PS), 2'F-ANA, and 2'F-RNA backbone chemical modifications improve siRNA and AON potency and duration of activity. Importantly, delivery of these nucleic acids on the exterior of the polymeric immuno-nanoparticles are as efficient in gene silencing as lipofectamine transfection without the associated potential toxicity of the latter. PMID:23932248

  12. Liposome technology. Volume III: Targeted drug delivery and biological interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gregoriadis, G.

    1984-01-01

    These three volumes cover liposome technology in pharmacology and medicine. Contributors emphasize methodology used in their own laboratories, and include a brief introduction, coverage of relevant literature, applications and critical evaluations for the methods they describe. In Volume III, the growing variety of techniques yielding targeted liposomes and approaches of studying liposomal behavior both in vitro and in vivo are discussed.

  13. Tetanus toxin C fragment-conjugated nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to neurons.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Seth A; Evrony, Gilad D; Gu, Frank X; Schulz, Martin P; Brown, Robert H; Langer, Robert

    2007-12-01

    The use of nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery is often facilitated by specific conjugation of functional targeting molecules to the nanoparticle surface. We compared different biotin-binding proteins (avidin, streptavidin, or neutravidin) as crosslinkers to conjugate proteins to biodegradable nanoparticles prepared from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-biotin polymers. Avidin gave the highest levels of overall protein conjugation, whereas neutravidin minimized protein non-specific binding to the polymer. The tetanus toxin C fragment (TTC), which is efficiently retrogradely transported in neurons and binds to neurons with high specificity and affinity, retained the ability to bind to neuroblastoma cells following amine group modifications. TTC was conjugated to nanoparticles using neutravidin, and the resulting nanoparticles were shown to selectively target neuroblastoma cells in vitro. TTC-conjugated nanoparticles have the potential to serve as drug delivery vehicles targeted to the central nervous system. PMID:17854886

  14. Colon-targeted delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics including microencapsulated live bacterial cells

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Satya; Malgorzata Urbanska, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    There has been an ample interest in delivery of therapeutic molecules using live cells. Oral delivery has been stipulated as best way to deliver live cells to humans for therapy. Colon, in particular, is a part of gastrointestinal (GI) tract that has been proposed to be an oral targeted site. The main objective of these oral therapy procedures is to deliver live cells not only to treat diseases like colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and other GI tract diseases like intestinal obstruction and gastritis, but also to deliver therapeutic molecules for overall therapy in various diseases such as renal failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and others. This review provides a comprehensive summary of recent advancement in colon targeted live bacterial cell biotherapeutics. Current status of bacterial cell therapy, principles of artificial cells and its potentials in oral delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics for clinical applications as well as biotherapeutic future perspectives are also discussed in our review. PMID:19707368

  15. Biomolecular Corona on Nanoparticles: A Survey of Recent Literature and its Implications in Targeted Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Ryan; Juettner, Vanessa; Hong, Seungpyo

    2014-11-01

    Achieving controlled cellular responses of nanoparticles (NP) is critical for the successful development and translation of NP-based drug delivery systems. However, precise control over the physicochemical and biological properties of NPs could become convoluted, diminished, or completely lost as a result of the adsorption of biomolecules to their surfaces. Characterization of the formation of the ‘biomolecular’ corona has thus received increased attention due to its impact on NP and protein structure as well as its negative effect on NP-based targeted drug delivery. This review presents a concise survey of the recent literature concerning the importance of the NP-biomolecule corona and how it can be utilized to improve the in vivo efficacy of targeted delivery systems.

  16. Targeting blood–brain barrier changes during inflammatory pain: an opportunity for optimizing CNS drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ronaldson, Patrick T; Davis, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is the most significant obstacle to effective CNS drug delivery. It possesses structural and biochemical features (i.e., tight-junction protein complexes and, influx and efflux transporters) that restrict xenobiotic permeation. Pathophysiological stressors (i.e., peripheral inflammatory pain) can alter BBB tight junctions and transporters, which leads to drug-permeation changes. This is especially critical for opioids, which require precise CNS concentrations to be safe and effective analgesics. Recent studies have identified molecular targets (i.e., endogenous transporters and intracellular signaling systems) that can be exploited for optimization of CNS drug delivery. This article summarizes current knowledge in this area and emphasizes those targets that present the greatest opportunity for controlling drug permeation and/or drug transport across the BBB in an effort to achieve optimal CNS opioid delivery. PMID:22468221

  17. Biomolecular corona on nanoparticles: a survey of recent literature and its implications in targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Ryan M.; Juettner, Vanessa V.; Hong, Seungpyo

    2014-01-01

    Achieving controlled cellular responses of nanoparticles (NP) is critical for the successful development and translation of NP-based drug delivery systems. However, precise control over the physicochemical and biological properties of NPs could become convoluted, diminished, or completely lost as a result of the adsorption of biomolecules to their surfaces. Characterization of the formation of the “biomolecular” corona has thus received increased attention due to its impact on NP and protein structure as well as its negative effect on NP-based targeted drug delivery. This review presents a concise survey of the recent literature concerning the importance of the NP-biomolecule corona and how it can be utilized to improve the in vivo efficacy of targeted delivery systems. PMID:25506050

  18. Evaluation of transferrin-polyethylenimine conjugate for targeted gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Man; Kim, In Sook; Lee, Yong Bok; Shin, Sang Chul; Lee, Kang Choon; Oh, In Joon

    2005-06-01

    With the aim to improve the specificity and to reduce the cytotoxicity of polyethylenimine (PEI), we have synthesized the conjugates of the branched PEI (25 kDa) with transferrin. The transferrin-PEI (TP) conjugates with five compositions were synthesized using periodate oxidation method and confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. The free amine contents of TP conjugates, which were able to condense and deliver DNA, increased as the amount of PEI increased. TP/DNA polyplexes were characterized by measuring gel electrophoresis, ethidium bromide fluorescence quenching, particle size and zeta potential of complexes. Complete complexation of the polyplexes was observed above the N/P ratio of 5 in TP/ DNA, and above 3 in PEI/DNA, respectively. The zeta potential of the complexes decreased as the amount of transferrin in TP conjugates increased. Transfection efficiency of TP conjugates was evaluated in HeLa cell and Jurkat cell systems. Among the five compositions of TP conjugates, TP-2 system mediated a higher beta-galactosidase gene expression than PEI system in Jurkat cell which was known to express elevated numbers of transferrin receptors. From the results of the cell viability based on MTT assay, TP conjugates showed lower cytotoxicity compared with the PEI system. We expect that the TP conjugate can be used efficiently as a nonviral gene delivery vector. PMID:16042083

  19. Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT): a potential target for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-06-01

    Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; product of the SLC5A6 gene) is an important transmembrane protein responsible for translocation of vitamins and other essential cofactors such as biotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. Hydropathy plot (Kyte-Dolittle algorithm) revealed that human SMVT protein consists of 635 amino acids and 12 transmembrane domains with both amino and carboxyl termini oriented towards the cytoplasm. SMVT is expressed in various tissues such as placenta, intestine, brain, liver, lung, kidney, cornea, retina and heart. This transporter displays broad substrate specificity and excellent capacity for utilization in drug delivery. Drug absorption is often limited by the presence of physiological (epithelial tight junctions), biochemical (efflux transporters and enzymatic degradation) and chemical (size, lipophilicity, molecular weight, charge etc.) barriers. These barriers may cause many potential therapeutics to be dropped from the preliminary screening portfolio and subsequent entry into the market. Transporter targeted delivery has become a powerful approach to deliver drugs to target tissues because of the ability of the transporter to translocate the drug to intracellular organelles at a higher rate. This review highlights studies employing SMVT transporter as a target for drug delivery to improve bioavailability and investigate the feasibility of developing SMVT targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:22420308

  20. Sodium Dependent Multivitamin Transporter (SMVT): A Potential Target for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; product of the SLC5A6 gene) is an important transmembrane protein responsible for translocation of vitamins and other essential cofactors such as biotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. Hydropathy plot (Kyte-Dolittle algorithm) revealed that human SMVT protein consists of 635 amino acids and 12 transmembrane domains with both amino and carboxyl termini oriented towards the cytoplasm. SMVT is expressed in various tissues such as placenta, intestine, brain, liver, lung, kidney, cornea, retina and heart. This transporter displays broad substrate specificity and excellent capacity for utilization in drug delivery. Drug absorption is often limited by the presence of physiological (epithelial tight junctions), biochemical (efflux transporters and enzymatic degradation) and chemical (size, lipophilicity, molecular weight, charge, etc.) barriers. These barriers may cause many potential therapeutics to be dropped from the preliminary screening portfolio and subsequent entry into the market. Transporter targeted delivery has become a powerful approach to deliver drugs to target tissues because of the ability of the transporter to translocate the drug to intracellular organelles at a higher rate. This review highlights studies employing SMVT transporter as a target for drug delivery to improve bioavailability and investigate the feasibility of developing SMVT targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:22420308

  1. Use of Microsphere Technology for Targeted Delivery of Rifampin to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ESTHER L. W. BARROW; GARY A. WINCHESTER; JAY K. STAAS; DEBRA C. QUENELLE; WILLIAM W. BARROW

    1998-01-01

    Microsphere technology was used to develop formulations of rifampin for targeted delivery to host macro- phages. These formulations were prepared by using biocompatible polymeric excipients of lactide and glycolide copolymers. Release characteristics were examined in vitro and also in two monocytic cell lines, the murine J774 and the human Mono Mac 6 cell lines. Bioassay assessment of cell culture supernatants

  2. Peptide-mediated cell penetration and targeted delivery of gold nanoparticles into lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Dekiwadia, Chaitali D; Lawrie, Ann C; Fecondo, John V

    2012-08-01

    There is considerable interest in the sub-cellular targeting and delivery of biomolecules, therapeutic and imaging agents, and nanoparticles and nanoparticle conjugates into organelles for therapeutic and imaging purposes. To date, a number of studies have used sorting peptides for targeted delivery of cargo into different cell organelles but not into lysosomes. In this study, the delivery of 13-nm gold nanoparticles across the cell membrane followed by targeted localisation into the lysosomes of a mammalian cell line was examined using novel combinations of cell-penetrating peptides and lysosomal sorting peptides conjugated to the nanoparticles. Using a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques, we show that these nanoconjugates were efficiently and selectively delivered into the lysosomes with minimal cytotoxic effects. This novel targeted delivery system may underpin the development of a new strategy for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases by exploiting the large surface area of nanoparticles to deliver drugs or replacement enzymes directly to the lysosomes. PMID:22764089

  3. Synthetic Aptamer-Polymer Hybrid Constructs for Programmed Drug Delivery into Specific Target Cells

    E-print Network

    Akhmedov, Azer

    more efficient than existing synthetic delivery mechanisms. Inspired by these natural systems, we. After visualizing this process with coumarin dye, we demonstrate targeted killing of tumor cells considerable effort to devise synthetic systems that mimic these natural molecular machines to achieve more

  4. Towards multifunctional, targeted drug delivery systems using mesoporous silica nanoparticles - opportunities & challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenholm, Jessica M.; Sahlgren, Cecilia; Lindén, Mika

    2010-10-01

    One of the big challenges of medicine today is to deliver drugs specifically to defected cells. Nanoparticulate drug carriers have the potential to answer to this call, as nanoparticles can cross physiological barriers and access different tissues, and also be provided in a targetable form aimed at enhancing cell specificity of the carrier. Recent developments within material science and strong collaborative efforts crossing disciplinary borders have highlighted the potential of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for such targeted drug delivery. Here we outline recent advances which in this sense push MSNs to the forefront of drug delivery development. Relatively straightforward inside-out tuning of the vehicles, high flexibility, and potential for sophisticated release mechanisms make these nanostructures promising candidates for targeted drug delivery such as `smart' cancer therapies. Moreover, due to the large surface area and the controllable surface functionality of MSNs, they can be controllably loaded with large amounts of drugs and coupled to homing molecules to facilitate active targeting, simultaneously carrying traceable (fluorescent or magnetically active) modalities, also making them highly interesting as theragnostic agents. However, the increased relative surface area and small size, and flexible surface functionalization which is beneficially exploited in nanomedicine, consequently also includes potential risks in their interactions with biological systems. Therefore, we also discuss some safety issues regarding MSNs and highlight how different features of the drug delivery platform influence their behaviour in a biological setting. Addressing these burning questions will facilitate the application of MSNs in nanomedicine.

  5. Self-assembled hybrid nanoparticles for targeted co-delivery of two drugs into cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fujian; You, Mingxu; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Guizhi; Liang, Haojun; Tan, Weihong

    2014-03-21

    A therapeutic aptamer-lipid-poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) hybrid nanoparticle-based drug delivery system was prepared and characterized. This system can co-deliver two different drugs with distinct solubility and different anticancer mechanisms to target cancer cells with high specificity and efficiency. PMID:24516863

  6. Theranostic Nanoparticles Carrying Doxorubicin Attenuate Targeting Ligand Specific Antibody Responses Following Systemic Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Emmy; Qian, Weiping; Cao, Zehong; Wang, Liya; Bozeman, Erica N.; Ward, Christina; Yang, Bin; Selvaraj, Periasamy; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Wang, Y. Andrew; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of immune responses on targeted delivery of nanoparticles is important for clinical translations of new cancer imaging and therapeutic nanoparticles. In this study, we found that repeated administrations of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) conjugated with mouse or human derived targeting ligands induced high levels of ligand specific antibody responses in normal and tumor bearing mice while injections of unconjugated mouse ligands were weakly immunogenic and induced a very low level of antibody response in mice. Mice that received intravenous injections of targeted and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated IONPs further increased the ligand specific antibody production due to differential uptake of PEG-coated nanoparticles by macrophages and dendritic cells. However, the production of ligand specific antibodies was markedly inhibited following systemic delivery of theranostic nanoparticles carrying a chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin. Targeted imaging and histological analysis revealed that lack of the ligand specific antibodies led to an increase in intratumoral delivery of targeted nanoparticles. Results of this study support the potential of further development of targeted theranostic nanoparticles for the treatment of human cancers. PMID:25553097

  7. Depth-targeted transvascular drug delivery by using annular-shaped photomechanical waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Takuya; Sato, Shunichi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2011-02-01

    Laser-based drug delivery is attractive for the targeting capability due to high spatial controllability of laser energy. Recently, we found that photomechanical waves (PMWs) can transiently increase the permeability of blood vessels in skin, muscle and brain of rats. In this study, we examined the use of annular-shaped PMWs to increase pressure at target depths due to superposition effect of pressure waves. This can increase the permeability of blood vessels located in the specific depth regions, enabling depth-targeted transvascular drug delivery. Annular PMWs were produced by irradiating a laser-absorbing material with annular-shaped pulsed laser beams that were produced by using an axicon lens. We first examined propagation and pressure characteristics of annular PMWs in tissue phantoms and confirmed an increased pressure at a target depth, which can be controlled by changing laser parameters. We injected Evans blue (EB) into a rat tail vein, and annular PMWs (inner diameter, 3 mm; outer diameter, 5 mm) were applied from the myofascial surface of the anterior tibialis muscle. After perfusion fixation, we observed fluorescence originating from EB in the tissue. We observed intense fluorescence at a target depth region of around 5 mm. These results demonstrate the capability of annular PMWs for depth-targeted transvascular drug delivery.

  8. Targeted Polymersome Delivery of siRNA Induces Cell Death of Breast Cancer Cells Dependent upon Orai3 Protein Expression

    E-print Network

    Kokkoli, Efie

    Targeted Polymersome Delivery of siRNA Induces Cell Death of Breast Cancer Cells Dependent upon 55455, United States ABSTRACT: Polymersomes, polymeric vesicles that self-assemble in aqueous solutions. Past work has highlighted peptide- functionalized polymersomes as a highly promising targeted delivery

  9. MSN-mediated sequential vascular-to-cell nuclear-targeted drug delivery for efficient tumor regression.

    PubMed

    Pan, Limin; Liu, Jianan; He, Qianjun; Shi, Jianlin

    2014-10-22

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles functionalized with peptides are developed for sequential drug delivery. The RGD peptide is used for vasculature/cell membrane targeting and the TAT peptide for nuclear targeting. Using this delivery strategy, a tumor in a murine xenograft model is successfully regressed. PMID:25159109

  10. Stimuli-responsive PEGylated prodrugs for targeted doxorubicin delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minghui; Qian, Junmin; Liu, Xuefeng; Liu, Ting; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, stimuli-sensitive prodrugs have been extensively studied for the rapid "burst" release of antitumor drugs to enhance chemotherapeutic efficiency. In this study, a novel stimuli-sensitive prodrug containing galactosamine as a targeting moiety, poly(ethylene glycol)-doxorubicin (PEG-DOX) conjugate, was developed for targeting HepG2 human liver cancer cells. To obtain the PEG-DOX conjugate, both galactosamine-decorated poly(ethylene glycol) aldehyde (Gal-PEG-CHO) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) aldehyde (mPEG-CHO) were firstly synthesized and functionalized with dithiodipropionate dihydrazide (TPH) through direct reductive amination via Schiff's base formation, and then DOX molecules were chemically conjugated to the hydrazide end groups of TPH-functionalized Gal-/m-PEG chains via pH-sensitive hydrazone linkages. The chemical structures of TPH-functionalized PEG and PEG-DOX prodrug were confirmed by (1)H NMR analysis. The PEG-DOX conjugate could self-assemble into spherical nanomicelles with a mean diameter of 140 nm, as indicated by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The drug loading content and loading efficiency in the prodrug nanomicelles were as high as 20 wt.% and 75 wt.%, respectively. In vitro drug release studies showed that DOX was released rapidly from the prodrug nanomicelles at the intracellular levels of pH and reducing agent. Cellular uptake and MTT experiments demonstrated that the galactosamine-decorated prodrug nanomicelles were more efficiently internalized into HepG2 cells via a receptor-mediated endocytosis process and exhibited a higher toxicity, compared with pristine prodrug nanomicelles. These results suggest that the novel Gal-PEG-DOX prodrug nanomicelles have tremendous potential for targeted liver cancer therapy. PMID:25746279

  11. Synthesis of Doxorubicin loaded magnetic chitosan nanoparticles for pH responsive targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Unsoy, Gozde; Khodadust, Rouhollah; Yalcin, Serap; Mutlu, Pelin; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2014-10-01

    Targeted drug delivery is a promising alternative to overcome the limitations of classical chemotherapy. In an ideal targeted drug delivery system carrier nanoparticles would be directed to the tumor tissue and selectively release therapeutic molecules. As a novel approach, chitosan coated magnetic nanoparticles (CS MNPs) maintain a pH dependent drug delivery which provides targeting of drugs to the tumor site under a magnetic field. Among various materials, chitosan has a great importance as a pH sensitive, natural, biodegradable, biocompatible and bioadhesive polymer. The aim of this study was to obtain an effective targeted delivery system for Doxorubicin, using chitosan coated MNPs. Different sized CS MNPs were produced by in situ synthesis method. The anti-cancer agent Doxorubicin was loaded onto CS MNPs which were characterized previously. Doxorubicin loading was confirmed by FTIR. Drug loading and release characteristics, and stability of the nanoparticles were investigated. Our results showed that the CS MNPs have pH responsive release characteristics. The cellular internalization of Doxorubicin loaded CS MNPs were visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Doxorubicin loaded CS MNPs are efficiently taken up by MCF-7 (MCF-7/S) and Doxorubicin resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/1 ?M) breast cancer cells, which increases the efficacy of drug and also maintains overcoming the resistance of Doxorubicin in MCF-7/Dox cells. Consequently, CS MNPs synthesized at various sizes can be effectively used for the pH dependent release of Doxorubicin in cancer cells. Results of this study can provide new insights in the development of pH responsive targeted drug delivery systems to overcome the side effects of conventional chemotherapy. PMID:24931189

  12. Recent approaches of lipid-based delivery system for lymphatic targeting via oral route.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Shilpa; Garg, Tarun; Murthy, R S R; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2014-12-01

    Lymphatic system is a key target in research field due to its distinctive makeup and huge contributing functions within the body. Intestinal lymphatic drug transport (chylomicron pathway) is intensely described in research field till date because it is considered to be the best for improving oral drug delivery by avoiding first pass metabolism. The lymphatic imaging techniques and potential therapeutic candidates are engaged for evaluating disease states and overcoming these conditions. The novel drug delivery systems such as self-microemulsifying drug delivery system, nanoparticles, liposomes, nano-lipid carriers, solid lipid carriers are employed for delivering drugs through lymphatic system via various routes such as subcutaneous route, intraperitoneal route, pulmonary route, gastric sub-mucosal injection, intrapleural and intradermal. Among these colloidal particles, lipid-based delivery system is considered to be the best for lymphatic delivery. From the last few decades, mesenteric lymph duct cannulation and thoracic lymph duct cannulation are followed to assess lymphatic uptake of drugs. Due to their limitations, chylomicrons inhibitors and in-vitro models are employed, i.e. lipolysis model and permeability model. Currently, research on this topic still continues and drainage system used to deliver the drugs against lymphatic disease as well as targeting other organs by modulating the chylomicron pathway. PMID:25148607

  13. Characterization of Magnetic Viral Complexes for Targeted Delivery in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Almstätter, Isabella; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Settles, Marcus; Altomonte, Jennifer; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Ebert, Oliver; Plank, Christian; Braren, Rickmer

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses are promising new agents in cancer therapy. Success of tumor lysis is often hampered by low intra-tumoral titers due to a strong anti-viral host immune response and insufficient tumor targeting. Previous work on the co-assembly of oncolytic virus particles (VPs) with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was shown to provide shielding from inactivating immune response and improve targeting by external field gradients. In addition, MNPs are detected by magnet resonance imaging (MRI) enabling non-invasive therapy monitoring. In this study two selected core-shell type iron oxide MNPs were assembled with adenovirus (Ad) or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The selected MNPs were characterized by high r2 and r2* relaxivities and thus could be quantified non-invasively by 1.5 and 3.0 tesla MRI with a detection limit below 0.001 mM iron in tissue-mimicking phantoms. Assembly and cell internalization of MNP-VP complexes resulted in 81 - 97 % reduction of r2 and 35 - 82 % increase of r2* compared to free MNPs. The relaxivity changes could be attributed to the clusterization of particles and complexes shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In a proof-of-principle study the non-invasive detection of MNP-VPs by MRI was shown in vivo in an orthotopic rat hepatocellular carcinoma model. In conclusion, MNP assembly and compartmentalization have a major impact on relaxivities, therefore calibration measurements are required for the correct quantification in biodistribution studies. Furthermore, our study provides first evidence of the in vivo applicability of selected MNP-VPs in cancer therapy. PMID:25897333

  14. The implications of recent advances in carboxymethyl chitosan based targeted drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Laxmi; Singh, Jay; Agarwal, Vishnu; Tewari, Ravi Prakash

    2014-07-28

    Over the last decade carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) has emerged as a promising biopolymer for the development of new drug delivery systems and improved scaffolds along with other tissue engineering devices for regenerative medicine that is currently one of the most rapidly growing fields in the life sciences. CMCS is amphiprotic ether, derived from chitosan, exhibiting enhanced aqueous solubility, excellent biocompatibility, controllable biodegradability, osteogenesis ability and numerous other outstanding physicochemical and biological properties. More strikingly, it can load hydrophobic drugs and displays strong bioactivity which highlight its suitability and extensive usage for preparing different drug delivery and tissue engineering formulations respectively. This review provides a comprehensive introduction to various types of CMCS based formulations for delivery of therapeutic agents and tissue regeneration and further describes their preparation procedures and applications in different tissues/organs. Detailed information of CMCS based nano/micro systems for targeted delivery of drugs with emphasis on cancer specific and organ specific drug delivery have been described. Further, we have discussed various CMCS based tissue engineering biomaterials along with their preparation procedures and applications in different tissues/organs. The article then, gives a brief account of therapy combining drug delivery and tissue engineering. Finally, identification of major challenges and opportunities for current and ongoing application of CMCS based systems in the field are summarised. PMID:24806482

  15. Recent advances in lymphatic targeted drug delivery system for tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Lu, Wei-Yue

    2014-12-01

    The lymphatic system has an important defensive role in the human body. The metastasis of most tumors initially spreads through the surrounding lymphatic tissue and eventually forms lymphatic metastatic tumors; the tumor cells may even transfer to other organs to form other types of tumors. Clinically, lymphatic metastatic tumors develop rapidly. Given the limitations of surgical resection and the low effectiveness of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the treatment of lymphatic metastatic tumors remains a great challenge. Lymph node metastasis may lead to the further spread of tumors and may be predictive of the endpoint event. Under these circumstances, novel and effective lymphatic targeted drug delivery systems have been explored to improve the specificity of anticancer drugs to tumor cells in lymph nodes. In this review, we summarize the principles of lymphatic targeted drug delivery and discuss recent advances in the development of lymphatic targeted carriers. PMID:25610710

  16. Colon-Targeted Oral Drug Delivery Systems: Design Trends and Approaches.

    PubMed

    Amidon, Seth; Brown, Jack E; Dave, Vivek S

    2015-08-01

    Colon-specific drug delivery systems (CDDS) are desirable for the treatment of a range of local diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pancreatitis, and colonic cancer. In addition, the colon can be a potential site for the systemic absorption of several drugs to treat non-colonic conditions. Drugs such as proteins and peptides that are known to degrade in the extreme gastric pH, if delivered to the colon intact, can be systemically absorbed by colonic mucosa. In order to achieve effective therapeutic outcomes, it is imperative that the designed delivery system specifically targets the drugs into the colon. Several formulation approaches have been explored in the development colon-targeted drug delivery systems. These approaches involve the use of formulation components that interact with one or more aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, such as the difference in the pH along the GI tract, the presence of colonic microflora, and enzymes, to achieve colon targeting. This article highlights the factors influencing colon-specific drug delivery and colonic bioavailability, and the limitations associated with CDDS. Further, the review provides a systematic discussion of various conventional, as well as relatively newer formulation approaches/technologies currently being utilized for the development of CDDS. PMID:26070545

  17. A smart polymeric platform for multistage nucleus-targeted anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jiaju; Li, Lian; Zhu, Xi; Guan, Shan; Yang, Qingqing; Zhou, Zhou; Zhang, Zhirong; Huang, Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Tumor cell nucleus-targeted delivery of antitumor agents is of great interest in cancer therapy, since the nucleus is one of the most frequent targets of drug action. Here we report a smart polymeric conjugate platform, which utilizes stimulus-responsive strategies to achieve multistage nuclear drug delivery upon systemic administration. The conjugates composed of a backbone based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer and detachable nucleus transport sub-units that sensitive to lysosomal enzyme. The sub-units possess a biforked structure with one end conjugated with the model drug, H1 peptide, and the other end conjugated with a novel pH-responsive targeting peptide (R8NLS) that combining the strength of cell penetrating peptide and nuclear localization sequence. The conjugates exhibited prolonged circulation time and excellent tumor homing ability. And the activation of R8NLS in acidic tumor microenvironment facilitated tissue penetration and cellular internalization. Once internalized into the cell, the sub-units were unleashed for nuclear transport through nuclear pore complex. The unique features resulted in 50-fold increase of nuclear drug accumulation relative to the original polymer-drug conjugates in vitro, and excellent in vivo nuclear drug delivery efficiency. Our report provides a strategy in systemic nuclear drug delivery by combining the microenvironment-responsive structure and detachable sub-units. PMID:26142775

  18. Dual-Modality Monitoring of Targeted Intraarterial Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cells After Transient Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Walczak, Piotr; Zhang, Jian; Gilad, Assaf A.; Kedziorek, Dorota A.; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesus; Young, Randell G.; Pittenger, Mark F.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Huang, Judy; Bulte, Jeff W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose In animal models of stroke, functional improvement has been obtained after stem cell transplantation. Successful therapy depends largely on achieving a robust and targeted cell engraftment, with intraarterial (IA) injection being a potentially attractive route of administration. We assessed the suitability of laser Doppler flow (LDF) signal measurements and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for noninvasive dual monitoring of targeted IA cell delivery. Methods Transient cerebral ischemia was induced in adult Wistar rats (n = 25) followed by IA or intravenous (IV) injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide. Cell infusion was monitored in real time with transcranial laser Doppler flowmetry while cellular delivery was assessed with MRI in vivo (4.7T) and ex vivo (9.4T). Results Successful delivery of magnetically labeled MSCs could be readily visualized with MRI after IA but not IV injection. IA stem cell injection during acute stroke resulted in a high variability of cerebral engraftment. The amount of LDF reduction during cell infusion (up to 80%) was found to correlate well with the degree of intracerebral engraftment, with low LDF values being associated with significant morbidity. Conclusions High cerebral engraftment rates are associated with impeded cerebral blood flow. Noninvasive dual-modality imaging enables monitoring of targeted cell delivery, and through interactive adjustment may improve the safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy. PMID:18323495

  19. Single-Antibody, Targeted Nanoparticle Delivery of Camptothecin

    PubMed Central

    Han, Han; Davis, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a new method for assembling targeted nanoparticles that utilizes the complexation between targeting agents that contain boronic acids and polymer-drug conjugates that possess diols. Here, we report the first in vivo, antitumor results of a nanoparticle formed via this new assembly methodology. A nanoparticle consisting of a mucic acid polymer conjugate of camptothecin (CPT), MAP-CPT; and containing on average one Herceptin antibody is investigated in nude mice bearing HER2 overexpressing BT-474 human breast cancer tumors. Nontargeted MAP-CPT and antibody-containing MAP-CPT nanoparticles of ca. 30–40 nm diameter and slightly negative zeta potential show prolonged in vivo circulation and similar biodistributions after intravenous tail vein injections in mice. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the nontargeted and Herceptin-containing MAP-CPT nanoparticles are found to be 10 and 8 mg CPT/kg, respectively, in mice. Mice bearing BT-474 human breast tumors treated with nontargeted MAP-CPT nanoparticles at 8 mg CPT/kg show significant tumor growth inhibition (mean tumor volume of 63 mm3) when compared to Irinotecan at 80 mg/kg (mean tumor volume of 575 mm3) and CPT at 8 mg/kg (mean tumor volume of 808 mm3) at the end of the study. Herceptin antibody treatment at 5.9 mg/kg results in complete tumor regressions in 5 out of 8 mice, with a mean tumor volume of 60 mm3 at the end of the study. Mice treated with MAP-CPT nanoparticles at 1 mg CPT/kg do not show tumor inhibition. However, all mice receiving administrations of MAP-CPT nanoparticles (1 mg CPT/kg) that contain on average a single Herceptin molecule per nanoparticle (5.9 mg Herceptin equivalent/kg) show complete tumor regression by the end of the study. These results demonstrate that the antitumor efficacy of nanoparticles carrying anticancer drugs can be enhanced by incorporating on average a single antibody. PMID:23676007

  20. Polymeric particulate technologies for oral drug delivery and targeting: a pathophysiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Hunter, A Christy; Elsom, Jacqueline; Wibroe, Peter P; Moghimi, S Moein

    2012-09-01

    The oral route for delivery of pharmaceuticals is the most widely used and accepted. Nanoparticles and microparticles are increasingly being applied within this arena to optimize drug targeting and bioavailability. Frequently the carrier systems used are either constructed from or contain polymeric materials. Examples of these nanocarriers include polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanocarriers, self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems and nanocrystals. It is the purpose of this review to describe these cutting edge technologies and specifically focus on the interaction and fate of these polymers within the gastrointestinal system. PMID:22709523

  1. Polymeric particulate technologies for oral drug delivery and targeting: a pathophysiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Hunter, A Christy; Elsom, Jacqueline; Wibroe, Peter P; Moghimi, S Moein

    2012-09-01

    The oral route for delivery of pharmaceuticals is the most widely used and accepted. Nanoparticles and microparticles are increasingly being applied within this arena to optimize drug targeting and bioavailability. Frequently the carrier systems used are either constructed from or contain polymeric materials. Examples of these nanocarriers include polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanocarriers, self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems and nanocrystals. It is the purpose of this review to describe these cutting edge technologies and specifically focus on the interaction and fate of these polymers within the gastrointestinal system. PMID:22846372

  2. Cell-targeting and cell-penetrating peptides for delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Rudolph L; Alam, Rowshon; Dixit, Vidula; Kang, Hyun Min

    2009-01-01

    This review will discuss the basic concepts concerning the use of cell-targeting peptides (CTPs) and cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) in the context of nanocarrier technology. It deals with the discovery and subsequent evolution of CTPs and CPPs, issues concerning their interactions with cells and their biodistribution in vivo, and their potential advantages and disadvantages as delivery agents. The article also briefly discusses several specific examples of the use of CTPs or CPPs to assist in the delivery of nanoparticles, liposomes, and other nanocarriers. PMID:20049800

  3. Targeted delivery of curcumin for treating type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Maradana, Muralidhara Rao; Thomas, Ranjeny; O'Sullivan, Brendan J

    2013-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition in which cells have reduced insulin signalling, leading to hyperglycemia and long-term complications, including heart, kidney and liver disease. Macrophages activated by dying or stressed cells, induce the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-B leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF and IL-6. These inflammatory macrophages in liver and adipose tissue promote insulin resistance, and medications which reduce inflammation and enhance insulin signalling improve glucose control. Curcumin is an anti-oxidant and nuclear factor kappa-B inhibitor derived from turmeric. A number of studies have shown that dietary curcumin reduces inflammation and delays or prevents obesity-induced insulin resistance and associated complications, including atherosclerosis and immune mediate liver disease. Unfortunately dietary curcumin is poorly absorbed by the digestive system and undergoes glucuronidation and excretion rather than being released into the serum and systemically distributed. This confounds understanding of how dietary curcumin exerts its beneficial effects in type 2 diabetes and associated diseases. New improved methods of delivering curcumin are being developed including nanoparticles and lipid/liposome formulations that increase absorption and bioavailability of curcumin. Development and refinement of these technologies will enable cell-directed targeting of curcumin and improved therapeutic outcome. PMID:23495213

  4. Molecular design and nanoparticle-mediated intracellular delivery of functional proteins to target cellular pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Dhiral Ashwin

    Intracellular delivery of specific proteins and peptides represents a novel method to influence stem cells for gain-of-function and loss-of-function. Signaling control is vital in stem cells, wherein intricate control of and interplay among critical pathways directs the fate of these cells into either self-renewal or differentiation. The most common route to manipulate cellular function involves the introduction of genetic material such as full-length genes and shRNA into the cell to generate (or prevent formation of) the target protein, and thereby ultimately alter cell function. However, viral-mediated gene delivery may result in relatively slow expression of proteins and prevalence of oncogene insertion into the cell, which can alter cell function in an unpredictable fashion, and non-viral delivery may lead to low efficiency of genetic delivery. For example, the latter case plagues the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and hinders their use for in vivo applications. Alternatively, introducing proteins into cells that specifically recognize and influence target proteins, can result in immediate deactivation or activation of key signaling pathways within the cell. In this work, we demonstrate the cellular delivery of functional proteins attached to hydrophobically modified silica (SiNP) nanoparticles to manipulate specifically targeted cell signaling proteins. In the Wnt signaling pathway, we have targeted the phosphorylation activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) by designing a chimeric protein and delivering it in neural stem cells. Confocal imaging indicates that the SiNP-chimeric protein conjugates were efficiently delivered to the cytosol of human embryonic kidney cells and rat neural stem cells, presumably via endocytosis. This uptake impacted the Wnt signaling cascade, indicated by the elevation of beta-catenin levels, and increased transcription of Wnt target genes, such as c-MYC. The results presented here suggest that functional proteins can be delivered intracellularly in vitro using nanoparticles and used to target key signaling proteins and regulate cell signaling pathways. The same concept of naturally occurring protein-protein interactions can also be implemented to selectively bring intracellular protein targets in close proximity to proteasomal degradation machinery in cells and effect their depletion from the cellular compartments. This approach will be able to not only target entire pool of proteins to ubiquitination-mediated degradation, but also to specific sub-pools of posttranslationally modified proteins in the cell, provided peptides having distinct binding affinities are identified for posttranslational modifications. This system can then be tested for intracellular protein delivery using nanoparticle carriers to identify roles of different posttranslational modifications on the protein's activity. In future work, we propose to develop a cellular detection system, based on GFP complementation, which can be used to evaluate the efficiency of different protein delivery carriers to internalize proteins into the cell cytosol. We envision the application of nanoscale materials as intracellular protein delivery vehicles to target diverse cell signaling pathways at the posttranslational level, and subsequent metabolic manipulation, which may have interesting therapeutic properties and can potentially target stem cell fate.

  5. Targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy: the other side of antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibody (TMA) based therapies for cancer have advanced significantly over the past two decades both in their molecular sophistication and clinical efficacy. Initial development efforts focused mainly on humanizing the antibody protein to overcome problems of immunogenicity and on expanding of the target antigen repertoire. In parallel to naked TMAs, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have been developed for targeted delivery of potent anti-cancer drugs with the aim of bypassing the morbidity common to conventional chemotherapy. This paper first presents a review of TMAs and ADCs approved for clinical use by the FDA and those in development, focusing on hematological malignancies. Despite advances in these areas, both TMAs and ADCs still carry limitations and we highlight the more important ones including cancer cell specificity, conjugation chemistry, tumor penetration, product heterogeneity and manufacturing issues. In view of the recognized importance of targeted drug delivery strategies for cancer therapy, we discuss the advantages of alternative drug carriers and where these should be applied, focusing on peptide-drug conjugates (PDCs), particularly those discovered through combinatorial peptide libraries. By defining the advantages and disadvantages of naked TMAs, ADCs and PDCs it should be possible to develop a more rational approach to the application of targeted drug delivery strategies in different situations and ultimately, to a broader basket of more effective therapies for cancer patients. PMID:23140144

  6. Vorinostat-polymer conjugate nanoparticles for Acid-responsive delivery and passive tumor targeting.

    PubMed

    Denis, Iza; El Bahhaj, Fatima; Collette, Floraine; Delatouche, Régis; Gueugnon, Fabien; Pouliquen, Daniel; Pichavant, Loic; Héroguez, Valérie; Grégoire, Marc; Bertrand, Philippe; Blanquart, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    In vivo histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition by vorinostat under clinically acceptable dosing is limited by its poor pharmacokinetics properties. A new type of nontoxic pH-responsive delivery system has been synthesized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization, allowing for the selective distribution of vorinostat in mesothelioma tumors in vivo and subsequent histone reacetylation. The delivery system is synthesized by generic click chemistry, possesses native stealth properties for passive tumor targeting, and does not need additional chemistry for cellular internalization. Although vorinostat alone at 50 mg/kg in mice showed no effect, our new delivery system with 2 mg/kg vorinostat promoted histone reacetylation in tumors without side effects, demonstrating that our strategy improves the activity of this HDAC inihibitor in vivo. PMID:25333409

  7. Cell-mediated Delivery and Targeted Erosion of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Crosslinked Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hye; Kiick, Kristi L

    2010-07-15

    We have previously reported a novel polymeric delivery vehicle that is assembled via interaction between heparin and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Here, the cell-responsiveness of this hydrogel-including the delivery of VEGF in response to VEGFR-2 overexpressing PAE/KDR cells (porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAE) equipped with the transcript for the kinase insert domain receptor (KDR)), consequent erosion of the hydrogel matrix, and cellular response-are highlighted. The release of VEGF and hydrogel erosion reached 100% only in the presence of PAE/KDR. The [PEG-LMWH/VEGF] hydrogel (PEG?=?poly(ethylene glycol), LMWH?=?low molecular weight heparin) correspondingly prompted increases in VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and proliferation of PAE/KDR cells. This study proves that growth factor-crosslinked hydrogels can liberate VEGF in response to specific receptors, causing gel erosion and desired cell responses. The promise of these approaches in therapeutic applications, including targeted delivery, is suggested. PMID:21567519

  8. Cell-mediated Delivery and Targeted Erosion of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Crosslinked Hydrogelsa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hye; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported a novel polymeric delivery vehicle that is assembled via interaction between heparin and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Here, the cell-responsiveness of this hydrogel — including the delivery of VEGF in response to VEGFR-2 overexpressing PAE/KDR cells (porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAE) equipped with the transcript for the kinase insert domain receptor (KDR)), consequent erosion of the hydrogel matrix, and cellular response — are highlighted. The release of VEGF and hydrogel erosion reached 100% only in the presence of PAE/KDR. The [PEG-LMWH/VEGF] hydrogel (PEG = poly(ethylene glycol), LMWH = low molecular weight heparin) correspondingly prompted increases in VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and proliferation of PAE/KDR cells. This study proves that growth factor-crosslinked hydrogels can liberate VEGF in response to specific receptors, causing gel erosion and desired cell responses. The promise of these approaches in therapeutic applications, including targeted delivery, is suggested. PMID:21567519

  9. Targeted Delivery of Antiglaucoma Drugs to the Supraciliary Space Using Microneedles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoo C.; Edelhauser, Henry F.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that highly targeted delivery of antiglaucoma drugs to the supraciliary space by using a hollow microneedle allows dramatic dose sparing of the drug compared to topical eye drops. The supraciliary space is the most anterior portion of the suprachoroidal space, located below the sclera and above the choroid and ciliary body. Methods. A single, hollow 33-gauge microneedle, 700 to 800 ?m in length, was inserted into the sclera and used to infuse antiglaucoma drugs into the supraciliary space of New Zealand white rabbits (N = 3–6 per group). Sulprostone, a prostaglandin analog, and brimonidine, an ?2-adrenergic agonist, were delivered via supraciliary and topical administration at various doses. The drugs were delivered unilaterally, and intraocular pressure (IOP) of both eyes was measured by rebound tonometry for 9 hours after injection to assess the pharmacodynamic responses. To assess safety of the supraciliary injection, IOP change immediately after intravitreal and supraciliary injection were compared. Results. Supraciliary delivery of both sulprostone and brimonidine reduced IOP by as much as 3 mm Hg bilaterally in a dose-related response; comparison with topical administration at the conventional human dose showed approximately 100-fold dose sparing by supraciliary injection for both drugs. A safety study showed that the kinetics of IOP elevation immediately after supraciliary and intravitreal injection of placebo formulations were similar. Conclusions. This study introduced the use of targeted drug delivery to the supraciliary space by using a microneedle and demonstrated dramatic dose sparing of antiglaucoma therapeutic agents compared to topical eye drops. Targeted delivery in this way can increase safety by reducing side effects and could allow a single injection to contain enough drug for long-term sustained delivery. PMID:25212782

  10. Enhanced Delivery of Gold Nanoparticles with Therapeutic Potential for Targeting Human Brain Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etame, Arnold B.

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) remains a major challenge to the advancement and application of systemic anti-cancer therapeutics into the central nervous system. The structural and physiological delivery constraints of the BBB significantly limit the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, thereby making systemic administration a non-viable option for the vast majority of chemotherapy agents. Furthermore, the lack of specificity of conventional systemic chemotherapy when applied towards malignant brain tumors remains a major shortcoming. Hence novel therapeutic strategies that focus both on targeted and enhanced delivery across the BBB are warranted. In recent years nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as attractive vehicles for efficient delivery of targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. In particular, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained prominence in several targeting applications involving systemic cancers. Their enhanced permeation and retention within permissive tumor microvasculature provide a selective advantage for targeting. Malignant brain tumors also exhibit transport-permissive microvasculature secondary to blood brain barrier disruption. Hence AuNPs may have potential relevance for brain tumor targeting. However, the permeation of AuNPs across the BBB has not been well characterized, and hence is a potential limitation for successful application of AuNP-based therapeutics within the central nervous system (CNS). In this dissertation, we designed and characterized AuNPs and assessed the role of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the physical and biological properties of AuNPs. We established a size-dependent permeation profile with respect to core size as well as PEG length when AuNPs were assessed through a transport-permissive in-vitro BBB. This study was the first of its kind to systematically examine the influence of design on permeation of AuNPs through transport-permissive BBB. Given the significant delivery limitations through the non-transport permissive and intact BBB, we also assessed the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) disruption of the BBB in enhancing permeation of AuNPs across the intact BBB and tumor BBB in vivo. MRgFUS is a novel technique that can transiently increase BBB permeability thereby allowing delivery of therapeutics into the CNS. We demonstrated enhanced delivery of AuNPs with therapeutic potential into the CNS via MRgFUS. Our study was the first to establish a definitive role for MRgFUS in delivering AuNPs into the CNS. In summary, this thesis describes results from a series of research projects that have contributed to our understanding of the influence of design features on AuNP permeation through the BBB and also the potential role of MRgFUS in AuNP permeation across the BBB.

  11. DMLC IMRT delivery to targets moving in 2D in Beam's Eye View

    SciTech Connect

    Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya; Papiez, Lech [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    The goal of this article is to present the algorithm for DMLC leaf control capable of delivering IMRT to tumors that experience motion in two dimensions in the beams eye view (BEV) plane. The generic, two-dimensional (2D) motion of the projection of the rigid target on BEV plane can be divided into two components. The first component describes the motion of the projection of the target along the x axis (parallel to the MLC leaf motions) and the other describes the motion of the target projection on the y axis (perpendicular to the leaf motion direction). First, time optimal leaf trajectories are calculated independently for each leaf pair of the MLC assembly to compensate the x-axis component of the 2D motion of the target on the BEV. These leaf trajectories are then synchronized following the mid time (MT) synchronization procedure. To compensate for the y-axis component of the motion of the target projection on the BEV plane, the procedure of ''switching'' leaf pair trajectories in the upward (or downward) direction is executed when the target's BEV projection moves upward (or downward) from its equilibrium position along the y axis. When the intensity function is a 2D histogram, the error between the intended and delivered intensity in 2D DMLC IMRT delivery will depend on the shape of the intensity map and on the MLC physical constraint (leaf width and maximum admissible leaf speed). The MT synchronization of leaf trajectories decreases the impact of above constraints on the error in 2D DMLC IMRT intensity map delivery. The proof is provided, that if hardware constraints in the 2D DMLC IMRT delivery strategy are removed, the errors between planned and delivered 2D intensity maps are entirely eliminated. Examples of 2D DMLC IMRT delivery to rigid targets moving along elliptical orbits on BEV planes are calculated and analyzed for 20 clinical fluence maps. The comparisons between the intensity delivered without motion correction, with motion correction along x axis only, and with motion correction for full 2D motion of the target are calculated and quantitatively evaluated. The fluence maps were normalized to 100 MU and the rms difference between the desired and delivered fluence was 12 MU for no motion compensation, 11.18 MU for 1D compensation, and 4.73 MU for 2D motion compensations. The advantage of correcting for full 2D motion of target projected on the BEV plane is demonstrated.

  12. Collagen Coated Nanoliposome as a Targeted and Controlled Drug Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, G.; Stephen, P.; Prabhu, M.; Sehgal, P. K.; Sadulla, S.

    2010-10-01

    The collagen coated nanoliposome (CCNL) have been prepared and characterized in order to develop a targeted and controlled drug delivery system. The zeta potential (ZP) measurement, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Cell viability assay data showed that the collagen coated nanoliposome particle size and charges, structural interaction and surface morphology and high bio-cyto-compatibility of collagen coated nanoliposome. The particle sizes of nanoliposome (NL) and collagen coated nanoliposome are 20-300 nm and 0.1-10 ?m respectively. The introduction of triple helical, coiled coil and fibrous protein of collagen into nanoliposome can improves the stability of nanoliposome, resistant to phospholipase activities and decreasing the phagocytosis of liposomes by reticuloendothelial system. The collagen coated nanoliposome is expected to be used as for targeted and controlled drug delivery system, and tissue engineering application.

  13. Surface modified dendrimers: synthesis and characterization for cancer targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anupama; Gautam, Surya Prakash; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Dendrimers represents a highly branched three-dimensional structure that provides a high degree of surface functionality and versatility. PAMAM dendrimers are used as well-defined nanocontainers to conjugate, complex or encapsulate therapeutic drugs or imaging moieties. Star-burst [PAMAM] dendrimers represent a superior carrier platform for drug delivery. The present study was aimed at synthesis of a surface modified dendrimer for cancer targeted drug delivery system. For this 4.0 G PAMAM dendrimer was conjugated with Gallic acid [GA] and characterized through UV, IR, ¹H NMR and mass spectroscopy. Cytotoxicity study of dendrimer conjugate was carried out against MCF-7 cell line using MTT assay. The study revealed that the conjugate is active against MCF-7 cell line and might act synergistically with anti-cancer drug and gallic acid-dendrimer conjugate might be a promising nano-platform for cancer targeting and cancer diagnosis. PMID:21570304

  14. Targeted Delivery of Immunotoxin by Antibody to Ganglioside GD3: A Novel Drug Delivery Route for Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres Demichelis, Vanina; Vilcaes, Aldo A.; Iglesias-Bartolomé, Ramiro; Ruggiero, Fernando M.; Daniotti, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycolipids expressed on plasma membranes from nearly all vertebrate cells. The expression of ganglioside GD3, which plays essential roles in normal brain development, decreases in adults but is up regulated in neuroectodermal and epithelial derived cancers. R24 antibody, directed against ganglioside GD3, is a validated tumor target which is specifically endocytosed and accumulated in endosomes. Here, we exploit the internalization feature of the R24 antibody for the selective delivery of saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein, to GD3-expressing cells [human (SK-Mel-28) and mouse (B16) melanoma cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells]. This immunotoxin showed a specific cytotoxicity on tumor cells grew on 2D monolayers, which was further evident by the lack of any effect on GD3-negative cells. To estimate the potential antitumor activity of R24-saporin complex, we also evaluated the effect of the immunotoxin on the clonogenic growth of SK-Mel-28 and CHO-K1GD3+ cells cultured in attachment-free conditions. A drastic growth inhibition (>80–90%) of the cell colonies was reached after 3 days of immunotoxin treatment. By the contrary, colonies continue to growth at the same concentration of the immuntoxin, but in the absence of R24 antibody, or in the absence of both immunotoxin and R24, undoubtedly indicating the specificity of the effect observed. Thus, the ganglioside GD3 emerge as a novel and attractive class of cell surface molecule for targeted delivery of cytotoxic agents and, therefore, provides a rationale for future therapeutic intervention in cancer. PMID:23383146

  15. Surface modified dendrimers: Synthesis and characterization for cancer targeted drug delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anupama Sharma; Surya Prakash Gautam; Arun Kumar Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Dendrimers represents a highly branched three-dimensional structure that provides a high degree of surface functionality and versatility. PAMAM dendrimers are used as well-defined nanocontainers to conjugate, complex or encapsulate therapeutic drugs or imaging moieties. Star-burst [PAMAM] dendrimers represent a superior carrier platform for drug delivery. The present study was aimed at synthesis of a surface modified dendrimer for cancer targeted

  16. Particle shape: a new design parameter for passive targeting in splenotropic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Padma V; Jindal, Anil B; Patil, Rajesh R; Mulla, Fernaz; Gaikwad, Rajiv V; Samad, Abdul

    2010-06-01

    The role of particle size and surface modification on biodistribution of nanocarriers is widely reported. We report for the first time the role of nanoparticle shape on biodistribution. Our study demonstrates that irregular shaped polymer lipid nanoparticles (LIPOMER) evade kupffer cells and localize in the spleen. We also demonstrate the macrophage-evading characteristic of the irregular-shaped LIPOMER. Our results suggest particle shape as an important tool for passive targeting of nanocarriers in splenotropic drug delivery. PMID:20091830

  17. Dual surface-functionalized Janus nanocomposites for targeted stimulus responsive drug delivery.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Yilong; Pauletti, Giovanni; Shi, Donglu

    2014-03-01

    A novel superparamagnetic Janus nanocomposite (SJNC) of polystyrene/Fe3O4@SiO2 was designed and developed for the first time using a miniemulsion method. Both surfaces were readily functionalized for bio-medical application. Folic acid (FA) and doxorubicin (DOX) were conjugated stepwise to the surfaces. It was found that SJNCs achieved cell-targeted drug delivery in a pH-responsive manner.

  18. A targeting drug delivery system for ovarian carcinoma: transferrin modified lipid coated paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Zhang, Q; Wang, X-y; Chen, X-g; He, Y-x; Yang, W-y; Yang, X

    2014-10-01

    The transferring modified lipid coated PLGA nanoparticles, as a targetable vector, were developed for the targeting delivery of anticancer drugs with paclitaxel (PTX) as a model drug to the ovarian carcinoma, which combines the advantages and avoids disadvantages of polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes in drug delivery. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the lipid coating on the polymeric core. Physicochemical characterizations of TFLPs, such as particle size, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro PTX release, were also evaluated. In the cellular uptake study, the TFLPs were more efficiently endocytosed by the A2780 cells with high expression of transferrin receptors than HUVEC cells without the transferrin receptors. Furthermore, the anticancer efficacy of TFLPs on the tumor spheroids was stronger than that of lipid coated PLGA nanoparticles (LPs) and PLGA nanoparticles. In the in vivo study, the TFLPs showed the best inhibition effect of the tumor growth for the ovarian carcinoma-bearing mice. In brief, the TFLPs were proved to be an efficient targeting drug delivery system for ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24443309

  19. Translational Nano-Medicines: Targeted Therapeutic Delivery for Cancer and Inflammatory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Talekar, Meghna; Tran, Thanh-Huyen; Amiji, Mansoor

    2015-07-01

    With the advent of novel and personalized therapeutic approaches for cancer and inflammatory diseases, there is a growing demand for designing delivery systems that circumvent some of the limitation with the current therapeutic strategies. Nanoparticle-based delivery of drugs has provided means of overcoming some of these limitations by ensuring the drug payload is directed to the disease site and insuring reduced off-target activity. This review highlights the challenges posed by the solid tumor microenvironment and the systemic limitations for effective chemotherapy. It then assesses the basis of nanoparticle-based targeting to the tumor tissues, which helps to overcome some of the microenvironmental and systemic limitations to therapy. We have extensively focused on some of the tumor multidrug resistance mechanisms (e.g., hypoxia and aerobic glycolysis) that contribute to the development of multidrug resistance and how targeted nano-approaches can be adopted to overcome drug resistance. Finally, we assess the combinatorial approach and how this platform has been used to develop multifunctional delivery systems for cancer therapy. The review article also focuses on inflammatory diseases, the biological therapies available for its treatment, and the concept of macrophage repolarization for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25921939

  20. Formulation design for target delivery of iron nanoparticles to TCE zones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziheng; Acosta, Edgar

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (NZVI) are effective reducing agents for some dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, target delivery of iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones in the aquifer remains an elusive feature for NZVI technologies. This work discusses three strategies to deliver iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones. To this end, iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleate (OL) ions were used as stable analogs for NZVI. The OL-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are rendered lipophilic via (a) the addition of CaCl2, (b) acidification, or (c) the addition of a cationic surfactant, benzethonium chloride (BC). Mixtures of OL and BC show promise as a target delivery strategy due to the high stability of the nanoparticles in water, and their preferential partition into TCE in batch experiments. Column tests show that while the OL-BC coated iron oxide nanoparticles remain largely mobile in TCE-free columns, a large fraction of these particles are retained in TCE-contaminated columns, confirming the effectiveness of this target delivery strategy. PMID:24096200

  1. Formulation design for target delivery of iron nanoparticles to TCE zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziheng; Acosta, Edgar

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (NZVI) are effective reducing agents for some dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, target delivery of iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones in the aquifer remains an elusive feature for NZVI technologies. This work discusses three strategies to deliver iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones. To this end, iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleate (OL) ions were used as stable analogs for NZVI. The OL-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are rendered lipophilic via (a) the addition of CaCl2, (b) acidification, or (c) the addition of a cationic surfactant, benzethonium chloride (BC). Mixtures of OL and BC show promise as a target delivery strategy due to the high stability of the nanoparticles in water, and their preferential partition into TCE in batch experiments. Column tests show that while the OL-BC coated iron oxide nanoparticles remain largely mobile in TCE-free columns, a large fraction of these particles are retained in TCE-contaminated columns, confirming the effectiveness of this target delivery strategy.

  2. Realizing the Clinical Potential of Cancer Nanotechnology by Minimizing Toxicological and Targeted Delivery Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanjay; Sharma, Arati; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to make smart drugs that would be capable of targeting cancer but not normal cells and loading combinations of cooperating agents into a single nano-sized particle to more effectively treat this disease. However, to realize the full potential of this technology the negative aspects associated with these nanoparticles needs to be overcome. This review discusses concerns in the field limiting realization of the full clinical potential of this technology, which are toxicity and targeted delivery. Strategies to overcome these hurdles are also reviewed which could lead to attainment of the full clinical potential of this exciting technology. PMID:23139207

  3. Realizing the clinical potential of cancer nanotechnology by minimizing toxicologic and targeted delivery concerns.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Sharma, Arati; Robertson, Gavin P

    2012-11-15

    Nanotechnology has the potential to make smart drugs that would be capable of targeting cancer but not normal cells and to load combinations of cooperating agents into a single nanosized particle to more effectively treat this disease. However, to realize the full potential of this technology, the negative aspects associated with these nanoparticles need to be overcome. This review discusses concerns in the field limiting realization of the full clinical potential of this technology, which are toxicity and targeted delivery. Strategies to overcome these hurdles are also reviewed, which could lead to attainment of the full clinical potential of this exciting technology. PMID:23139207

  4. MRI-visible liposome nanovehicles for potential tumor-targeted delivery of multimodal therapies.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lili; Chen, Shizhen; Li, Haidong; Zhang, Zhiying; Ye, Chaohui; Liu, Maili; Zhou, Xin

    2015-07-23

    Real-time diagnosis and monitoring of disease development, and therapeutic responses to treatment, are possible by theranostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we report the synthesis of a multifunctional liposome, which contains Gd-DOTA (an MRI probe), paclitaxel and c(RGDyk) (a targeted peptide). This nanoparticle overcame the insolubility of paclitaxel, reduced the side effects of FDA-approved formulation of PTX-Cre (Taxol®) and improved drug delivery efficiency to the tumor. c(RGDyk) modification greatly enhanced the cytotoxicity of the drug in tumor cells A549. The T1 relaxivity in tumor cells treated with the targeted liposome formulation was increased 16-fold when compared with the non-targeted group. In vivo, the tumors in mice were visualized using T1-weighted imaging after administration of the liposome. Also the tumor growth could be inhibited well after the treatment. Fluorescence images in vitro and ex vivo also showed the targeting effect of this liposome in tumor cells, indicating that this nanovehicle could limit the off-target side effects of anticancer drugs and contrast agents. These findings lay the foundation for further tumor inhibition study and application of this delivery vehicle in cancer therapy settings. PMID:26022345

  5. AS1411 aptamer tagged PLGA-lecithin-PEG nanoparticles for tumor cell targeting and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Aravind, Athulya; Jeyamohan, Prashanti; Nair, Remya; Veeranarayanan, Srivani; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Kumar, D Sakthi

    2012-11-01

    Liposomes and polymers are widely used drug carriers for controlled release since they offer many advantages like increased treatment effectiveness, reduced toxicity and are of biodegradable nature. In this work, anticancer drug-loaded PLGA-lecithin-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and were functionalized with AS1411 anti-nucleolin aptamers for site-specific targeting against tumor cells which over expresses nucleolin receptors. The particles were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The drug-loading efficiency, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release studies were conducted using UV spectroscopy. Cytotoxicity studies were carried out in two different cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and GI-1 cells and two different normal cells, L929 cells and HMEC cells. Confocal microscopy and flowcytometry confirmed the cellular uptake of particles and targeted drug delivery. The morphology analysis of the NPs proved that the particles were smooth and spherical in shape with a size ranging from 60 to 110?nm. Drug-loading studies indicated that under the same drug loading, the aptamer-targeted NPs show enhanced cancer killing effect compared to the corresponding non-targeted NPs. In addition, the PLGA-lecithin-PEG NPs exhibited high encapsulation efficiency and superior sustained drug release than the drug loaded in plain PLGA NPs. The results confirmed that AS1411 aptamer-PLGA-lecithin-PEG NPs are potential carrier candidates for differential targeted drug delivery. PMID:22615073

  6. Non-ionic, thermo-responsive DEA/DMA nanogels: Synthesis, characterization, and use for DNA separations by microchip electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Barron, Annelise E.

    Non-ionic, thermo-responsive DEA/DMA nanogels: Synthesis, characterization, and use for DNA January 2011 Available online 1 February 2011 Keywords: Nanogels DEA DMA LCST Microchip electrophoresis of novel, non-ionic nanogels based on random N,N-diethylacrylamide (DEA)/N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA

  7. Matrix-specific anchors: a new concept for targeted delivery and retention of therapeutic cells.

    PubMed

    Steplewski, Andrzej; Fertala, Jolanta; Beredjiklian, Pedro; Wang, Mark L; Fertala, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Biomedical strategies for tissue engineering and repair utilize specific cells, scaffolds, and growth factors to reconstruct elements of damaged tissue. The cellular element of these strategies is limited, however, by poor efficiency of delivery and retention of therapeutic cells in target sites. We propose that the presence of a cellular anchor that is able to specifically bind a defined element of target tissue will facilitate efficient binding and retention of therapeutic cells, thereby promoting repair of the target site. To do so, we engineered an artificial collagen-specific anchor (ACSA) that is able to specifically bind collagen I. The ACSA was engineered by creating a construct comprising rationally designed consecutive domains. The binding specificity of the ACSA was achieved by employing variable regions of a monoclonal antibody that recognizes a unique epitope present in human collagen I. Meanwhile, cell membrane localization of the ACSA was provided by the presence of a transmembrane domain. We determined that the ACSA was localized within cell membranes and interacted with its intended target, that is, collagen I. We have demonstrated that, in comparison to the control, the cells expressing the ACSA attached better to collagen I and exhibited improved retention in sites of seeding. We have also demonstrated that the presence of the ACSA did not interfere with cell proliferation, the biosynthesis of endogenous collagen I, or the biological functions of native collagen receptors. Since the presented cell delivery system utilizes a common characteristic of major connective tissues, namely the presence of collagen I, the findings described here could have a broad positive impact for improving the repair processes of tendon, ligament, bone, intervertebral disc, skin, and other collagen I-rich connective tissues. If successful, the ACSA approach to deliver cells will serve as an outline for developing cell delivery methods that target other elements of extracellular matrices, including other collagen types, laminins, and fibronectins. PMID:25435302

  8. Extracellularly activated nanocarriers: A new paradigm of tumor targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gullotti, Emily; Yeo, Yoon

    2009-01-01

    One of the main goals of nanomedicine is to develop a nanocarrier that can selectively deliver anti-cancer drugs to the targeted tumors. Extensive efforts have resulted in several tumor-targeted nanocarriers, some of which are approved for clinical use. Most nanocarriers achieve tumor-selective accumulation through the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Targeting molecules such as antibodies, peptides, ligands, or nucleic acids attached to the nanocarriers further enhance their recognition and internalization by the target tissues. While both the stealth and targeting features are important for effective and selective drug delivery to the tumors, achieving both features simultaneously is often found to be difficult. Some of the recent targeting strategies have the potential to overcome this challenge. These strategies utilize the unique extracellular environment of tumors to change the long-circulating nanocarriers to release the drug or interact with cells in a tumor-specific manner. This review discusses the new targeting strategies with recent examples, which utilize the environmental stimuli to activate the nanocarriers. Traditional strategies for tumor-targeted nanocarriers are briefly discussed with an emphasis on their achievements and challenges. PMID:19366234

  9. A novel lactoferrin-modified ?-cyclodextrin nanocarrier for brain-targeting drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yajing; Sun, Yi; Zhao, Hongli; Lan, Minbo; Gao, Feng; Song, Chao; Lou, Kaiyan; Li, Hao; Wang, Wei

    2013-12-15

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the transfer and delivery of most drug substances to brain. In this study, a novel nano-drug delivery system for brain-targeting was developed and investigated in vitro and in vivo. Lactoferrin (Lf) was selected as a brain-targeting ligand and conjugated to ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) via the heterobifunctional polyethyleneglycol (PEG) linker NHS-PEG-MAL, yielding Lf conjugated ?-cyclodextrin (Lf-CD). UV-vis, FTIR, NMR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques clearly demonstrated the successful synthesis of Lf-CD nanoparticles with the average diameter of 92.9 ± 16.5 nm. Using near-infrared fluorescent dye IR-775 chloride (IR) as a model compound of poorly water-soluble drugs, IR-loaded Lf-CD nanoparticles (Lf-CD/IR) were successfully prepared with a high entrapment efficiency of 98.1 ± 4.8%. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of Lf-CD/IR were evaluated in KM mice after intravenous administration. The results of tissue distribution studies revealed that Lf-CD/IR treatment showed greatly improved BBB transport efficiency. In addition, AUC0-2h of IR in brain after Lf-CD/IR treatment was seven fold higher compared with that of IR treatment without Lf-CD nano-carriers, demonstrating that the introduction of Lf-CD drug-delivery system positively resulted in a higher AUC located in brain tissue. These results provide evidence that Lf-CD nanoparticles could be exploited as a potential brain-targeting drug delivery system for hydrophobic drugs and diagnostic reagents which normally fail to pass through the BBB. PMID:24126038

  10. Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of siRNA targeting Parp1 extends survival of mice bearing tumors

    E-print Network

    Bhatia, Sangeeta

    Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of siRNA targeting Parp1 extends survival of mice bearing tumors the survival of mice bearing tumors derived from Brca1-deficient ovarian cancer cells but not from Brca1 wild

  11. Targeted drug delivery by novel polymer-drug conjugates containing linkers cleavable by disease-associated enzymes

    E-print Network

    Chau, Ying

    2005-01-01

    We have conceptualized a new class of polymer-linker-drug conjugates to achieve targeted drug delivery for the systemic treatment of cancer and other inflammatory diseases. The physiochemical properties of the polymer allow ...

  12. Molecularly self-assembled nucleic acid nanoparticles for targeted in vivo siRNA delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyukjin; Lytton-Jean, Abigail K. R.; Chen, Yi; Love, Kevin T.; Park, Angela I.; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D.; Sehgal, Alfica; Querbes, William; Zurenko, Christopher S.; Jayaraman, Muthusamy; Peng, Chang G.; Charisse, Klaus; Borodovsky, Anna; Manoharan, Muthiah; Donahoe, Jessica S.; Truelove, Jessica; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2012-06-01

    Nanoparticles are used for delivering therapeutics into cells. However, size, shape, surface chemistry and the presentation of targeting ligands on the surface of nanoparticles can affect circulation half-life and biodistribution, cell-specific internalization, excretion, toxicity and efficacy. A variety of materials have been explored for delivering small interfering RNAs (siRNAs)--a therapeutic agent that suppresses the expression of targeted genes. However, conventional delivery nanoparticles such as liposomes and polymeric systems are heterogeneous in size, composition and surface chemistry, and this can lead to suboptimal performance, a lack of tissue specificity and potential toxicity. Here, we show that self-assembled DNA tetrahedral nanoparticles with a well-defined size can deliver siRNAs into cells and silence target genes in tumours. Monodisperse nanoparticles are prepared through the self-assembly of complementary DNA strands. Because the DNA strands are easily programmable, the size of the nanoparticles and the spatial orientation and density of cancer-targeting ligands (such as peptides and folate) on the nanoparticle surface can be controlled precisely. We show that at least three folate molecules per nanoparticle are required for optimal delivery of the siRNAs into cells and, gene silencing occurs only when the ligands are in the appropriate spatial orientation. In vivo, these nanoparticles showed a longer blood circulation time (t1/2 ~ 24.2 min) than the parent siRNA (t1/2 ~ 6 min).

  13. Cancer Nanotheranostics: Improving Imaging and Therapy by Targeted Delivery across Biological Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Kievit, Forrest M.; Zhang, Miqin

    2012-01-01

    Cancer nanotheranostics aims to combine imaging and therapy of cancer through use of nanotechnology. The ability to engineer nanomaterials to interact with cancer cells at the molecular level can significantly improve the effectiveness and specificity of therapy to cancers that are currently difficult to treat. In particular, metastatic cancers, drug-resistant cancers, and cancer stem cells impose the greatest therapeutic challenge that requires targeted therapy to treat effectively. Targeted therapy can be achieved with appropriate designed drug delivery vehicles such as nanoparticles, adult stem cells, or T cells in immunotherapy. In this article, we first review the different types of materials commonly used to synthesize nanotheranostic particles and their use in imaging. We then discuss biological barriers that these nanoparticles encounter and must bypass to reach the target cancer cells, including the blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, and particularly the blood-brain barrier. We then review how nanotheranostics can be used to improve targeted delivery and treatment of cancer cells using nanoparticles, adult stem cells, and T cells in immunotherapy. Finally, we discuss development of nanoparticles to overcome current limitations in cancer therapy. PMID:21842473

  14. Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

  15. A novel liposomal formulation of FTY720 (Fingolimod) for promising enhanced targeted delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yicheng; Wang, Jiang; Zhao, Yuan; Wu, Yun; Kwak, Kwang Joo; Chen, Ching-Shih; Byrd, John C.; Lee, Robert J.; Phelps, Mitch A.; Lee, L. James; Muthusamy, Natarajan

    2014-01-01

    We describe here the development and characterization of the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of a novel liposomal formulation for FTY720 delivery, LP-FTY720. The mean diameter of LP-FTY720 was ~157 nm, and the FTY720 entrapment efficiency was ~85%. The liposomal formulation protected FTY720 from degradation in aqueous buffer and showed toxicity in CLL patient B cells comparable to that of free FTY720. Following intravenous injection in ICR mice, LP-FTY720 had an increased elimination phase half-life (~28 vs. ~19 hr) and decreased clearance (235 vs. 778 mL/h/kg) compared to the free drug. Antibodies against CD19, CD20 and CD37 were incorporated into LP-FTY720, which provided targeted delivery to CLL patient B cells and thus achieved higher killing efficacy. The novel liposomal carrier of FTY720 demonstrated improved pharmacokinetic properties, comparable activity, and a potential platform for targeted delivery to CLL by overcoming the limited application of free FTY720 to B malignancy treatment. PMID:23969101

  16. Emulsomes Meet S-layer Proteins: An Emerging Targeted Drug Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Ucisik, Mehmet H.; Sleytr, Uwe B.; Schuster, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Here, the use of emulsomes as a drug delivery system is reviewed and compared with other similar lipidic nanoformulations. In particular, we look at surface modification of emulsomes using S-layer proteins, which are self-assembling proteins that cover the surface of many prokaryotic organisms. It has been shown that covering emulsomes with a crystalline S-layer lattice can protect cells from oxidative stress and membrane damage. In the future, the capability to recrystallize S-layer fusion proteins on lipidic nanoformulations may allow the presentation of binding functions or homing protein domains to achieve highly specific targeted delivery of drug-loaded emulsomes. Besides the discussion on several designs and advantages of composite emulsomes, the success of emulsomes for the delivery of drugs to fight against viral and fungal infections, dermal therapy, cancer, and autoimmunity is summarized. Further research might lead to smart, biocompatible emulsomes, which are able to protect and reduce the side effects caused by the drug, but at the same time are equipped with specific targeting molecules to find the desired site of action. PMID:25697368

  17. Emulsomes meet S-layer proteins: an emerging targeted drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Ucisik, Mehmet H; Sleytr, Uwe B; Schuster, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Here, the use of emulsomes as a drug delivery system is reviewed and compared with other similar lipidic nanoformulations. In particular, we look at surface modification of emulsomes using S-layer proteins, which are self-assembling proteins that cover the surface of many prokaryotic organisms. It has been shown that covering emulsomes with a crystalline S-layer lattice can protect cells from oxidative stress and membrane damage. In the future, the capability to recrystallize S-layer fusion proteins on lipidic nanoformulations may allow the presentation of binding functions or homing protein domains to achieve highly specific targeted delivery of drug-loaded emulsomes. Besides the discussion on several designs and advantages of composite emulsomes, the success of emulsomes for the delivery of drugs to fight against viral and fungal infections, dermal therapy, cancer, and autoimmunity is summarized. Further research might lead to smart, biocompatible emulsomes, which are able to protect and reduce the side effects caused by the drug, but at the same time are equipped with specific targeting molecules to find the desired site of action. PMID:25697368

  18. One-pot aqueous synthesis of sub-10 nm responsive nanogels.

    PubMed

    Li, Luxian; Chang, Aiping; Hu, Yumei; Zhang, Laiying; Wu, Weitai

    2013-07-25

    A strategy involving free radical copolymerization of a difunctional oligomer and a small-molecule crosslinker to give sub-10 nm nanogels is proposed. These nanogels can adapt to surrounding temperatures and regulate the release of a preloaded model anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil. PMID:23756418

  19. Novel self-assembling nanogels: stability and lyophilisation studies.

    PubMed

    Daoud-Mahammed, S; Couvreur, P; Gref, R

    2007-03-01

    The stability of new supramolecular nanoassemblies (nanogels), based on the association of a hydrophobically modified dextran (MD) and a beta-cyclodextrin polymer (pbetaCD), has been studied by two complementary methods: (i) size measurements and (ii) turbidity experiments using a Turbiscan optical analyser. Nanogels of about 120-150nm were obtained whatever the concentration of the two polymer solutions. At low concentrations, the suspensions presented little mean diameter variations upon storage. However, the concentrated ones tended to destabilize and their mean diameter increased upon time. Size measurements and Turbiscan investigations have demonstrated that destabilization in the MD-pbetaCD nanogel suspension was only due to particle aggregation and/or fusion, as no sedimentation or creaming occurred. The destabilization of MD-pbetaCD suspensions led to the formation of a highly viscous phase, as a final state. Moreover, the two methods have shown that aggregation and/or fusion phenomena were more pronounced in the concentrated MD-pbetaCD suspensions than in the diluted ones. The stability of MD-pbetaCD suspensions could be improved by their storage at 4 degrees C. Finally, freeze-drying was found to be a convenient method for the long-time storage of MD-pbetaCD nanoassemblies. PMID:17116379

  20. Design and fabrication of magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and imaging

    PubMed Central

    Veiseh, Omid; Gunn, Jonathan; Zhang, Miqin

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent a class of non-invasive imaging agents that have been developed for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These MNPs have traditionally been used for disease imaging via passive targeting, but recent advances have opened the door to cellular-specific targeting, drug delivery, and multi-modal imaging by these nanoparticles. As more elaborate MNPs are envisioned, adherence to proper design criteria (e.g. size, coating, molecular functionalization) becomes even more essential. This review summarizes the design parameters that affect MNP performance in vivo, including the physicochemical properties and nanoparticle surface modifications, such as MNP coating and targeting ligand functionalizations that can enhance MNP management of biological barriers. A careful review of the chemistries used to modify the surfaces of MNPs is also given, with attention paid to optimizing the activity of bound ligands while maintaining favorable physicochemical properties. PMID:19909778

  1. Design, Synthesis and Bio-evaluation of an EphA2-based Targeted Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Barile, Elisa; Wang, Si; Das, Swadesh K.; Noberini, Roberta; Dahl, Russell; Stebbins, John L.; Pasquale, Elena B.; Fisher, Paul B.; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We recently described a new targeted delivery system based on specific EphA2 receptor targeting peptides conjugated with the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel. In this manuscript we investigate the chemical determinants responsible for the stability and degradation of these agents in plasma. Introducing modifications in both the peptide and the linker between the peptide and paclitaxel, resulted in drug conjugates that are both long-lived in rat plasma and that markedly reduced tumor size in a prostate cancer xenograft model compared to paclitaxel alone treatment. These studies identify critical rate-limiting degradation sites on the peptide-drug conjugates, enabling the design of agents with increased stability and efficacy. These results provide support for our central hypothesis that peptide-drug conjugates targeting the EphA2 receptor represent an innovative and potentially effective strategy to selectively deliver cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. PMID:24677792

  2. Automated Modular Synthesis of Aptamer–Drug Conjugates for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aptamer–drug conjugates (ApDCs) are promising targeted drug delivery systems for reducing toxicity while increasing the efficacy of chemotherapy. However, current ApDC technologies suffer from problems caused by the complicated preparation and low controllability of drug–aptamer conjugation. To solve such problems, we have designed and synthesized a therapeutic module for solid phase synthesis, which is a phosphoramdite containing an anticancer drug moiety and a photocleavable linker. Using this module, we have realized automated and modular synthesis of ApDCs, and multiple drugs were efficiently incorporated into ApDCs at predesigned positions. The ApDCs not only recognize target cancer cells specifically, but also release drugs in a photocontrollable manner. We demonstrated the potential of automated and modular ApDC technology for applications in targeted cancer therapy. PMID:24483627

  3. Novel thermo/pH sensitive nanogels composed from poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) for controlled release of an anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Madhusudana Rao, K; Mallikarjuna, B; Krishna Rao, K S V; Siraj, S; Chowdoji Rao, K; Subha, M C S

    2013-02-01

    A series of novel nanogels (NGs) with both pH and thermoresponsive properties were synthesised by free radical emulsion polymerisation of N-vinyl caprolactam (VCL) and acrylamidoglycolic acid (AGA). 5-Flurouracil, an anti cancer drug, was successfully loaded into these nanogels via equilibrium swelling method. The encapsulation efficiency of 5-FU was found up to 61%. Here we present the novel potential drug delivery system showing both pH and temperature release of 5-FU. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) examined the structure and morphology of the NGs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates the diameter of the NGs to be about 50 nm. The size distribution of NGs was investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), the average diameter and polydispersity is 57 nm and 0.194. Interestingly, the in vitro release studies of 5-FU demonstrated the dual nature (pH and temperature) of NGs. The cumulative release data were analysed using an emperical equation to compute the diffusion exponent (n); whose values suggest Fickian diffusion. PMID:23107966

  4. Catalytic Janus motors on microfluidic chip: deterministic motion for targeted cargo delivery.

    PubMed

    Baraban, Larysa; Makarov, Denys; Streubel, Robert; Mönch, Ingolf; Grimm, Daniel; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2012-04-24

    We fabricated self-powered colloidal Janus motors combining catalytic and magnetic cap structures, and demonstrated their performance for manipulation (uploading, transportation, delivery) and sorting of microobjects on microfluidic chips. The specific magnetic properties of the Janus motors are provided by ultrathin multilayer films that are designed to align the magnetic moment along the main symmetry axis of the cap. This unique property allows a deterministic motion of the Janus particles at a large scale when guided in an external magnetic field. The observed directional control of the motion combined with extensive functionality of the colloidal Janus motors conceptually opens a straightforward route for targeted delivery of species, which are relevant in the field of chemistry, biology, and medicine. PMID:22424213

  5. A peptide-mediated targeting gene delivery system for malignant glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuanwei; Ning, Liping; Wang, Hongwei; Lu, Zaijun; Li, Xingang; Fan, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xuping; Liu, Yuguang

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant glioma. Although there has been considerable progress in treatment strategies, the prognosis of many patients with GBM remains poor. In this work, polyethylenimine (PEI) and the VTWTPQAWFQWV (VTW) peptide were modified and synthesized into GBM-targeting nanoparticles. The transfection efficiency of U-87 (human glioblastoma) cells was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell internalization was investigated to verify the nanoparticle delivery into the cytoplasm. Results showed that the methods of polymer conjugation and the amount of VTW peptide were important factors to polymer synthesis and transfection. The PEI-VTW20 nanoparticles increased the transfection efficiency significantly. This report describes the use of VTW peptide-based PEI nanoparticles for intracellular gene delivery in a GBM cell-specific manner. PMID:24101872

  6. Targeting hepatocytes for drug and gene delivery: emerging novel approaches and applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Nantz, Michael H; Zern, Mark A

    2002-03-01

    The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) on mammalian hepatocytes provides a unique means for the development of liver-specific carriers, such as liposomes, recombinant lipoproteins, and polymers for drug or gene delivery to the liver, especially to hepatocytes. The abundant receptors on the cells specifically recognize ligands with terminal galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine residues, and endocytose the ligands for an intracellular degradation process. The use of its natural ligand, i.e. asialofetuin, or synthetic ligands with galactosylated or lactosylated residues, such as galactosylated cholesterol, glycolipids, or galactosylated polymers has achieved significant targeting efficacy to the liver. There are several examples of successful targeted therapy for acute liver injury with asialofetuin-labeled and vitamin E-associated liposomes or with a caspase inhibitor loaded in sugar-carrying polymer particles, as well as for the delivery of a new antiviral agent, 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Liposome-mediated gene delivery to the liver is more difficult than to other organs, such as to lungs. It is still in its infancy due to difficulties in solving general issues, such as the circulatory stability of liposome-DNA complexes, and lysosomal or endosomal degradation of plasmid DNA. In spite of these existing concerns, several new approaches offer some reason for optimism, for example; intravenous injection of asialofetuin- or galactosylated cholesterol-labeled cationic liposomes has led to high transgene expression in the liver. In addition, specific antisense oligonucleotides against woodchuck hepatitis viruses incorporated into sialoorosomucoid-poly-L-lysine significantly inhibited viral replication in the liver. Finally, galactosylated polymers are promising for gene delivery, but require further studies to verify their potential applications. PMID:11861224

  7. Tumor-targeted delivery of liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin by use of a peptide that selectively binds to irradiated tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Lowery; Halina Onishko; Dennis E. Hallahan; Zhaozhong Han

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-targeted drug delivery improves anti-tumor efficacy and reduces systemic toxicity by limiting bioavailability of cytotoxic drugs to within tumors. Targeting reagents, such as peptides or antibodies recognizing molecular targets over-expressed within tumors, have been used to improve liposome-encapsulated drug accumulation within tumors and resulted in enhanced tumor growth control. In this report, we expand the scope of targeting reagents by

  8. Dendrimer-based targeted delivery of an apoptotic sensor in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Myc, Andrzej; Majoros, István J; Thomas, Thommey P; Baker, James R

    2007-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated the applicability of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as a platform for the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs both in vitro and in vivo. To monitor the rate and extent of cell-killing caused by the delivered chemotherapeutic drug, we wished to analyze the degree of apoptosis in targeted cells on a real-time basis. As the apoptosis-regulating caspases are activated during the apoptotic process, several caspase-hydrolyzable, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based substrates have been marketed for the detection of apoptosis. However, the applicability of these agents is limited because of their nonspecificity and the consequent high background fluorescence in tissues. Here we show the synthesis, characterization, and in vitro targeting of an engineered PAMAM nanodevice in which folic acid (FA) is conjugated as the targeting molecule and a caspase-specific FRET-based agent (PhiPhiLux G1D2) is conjugated as the apoptosis-detecting agent. This conjugate specifically targets FA-receptor-positive, KB cells. In these cells, the apoptosis-inducing agent staurosporine caused a 5-fold increase in the cellular fluorescence. These results show, for the first time, the potential applicability of a targeted apoptosis-measuring nanodevice, which could be used for simultaneously monitoring the apoptotic potential of a delivered drug. PMID:17206782

  9. Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Rationally Designed Vehicles for Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,J.; Wong,S.; Chen, S.; Zhao, X.; Kuznetsova, L.V.; and Ojima, I.

    2008-11-14

    A novel single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based tumor-targeted drug delivery system (DDS) has been developed, which consists of a functionalized SWNT linked to tumor-targeting modules as well as prodrug modules. There are three key features of this nanoscale DDS: (a) use of functionalized SWNTs as a biocompatible platform for the delivery of therapeutic drugs or diagnostics, (b) conjugation of prodrug modules of an anticancer agent (taxoid with a cleavable linker) that is activated to its cytotoxic form inside the tumor cells upon internalization and in situ drug release, and (c) attachment of tumor-recognition modules (biotin and a spacer) to the nanotube surface. To prove the efficacy of this DDS, three fluorescent and fluorogenic molecular probes were designed, synthesized, characterized, and subjected to the analysis of the receptor-mediated endocytosis and drug release inside the cancer cells (L1210FR leukemia cell line) by means of confocal fluorescence microscopy. The specificity and cytotoxicity of the conjugate have also been assessed and compared with L1210 and human noncancerous cell lines. Then, it has unambiguously been proven that this tumor-targeting DDS works exactly as designed and shows high potency toward specific cancer cell lines, thereby forming a solid foundation for further development.

  10. Haptic guided virtual reality simulation for targeted drug delivery using nano-containers manipulation.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Syed; Shah, Mohsin; Yoon, Sung Chul; Ullah, Ikram; Kim, Myeong Ok; Yoon, Jungwon

    2013-07-01

    When dealing with nano targeted drug delivery process the significant area of virtual reality application can be visualizing real time process and simulating it at nano-scale, since the effectiveness of a drug primarily depends on the affected cell and targeted doze. This paper proposes virtual reality (VR) as a tool to analyze and simulate nanoparticles (NPs) manipulation, in this paper amorphous NPs are analyzed and simulated in virtual environment. Haptic guides virtualizing the atomic force microscope (AFM) is applied in the virtual environment which allows the operators to sense and touch the NPs when evaluating its structure, drug release time, and behavioral study. Cisplatin was loaded as a modal drug to the self-assembled amorphous copolymer P(3HV-co-4HB)-b-mPEG NPs, where the efficiency and bioavailability of Cisplatin was further investigated. The prepared NPs when simulated in virtual environment proved to show good biocompatibility. Results showed that amorphous polymeric NPs could be efficient vehicles for the constant and targeted delivery of toxic anticancer drugs. PMID:23909133

  11. A D-peptide ligand of nicotine acetylcholine receptors for brain-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoli; Zhan, Changyou; Shen, Qing; Fu, Wei; Xie, Cao; Gao, Jie; Peng, Chunmei; Zheng, Ping; Lu, Weiyue

    2015-03-01

    Lysosomes of brain capillary endothelial cells are implicated in nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated transcytosis and act as an enzymatic barrier for the transport of peptide ligands to the brain. A D-peptide ligand of nAChRs (termed (D)CDX), which binds to nAChRs with an IC50 value of 84.5?nM, was developed by retro-inverso isomerization. (D)CDX displayed exceptional stability in lysosomal homogenate and serum, and demonstrated significantly higher transcytosis efficiency in an in?vitro blood-brain barrier monolayer compared with the parent L-peptide. When modified on liposomal surface, (D)CDX facilitated significant brain-targeted delivery of liposomes. As a result, brain-targeted delivery of (D)CDX modified liposomes enhanced therapeutic efficiency of encapsulated doxorubicin for glioblastoma. This study illustrates the importance of ligand stability in nAChRs-mediated transcytosis, and paves the way for developing stable brain-targeted entities. PMID:25600241

  12. Polymeric nanocarriers for magnetic targeted drug delivery: preparation, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Licciardi, Mariano; Scialabba, Cinzia; Fiorica, Calogero; Cavallaro, Gennara; Cassata, Giovanni; Giammona, Gaetano

    2013-12-01

    In this paper the preparation of magnetic nanocarriers (MNCs), containing superparamagnetic domains, is reported, useful as potential magnetically targeted drug delivery systems. The preparation of MNCs was performed by using the PHEA-IB-p(BMA) graft copolymer as coating material through the homogenization-solvent evaporation method. Magnetic and nonmagnetic nanocarriers containing flutamide (FLU-MNCs) were prepared. The prepared nanocarriers have been exhaustively characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and magnetic measurements. Biological evaluation was performed by in vitro cytotoxicity and cell uptake tests and in vivo biodistribution studies. Magnetic nanocarriers showed dimensions of about 300 nm with a narrow size distribution, an amount of loaded FLU of 20% (w/w), and a superparamagnetic behavior. Cell culture experiments performed on prostate cancer cell line LNCaP demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of FLU-MNCs. In vivo biodistribution studies carried out by the application of an external magnetic field in rats demonstrated the effect of the external magnet on modifying the biodistribution of FLU-MNCs. FLU-MNCs resulted efficiently internalized by tumor cells and susceptible to magnetic targeting by application of an external magnetic field. The proposed nanocarriers can represent a very promising approach to obtain an efficient magnetically targeted anticancer drug delivery system. PMID:24168360

  13. Preparation and characterization of vinculin-targeted polymer-lipid nanoparticle as intracellular delivery vehicle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junping; Ornek-Ballanco, Ceren; Xu, Jiahua; Yang, Weiguo; Yu, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular delivery vehicles have been extensively investigated as these can serve as an effective tool in studying the cellular mechanism, by delivering functional protein to specific locations of the cells. In the current study, a polymer-lipid nanoparticle (PLN) system was developed as an intracellular delivery vehicle specifically targeting vinculin, a focal adhesion protein associated with cellular adhesive structures, such as focal adhesions and adherens junctions. The PLNs possessed an average size of 106 nm and had a positively charged surface. With a lower encapsulation efficiency 32% compared with poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (46%), the PLNs showed the sustained release profile of model drug BSA, while PLGA nanoparticles demonstrated an initial burst-release property. Cell-uptake experiments using mouse embryonic fibroblasts cultured in fibrin-fibronectin gels observed, under confocal microscope, that the anti-vinculin conjugated PLNs could successfully ship the cargo to the cytoplasm of fibroblasts, adhered to fibronectin-fibrin. With the use of cationic lipid, the unconjugated PLNs were shown to have high gene transfection efficiency. Furthermore, the unconjugated PLNs had nuclear-targeting capability in the absence of nuclear-localization signals. Therefore, the PLNs could be manipulated easily via different type of targeting ligands and could potentially be used as a powerful tool for cellular mechanism study, by delivering drugs to specific cellular organelles. PMID:23293518

  14. Silk-fibroin-coated liposomes for long-term and targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gobin, Andrea S; Rhea, Robyn; Newman, Robert A; Mathur, Anshu B

    2006-01-01

    Many barriers to drug delivery into a tumor site require careful consideration when designing a new drug. In this study, the adhesive targeting and drug specificity of modified liposomal vesicles on human-scar-producing cells, keloid fibroblasts, were investigated. Keloids express abundant levels of mucopolysaccharides and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). In this report, the structural properties, drug release kinetics, and therapeutic availability of silk-fibroin-coated, emodin-loaded liposomes (SF-ELP), compared with uncoated, emodin-loaded liposomes (ELP), were investigated. SF-ELP had a highly organized lamellae structure, which contributed to 55% of the liposomal diameter. This modified liposomal structure decreased emodin release rates by changing the release kinetics from a swelling and diffusional process to a purely diffusional process, probably due to steric hindrance. SF-ELP also increased adhesion targeting to keloid fibroblasts. Increased retention of SF-ELP is most likely due to the interaction of the fibrous protein coating around the ELP with the pericellular molecules around the cell. SF-ELP also decreased survival rate of keloids that expressed high levels of RTK. These results demonstrated that SF-ELP enhanced emodin delivery by improved diffusion kinetics and specific cell targeting. PMID:17722265

  15. Urokinase plasminogen activator system-targeted delivery of nanobins as a novel ovarian cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yilin; Kenny, Hilary A; Swindell, Elden P; Mitra, Anirban K; Hankins, Patrick L; Ahn, Richard W; Gwin, Katja; Mazar, Andrew P; O'Halloran, Thomas V; Lengyel, Ernst

    2013-12-01

    The urokinase system is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and is expressed at low levels in normal cells. To develop a platform for intracellular and targeted delivery of therapeutics in ovarian cancer, we conjugated urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) antibodies to liposomal nanobins. The arsenic trioxide-loaded nanobins had favorable physicochemical properties and the ability to bind specifically to uPA. Confocal microscopy showed that the uPA-targeted nanobins were internalized by ovarian cancer cells, whereas both inductively coupled plasma optical mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analyses confirmed more than four-fold higher uptake of targeted nanobins when compared with untargeted nanobins. In a coculture assay, the targeted nanobins showed efficient uptake in ovarian cancer cells but not in the normal primary omental mesothelial cells. Moreover, this uptake could be blocked by either downregulating uPA receptor expression in the ovarian cancer cells using short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) or by competition with free uPA or uPA antibody. In proof-of-concept experiments, mice bearing orthotopic ovarian tumors showed a greater reduction in tumor burden when treated with targeted nanobins than with untargeted nanobins (47% vs. 27%; P < 0.001). The targeted nanobins more effectively inhibited tumor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo compared with untargeted nanobins, inducing caspase-mediated apoptosis and impairing stem cell marker, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1A1), expression. Ex vivo fluorescence imaging of tumors and organs corroborated these results, showing preferential localization of the targeted nanobins to the tumor. These findings suggest that uPA-targeted nanobins capable of specifically and efficiently delivering payloads to cancer cells could serve as the foundation for a new targeted cancer therapy using protease receptors. PMID:24061648

  16. Synthetic Nano-Low Density Lipoprotein as Targeted Drug DeliveryVehicle for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Nikanjam, Mina; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Shu,Xiao; Budinger, Thomas F.; Forte, Trudy M.

    2006-06-14

    This paper discribes a synthetic low density lipoprotein(LDL) made by complexing a 29 amino acid that consists of a lipid bindingdomain and the LDL receptor binding domain with a lipid microemulsion.The nano-LDL particles were intermdiate in size between LDL and HDL andbound to LDL receptors on GBM brain tumor cells. Synthetic nano-LDLuptake by GBM cells was LDL receptor specific and dependent on cellreceptor number. It is suggested that these synthetic particles can serveas a delivery vehicle for hydophobic anti-tumor drugs by targeting theLDL receptor.

  17. Macromolecular prodrugs based on synthetic polyaminoacids: drug delivery and drug targeting in antitumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Gennara; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Giammona, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    In the last twenty years a depth study on potential pharmaceutical applications of synthetic polymers at proteinlike structure as carrier for macromolecular prodrug production has been performed in academia and in industry. In particular ?,?-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-DL-aspartamide (PHEA), ?,?-polyaspartylhydrazide (PAHy), poly(glutamic acid) (PGA), poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) and polylysine (PLL) have been extensively studied in this field. In the present review, the use of PHEA, PAHy, PGA as starting materials to prepare macromolecular prodrugs is reported and drug delivery and targeting aspects have been considered. PMID:21671863

  18. Targeted delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor for the treatment of blindness and deafness

    PubMed Central

    Khalin, Igor; Alyautdin, Renad; Kocherga, Ganna; Bakar, Muhamad Abu

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative causes of blindness and deafness possess a major challenge in their clinical management as proper treatment guidelines have not yet been found. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been established as a promising therapy against neurodegenerative disorders including hearing and visual loss. Unfortunately, the blood–retinal barrier and blood–cochlear barrier, which have a comparable structure to the blood–brain barrier prevent molecules of larger sizes (such as BDNF) from exiting the circulation and reaching the targeted cells. Anatomical features of the eye and ear allow use of local administration, bypassing histo-hematic barriers. This paper focuses on highlighting a variety of strategies proposed for the local administration of the BDNF, like direct delivery, viral gene therapy, and cell-based therapy, which have been shown to successfully improve development, survival, and function of spiral and retinal ganglion cells. The similarities and controversies for BDNF treatment of posterior eye diseases and inner ear diseases have been analyzed and compared. In this review, we also focus on the possibility of translation of this knowledge into clinical practice. And finally, we suggest that using nanoparticulate drug-delivery systems may substantially contribute to the development of clinically viable techniques for BDNF delivery into the cochlea or posterior eye segment, which, ultimately, can lead to a long-term or permanent rescue of auditory and optic neurons from degeneration. PMID:25995632

  19. Synthesis of Bisethylnorspermine Lipid Prodrug as Gene Delivery Vector Targeting Polyamine Metabolism in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanmei; Zhu, Yu; Li, Jing; Zhou, Qing-Hui; Wu, Chao; Oupický, David

    2013-01-01

    Progress in the development of nonviral gene delivery vectors continues to be hampered by low transfection activity and toxicity. Here we proposed to develop a lipid prodrug based on a polyamine analogue bisethylnorspermine (BSP) that can function dually as gene delivery vector and, after intracellular degradation, as active anticancer agent targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism. We synthesized a prodrug of BSP (LS-BSP) capable of intracellular release of BSP using thiolytically sensitive dithiobenzyl carbamate linker. Biodegradability of LS-BSP contributed to decreased toxicity compared with nondegradable control L-BSP. BSP showed a strong synergistic enhancement of cytotoxic activity of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in human breast cancer cells. Decreased enhancement of TRAIL activity was observed for LS-BSP when compared with BSP. LS-BSP formed complexes with plasmid DNA and mediated transfection activity comparable to DOTAP and L-BSP. Our results show that BSP-based vectors are promising candidates for combination drug/gene delivery. PMID:22545813

  20. Targeted Delivery of GDNF through the Blood–Brain Barrier by MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lin; Liu, Li; Cai, Youli; Zheng, Hairong; Liu, Xin; Yan, Fei; Zou, Chao; Sun, Chengyu; Shi, Jie; Lu, Shukun; Chen, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors, such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), are promising therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. However, the application of GDNF to treat these diseases effectively is limited because the blood–brain barrier (BBB) prevents the local delivery of macromolecular therapeutic agents from entering the central nervous system (CNS). Focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles (MBs) using appropriate parameters has been previously demonstrated to be able to open the BBB locally and noninvasively. This study investigated the targeted delivery of GDNF MBs through the BBB by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound. Evans Blue extravasation and histological examination were used to determine the optimum focused ultrasound parameters. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to verify the effects of GDNF bound on MBs using a biotin–avidin bridging chemistry method to promote GDNF delivery into the brain. The results showed that GDNF can be delivered locally and noninvasively into the CNS through the BBB using MRI-guided focused ultrasound combined with MBs under optimum parameters. MBs that bind GDNF combined with MRI-guided focused ultrasound may be an effective way of delivering neurotrophic factors directly into the CNS. The method described herein provides a potential means of treating patients with CNS diseases. PMID:23300823

  1. Anti-HIV Double Variable Domain Immunoglobulins Binding Both gp41 and gp120 for Targeted Delivery of

    E-print Network

    Summa, Christopher M.

    Anti-HIV Double Variable Domain Immunoglobulins Binding Both gp41 and gp120 for Targeted Delivery States of America Abstract Background: Anti-HIV immunoconjugates targeted to the HIV envelope protein may be used to eradicate the latent reservoir of HIV infection using activate-and-purge protocols. Previous

  2. Targeted polymersome delivery of siRNA induces cell death of breast cancer cells dependent upon Orai3 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Pangburn, Todd O; Georgiou, Katerina; Bates, Frank S; Kokkoli, Efrosini

    2012-09-01

    Polymersomes, polymeric vesicles that self-assemble in aqueous solutions from block copolymers, have been avidly investigated in recent years as potential drug delivery agents. Past work has highlighted peptide-functionalized polymersomes as a highly promising targeted delivery system. However, few reports have investigated the ability of polymersomes to operate as gene delivery agents. In this study, we report on the encapsulation and delivery of siRNA inside of peptide-functionalized polymersomes composed of poly(1,2-butadiene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide). In particular, PR_b peptide-functionalized polymer vesicles are shown to be a promising system for siRNA delivery. PR_b is a fibronectin mimetic peptide targeting specifically the ?(5)?(1) integrin. The Orai3 gene was targeted for siRNA knockdown, and PR_b-functionalized polymer vesicles encapsulating siRNA were found to specifically decrease cell viability of T47D breast cancer cells to a certain extent, while preserving viability of noncancerous MCF10A breast cells. siRNA delivery by PR_b-functionalized polymer vesicles was compared to that of a current commercial siRNA transfection agent, and produced less dramatic decreases in cancer cell viability, but compared favorably in regards to the relative toxicity of the delivery systems. Finally, delivery and vesicle release of a fluorescent encapsulate by PR_b-functionalized polymer vesicles was visualized by confocal microscopy, and colocalization with cellular endosomes and lysosomes was assessed by organelle staining. Polymersomes were observed to primarily release their encapsulate in the early endosomal intracellular compartments, and data may suggest some escape to the cytosol. These results represent a promising first generation model system for targeted delivery of siRNA. PMID:22827285

  3. Pyroelectric Adaptive Nanodispenser (PYRANA) microrobot for liquid delivery on a target.

    PubMed

    Vespini, Veronica; Coppola, Sara; Grilli, Simonetta; Paturzo, Melania; Ferraro, Pietro

    2011-09-21

    Manipulation of micro-sized objects in lab-on-a-chip and microfluidic environments is essential for different experiments and procedures ranging from chemical to biological applications and for experimental biotechnologies. For example polymeric particles, useful as targets for encapsulating or for being covered by drug vaccines, can be manipulated and controlled with the aim of releasing them to specific sites. Here we show a novel ElectroHydroDynamic tool able to control and manipulate dielectric micro-targets by a touch-less approach. This approach allows one to manipulate liquids and nano-particles simultaneously for specific delivery applications (i.e. decoration and coating). Thus a sort of EHD micro-robot is proposed. This flexible tool provides a new and powerful way to operate various tasks as demonstrated by the experiments reported here. PMID:21811716

  4. Improved and targeted delivery of bioactive molecules to cells with magnetic layer-by-layer assembled microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, Anton M.; Gabriel, Samantha A.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.; Gould, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Despite our increasing knowledge of cell biology and the recognition of an increasing repertoire of druggable intracellular therapeutic targets, there remain a limited number of approaches to deliver bioactive molecules to cells and even fewer that enable targeted delivery. Layer-by-layer (LbL) microcapsules are assembled using alternate layers of oppositely charged molecules and are potential cell delivery vehicles for applications in nanomedicine. There are a wide variety of charged molecules that can be included in the microcapsule structure including metal nanoparticles that introduce physical attributes. Delivery of bioactive molecules to cells with LbL microcapsules has recently been demonstrated, so in this study we explore the delivery of bioactive molecules (luciferase enzyme and plasmid DNA) to cells using biodegradable microcapsules containing a layer of magnetite nanoparticles. Interestingly, significantly improved intracellular luciferase enzyme activity (25 fold) and increased transfection efficiency with plasmid DNA (3.4 fold) was observed with magnetic microcapsules. The use of a neodymium magnet enabled efficient targeting of magnetic microcapsules which further improved the delivery efficiency of the cargoes as a consequence of increased microcapsule concentration at the magnetic site. Microcapsules were well tolerated by cells in these experiments and only displayed signs of toxicity at a capsule : cell ratio of 100 : 1 and with extended exposure. These studies illustrate how multi-functionalization of LbL microcapsules can improve and target delivery of bioactive molecules to cells.

  5. Cisplatin-alginate conjugate liposomes for targeted delivery to EGFR-positive ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunfei; Zhou, Jinhua; Qiu, Lihua; Wang, Xinran; Chen, Lilan; Liu, Ting; Di, Wen

    2014-05-01

    Systemic side effects and low aqueous solubility have limited the clinical use of cisplatin (CDDP) in ovarian carcinoma and have contributed to failures in developing effective drug delivery systems. In order to develop a novel drug delivery system with enhanced efficacy and minimal adverse effects, we exploited the properties of sodium alginate (SA) to synthesize CDDP-SA conjugate (CS), which is highly soluble and readily incorporated into liposomes (CS-PEG-Lip). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in many ovarian cancers, therefore we modified EGF on the liposomes (CS-EGF-Lip) to specifically target EGFR-expressing tumors, thereby increasing the bioavailability and efficacy of CDDP. In vitro experiments confirmed that EGF-Lip selectively recognized EGFR-positive SKOV3 cells and effectively penetrated tumor spheroids. We demonstrated that CS-EGF-Lip possessed satisfactory size distribution and exhibited significantly improved encapsulation and loading efficiency. Furthermore, CS-EGF-Lip sustained release of CDDP in vitro, suggesting that CS-EGF-Lip may retain the antitumor activity of CDDP. Inhibition of proliferation and migration was also greater with CS-EGF-Lip compared to CDDP. In vivo xenograft experiments revealed that administration of CS-EGF-Lip enhanced delivery of CDDP into ovarian tumor tissues and improved the antitumor efficacy of CDDP, while reducing nephrotoxicity and body weight loss in mice. These results suggest that CS-EGF-Lip may offer a promising strategy for CDDP delivery in the treatment of EGFR-positive ovarian carcinoma or similar tumors, with enhanced efficacy and fewer adverse effects. PMID:24565522

  6. Mammaglobin as a potential molecular target for breast cancer drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lian; Li, Ly; Wang, Qian; Fleming, Timothy P; You, Shaojin

    2009-01-01

    Background Mammaglobin (MAM) has been used as a specific molecular marker for breast cancer diagnosis. Recently, several groups of researchers proposed a number of therapeutic strategies targeting this molecule. Some of the strategies are based upon an essential but not demonstrated hypothesis – mammaglobin is associated with the surface of breast cancer cells, which strongly disputes the therapeutic strategies. Results We conducted a computer-based predictive analysis and identified a small fragment at the N-end of MAM as a potential transmembrane domain. We provided several evidences to demonstrate the presence of the membrane-associated MAM. We isolated the membrane protein components from known MAM positive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB361 and MDA-MB415). We showed that about 22–64% of MAM proteins, depending upon the types of the cancer cells, directly attached on the membrane of breast cancer cells, by Western blotting assays. To directly visualize the presence of the membrane-bound MAM protein, we incubated the MAM positive cancer cells with FITC labeled anti-MAM antibody, and observed clear fluorescent signals on the surface of the cells. In studying the MAM protein distribution in human breast cancer tissues, we first identified two immunostain patterns that are associated with the membrane-bound MAM: the membrane stain pattern and luminary surface stain pattern. To test whether the membrane-associated MAM can serve as a molecular target for drug delivery, we conjugated anti-MAM antibody to human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and loaded doxorubicin (Dox) in the core of LDL. Specific binding and cytotoxicity of the MAM targeted and Dox loaded LDL was tested in the MAM positive breast cancer cells in vitro. Conclusion We first showed that some of MAM protein directly associated with the surface of breast cancer cells. The membrane-associated MAM protein may be utilized as a useful molecular marker for breast cancer targeted drug delivery. PMID:19309500

  7. MRI-Visible Micellar Nanomedicine for Targeted Drug Delivery to Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guthi, Jagadeesh Setti; Yang, Su-Geun; Huang, Gang; Li, Shunzi; Khemtong, Chalermchai; Kessinger, Chase W.; Peyton, Michael; Minna, John D.; Brown, Kathlynn C.; Gao, Jinming

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric micelles are emerging as a highly integrated nanoplatform for cancer targeting, drug delivery and tumor imaging applications. In this study, we describe a multifunctional micelle (MFM) system that is encoded with a lung cancer-targeting peptide (LCP), and encapsulated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and doxorubicin (Doxo) for MR imaging and therapeutic delivery, respectively. The LCP-encoded MFM showed significantly increased ?v?6-dependent cell targeting in H2009 lung cancer cells over a scrambled peptide (SP)-encoded MFM control as well as in an ?v?6-negative H460 cell control. 3H-Labeled MFM nanoparticles were used to quantify the time- and dose-dependent cell uptake of MFM nanoparticles with different peptide encoding (LCP vs SP) and surface densities (20% and 40%) in H2009 cells. LCP functionalization of the micelle surface increased uptake of the MFM by more than 3-fold compared to the SP control. These results were confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, which further demonstrated the successful Doxo release from MFM and accumulation in the nucleus. SPIO clustering inside the micelle core resulted in high T2 relaxivity (>400 Fe mM?1 s?1) of the resulting MFM nanoparticles. T2-weighted MRI images showed clear contrast differences between H2009 cells incubated with LCP-encoded MFM over the SP-encoded MFM control. An ATP activity assay showed increased cytotoxicity of LCP-encoded MFM over SP-encoded MFM in H2009 cells (IC50 values were 28.3 ± 6.4 nM and 73.6 ± 6.3 nM, respectively; p < 0.005). The integrated diagnostic and therapeutic design of MFM nanomedicine potentially allows for image-guided, target-specific treatment of lung cancer. PMID:19708690

  8. Nanotechnology in the targeted drug delivery for bone diseases and bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wenyi; Wu, Chengtie; Chen, Jiezhong; Xiao, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a vigorous research area and one of its important applications is in biomedical sciences. Among biomedical applications, targeted drug delivery is one of the most extensively studied subjects. Nanostructured particles and scaffolds have been widely studied for increasing treatment efficacy and specificity of present treatment approaches. Similarly, this technique has been used for treating bone diseases including bone regeneration. In this review, we have summarized and highlighted the recent advancement of nanostructured particles and scaffolds for the treatment of cancer bone metastasis, osteosarcoma, bone infections and inflammatory diseases, osteoarthritis, as well as for bone regeneration. Nanoparticles used to deliver deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid molecules to specific bone sites for gene therapies are also included. The investigation of the implications of nanoparticles in bone diseases have just begun, and has already shown some promising potential. Further studies have to be conducted, aimed specifically at assessing targeted delivery and bioactive scaffolds to further improve their efficacy before they can be used clinically. PMID:23836972

  9. Systematic Studies of Phase Transitions in Thermo-Responsive Polymers Used in Targeted Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Janae; Denmark, Daniel; Witanachchi, Sarath

    2015-03-01

    Thermo-responsive polymers such as poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) can undergo reversible phase transitions in aqueous solutions under varying temperatures. They are ideal candidates for the polymer shell of a targeted drug delivery capsule. Concentration and pH can affect the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the PNIPAM polymer and its physical properties. In this work, a systematic study of the factors that influence the LCST of the PNIPAM polymer mixed with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) during thermal bath heating is presented. A series of PNIPAM solutions with varying concentrations of PNIPAM with MNPs were prepared and characterized using scanning electron microscopy. In-situ transmission measurements were used to determine the LCST of PNIPAM concentrations. A systematic decrease in the LCST was observed as the concentration of PNIPAM was increased. In addition, the impact of pH on the LCST of PNIPAM was examined by increasing the basicity of the PNIPAM solutions by adding adjusted KOH pellets. An increase in the thermal stability of the LCST was observed when the basicity of the PNIPAM solution was increased. The results from this study provide valuable information towards using these thermo-responsive polymers in targeted drug delivery. Principal Investigator

  10. Maximizing gene delivery efficiencies of cationic helical polypeptides via balanced membrane penetration and cellular targeting

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Nan; Yin, Lichen; Song, Ziyuan; Ma, Liang; Tang, Haoyu; Gabrielson, Nathan P.; Lu, Hua; Cheng, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    The application of non-viral gene delivery vectors is often accompanied with the poor correlation between transfection efficiency and the safety profiles of vectors: vectors with high transfection efficiencies often suffer from high toxicities, making it unlikely to improve their efficiencies by increasing the DNA dosage. In the current study, we developed a ternary complex system which consisted of a highly membrane-active cationic helical polypeptide (PVBLG-8), a low-toxic, membrane-inactive cationic helical polypeptide (PVBLG-7) capable of mediating mannose receptor targeting, and DNA. The PVBLG-7 moiety notably enhanced the cellular uptake and transfection efficiency of PVBLG-8 in a variety of mannose receptor-expressing cell types (HeLa, COS-7, and Raw 264.7), while it did not compromise the membrane permeability of PVBLG-8 or bring additional cytotoxicities. Because of the simplicity and adjustability of the self-assembly approach, optimal formulations of the ternary complexes with a proper balance between membrane activity and targeting capability were easily identified in each specific cell type. The optimal ternary complexes displayed desired cell tolerability and markedly outperformed the PVBLG-8/DNA binary complexes as well as commercial reagent Lipofectamine™ 2000 in terms of transfection efficiency. This study therefore provides an effective and facile strategy to overcome the efficiency-toxicity poor correlation of non-viral vectors, which contributes insights into the design strategy of effective and safe non-viral gene delivery vectors. PMID:24211080

  11. Targeted delivery of antiprotease to the epithelial surface of human tracheal xenografts.

    PubMed

    Ferkol, Thomas; Cohn, Leah A; Phillips, Thomas E; Smith, Arnold; Davis, Pamela B

    2003-05-15

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is uniquely susceptible to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and infection with this organism incites an intense, compartmentalized inflammatory response that leads to chronic airway obstruction and bronchiectasis. Neutrophils migrate into the airway, and released neutrophil elastase contributes to the progression of the lung disease characteristic of CF. We have developed a strategy that permits the delivery of antiproteases to the inaccessible CF airways by targeting the respiratory epithelium via the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (hpIgR). A fusion protein consisting of a single-chain Fv directed against secretory component, the extracellular portion of the pIgR, linked to human alpha1-antitrypsin is effectively ferried across human tracheal xenografts and delivers the antiprotease to the apical surface to a much greater extent than occurs by passive diffusion of human alpha1-antitrypsin alone. Targeted antiprotease delivery paralleled hpIgR expression in the respiratory epithelium in vivo and was not increased by escalating dose, so airway penetration was receptor-dependent, not dose-dependent. Thus, this approach provides us with the ability to deliver therapeutics, like antiproteases, specifically to the lumenal surface of the respiratory epithelium, within the airway surface fluid, where it will be in highest concentration at this site. PMID:12615618

  12. Solute carrier transporters as targets for drug delivery and pharmacological intervention for chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2011-09-01

    Many solute carrier transporters that interact with anticancer agents and contribute to their pharmacokinetics have been shown to be differentially upregulated in cancer cells as a result of adaptive response to altered nutritional requirements. This review focuses on pathophysiological function of membrane transporters responsible for the influx of physiological substances including oligopeptides, amino acids, and organic cations and anions, and summarizes the recent knowledge regarding mechanisms in their gene expressions. Broad substrate specificity of enhanced oligopeptide H(+) /peptide cotransporter 1 activity in cancer cells is useful for tumor tissue-specific delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and positron emission tomography diagnostic probes. Amino acid transporters such as LAT1 and ASCT2 are upregulated in human cancer cells and are thought to stimulate tumor growth by regulating mammalian target of rapamycin through nutrient pathway. Especially, LAT1 could be a molecular target to deprive cancer cells of amino acids in combination with aminopeptidase inhibitors. As organic anion transporting polypeptides carry estrone-3-sulfate that is intracellularly hydrolyzed to estrone, their overexpression may provide a pharmacological merit to treat hormone-responsive breast tumors. Therefore, it is important to understand the pathophysiological significance and gene expression in cancer to develop new rationales for drug delivery and pharmacological interventions for chemotherapy. PMID:21630275

  13. Targeted Delivery of PSC-RANTES for HIV-1 Prevention using Biodegradable Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Anthony S.; Cost, Marilyn R.; Sassi, Alexandra B.; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Nanoparticles formulated from the biodegradable co-polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), were investigated as a drug delivery system to enhance tissue uptake, permeation, and targeting for PSC-RANTES anti-HIV-1 activity. Materials and Methods PSC-RANTES nanoparticles formulated via a double emulsion process and characterized in both in vitro and ex vivo systems to determine PSC-RANTES release rate, nanoparticle tissue permeation, and anti-HIV bioactivity. Results Spherical, monodisperse (PDI = 0.098 ± 0.054) PSC-RANTES nanoparticles (d = 256.58 ± 19.57 nm) with an encapsulation efficiency of 82.23 ± 8.35% were manufactured. In vitro release studies demonstrated a controlled release profile of PSC-RANTES (71.48 ± 5.25% release). PSC-RANTES nanoparticle maintained comparable anti-HIV activity with unformulated PSC-RANTES in a HeLa cell-based system with an IC50 of approximately 1pM. In an ex vivo cervical tissue model, PSC-RANTES nanoparticles displayed a fivefold increase in tissue uptake, enhanced tissue permeation, and significant localization at the basal layers of the epithelium over unformulated PSC-RANTES. Conclusions These results indicate that PSC-RANTES can readily be encapsulated into a PLGA nanoparticle drug delivery system, retain its anti-HIV-1 activity, and deliver PSC-RANTES to the target tissue. This is crucial for the success of this drug candidate as a topical microbicide product. PMID:19002569

  14. Self-assembly of morphology-tunable architectures from tetraarylmethane derivatives for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinhua; Jeong, Young-Il; Moon, Byeong Kyu; Zhang, Lidong; Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Il

    2013-03-12

    Tetraarylmethane compounds consisting of two pyrogallol and two aniline units, namely, Ar2CAr'2 {Ar = 3,4,5-C6H2(OH)3 and Ar' = 3,5-R2-4-C6H2NH2 [R = Me (1), iPr (2)]} exhibit excellent self-assembly behavior. Compound 1 yields size-tunable hollow nanospheres (HNSs) with a narrow size distribution, and 2 yields various morphologies ranging from microtubules to microrods via self-assembly induced by hydrogen bonding and ?-? stacking interactions. On the basis of the experimental results, a plausible mechanism for morphology tunability was proposed. As a means of utilizing the self-assembled HNSs for targeting controlled drug delivery, folic acid (FA) and rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) were grafted onto compound 1 to yield the FA-Rh6G-1 complex. The HNSs fabricated with FA-Rh6G-1 showed low cytotoxicity against human embryonic kidney 293T cells and CT26 colon carcinoma cells and good doxorubicin (DOX) loading capacity (9.6 wt %). The FA receptor-mediated endocytosis of FA-Rh6G-1 HNSs examined by using a confocal laser scanning microscope and a flow cytometer revealed that the uptake of FA-Rh6G-1 HNSs into CT26 cells was induced by FA receptor-mediated endocytosis. In vitro drug delivery tests showed that the DOX molecules were released from the resulting HNSs in a sustainable and pH-dependent manner, demonstrating a potential application for HNSs in targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy. PMID:23425332

  15. Novel therapeutic approaches for pulmonary arterial hypertension: Unique molecular targets to site-specific drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar; Gupta, Vivek

    2015-08-10

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a cardiopulmonary disorder characterized by increased blood pressure in the small arterioles supplying blood to lungs for oxygenation. Advances in understanding of molecular and cellular biology techniques have led to the findings that PAH is indeed a cascade of diseases exploiting multi-faceted complex pathophysiology, with cellular proliferation and vascular remodeling being the key pathogenic events along with several cellular pathways involved. While current therapies for PAH do provide for amelioration of disease symptoms and acute survival benefits, their full therapeutic potential is hindered by patient incompliance and off-target side effects. To overcome the issues related with current therapy and to devise a more selective therapy, various novel pathways are being investigated for PAH treatment. In addition, inability to deliver anti-PAH drugs to the disease site i.e., distal pulmonary arterioles has been one of the major challenges in achieving improved patient outcomes and improved therapeutic efficacy. Several novel carriers have been explored to increase the selectivity of currently approved anti-PAH drugs and to act as suitable carriers for the delivery of investigational drugs. In the present review, we have discussed potential of various novel molecular pathways/targets including RhoA/Rho kinase, tyrosine kinase, endothelial progenitor cells, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and miRNA in PAH therapeutics. We have also discussed various techniques for site-specific drug delivery of anti-PAH therapeutics so as to improve the efficacy of approved and investigational drugs. This review will provide gainful insights into current advances in PAH therapeutics with an emphasis on site-specific drug payload delivery. PMID:26036906

  16. A novel folate-modified self-microemulsifying drug delivery system of curcumin for colon targeting

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Weiwei; Yang, Chunfen; Guo, Hongxia; Yu, Aihua; Ji, Jianbo; Gao, Yan; Sun, Min; Zhai, Guangxi

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to prepare, characterize, and evaluate a folate-modified self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (FSMEDDS) with the aim to improve the solubility of curcumin and its delivery to the colon, facilitating endocytosis of FSMEDDS mediated by folate receptors on colon cancer cells. Methods Ternary phase diagrams were constructed in order to obtain the most efficient self-emulsification region, and the formulation of curcumin-loaded SMEDDS was optimized by a simplex lattice experiment design. Then, three lipophilic folate derivatives (folate-polyethylene glycol-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine, folate-polyethylene glycol-cholesteryl hemisuccinate, and folate-polyethylene glycol-cholesterol) used as a surfactant were added to curcumin-loaded SMEDDS formulations. An in situ colon perfusion method in rats was used to optimize the formulation of FSMEDDS. Curcumin-loaded FSMEDDS was then filled into colon-targeted capsules and the in vitro release was investigated. Cytotoxicity studies and cellular uptake studies was used in this research. Results The optimal formulation of FSMEDDS obtained with the established in situ colon perfusion method in rats was comprised of 57.5% Cremophor® EL, 32.5% Transcutol® HP, 10% Capryol™ 90, and a small amount of folate-polyethylene glycol-cholesteryl hemisuccinate (the weight ratio of folate materials to Cremophor EL was 1:100). The in vitro release results indicated that the obtained formulation of curcumin could reach the colon efficiently and release the drug immediately. Cellular uptake studies analyzed with fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry indicated that the FSMEDDS formulation could efficiently bind with the folate receptors on the surface of positive folate receptors cell lines. In addition, FSMEDDS showed greater cytotoxicity than SMEDDS in the above two cells. Conclusion FSMEDDS-filled colon-targeted capsules are a potential carrier for colon delivery of curcumin. PMID:22275831

  17. Targeting the neonatal Fc receptor for antigen delivery using engineered Fc fragments1

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Wentao; Wanjie, Sylvia; Lo, Su-Tang; Gan, Zhuo; Pickl-Herk, Beatrix; Ober, Raimund J.; Ward, E. Sally

    2009-01-01

    The development of approaches for antigen delivery to the appropriate subcellular compartments of APCs and the optimization of antigen persistence are both of central relevance for the induction of protective immunity or tolerance. The expression of the Fc receptor, FcRn, in APCs and its localization to the endosomal system suggest that it might serve as a target for antigen delivery using engineered Fc fragment-epitope fusions. The impact of FcRn binding characteristics of an Fc fragment on in vivo persistence allows this property to also be modulated. We have therefore generated recombinant Fc (mouse IgG1-derived) fusions containing the N-terminal epitope of myelin basic protein that is associated with EAE in H-2u mice. The Fc fragments have distinct binding properties for FcRn that result in differences in intracellular trafficking and in vivo half-lives, allowing the impact of these characteristics on CD4+ T cell responses to be evaluated. To dissect the relative roles of FcRn and the ‘classical’ Fc?Rs in antigen delivery, analogous aglycosylated Fc-MBP fusions have been generated. We show that engineered Fc fragments with increased affinities for FcRn at pH 6.0–7.4 are more effective in delivering antigen to FcRn-expressing APCs in vitro relative to their lower affinity counterparts. However, higher affinity of the FcRn-Fc interaction at near neutral pH results in decreased in vivo persistence. The trade-off between improved FcRn targeting efficiency and lower half-life becomes apparent during analyses of T cell proliferative responses in mice, particularly when Fc-MBP fusions with both FcRn and Fc?R binding activity are used. PMID:19017944

  18. Galactosylated chitosan-g-PEI/DNA complexes-loaded poly(organophosphazene) hydrogel as a hepatocyte targeting gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hu-Lin; Kim, You-Kyoung; Lee, Sun-Mi; Park, Mi-Ran; Kim, Eun-Mi; Jin, Yong-Mei; Arote, Rohidas; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Song, Soo-Chang; Cho, Myung-Haing; Cho, Chong-Su

    2010-04-01

    Hydrogels are widely used in drug delivery systems because they can control the release and thereby enhance the efficiency of locally delivered bioactive molecules such as therapeutic drugs, proteins, or genes. For gene delivery, localized release of plasmid DNA or polymer/DNA complexes can transfect cells and produce sustained protein production. We tested the galactosylated chitosan-graft-polyethylenimine (GC-g-PEI)/DNA complexes-loaded poly(organophosphazene) thermosensitive biodegradable hydrogel as a hepatocyte targeting gene delivery system. The poly(organophosphazene) hydrogel loaded with GC-g-PEI/DNA complexes showed low cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency than PEI/DNA complexes, as well as good hepatocyte specificity in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that poly(organophosphazene) hydrogels loaded with GC-g-PEI/DNA complexes may be a safe and efficient hepatocyte targeting gene delivery system. PMID:20422364

  19. The pH-sensitive polyampholyte nanogels: inclusion of carbon nanotubes for improved drug loading.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Rajavelu Murali; Seeni Meera, Kamal Mohamed; Samanta, Debasis; Jithendra, Panneerselvam; Mandal, Asit Baran; Jaisankar, Sellamuthu N

    2013-12-01

    We report a simple and facile method to prepare a novel pH sensitive polyampholyte nanogel by copolymerizing vinylimidazole (VIM) with acrylic acid (AA) using functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWCNTs) (as reinforcing material) and cyanuric chloride via an intermolecular quaternization reaction. The polyampholyte nanogels have been characterized by various microscopic and spectroscopic methods. These studies reveal that incorporation of nanotubes in cross-linked copolymer of poly(vinylimidazole-co-acrylic acid) (PVI-co-AA) form polyampholyte nanogel with enhanced physical properties. The thermal experiments show that the introduction of f-SWCNTs into PVI-co-AA has significant impact on the thermal stability of nanogels. The rheological study showed that the nanogel is more viscoelastic than native gel. MTT assay indicates that the prepared polyampholyte gels possess biocompatibility and cell viability. The nanogel is also useful material to load water-soluble drug such as promethazine hydrochloride. The releasing profile of the drug from the nanogel clearly shows the pH-sensitive property of the material. PMID:23974001

  20. PR_b-targeted delivery of tumor necrosis factor-? by polymersomes for the treatment of prostate cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Döne Demirgöz; Todd O. Pangburn; Kevin P. Davis; Sangwoo Lee; Frank S. Bates; Efrosini Kokkoli

    2009-01-01

    Targeted delivery of therapeutics is an active area of research with cancer being an important target because of the necessity for new and better cancer therapies. In this study we design and assess peptide functionalized polymer vesicles, or polymersomes, self assembled from poly(ethylene oxide)-b- poly(butadiene) (PEO-PBD) diblock copolymers for the treatment of prostate cancer. PR_b, a highly effective a5b1 targeting

  1. The Targeted Delivery of Multicomponent Cargos to Cancer Cells via Nanoporous Particle-Supported Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Carlee E.; Carnes, Eric C.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Padilla, David; Durfee, Paul N.; Brown, Page A.; Hanna, Tracey N.; Liu, Juewen; Phillips, Brandy; Carter, Mark B.; Carroll, Nick J.; Jiang, Xingmao; Dunphy, Darren R.; Willman, Cheryl L.; Petsev, Dimiter N.; Evans, Deborah G.; Parikh, Atul N.; Chackerian, Bryce; Wharton, Walker; Peabody, David S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Encapsulation of drugs within nanocarriers that selectively target malignant cells promises to mitigate side effects of conventional chemotherapy and to enable delivery of the unique drug combinations needed for personalized medicine. To realize this potential, however, targeted nanocarriers must simultaneously overcome multiple challenges, including specificity, stability, and a high capacity for disparate cargos. Here we report porous nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers (protocells) that synergistically combine properties of liposomes and nanoporous particles. Protocells modified with a targeting peptide that binds to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit a 10,000-fold greater affinity for HCC than for hepatocytes, endothelial cells, and immune cells. Furthermore, protocells can be loaded with combinations of therapeutic (drugs, siRNA, and toxins) and diagnostic (quantum dots) agents and modified to promote endosomal escape and nuclear accumulation of selected cargos. The enormous capacity of the high-surface-area nanoporous core combined with the enhanced targeting efficacy enabled by the fluid supported lipid bilayer allow a single protocell loaded with a drug cocktail to kill a drug-resistant HCC cell, representing a 106-fold improvement over comparable liposomes. PMID:21499315

  2. Design, synthesis and bioevaluation of an EphA2 receptor-based targeted delivery system.

    PubMed

    Barile, Elisa; Wang, Si; Das, Swadesh K; Noberini, Roberta; Dahl, Russell; Stebbins, John L; Pasquale, Elena B; Fisher, Paul B; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2014-07-01

    Because of its overexpression in a range of solid tumors, the EphA2 receptor is a validated target for cancer therapeutics. We recently described a new targeted delivery system based on specific EphA2-targeting peptides conjugated with the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel. Here, we investigate the chemical determinants responsible for the stability and degradation of these agents in plasma. Introducing modifications in both the peptide and the linker between the peptide and paclitaxel resulted in drug conjugates that are both long-lived in rat plasma and that markedly decrease tumor size in a prostate cancer xenograft model compared with paclitaxel alone treatment. These studies identify critical rate-limiting degradation sites on the peptide-drug conjugates, enabling the design of agents with increased stability and efficacy. These results provide support for our central hypothesis that peptide-drug conjugates targeting EphA2 represent an innovative and potentially effective strategy to selectively deliver cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. PMID:24677792

  3. Targeted drug delivery to lymphocytes: a route to site-specific immunomodulation?

    PubMed

    Trevaskis, Natalie L; Charman, William N; Porter, Christopher J H

    2010-12-01

    Lymphocytes are central to the progression of autoimmune disease, transplant rejection, leukemia, lymphoma and lymphocyte-resident viral diseases such as HIV/AIDs. Strategies to target drug treatments to lymphocytes, therefore, represent an opportunity to enhance therapeutic outcomes in disease states where many current treatment regimes are incompletely effective and promote significant toxicities. Here we demonstrate that highly lipophilic drug candidates that preferentially access the intestinal lymphatics after oral administration show significantly enhanced access to lymphocytes leading to improved immunomodulatory activity. When coadministered with such drugs, lipids enhance lymphocyte targeting via a three tiered action: promotion of drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, enhancement of lymphatic drug transport and stimulation of lymphocyte recruitment into the lymphatics. This strategy has been exemplified using a highly lipophilic immunosuppressant (JWH015) where coadministration with selected lipids led to significant increases in lymphatic transport, lymphocyte targeting and IL-4 and IL-10 expression in CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes after ex vivo mitogen stimulation. In contrast, administration of a 2.5-fold higher dose of JWH015 in a formulation that did not stimulate lymph transport had no effect on antiinflammatory cytokine levels, in spite of equivalent drug exposure in the blood. The current data suggest that complementary drug design and delivery strategies that combine highly lipophilic, lymphotropic drug candidates with lymph-directing formulations provide enhanced selectivity, potency and therapeutic potential for drug candidates with lymphocyte associated targets. PMID:20958081

  4. Preparation of Quantum Dot/Drug Nanoparticle Formulations for Traceable Targeted Delivery and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Ken-Tye; Wang, Yucheng; Roy, Indrajit; Rui, Hu; Swihart, Mark T.; Law, Wing-Cheung; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Ye, Ling; Liu, Jianwei; Mahajan, Supriya D.; Reynolds, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are luminescent nanocrystals with rich surface chemistry and unique optical properties that make them useful as probes or carriers for traceable targeted delivery and therapy applications. QDs can be functionalized to target specific cells or tissues by conjugating them with targeting ligands. Recent advancement in making biocompatible QD formulations has made these nanocrystals suitable for in vivo applications. This review provides an overview of the preparation of QDs and their use as probes or carriers for traceable, targeted therapy of diseases in vitro and in vivo. More specifically, recent advances in the integration of QDs with drug formulations for therapy and their potential toxicity in vitro and in vivo are highlighted. The current findings and challenges for optimizing QD/drug formulations with respect to optimal size and stability, short-term and long-term toxicity, and in vivo applications are described. Lastly, we attempt to predict key trends in QD/drug formulation development over the next few years and highlight areas of therapy where their use may provide breakthrough results in the near future. PMID:22896770

  5. Targeted Drug Delivery with Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening Using Acoustically-Activated Nanodroplets

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cherry C.; Sheeran, Paul S.; Wu, Shih-Ying; Olumolade, Oluyemi O.; Dayton, Paul A.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2013-01-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of systemically administered microbubbles has been shown to locally, transiently and reversibly increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), thus allowing targeted delivery of therapeutic agents in the brain for the treatment of central nervous system diseases. Currently, microbubbles are the only agents that have been used to facilitate the FUS-induced BBB opening. However, they are constrained within the intravascular space due to their micron-size diameters, limiting the delivery effect at or near the microvessels. In the present study, acoustically-activated nanodroplets were used as a new class of contrast agents to mediate FUS-induced BBB opening in order to study the feasibility of utilizing these nanoscale phase-shift particles for targeted drug delivery in the brain. Significant dextran delivery was achieved in the mouse hippocampus using nanodroplets at clinically relevant pressures. Passive cavitation detection was used in the attempt to establish a correlation between the amount of dextran delivered in the brain and the acoustic emission recorded during sonication. Conventional microbubbles with the same lipid shell composition and perfluorobutane core as the nanodroplets were also used to compare the efficiency of FUS-induced dextran delivery. It was found that nanodroplets had a higher BBB opening pressure threshold but a lower stable cavitation threshold than microbubbles, suggesting that contrast agent-dependent acoustic emission monitoring was needed. More homogeneous dextran delivery within the targeted hippocampus was achieved using nanodroplets without inducing inertial cavitation or compromising safety. Our results offered a new means of developing the FUS-induced BBB opening technology for potential extravascular targeted drug delivery in the brain, extending the potential drug delivery region beyond the cerebral vasculature. PMID:24096019

  6. Effective gene transfer to solid tumors using different nonviral gene delivery techniques: Electroporation, liposomes, and integrin-targeted vector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maja Cemazar; Gregor Sersa; John Wilson; Gillian M Tozer; Stephen L Hart; Alenka Grosel; Gabi U Dachs

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we measured transfection efficiency in vitro and in vivo using the following nonviral approaches of gene delivery: injection of plasmid DNA, electroporation-assisted, liposome-enhanced, and integrin-targeted gene delivery, as well as the combination of these methods. Four histologically different tumor models were transfected with a plasmid encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) (B16 mouse melanoma, P22 rat carcinosarcoma,

  7. Fluorescence tomographic imaging of sentinel lymph node using near-infrared emitting bioreducible dextran nanogels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiejing; Jiang, Beiqi; Lin, Chao; Zhuang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is a critical procedure for SLN biopsy and its diagnosis as tumor metastasis in clinical practice. However, SLN mapping agents used in the clinic frequently cause side effects and complications in the patients. Here, we report the development of a near-infrared (NIR) emitting polymeric nanogel with hydrodynamic diameter of ~28 nm – which is the optimal size for SLN uptake – for noninvasive fluorescence mapping of SLN in a mouse. This polymeric nanogel was obtained by coupling Cy7, an NIR dye, to the self-assembled nanogel from disulfide-linked dextran-deoxycholic acid conjugate with the dextran of 10 kDa, denoted as Dex–Cy7. Fluorescence imaging analysis showed that Dex–Cy7 nanogels had an enhanced photostability when compared to Cy7 alone. After intradermal injection of Dex–Cy7 nanogel into the front paw of a mouse, the nanogels were able to migrate into the mouse’s axillary lymph node, exhibiting longer retention time and higher fluorescence intensity in the node when compared to Cy7 alone. An immunohistofluorescence assay revealed that the nanogels were localized in the central region of lymph node and that the uptake was largely by the macrophages. In vitro and in vivo toxicity results indicated that the dextran-based nanogels were of low cytotoxicity at a polymer concentration up to 1,000 ?g/mL and harmless to normal liver and kidney organs in mice at an intravenous dose of 1.25 mg/kg. The results of this study suggest that NIR-emitting polymeric nanogels based on bioreducible dextran-deoxycholic acid conjugates show high potential as fluorescence nanoprobes for safe and noninvasive SLN mapping. PMID:25506217

  8. A comparative study of folate receptor-targeted doxorubicin delivery systems: Dosing regimens and therapeutic index.

    PubMed

    Scomparin, Anna; Salmaso, Stefano; Eldar-Boock, Anat; Ben-Shushan, Dikla; Ferber, Shiran; Tiram, Galia; Shmeeda, Hilary; Landa-Rouben, Natalie; Leor, Jonathan; Caliceti, Paolo; Gabizon, Alberto; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit

    2015-06-28

    Ligand-receptor mediated targeting may affect differently the performance of supramolecular drug carriers depending on the nature of the nanocarrier. In this study, we compare the selectivity, safety and activity of doxorubicin (Dox) entrapped in liposomes versus Dox conjugated to polymeric nanocarriers in the presence or absence of a folic acid (FA)-targeting ligand to cancer cells that overexpress the folate receptor (FR). Two pullulan (Pull)-based conjugates of Dox were synthesized, (FA-PEG)-Pull-(Cyst-Dox) and (NH2-PEG)-Pull-(Cyst-Dox). The other delivery systems are Dox loaded PEGylated liposomes (PLD, Doxil®) and the FR-targeted version (PLD-FA) obtained by ligand post-insertion into the commercial formulation. Both receptor-targeted drug delivery systems (DDS) were shown to interact in vitro specifically with cells via the folate ligand. Treatment of FR-overexpressing human cervical carcinoma KB tumor-bearing mice with three-weekly injections resulted in slightly enhanced anticancer activity of PLD-FA compared to PLD and no activity for both pullulan-based conjugates. When the DDS were administered intravenously every other day, the folated-Pull conjugate and the non-folated-Pull conjugate displayed similar and low antitumor activity as free Dox. At this dosing regimen, the liposome-based formulations displayed enhanced antitumor activity with an advantage to the non-folated liposome. However, both liposomal formulations suffered from toxicity that was reversible following treatment discontinuation. Using a daily dosing schedule, with higher cumulative dose, the folated-Pull conjugate strongly inhibited tumor growth while free Dox was toxic at this regimen. For polymeric constructs, increasing dose intensity and cumulative dose strongly affects the therapeutic index and reveals a major therapeutic advantage for the FR-targeted formulation. All DDS were able to abrogate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This study constitutes the first side-by-side comparison of two receptor-targeted ligand-bearing systems, polymer therapeutics versus nanoparticulate systems, evaluated in the same mouse tumor model at several dosing regimens. PMID:25869964

  9. A folate-integrated magnetic polymer micelle for MRI and dual targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Lijiao; Wang, Bi; Liu, Peng; Huang, Liang; Yue, Caixia; Gao, Duyang; Wu, Chunlei; Su, Wu

    2014-08-01

    This paper devotes a novel micellar structure for cancer theranostics by incorporating magnetic and therapeutic functionalities into a natural sourced targeting polymer vehicle. Heparin-folic acid micelles taking advantage of both excellent loading capability and cancer targeting ability have been employed to simultaneously incorporate superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and doxorubicin through an ultrasonication-assisted microemulsion method. In this system, folic acids not only take the responsibility of micelle construction, but also facilitate cellular uptake due to their specific reorganization by MCF-7 cells over-expressing folate receptors. The obtained micelles exhibit good colloidal stability, a high magnetic content, considerable drug loading and sustained in vitro drug release. These clustered SPIONs exhibited high r2 relaxivity (243.65 mM-1 s-1) and further served as efficient probes for MR imaging. Notably, the transport efficiency of these micelles could be significantly improved under an external magnetic field, owing to their quick magnetic response. As a result, the as-proposed micelle shows great potential in multimodal theranostics, including active targeting, MRI diagnosis and drug delivery.This paper devotes a novel micellar structure for cancer theranostics by incorporating magnetic and therapeutic functionalities into a natural sourced targeting polymer vehicle. Heparin-folic acid micelles taking advantage of both excellent loading capability and cancer targeting ability have been employed to simultaneously incorporate superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and doxorubicin through an ultrasonication-assisted microemulsion method. In this system, folic acids not only take the responsibility of micelle construction, but also facilitate cellular uptake due to their specific reorganization by MCF-7 cells over-expressing folate receptors. The obtained micelles exhibit good colloidal stability, a high magnetic content, considerable drug loading and sustained in vitro drug release. These clustered SPIONs exhibited high r2 relaxivity (243.65 mM-1 s-1) and further served as efficient probes for MR imaging. Notably, the transport efficiency of these micelles could be significantly improved under an external magnetic field, owing to their quick magnetic response. As a result, the as-proposed micelle shows great potential in multimodal theranostics, including active targeting, MRI diagnosis and drug delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02484b

  10. Multifunctional polymer-capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for pH-responsive targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermayer, Stefan; Weiss, Veronika; Herrmann, Annika; Schmidt, Alexandra; Datz, Stefan; Müller, Katharina; Wagner, Ernst; Bein, Thomas; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    A highly stable modular platform, based on the sequential covalent attachment of different functionalities to the surface of core-shell mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for targeted drug delivery is presented. A reversible pH-responsive cap system based on covalently attached poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PVP) was developed as drug release mechanism. Our platform offers (i) tuneable interactions and release kinetics with the cargo drug in the mesopores based on chemically orthogonal core-shell design, (ii) an extremely robust and reversible closure and release mechanism based on endosomal acidification of the covalently attached PVP polymer block, (iii) high colloidal stability due to a covalently coupled PEG shell, and (iv) the ability to covalently attach a wide variety of dyes, targeting ligands and other functionalities at the outer periphery of the PEG shell. The functionality of the system was demonstrated in several cell studies, showing pH-triggered release in the endosome, light-triggered endosomal escape with an on-board photosensitizer, and efficient folic acid-based cell targeting.A highly stable modular platform, based on the sequential covalent attachment of different functionalities to the surface of core-shell mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for targeted drug delivery is presented. A reversible pH-responsive cap system based on covalently attached poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PVP) was developed as drug release mechanism. Our platform offers (i) tuneable interactions and release kinetics with the cargo drug in the mesopores based on chemically orthogonal core-shell design, (ii) an extremely robust and reversible closure and release mechanism based on endosomal acidification of the covalently attached PVP polymer block, (iii) high colloidal stability due to a covalently coupled PEG shell, and (iv) the ability to covalently attach a wide variety of dyes, targeting ligands and other functionalities at the outer periphery of the PEG shell. The functionality of the system was demonstrated in several cell studies, showing pH-triggered release in the endosome, light-triggered endosomal escape with an on-board photosensitizer, and efficient folic acid-based cell targeting. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods used for the preparation of the nanoparticles, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, nitrogen sorption isotherms, IR and Raman spectroscopy, in situ release experiments, UV-VIS spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy and in vivo experiments, Fig. S1-S18 including supplementing text. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07245f

  11. Preparation of irinotecan-loaded folate-targeted liposome for tumor targeting delivery and its antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziqiang; Yao, Jing

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo distribution and antitumor activity of irinotecan (camptothecin (CPT)-11)-loaded folate-targeted liposome (F-Lip) in tumor-bearing mice following i.v. administration. Folate-poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoylphosphatidylcholine (FA-PEG-DSPE) was synthesized by amide reaction of DSPE-PEG-NH(2) and FA. F-Lip modified by FA-PEG-DSPE was prepared by an ammonium sulfate gradient. The mean particle size and entrapment efficiency of F-Lip with negative charge were 197.8 ± 4.58 nm and 91.39 ± 2.34 %, respectively. The distributions of CPT-11 and SN-38 in the tumor after i.v. administration of F-Lip, CPT-11-loaded liposomes (C-Lip), and CPT-11 injection (C-Inj) were far greater with the F-Lip group in comparison to the C-Inj and C-Lip, which might contribute to folate-meditated targeting uptake by the folate receptor on the surface of the tumor cells. The uptake of CPT-11 in the liver and rectum for two liposome groups were all markedly increased as compared to the C-Inj. Moreover, F-Lip exhibited a dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition and superior anticancer activity to C-Lip and C-Inj after i.v. administration. It also showed no significant body weight loss and much lower toxicity on the center immune organs. Therefore, F-Lip may be presented as potential candidates for tumor targeting drug delivery. PMID:22639238

  12. Doxorubicin loaded magnetic gold nanoparticles for in vivo targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Elbialy, Nihal Saad; Fathy, Mohamed Mahmoud; Khalil, Wafaa Mohamed

    2015-07-25

    Treatment of approximately 50% of human cancers includes the use of chemotherapy. The major problem associated with chemotherapy is the inability to deliver pharmaceuticals to specific site of the body without inducing normal tissue toxicity. Latterly, magnetic targeted drug delivery (MTD) has been used to improve the therapeutic performance of the chemotherapeutic agents and reduce the severe side effects associated with the conventional chemotherapy for malignant tumors. In this study, we were focused on designing biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles that can be used as a nanocarrier's candidate for MTD regimen. Magnetic gold nanoparticles (MGNPs) were prepared and functionalized with thiol-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG), then loaded with anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). The physical properties of the prepared NPs were characterized using different techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the spherical mono-dispersed nature of the prepared MGNPs with size about 22nm. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) assured the existence of both iron and gold elements in the prepared nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy assessment revealed that PEG and DOX molecules were successfully loaded on the MGNPs surfaces, and the amine group of DOX is the active attachment site to MGNPs. In vivo studies proved that magnetic targeted drug delivery can provide a higher accumulation of drug throughout tumor compared with that delivered by passive targeting. This clearly appeared in tumor growth inhibition assessment, biodistribution of DOX in different body organs in addition to the histopathological examinations of treated and untreated Ehrlich carcinoma. To assess the in vivo toxic effect of the prepared formulations, several biochemical parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), urea, uric acid and creatinine were measured. MTD technology not only minimizes the random distribution of the chemotherapeutic agents, but also reduces their side effects to healthy tissues, which are the two primary concerns in conventional cancer therapies. PMID:25997662

  13. Aerosol fabrication of thermosensitive nanogels and in situ hybridization with iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2012-07-01

    Collison atomized n-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) droplets were thermally treated with different furnace wall temperatures to form nanogels in an aerosol state. The size of the aerosol nanogels decreased from 40.3 nm to 32.8 nm by increasing the temperature from 40 °C to 90 °C due to the coil-to-globule transition of the NIPAM. A serial reactor consisting of a spark generator coupled to a collison atomizer was further employed to efficiently (>90% in production yield) fabricate biocompatible (78.8% in cell viability)-magnetic (30.3 emu g-1 in saturation magnetization) hybrid nanogels of NIPAM and iron nanoparticles.

  14. Nanogel-quantum dot hybrid nanoparticles for live cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Urara [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10, Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10, Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Nomura, Shin-ichiro M. [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10, Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10, Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Kaul, Sunil C. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Hirano, Takashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Akiyoshi, Kazunari [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10, Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10, Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); E-mail: akiyoshi.org@tmd.ac.jp

    2005-06-17

    We report here a novel carrier of quantum dots (QDs) for intracellular labeling. Monodisperse hybrid nanoparticles (38 nm in diameter) of QDs were prepared by simple mixing with nanogels of cholesterol-bearing pullulan (CHP) modified with amino groups (CHPNH{sub 2}). The CHPNH{sub 2}-QD nanoparticles were effectively internalized into the various human cells examined. The efficiency of cellular uptake was much higher than that of a conventional carrier, cationic liposome. These hybrid nanoparticles could be a promising fluorescent probe for bioimaging.

  15. Folate-modified pluronic-polyethylenimine and cholic acid polyion complex micelles as targeted drug delivery system for paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Li, Yimu; Zhou, Yi; De, Bai; Li, Lingbing

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to construct a type of polyion complex micelles made of PF127-PEI copolymer and cholic acid (CA) and to evaluate the potential of this type of micelles as a targeted drug delivery system for paclitaxel (PTX). To further improve the targeting capability of micelles, folate was also incorporated into micelles. The characteristics and anti-tumour activity in vitro were investigated. Enhanced solubility of PTX was achieved by incorporating into the micelles. The capability of the polyion complex micelles containing rhodamine 123 to increase the level of intracellular delivery was also observed using fluorescence microscopy. The cytotoxicity of PTX-loaded micelles against cancer cell in vitro was remarkably higher than that of free drug and was better when folate was incorporated into the micelles. These properties such as specificity towards the folate receptor and the low toxicity render folate-modified polyion complex micelles promising candidate for targeted PTX delivery. PMID:25090590

  16. Hepatic Stellate Cell–Targeted Delivery of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Transgene via Bile Duct Infusion Enhances Its Expression at Fibrotic Foci to Regress Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Liver Fibrosis

    E-print Network

    Narmada, Balakrishnan Chakrapani

    Liver fibrosis generates fibrotic foci with abundant activated hepatic stellate cells and excessive collagen deposition juxtaposed with healthy regions. Targeted delivery of antifibrotic therapeutics to hepatic stellate ...

  17. Localized increase of tissue oxygen tension by magnetic targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liong, Celine; Ortiz, Daniel; Ao-ieong, Eilleen; Navati, Mahantesh S.; Friedman, Joel M.; Cabrales, Pedro

    2014-07-01

    Hypoxia is the major hindrance to successful radiation therapy of tumors. Attempts to increase the oxygen (O2) tension (PO2) of tissue by delivering more O2 have been clinically disappointing, largely due to the way O2 is transported and released by the hemoglobin (Hb) within the red blood cells (RBCs). Systemic manipulation of O2 transport increases vascular resistance due to metabolic autoregulation of blood flow to prevent over oxygenation. This study investigates a new technology to increase O2 delivery to a target tissue by decreasing the Hb-O2 affinity of the blood circulating within the targeted tissue. As the Hb-O2 affinity decreases, the tissue PO2 to satisfy tissue O2 metabolic needs increases without increasing O2 delivery or extraction. Paramagnetic nanoparticles (PMNPs), synthetized using gadolinium oxide, were coated with the cell permeable Hb allosteric effector L35 (3,5-trichlorophenylureido-phenoxy-methylpropionic acid). L35 decreases Hb affinity for O2 and favors the release of O2. The L35-coated PMNPs (L35-PMNPs) were intravenously infused (10 mg kg-1) to hamsters instrumented with the dorsal window chamber model. A magnetic field of 3 mT was applied to localize the effects of the L35-PMNPs to the window chamber. Systemic O2 transport characteristics and microvascular tissue oxygenation were measured after administration of L35-PMNPs with and without magnetic field. The tissue PO2 in untreated control animals was 25.2 mmHg. L35-PMNPs without magnetic field decreased tissue PO2 to 23.4 mmHg, increased blood pressure, and reduced blood flow, largely due to systemic modification of Hb-O2 affinity. L35-PMNPs with magnetic field increased tissue PO2 to 27.9 mmHg, without systemic or microhemodynamic changes. These results indicate that localized modification of Hb-O2 affinity can increase PO2 of target tissue without affecting systemic O2 delivery or triggering O2 autoregulation mechanisms. This technology can be used to treat local hypoxia and to increase O2 in tumors, enhancing the efficacy of radiation therapies.

  18. Photoactive metal carbonyl complexes as potential agents for targeted CO delivery.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Margarita A; Mascharak, Pradip K

    2014-04-01

    The surprising discovery of carbon monoxide (CO) as a signaling molecule in mammalian physiology has recently raised interest in this toxic gas among researchers in biochemical and pharmaceutical community. CO is endogenously produced mainly from catabolism of heme by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO) and participates in a myriad of anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and vasoregulatory pathways. In animal models, low doses of CO have exhibited beneficial effects in suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. The salutary effects of CO have naturally drawn attention of the pharmaceutical industry for its use as a cytoprotective agent. Safety-related concerns of the use of this noxious gas have prompted research in the area of syntheses of CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) and to date, several metal carbonyls (metal complexes of CO) have been employed as CORMs in promoting prolonged (and safe) delivery of low doses of CO to cellular targets. Because many carbonyl complexes release CO upon illumination, investigators have recently began to explore the possibility of "controlled CO delivery" through the use of light. During the past few years, a number of photoactive CORMs or "photoCORMs" have been synthesized that release CO upon illumination with UV or visible light. The utility of these photoCORMs in CO delivery has also been confirmed. Novel design principles for isolation of photoCORMs have started to appear in recent reports. Scrutiny of the literature reveals the emergence of a new exciting area of drug development in such efforts. The potential of photoCORMs as CO-donating pharmaceuticals along with a brief overview of the physiological roles of CO is presented in this review. PMID:24287103

  19. Target delivery and cell imaging using hyaluronic acid-functionalized graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Abdullah-Al-Nahain; Lee, Jung-Eun; In, Insik; Lee, Haeshin; Lee, Kang Dae; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Park, Sung Young

    2013-10-01

    This work demonstrates the way to achieve efficient and target specific delivery of a graphene quantum dot (GQD) using hyaluronic acid (HA) (GQD-HA) as a targeting agent. HA has been anchored to a GQD that accepts the fascinating adhesive properties of the catechol moiety, dopamine hydrochloride, conjugated to HA, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a particle size of ?20 nm, and the fluorescence spectra revealed significant fluorescence intensity even after the anchoring of HA. The prepared GQD-HA was applied to CD44 receptor overexpressed tumor-bearing balb/c female mice, and the in vivo biodistribution investigation demonstrated more bright fluorescence from the tumor tissue. In vitro cellular imaging, via a confocal laser scanning microscope, exhibited strong fluorescence from CD44 overexpressed A549 cells. Both in vivo and in vitro results showed the effectiveness of using HA as targeting molecule. The loading and release kinetics of the hydrophobic drug doxorubicin from a GQD under mildly acidic conditions showed that a GQD can be considered as a novel drug carrier, while the nontoxic behavior from the MTT assay strongly supports the identification of GQD-HA as a biocompatible material. PMID:24007260

  20. Delivery and subcellular targeting of dendrimer-based fluorescent pH sensors in living cells.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Storti, Barbara; Marchetti, Laura; Beltram, Fabio

    2010-12-29

    Synthesis and targeted delivery of dendrimer-based fluorescent biosensors in living HeLa cells are reported. Following electroporation dendrimers are shown to display specific subcellular localization depending on their size and surface charge and this property is preserved when they are functionalized with sensing moieties. We analyze the case of double dendrimer conjugation with pH-sensitive and pH-insensitive molecules leading to the realization of ratiometric pH sensors that are calibrated in vitro and in living cells. By tuning the physicochemical properties of the dendrimer scaffold sensors can be targeted to specific cellular compartments allowing selective pH measurements in different organelles in living cells. In order to demonstrate the modularity of this approach we present three different pH sensors with tuned H(+) affinity by appropriately choosing the pH-sensitive dye. We argue that the present methodology represents a general approach toward the realization of targetable ratiometric sensors suitable to monitor biologically relevant ions or molecules in living cells. PMID:21141854

  1. Nanoparticle-mediated simultaneous and targeted delivery of paclitaxel and tariquidar overcomes tumor drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Patil, Yogesh; Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Ma, Linan; Panyam, Jayanth

    2009-05-21

    Drug resistance is a major obstacle to the success of cancer chemotherapy. Overexpression of the drug-efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a key factor contributing to tumor drug resistance. Third generation P-gp inhibitors like tariquidar have shown promising efficacy in early clinical trials. However, for maximum efficacy, it is important to limit the exposure of normal cells and tissues to the efflux inhibitor and the anticancer drug, and temporally colocalize the drug-inhibitor combination in the tumor cells. In this study, we investigated simultaneous and targeted delivery of anticancer drug, paclitaxel, with P-gp modulator, tariquidar, using poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles to overcome tumor drug resistance. Nanoparticles were surface functionalized with biotin for active tumor targeting. Dual agent nanoparticles encapsulating the combination of paclitaxel and tariquidar showed significantly higher cytotoxicity in vitro than nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel alone. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of dual agent nanoparticles could be correlated with increased accumulation of paclitaxel in drug-resistant tumor cells. In vivo studies in a mouse model of drug-resistant tumor demonstrated significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth following treatment with biotin-functionalized nanoparticles encapsulating both paclitaxel and tariquidar at a paclitaxel dose that was ineffective in the absence of tariquidar. Taken together, these results suggest that the use of targeted, dual agent nanoparticles delivering a combination of P-gp modulator and anticancer drug is a very promising approach to overcome tumor drug resistance. PMID:19331851

  2. In Vivo Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Imaging for Targeted Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Kevin; Gaind, Vaibhav; Tsai, Hsiaorho; Bentz, Brian; Chelvam, Venkatesh; Low, Philip

    2012-02-01

    We describe an approach for the evaluation of targeted anti-cancer drug delivery in vivo. The method emulates the drug release and activation process through acceptor release from a targeted donor-acceptor pair that exhibits fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In this case, folate targeting of the cancer cells is used - 40 % of all human cancers, including ovarian, lung, breast, kidney, brain and colon cancer, over-express folate receptors. We demonstrate the reconstruction of the spatially-dependent FRET parameters in a mouse model and in tissue phantoms. The FRET parameterization is incorporated into a source for a diffusion equation model for photon transport in tissue, in a variant of optical diffusion tomography (ODT) called FRET-ODT. In addition to the spatially-dependent tissue parameters in the diffusion model (absorption and diffusion coefficients), the FRET parameters (donor-acceptor distance and yield) are imaged as a function of position. Modulated light measurements are made with various laser excitation positions and a gated camera. More generally, our method provides a new vehicle for studying disease at the molecular level by imaging FRET parameters in deep tissue, and allows the nanometer FRET ruler to be utilized in deep tissue.

  3. Folic-Acid-Targeted Self-Assembling Supramolecular Carrier for Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Liao, Rongqiang; Yi, Shouhui; Liu, Manshuo; Jin, Wenling; Yang, Bo

    2015-07-27

    A targeting gene carrier for cancer-specific delivery was successfully developed through a "multilayer bricks-mortar" strategy. The gene carrier was composed of adamantane-functionalized folic acid (FA-AD), an adamantane-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) derivative (PEG-AD), and ?-cyclodextrin-grafted low-molecular-weight branched polyethylenimine (PEI-CD). Carriers produced by two different self-assembly schemes, involving either precomplexation of the PEI-CD with the FA-AD and PEG-AD before pDNA condensation (Method A) or pDNA condensation with the PEI-CD prior to addition of the FA-AD and PEG-AD to engage host-guest complexation (Method B) were investigated for their ability to compact pDNA into nanoparticles. Cell viability studies show that the material produced by the Method A assembly scheme has lower cytotoxicity than branched PEI 25 kDa (PEI-25KD) and that the transfection efficiency is maintained. These findings suggest that the gene carrier, based on multivalent host-guest interactions, could be an effective, targeted, and low-toxicity carrier for delivering nucleic acid to target cells. PMID:26032689

  4. Using ultrasound to steer ultrasound contrast agents: Implications for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Alicia; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasound can be used to manipulate ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs), micron-sized bubbles used in ultrasound imaging to increase image contrast. The Bjerknes force, resulting from the lagged response of the microbubbles to the oscillatory ultrasound pressure field, can be utilized to steer the microbubbles to a targeted area in the vasculature, with the microbubbles serving as drug delivery vectors and injectors. The response of microbubbles to ultrasound in a sheared flow has shown a complex coupling of ultrasound-induced volume oscillations with hydrodynamic forces: Saffman lift and the Bjerknes force. In this work, the relative influence of these two forces acting in the across-streamlines direction is determined as a function of the Reynolds and Womersley and the excitation to bubble natural frequency ratio. We use in-vitro experiments to study the behavior of microbubbles in physiologically-realistic pulsatile flows. Quantitative information about microbubble trajectories in physiological conditions is necessary to develop models in order to control ultrasound steering of bubble-based drug delivery vectors in the human vasculature.

  5. Mannosylated Chitosan Nanoparticles for Delivery of Antisense Oligonucleotides for Macrophage Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Asthana, Abhay; Kohli, Dharm Veer; Vyas, Suresh Prasad

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of antisense oligonucleotides (ASODN) is primarily dependent upon its safe and efficient delivery to specific cells overcoming degradation and maximizing cellular uptake in vivo. The present study focuses on designing mannosylated low molecular weight (LMW) chitosan nanoconstructs for safe ODNs delivery by macrophage targeting. Mannose groups were coupled with LMW chitosan and characterized spectroscopically. Mannosylated chitosan ODN nanoparticles (MCHODN NPs) were formulated by self-assembled method using various N/P ratio (moles of amine groups of MCH to phosphate moieties of ODNs) and characterized for gel retardation assay, physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency, and antisense assay. Complete complexation of MCH/ODN was achieved at charge ratio of 1:1 and above. On increasing the N/P ratio of MCH/ODN, particle size of the NPs decreased whereas zeta potential (ZV) increased. MCHODN NPs displayed much higher transfection efficiency into Raw 264.7 cells (bears mannose receptors) than Hela cells and no significant toxicity was observed at all MCH concentrations. Antisense assay revealed that reduction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced serum TNF-? is due to antisense activity of TJU-2755 ODN (sequence complementary to 3?-UTR of TNF-?). These results suggest that MCHODN NPs are acceptable choice to improve transfection efficiency in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25057492

  6. Targeting Anticancer Drug Delivery to Pancreatic Cancer Cells Using a Fucose-Bound Nanoparticle Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Makoto; Takimoto, Rishu; Murase, Kazuyuki; Sato, Yasushi; Hirakawa, Masahiro; Tamura, Fumito; Sato, Tsutomu; Iyama, Satoshi; Osuga, Takahiro; Miyanishi, Koji; Takada, Kohichi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kobune, Masayoshi; Kato, Junji

    2012-01-01

    Owing to its aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapies, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has a dismal prognosis. New strategies to improve treatment and survival are therefore urgently required. Numerous fucosylated antigens in sera serve as tumor markers for cancer detection and evaluation of treatment efficacy. Increased expression of fucosyltransferases has also been reported for pancreatic cancer. These enzymes accelerate malignant transformation through fucosylation of sialylated precursors, suggesting a crucial requirement for fucose by pancreatic cancer cells. With this in mind, we developed fucose-bound nanoparticles as vehicles for delivery of anticancer drugs specifically to cancer cells. L-fucose-bound liposomes containing Cy5.5 or Cisplatin were effectively delivered into CA19-9 expressing pancreatic cancer cells. Excess L-fucose decreased the efficiency of Cy5.5 introduction by L-fucose-bound liposomes, suggesting L-fucose-receptor-mediated delivery. Intravenously injected L-fucose-bound liposomes carrying Cisplatin were successfully delivered to pancreatic cancer cells, mediating efficient tumor growth inhibition as well as prolonging survival in mouse xenograft models. This modality represents a new strategy for pancreatic cancer cell-targeting therapy. PMID:22808043

  7. Targeted Drug Delivery to Intestinal Macrophages by Bioactive Nanovesicles Released from Grapefruit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baomei; Zhuang, Xiaoying; Deng, Zhong-Bin; Jiang, Hong; Mu, Jingyao; Wang, Qilong; Xiang, Xiaoyu; Guo, Haixun; Zhang, Lifeng; Dryden, Gerald; Yan, Jun; Miller, Donald; Zhang, Huang-Ge

    2014-01-01

    The gut mucosal immune system is considered to play an important role in counteracting potential adverse effects of food-derived antigens including nanovesicles. Whether nanovesicles naturally released from edible fruit work in a coordinated manner with gut immune cells to maintain the gut in a noninflammatory status is not known. Here, as proof of concept, we demonstrate that grapefruit-derived nanovesicles (GDNs) are selectively taken up by intestinal macrophages and ameliorate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis. These effects were mediated by upregulating the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and inhibiting the production of IL-1? and TNF-? in intestinal macrophages. The inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability, stability at wide ranges of pH values, and targeting of intestinal macrophages led us to further develop a novel GDN-based oral delivery system. Incorporating methotrexate (MTX), an anti-inflammatory drug, into GDNs and delivering the MTX-GDNs to mice significantly lowered the MTX toxicity when compared with free MTX, and remarkably increased its therapeutic effects in DSS-induced mouse colitis. These findings demonstrate that GDNs can serve as immune modulators in the intestine, maintain intestinal macrophage homeostasis, and can be developed for oral delivery of small molecule drugs to attenuate inflammatory responses in human disease. PMID:23939022

  8. Liposomes co-modified with cholesterol anchored cleavable PEG and octaarginines for tumor targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Fu, Han; Kuang, Qifang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Qianyu; Liu, Yayuan; Ran, Rui; Gao, Huile; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

    2014-05-01

    Tumor targeted drug delivery system with high efficiency of tumor accumulation, cell internalization and endosomal escape was considered ideal for cancer therapy. Herein, a cleavable polyethylene glycol (PEG) and octaarginines (R8) co-modified liposome (CL-R8-LP) was developed, in which the cholesterol was used as an alternative anchor to the commonest phospholipids for the diversified development of surface modification. The in vitro hemolysis assay and bio-distribution study demonstrated that CL-R8-LP improved biocompatibility and tumor accumulation compared with the single R8 modified liposomes (R8-LP), since the strong positive charges, toxicity and non-specificity of R8 were efficiently shielded by the outer cleavable PEG. And the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and apoptosis of CL-R8-LP on C26 cells were much stronger than that of control liposomes in which R8 was not included or exposed. In addition, it was confirmed that CL-R8-LP entered cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and the macropinocytosis, and followed by a more efficient endosomal escape compared with R8-LP due to the topology change of R8. The enhanced in vivo delivery efficiency and anti-tumor efficacy were validated in C26 bearing mice. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that CL-R8-LP was a promising vehicle for enhancing the chemotherapy of solid cancers. PMID:24404866

  9. Systemic delivery of small interfering RNA by use of targeted polycation liposomes for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kenjo, Eriya; Asai, Tomohiro; Yonenaga, Norihito; Ando, Hidenori; Ishii, Takayuki; Hatanaka, Kentaro; Shimizu, Kosuke; Urita, Yugo; Dewa, Takehisa; Nango, Mamoru; Tsukada, Hideo; Oku, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Novel polycation liposomes decorated with cyclic(Cys-Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe) peptide (cyclicRGD)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) (RGD-PEG-polycation liposomes (PCL)) were previously developed for cancer therapy based on RNA interference. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to tumors by use of RGD-PEG-PCL in B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice. Pharmacokinetic data obtained by positron emission tomography showed that cholesterol-conjugated siRNA formulated in RGD-PEG-PCL markedly accumulated in the tumors. Delivered by RGD-PEG-PCL, a therapeutic cocktail of siRNAs composed of cholesterol-conjugated siRNAs for c-myc, MDM2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were able to significantly inhibit the growth of B16F10 melanoma both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that targeted delivery of siRNAs by use of RGD-PEG-PCL has considerable potential for cancer treatment. PMID:23370357

  10. A chitosan-modified graphene nanogel for noninvasive controlled drug release

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunyan; Mallela, Jaya; Garapati, Ujjwala Sree; Ravi, Sowndharya; Chinnasamy, Vignesh; Girard, Yvonne; Howell, Mark; Mohapatra, Subhra

    2013-01-01

    A near infrared (NIR) triggered drug delivery platform based on the chitosan-modified chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRGO) incorporated into a thermosensitive nanogel (CGN) was developed. CGN exhibited an NIR-induced thermal effect similar to that of CRGO, reversible thermo-responsive characteristics at 37–42 °C and high doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) loading capacity (48 wt%). The DOX loaded CGN (DOX-CGN) released DOX faster at 42 °C than at 37 °C. The fluorescence images revealed DOX expression in the cytoplasm of cancer cells when incubated with DOX-CGN at 37 °C but in the nucleus at 42 °C. Upon irradiation with NIR light (808 nm), a rapid, repetitive DOX release from the DOX-CGN was observed. Furthermore, the cancer cells incubated with DOX-CGN and irradiated with NIR light displayed significantly greater cytotoxicity than without irradiation owing to NIR-triggered increase in temperature leading to nuclear DOX release. These results demonstrate CGN’s promising application for on-demand drug release by NIR light. PMID:23352802

  11. Targeted drug delivery across the blood–brain barrier using ultrasound technique

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Cheri X

    2011-01-01

    Effective delivery of therapeutic agents into the brain can greatly improve the treatments of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Application of focused ultrasound facilitated by microbubbles has shown the potential to deliver drugs across the blood–brain barrier into targeted sites within the brain noninvasively. This review provides a summary of the technological background and principle, highlights of recent significant developments and research progress, as well as a critical commentary on the challenges and future directions in the field. This review also outlines and discusses the tasks that researchers face in order to successfully translate the technology into a clinical reality, including obtaining improved understanding of the mechanisms, demonstration of therapeutic efficacy and safety for specific applications, and development of methodology for rational design to achieve optimized and consistent outcome. PMID:21785679

  12. Magnetic Microbubbles: Magnetically Targeted and Ultrasound-Triggered Vectors for Gene Delivery in Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaskou, Dialechti; Pradhan, Pallab; Bergemann, Christian; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Hensel, Karin; Schmitz, Georg; Plank, Christian; Mykhaylyk, Olga

    2010-12-01

    Based on the concept of magnetofection, we prepared lipid shell microbubbles loaded with highly positively charged iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles through electrostatic and matrix affinity interactions. These magnetic microbubbles showed strong ultrasound contrast. When the magnetic microbubbles were mixed with plasmid DNA encoding a reporter gene, gene delivery to HeLa cells was achieved only when ultrasound was applied. Gene transfer efficiency strongly depended on the application of a gradient magnetic field. Treatment of HeLa cells with the microbubbles and ultrasound resulted in strong concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects, whereas ultrasound alone, lipid microbubbles alone, magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic microbubbles alone did not significantly affect cell viability. These magnetic microbubbles could be used as magnetically targeted diagnostic agents for real-time ultrasound imaging or for cancer therapy, therapy of vascular thrombosis and gene therapy.

  13. Modification of drug delivery to improve antibiotic targeting to the stomach.

    PubMed

    Adebisi, Adeola O; Conway, Barbara R

    2015-07-01

    The obstacles to the successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori infections include the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and therapy requiring multiple drugs with complicated dosing schedules. Other obstacles include bacterial residence in an environment where high antibiotic concentrations are difficult to achieve. Biofilm production by the bacteria is an additional challenge to the effective treatment of this infection. Conventional oral formulations used in the treatment of this infection have a short gastric residence time, thus limiting the duration of exposure of drug to the bacteria. This review summarizes the current research in the development of gastroretentive formulations and the prospective future applications of this approach in the targeted delivery of drugs such as antibiotics to the stomach. PMID:26149788

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of clickable block copolymers for targeted nanoparticle drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siyan; Chan, Kiat Hwa; Prud'homme, Robert K; Link, A James

    2012-08-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles with multifunctional capabilities, including surface functionalization, hold great promise to address challenges in targeted drug delivery. Here, we describe a concise, robust synthesis of a heterofunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG), HO-PEG-azide. This macromer was used to synthesize polylactide (PLA)-PEG-azide, a functional diblock copolymer. Rapid precipitation of this copolymer with a hydrophobic cargo resulted in the generation of monodisperse nanoparticles with azides in the surface corona. To demonstrate conjugation to these nanoparticles, a regioselectively modified alkyne-folate was employed as a model small molecule ligand, and the artificial protein A1 with an alkyne moiety introduced by unnatural amino acid substitution was selected as a model macromolecular ligand. Using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne ligation reaction, both ligands exhibited good conjugation efficiency even when low concentrations of ligands were used. PMID:22734614

  15. Targeted delivery of curcumin to tumors via PEG-derivatized FTS-based micellar system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yichao; Zhang, Xiaolan; Lu, Jianqin; Huang, Yixian; Li, Jiang; Li, Song

    2014-05-01

    Curcumin and S-trans, trans-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS) are two promising anticancer agents. In this study, we demonstrated that the two agents exerted significant synergy in antitumor activity in various types of cancer cells with combination indices ranging from 0.46 to 0.98 (a value of less than unity indicates synergism). We have further shown that synergistic-targeted co-delivery of the two agents can be achieved via formulating curcumin in polyethylene glycol (PEG)-derivatized FTS-based nanomicellar system. Curcumin formulated in PEG-FTS micelles had small size of around 20 nm. The nanomicellar curcumin demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity towards several cancer cell lines in vitro. Intravenous application of curcumin-loaded micelle (20 mg kg(-1) curcumin) led to a significantly more effective inhibition of tumor growth in a syngeneic mouse breast cancer model (4T1.2) than curcumin formulated in Cremophor/EL (P?

  16. Targeted liposome-loaded microbubbles for cell-specific ultrasound-triggered drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Geers, Bart; De Wever, Olivier; Demeester, Joseph; Bracke, Marc; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Lentacker, Ine

    2013-12-01

    One of the main problems in cancer treatment is disease relapse through metastatic colonization, which is caused by circulating tumor cells (CTCs). This work reports on liposome-loaded microbubbles targeted to N-cadherin, a cell-cell adhesion molecule expressed by CTCs. It is shown that such microbubbles can indeed bind to N-cadherin at the surface of HMB2 cells. Interestingly, in a mixture of cells with and without N-cadherin expression, binding of the liposome-loaded microbubbles mainly occurs to the N-cadherin-expressing cells. Importantly, applying ultrasound results in the intracellular delivery of a model drug (loaded in the liposomes) in the N-cadherin-expressing cells only. As described in this paper, such liposome-loaded microbubbles may find application as theranostics and in devices aimed for the specific killing of CTCs in blood. PMID:23737360

  17. Poly(NIPAm-AMPS) nanoparticles for targeted delivery of anti-inflammatory cell penetrating peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Rush Lloyd, II

    Inflammatory diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis cause $127.8 billion in US healthcare expenditures each year and are the cause of disability for 27% of disabled persons in the United States. Current treatment options rarely halt disease progression and often result in significant unwanted and debilitating side effects. Our laboratory has previously developed a family of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) which inhibit the activity of mitogen activated protein kinase activate protein kinase 2 (MK2). MK2 mediates the inflammatory response by activating Tristetraprline (TTP). Once activated, TTP rapidly stabilizes AU rich regions of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA which allows translation of pro-inflammatory cytokines to occur. Blocking MK2 with our labs CPPs yields a decrease in inflammatory activity but CPPs by are highly non specific and prone to rapid enzymatic degradation in vivo.. In order to increase the potency of MK2 inhibiting CPPs we have developed a novel nanoparticle drug carrier composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid). This drug carrier has been shown to have preliminary efficacy in vitro and ex vivo for suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokine production when releasing CPPs. This thesis will present progress made on three aims: Specific Aim 1) Create and validate a NIPAm based drug delivery system that mimics the binding and release previously observed between cell penetrating peptides and glycosaminoglycans. Specific Aim 2) Engineer degradability into poly(NIPAm-AMPS) nanoparticles to enable more drug to be released and qualify that system in vitro. Specific Aim 3) Validate poly(NIPAm-AMPS) nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in an ex vivo inflammatory model. Overall we have developed a novel anionic nanoparticle system that is biocompatible and efficient at loading and releasing cell penetrating peptides to inflamed tissue. Once loaded with a CPP the nanoparticle drug complex is capable of targeting diseased tissue and preventing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both in vitro and ex vivo models.

  18. Polyaptamer DNA nanothread-anchored, reduced graphene oxide nanosheets for targeted delivery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Gyeong; Park, Joo Yeon; Miao, Wenjun; Lee, Jaiwoo; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets anchoring receptor-specific polyaptamer nanothreads for targeted drug delivery. DNA polyaptamer nanothreads of protein tyrosine kinase 7 receptor (PTK7) were synthesized by rolling cycle amplification. To strengthen the anchoring of polyaptamer nanothreads onto rGO, oligoT bridge domain was introduced between each repeating PTK7 aptamer sequence. As compared to PTK7 polyaptamer nanothreads alone, PTK7 polyaptamer nanothreads with 22-mer oligoT bridges (PNT) showed higher anchoring capacity onto rGO nanosheets. Nanothread-coated surface morphology of PNTrGO was observed. Coating of PNT did not affect the sizes of rGO, but reduced the zeta potential. In PTK7-negative Ramos cells, the uptake of PNT-anchored rGO (PNTrGO) did not differ from that of oligoT-bridged scrambled polyaptamer-anchored rGO (SNTrGO). However, in CCRF-CEM leukemia cells overexpressing PTK7, the uptake of PNTrGO was 2.1-fold higher than that of SNTrGO after 15 min pulse. In vivo distribution to CCRF-CEM tumor tissues was 2.8-fold higher in PNTrGO than in SNTrGO at 48 h post-injection. In CCRF-CEM xenografted mice, intravenously administered doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded PNTrGO showed the higher antitumor activity than other groups, reducing the tumor weight down to 12% of tumor weights of untreated mice. These results suggest the potential of PNTrGO for target-specific drug delivery nanoplatform. PMID:25701038

  19. Combination of antibody targeting and PTD-mediated intracellular toxin delivery for colorectal cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Meong Cheol; Zhang, Jian; Min, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Kyuri; Moon, Cheol; Balthasar, Joseph P; Yang, Victor C

    2014-11-28

    The bottlenecks of current chemotherapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer lie in the ineffectiveness of the existing anti-cancer small molecule drugs as well as the dose-limiting toxicity caused by the nonselective action on normal tissues by such drugs. To address these problems, we introduce a novel therapeutic strategy based on tumor targeting using a non-internalizing anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody (mAb) and intracellular delivery of the extremely potent yet cell-impermeable protein toxin gelonin via the aid of a cell-penetrating peptide (also termed as protein transduction domain; PTD). A chimeric TAT-gelonin fusion protein was genetically engineered, and it displayed remarkably enhanced anti-cancer activity against human colorectal cancer cells, with IC50 values being several orders of magnitude lower than the unmodified gelonin. On the other hand, a chemically synthesized conjugate of heparin and a murine anti-CEA mAb, T84.66 (termed T84.66-Hep) was found able to bind highly specifically to CEA over-expressing LS174T colorectal cancer cells. When mixing together, TAT-gelonin and T84.66-Hep could associate tightly and automatically through an electrostatic interaction between the cationic TAT and anionic heparin. In preliminary in vivo studies using LS174T s.c. xenograft tumor bearing mouse, selective and significantly augmented (58-fold) delivery of TAT-gelonin to the tumor target was observed, when compared with administration of TAT-gelonin alone. More importantly, efficacy studies also revealed that only the TAT-gelonin/T84.66-Hep complex yielded a significant inhibition of tumor growth (46%) without causing gelonin-induced systemic toxicity. Overall, this study suggested a generic strategy to effectively yet safely deliver potent PTD-modified protein toxins to the tumor. PMID:25204286

  20. The use of poly(methacrylic acid) nanogel to control the release of amoxycillin with lower cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Hongxi; Wu, Zhimin; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Lin; Liang, Yuanyuan; Ke, Bo; Huang, Hongxing; Jiang, Zhenyou; Xie, Mingqiang; Wu, Ting

    2014-10-01

    In order to control the release of amoxycillin (AM) with lower cytotoxicity and higher activity, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was used as the cross-linker, and a series of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) nanogels were prepared to load the AM. Then, the morphology, size, in vitro release property, long-term antibacterial performance, cytotoxicity, stability and activity of this novel AM/PMAA nanogel were investigated. The results showed that the AM/PMAA nanogel sustainably released AM with long-term antibacterial activity. Moreover, the AM/PMAA nanogel could improve the stability of AM. More importantly, this AM/PMAA nanogel showed slighter cytotoxicity than AM alone, suggesting that the AM/PMAA nanogel was a more useful dosage form than AM for infectious diseases. PMID:25175257

  1. Locally targeted delivery of a micron-size radiation therapy source using temperature-sensitive hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y; Seol, DR; Mohapatra, S; Sunderland, JJ; Schultz, MK; Domann, FE; Lim, TH

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To propose a novel radiotherapy (RT) delivery modality—locally targeted delivery of micro-size level RT sources using temperature-sensitive hydroGEL (RT-GEL) as an injectable vehicle. Methods and Materials Hydrogel is a water-like liquid at room temperature but gels at body temperature. Two FDA-approved polymers were synthesized. Indium-111 (In-111) was used as a radioactive RT-GEL source. The release characteristics of In-111 from polymerized RT-GEL were evaluated. The injectability and efficacy of RT-GEL delivery to human breast tumor were tested using animal models with control datasets of RT-Saline injection. As proof-of-concept studies, a total of 6 nude mice were tested by injecting 4 million tumor cells into their upper backs after a week of acclimatization. Three mice were injected with RT-GEL and three with RT-Saline. A SPECT and a CT scan were performed on each mouse at 0, 24, and 48 hours after injection. The efficacy of RT-GEL over the control datasets was determined by measuring kidney In-111 accumulation (mean nCi/cc), representing the distant diffusion of In-111. Results RT-GEL was successfully injected to the tumor using 30-gauge needles. No difficulties due to polymerization of hydrogel during injection and intratumoral pressure were observed during RT-GEL injection. No back flow occurred for either RT-GEL or RT-Saline. The residual tumor activities of In-111 were 49% (44%) at 24 hours (48 hour) for RT-GEL and 29% (22%) for RT-Saline. SPECT-CT fused images of RT-Saline show considerable kidney accumulation of In-111 (2,886%, 261% and 262% of RT-GEL at the 0, 24 and 48 hour marks, respectively). Conclusion RT-GEL was successfully injected and showed much higher residual tumor activity 170% (200%) than that of RT-Saline 24 hour (48 hour) after injection with a minimal accumulation of In-111 to the kidneys. The preliminary data of RT-GEL as a delivery modality of a radiation source to a local tumor is promising. PMID:24495593

  2. GEN | News Highlights: Scientists Develop High-Capacity Nanoparticles for Targeted Delivery of Drug Cocktails http://www.genengnews.com/gen-news-highlights/scientists-develop-high-capacity-nanoparticles-for-targeted-delivery-of-drug-cocktails/81245016/[4/

    E-print Network

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    GEN | News Highlights: Scientists Develop High-Capacity Nanoparticles for Targeted Delivery of Drug Cocktails http://www.genengnews.com/gen-news-highlights/scientists-develop NEWS Blogs Podcasts Webinars Videos New Products Best of the Web Events Jobs Polls App Notes GEN

  3. Modular nanotransporters: a multipurpose in vivo working platform for targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Slastnikova, Tatiana A; Rosenkranz, Andrey A; Gulak, Pavel V; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Lupanova, Tatiana N; Khramtsov, Yuri V; Zalutsky, Michael R; Sobolev, Alexander S

    2012-01-01

    Background Modular nanotransporters (MNT) are recombinant multifunctional polypeptides created to exploit a cascade of cellular processes, initiated with membrane receptor recognition to deliver selective short-range and highly cytotoxic therapeutics to the cell nucleus. This research was designed for in vivo concept testing for this drug delivery platform using two modular nanotransporters, one targeted to the ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?MSH) receptor overexpressed on melanoma cells and the other to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor overexpressed on several cancers, including glioblastoma, and head-and-neck and breast carcinoma cells. Methods In vivo targeting of the modular nanotransporter was determined by immuno-fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy and by accumulation of 125I-labeled modular nanotransporters. The in vivo therapeutic effects of the modular nanotransporters were assessed by photodynamic therapy studies, given that the cytotoxicity of photosensitizers is critically dependent on their delivery to the cell nucleus. Results Immunohistochemical analyses of tumor and neighboring normal tissues of mice injected with multifunctional nanotransporters demonstrated preferential uptake in tumor tissue, particularly in cell nuclei. With 125I-labeled MNT{?MSH}, optimal tumor:muscle and tumor:skin ratios of 8:1 and 9.8:1, respectively, were observed 3 hours after injection in B16-F1 melanoma-bearing mice. Treatment with bacteriochlorin p-MNT{?MSH} yielded 89%–98% tumor growth inhibition and a two-fold increase in survival for mice with B16-F1 and Cloudman S91 melanomas. Likewise, treatment of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma-bearing mice with chlorin e6- MNT{EGF} resulted in 94% tumor growth inhibition compared with free chlorin e6, with 75% of animals surviving at 3 months compared with 0% and 20% for untreated and free chlorin e6-treated groups, respectively. Conclusion The multifunctional nanotransporter approach provides a new in vivo functional platform for drug development that could, in principle, be applicable to any combination of cell surface receptor and agent (photosensitizers, oligonucleotides, radionuclides) requiring nuclear delivery to achieve maximum effectiveness. PMID:22346349

  4. Intelligently Targeted Drug Delivery and Enhanced Antitumor Effect by Gelatinase-Responsive Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rutian; Wu, Wei; Liu, Qin; Wu, Puyuan; Xie, Li; Zhu, Zhenshu; Yang, Mi; Qian, Xiaoping; Ding, Yin; Yu, Lixia; Jiang, Xiqun; Guan, Wenxian; Liu, Baorui

    2013-01-01

    Aims The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2/9, also known as collagenases IV and gelatinases A/B, play a key role in cancer invasion and metastasis. However, the clinical trials of the MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) ended up with disappointing results. In this paper, we synthesized a gelatinase-responsive copolymer (mPEG-PCL) by inserting a gelatinase cleavable peptide (PVGLIG) between mPEG and PCL blocks of mPEG-PCL for anticancer drug delivery to make use of MMP2/9 as an intelligent target for drug delivery. Materials and Methods mPEG-pep-PCL copolymer was synthesized via ring-opening copolymerization and double-amidation. To evaluate whether Nanoparticles (NPs) prepared from this copolymer are superior to NPs prepared from mPEG-PCL, NPs prepared from mPEG-PCL copolymer were used as positive control. Docetaxel-loading NPs using mPEG-pep-PCL and mPEG-PCL were prepared by nano-precipitation method, mentioned as Gel-NPs and Con-NPs, respectively. The morphologic changes of the NPs after treatment with gelatinases were observed macroscopically by spectrophotometer and microscopically by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cellular uptake amount and cytotoxicity of Gel-NPs and Con-NPs, respectively, in cell lines with different levels of gelatinase expression were studied. Moreover, the cytotoxicity study on the primary cancer cells isolated from pericardial fluids from a patient with late-stage lung cancer was conducted. Results The Gel-NPs aggregated in response to gelatinases, which was confirmed macroscopically and microscopically. The cellular uptake amount of Gel-NPs was correlated with the level of gelatinases. The in vitro antitumor effect of Gel-NPs was also correlated with the level of gelatinases and was superior to Taxotere (commercially available docetaxel) as well as the Con-NPs. The cytotoxicity study on the primary lung cancer cells also confirmed the effectiveness of Gel-NPs. Conclusion The results in this study preliminarily demonstrated the effectiveness of gelatinase-responsive targeting strategy and the prospect of this intelligent nano-drug delivery system though further studies are needed. PMID:23936062

  5. Unlocking a caged lysosomal protein from a polymeric nanogel with a pH trigger.

    PubMed

    Molla, Mijanur Rahaman; Marcinko, Tyler; Prasad, Priyaa; Deming, Derrick; Garman, Scott C; Thayumanavan, S

    2014-11-10

    A polymeric nanogel has been used to sequester and turn off a lysosomal protein, acid ?-glucosidase (GAA). The nanogel contains a ?-thiopropionate cross-linker, which endows the nanogel with pH-sensitivity. While encapsulation of the enzyme fully turns off its activity, approximately 75% of the activity is recovered upon reducing the pH to 5.0. The recovered activity is ascribed to pH-induced degradation of the ?-thiopropionate cross-linker causing the swelling of the nanogel and ultimately causing the release of the enzyme. We envision that strategies for sequestering protein molecules and releasing them at lysosomal pH might open up new directions for therapeutic treatment of lysosomal storage diseases. PMID:25291086

  6. Tropism-Modification Strategies for Targeted Gene Delivery Using Adenoviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, Lynda; Alba, Raul; Parker, Alan L.; Bradshaw, Angela C.; McNeish, Iain A.; Nicklin, Stuart A.; Baker, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    Achieving high efficiency, targeted gene delivery with adenoviral vectors is a long-standing goal in the field of clinical gene therapy. To achieve this, platform vectors must combine efficient retargeting strategies with detargeting modifications to ablate native receptor binding (i.e. CAR/integrins/heparan sulfate proteoglycans) and “bridging” interactions. “Bridging” interactions refer to coagulation factor binding, namely coagulation factor X (FX), which bridges hepatocyte transduction in vivo through engagement with surface expressed heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). These interactions can contribute to the off-target sequestration of Ad5 in the liver and its characteristic dose-limiting hepatotoxicity, thereby significantly limiting the in vivo targeting efficiency and clinical potential of Ad5-based therapeutics. To date, various approaches to retargeting adenoviruses (Ad) have been described. These include genetic modification strategies to incorporate peptide ligands (within fiber knob domain, fiber shaft, penton base, pIX or hexon), pseudotyping of capsid proteins to include whole fiber substitutions or fiber knob chimeras, pseudotyping with non-human Ad species or with capsid proteins derived from other viral families, hexon hypervariable region (HVR) substitutions and adapter-based conjugation/crosslinking of scFv, growth factors or monoclonal antibodies directed against surface-expressed target antigens. In order to maximize retargeting, strategies which permit detargeting from undesirable interactions between the Ad capsid and components of the circulatory system (e.g. coagulation factors, erythrocytes, pre-existing neutralizing antibodies), can be employed simultaneously. Detargeting can be achieved by genetic ablation of native receptor-binding determinants, ablation of “bridging interactions” such as those which occur between the hexon of Ad5 and coagulation factor X (FX), or alternatively, through the use of polymer-coated “stealth” vectors which avoid these interactions. Simultaneous retargeting and detargeting can be achieved by combining multiple genetic and/or chemical modifications. PMID:21994621

  7. Delivery of lipid micelles into infarcted myocardium using a lipid-linked matrix metalloproteinase targeting peptide.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Juliane; Sievers, Richard; Motion, J P Michael; Kivimäe, Saul; Fang, Qizhi; Lee, Randall J

    2015-04-01

    There is a great need for delivery strategies capable of efficiently localizing drugs to the damaged myocardium that do not require direct intramyocardial injection of therapeutic molecules. In the work discussed here, we exploited the myocardium-specific upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that occurs during myocardium remodeling by designing a micellar vehicle containing an MMP-targeting peptide (MMP-TP). The binding of MMP-TP to MMP was evaluated with purified MMP-2 protein and U-937 cells induced to overexpress MMP. Inhibition of MMP-2 activity was not observed in the presence of unmodified micelles but was pronounced at a 5 mol % MMP-TP ligand density. In a FACS analysis, MMP-TP micelles containing 5 mol % of the MMP-targeting peptide showed ?10-fold higher binding to activated U937 cells than plain micelles and micelles containing a control peptide with two amino acid replacements. MMP-TP-micelles and plain micelles were injected intravenously into C57BL/6 mice 1, 3, and 7 days after the induction of a myocardial infarction (MI). Immunohistochemistry performed on heart tissue sections revealed that MMP-TP-micelles colocalize with both MMP and infiltrating macrophages. MMP-TP micelles showed significantly enhanced accumulation to the necrotic area of the heart after MI on days 3 and 7 when compared to plain micelles and negative control peptide micelles. This is coincident with the measured temporal profile of MMP gene expression in the heart after MI. These results suggest that MMP-TP micelles are candidates for the development of targeted regenerative heart therapeutics because of their ability to target the infarcted myocardium in a MMP dependent manner. PMID:25642730

  8. Folate-modified lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for targeted paclitaxel delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linhua; Zhu, Dunwan; Dong, Xia; Sun, Hongfan; Song, Cunxian; Wang, Chun; Kong, Deling

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel lipid-polymer hybrid drug carrier comprised of folate (FA) modified lipid-shell and polymer-core nanoparticles (FLPNPs) for sustained, controlled, and targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX). The core-shell NPs consist of 1) a poly(?-caprolactone) hydrophobic core based on self-assembly of poly(?-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) amphiphilic copolymers, 2) a lipid monolayer formed with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy (polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG2000), 3) a targeting ligand (FA) on the surface, and were prepared using a thin-film hydration and ultrasonic dispersion method. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis confirmed the coating of the lipid monolayer on the hydrophobic polymer core. Physicochemical characterizations of PTX-loaded FLPNPs, such as particle size and size distribution, zeta potential, morphology, drug loading content, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release, were also evaluated. Fluorescent microscopy proved the internalization efficiency and targeting ability of the folate conjugated on the lipid monolayer for the EMT6 cancer cells which overexpress folate receptor. In vitro cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of PTX-loaded FLPNPs was lower than that of Taxol(®), but higher than that of PTX-loaded LPNPs (without folate conjugation). In EMT6 breast tumor model, intratumoral administration of PTX-loaded FLPNPs showed similar antitumor efficacy but low toxicity compared to Taxol(®). More importantly, PTX-loaded FLPNPs showed greater tumor growth inhibition (65.78%) than the nontargeted PTX-loaded LPNPs (48.38%) (P<0.05). These findings indicated that the PTX loaded-FLPNPs with mixed lipid monolayer shell and biodegradable polymer core would be a promising nanosized drug formulation for tumor-targeted therapy. PMID:25844039

  9. Tuning Surface Microstructure and Gradient Property of Polymer by Photopolymerizable Polysiloxane-modified Nanogels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cong; Liu, JianCheng; Sun, Fang; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a series of photopolymerizable polysiloxane-modified nanogels for regulating surface microstructure and gradient property of polymers, which were synthesized by solution polymerization under different feed ratios of a methacrylate-modified polysiloxane, urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and isobornyl methacrylate (IBMA) in the presence of a thiol chain transfer agent. The nanogel structure and composition were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The dispersion of these nanogels in triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) can reduce the onset and magnitude of shrinkage stress during polymerization without compromise to mechanical properties of the resulting polymers. Most importantly, as demonstrated by elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the nanogels exhibit good self-floating ability in the monomer/polymer matrix and the increase of polysiloxane content in the nanogel can enhance the self-floating capability due to the lower surface tension and energy associated with the polysiloxane component. As a result, the polysiloxane-modified nanogels can spontaneously form a concentration gradient that can be locked in upon photopolymerization leading to a well-controlled heterogeneous polymer that presents a gradient change in thermal stability. With the increase of polysiloxane content, the thermal stability of the polymer was improved significantly. Furthermore, the enrichment of the nanogel on the surface resulting from the good self-floating ability can reduce the dispersion surface energy of gradient polymer film and generate a more hydrophobic surface with altered surface microstructure. These photopolymerizable polysiloxane-modified nanogels are demonstrated to have potential broad application in the preparation of gradient polymer with controlled surface properties. PMID:25045518

  10. Aptamer-mediated up-conversion core/MOF shell nanocomposites for targeted drug delivery and cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kerong; Hou, Zhiyao; Li, Xuejiao; Li, Chunxia; Zhang, Yuanxin; Deng, Xiaoran; Cheng, Ziyong; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional nanocarriers for targeted bioimaging and drug delivery have attracted much attention in early diagnosis and therapy of cancer. In this work, we develop a novel aptamer-guided nanocarrier based on the mesoporous metal-organic framework (MOF) shell and up-conversion luminescent NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanoparticles (UCNPs) core for the first time to achieve these goals. These UCNPs, chosen as optical labels in biological assays and medical imaging, could emit strong green emission under 980 nm laser. The MOF structure based on iron (III) carboxylate materials [MIL-100 (Fe)] possesses high porosity and non-toxicity, which is of great value as nanocarriers for drug storage/delivery. As a unique nanoplatform, the hybrid inorganic-organic drug delivery vehicles show great promising for simultaneous targeted labeling and therapy of cancer cells. PMID:25597762

  11. Targeted delivery of a combination therapy consisting of combretastatin A4 and low-dose doxorubicin against tumor neovasculature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tingyuan Yang; Yiguang Wang; Zaiquan Li; Wenbing Dai; Jie Yin; Liang Liang; Xue Ying; Shufeng Zhou; Jiancheng Wang; Xuan Zhang; Qiang Zhang

    The present study demonstrates the applicability of a novel strategy that employs targeted delivery of combined treatment against tumor neovasculature. Briefly, a ligand of integrins, cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-tyrosine-lysine pentapeptide (cRGDyK), was conjugated to the PEG end of polyethylene glycol-b-poly lactic acid (PEG-b-PLA), and doxorubicin was chemically linked to the PLA end of PEG-b-PLA. The targeted dual-drug micelle system was prepared

  12. Effect of Antigen Shedding on Targeted Delivery of Immunotoxins in Solid Tumors from a Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Youngshang; Pastan, Ira; Kreitman, Robert J.; Lee, Byungkook

    2014-01-01

    Most cancer-specific antigens used as targets of antibody-drug conjugates and immunotoxins are shed from the cell surface (Zhang & Pastan (2008) Clin. Cancer Res. 14: 7981-7986), although at widely varying rates and by different mechanisms (Dello Sbarba & Rovida (2002) Biol. Chem. 383: 69–83). Why many cancer-specific antigens are shed and how the shedding affects delivery efficiency of antibody-based protein drugs are poorly understood questions at present. Before a detailed numerical study, it was assumed that antigen shedding would reduce the efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates and immunotoxins. However, our previous study using a comprehensive mathematical model showed that antigen shedding can significantly improve the efficacy of the mesothelin-binding immunotoxin, SS1P (anti-mesothelin-Fv-PE38), and suggested that receptor shedding can be a general mechanism for enhancing the effect of inter-cellular signaling molecules. Here, we improved this model and applied it to both SS1P and another recombinant immunotoxin, LMB-2, which targets CD25. We show that the effect of antigen shedding is influenced by a number of factors including the number of antigen molecules on the cell surface and the endocytosis rate. The high shedding rate of mesothelin is beneficial for SS1P, for which the antigen is large in number and endocytosed rapidly. On the other hand, the slow shedding of CD25 is beneficial for LMB-2, for which the antigen is small in number and endocytosed slowly. PMID:25343405

  13. Bacterial type III secretion systems: specialized nanomachines for protein delivery into target cells

    PubMed Central

    Galán, Jorge E.; Lara-Tejero, Maria; Marlovits, Thomas C.; Wagner, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    One of the most exciting developments in the field of bacterial pathogenesis in recent years is the discovery that many pathogens utilized complex nanomachines to deliver bacterially encoded effector proteins into target eukaryotic cells. These effector proteins modulate a variety of cellular functions for the pathogen’s benefit. One of these protein-delivery machines is the type III secretion system (T3SS). T3SSs are widespread in nature and are encoded not only by bacteria pathogenic to vertebrates or plants, but also by bacteria that are symbiotic to plants or insects. A central component of T3SSs is the needle complex, a supramolecular structure that mediates the passage of the secreted proteins across the bacterial envelope. Working in conjunction with several cytoplasmic components, the needle complex engages specific substrates in sequential order, moves them across the bacterial envelope, and ultimately delivers them into eukaryotic cells. The central role of T3SSs in pathogenesis makes them great targets for novel antimicrobial strategies. PMID:25002086

  14. Engineering of Bacteria for the Visualization of Targeted Delivery of a Cytolytic Anticancer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Sheng-Nan; Park, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Hee Jung; Zheng, Jin Hai; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Bom, Hee-Seung; Hong, Yeongjin; Szardenings, Michael; Shin, Myung Geun; Kim, Sun-Chang; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Choy, Hyon E; Min, Jung-Joon

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent reports have demonstrated that attenuated Salmonella typhimurium are capable of targeting both primary and metastatic tumors. The use of bacteria as a vehicle for the delivery of anticancer drugs requires a mechanism that precisely regulates and visualizes gene expression to ensure the appropriate timing and location of drug production. To integrate these functions into bacteria, we used a repressor-regulated tetracycline efflux system, in which the expression of a therapeutic gene and an imaging reporter gene were controlled by divergent promoters (tetAP and tetRP) in response to extracellular tetracycline. Attenuated S. typhimurium was transformed with the expression plasmids encoding cytolysin A, a therapeutic gene, and renilla luciferase variant 8, an imaging reporter gene, and administered intravenously to tumor-bearing mice. The engineered Salmonella successfully localized to tumor tissue and gene expression was dependent on the concentration of inducer, indicating the feasibility of peripheral control of bacterial gene expression. The bioluminescence signal permitted the localization of gene expression from the bacteria. The engineered bacteria significantly suppressed both primary and metastatic tumors and prolonged survival in mice. Therefore, engineered bacteria that carry a therapeutic and an imaging reporter gene for targeted anticancer therapy can be designed as a theranostic agent. PMID:23922014

  15. EGF-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes for targeting delivery of etoposide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Xie, Xiao-Xia; Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Feng-Yi; Wang, Qiao-Ling; Liu, Ya-Qing; Zou, Yina; Tao, Qing; Ji, Xue-Mei; Yu, Shu-Qin

    2012-02-01

    To enhance the therapeutic potential of etoposide (ETO), we devised a targeted drug delivery system (TDDS) of epidermal growth factor-chitosan-carboxyl single-walled carbon nanotubes-ETO (EGF/CHI/SWNT-COOHs/ETO) using modified SWNTs (m-SWNTs) as the carrier, EGF-functionalized SWNTs (f-SWNTs) as the targeted moiety and ETO as the drug. After SWNT-COOHs were conjugated with CHI (CHI/SWNT-COOHs/ETO), they displayed high solubility and stable dispersion in aqueous solution. The drug loading capacity was approximately 25-27%. The m-SWNTs and f-SWNTs had only slight cytotoxicity. ETO was released from EGF/CHI/SWNT-COOHs/ETO at low pH and taken up by tumour cells via adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent endocytosis. The cell death induced by EGF/CHI/SWNT-COOHs/ETO was as much as 2.7 times that due to ETO alone. In summary, these results demonstrated that our TDDS had a greater anticancer effect than free ETO in vitro. PMID:22222202

  16. Folate-conjugated amphiphilic block copolymers for targeted and efficient delivery of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yin; Yang, Bin; Jiang, Tao; Li, You-Mei; He, Feng; Zhuo, Ren-Xi

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers based on folate-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-b-copolycarbonates (FA-PEG-b-P(MAC-co-DTC)) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-copolycarbonates (mPEG-b-P(MAC-co-DTC)) were successfully synthesized for targeted and efficient delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) to cancer cells. Immobilized porcine pancreas lipase (IPPL) was employed as the catalyst to perform the ring-opening copolymerization in bulk, while the folate-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol) (FA-PEG) or methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) was used as the initiator. The resulting copolymers, characterized by (1)H NMR and GPC, could self-assemble to form nano-sized micelles in aqueous solution by dialysis method. P(MAC-co-DTC) acted as the hydrophobic core, thereby aggregating hydrophilic PEG chains as the outer shell with FA as targeting ligand located at the surface of the polymeric micelles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation showed that the micelles dispersed in spherical shape with nano-size before and after DOX loading. Both the FA-conjugated and non-conjugated block copolymers showed low cellular cytotoxicity. Furthermore, as compared to the non-conjugated copolymers, much more efficient cellular uptake of the FA-conjugated copolymers via FA-receptor-mediated endocytosis could be observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), while MTT assays also demonstrated highly potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. PMID:24370849

  17. Photopolymerizable nanogels as macromolecular precursors to covalently crosslinked water-based networks.

    PubMed

    Dailing, Eric A; Setterberg, Whitney K; Shah, Parag K; Stansbury, Jeffrey W

    2015-07-01

    We present a strategy for directly and efficiently polymerizing aqueous dispersions of reactive nanogels into covalently crosslinked polymer networks with properties that are determined by the initial chemical and physical nanogel structure. This technique can extend the range of achievable properties and architectures for networks formed in solution, particularly in water where monomer selection for direct polymerization and the final network properties are quite limited. Nanogels were initially obtained from a solution polymerization of a hydrophilic monomethacrylate and either a hydrophilic PEG-based dimethacrylate or a more hydrophobic urethane dimethacrylate, which produced globular particles with diameters of 10-15 nm with remarkably low polydispersity in some cases. Networks derived from a single type of nanogel or a blend of nanogels with different chemistries when dispersed in water gelled within minutes when exposed to low intensity UV light. Modifying the nanogel structure changes both covalent and non-covalent secondary interactions in the crosslinked networks and reveals critical design criteria for the development of networks from highly internally branched, nanoscale prepolymer precursors. PMID:26075300

  18. Alendronate-decorated biodegradable polymeric micelles for potential bone-targeted delivery of vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yingying; Quan, Changyun; Liu, Meiqing; Liu, Jie; Huang, Gang; Tong, Guoquan; Yin, Yihua; Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Qing

    2015-08-01

    Osteomyelitis is a bone infection disease which is caused by bacteria or other germs, and could cause serious impact on the health and working capacity of the patients. Alendronate (ALN) can chelate strongly with the calcium ion of hydroxyapatite (HA) which is commonly used to treat osteoporosis. Nanomedicine has attracted a lot of attention in that the nano-sized carrier can deliver drug molecules to specific site of interest with the aid of targeting moiety and achieve sustained release, resulting in improved therapeutic effect and reduced side effect. In this study, micelles self-assembled from poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-alendronate (PLGA-PEG-ALN) copolymer were prepared for bone-targeted delivery of vancomycin (Van). The chemical structure of PLGA-PEG-ALN was confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy. The formation of the nanoparticles was characterized by dynamic light scattering, transmission electronic microscopy as well as the critical micelle concentration measurement. Release profiles from the micelles revealed that the conjugation of ALN to the surface of micelle did not pose adverse effect on the drug-loading capacity and release behaviors. The cytotoxicity of Van-loaded PLGA-PEG-ALN micelles as well as the blank micelles was evaluated via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay toward rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) and human embryonic hepatocytes (L02 cells), and results showed that this Van-loaded micelle possesses appropriate cytotoxicity and is safe in the potential treatment of osteomyelitis. The in vitro affinity of PLGA-PEG-ALN micelles to the HA was also confirmed in vitro. The antibacterial effect of Van-loaded PLGA-PEG-ALN micelles was tested against Staphylococcus aureus (SA) which is the main pathogenic bacteria in osteomyelitis, and the results showed that the Van-loaded micelles can effectively inhibit the growth of SA. These results demonstrated that the PLGA-PEG-ALN micelles may be potentially used for the bone targeted delivery of Van. PMID:25994241

  19. Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Enthusiasm greeted the development of synthetic organic insecticides in the mid-twentieth century, only to see this give way to dismay and eventually scepticism and outright opposition by some. Regardless of how anyone feels about this issue, insecticides and other pesticides have become indispensable, which creates something of a dilemma. Possibly as a result of the shift in public attitude towards insecticides, genetic engineering of microbes was first met with scepticism and caution among scientists. Later, the development of genetically modified crop plants was met with an attitude that hardened into both acceptance and hard-core resistance. Transgenic insects, which came along at the dawn of the twenty-first century, encountered an entrenched opposition. Those of us responsible for studying the protection of crops have been affected more or less by these protagonist and antagonistic positions, and the experiences have often left one thoughtfully mystified as decisions are made by non-participants. Most of the issues boil down to concerns over delivery mechanisms. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:23852646

  20. Folic acid modified cationic ?-cyclodextrin-oligoethylenimine star polymer with bioreducible disulfide linker for efficient targeted gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Yin, Hui; Zhang, Zhongxing; Li, Jun

    2013-02-11

    For an efficient folate-targeted delivery, while the interaction between the folate on the carriers and the folate receptor (FR) on the cells is necessary, the recovering and recycling of FR to maintain a high density level of FR on the cellular membrane is also important. Herein, we demonstrate a design and synthesis of a new star-shaped cationic polymer containing a ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) core and multiple oligoethylenimine (OEI) arms with folic acid (FA) linked by a bioreducible disulfide bond for efficient targeted gene delivery. The newly synthesized cationic polymer, named ?-CD-OEI-SS-FA, could be cleaved efficiently, and FA was readily released under reductive condition similar to intracellular environment. The ?-CD-OEI-SS-FA polymer was well-characterized and studied in terms of its gene delivery properties in FR-positive KB cells and FR-negative A549 cells under various conditions, in comparison with cationic polymers such as high molecular weight branched polyethylenimine (PEI), ?-CD-OEI star-shaped cationic polymer, ?-CD-OEI-FA polymer where FA was directed linked to the star polymer without disulfide linker. Our data have demonstrated that the new ?-CD-OEI-SS-FA gene carrier had low cytotoxicity and possessed capacity to target and deliver DNA to specific tumor cells that overexpress FRs, as well as functions to recover and recycle FRs onto cellular membranes to facilitate continuous FR-mediated endocytosis to achieve very high levels of gene expression. This study has expanded the strategy of FA-targeted delivery by combining the smart FR-recycling function to achieve the significant enhancement of gene expression. The new FA-targeted and bioreducible carrier may be a promising efficient gene delivery system for potential cancer gene therapy. PMID:23323627

  1. Targeted delivery of CpG ODN to CD32 on human and monkey plasmacytoid dendritic cells augments IFN? secretion.

    PubMed

    Tel, Jurjen; Beenhakker, Niels; Koopman, Gerrit; Hart, Bert't; Mudde, Geert C; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2012-10-01

    Atopic diseases are characterized by the presence of Th2 cells. Recent studies, in mice and man, demonstrated that allergen-specific Th2 responses can be shifted to Th0/Th1 responses. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce large amounts of type I interferons (IFNs) after stimulation of Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) and are likely to play an important role in the reorientation of these Th2 cells. The expression of CD32a on the cell surface of pDCs makes this cell type attractive for targeted delivery of antigen and TLR agonists to revert Th2 responses. Therefore we sought to determine the efficacy of targeted delivery of CpG-C ODN to CD32a on the ability of human and monkey pDCs to secrete inflammatory cytokines. Here we demonstrate that targeted delivery of 3'-biotinylated CpG-C to CD32a on pDC induced phenotypical maturation as determined by CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression. Furthermore, targeting both monkey and human pDCs strongly augmented the secretion of IFN? compared to the delivery of CpG-C in an untargeted fashion (p<0.001). TLR9 induced activation hampers the ability of human pDCs to internalize CD32a. Therefore we opted for targeted delivery of CpG-ODNs to CD32a, which reduces the risk of undesired side effects of systemic TLR treatment and in addition delivers a superior signal for the activation of pDCs. This approach opens new treatment principles for allergic patients. PMID:22349518

  2. Formulation and Evaluation of Chondroitin Sulphate Tablets of Aceclofenac for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Thiruganesh; Subbaih Khandasamy, Umadevi; Shanmugam, Suresh; Ruttala, Himabindhu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a single unit, site-specific matrix tablets of aceclofenac allowing targeted drug release in the colon with a microbially degradable polymeric carrier, chondroitin suphate (CS) and to coat the optimized batches with a pH dependent polymeric. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using starch mucilage as a binding agent and HPMC K-100 as a swellable polymer. Chondroitin Sulphate and drug and physical mixture were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The tablets were tested for their in-vitro dissolution characteristics in various simulated gastric fluids for their suitability as a colon-specific drug delivery system and also the tablets were evaluated for physicochemical properties, drug content, water percentage swelling and erosion characteristics. The dissolution data demonstrates that the 10% w/w increase in coating level of the pH dependent polymer (Eudragit L-100 and Eudragit S-100 in a ratio of 1 : 4 prevented the drug release in the simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2-SGF) and the simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4-SIF). The dissolution rate of the tablet is dependent upon the concentration of Chondroitin sulphate in the simulated colonic fluid (SCF). The rapid increase in release of aceclofenac in SCF was revealed as due to the degradation of the Chondroitin sulphate membrane by bacterial enzymes. The studies confirmed that, the designed system could be used potentially as a carrier for colon delivery of aceclofenac by regulating drug release in stomach and the small intestine. PMID:24250470

  3. Peptide GE11-Polyethylene Glycol-Polyethylenimine for targeted gene delivery in laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Henglei; Zhou, Liang; Liu, Min; Lu, Weiyue; Gao, Chunli

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using GE11-polyethylene glycol-polyethylenimine (GE11-PEG-PEI) for targeted gene delivery to treat epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-overexpressing laryngeal cancer. This study described the design, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo study of the nanocarrier GE11-PEG-PEI for gene delivery to treat laryngeal cancer. Analysis of the sizes and zeta potentials indicated that the formation of PEGylated complexes was dependent on the N/P ratio, and these complexes were capable of binding plasmid DNA and condensing DNA into small positively charged nanoparticles. The results also revealed that GE11-PEG-PEI had a weaker effect on cell survival in vitro. Gene transfection was performed on human laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cells in vitro and in vivo. Both the in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that GE11-PEG-PEI had greater transfection efficiency than mPEG-PEI. Compared with mPEG-PEI/pORF-hTRAIL and saline, GE11-PEG-PEI/pORFh-TRAIL significantly (p < 0.05) reduced tumor growth in nude mice with laryngeal cancer. Moreover, the GE11-PEG-PEI/pORF-hTRAIL-treated groups showed more apoptosis than the mPEG-PEI/pORF-hTRAIL-treated groups. Therefore, our results showed that the peptide GE11 conjugated to PEG-PEI delivered significantly more genes to EGFR-overexpressing laryngeal cancer cells in vivo, indicating that GE11-PEG-PEI may be a suitable gene vector for treating EGFR-overexpressing laryngeal cancer. PMID:26008151

  4. Formulation and evaluation of niosomal nasal drug delivery system of folic acid for brain targeting.

    PubMed

    Ravouru, Nagaraju; Kondreddy, Pallavi; Korakanchi, Deepthy; Haritha, M

    2013-12-01

    Nasal mucosa offers advantages to deliver drugs to brain via olfactory route thus provides rapid onset of drug action and hence faster therapeutic effect. Therefore, various strategies have been proposed to improve the delivery of different drugs to brain including liposomes, colloidal drug carriers, micelles, chimeric peptide technology and nanotechnology through nasal route. The low blood level of folates is the primary cause of depression in Alzheimer's disease. Folic acid is a water soluble vitamin showing difficulty in crossing the blood brain barrier and thus was formulated as niosomal nasal drug delivery systems to target the brain. In the present work, folic acid niosomes were prepared using different nonionic surfactants i.e., span 20, span 60, span 80, tween 20, tween 80 and cholesterol by using lipid layer hydration technique. These were evaluated for particle size, viscosity, osmotic shock, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. The influence of different formulation variables such as surfactant type, surfactant concentration, and cholesterol concentration was optimized for required size distribution, viscosity, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. The prepared niosomes were in the size range of 3.05-5.625 µm. Niosomes prepared with span 60 and cholesterol in the ratio of 1:1 (50 mg: 50 mg) shown higher entrapment efficiency of 69.42% and better in vitro drug release of 64.2% at the end of 12 hrs and therefore considered as optimized formulation. The stability studies were carried out by storing niosomes at 4±1°C and 25±1°C and showed good stability over the period of storage. The release of drug from niosomes followed anomalous diffusion and obeyed first order release kinetics. Ex-vivo perfusion studies were also performed by using rat model, about 48.15% of drug was found to be absorbed through nasal cavity at the end of 6 hrs. PMID:23863098

  5. Intracoronary delivery of DNAzymes targeting human EGR-1 reduces infarct size following myocardial ischaemia reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Bhindi, Ravinay; Fahmy, Roger G; McMahon, Aisling C; Khachigian, Levon M; Lowe, Harry C

    2012-06-01

    Despite improvements in treatment, myocardial infarction (MI) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Inflammation arising from ischaemic and reperfusion injury is a key mechanism which underpins myocardial damage and impairment of cardiac function. Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) is an early immediate gene and a master regulator that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. This study sought to examine the effect of selective inhibition of Egr-1 using catalytic deoxyribonucleic acid molecules (DNAzymes, DZs) delivered via the clinically relevant coronary route in a large animal model of myocardial IR. It was hypothesized that Egr-1 inhibition with intracoronary DZ would reduce infarction size by modulating its downstream effector molecules. Egr-1 DZs inhibited the adherence of THP-1 monocytes to IL-1?-activated endothelial cells in vitro and retained its catalytic activity up to 225 min after in vivo administration. In a porcine model of myocardial IR (45 min ischaemia/3 h reperfusion), DZ was taken up in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells in the myocardium after intracoronary delivery. Egr-1 DZs reduced infarct size and improved cardiac functional recovery following intracoronary delivery at the initiation of IR in this large animal model of MI. This was associated with inhibition of pro-inflammatory Egr-1 and ICAM-1 expression, and the reduced expression of TNF-?, PAI-1, TF, and myocardial MPO activity in tissue derived from the border zone of the infarct. Taken together, these data suggest that strategies targeting Egr-1 via the intracoronary route after IR injury in pigs have potential therapeutic implications in human MI. PMID:22344601

  6. Enhanced siRNA delivery into cells by exploiting the synergy between targeting ligands and cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Christopher J; Saltzman, W Mark

    2011-09-01

    We have developed a polymer nanoparticle-based siRNA delivery system that exploits a cell surface binding synergism between targeting ligands and cell-penetrating peptides. Nanoparticles were coated with folate and penetratin via a PEGylated phospholipid linker (DSPE-PEG): the combination of both of these ligands represents a strategy for enhancing intracellular delivery of attached polymer nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized for size, morphology, density of surface modification, and ligand association and retention. The surface coverage achieved on DSPE-PEG-coated nanoparticles is as high as (or higher than) obtained with other ligand-modified nano-scale particulate systems (?0.5-5 pmol ligand/cm²). Additionally, these nanoparticles were loaded with a high density of siRNA (?130-140 pmol siRNA/mg nanoparticles), which is slowly released upon incubation in water. Synergies between the activity of surface binding and cell internalizing ligands on these siRNA-loaded nanoparticles impart delivery enhancements that improve their gene silencing efficacy both in culture and in tumor models. Traditionally, targeting ligands function by binding to cell surface receptors, while cell-penetrating peptides function by nonspecifically transporting across cell membranes. Interestingly, we have observed that improved delivery of these dual-functionalized nanoparticles was in part, a result of increased cell surface avidity afforded by both ligands. This siRNA delivery system presents an approach to surface modification of nanovehicles, in which multiple ligands function in parallel to enhance cell binding and uptake. PMID:21664689

  7. Quantum Dots in an Amphiphilic Polyethyleneimine Derivative Platform for Cellular Labeling, Targeting, Gene Delivery, and Ratiometric Oxygen Sensing.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonhyuck; Lee, Junhwa; Kwag, Jungheon; Baek, Yeonggyeong; Kim, Bumju; Yoon, Calvin Jinse; Bok, Seoyeon; Cho, So-Hye; Kim, Ki Hean; Ahn, G-One; Kim, Sungjee

    2015-06-23

    Amphiphilic polyethyleneimine derivatives (amPEIs) were synthesized and used to encapsulate dozens of quantum dots (QDs). The QD-amPEI composite was ?100 nm in hydrodynamic diameter and had the slightly positive outer surface that suited well for cellular internalization. The QD-amPEI showed very efficient QD cellular labeling with the labeled cell fluorescence intensity more than 10 times higher than conventional techniques such as Lipofectamine-assisted QD delivery. QD-amPEI was optimal for maximal intracellular QD delivery by the large QD payload and the rapid endocytosis kinetics. QD-amPEI platform technology was demonstrated for gene delivery, cell-specific labeling, and ratiometric oxygen sensing. Our QD-amPEI platform has two partitions: positive outer surface and hydrophobic inside pocket. The outer positive surface was further exploited for gene delivery and targeting. Co-delivery of QDs and GFP silencing RNAs was successfully demonstrated by assembling siRNAs to the outer surfaces, which showed the transfection efficiency an order of magnitude higher than conventional gene transfections. Hyaluronic acids were tethered onto the QD-amPEI for cell-specific targeted labeling which showed the specific-to-nonspecific signal ratio over 100. The inside hydrophobic compartment was further applied for cohosting oxygen sensing phosphorescence Ru dyes along with QDs. The QD-Ru-amPEI oxygen probe showed accurate and reversible oxygen sensing capability by the ratiometric photoluminescence signals, which was successfully applied to cellular and spheroid models. PMID:26057729

  8. A Controllable Aptamer-Based Self-Assembled DNA Dendrimer for High Affinity Targeting, Bioimaging and Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huimin; Ma, Yanli; Xie, Yi; An, Yuan; Huang, Yishun; Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2015-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery is important in cancer therapy to decrease the systemic toxicity resulting from nonspecific drug distribution and to enhance drug delivery efficiency. We have developed an aptamer-based DNA dendritic nanostructure as a multifunctional vehicle for targeted cancer cell imaging and drug delivery. The multifunctional DNA dendrimer is constructed from functional Y-shaped building blocks with predesigned base-pairing hybridization including fluorophores, targeting DNA aptamers and intercalated anticancer drugs. With controllable step-by-step self-assembly, the programmable DNA dendrimer has several appealing features, including facile modular design, excellent biostability and biocompatibility, high selectivity, strong binding affinity, good cell internalization efficiency, and high drug loading capacity. Due to the unique structural features of DNA dendrimers, multiple copies of aptamers can be incorporated into each dendrimer, generating a multivalent aptamer-tethered nanostructure with enhanced binding affinity. A model chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, doxorubicin, was delivered via these aptamer-based DNA dendrimers and exerted a potent toxicity for target cancer cells (human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line) with low side effects for the non-target cells (human Burkitt’s lymphoma cell line). This controllable aptamer-based DNA dendrimer is a promising candidate for biomedical applications. PMID:25959874

  9. A controllable aptamer-based self-assembled DNA dendrimer for high affinity targeting, bioimaging and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huimin; Ma, Yanli; Xie, Yi; An, Yuan; Huang, Yishun; Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2015-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery is important in cancer therapy to decrease the systemic toxicity resulting from nonspecific drug distribution and to enhance drug delivery efficiency. We have developed an aptamer-based DNA dendritic nanostructure as a multifunctional vehicle for targeted cancer cell imaging and drug delivery. The multifunctional DNA dendrimer is constructed from functional Y-shaped building blocks with predesigned base-pairing hybridization including fluorophores, targeting DNA aptamers and intercalated anticancer drugs. With controllable step-by-step self-assembly, the programmable DNA dendrimer has several appealing features, including facile modular design, excellent biostability and biocompatibility, high selectivity, strong binding affinity, good cell internalization efficiency, and high drug loading capacity. Due to the unique structural features of DNA dendrimers, multiple copies of aptamers can be incorporated into each dendrimer, generating a multivalent aptamer-tethered nanostructure with enhanced binding affinity. A model chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, doxorubicin, was delivered via these aptamer-based DNA dendrimers and exerted a potent toxicity for target cancer cells (human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line) with low side effects for the non-target cells (human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line). This controllable aptamer-based DNA dendrimer is a promising candidate for biomedical applications. PMID:25959874

  10. siRNA delivery targeting to the lung via agglutination-induced accumulation and clearance of cationic tetraamino fullerene

    PubMed Central

    MINAMI, Kosuke; OKAMOTO, Koji; DOI, Kent; HARANO, Koji; NOIRI, Eisei; NAKAMURA, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    The efficient treatment of lung diseases requires lung-selective delivery of agents to the lung. However, lung-selective delivery is difficult because the accumulation of micrometer-sized carriers in the lung often induces inflammation and embolization-related toxicity. Here we demonstrate a lung-selective delivery system of small interfering RNA (siRNA) by controlling the size of carrier vehicle in blood vessels. The carrier is made of tetra(piperazino)fullerene epoxide (TPFE), a water-soluble cationic tetraamino fullerene. TPFE and siRNA form sub-micrometer-sized complexes in buffered solution and these complexes agglutinate further with plasma proteins in the bloodstream to form micrometer-sized particles. The agglutinate rapidly clogs the lung capillaries, releases the siRNA into lung cells to silence expression of target genes, and is then cleared rapidly from the lung after siRNA delivery. We applied our delivery system to an animal model of sepsis, indicating the potential of TPFE-based siRNA delivery for clinical applications. PMID:24814863

  11. Ultrasound-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption for targeted drug delivery in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Muna; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Alexander, Phillip M.; McDannold, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The physiology of the vasculature in the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and other factors, complicates the delivery of most drugs to the brain. Different methods have been used to bypass the BBB, but they have limitations such as being invasive, non-targeted or requiring the formulation of new drugs. Focused ultrasound (FUS), when combined with circulating microbubbles, is a noninvasive method to locally and transiently disrupt the BBB at discrete targets. This review provides insight on the current status of this unique drug delivery technique, experience in preclinical models, and potential for clinical translation. If translated to humans, this method would offer a flexible means to target therapeutics to desired points or volumes in the brain, and enable the whole arsenal of drugs in the CNS that are currently prevented by the BBB. PMID:24462453

  12. Targeted lipid based drug conjugates: a novel strategy for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Kwatra, Deep; Earla, Ravinder; Samanta, Swapan K; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-09-15

    A majority of studies involving prodrugs are directed to overcome low bioavailability of the parent drug. The aim of this study is to increase the bioavailability of acyclovir (ACV) by designing a novel prodrug delivery system which is more lipophilic, and at the same time site specific. In this study, a lipid raft has been conjugated to the parent drug molecule to impart lipophilicity. Simultaneously a targeting moiety that can be recognized by a specific transporter/receptor in the cell membrane has also been tethered to the other terminal of lipid raft. Targeted lipid prodrugs i.e., biotin-ricinoleicacid-acyclovir (B-R-ACV) and biotin-12hydroxystearicacid-acyclovir (B-12HS-ACV) were synthesized with ricinoleicacid and 12hydroxystearicacid as the lipophilic rafts and biotin as the targeting moiety. Biotin-ACV (B-ACV), ricinoleicacid-ACV (R-ACV) and 12hydroxystearicacid-ACV (12HS-ACV) were also synthesized to delineate the individual effects of the targeting and the lipid moieties. Cellular accumulation studies were performed in confluent MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells. The targeted lipid prodrugs B-R-ACV and B-12HS-ACV exhibited much higher cellular accumulation than B-ACV, R-ACV and 12HS-ACV in both cell lines. This result indicates that both the targeting and the lipid moiety act synergistically toward cellular uptake. The biotin conjugated prodrugs caused a decrease in the uptake of [(3)H] biotin suggesting the role of sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) in uptake. The affinity of these targeted lipid prodrugs toward SMVT was studied in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Both the targeted lipid prodrugs B-R-ACV (20.25 ± 1.74 ?M) and B-12HS-ACV (23.99 ± 3.20 ?M) demonstrated higher affinity towards SMVT than B-ACV (30.90 ± 4.19 ?M). Further, dose dependent studies revealed a concentration dependent inhibitory effect on [(3)H] biotin uptake in the presence of biotinylated prodrugs. Transepithelial transport studies showed lowering of [(3)H] biotin permeability in the presence of biotin and biotinylated prodrugs, further indicating a carrier mediated translocation by SMVT. Overall, results from these studies clearly suggest that these biotinylated lipid prodrugs of ACV possess enhanced affinity towards SMVT. These prodrugs appear to be potential candidates for the treatment of oral and ocular herpes virus infections, because of higher expression of SMVT on intestinal and corneal epithelial cells. In conclusion we hypothesize that our novel prodrug design strategy may help in higher absorption of hydrophilic parent drug. Moreover, this novel prodrug design can result in higher cell permeability of hydrophilic therapeutics such as genes, siRNA, antisense RNA, DNA, oligonucleotides, peptides and proteins. PMID:22692074

  13. TARGETED LIPID BASED DRUG CONJUGATES: A NOVEL STRATEGY FOR DRUG DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Kwatra, Deep; Earla, Ravinder; Samanta, Swapan K.; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2012-01-01

    A majority of studies involving prodrugs are directed to overcome low bioavailability of the parent drug. The aim of this study is to increase the bioavailability of acyclovir (ACV) by designing a novel prodrug delivery system which is more lipophilic, and at the same time site specific. In this study, a lipid raft has been conjugated to the parent drug molecule to impart lipophilicity. Simultaneously a targeting moiety that can be recognized by a specific transporter/receptor in the cell membrane has also been tethered to the other terminal of lipid raft. Targeted lipid prodrugs i.e., biotin-ricinoleicacid-acyclovir (B-R-ACV) and biotin-12hydroxystearicacid-acyclovir (B-12HS-ACV) were synthesized with ricinoleicacid and 12hydroxystearicacid as the lipophilic rafts and biotin as the targeting moiety. Biotin-ACV (B-ACV), ricinoleicacid-ACV (R-ACV) and 12hydroxystearicacid-ACV (12HS-ACV) were also synthesized to delineate the individual effects of the targeting and the lipid moieties. Cellular accumulation studies were performed in confluent MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells. The targeted lipid prodrugs B-R-ACV and B-12HS-ACV exhibited much higher cellular accumulation than B-ACV, R-ACV and 12HS-ACV in both cell lines. This result indicates that both the targeting and the lipid moiety act synergistically towards cellular uptake. The biotin conjugated prodrugs caused a decrease in the uptake of [3H] biotin suggesting the role of sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) in uptake. The affinity of these targeted lipid prodrugs towards SMVT was studied in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Both the targeted lipid prodrugs B-R-ACV (20.25 ± 1.74 µM) and B-12HS-ACV (23.99 ± 3.20 µM) demonstrated higher affinity towards SMVT than B-ACV (30.90 ± 4.19 µM). Further, dose dependent studies revealed a concentration dependent inhibitory effect on [3H] biotin uptake in the presence of biotinylated prodrugs. Transepithelial transport studies showed lowering of [3H] biotin permeability in the presence of biotin and biotinylated prodrugs, further indicating a carrier mediated translocation by SMVT. Overall, results from these studies clearly suggest that these biotinylated lipid prodrugs of ACV possess enhanced affinity towards SMVT. These prodrugs appear to be potential candidates for the treatment of oral and ocular herpes virus infections, because of higher expression of SMVT on intestinal and corneal epithelial cells. In conclusion we hypothesize that our novel prodrug design strategy may help in higher absorption of hydrophilic parent drug. Moreover, this novel prodrug design can result in higher cell permeability of hydrophilic therapeutics such as genes, siRNA, antisense RNA, DNA, oligonucleotides, peptides and proteins. PMID:22692074

  14. Effective Targeted Gene Delivery to Dendritic Cells via Synergetic Interaction of Mannosylated Lipid with DOPE and BCAT

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Kwon; Wei, Huiling; Kulkarni, Aditya; Pogranichniy, Roman M.; Thompson, David H.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient delivery of plasmids encoding antigenic determinants into dendritic cells (DCs) that control immune response is a promising strategy for rapid development of new vaccines. In this study, we prepared a series of targeted cationic lipoplex based on two synthetic lipid components, mannose-poly(ethylene glycol, MW3000)-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (Mannose-PEG3000-DSPE) and O-(2R-1,2-di-O-(1'Z,9'Z-octadecadienyl)-glycerol)-3-N-(bis-2-aminoethyl)-carbamate (BCAT), that were formulated with 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) for evaluation as non-viral vectors for transgene expression in DCs. First, we optimized the N:P ratio for maximum transfection and then screened the effects of mannose targeting for further enhancement of transfection levels. Our results indicate that efficient delivery of gWIZ GFP plasmid into DCs was observed for mannose compositions of ~10%, whereas low transfection efficiencies were observed with non-targeted formulations. Mannose-targeted lipofectamine complexes also showed high GFP expression levels in DCs relative to non-targeted lipofectamine controls. The best transfection performance was observed using 10 mol % Mannose-PEG3000-DSPE, 60 mol% BCAT, and 30 mol % DOPE, indicating that the most efficient delivery into DCs occurs via synergistic interaction between mannose targeting and acid-labile, fusogenic BCAT:DOPE formulations. Our data suggest that mannose-PEG3000-DSPE:BCAT:DOPE formulations may be effective gene delivery vehicles for the development of DC-based vaccines. PMID:22229467

  15. Clustered Integrin Ligands as a Novel Approach for the Targeting of Non-Viral Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Quinn Kwan Tai

    Gene transfer or gene delivery is described as the process in which foreign DNA is introduced into cells. Over the years, gene delivery has gained the attention of many researchers and has been developed as powerful tools for use in biotechnology and medicine. With the completion of the Human Genome Project, such advances in technology allowed for the identification of diseases ranging from hereditary disorders to acquired ones (cancer) which were thought to be incurable. Gene therapy provides the means necessary to treat or eliminate genetic diseases from its origin, unlike traditional medicine which only treat symptoms. With ongoing clinical trials for gene therapy increasing, the greatest difficulty still lies in developing safe systems which can target cells of interest to provide efficient delivery. Nature, over millions of years of evolution, has provided an example of one of the most efficient delivery systems: viruses. Although the use of viruses for gene delivery has been well studied, the safety issues involving immunogenicity, insertional mutagenesis, high cost, and poor reproducibility has provided problems for their clinical application. From understanding viruses, we gain insight to designing new systems for non-viral gene delivery. One of these techniques utilized by adenoviruses is the clustering of ligands on its surface through the use of a protein called a penton base. Through the use of nanotechnology we can mimic this basic concept in non-viral gene delivery systems. This dissertation research is focused on developing and applying a novel system for displaying the integrin binding ligand (RGD) in a constrained manner to form a clustered integrin ligand binding platform to be used to enhance the targeting and efficiency of non-viral gene delivery vectors. Peptide mixed monolayer protected gold nanoparticles provides a suitable surface for ligand clustering. A relationship between the peptide ratios in the reaction solution used to form these ligand clusters compared to the reacted amounts on the surface of the particle was studied. This provided us the ability to control the size of the clusters formed and the spacing between the integrins for gold nanoparticles of various sizes. We then applied the clustered ligand binding system for targeting of DNA/PEI polyplexes and demonstrated that the use of RGD nanoclusters enhances gene transfer up to 35-fold which was dependent on the density of alphavbeta3 integrins on the cell surface. Cell integrin sensitivity was shown in which cells with higher alpha vbeta3 densities resulting in higher luciferase transgene expression. The targeting of RGD nanoclusters for DNA/PEI polyplexes was further shown in vivo using PET/CT technology which displayed improved targeting towards high level alphavbeta3 integrin expression (U87MG) tumors over medium level alphavbeta 3 integrin expression (HeLa). In addition to studying the clustered integrin binding system, the current non-viral vectors used suffer from stability and toxicity issues in vitro and in vivo. We have applied a new chemistry for synthesizing nanogels utilizing a Traut's reagent initiated Michael addition reaction for modification of diamine containing crosslikers which will allow for the development of stable and cell demanded release of oligonucleotides. We have shown bulk gels made were capable of encapsulating and holding DNA within the gel and were able to synthesize them into nanogels. The combined research shown here using clustered integrin ligands and a new type of nanogel synthesis provides an ideal system for gene delivery in the future.

  16. Multifaceted chitin/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid composite nanogels.

    PubMed

    Rejinold, N Sanoj; Biswas, Raja; Chellan, Gopi; Jayakumar, R

    2014-06-01

    Cyto-compatible, 80nm sized chitin/PLGA composite nanogels (chit/PLGA-comp NGs) were prepared by regeneration method and characterized. The multifaceted chit/PLGA-comp NGs were surface modified with Au, Fe3O4, CdTe/ZnTe-QDs and umbelliferone, respectively. 185nm sized Au-chit/PLGA-comp NGs, 170nm sized QD-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs and 160nm sized Fe3O4-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs showed RF heating. The QD-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs and 180nm sized umb-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs were well uptaken by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The chit/PLGA-comp NGs could be useful for microbial monitoring and RF application for cancer therapy. The preliminary data showed that multifaceted chit/PLGA-comp-NGs could be useful for hyperthermia for cancer treatment and microbial labelling and imaging. PMID:24685461

  17. Bufalin loaded biotinylated chitosan nanoparticles: an efficient drug delivery system for targeted chemotherapy against breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin; Yin, Hongzhuan; Zhang, Shichen; Luo, Ying; Xu, Kai; Ma, Ping; Sui, Chengguang; Meng, Fandong; Liu, Yunpeng; Jiang, Youhong; Fang, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Bufalin is a traditional oriental medicine which is known to induce apoptosis in many tumor cells, and it is thus considered as a new anticancer therapeutic. By now, most of the studies of bufalin are in vitro, however in vivo evaluations of its therapeutic efficacy are less and are in great demand for its development toward anticancer drug. One of the problems probably hampering the development of bufalin is the lack of tumor selectivity, which may reduce the therapeutic effect as well as showing side effects. To overcome this drawback, in this study, we designed a tumor-targeted drug delivery system of bufalin based on enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, by using biotinylated chitosan, resulting in bufalin encapsulating nanoparticles (Bu-BCS-NPs) with mean hydrodynamic size of 171.6 nm, as evidenced by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. Bu-BCS-NPs showed a relative slow and almost linear release of bufalin, and about 36.8% of bufalin was released in 24 h when dissolved in sodium phosphate buffer. Compared to native bufalin, Bu-BCS-NPs exhibited a stronger cytotoxicity against breast cancer MCF-7 cells (IC50 of 0.582 ?g/ml vs 1.896 ?g/ml of native bufalin). Similar results were also obtained in intracellular reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis induction, and decrease in mitochondria membrane potential. These results may contribute to the rapid intracellular uptake of nanoparticles, partly benefiting from the highly expressed biotin receptors in tumor cells. In vivo studies using MCF-7 tumor models in nude mice confirmed the remarkable therapeutic effect of Bu-BCS-NPs. These findings suggest the potential of Bu-BCS-NPs as an anticancer drug with tumor targeting property. PMID:24846793

  18. Development of a folate-modified curcumin loaded micelle delivery system for cancer targeting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunfen; Chen, Hao; Zhao, Jie; Pang, Xin; Xi, Yanwei; Zhai, Guangxi

    2014-09-01

    Targeted drug delivery system for tumor cells is an appealing platform on enhancing the therapeutic effects and reducing the side effects of the drug. In this study, we developed folate-modified curcumin (Cur) loaded micelles (Cur-FPPs) for cancer chemotherapy. The targeting material, Folate-PEG3000-PLA2000, was synthesized by the amide bond formation reaction. And the Cur loaded micelles were prepared by thin-film hydration method with mPEG2000-PLA2000 (Cur-PPs) or mPEG2000-PLA2000 and Folate-PEG3000-PLA2000 (Cur-FPPs) as carrier. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the formulation, and the optimized Cur-FPPs was prepared with the weight ratio of Folate-PEG3000-PLA2000 and mPEG2000-PLA2000 at 1:9. The average size of the mixed micelles was 70nm, the encapsulating efficiency and drug-loading were 80.73±0.16% and 4.84±0.01%, respectively. Compared with the Cur propylene glycol solution, the in vitro release of Cur from Cur-FPPs showed a sustained manner. Furthermore, the in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of Cur-FPPs were significantly enhanced towards MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. The pharmacokinetic studies in rats indicated that a 3-fold increase in the half-life was achieved for Cur loaded micelle formulations relative to solubilized Cur. All the results demonstrated that folate-modified Cur micelles could serve as a potential nanocarrier to improve the solubility and anti-cancer activity of Cur. PMID:24984268

  19. Functionalized nanoscale oil bodies for targeted delivery of a hydrophobic drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chung-Jen; Lin, Che-Chin; Lu, Tzu-Li; Wang, Hesin-Fu

    2011-10-01

    Effective formulations of hydrophobic drugs for cancer therapies are challenging. To address this issue, we have sought to nanoscale artificial oil bodies (NOBs) as an alternative. NOBs are lipid-based particles which consist of a central oil space surrounded by a monolayer of oleosin (Ole)-embedded phospholipids (PLs). Ole was first fused with the anti-HER2/neu affibody (Ole-ZH2), and the resulting hybrid protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli. ZH2-displayed NOBs were then assembled by sonicating the mixture containing plant oil, PLs, and isolated Ole-ZH2 in one step. To illustrate their usefulness, functionalized NOBs were employed to encapsulate a hydrophobic anticancer drug, Camptothecin (CPT). As a result, these CPT-loaded NOBs remained stable in serum and the release of CPT at the non-permissive condition exhibited a sustained and prolonged profile. Moreover, plain NOBs were biocompatible whereas CPT-loaded NOBs exerted a strong cytotoxic effect on HER2/neu-positive cells in vitro. Administration of xenograft nude mice with CPT-loaded NOBs also led to the regression of solid tumors in an effective way. Overall, the result indicates the potential of NOBs for targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

  20. Ultrasound-targeted Microbubble Destruction-mediated Gene Delivery Into Canine Livers

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Misty L; Kuhr, Christian S; Graves, Scott S; Loeb, Keith R; Sun, Samuel S; Keilman, George W; Morrison, Kyle P; Paun, Marla; Storb, Rainer F; Miao, Carol H

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) was applied to a targeted canine liver lobe simultaneously with injection of plasmid DNA (pDNA)/microbubble (MB) complexes into a portal vein (PV) segmental branch and occlusion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) to facilitate DNA uptake. By using a 1.1 MHz, 13 mm diameter transducer, a fivefold increase in luciferase activity was obtained at 3.3 MPa peak negative pressure (PNP) in the treated lobe. For more effective treatment of large tissue volumes in canines, a planar unfocused transducer with a large effective beam diameter (52?mm) was specifically constructed. Its apodized dual element configuration greatly reduced the near-field transaxial pressure variations, resulting in a remarkably uniform field of US exposure for the treated tissues. Together with a 15 kW capacity US amplifier, a 692-fold increase of gene expression was achieved at 2.7?MPa. Transaminase and histology analysis indicated minimal tissue damage. These experiments represent an important developmental step toward US-mediated gene delivery in large animals and clinics. PMID:23732985

  1. Multifunctional, self-assembling anionic peptide-lipid nanocomplexes for targeted siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Tagalakis, Aristides D; Lee, Do Hyang D; Bienemann, Alison S; Zhou, Haiyan; Munye, Mustafa M; Saraiva, Luisa; McCarthy, David; Du, Zixiu; Vink, Conrad A; Maeshima, Ruhina; White, Edward A; Gustafsson, Kenth; Hart, Stephen L

    2014-09-01

    Formulations of cationic liposomes and polymers readily self-assemble by electrostatic interactions with siRNA to form cationic nanoparticles which achieve efficient transfection and silencing in vitro. However, the utility of cationic formulations in vivo is limited due to rapid clearance from the circulation, due to their association with serum proteins, as well as systemic and cellular toxicity. These problems may be overcome with anionic formulations but they provide challenges of self-assembly and transfection efficiency. We have developed anionic, siRNA nanocomplexes utilizing anionic PEGylated liposomes and cationic targeting peptides that overcome these problems. Biophysical measurements indicated that at optimal ratios of components, anionic PEGylated nanocomplexes formed spherical particles and that, unlike cationic nanocomplexes, were resistant to aggregation in the presence of serum, and achieved significant gene silencing although their non-PEGylated anionic counterparts were less efficient. We have evaluated the utility of anionic nanoparticles for the treatment of neuronal diseases by administration to rat brains of siRNA to BACE1, a key enzyme involved in the formation of amyloid plaques. Silencing of BACE1 was achieved in vivo following a single injection of anionic nanoparticles by convection enhanced delivery and specificity of RNA interference verified by 5' RACE-PCR and Western blot analysis of protein. PMID:24985735

  2. Temporal Multiscale Approach for Nanocarrier Motion with Simultaneous Adhesion and Hydrodynamic Interactions in Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Uma, B.; Liu, J.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.; Eckmann, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a fluctuating hydrodynamics approach and a hybrid approach combining fluctuating hydrodynamics with generalized Langevin dynamics to resolve the motion of a nanocarrier when subject to both hydrodynamic interactions and adhesive interactions. Specifically, using these approaches, we compute equilibrium probability distributions at constant temperature as well as velocity autocorrelation functions of the nanocarrier subject to thermal motion in a quiescent Newtonian fluid medium, when tethered by a harmonic spring force mimicking a tether due to a single receptor-ligand bond. We demonstrate that the thermal equipartition of translation, rotation, and spring degrees of freedom are preserved by our formalism while simultaneously resolving the nature of the hydrodynamic correlations. Additionally, we evaluate the potential of mean force (or free energy density) along a specified reaction coordinate to faciltate extensive conformational sampling of the nanocarrier motion. We show that our results are in excellent agreement with analytical results and Monte Carlo simulations, thereby validating our methodologies. The frameworks we have presented provide a comprehensive platform for temporal multiscale modeling of hydrodynamic and microscopic interactions mediating nanocarrier motion and adhesion in vascular targeted drug delivery. PMID:23853388

  3. Preparation and evaluation of lipid vesicles of camptothecin as targeted drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Prabhakara, Prabhu; Zenia, Teles; Marina, Koland; Shama, Khandige Prasanna; Girish, Shetty Nisha; Matapady, Nairy Harish

    2013-07-01

    Site-specific delivery of anticancer based therapy of human cancers has led to several remarkable outcomes, particularly in the therapy of breast cancer and lymphoma. Camptothecin, a plant secondary metabolite is widely used in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and lymphoma. However its side effect profile often results in cessation of therapy. In this study the principle of both active as well as passive targeting using camptothecin loaded stealth liposomes as per the magic gun approach was followed. Stealth liposomes of camtothecin were prepared by thin film hydration method using a PEGylated phospholipid like DSPE-MPEG 2000. Similarly conventional liposomes were prepared using phospholipids like DPPC, DSPC. Conventional liposomes were coated with a hydrophilic biocompatible polymer like chitosan. It was found that chitosan coating of the conventional liposomes increased the physical stability of the liposomal suspension. Further, chitosan coated conventional liposomes and the PEGylated liposomes released the drug for a prolonged period of time, compared to the uncoated conventional liposomes. In vivo screening of the formulations for their antitumor efficacy was carried out in rats. Breast cancer was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats using an indirectly acting chemical carcinogen DMBA (7, 12 dimethyl benz(a)anthracene). It was found that there was significant decrease (P>0.01) in tumor volume in the rat group treated with test 2 formulation and test 1 formulation compared to standard free CPT. However the chitosan coated liposomal formulation showed a better antitumor efficacy than that of the PEGylated liposomal formulation. PMID:23811458

  4. Brain-targeted delivery of trans-activating transcriptor-conjugated magnetic PLGA/lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiangru; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Ziming; Zhang, Yifang; Sun, Tingting; Zhang, Fang; Wu, Jian; Fu, Yanyan; Du, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Ying; Liu, YongHai; Ma, Kai; Liu, Hongzhi; Song, Yuanjian

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/lipid nanoparticles (MPLs) were fabricated from PLGA, L-?-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-amino (polyethylene glycol) (DSPE-PEG-NH2), and magnetic nanoparticles (NPs), and then conjugated to trans-activating transcriptor (TAT) peptide. The TAT-MPLs were designed to target the brain by magnetic guidance and TAT conjugation. The drugs hesperidin (HES), naringin (NAR), and glutathione (GSH) were encapsulated in MPLs with drug loading capacity (>10%) and drug encapsulation efficiency (>90%). The therapeutic efficacy of the drug-loaded TAT-MPLs in bEnd.3 cells was compared with that of drug-loaded MPLs. The cells accumulated higher levels of TAT-MPLs than MPLs. In addition, the accumulation of QD-loaded fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled TAT-MPLs in bEnd.3 cells was dose and time dependent. Our results show that TAT-conjugated MPLs may function as an effective drug delivery system that crosses the blood brain barrier to the brain. PMID:25187980

  5. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of mebeverine HCl colon-targeted drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Ghassan Z; Abdulkarim, Muthanna F; Chitneni, Mallikarjun; Mutee, Ahmed F; Ameer, Omar Z; Salman, Ibrahim M; Noor, Azmin M

    2011-08-01

    Mebeverine HCl is a water soluble drug commonly used to treat irritable bowel syndrome by acting directly on the smooth muscles of the colon. This work was aimed at the formulation and in vitro evaluation of a colon-targeted drug delivery system containing mebeverine HCl. Matrix tablets were prepared using ethyl cellulose (EC), Eudragit RL 100 either solely or in combination by wet granulation technique. Dissolution was carried out in 0.1 N HCl for 2?h followed by pH 6.8 phosphate buffer for eight hours. Uncoated forms released more than 5% drug in 0.1 N HCl therefore, Eudragit L100 was used as a coat. The results indicated very slow release profile. As a result, single retardant was used to prepare the matrix and coated by Eudragit L 100. The matrix containing 7% Eudragit RL 100 and 6% of binder was subjected to further studies to assess the effect of different coats (Eudragit L 100-55 and cellulose acetate phthalate) and different binders (pectin and sodium alginate) on the release profile. Eudragit L 100 and pectin were the best coating agent and binder, respectively. The final formula was stable and it can be concluded that the prepared system has the potential to deliver mebeverine HCl in vivo to the colon. PMID:20429815

  6. Targeted Delivery of 5-fluorouracil with Monoclonal Antibody Modified Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Fadaeian, Ghazal; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Kouchakzadeh, Hasan; Shokri, Fazel; Soleimani, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Herein, 1F2, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb), was covalently coupled to the surface of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) loaded bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles. Concerning two different crosslinkers for conjugation of 1F2, Maleimide-poly (ethylene glycol)-Succinimidyl carbonate (Mal-PEG5000-NHS) was selected due to its higher conjugation efficiency (23 ± 4%) obtained in comparison to N-succinimidyl 3-(2-Pyridyl Dithio) Propionate (SPDP) (8 ± 2%). A slight increase in the average particle size with a negligible prolongation of the 5-FU release was observed after 1F2 coupling. The 1F2-coupled 5-FU-loaded BSA nanoparticles interacted with nearly all HER2 receptors available on the surface of HER2-positive SKBR3 cells. No cellular uptake was observed for HER2-negative MCF7 cells. Physicochemical and biological properties of the mAb-modified nanoparticles did not significantly alter after three months of storage at room temperature. The in-vitro cytotoxicity evaluation by MTT assay, demonstrated lower SKBR3 viability (50.7 ± 9 %) after 5 hours contact with 1F2-coupled 5-FU-loaded BSA nanoparticles in comparison with the other control systems due to their cell attachment and internalization after washing. In addition, no significant toxicity was observed on MCF7 cells. This novel system can efficiently be employed for targeted delivery of 5-FU to HER2-positive cancerous cells. PMID:25901146

  7. Targeted Delivery of 5-fluorouracil with Monoclonal Antibody Modified Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fadaeian, Ghazal; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Kouchakzadeh, Hasan; Shokri, Fazel; Soleimani, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Herein, 1F2, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb), was covalently coupled to the surface of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) loaded bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles. Concerning two different crosslinkers for conjugation of 1F2, Maleimide-poly (ethylene glycol)-Succinimidyl carbonate (Mal-PEG5000-NHS) was selected due to its higher conjugation efficiency (23 ± 4%) obtained in comparison to N-succinimidyl 3-(2-Pyridyl Dithio) Propionate (SPDP) (8 ± 2%). A slight increase in the average particle size with a negligible prolongation of the 5-FU release was observed after 1F2 coupling. The 1F2-coupled 5-FU-loaded BSA nanoparticles interacted with nearly all HER2 receptors available on the surface of HER2-positive SKBR3 cells. No cellular uptake was observed for HER2-negative MCF7 cells. Physicochemical and biological properties of the mAb-modified nanoparticles did not significantly alter after three months of storage at room temperature. The in-vitro cytotoxicity evaluation by MTT assay, demonstrated lower SKBR3 viability (50.7 ± 9 %) after 5 hours contact with 1F2-coupled 5-FU-loaded BSA nanoparticles in comparison with the other control systems due to their cell attachment and internalization after washing. In addition, no significant toxicity was observed on MCF7 cells. This novel system can efficiently be employed for targeted delivery of 5-FU to HER2-positive cancerous cells. PMID:25901146

  8. Targeted Intracellular Controlled Drug Delivery and Tumor Therapy through in Situ Forming Ag Nanogates on Mesoporous Silica Nanocontainers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhui; Zheng, Jing; Deng, Li; Ma, Cheng; Li, Jishan; Li, Yinhui; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Jinfeng; Wang, Jing; Yang, Ronghua

    2015-06-10

    Targeting nanocontainers to the pathological zone and controlling release of their cargoes, in particular delivery of anticancer drugs to specific tumor cells in a targeted and controlled manner, remain the key challenges in drug delivery. This paper reports the development of a traceable and tumor-targeted intracellular drug release nanocontainer. The nanocontainer is obtained by in situ growth of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the surfaces of mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNs) using a DNA-templated process. Additionally, drug release from the nanopores is achieved by selective glutathione (GSH)-triggered dismantle of the AgNPs, and the concurrent fluorescence change allows real-time monitoring of drug release efficacy and facile visualization of in vivo delivery events. After being functionalized with sgc8 aptamer on the outer shell of the AgNPs, the targeted nanocontainers are delivered into acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by aptamer-mediated recognition and endocytosis. Moreover, the GSH-responsive process presents an improvement in the cell-specific drug release and chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumor growth. PMID:25966745

  9. Biofunctionalized phospholipid-capped mesoporous silica nanoshuttles for targeted drug delivery: improved water suspensibility and decreased nonspecific protein binding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Sheng; Wu, Li-Chen; Lu, Shin-Yi; Chang, Li-Ling; Teng, I-Ting; Yang, Chia-Min; Ho, Ja-An Annie

    2010-08-24

    A main challenge in nanobiomedicine is the engineering of nanostructures or nanomaterials that can efficiently encapsulate drugs at high load, cross cell membranes, and controllably release their cargo at target sites. Although mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are safe, versatile, and promising carrier materials for targeted drug delivery, their aggregation phenomena under physiological conditions (or salt-containing environments) and their nonspecific binding in protein-containing solutions (or serum) limit their applications in biological science and biomedicine. To address this challenge, we have developed a novel delivery system, termed a nanoshuttle, comprising a nanoscale PEGylated-phospholipid coating and 13-(chlorodimethylsilylmethyl)heptacosane-derivatized MSNs, in which therapeutic or imaging agents may be trapped and ligand-assisted targeted delivery may be achieved through surface functionalization of the phospholipids. As a proof of concept in this study, we selected fluorescein isothiocyanate and folate as the imaging tracer and targeted ligand, respectively. Relative to the bare MSNs, the lipid-capped MSNs exhibited superior suspensibility in phosphate-buffered saline and much lower nonspecific binding in vitro. Furthermore, enhanced specific cellular uptake by Hela cells occurred after administering the folate-sensitized phospholipid-capped MSNs. Our results suggest that these highly versatile multifunctional MSNs are promising vectors for nanomedicine applications. PMID:20731423

  10. From Phage Display to Nanoparticle Delivery: Functionalizing Liposomes with Multivalent Peptides Improves Targeting to a Cancer Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Bethany Powell; Li, Shunzi; Brown, Kathlynn C.

    2013-01-01

    Phage display is commonly used to isolate peptides that bind to a desired cell type. While chemical synthesis of selected peptides often results in ligands with low affinity, a multivalent tetrameric presentation of the peptides dramatically improves affinity. One of the primary uses of these peptides is conjugation to nanoparticle-based therapeutics for specific delivery to target cell types. We set out to optimize the path from phage display peptide selection to peptide presentation on a nanoparticle surface for targeted delivery. Here, we examine the effects of peptide valency, density, and affinity on nanoparticle delivery and therapeutic efficacy, using the ?v?6-specific H2009.1 peptide as a model phage-selected peptide and liposomal doxorubicin as a model therapeutic nanoparticle. Liposomes displaying the higher affinity multivalent H2009.1 tetrameric peptide demonstrate 5-10 fold higher drug delivery than liposomes displaying the lower affinity monomeric H2009.1 peptide, even when the same number of peptide subunits are displayed on the liposome. Importantly, a 6-fold greater toxicity is observed towards ?v?6-expressing cells for liposomes displaying tetrameric verses monomeric H2009.1 peptides. Additionally, liposomal targeting and toxicity increase with increasing concentrations of H2009.1 tetrameric peptide on the liposome surface. Thus, both the multivalent peptide and the multivalent liposome scaffold work together to increase targeting to ?v?6-expressing cells. This multi-layered approach to developing high affinity targeted nanoparticles may improve the utility of moderate affinity peptides. As tetramerization is known to increase affinity for a variety of phage-selected peptides, it is anticipated that the tetrameric scaffold may act as a general method for taking peptides from phage display to nanoparticle display. PMID:23186007

  11. Stable and pH-sensitive protein nanogels made by self-assembly of heat denatured soy protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nannan; Lin, Lianzhu; Sun, Weizheng; Zhao, Mouming

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we examined the possibility of preparing stable soy protein nanogels by simply heating homogeneous soy protein dispersion. The protein nanogels formed were characterized by z-average hydrodynamic diameter, polydispersity index, turbidity, ?-potential, morphology, and their stability to pH and ionic strength change. Soy protein dispersion (1% w/v) was homogeneous around pH 5.9 where it had the lowest polydispersity index (?0.1). Stable and spherical nanogels were formed by heating soy protein dispersion at pH 5.9 under 95 °C. They sustained constantly low polydispersity index (?0.1) in the investigated pH range of 6.06-7.0 and 2.6-3.0. The nanogels were pH-sensitive and would swell with pH change. They were stable at 0-200 mM NaCl concentration. Denaturation of soy glycinin was the prerequisite for the formation of stable nanogels. Soy protein nanogels had a core-shell structure with basic polypeptides and ? subunits interacting together as the hydrophobic core; and acid polypeptides, ?', and ? subunits locating outside the core as hydrophilic shell. The inner structure of soy protein nanogels was mainly stabilized by disulfide bonds cross-linked network and hydrophobic interaction. Soy protein nanogels made in this study would be useful as functional ingredients in biotechnological, pharmaceutical, and food industries. PMID:25180907

  12. Magnetically Targeted Delivery of Therapeutic Agents to Injured Blood Vessels for Prevention of In-Stent Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, Ilia; Adamo, Richard F.; Forbes, Scott P.; Folchman-Wagner, Zoë; Alferiev, Ivan S.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic guidance is a physical targeting strategy with the potential to improve the safety and efficacy of a variety of therapeutic agents — including small-molecule pharmaceuticals, proteins, gene vectors, and cells — by enabling their site-specific delivery. The application of magnetic targeting for in-stent restenosis can address the need for safer and more efficient treatment strategies. However, its translation to humans may not be possible without revising the traditional magnetic targeting scheme, which is limited by its inability to selectively guide therapeutic agents to deep localized targets. An alternative two-source strategy can be realized through the use of uniform, deep-penetrating magnetic fields in conjunction with vascular stents included as part of the magnetic setup and the platform for targeted delivery to injured arteries. Studies showing the feasibility of this novel targeting strategy in in-stent restenosis models and considerations in the design of carrier formulations for magnetically guided antirestenotic therapy are discussed in this review. PMID:22891107

  13. Use of hollow microneedles for targeted delivery of phenylephrine to treat fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyesun; Han, Mee-Ree; Kang, Nae-Gyu; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Jung Ho

    2015-06-10

    A hollow microneedle (HM) was prepared to deliver a phenylephrine (PE) solution into the anal sphincter muscle as a method for treating fecal incontinence. The goal of this study was the local targeted delivery of PE into the sphincter muscle through the perianal skin with minimal pain using hollow microneedles, resulting in the increase of resting anal sphincter pressure. PE was administered on the left and the right sides of the anus of a rat through the perianal skin using 1.5mm long HM. An in vivo imaging system study was conducted after injection of Rhodamine B, and a histological study was performed after injection of gentian violet. The resting anal sphincter pressure in response to various drug doses was measured by using an air-charged catheter. Anal pressure change produced by HM administration was compared with change produced by intravenous injection (IV), subcutaneous (SC) injection and intramuscular (IM) injection. The change in mean blood pressure produced by HM administration as a function of PE dose was compared with change produced by PBS injection. A pharmacokinetic study of the new HM administration method was performed. A model drug solution was localized in the muscle layer under the perianal skin at the injection site and then diffused out over time. HM administration of PE induced significant contraction of internal anal sphincter pressure over 12h after injection, and the maximum anal pressure was obtained between 5 and 6h. Compared to IV, SC and IM treatments, HM treatment produced greater anal pressure. There was no increase in blood pressure after HM administration of PE within the range of predetermined concentration. Administration of 800?g/kg of PE using HM produced 0.81±0.38h of tmax. Our study suggests that HM administration enables local delivery of a therapeutic dose of PE to the anal sphincter muscle layer with less pain. This new treatment has great potential as a clinical application because of the ease of the procedure, minimal pain, and dose-dependent response. PMID:25828366

  14. CD40-targeted dendritic cell delivery of PLGA-nanoparticle vaccines induce potent anti-tumor responses.

    PubMed

    Rosalia, Rodney A; Cruz, Luis J; van Duikeren, Suzanne; Tromp, Angelino T; Silva, Ana L; Jiskoot, Wim; de Gruijl, Tanja; Löwik, Clemens; Oostendorp, Jaap; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Ossendorp, Ferry

    2015-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a prominent role in the priming of CD8(+) T cells. Vaccination is a promising treatment to boost tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells which is crucially dependent on adequate delivery of the vaccine to DC. Upon subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, only a small fraction of the vaccine is delivered to DC whereas the majority is cleared by the body or engulfed by other immune cells. To overcome this, we studied vaccine delivery to DC via CD40-targeting using a multi-compound particulate vaccine with the aim to induce potent CD8(+) T cell responses. To this end, biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP) were formulated encapsulating a protein Ag, Pam3CSK4 and Poly(I:C) and coated with an agonistic ?CD40-mAb (NP-CD40). Targeting NP to CD40 led to very efficient and selective delivery to DC in vivo upon s.c. injection and improved priming of CD8(+) T cells against two independent tumor associated Ag. Therapeutic application of NP-CD40 enhanced tumor control and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice. We conclude that CD40-mediated delivery to DC of NP-vaccines, co-encapsulating Ag and adjuvants, efficiently drives specific T cell responses, and therefore, is an attractive method to improve the efficacy of protein based cancer vaccines undergoing clinical testing in the clinic. PMID:25465442

  15. Targeted delivery of 5-aminolevulinic Acid by multifunctional hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles for photodynamic skin cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xing; Qu, Qiuyu; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-05-27

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a precursor of a strong photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PphIX), for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Developing appropriate delivery carriers that can assist 5-ALA in bypassing the lipophilic barrier to directly enter into cancer cells is a research focus. The improved delivery of 5-ALA is even important for skin cancer therapy through PDT process. In this work, targeting ligand folic acid (FA)-functionalized hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNPs) were fabricated to deliver 5-ALA for PDT against B16F10 skin cancer cells. The FA targeting ligand enabled selective endocytosis of 5-ALA loaded HMSNPs into cancer cells. PphIX formed from delivered 5-ALA exhibited high photocytotoxicity to the cancer cells in vitro. PMID:25974979

  16. Optimization of the Thermostable Nanogel Systems for High Temperature Reservoir Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Nguyen Phuong; Phong, Nguyen T. Phuong; Duy, Nguyen Hoang; Anh, Nguyen T. Quynh

    We designed experiments to find optimal thermostable nanogel systems that meet the requirements for use in high temperature oilfield reservoirs. The Response Surface Method is used to build second-order regression functions that correlate statistically gel strength and gelation time with the experimental parameters, like clay concentration and crosslinker concentration. Via in situ intercalative free-radical copolymerization, nanogels have been prepared from acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), acrylamide (AM) (weight ratio of which in nanogel systems equals to 1:1) and montmorillonite-alkyl ammonium clay. The mixture of Hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA)/Phenyl acetate (PhAc) was used as a crosslinking system. The Lagrange multiplier method is used to optimise the resulting statistical model and to determine the maximum value of gel strength with the constraint of gelation time for practical applications. After a gelation time of 10.8 hours and storage for 32 days at 150°C the gel strength can reach up to 96%. The optimal nanogel has a clay concentration of 0.55% and a HMTA/PhAc mixture concentration of 0.80%. The characteristics of these nanogel systems meet the requirements for the use as water isolating materials in the White Tiger basement reservoir and provide a good basis for the further design of similar gels.

  17. Strengthening the stability of a tunnel-shaped homotetramer protein with nanogels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixia; Lu, Diannan; Yin, Ling; Li, Jianmin; Cui, Yuanchen; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zheng

    2011-07-21

    Urate oxidase (UOX, EC 1.7.3.3) is effective for the treatment of gout and hyperuricaemia associated with tumor lysis syndrome. The inherent poor stability of UOX to temperature, proteolysis, and acidic environments is known to limit its efficacy. Herein, we encapsulated UOX into spherical and porous nanogels with diameters of 20-40 nm via a two-step in situ polymerization in the presence of oxonic acid potassium salt, an inhibitor of UOX. The UOX nanogel retained 70% of the initial activity but showed an expanded pH spectrum from pH 6-10 to 3-10 and an extended half-life at 37 °C from 5 min to 3 h. The enhanced pH stability, thermal stability, and enzyme resistance of the UOX nanogels were also confirmed by using fluorescence spectroscopy and enzymatic digestion. A molecular dynamics simulation was performed as a way to probe the mechanism underlying the formation of UOX nanogels as well as the strengthened stability against harsh conditions. It was shown that the encapsulation into the polyacrylamide network reinforced the intersubunit hydrogen bonding, shielded the hydrolytic reaction site, and thus protected the tertiary and quaternary structure of UOX. The UOX nanogel with enhanced stability provided a stable enzyme model that enables the exploration of UOX in the diagnosis and therapy of disorders associated with altered purine metabolism. PMID:21699160

  18. Novel chitosan-based pH-sensitive and disintegrable polyelectrolyte nanogels.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Wang, Shasha; Chen, Gaojian; Tu, Kehua; Jiang, Hongliang; Wang, Li-Qun

    2014-10-01

    A novel approach to design pH-sensitive and disintegrable polyelectrolyte nanogels composed of citraconic-based N-(carboxyacyl) chitosan (polyanion) and quaternary chitosan (polycation) was reported. Firstly, the hydrolysis of citraconic-modified chitosan was monitored using fluorescamine assay and it could selectively dissociate in acidic media (e.g., pH ?5.0) due to the isomerization during the addition of citraconic anhydride to chitosan. Secondly, the self-assembly behaviors of different polyelectrolyte pairs between citraconic-based chitosan and quaternary chitosan were investigated via colloidal titration assay. It was indicated that the difference in molecular weight (MW) of opposite charged polyelectrolytes played an important role on the formation of polyelectrolyte nanogels. Results showed that polyelectrolyte nanogels (ca. 300nm in size) only formed when polyanion and polycation had a very large difference in MW. The pH-sensitive behavior of polyelectrolyte nanogels was comprehensively investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The incorporation of charge-conversional citraconic-based chitosan into polyelectrolyte complexes has provided an effective approach to prepare polyelectrolyte nanogels which were very stable at neutral pH but disintegrated quickly in acidic media. PMID:25042598

  19. Target specific and long-acting delivery of protein, peptide, and nucleotide therapeutics using hyaluronic acid derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Ju Oh; Ki Su Kim; Jiseok Kim; Jeong-A Yang; Ji-Hyun Kong; Min Young Lee; Allan S. Hoffman; Sei Kwang Hahn

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic, non-immunogenic and non-inflammatory linear polysaccharide, which has been used for various medical applications such as arthritis treatment, ocular surgery, tissue augmentation, and so on. In this review, the effect of chemical modification of HA on its distribution throughout the body was reported for target specific and long-acting delivery applications of protein, peptide,

  20. Folate conjugated carboxymethyl chitosan–manganese doped zinc sulphide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and imaging of cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjusha Elizabeth Mathew; Jithin C. Mohan; K. Manzoor; S. V. Nair; H. Tamura; R. Jayakumar

    2010-01-01

    We developed a novel folic acid (FA) conjugated carboxymethyl chitosan coordinated to manganese doped zinc sulphide quantum dot (FA–CMC–ZnS:Mn) nanoparticles. The system can be used for targeting, controlled drug delivery and also imaging of cancer cells. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using SEM, AFM, FT-IR, UV and DLS studies. The size range of 5-FU encapsulated FA–CMC–ZnS:Mn nanoparticles were from 130

  1. Maximizing gene delivery efficiencies of cationic helical polypeptides via balanced membrane penetration and cellular targeting

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Jianjun

    Maximizing gene delivery efficiencies of cationic helical polypeptides via balanced membrane: Received 26 July 2013 Accepted 24 September 2013 Available online 7 November 2013 Keywords: Non-viral gene a c t The application of non-viral gene delivery vectors is often accompanied with the poor

  2. Antitumor activity of an epithelial cell adhesion molecule- targeted nanovesicular drug delivery system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sajid Hussain; Andreas Pluckthun; Theresa M. Allen; Uwe Zangemeister-Wittke

    2007-01-01

    Site-specific delivery of anticancer agents to tumors represents a promisingtherapeutic strateg y because it increases efficacy and reduces toxicity to normal tissues compared with untargeted drugs. Sterically stabilized immunoliposomes (SIL), guided by antibodies that specif- ically bind to well internalizingantig ens on the tumor cell surface, are effective nanoscale delivery systems capable of accumulating large quantities of anticancer agents at

  3. 377. Intravascular Delivery of Adenovirus Vectors Rapidly Targets Platelets to the Reticuloendothelial System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Stone; Shaoheng Ni; Zong-Yi Li; Dmitry Shayakhmetov; Andre Lieber

    2006-01-01

    Following intravenous (iv) delivery of an adenovirus (Ad) vector a severely adverse event was seen in a phase I clinical trial. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and biochemically detectable disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) were among complications that ultimately resulted in multiple organ system failure 98 hours after iv delivery of a dose of 6 x 1011 viral particles\\/kg. DIC is

  4. Bioadhesive polymeric drug delivery systems for tumor targeting and tissue repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zohreh Amoozgar

    2011-01-01

    A drug delivery system refers to a dosage form that is able to control or modify the availability of the active ingredient to the body due to its construction as well as temporal or spatial arrangement. An efficient drug delivery system should localize treatment to diseased cells or the site of injury. This can be achieved by increasing the adhesion

  5. Polymeric nanoparticles: potent vectors for vaccine delivery targeting cancer and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bolhassani, Azam; Javanzad, Shabnam; Saleh, Tayebeh; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers with various compositions and biological properties have been extensively applied for in vitro/in vivo drug and gene delivery. The family of nanocarriers includes polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based carriers (liposomes/micelles), dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and gold nanoparticles (nanoshells/nanocages). Among different delivery systems, polymeric carriers have several properties such as: easy to synthesize, inexpensive, biocompatible, biodegradable, non-immunogenic, non-toxic, and water soluble. In addition, cationic polymers seem to produce more stable complexes led to a more protection during cellular trafficking than cationic lipids. Nanoparticles often show significant adjuvant effects in vaccine delivery since they may be easily taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Natural polymers such as polysaccharides and synthetic polymers have demonstrated great potential to form vaccine nanoparticles. The development of new adjuvants or delivery systems for DNA and protein immunization is an expanding research field. This review describes polymeric carriers especially PLGA, chitosan, and PEI as vaccine delivery systems. PMID:24128651

  6. Development and characterization of gelatin based nanoparticles for targeted delivery of zidovudine

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Namdeo R; Tone, Jadhav S; Irny, Preeti V; Nadaf, Sameer J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present work was aimed at development and evaluation of zidovudin (AZT) loaded gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) by simple desolvation method and further couple it with mannose. Material and Methods: Total seven batches of GNPs (A1-A7) were formulated by changing the concentration of polymer gelatin. Various parameters such as particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, % entrapment efficiency and in-vitro drug release of plain and mannosylated gelatin nanoparticles (M-GNPs) were studied. Results: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed that the average particle size of GNPs and M-GNPs were found to be 394 ± 3.21 and 797.2 ± 2.89 nm respectively (optimised batch A3). It was interesting to note that the average particle size of M-GNPs was more due to anchored mannose, whereas drug entrapment was lesser compared to plain GNPs. Studies have showed drug loading for GNPs and M-GNPs to be 66.56% and 58.85% respectively. Zeta potential studies demonstrated little reduction in solution stability of M-GNPs compared to GNPs. In-vitro drug release studies showed almost 80% release (bimodal) up to 24 h, following Korsmeyer-Peppas release kinetics model (GNPs, r = 0.9760; M-GNPs, r = 0.9712). Conclusions: Hence, it can be concluded that, development of GNPs and M-GNPs will pave the way for reticuloendothelial system uptake of AZT; thus, achieving targeted delivery, selectivity and reduction in associated side effect reduction in acquired immuno defficiency syndrome. PMID:24167784

  7. Temperature-responsive magnetite/PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer nanoparticles for controlled drug targeting delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Li, Ying; Guo, Chen; Wang, Jing; Ma, Junhe; Liang, Xiangfeng; Yang, Liang-Rong; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2007-12-01

    In this study, temperature-responsive magnetite/polymer nanoparticles were developed from iron oxide nanoparticles and poly(ethyleneimine)-modified poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymer. The particles were characterized by TEM, XRD, DLS, VSM, FTIR, and TGA. A typical product has an approximately 20 nm magnetite core and an approximately 40 nm hydrodynamic diameter with a narrow size distribution and is superparamagnetic with large saturation magnetization (51.34 emu/g) at room temperature. The most attractive feature of the nanoparticles is their temperature-responsive volume-transition property. DLS results indicated that their average hydrodynamic diameter underwent a sharp decrease from 45 to 25 nm while evaluating the temperature from 20 to 35 degrees C. The temperature-dependent evolution of the C-O stretching band in the FTIR spectra of the aqueous nanoparticles solution revealed that thermo-induced self-assembly of the immobilized block copolymers occurred on the magnetite solid surfaces, which is accompanied by a conformational change from a fully extended state to a highly coiled state of the copolymer. Consequently, the copolymer shell could act as a temperature-controlled "gate" for the transit of guest substance. The uptake and release of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic model drugs were well controlled by switching the transient opening and closing of the polymer shell at different temperatures. A sustained release of about 3 days was achieved in simulated human body conditions. In primary mouse experiments, drug-entrapped magnetic nanoparticles showed good biocompatibility and effective therapy for spinal cord damage. Such intelligent magnetic nanoparticles are attractive candidates for widespread biomedical applications, particularly in controlled drug-targeting delivery. PMID:17988160

  8. Formulation and evaluation of chitosan microspheres of aceclofenac for colon-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, S K; Thiruganesh, R; Suresh, S; Reddy, K Bhaskar

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop novel colon specific drug delivery. Aceclofenac, a NSAID, was successfully encapsulated into chitosan microspheres. Various formulations were prepared by varying the ratio of chitosan, span-85 and stirring speed and the amount of glutaraldehyde. The SEM study showed that microspheres have smooth surfaces. Microspheres were characterised by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to confirm the absence of chemical interactions between drug and polymer and to know the formation of microspheres structure. The microspheres were evaluated for particle size, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading capacity, mucoadhesion studies, stability studies, in vitro and in vivo drug release studies. Particle sizes, as measured by the laser light scattering technique, were of an average size in the range 41-80?µm. The swelling index was in the range 0.37-0.82 and the entrapment efficiency range was 51-75% for all the formulations. The optimised batch ACM(13) released 83.6% at 8?h and 104% at 24?h in SCF containing rat caecal content. Eudragit coated chitosan microspheres prevented the release of the aceclofenac in the physiological environment of the stomach and small intestine and released 95.9±0.34% in the colon. With regard to release kinetics, the data were best fitted with the Higuchi model and showed zero order release with non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The in vivo findings suggest that aceclofenac microspheres exhibit a prolonged effect of aceclofenac in rats and produce a significant anti-inflammatory effect. The findings of the present study conclusively state that chitosan microspheres are promising for colon targeting of aceclofenac to synchronise with chronobiological symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:20848388

  9. Design, synthesis and evaluation of N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG)-PEG-doxorubicin targeted conjugates for anticancer delivery.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Smita K; Badhwar, Archana J; Kharas, Firuza; Khandare, Jayant J; Vavia, Pradeep R

    2012-10-15

    Efficacy of anticancer drug is limited by the severe adverse effects induced by drug; therefore the crux is in designing delivery systems targeted only to cancer cells. Toward this objectives, we propose, synthesis of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-doxorubicin (DOX) prodrug conjugates consisting N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) as a targeting moiety. Multicomponent system proposed here is characterized by (1)H NMR, UV spectroscopy, and HPLC. The multicomponent system is evaluated for in vitro cellular kinetics and anticancer activity using MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Molecular modeling study demonstrated sterically stabilized conformations of polymeric conjugates. Interestingly, PEG-DOX conjugate with NAG ligand showed significantly higher cytotoxicity compared to drug conjugate with DOX. In addition, the polymer drug conjugate with NAG and DOX showed enhanced internalization and retention effect in cancer cells, compared to free DOX. Thus, with enhanced internalization and targeting ability of PEG conjugate of NAG-DOX has implication in targeted anticancer therapy. PMID:22721850

  10. Polymersomes conjugated with des-octanoyl ghrelin and folate as a BBB-penetrating cancer cell-targeting delivery system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chu; Chiang, Chi-Feng; Chen, Li-Fang; Liang, Po-Chin; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Win-Li

    2014-04-01

    Chemotherapy for brain cancer tumors remains a big challenge for clinical medicine due to the inability to transport sufficient drug across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the poor penetration of drug into the tumors. To effectively treat brain tumors and reduce side effects on normal tissues, both des-octanoyl ghrelin and folate conjugated with polymersomal doxorubicin (GFP-D) was developed in this study to help transport across the BBB and target the tumor as well. The size measurements revealed that this BBB-penetrating cancer cell-targeting GFP-D was about 85 nm. In-vitro experiments with a BBB model and C6 glioma cells demonstrated that GFP-D owned a robust penetrating-targeting function for drug delivery. In C6 cell viability tests, GFP-D exhibited an inhibitory effect significantly different from the unmodified polymersomal doxorubicin (P-D). In-vivo antitumor experiments showed that GFP-D performed a much better anti-glioma effect and presented a significant improvement in the overall survival of the tumor-bearing mice as compared to the treatments with free doxorubicin (Dox), liposomal doxorubicin (L-D), P-D, or single ligand conjugated P-D. In addition, Cy 5.5 was used as a probe to investigate the delivery property of this penetrating-targeting delivery system. The overall experimental results indicate that this BBB-penetrating cancer cell-targeting GFP is a highly potential nanocarrier for the treatment of brain tumors. PMID:24513319

  11. Flow-induced immobilization of glucose oxidase in nonionic micellar nanogels for glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Cardiel, Joshua J; Zhao, Ya; Tonggu, Lige; Wang, Liguo; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Shen, Amy Q

    2014-10-21

    A simple microfluidic platform was utilized to immobilize glucose oxidase (GOx) in a nonionic micellar scaffold. The immobilization of GOx was verified by using a combination of cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV) techniques. Chronoamperometric measurements were conducted on nanogel-GOx scaffolds under different glucose concentrations, exhibiting linear amperometric responses. Without impacting the lifetime and denaturation of GOx, the nonionic nanogel provides a favorable microenvironment for GOx in biological media. This flow-induced immobilization method in a nonionic nanogel host matrix opens up new pathways for designing a simple, fast, biocompatible, and cost-effective process to immobilize biomolecules that are averse to ionic environments. PMID:25144867

  12. Development and Testing of Simulation (Game) to Illustrate Basic Principles of Integrated Project Delivery and Target Value Design: A First Run Study 

    E-print Network

    Munankami, Manish 1972-

    2012-12-07

    This research is focused on developing a simulation (game) that will help explain the basic principles of Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Target Value Design (TVD). The transfer of knowledge about Lean principles ...

  13. Modulation of CD4+ T Lymphocyte Lineage Outcomes with Targeted, Nanoparticle-Mediated Cytokine Delivery

    E-print Network

    Fahmy, Tarek

    Delivery Jason Park,§,| Wenda Gao,|, Roy Whiston,# Terry B. Strom, Su Metcalfe,*,# and Tarek M. Fahmy-512-1699; fax, 203-432-0030; e-mail, tarek.fahmy@yale.edu. The authors declare no competing financial interests

  14. THE USE OF NANOPARTICLE-MEDIATED TARGETED GENE SILENCING AND DRUG DELIVERY TO OVERCOME TUMOR DRUG RESISTANCE

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Yogesh; Swaminathan, Suresh; Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Ma, Linan; Panyam, Jayanth

    2009-01-01

    Overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) enables cancer cells to develop resistance to multiple anticancer drugs. Functional inhibitors of P-gp have shown promising efficacy in early clinical trials, but their long-term safety is yet to be established. A novel approach to overcome drug resistance is to use siRNA-mediated RNA interference to silence the expression of the efflux transporter. Because P-gp plays an important role in the physiological regulation of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds in the body, it is important to deliver P-gp targeted siRNA and anticancer drug specifically to tumor cells. Further, for optimal synergy, both the drug and siRNA may need to be temporally colocalized in the tumor cells. In the current study, we investigated the effectiveness of simultaneous and targeted delivery of anticancer drug, paclitaxel, along with P-gp targeted siRNA, using poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles to overcome tumor drug resistance. Nanoparticles were surface functionalized with biotin for active tumor targeting. Dual agent nanoparticles encapsulating the combination of paclitaxel and P-gp targeted siRNA showed significantly higher cytotoxicity in vitro than nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel alone. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of dual agent nanoparticles could be correlated with effective silencing of the MDR1 gene that encodes for P-gp and with increased accumulation of paclitaxel in drug-resistant tumor cells. In vivo studies in a mouse model of drug-resistant tumor demonstrated significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth following treatment with biotin-functionalized nanoparticles encapsulating both paclitaxel and P-gp targeted siRNA at a paclitaxel dose that was ineffective in the absence of gene silencing. These results suggest that that the combination of P-gp gene silencing and cytotoxic drug delivery using targeted nanoparticles can overcome tumor drug resistance. PMID:19800114

  15. Self-assembled phenylalanine-?,?-dehydrophenylalanine nanotubes for sustained intravitreal delivery of a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Panda, Jiban J; Yandrapu, Sarath; Kadam, Rajendra S; Chauhan, Virander S; Kompella, Uday B

    2013-12-28

    Current standard of care for sustained back of the eye drug delivery is surgical placement or injection of large, slow release implants using a relatively large 22 gauge needle. We designed novel dipeptide (phenylalanine-?,?-dehydrophenylalanine; Phe-?Phe) based nanotubes with a diameter of ~15-30 nm and a length of ~1500 nm that could be injected with a 33 gauge needle for sustained intravitreal delivery of pazopanib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The drug could be loaded during nanotube assembly or post-loaded after nanotube formation, with the former being more efficient at 25% w/w pazopanib loading and ~55% loading efficiency. Plain and peptide loaded nanotube were non-cytotoxic to retinal pigment epithelial cells even at a concentration of 200 ?g/ml. Following intravitreal injection of fluorescently labeled nanotubes using a 33 gauge needle in a rat model, the nanotube persistence and drug delivery were monitored using noninvasive fluorophotometry, electron microscopy and mass spectrometry analysis. Nanotubes persisted in the vitreous humor during the 15 days study and pazopanib levels in the vitreous humor, retina, and choroid-RPE at the end of the study were 4.5, 5, and 2.5-folds higher, respectively, compared to the plain drug. Thus, Phe-?Phe nanotubes allow intravitreal injections with a small gauge needle and sustain drug delivery. PMID:24075925

  16. Dual-pH Sensitive Charge-Reversal Polypeptide Micelles for Tumor-Triggered Targeting Uptake and Nuclear Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Han, Shi-Song; Li, Ze-Yong; Zhu, Jing-Yi; Han, Kai; Zeng, Zheng-Yang; Hong, Wei; Li, Wen-Xin; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Liu, Yun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2015-06-01

    A novel dual-pH sensitive charge-reversal strategy is designed to deliver antitumor drugs targeting to tumor cells and to further promote the nuclei internalization by a stepwise response to the mildly acidic extracellular pH (?6.5) of a tumor and endo/lysosome pH (?5.0). Poly(l-lysine)-block-poly(l-leucine) diblock copolymer is synthesized and the lysine amino residues are amidated by 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride to form ?-carboxylic amide, making the polypeptides self-assemble into negatively charged micelles. The amide can be hydrolyzed when exposed to the mildly acidic tumor extracellular environment, which makes the micelles switch to positively charged and they are then readily internalized by tumor cells. A nuclear targeting Tat peptide is further conjugated to the polypeptide via a click reaction. The Tat is amidated by succinyl chloride to mask its positive charge and cell-penetrating function and thus to inhibit nonspecific cellular uptake. After the nanoparticles are internalized into the more acidic intracellular endo/lysosomes, the Tat succinyl amide is hydrolyzed to reactivate the Tat nuclear targeting function, promoting nanoparticle delivery into cell nuclei. This polypeptide nanocarrier facilitates tumor targeting and nuclear delivery simultaneously by simply modifying the lysine amino residues of polylysine and Tat into two different pH-sensitive ?-carboxylic amides. PMID:25626995

  17. An aptamer-targeting photoresponsive drug delivery system using "off-on" graphene oxide wrapped mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuxia; Hu, Hao; Zhang, Molly Gu; Song, Jibin; Nie, Liming; Wang, Shouju; Niu, Gang; Huang, Peng; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-04-14

    We have developed a novel aptamer-targeting photoresponsive drug delivery system by non-covalent assembly of a Cy5.5-AS1411 aptamer conjugate on the surface of graphene oxide wrapped doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN-Dox@GO-Apt) for light-mediated drug release and aptamer-targeted cancer therapy. The two "off-on" switches of the MSN-Dox@GO-Apt were controlled by aptamer targeting and light triggering, respectively. The Cy5.5-AS1411 ligand provides MSN-Dox@GO-Apt with nucleolin specific targeting and real-time indicator abilities by "off-on" Cy5.5 fluorescence recovery. The GO acts as a gatekeeper to prevent the loaded Dox from leaking in the absence of laser irradiation, and to control the Dox release in response to laser irradiation. When the GO wrapping falls off upon laser irradiation, the "off-on" photoresponsive drug delivery system is activated, thus inducing chemotherapy. Interestingly, with an increase in laser power, the synergism of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy in a single MSN-Dox@GO-Apt platform led to much more effective cancer cell killing than monotherapies, providing a new approach for treatment against cancer. PMID:25782595

  18. Mechanism-Based Tumor-Targeting Drug Delivery System. Validation of Efficient Vitamin Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Drug Release

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuyi; Zhao, Xianrui; Chen, Jingyi; Chen, Jin; Kuznetsova, Larisa; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Ojima, Iwao

    2011-01-01

    An efficient mechanism-based tumor-targeting drug delivery system, based on tumor-specific vitamin-receptor mediated endocytosis, has been developed. The tumor-targeting drug delivery system is a conjugate of a tumor-targeting molecule (biotin: vitamin H or vitamin B-7), a mechanism-based self-immolative linker and a second-generation taxoid (SB-T-1214) as the cytotoxic agent. This conjugate (1) is designed to be (i) specific to the vitamin receptors overexpressed on tumor cell surface, (ii) internalized efficiently through receptor-mediated endocytosis, followed by smooth drug release via glutathione-triggered self-immolation of the linker. In order to monitor and validate the sequence of events hypothesized, i.e., receptor-mediated endocytosis of the conjugate, drug release, and drug-binding to the target protein (microtubules), three fluorescent/fluorogenic molecular probes (2, 3 and 4) were designed and synthesized. The actual occurrence of these processes was unambiguously confirmed by means of confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM) and flow cytometry using L1210FR leukemia cells, overexpressing biotin receptors. The molecular probe 4, bearing the taxoid linked to fluorescein, was also used to examine the cell specificity (i.e., efficacy of receptor-based cell targeting) for three cell lines, L1210FR (biotin receptors overexpressed), L1210 (biotin receptors not overexpressed) and WI38 (normal human lung fibroblast, biotin receptor negative). As anticipated, the molecular probe 4 exhibited high specificity only to L1210FR. To confirm the direct correlation between the cell-specific drug delivery and anticancer activity of the probe 4, its cytotoxicity against these three cell lines was also examined. The results clearly showed a good correlation between the two methods. In the same manner, excellent cell-specific cytotoxicity of the conjugate 1 (without fluorescein attachment to the taxoid) against the same three cell lines was confirmed. This mechanism-based tumor-targeting drug delivery system will find a range of applications. PMID:20429547

  19. Mechanism-Based Tumor-Targeting Drug Delivery System. Validation of Efficient Vitamin Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Drug Release

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Wong, S.; Zhao, X.; Chen, J.; Chen, J.; Kuznetsova, L.; Ojima, I.

    2010-05-01

    An efficient mechanism-based tumor-targeting drug delivery system, based on tumor-specific vitamin-receptor mediated endocytosis, has been developed. The tumor-targeting drug delivery system is a conjugate of a tumor-targeting molecule (biotin: vitamin H or vitamin B-7), a mechanism-based self-immolative linker and a second-generation taxoid (SB-T-1214) as the cytotoxic agent. This conjugate (1) is designed to be (i) specific to the vitamin receptors overexpressed on tumor cell surface and (ii) internalized efficiently through receptor-mediated endocytosis, followed by smooth drug release via glutathione-triggered self-immolation of the linker. In order to monitor and validate the sequence of events hypothesized, i.e., receptor-mediated endocytosis of the conjugate, drug release, and drug-binding to the target protein (microtubules), three fluorescent/fluorogenic molecular probes (2, 3, and 4) were designed and synthesized. The actual occurrence of these processes was unambiguously confirmed by means of confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM) and flow cytometry using L1210FR leukemia cells, overexpressing biotin receptors. The molecular probe 4, bearing the taxoid linked to fluorescein, was also used to examine the cell specificity (i.e., efficacy of receptor-based cell targeting) for three cell lines, L1210FR (biotin receptors overexpressed), L1210 (biotin receptors not overexpressed), and WI38 (normal human lung fibroblast, biotin receptor negative). As anticipated, the molecular probe 4 exhibited high specificity only to L1210FR. To confirm the direct correlation between the cell-specific drug delivery and anticancer activity of the probe 4, its cytotoxicity against these three cell lines was also examined. The results clearly showed a good correlation between the two methods. In the same manner, excellent cell-specific cytotoxicity of the conjugate 1 (without fluorescein attachment to the taxoid) against the same three cell lines was confirmed. This mechanism-based tumor-targeting drug delivery system will find a range of applications.

  20. A review on skin targeted delivery of bioactives as ultradeformable vesicles: overcoming the penetration problem.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, Karunanidhi; Singh, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Administration of drugs through skin via transdermal route is a non-invasive approach and applicable for systemic delivery but it is not suitable for drugs having higher molecular weight. Various approaches have been used to improve the efficacy of transdermal route such as vesicular system, iontophoresis, microneedles, use of permeation enhancers, etc. Among the several approaches, vesicular delivery is gaining importance in transdermal drug delivery. Transfersomes are one of the vesicular systems and they are best suited for the transdermal delivery of higher molecular weight compounds. Due to the deformable nature of transfersomes, they penetrate into deeper layers of skin, retain their original structure after penetration and finally enter into the systemic circulation. This review focuses mainly on the applications of transfersomes in the field of drug delivery i.e. delivery of analgesics, anti-cancers, proteins and peptides, immunomodulators, steroidal hormones and herbal drugs with increased penetration through skin. In addition, this review also deals with preparation methods available for preparing transfersomes, characterization, mechanism of penetration upon topical application and its kinetic aspects. PMID:24410447

  1. Properties and evaluation of quaternized chitosan/lipid cation polymeric liposomes for cancer-targeted gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaofei; Li, Xiaoyu; Chang, Jin; Duan, Yourong; Li, Zonghai

    2013-07-01

    Development of high-stability and efficient nonviral vectors with low cytoxicity is important for targeted tumor gene therapy. In this study, cationic polymeric liposomes (CPLs), with similar lipid bilayer structure and high thermal stability, were prepared from polymeric surfactants of quaternized (carboxymethyl)chitosan with different carbon chains (dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, and octadecyl). By comparing different factors that influence gene delivery, tetradecyl-quaternized (carboxymethy)chitosan (TQCMC) CPLs, with suitable size (184.4 ± 17.1 nm), ? potentials (27.5 ± 4.9 mV), and productivity for synthesis TQCMC (weight yield 13.1%), were selected for gene transfection evaluation in various cancer cell lines. Although TQCMC CPLs have lower gene transfection efficiency compared with cationic liposomes (Lipofectamine 2000) in vitro, they displayed higher reporter gene delivery ability for cancer tissues (bearing U87 and SMMC-7721 tumors) in vivo after intravenous injection. TQCMC CPLs also have lower cell cytotoxicity and lower cytokine production or liver injury for BALB/c mice. We conclude that the CPLs are promising gene delivery systems that may be used to target various cancers. PMID:23763489

  2. In Vitro Investigation of the Individual Contributions of Ultrasound-Induced Stable and Inertial Cavitation in Targeted Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Gourevich, Dana; Volovick, Alexander; Dogadkin, Osnat; Wang, Lijun; Mulvana, Helen; Medan, Yoav; Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasound-mediated targeted drug delivery is a therapeutic modality under development with the potential to treat cancer. Its ability to produce local hyperthermia and cell poration through cavitation non-invasively makes it a candidate to trigger drug delivery. Hyperthermia offers greater potential for control, particularly with magnetic resonance imaging temperature measurement. However, cavitation may offer reduced treatment times, with real-time measurement of ultrasonic spectra indicating drug dose and treatment success. Here, a clinical magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery system was used to study ultrasound-mediated targeted drug delivery in vitro. Drug uptake into breast cancer cells in the vicinity of ultrasound contrast agent was correlated with occurrence and quantity of stable and inertial cavitation, classified according to subharmonic spectra. During stable cavitation, intracellular drug uptake increased by a factor up to 3.2 compared with the control. Reported here are the value of cavitation monitoring with a clinical system and its subsequent employment for dose optimization. PMID:25887690

  3. Developing the potential ophthalmic applications of pilocarpine entrapped into polyvinylpyrrolidone-poly(acrylic acid) nanogel dispersions prepared by ? radiation.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rehim, Hassan A; Swilem, Ahmed E; Klingner, Anke; Hegazy, El-Sayed A; Hamed, Ashraf A

    2013-03-11

    The aim of this study was to improve the stability and bioavailability of pilocarpine in order to maintain an adequate concentration of the pilocarpine at the site of action for prolonged period of time. Thus, pH-sensitive polyvinylpyrrolidone-poly(acrylic acid) (PVP/PAAc) nanogels prepared by ? radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) in an aqueous solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a template polymer were used to encapsulate pilocarpine. Factors affecting size and encapsulation efficiency were optimized to obtain nanogel suitable for entrapping drug efficiently. The PVP/PAAc nanogel particles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their size can be controlled by the feed composition and concentration as well as the irradiation dose. Pilocarpine was loaded into the nanogel particles through electrostatic interactions where the AAc-rich nanogels exhibited the highest loading efficiency. The transmittance, mucoadhesion, and rheological characteristics of the nanogel particles were studied to evaluate their ocular applicability. The in vitro release study conducted in simulated tear fluid showed a relatively long sustained release of pilocarpine from the prepared PVP/PAAc nanogel particles if compared with pilocarpine in solution. PMID:23414209

  4. Prestin binding peptides as ligands for targeted polymersome mediated drug delivery to outer hair cells in the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Surovtseva, Elena V; Johnston, Alexander H; Zhang, Weikai; Zhang, Ya; Kim, Adele; Murakoshi, Michio; Wada, Hiroshi; Newman, Tracey A; Zou, Jing; Pyykkö, Ilmari

    2012-03-15

    Targeted delivery of treatment agents to the inner ear using nanoparticles is an advanced therapeutic approach to cure or alleviate hearing loss. Designed to target the outer hair cells of the cochlea, two 12-mer peptides (A(665) and A(666)) with affinity to prestin were identified following 3 rounds of sequential phage display. Two-round display with immobilized prestin protein was used to enrich the library for full-length prestin. The last round was performed using Cos-7 cells transiently transfected with a cCFP-prestin plasmid to display phages expressing peptides restrictive to the extracellular loops of prestin. The binding properties of A(665) and A(666) shown by flow cytometry demonstrated selectivity to prestin-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells. PEG6K-b-PCL19K polymersomes covalently labelled with these peptides demonstrated effective targeting to outer hair cells in a rat cochlear explant study. PMID:22227343

  5. Development of chitosan oligosaccharide-modified gold nanorods for in vivo targeted delivery and noninvasive imaging by NIR irradiation.

    PubMed

    Charan, Shobhit; Sanjiv, Kumar; Singh, Narendra; Chien, Fan-Ching; Chen, Yi-Fan; Nergui, Navchtsetseg Navchaa; Huang, Shih-Hsin; Kuo, Chiung Wen; Lee, Te-Chang; Chen, Peilin

    2012-11-21

    In the present study, we demonstrate the synthesis and applications of multifunctional gold nanorod-based probes for specific targeting and noninvasive imaging based on localized heating generated by gold nanorods after NIR irradiation. The structural design of the probe consists of MUA (11-mercaptoundecanoic acid)-capped gold nanorods covalently linked with low-molecular-weight chitosan oligosaccharide (M(w) ~5000) via carbodiimide (EDC) coupling agent. This surface modification is performed for complete replacement of toxic CTAB (hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium chloride) and acid-responsive delivery of gold nanorods in acidic environment as known to be present at tumor surrounding areas. The resulting chitosan oligosaccharide-modified gold nanorods (CO-GNRs) were further conjugated with tumor targeting monoclonal antibody against EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) to provide localized targeting functionality owing to the overexpression of EGFR in human oral adenosquamous carcinoma cell line CAL 27. Initial in vitro and in vivo toxicity assessments indicated that CO-GNRs did not induce any significant toxicity and are thus suitable for biological applications. Furthermore, selective targeting and accumulation of CO-GNRs were observed in vitro via two-photon luminescence imaging studies in CAL 27, which was also observed through in vivo targeting studies performed via NIR (near-infrared) laser irradiation in CAL 27 xenografts of BALB/c nude mice. Hence, the CO-GNRs that we have developed are biocompatible and nontoxic and can be a potential candidate for in vivo targeted delivery, noninvasive imaging based on localized hyperthermia, and photothermal-related therapies. PMID:23030814

  6. Non-ionic, thermo-responsive DEA/DMA nanogels: synthesis, characterization, and use for DNA separations by microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xihua; Sun, Mingyun; Barron, Annelise E

    2011-05-15

    Thermo-responsive polymer "nanogels" (crosslinked hydrogel particles with sub-100 nm diameters) are intriguing for many potential applications in biotechnology and medicine. There have been relatively few reports of electrostatically neutral, thermosensitive nanogels comprising a high fraction of hydrophilic co-monomer. Here we demonstrate the syntheses and characterization of novel, non-ionic nanogels based on random N,N-diethylacrylamide (DEA)/N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) copolymers, made by free-radical, surfactant-free dispersion polymerization. The volume-phase transition temperatures of these DEA/DMA nanogels are strongly affected by co-monomer composition, providing a way to "tune" the phase transition temperature of these non-ionic nanogels. While DEA nanogels (comprising no DMA) can be obtained at 70 °C by standard emulsion precipitation, DEA/DMA random co-polymer nanogels can be obtained only in a particular range of temperatures, above the initial phase transition temperature and below the critical precipitation temperature of the DEA/DMA copolymer, controlled by co-monomer composition. Increasing percentages of DMA in the nanogels raises the phase transition temperature, and attenuates and broadens it as well. We find that concentrated DEA/DMA nanogel dispersions are optically clear at room temperature. This good optical clarity was exploited for their use in a novel DNA sieving matrix for microfluidic chip electrophoresis. An ultrafast, high-efficiency dsDNA separation was achieved in less than 120 s for dsDNA ranging from 75 bp to 15,000 bp. PMID:21392778

  7. Rev-Free HIV-1 Gene Delivery System for Targeting Rev-RRE-Crm1 Nucleocytoplasmic RNA Transport Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasakumar, Narasimhachar

    2011-01-01

    The use of RNA transport elements from different viruses can provide novel attributes to HIV-1-based gene delivery systems such as improved safety or Rev independence. We previously described an HIV-1 based gene delivery system that utilized the simian immunodeficiency virus Rev-response element (RRE) in place of the HIV-1 RRE. Despite the use of Rev for the production of vector stocks, we showed the utility of this system for delivery of Rev M10, a dominant-negative mutant of HIV-1 Rev, into T-cells. Here, we investigated the use of RNA transport elements from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus or MPMV for the creation of high-titered Rev-free HIV-1-based packaging systems. The HIV-1 gag/pol expression constructs containing one or more copies of MPMV constitutive RNA transport element (CTE) were used to package similarly modified gene-transfer vectors in the presence or absence of Rev. An inverse correlation between the number of CTE modules and Rev dependency was noted for vector stock production. While packaging systems containing multiple CTEs were resistant to exogenously expressed Rev M10, the titers of vectors encoding Rev M10 were nevertheless reduced in comparison to vectors encoding only green fluorescent protein (GFP). In contrast, a gene transfer vector encoding the Rev M10 transgene and containing both RNA transport elements exhibited almost no loss in titer in comparison to a corresponding vector encoding only GFP. The optimized Rev-independent gene delivery system was used for delivery of Rev M10 transgene into T-lymphocytes. Upon challenge in single round infection assays with HIV-1, the modified T-cells produced fewer virus particles than control cells expressing GFP. This Rev-free packaging system may prove useful for targeting the Rev-RRE-Crm1 nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport pathway for inhibiting HIV replication. PMID:22164294

  8. Iontophoresis-targeted, follicular delivery of minoxidil sulfate for the treatment of alopecia.

    PubMed

    Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Tais; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H; Vianna Lopez, Renata Fonseca

    2013-05-01

    Although minoxidil (MX) is a drug known to stimulate hair growth, the treatment of androgenic alopecia could be improved by delivery strategies that would favor drug accumulation into the hair follicles. This work investigated in vitro the potential of iontophoresis to achieve this objective using MX sulfate (MXS), a more water-soluble derivative of MX. Passive delivery of MXS was first determined from an ethanol-water solution and from a thermosensitive gel. The latter formulation resulted in greater accumulation of MXS in the stratum corneum (skin's outermost layer) and hair follicles and an overall decrease in absorption through the skin. Anodal iontophoresis of MXS from the same gel formulation was then investigated at pH 3.5 and pH 5.5. Compared with passive delivery, iontophoresis increased the amount of drug reaching the follicular infundibula from 120 to 600 ng per follicle. In addition, drug recovery from follicular casts was threefold higher following iontophoresis at pH 5.5 compared with that at pH 3.5. Preliminary in vivo experiments in rats confirmed that iontophoretic delivery of MXS facilitated drug accumulation in hair follicles. Overall, therefore, iontophoresis successfully and significantly enhanced follicular delivery of MX suggesting a useful opportunity for the improved treatment of alopecia. PMID:23450524

  9. Enhanced delivery of ganciclovir to the brain through the use of redox targeting.

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, M E; Raghavan, K; Pop, E; Bodor, N

    1994-01-01

    Enhanced delivery of ganciclovir to the brain was demonstrated by a redox-based chemical delivery system. A ganciclovir monoester in which a 1-methyl-1,4-dihydronicotinate was covalently attached to one of the hydroxymethyl functions was prepared. The stability of the ganciclovir chemical delivery system (DHPG-CDS) was evaluated in aqueous buffers and organ homogenates. In vivo distribution studies in the rat indicated that while ganciclovir poorly penetrated into the central nervous system and was rapidly eliminated, DHPG-CDS provided for therapeutically relevant (2.7 microM) and sustained levels of the parent compound through 6 h. An analysis of the area under the concentration curve indicated that the chemical delivery system delivered five times more ganciclovir than that of the parent drug. The high levels in the brain and reduced levels in the blood gave a brain-to-blood drug concentration ratio of 2.54 for ganciclovir when delivered by the chemical delivery system, compared to a ratio of 0.063 when the parent drug was administered. These data suggest that DHPG-CDS could be a useful adjunct for the treatment of cytomegalovirus encephalitis. PMID:8031052

  10. Doxorubicin-conjugated PLA-PEG-Folate based polymeric micelle for tumor-targeted delivery: Synthesis and in vitro evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Selective delivery of anticancer agents to target areas in the body is desirable to minimize the side effects while maximizing the therapeutic efficacy. Anthracycline antibiotics such as doxorubicin (DOX) are widely used for treatment of a wide variety of solid tumors. This study evaluated the potential of a polymeric micellar formulation of doxorubicin as a nanocarrier system for targeted therapy of a folate-receptor positive human ovarian cancer cell in line. Results DOX-conjugated targeting and non-targeting micelles prepared by the dialysis method were about 188 and 182 nm in diameter, respectively and their critical micelle concentration was 9.55 ?g/ml. The DOX-conjugated micelles exhibited a potent cytotoxicity against SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, the targeting micelles showed higher cytotoxicity than that of non-targeting ones (IC50?=?4.65 ?g/ml vs 13.51 ?g/ml). Conclusion The prepared micelle is expected to increase the efficacy of DOX against cancer cells and reduce its side effects. PMID:24602477

  11. Synthesis and characterization of transferrin-targeted chemotherapeutic delivery systems prepared via RAFT copolymerization of high molecular weight PEG macromonomers

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Debashish; Berguig, Geoffrey Y; Ghosn, Bilal; Lane, Daniel; Braswell, Scott; Stayton, Patrick S; Convertine, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was employed to prepare a nanoparticulate drug delivery system for chemotherapeutics. The nanoparticles contain a PEG “stealth” corona as well as reactive anhydride functionality designed for conjugating targeting proteins. The multifunctional carrier functionality was achieved by controlling the copolymerization of the hydrophobic monomer lauryl methacrylate (LMA), with a reactive anhydride functional methacrylate (TMA), and a large polyethyleneglycol methacrylate monomer (Mn~950 Da) (O950). RAFT polymerization kinetics of O950 were evaluated as a function of target degrees of polymerization (DP), initial chain transfer agent to initiator ratio ([CTA]o/[I]o), and solvent concentration. Excellent control over the polymerization was observed for target DPs of 25 and 50 at [CTA]o/[I]o ratio of 10 as evidenced by narrow and symmetric molecular weight distributions and the ability to prepare block copolymers. The TMA-functional copolymers were conjugated to the tumor targeting protein transferrin (Tf). The targeted copolymer was shown to encapsulate docetaxel at concentrations comparable to the commercial single vial formulation of docetaxel (Taxotere). In vitro cytotoxicity studies conducted in HeLa cells show that the Tf targeting enhances the cancer killing properties relative to the polymer encapsulated docetaxel formulation. PMID:25221630

  12. Phase-shift, stimuli-responsive drug carriers for targeted delivery

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Brian E; Rapoport, Natalya

    2011-01-01

    The intersection of particles and directed energy is a rich source of novel and useful technology that is only recently being realized for medicine. One of the most promising applications is directed drug delivery. This review focuses on phase-shift nanoparticles (that is, particles of submicron size) as well as micron-scale particles whose action depends on an external-energy triggered, first-order phase shift from a liquid to gas state of either the particle itself or of the surrounding medium. These particles have tremendous potential for actively disrupting their environment for altering transport properties and unloading drugs. This review covers in detail ultrasound and laser-activated phase-shift nano- and micro-particles and their use in drug delivery. Phase-shift based drug-delivery mechanisms and competing technologies are discussed. PMID:22059114

  13. Engineering Design and Molecular Dynamics of Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery Systems as Targeting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Laura; Doménech, Josep; Peppas, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this critical review is to provide a critical analysis of the chain dynamics responsible for the action of micro- and nanoparticles of mucoadhesive biomaterials. The objective of using bioadhesive controlled drug delivery devices is to prolong their residence at a specific site of delivery, thus enhancing the drug absorption process. These mucoadhesive devices can protect the drug during the absorption process in addition to protecting it on its route to the delivery site. The major emphasis of recent research on mucoadhesive biomaterials has been on the use of adhesion promoters, which would enhance the adhesion between synthetic polymers and mucus. The use of adhesion promoters such as linear or tethered polymer chains is a natural result of the diffusional characteristics of adhesion. Mucoadhesion depends largely on the structure of the synthetic polymer gels used in controlled release applications. PMID:18976706

  14. Nanoparticles inhibit cancer cell invasion and enhance antitumor efficiency by targeted drug delivery via cell surface-related GRP78

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Li, Hongdan; Shi, Yijie; Wang, Guan; Liu, Liwei; Su, Chang; Su, Rongjian

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) which target specific agents could effectively recognize the target cells and increase the stability of chemical agents by encapsulation. As such, NPs have been widely used in cancer treatment research. Recently, over 90% of treatment failure cases in patients with metastatic cancer were attributed to resistance to chemotherapy. Surface-exposed glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (GRP78) is expressed highly on many tumor cell surfaces in many human cancers and is related to the regulation of invasion and metastasis. Herein, we report that NPs conjugated with antibody against GRP78 (mAb GRP78-NPs) inhibit the adhesion, invasion, and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and promote drug delivery of 5-fluorouracil into GRP78 high-expressed human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Our new findings suggest that mAb GRP78-NPs could enhance drug accumulation by effectively transporting NPs into cell surface GRP78-overexpressed human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and then inhibit cell proliferation and viability and induce cell apoptosis by regulating caspase-3. In brief, mAb GRP78-NPs effectively inhibit cancer cell invasion and enhance antitumor efficiency by targeted drug delivery. PMID:25565817

  15. Systemic Delivery of MicroRNA-101 Potently Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma In Vivo by Repressing Multiple Targets

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang; Liao, Yi-Ji; Cai, Mu-Yan; Liu, Tian-Hao; Chen, Shu-Peng; Wu, Pei-Hong; Wu, Long; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Yuan, Yun-Fei; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Xie, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Targeted therapy based on adjustment of microRNA (miRNA)s activity takes great promise due to the ability of these small RNAs to modulate cellular behavior. However, the efficacy of miR-101 replacement therapy to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In the current study, we first observed that plasma levels of miR-101 were significantly lower in distant metastatic HCC patients than in HCCs without distant metastasis, and down-regulation of plasma miR-101 predicted a worse disease-free survival (DFS, P<0.05). In an animal model of HCC, we demonstrated that systemic delivery of lentivirus-mediated miR-101 abrogated HCC growth in the liver, intrahepatic metastasis and distant metastasis to the lung and to the mediastinum, resulting in a dramatic suppression of HCC development and metastasis in mice without toxicity and extending life expectancy. Furthermore, enforced overexpression of miR-101 in HCC cells not only decreased EZH2, COX2 and STMN1, but also directly down-regulated a novel target ROCK2, inhibited Rho/Rac GTPase activation, and blocked HCC cells epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis, inducing a strong abrogation of HCC tumorigenesis and aggressiveness both in vitro and in vivo. These results provide proof-of-concept support for systemic delivery of lentivirus-mediated miR-101 as a powerful anti-HCC therapeutic modality by repressing multiple molecular targets. PMID:25693145

  16. Core-shell nanocarriers with ZnO quantum dots-conjugated Au nanoparticle for tumor-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Zhao, Tong; Wei, Dongfeng; Wei, Yanxia; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Haixia

    2013-02-15

    Core-shell structured multifunctional nanocarriers (NCs) of ZnO quantum dots-conjugated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as core and amphiphilic hyperbranched block copolymer as shell were synthesized for targeted anticancer drug delivery. The amphiphilic hyperbranched block copolymer contained poly(l-lactide) (PLA) inner arm and folate (FA)-conjugated a sulfated polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (GPPS-FA) outer arm. The structure and properties of core-shell structured multifunctional nanocarriers were characterized and determined by UV-visible spectra, FT-IR spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), fluorescence spectroscopy and TEM analyses. The release results indicated that camptothecin (CPT) release from NCs at pH 7.4 was much greater than that at pH 5.3. The cytotoxicity studies showed that both the blank NCs and the CPT-loaded NCs provided high anticancer activity against Hela cells. Furthermore, nanocarriers gained specificity to target model cancer cells in this study due to the enhanced cell uptake mediated by FA moiety. The results indicated that the NCs not only had great potential as tumor-targeted drug delivery nanocarrier, but also had an assistant role in the treatment of cancer. PMID:23399137

  17. A prostate cancer-targeted polyarginine-disulfide linked PEI nanocarrier for delivery of microRNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Xue, Xiang; He, Dalin; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in efficient microRNA (miRNA) delivery techniques using prostate cancer-targeted nanoparticles offer critical information for understanding the functional role of miRNAs in vivo, and for supporting targeted gene therapy in terms of treating miRNA-associated prostate cancer. Here, we report the polyarginine peptide (R11)-labeled non-toxic SSPEI nanomaterials capable of prostate cancer-specific miR-145 delivery to prostate cancer in vivo where they display full bioactivity at completely nontoxic concentrations. The R11-labeled BPEI-SS (R11-SSPEI) nanocarrier showed less toxicity in prostate cancer, and electrostatic interaction of R11-SSPEI with miR-145 exhibited optimal transfection efficacy. The R11-SSPEI/miR-145 polymer could be specifically uptaken in prostate cancer using FAM-miR-145 mixed with R11-SSPEI. The functional action of miR-145 oligomers released from polyplexes was evaluated by a reporter vector containing a miR-145-binding sequence, and showed a significantly reduced reporter signal in a dose-dependent manner. More importantly, in a peritoneal mouse tumor model, the systemic administration of the R11-SSPEI/FAM-miR-145 complex leads to the delivery of miR-145 into the tumors, dramatically inhibiting tumor growth and prolonged survival time. Hence, we establish a novel and prostate cancer-specific targeting system for the systemic in vivo application of microRNAs through R11-SSPEI complexation as a powerful tool for future therapeutic use. PMID:26054847

  18. Apamin-mediated actively targeted drug delivery for treatment of spinal cord injury: more than just a concept.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Jiang, Hong; Bi, Qiuyan; Luo, Qingsong; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Zhangbao; Li, Chong

    2014-09-01

    Faced with the complex medical challenge presented by spinal cord injuries (SCI) and considering the lack of any available curative therapy, the development of a novel method of delivering existing drugs or candidate agents can be perceived to be as important as the development of new therapeutic molecules. By combining three ingredients currently in clinical use or undergoing testing, we have designed a central nervous system targeted delivery system based on apamin-modified polymeric micelles (APM). Apamin, one of the major components of honey bee venom, serves as the targeting moiety, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE) serves as the drug-loaded material, and curcumin is used as the therapeutic agent. Apamin was conjugated with NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide)-PEG-DSPE in a site-specific manner, and APM were prepared by a thin-film hydration method. A formulation comprising 0.5 mol % targeting ligand with 50 nm particle size showed strong targeting efficiency in vivo and was evaluated in pharmacodynamic assays. A 7-day treatment by daily intravenous administration of low doses of APM (corresponding to 5 mg/kg of curcumin) was performed. Significantly enhanced recovery and prolonged survival was found in the SCI mouse model, as compared to sham-treated groups, with no apparent toxicity. A single dose of apamin-conjugated polymers was about 700-fold lower than the LD50 amount, suggesting that APM and apamin have potential for clinical applications as spinal cord targeting ligand for delivery of agents in treatment of diseases of the central nervous system. PMID:25098949

  19. N-acetyl-d-glucosamine decorated polymeric nanoparticles for targeted delivery of doxorubicin: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Baocheng; Ding, Yuanyuan; Han, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Han, Yuzhen; Han, Jingtian

    2015-06-01

    A novel targeting drug delivery system containing poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)58-b-polystyrene130 (P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130) as a copolymer backbone, N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) as a targeting moiety was designed and synthesized. The NAG grafted copolymer (NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130) was characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR. The NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles exhibited spherical shapes with an average diameter about 56.27±0.43nm, low critical micelle concentration of 0.028mg/mL, negative zeta potential -41.46±0.99mV, high drug loading 25.83±1.09% and encapsulation efficiency 69.69±3.98%. In vitro cell cytotoxicity was conducted to confirm the safety of the NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM) results showed that the NAG targeting moiety enhanced the internalization and targeting ability of NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles. Anticancer activity toward MCF-7 cells and HT29 cells showed that DOX-loaded NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles exhibited a higher antitumor activity compared to DOX-loaded P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles, which could attribute to NAG receptor-mediated endocytosis. These results suggest that the biocompatible and non-toxic NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles may be used as an effective targeting drug delivery system for cancer therapy. PMID:25921641

  20. Convection and retro-convection enhanced delivery: some theoretical considerations related to drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Motion, J P Michael; Huynh, Grace H; Szoka, Francis C; Siegel, Ronald A

    2011-03-01

    Delivery of drugs and macromolecules into the brain is a challenging problem, due in part to the blood-brain barrier. In this article, we focus on the possibilities and limitations of two infusion techniques devised to bypass the blood-brain barrier: convection enhanced delivery (CED) and retro-convection enhanced delivery (R-CED). CED infuses fluid directly into the interstitial space of brain or tumor, whereas R-CED removes fluid from the interstitial space, which results in the transfer of drugs from the vascular compartment into the brain or tumor. Both techniques have shown promising results for the delivery of drugs into large volumes of tissue. Theoretical approaches of varying complexity have been developed to better understand and predict brain interstitial pressures and drug distribution for these techniques. These theoretical models of flow and diffusion can only be solved explicitly in simple geometries, and spherical symmetry is usually assumed for CED, while axial symmetry has been assumed for R-CED. This perspective summarizes features of these models and provides physical arguments and numerical simulations to support the notion that spherical symmetry is a reasonable approximation for modeling CED and R-CED. We also explore the potential of multi-catheter arrays for delivering and compartmentalizing drugs using CED and R-CED. PMID:20963628

  1. Neurosurgical Delivery of Chemotherapeutics, Targeted Toxins, Genetic and Viral Therapies in Neuro-Oncology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Antonio Chiocca; William C. Broaddus; George T. Gillies; Therese Visted; Martine L. M. Lamfers

    2004-01-01

    Local delivery of biologic agents, such as gene and viruses, has been tested preclinically with encouraging success, and in some instances clinical trials have also been performed. In addition, the positive pressure infusion of various therapeutic agents is undergoing human testing and approval has already been granted for routine clinical use of biodegradable implants that diffuse a chemotherapeutic agent into

  2. School Feeding and Educational Access in Rural Ghana: Is Poor Targeting and Delivery Limiting Impact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essuman, Ato; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to address social imbalances and equity in Ghana's education delivery and to achieve her Education for All (EFA) agenda, some pro-poor programmes have been introduced. Among these is the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) that aims among others, at providing safety nets for the poor, increasing school enrolment in addition to…

  3. Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin for targeted gene delivery of VEGF165-Ang-1 with PEI.

    PubMed

    Ma, Caili; Lv, Linlin; Liu, Yu; Yu, Yanni; You, Renchuan; Yang, Jicheng; Li, Mingzhong

    2014-06-01

    Vascularization is a crucial challenge in tissue engineering. One solution for this problem is to implant scaffolds that contain functional genes that promote vascularization by providing angiogenic growth factors via a gene delivery carrier. Poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) is a gene delivery carrier with high transfection efficiency but with cytotoxicity. To solve this problem, we utilized Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF), which has favorable cytocompatibility and biodegradability, RGD sequences and a negative charge, in conjunction with PEI, as the delivery vector for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 165-angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) dual gene simultaneous expression plasmid, creating an ASF/PEI/pDNA complex. The results suggested that the zeta potential of the ASF/PEI/pDNA complex was significantly lower than that of the PEI/pDNA complex. Decreased nitrogen and increased oxygen on the surface of the complex demonstrated that the ASF had successfully combined with the surface of the PEI/pDNA. Furthermore, the complexes resisted digestion by nucleic acid enzymes and degradation by serum. L929 cells were cultured and transfected in vitro and improved cytotoxicity was found when the cells were transfected with ASF/PEI/pDNA compared with PEI/pDNA. In addition, the transfection efficiency and VEGF secretion increased. In general, this study provides a novel method for decreasing the cytotoxicity of PEI gene delivery vectors and increasing transfection efficiency of angiogenesis-related genes. PMID:24867887

  4. Wound-healing effect of micronized sacchachitin (mSC) nanogel on corneal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ray-Neng; Lee, Lin-Wen; Chen, Ling-Chun; Ho, Hsiu-O; Lui, Shiao-Chuan; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Su, Ching-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The extraction residue of the Ganoderma fruiting body, named sacchachitin, has been demonstrated to have the potential to enhance cutaneous wound healing by inducing cell proliferation. In this study, a nanogel formed from micronized sacchachitin (mSC) was investigated for the potential treatment of superficial chemical corneal burns. Reportedly, mSC has been produced successfully and its chemical properties confirmed, and physical and rheological properties characterized. An in vitro cell proliferation study has revealed that at the concentrations of 200, 300, and 400 microg/mL, mSC nanogel significantly increased Statens Seruminstitut rabbit corneal (SIRC) cell proliferation after 24 hours of incubation. In cell migration assay, migration of SIRC cell to wound closure was observed after 24 hours of incubation with the addition of 200 microg/mL mSC of nanogel. In an animal study, acceleration of corneal wound healing was probably due to the inhibition of proteolysis. In conclusion, the findings of this study substantiate the potential application of sacchachitin in the form of mSC nanogel for the treatment of superficial corneal injuries. PMID:22956870

  5. Harnessing Labile Bonds between Nanogels Particles to Create Self-Healing Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    German V. Kolmakov; Krzysztof Matyjaszewski; Anna C. Balazs

    2009-01-01

    Using computational modeling, we demonstrate the self-healing behavior of novel materials composed of nanoscopic gel particles that are interconnected into a macroscopic network by both stable and labile bonds. Under mechanical stress, the labile bonds between the nanogels can break and readily reform with reactive groups on neighboring units. This breaking and reforming allows the units in the network to

  6. Microfluidic fabrication and thermoreversible response of core/shell photonic crystalline microspheres based on deformable nanogels.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuandu; Wang, Jianying; Wang, Hong; Wang, Qin; Zhu, Jintao; Yang, Yajiang

    2012-12-11

    Soft photonic crystals (PC) are more appealing due to the responsiveness of the building blocking-deformable nanoparticles to the external stimuli. In this report, we demonstrate, for the first time, the generation of soft core/shell PC microspheres through a combination of a microfluidic technique, encapsulation of well-ordered temperature responsive polymer nanogels suspension, and photopolymerization of a transparent shell resin. This strategy not only ensures the monodispersity of core/shell PC microspheres, but also precisely controls their size, shell thickness, and optical properties by simply adjusting the flow rate ratio and mass fraction of the nanogels. More interestingly, the intensity of the reflection spectra of the crystalline nanogel arrays in the core can be modulated reversibly by controlling the shell thickness or the temperature. As a result of their symmetric structure, the resulting PC microspheres exhibited excellent structural colors and photonic band gaps for normal incident light independent of the position on the spherical surface. Multifunctional PC microspheres can also be generated by simply dispersing functional species together with the nanogels. This core/shell PC microsphere with tunable shell thickness and reversible thermoresponse could be significant for potential applications in the fields of chemical/biological sensors, display, encoding, and optical switching. PMID:23153373

  7. Cholesteryl group- and acryloyl group-bearing pullulan nanogel to deliver BMP2 and FGF18 for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Ota, Masato S; Shimoda, Asako; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Miyamoto, Youji; Iseki, Sachiko

    2012-10-01

    To create a drug delivery system that allows the controlled release of proteins, such as growth factors, over a long-term period, cholesteryl group- and acryloyl group-bearing pullulan (CHPOA) nanogels were aggregated to form fast-degradable hydrogels (CHPOA/hydrogels) by cross-linking with thiol-bearing polyethylene glycol. The gold standard of clinical bone reconstruction therapy with a physiologically active material is treatment with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2); however, this approach has limitations, such as inflammation, poor cost-efficiency, and varying interindividual susceptibility. In this study, two distinct growth factors, BMP2 and recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF18), were applied to a critical-size skull bone defect for bone repair by the CHPOA/hydrogel system. The CHPOA-FGF18/hydrogel displayed identical results to the control CHPOA-PBS/hydrogel, and the CHPOA-BMP2/hydrogel treatment imperfectly induced bone repair. By contrast, the CHPOA-FGF18 + BMP2/hydrogel treatment strongly enhanced and stabilized the BMP2-dependent bone repair, inducing osteoprogenitor cell infiltration inside and around the hydrogel. This report indicates that the CHPOA/hydrogel system can successfully deliver two different proteins to the bone defect to induce effective bone repair. The combination of the CHPOA/hydrogel system with the growth factors FGF18 and BMP2 might be a step towards efficient bone tissue engineering. PMID:22800537

  8. Pectin-coated chitosan-LDH bionanocomposite beads as potential systems for colon-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Lígia N M; Alcântara, Ana C S; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2014-03-10

    This work introduces results on a new drug delivery system (DDS) based on the use of chitosan/layered double hydroxide (LDH) biohybrid beads coated with pectin for controlled release in the treatment of colon diseases. Thus, the 5-aminosalicylic acid (5ASA), the most used non-steroid-anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, was chosen as model drug aiming to a controlled and selective delivery in the colon. The pure 5ASA drug and the hybrid material prepared by intercalation in a layered double hydroxide of Mg2Al using the co-precipitation method, were incorporated in a chitosan matrix in order to profit from its mucoadhesiveness. These compounds processed as beads were further treated with the polysaccharide pectin to create a protective coating that ensures the stability of both chitosan and layered double hydroxide at the acid pH of the gastric fluid. The resulting composite beads presenting the pectin coating are stable to water swelling and procure a controlled release of the drug along their passage through the simulated gastrointestinal tract in in vitro experiments, due to their resistance to pH changes. Based on these results, the pectin@chitosan/LDH-5ASA bionanocomposite beads could be proposed as promising candidates for the colon-targeted delivery of 5ASA, with the aim of acting only in the focus of the disease and minimizing side effects. PMID:24374607

  9. Targeted Intracellular Delivery of Antituberculosis Drugs to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Macrophages via Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bai-Yu; Xue, Min; Thomas, Courtney R.; Meng, Huan; Ferris, Daniel; Nel, Andre E.; Zink, Jeffrey I.

    2012-01-01

    Delivery of antituberculosis drugs by nanoparticles offers potential advantages over free drug, including the potential to target specifically the tissues and cells that are infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, thereby simultaneously increasing therapeutic efficacy and decreasing systemic toxicity, and the capacity for prolonged release of drug, thereby allowing less-frequent dosing. We have employed mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSNP) drug delivery systems either equipped with a polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating to release rifampin or equipped with cyclodextrin-based pH-operated valves that open only at acidic pH to release isoniazid (INH) into M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages. The MSNP are internalized efficiently by human macrophages, traffic to acidified endosomes, and release high concentrations of antituberculosis drugs intracellularly. PEI-coated MSNP show much greater loading of rifampin than uncoated MSNP and much greater efficacy against M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages. MSNP were devoid of cytotoxicity at the particle doses employed for drug delivery. Similarly, we have demonstrated that the isoniazid delivered by MSNP equipped with pH-operated nanovalves kill M. tuberculosis within macrophages significantly more effectively than an equivalent amount of free drug. These data demonstrate that MSNP provide a versatile platform that can be functionalized to optimize the loading and intracellular release of specific drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis. PMID:22354311

  10. A bio-recognition device developed onto nano-crystals of carbonate apatite for cell-targeted gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, E H; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2005-05-20

    The DNA delivery to mammalian cells is an essential tool for analyzing gene structure, regulation, and function. The approach holds great promise for the further development of gene therapy techniques and DNA vaccination strategies to treat and control diseases. Here, we report on the establishment of a cell-specific gene delivery and expression system by physical adsorption of a cell-recognition molecule on the nano-crystal surface of carbonate apatite. As a model, DNA/nano-particles were successfully coated with asialofetuin to facilitate uptake by hepatocyte-derived cell lines through the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPr) and albumin to prevent non-specific interactions of the particles with cell-surface. The resulting composite particles with dual surface properties could accelerate DNA uptake and enhance expression to a notable extent. Nano-particles coated with transferrin in the same manner dramatically enhanced transgene expression in the corresponding receptor-bearing cells and thus our newly developed strategy represents a universal phenomenon for anchoring a bio-recognition macromolecule on the apatite crystal surface for targeted gene delivery, having immediate applications in basic research laboratories and great promise for gene therapy. PMID:15816024

  11. Optimization of Tet1 ligand density in HPMA-co-oligolysine copolymers for targeted neuronal gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chu, David S.H.; Schellinger, Joan G.; Bocek, Michael J.; Johnson, Russell N.; Pun, Suzie H.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted gene delivery vectors can enhance cellular specificity and transfection efficiency. We demonstrated previously that conjugation of Tet1, a peptide that binds to the GT1b ganglioside, to polyethylenimine results in preferential transfection of neural progenitor cells in vivo. In this work, we investigate the effect of Tet1 ligand density on gene delivery to neuron-like, differentiated PC-12 cells. A series of statistical, cationic peptide-based polymers containing various amounts (1—5 mol%) of Tet1 were synthesized via one-pot reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization by copolymerization of Tet1 and oligo-l-lysine macromonomers with N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA). When complexed with plasmid DNA, the resulting panel of Tet1-functionalized polymers formed particles with similar particle size as particles formed with untargeted HPMA–oligolysine copolymers. The highest cellular uptake in neuron-like differentiated PC-12 cells was observed using polymers with intermediate Tet1 peptide incorporation. Compared to untargeted polymers, polymers with optimal incorporation of Tet1 increased gene delivery to neuron-like PC-12 cells by over an order of magnitude but had no effect compared to control polymers in transfecting NIH/3T3 control cells. PMID:24041424

  12. Mitochondria-targeting photosensitizer-encapsulated amorphous nanocage as a bimodal reagent for drug delivery and biodiagnose in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Liu, Ji-Hua; Ma, Fei; Wei, Shao-Hua; Feng, Yu-Ying; Zhou, Jia-Hong; Yu, Bo-Yang; Shen, Jian

    2010-08-01

    The use of ceramic nano-carriers containing anti-cancer drugs for targeted delivery that span both fundamental and applied research has attracted the interest of the scientific community. In this paper, a hydrophobic photodynamic therapy drug, hypocrellin A (HA), was successfully encapsulated in water-soluble amorphous silica nanocage (HANC) by an improved sol-gel method. These nanocages are of ultrasmall size, highly monodispersed, stable in aqueous suspension, and retain the optical properties of HA. Moreover, these nanocages can be effectively delivered, subsequently taken up by cancer cells and finally targeted to mitochondria. In addition, incubation time dependent photodynamic efficacy difference between HANC and HA was investigated for the first time. Especially, the nanocages, owning extremely high stable fluorescence comparing with free HA, also have potentials as efficient probes for optical biodiagnose in vitro. All these properties of HANC could possibly make it especially promising to be used as a bimodal reagent for photodynamic therapy and biodiagnose. PMID:20300855

  13. Design and in vitro evaluation of a novel poly(methacrylic acid)/metronidazole antibacterial nanogel as an oral dosage form.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Chen, Liang; Li, Haicheng; Chen, Yuhui; Guo, Huixin; Shu, Yang; Chen, Zhiyu; Cai, Changhui; Guo, Lina; Zhang, Xianen; Zhou, Lin; Zhong, Qiu

    2014-06-01

    To overcome the undesirable side-effects of metronidazole (MTZ), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate is used as the cross-linker, and a series of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) nanogels were prepared to load the MTZ. We investigated the morphology, size, in vitro release property in the simulated gastrointestinal medium, long-term antibacterial performance against Bacteroides fragilis, cytotoxicity, stability and activity of this novel MTZ/PMAA nanogel. The results indicate that the MTZ/PMAA nanogel sustained the release of MTZ in long-term antibacterial activity in the simulated gastrointestinal medium. This MTZ/PMAA nanogel exhibits less cytotoxicity than MTZ alone, suggesting that MTZ/PMAA nanogel is a more useful dosage form than MTZ for mild-to-moderate Clostridium difficile infections. The novel aspects of this study include the synthesis of a nanogel and the three-phase study of the release profile, which might be useful for other researchers in this field. PMID:24727529

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Stable Soy ?-Conglycinin-Dextran Core-Shell Nanogels Prepared via a Self-Assembly Approach at the Isoelectric Point.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ji-Lu; Qi, Jun-Ru; Yin, Shou-Wei; Wang, Jin-Mei; Guo, Jian; Weng, Jing-Yi; Liu, Qian-Ru; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-07-01

    The preparation of soy ?-conglycinin-dextran nanogels (?90 nm) went through two stages, which are safe, facile, and green. First, amphiphilic graft copolymers were formed by dextran covalently attaching to ?-conglycinin via Maillard dry-heating reaction. Second, the synthesized conjugates were heated above the denaturation temperature at the isoelectric point (pH4.8) so as to assemble nanogels. The effects of pH, concentration, heating temperature, and time on the fabrication of nanogels were examined. The morphology study displayed that the nanogels exhibited spherical shape with core-shell structures, which was reconfirmed by zeta-potential investigation. Both circular dichroism spectra and surface hydrophobicity analyses indicated that the conformations of ?-conglycinin in the core of nanogels were changed, and the latter experiment further revealed that the hydrophobic groups of ?-conglycinin were exposed to the surface of protein. The nanogels were stable against various conditions and might be useful to deliver hydrophobic bioactive compounds. PMID:26075494

  15. Enhanced noscapine delivery using uPAR-targeted optical-MR imaging trackable nanoparticles for prostate cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Mohamed O; Karna, Prasanthi; Sajja, Hari Krishna; Mao, Hui; Yates, Clayton; Turner, Timothy; Aneja, Ritu

    2011-02-10

    The tubulin-binding anticancer activity of noscapine, an orally available plant-derived anti-tussive alkaloid, has been recently identified. Noscapine inhibits tumor growth in nude mice bearing human xenografts of hematopoietic, breast, lung, ovarian, brain and prostate origin. Despite its nontoxic attributes, significant elimination of the disease has not been achieved, perhaps since the bioavailability of noscapine to tumors saturates at an oral dose of 300 mg/kg body weight. To enable the selective and specific delivery of noscapine to prostate cancer cells, we have engineered a multifunctional nanoscale delivery vehicle that takes advantage of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) overexpression in prostate cancer compared to normal prostate epithelia and can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared (NIR) imaging. Specifically, we employed the human-type 135 amino-acid amino-terminal fragment (hATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), a high-affinity natural ligand for uPAR. Noscapine (Nos) was efficiently adsorbed onto the amphiphilic polymer coating of uPAR-targeted nanoparticles (NPs). Nos-loaded NPs were uniformly compact-sized, stable at physiological pH and efficiently released the drug at pH 4 to 5 within a span of 4h. Our results demonstrate that these uPAR-targeted NPs were capable of binding to the receptor and were internalized by PC-3 cells. uPAR-targeted Nos-loaded NPs enhanced intracellular noscapine accumulation as evident by the ~6-fold stronger inhibitory effect on PC-3 growth compared to free noscapine. In addition, Nos-loaded iron oxide NPs maintained their T2 MRI contrast effect upon internalization into tumor cells owing to their significant susceptibility effect in cells. Thus, our data provide compelling evidence that these optically and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-trackable uPAR-targeted NPs may offer a great potential for image-directed targeted delivery of noscapine for the management of prostate cancer. PMID:21047537

  16. Pulsed-High Intensity Focused Ultrasound and Low Temperature– Sensitive Liposomes for Enhanced Targeted Drug Delivery and Antitumor Effect

    PubMed Central

    Dromi, Sergio; Frenkel, Victor; Luk, Alfred; Traughber, Bryan; Angstadt, Mary; Bur, Monica; Poff, Jason; Xie, Jianwu; Libutti, Steven K.; Li, King C.P.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To determine if pulsed-high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) could effectively serve as a source of hyperthermia with thermosensitive liposomes to enhance delivery and efficacy of doxorubicin in tumors. Experimental Design Comparisons in vitro and in vivo were carried out between non - thermosensitive liposomes (NTSL) and low temperature - sensitive liposomes (LTSL). Liposomes were incubated in vitro over a range of temperatures and durations, and the amount of doxorubicin released was measured. For in vivo experiments, liposomes and free doxorubicin were injected i.v. in mice followed by pulsed-HIFU exposures in s.c. murine adenocarcinoma tumors at 0 and 24 h after administration. Combinations of the exposures and drug formulations were evaluated for doxorubicin concentration and growth inhibition in the tumors. Results In vitro incubations simulating the pulsed-HIFU thermal dose (42°C for 2 min) triggered release of 50% of doxorubicin from the LTSLs; however, no detectable release from the NTSLs was observed. Similarly, in vivo experiments showed that pulsed-HIFU exposures combined with the LTSLs resulted in more rapid delivery of doxorubicin as well as significantly higher i.t. concentration when compared with LTSLs alone or NTSLs, with or without exposures. Combining the exposures with the LTSLs also significantly reduced tumor growth compared with all other groups. Conclusions Combining low-temperature heat-sensitive liposomes with noninvasive and nondestructive pulsed-HIFU exposures enhanced the delivery of doxorubicin and, consequently, its antitumor effects. This combination therapy could potentially produce viable clinical strategies for improved targeting and delivery of drugs for treatment of cancer and other diseases. PMID:17473205

  17. Theranostic vitamin E TPGS micelles of transferrin conjugation for targeted co-delivery of docetaxel and ultra bright gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Madaswamy S; Kutty, Rajaletchumy Veloo; Luo, Zhentao; Xie, Jianping; Feng, Si-Shen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an advanced theranostic micelles of D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), which are conjugated with transferrin for targeted co-delivery of docetaxel (DTX) as a model drug and ultra bright gold clusters (AuNC) as a model imaging agent for simultaneous cancer imaging and therapy. The theranostic micelles with and without transferrin conjugation were prepared by the solvent casting method and characterized for their particle size, polydispersity, surface chemistry, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and cellular uptake efficiency. Transferrin receptors expressing MDA-MB-231-luc breast cancer cells and NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells (control cells without transferrin receptor expression) were employed as an in vitro model to access cytotoxicity of the formulations. The overexpression of transferrin receptor on the surface of MDA-MB-231-luc cells was confirmed by flow cytometry. The biodistribution study and theranostic efficacy of the micelles were investigated by using the Xenogen IVIS(®) Spectrum imaging system, which includes AuNC based fluorescence imaging and luciferase induced bioluminescence imaging on MDA-MB-231-luc tumor bearing SCID mice. The IC50 values demonstrated that the non-targeted and targeted micelles could be 15.31 and 71.73 folds more effective than Taxotere(®) after 24 h treatment with the MDA-MB-231-luc cells. Transferrin receptor targeted delivery of such micelles was imaged in xenograft model and showed their great advantages for real-time tumor imaging and inhibition of tumor growth. PMID:25468374

  18. CAR/FoxP3-engineered T regulatory cells target the CNS and suppress EAE upon intranasal delivery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS, T regulatory (Treg) cell therapy has proved to be beneficial, but generation of stable CNS-targeting Tregs needs further development. Here, we propose gene engineering to achieve CNS-targeting Tregs from naïve CD4 cells and demonstrate their efficacy in the EAE model. Methods CD4+ T cells were modified utilizing a lentiviral vector system to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in trans with the murine FoxP3 gene that drives Treg differentiation. The cells were evaluated in vitro for suppressive capacity and in C57BL/6 mice to treat EAE. Cells were administered by intranasal (i.n.) cell delivery. Results The engineered Tregs demonstrated suppressive capacity in vitro and could efficiently access various regions in the brain via i.n cell delivery. Clinical score 3 EAE mice were treated and the engineered Tregs suppressed ongoing encephalomyelitis as demonstrated by reduced disease symptoms as well as decreased IL-12 and IFNgamma mRNAs in brain tissue. Immunohistochemical markers for myelination (MBP) and reactive astrogliosis (GFAP) confirmed recovery in mice treated with engineered Tregs compared to controls. Symptom-free mice were rechallenged with a second EAE-inducing inoculum but remained healthy, demonstrating the sustained effect of engineered Tregs. Conclusion CNS-targeting Tregs delivered i.n. localized to the CNS and efficiently suppressed ongoing inflammation leading to diminished disease symptoms. PMID:22647574

  19. Application of Collagen-Model Triple-Helical Peptide-Amphiphiles for CD44-Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ndinguri, Margaret W.; Zheleznyak, Alexander; Lauer, Janelle L.; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Fields, Gregg B.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer treatment by chemotherapy is typically accompanied by deleterious side effects, attributed to the toxic action of chemotherapeutics on proliferating cells from nontumor tissues. The cell surface proteoglycan CD44 has been recognized as a cancer stem cell marker. The present study has examined CD44 targeting as a way to selectively deliver therapeutic agents encapsulated inside colloidal delivery systems. CD44/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan binds to a triple-helical sequence derived from type IV collagen, ?1(IV)1263–1277. We have assembled a peptide-amphiphile (PA) in which ?1(IV)1263–1277 was sandwiched between 4 repeats of Gly-Pro-4-hydroxyproline and conjugated to palmitic acid. The PA was incorporated into liposomes composed of DSPG, DSPC, cholesterol, and DSPE-PEG-2000 (1?:?4?:?5?:?0.5). Doxorubicin-(DOX-)loaded liposomes with and without 10%??1(IV)1263–1277 PA were found to exhibit similar stability profiles. Incubation of DOX-loaded targeted liposomes with metastatic melanoma M14#5 and M15#11 cells and BJ fibroblasts resulted in IC50 values of 9.8, 9.3, and >100??M, respectively. Nontargeted liposomes were considerably less efficacious for M14#5 cells. In the CD44+ B16F10 mouse melanoma model, CD44-targeted liposomes reduced the tumor size to 60% of that of the untreated control, whereas nontargeted liposomes were ineffective. These results suggest that PA targeted liposomes may represent a new class of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems. PMID:23213537

  20. Polymeric micelle nanocarriers for the cutaneous delivery of tacrolimus: a targeted approach for the treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Lapteva, Maria; Mondon, Karine; Möller, Michael; Gurny, Robert; Kalia, Yogeshvar N

    2014-09-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) suffers from poor cutaneous bioavailability when administered topically using conventional vehicles with the consequence that although it is indicated for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has poor efficacy against psoriasis. The aim of this work was to formulate TAC loaded polymeric micelles using the biodegradable and biocompatible methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-dihexyl substituted polylactide (MPEG-dihexPLA) diblock copolymer and to investigate their potential for targeted delivery of TAC into the epidermis and upper dermis. Micelle formulations were characterized with respect to drug content, stability, and size. An optimal 0.1% micelle formulation was developed and shown to be stable over a period of 7 months at 4 °C; micelle diameters ranged from 10 to 50 nm. Delivery experiments using human skin and involving quantification by UHPLC-MS/MS demonstrated that this formulation resulted in significantly greater TAC deposition in skin than that with Protopic (0.1% w/w; TAC ointment), (1.50 ± 0.59 and 0.47 ± 0.20 ?g/cm(2), respectively). The cutaneous biodistribution profile of TAC in the upper 400 ?m of tissue (at a resolution of 20 ?m) demonstrated that the increase in cutaneous drug levels was due to improved TAC deposition in the stratum corneum, viable epidermis, and upper dermis. Given that there was no increase in the amount of TAC in deeper skin layers or any transdermal permeation, the results suggested that it would be possible to increase TAC levels selectively in the target tissue without increasing systemic absorption and the risk of side effects in vivo. Micelle distribution and molecular penetration pathways were subsequently visualized with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using a fluorescently labeled copolymer and fluorescent dyes. The CLSM study indicated that the copolymer was unable to cross the stratum corneum and that release of the micelle "payload" was dependent on the molecular properties of the "cargo" as evidenced by the different behaviors of DiO and fluorescein. A preferential deposition of micelles into the hair follicle was also confirmed by CLSM. Overall, the results indicate that MPEG-dihexPLA micelles are highly efficient nanocarriers for the selective cutaneous delivery of tacrolimus, superior to the marketed formulation (Protopic). Furthermore, they may also have significant potential for targeted delivery to the hair follicle. PMID:25057896

  1. Dual-Enzyme-Loaded Multifunctional Hybrid Nanogel System for Pathological Responsive Ultrasound Imaging and T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Niu, Dechao; Li, Pei; Wu, Qing; Bo, Xiaowan; Liu, Boji; Bao, Song; Su, Teng; Xu, Huixiong; Wang, Qigang

    2015-06-23

    A dual-enzyme-loaded multifunctional hybrid nanogel probe (SPIO@GCS/acryl/biotin-CAT/SOD-gel, or SGC) has been developed for dual-modality pathological responsive ultrasound (US) imaging and enhanced T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This probe is composed of functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide particles, a dual enzyme species (catalase and superoxide dismutase), and a polysaccharide cationic polymer glycol chitosan gel. The dual-modality US/MR imaging capabilities of the hybrid nanogel for responsive US imaging and enhanced T2-weighted MR imaging have been evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. These results show that the hybrid nanogel SGC can exhibit efficient dual-enzyme biocatalysis with pathological species for responsive US imaging. SGC also demonstrates increased accumulation in acidic environments for enhanced T2-weighted MR imaging. Further research on these nanogel systems may lead to the development of more efficient US/MR contrast agents. PMID:26035730

  2. Self-assembled silk sericin/poloxamer nanoparticles as nanocarriers of hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs for targeted delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Biman B.; Kundu, S. C.

    2009-09-01

    In recent times self-assembled micellar nanoparticles have been successfully employed in tissue engineering for targeted drug delivery applications. In this review, silk sericin protein from non-mulberry Antheraea mylitta tropical tasar silk cocoons was blended with pluronic F-127 and F-87 in the presence of solvents to achieve self-assembled micellar nanostructures capable of carrying both hydrophilic (FITC-inulin) and hydrophobic (anticancer drug paclitaxel) drugs. The fabricated nanoparticles were subsequently characterized for their size distribution, drug loading capability, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity. Nanoparticle sizes ranged between 100 and 110 nm in diameter as confirmed by dynamic light scattering. Rapid uptake of these particles into cells was observed in in vitro cellular uptake studies using breast cancer MCF-7 cells. In vitro cytotoxicity assay using paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles against breast cancer cells showed promising results comparable to free paclitaxel drugs. Drug-encapsulated nanoparticle-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was confirmed by FACS and confocal microscopic studies using Annexin V staining. Up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cleavage of regulatory protein PARP through Western blot analysis suggested further drug-induced apoptosis in cells. This study projects silk sericin protein as an alternative natural biomaterial for fabrication of self-assembled nanoparticles in the presence of poloxamer for successful delivery of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs to target sites.

  3. Idarubicin-loaded folic acid conjugated magnetic nanoparticles as a targetable drug delivery system for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, Ufuk; Keskin, Tugba; Tans?k, Gulistan; Mutlu, Pelin; Yalcin, Serap; Unsoy, Gozde; Yakar, Arzu; Khodadust, Rouhollah; Gunduz, Gungor

    2014-07-01

    Conventional cancer chemotherapies cannot differentiate between healthy and cancer cells, and lead to severe side effects and systemic toxicity. Another major problem is the drug resistance development before or during the treatment. In the last decades, different kinds of controlled drug delivery systems have been developed to overcome these shortcomings. The studies aim targeted drug delivery to tumor site. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) are potentially important in cancer treatment since they can be targeted to tumor site by an externally applied magnetic field. In this study, MNPs were synthesized, covered with biocompatible polyethylene glycol (PEG) and conjugated with folic acid. Then, anti-cancer drug idarubicin was loaded onto the nanoparticles. Shape, size, crystal and chemical structures, and magnetic properties of synthesized nanoparticles were characterized. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Internalization and accumulation of MNPs in MCF-7 cells were illustrated by light and confocal microscopy. Empty MNPs did not have any toxicity in the concentration ranges of 0-500?g/mL on MCF-7 cells, while drug-loaded nanoparticles led to significant toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Besides, idarubicin-loaded MNPs exhibited higher toxicity compared to free idarubicin. The results are promising for improvement in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25194441

  4. Targeted delivery of methotrexate to tumor cells using biotin functionalized methotrexate-human serum albumin conjugated nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Azade; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Nouri, Faranak; Ahadi, Fatemeh; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Borougeni, Atefeh Taheri; Mansoori, Pooria

    2011-12-01

    Systemic toxicity following cancer chemotherapy is an important concern. Targeted drug delivery systems could reduce the toxicity of anticancer drugs. Vitamins have been considered as targeting moieties in novel cancer treatment strategies. In this study, biotin was attached to nanoparticles of conjugated methotrexate-human serum albumin. Biotin functionalized methotrexate-human serum albumin with three different amounts of biotin attached to the nanoparticles were prepared. It was shown that the cytotoxicity of biotin functionalized nanoparticles on T47D and HeLa tumor cells was significantly higher than that of free methotrexate and non-functionalized nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity of biotin functionalized nanoparticles further increased when the number of biotin molecules attached on the surface of nanoparticles increased. The uptake of FITC labeled biotin functionalized nanoparticles by T47D and HeLa cells measured by flow cytometry, was also higher than that of non-functionalized nanoparticles. It can be concluded that the biotin functionalized methotrexate-human serum albumin conjugated nanoparticles could be used as a potent drug for specific delivery of methotrexate to tumors. PMID:22416572

  5. Hydrotropic polymeric mixed micelles based on functional hyperbranched polyglycerol copolymers as hepatoma-targeting drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuejiao; Zhang, Xinge; Yu, Peien; Han, Yucai; Li, Yangguang; Li, Chaoxing

    2013-01-01

    Mixed copolymer nanoparticles (NPs) self-assembled from ?-cyclodextrin-grafted hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG-g-CD) and lactobionic acid (LA)-grafted hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG-g-LA) were applied as carriers for a hydrophobic antitumor drug, paclitaxel (PTX), achieving hepatocellular carcinoma-targeted delivery. The resulting NPs exhibited high drug loading capacity and substantial stability in aqueous solution. In vitro drug release studies demonstrated a controlled drug release profile with increased release at acidic pH. Remarkably, tumor proliferation assays showed that PTX-loaded mixed copolymer NPs inhibited asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptor positive HepG2 cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner in comparison with ASGP receptor negative BGC-823 cells. Moreover, the competition assay demonstrated that the small molecular LA inhibited the cellular uptake of the PTX-loaded mixed copolymer NPs, indicating the ASGP receptor-mediated endocytosis in HepG2 cells. In addition, the intracellular uptake tests by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the mixed copolymer NPs were more efficiently taken up by HepG2 cells compared with HPG-g-CD NPs. These results suggest a feasible application of the mixed copolymer NPs as nanocarriers for hepatoma-targeted delivery of potent antitumor drugs. PMID:23132353

  6. Construction of target-specific virus-like particles for the delivery of algicidal compounds to harmful algae.

    PubMed

    Kang, Beom Sik; Eom, Chi-Yong; Kim, Wonduck; Kim, Pyoung Il; Ju, Sun Yi; Ryu, Jaewon; Han, Gui Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Il; Cho, Hoon; Baek, Seung Ho; Kim, Gueeda; Kim, Minju; Hyun, Jaekyung; Jin, EonSeon; Kim, Si Wouk

    2015-04-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) can lead to substantial socio-economic losses and extensive damage to aquatic ecosystems, drinking water sources and human health. Common algicidal techniques, including ozonation, ultrasonic treatment and dispersion of algae-killing chemicals, are unsatisfactory both economically and ecologically. This study therefore presents a novel alternative strategy for the efficient control of deleterious algae via the use of host-specific virus-like particles (VLPs) combined with chemically synthesized algicidal compounds. The capsid protein of HcRNAV34, a single-stranded RNA virus that infects the toxic dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, was expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli and then self-assembled into VLPs?in vitro. Next, the algicidal compound, thiazolidinedione 49 (TD49), was encapsidated into HcRNAV34 VLPs for specific delivery to H. circularisquama. Consequently, HcRNAV34 VLPs demonstrated the same host selectivity as naturally occurring HcRNAV34 virions, while TD49-encapsidated VLPs showed a more potent target-specific algicidal effect than TD49 alone. These results indicate that target-specific VLPs for the delivery of cytotoxic compounds to nuisance algae might provide a safe, environmentally friendly approach for the management of HABs in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25298012

  7. HFT-T, a targeting nanoparticle, enhances specific delivery of paclitaxel to folate receptor-positive tumors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Li, Jun; Wang, Yiqing; Cho, Kwang Jae; Kim, Gloria; Gjyrezi, Ada; Koenig, Lydia; Giannakakou, Paraskevi; Shin, Hyung Ju C; Tighiouart, Mourad; Nie, Shuming; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Shin, Dong M

    2009-10-27

    Nonspecific distribution of chemotherapeutic drugs (such as paclitaxel) is a major factor contributing to side effects and poor clinical outcomes in the treatment of human head and neck cancer. To develop novel drug delivery systems with enhanced efficacy and minimized adverse effects, we synthesized a ternary conjugate heparin-folic acid-paclitaxel (HFT), loaded with additional paclitaxel (T). The resulting nanoparticle, HFT-T, is expected to retain the antitumor activity of paclitaxel and specifically target folate receptor (FR)-expressing tumors, thereby increasing the bioavailability and efficacy of paclitaxel. In vitro experiments found that HFT-T selectively recognizes FR-positive human head and neck cancer cell line KB-3-1, displaying higher cytotoxicity compared to the free form of paclitaxel. In a subcutaneous KB-3-1 xenograft model, HFT-T administration enhanced the specific delivery of paclitaxel into tumor tissues and remarkably improved antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel. The average tumor volume in the HFT-T treatment group was 92.9 +/- 78.2 mm(3) vs 1670.3 +/- 286.1 mm(3) in the mice treated with free paclitaxel. Furthermore, paclitaxel tumors showed a resurgence of growth after several weeks of treatment, but this was not observed with HFT-T. This indicates that HFT-T could be more effective in preventing tumors from developing drug resistance. No significant acute in vivo toxicity was observed. These results indicate that specific delivery of paclitaxel with a ternary structured nanoparticle (HFT-T) targeting FR-positive tumor is a promising strategy to enhance chemotherapy efficacy and minimize adverse effects. PMID:19761191

  8. Encapsulated microbubbles and echogenic liposomes for contrast ultrasound imaging and targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Shirshendu; Nahire, Rahul; Mallik, Sanku; Sarkar, Kausik

    2014-01-01

    Micron- to nanometer-sized ultrasound agents, like encapsulated microbubbles and echogenic liposomes, are being developed for diagnostic imaging and ultrasound mediated drug/gene delivery. This review provides an overview of the current state of the art of the mathematical models of the acoustic behavior of ultrasound contrast microbubbles. We also present a review of the in vitro experimental characterization of the acoustic properties of microbubble based contrast agents undertaken in our laboratory. The hierarchical two-pronged approach of modeling contrast agents we developed is demonstrated for a lipid coated (Sonazoid™) and a polymer shelled (poly D-L-lactic acid) contrast microbubbles. The acoustic and drug release properties of the newly developed echogenic liposomes are discussed for their use as simultaneous imaging and drug/gene delivery agents. Although echogenicity is conclusively demonstrated in experiments, its physical mechanisms remain uncertain. Addressing questions raised here will accelerate further development and eventual clinical approval of these novel technologies.

  9. Method of targeted delivery of laser beam to isolated retinal rods by fiber optics

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Nigel; Bessarab, Dmitri; Jones, C. Michael; Krivitsky, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    A method of controllable light delivery to retinal rod cells using an optical fiber is described. Photo-induced current of the living rod cells was measured with the suction electrode technique. The approach was tested with measurements relating the spatial distribution of the light intensity to photo-induced current. In addition, the ion current responses of rod cells to polarized light at two different orientation geometries of the cells were studied. PMID:22076256

  10. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Inner Ear Targeted Molecule Delivery and Middle Ear Implant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Kopke; Ronald A. Wassel; Fadee Mondalek; Brian Grady; Kejian Chen; Jianzhong Liu; Don Gibson; Kenneth J. Dormer

    2006-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SNP) composed of magnetite (Fe3O4) were studied preliminarily as vehicles for therapeutic molecule delivery to the inner ear and as a middle ear implant capable of producing biomechanically relevant forces for auditory function. Magnetite SNP were synthesized, then encapsulated in either silica or poly (D,L,-Lactide-co-glycolide) or obtained commercially with coatings of oleic acid or dextran. Permanent

  11. Targeted Aerosolized Delivery of Ascorbate in the Lungs of Chlorine-Exposed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bracher, Andreas; Doran, Stephen F.; Squadrito, Giuseppe L.; Postlethwait, Edward M.; Bowen, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chlorine (Cl2)-induced lung injury is a serious public health threat that may result from industrial and household accidents. Post-Cl2 administration of aerosolized ascorbate in rodents decreased lung injury and mortality. However, the extent to which aerosolized ascorbate augments depleted ascorbate stores in distal lung compartments has not been assessed. Methods We exposed rats to Cl2 (300 ppm for 30?min) and returned them to room air. Within 15–30?min postexposure, rats breathed aerosolized ascorbate and desferal or vehicle (mean particle size 3.3??m) through a nose-only exposure system for 60?min and were euthanized. We measured the concentrations of reduced ascorbate in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), plasma, and lung tissues with high-pressure liquid chromatography, protein plasma concentration in the BAL, and the volume of the epithelia lining fluid (ELF). Results Cl2-exposed rats that breathed aerosolized vehicle had lower values of ascorbate in their BAL, ELF, and lung tissues compared to air-breathing rats. Delivery of aerosolized ascorbate increased reduced ascorbate in BAL, ELF, lung tissues, and plasma of both Cl2 and air-exposed rats without causing lung injury. Based on mean diameter of aerosolized particles and airway sizes we calculated that approximately 5% and 1% of inhaled ascorbate was deposited in distal lung regions of air and Cl2-exposed rats, respectively. Significantly higher ascorbate levels were present in the BAL of Cl2-exposed rats when aerosol delivery was initiated 1?h post-Cl2. Conclusions Aerosol administration is an effective, safe, and noninvasive method for the delivery of low molecular weight antioxidants to the lungs of Cl2-exposed individuals for the purpose of decreasing morbidity and mortality. Delivery is most effective when initiated 1?h postexposure when the effects of Cl2 on minute ventilation subside. PMID:22393907

  12. H-Chain Ferritin: A Natural Nuclei Targeting and Bioactive Delivery Nanovector.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianbing; Li, Le; Di Penta, Alessandra; Carmona, Unai; Yang, Fan; Schöps, Regina; Brandsch, Matthias; Zugaza, José L; Knez, Mato

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear translocation of human H-chain in its intact cage-like structure without any additional modifications enables a rapid nuclear delivery of an encapsulated anticancer drug (doxorubicin). This reduces the doses of drugs simultaneously bypassing the cellular multidrug resistance. Apoferritin exhibits synergistic effects through attenuating drug-induced dysregulation of the cellular iron. Tests on cerebellar organotypic cultures show the natural cell selectivity and drug accumulation in brain tissue. PMID:25973730

  13. Direct cytosolic siRNA delivery by reconstituted high density lipoprotein for target-specific therapy of tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yang; Wang, Yazhe; Zhou, Jianping; Gu, Xiaochen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Congyan; Bao, Xiuli; Wang, Cheng; Li, Yuanru; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-08-01

    We described here the mechanisms by which small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules incorporated in reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL) were efficiently transferred into the cytoplasm of cells to perform target-specific therapy of tumor angiogenesis. Using fluorescent-tagged apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and cholesterol-conjugated siRNA (Chol-siRNA), it was confirmed with FACS and confocal microscopic measurements that Chol-siRNA-loaded rHDL nanoparticles (rHDL/Chol-siRNA complexes) were successfully established and apoA-I certainly was attached to the surface of Chol-siRNA-loaded lipoplexes (Lipos/Chol-siRNA complexes). Stably assembled rHDL/Chol-siRNA complexes demonstrated proper nanosize, quasi-spherical shape and improved nuclease protection over naked Chol-siRNA. It was also interesting to note that rHDL provided a highly effective approach to transfer Chol-siRNA across the membrane directly into the cytoplasm via the scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI)-mediated non-endocytotic mechanism, thereby bypassing endo-lysosomal trapping. We also showed clear evidence that the in vitro implementation of rHDL for Chol-siRNA-VEGF (Chol-siRNA targeting vascular endothelial growth factor gene) delivery markedly promoted RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated degradation of VEGF mRNA, resulting in down-regulation of secreted VEGF protein. In vivo fluorescence imaging indicated that near-infrared (NIR) dye Cy5 labeled Chol-siRNA-loaded rHDL nanoparticles (rHDL/Cy5-Chol-siRNA complexes) displayed long circulation time, SR-BI positive tumor-selective targeting, and efficient cytosolic delivery capabilities. Furthermore, intravenous administration of Chol-siRNA-VEGF-loaded rHDL nanoparticles (rHDL/Chol-siRNA-VEGF complexes) significantly enhanced anti-tumor efficacy against breast cancer, decreased VEGF expression level, and inhibited formation of intratumoral microvessels at the tumor tissue. It was concluded that rHDL possessed therapeutic potential and versatility in mediating Chol-siRNA-VEGF direct cytosolic delivery for target-specific anti-angiogenic therapy in breast cancer. PMID:24875759

  14. Targeted Delivery of Plasmid DNA to Myogenic Cells via Transferrin-Conjugated Peptide Nucleic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth W. Liang; Eric P. Hoffman; Leaf Huang

    2000-01-01

    We describe a novel approach to conjugate a targeting ligand to plasmid DNA without affecting either its supercoiled conformation or its ability to be efficiently transcribed. A 14-mer peptide nucleic acid (PNA) containing lysine and cysteine on each end was designed to target to a unique sequence located at the antibiotic resistance gene of the plasmid. The binding of PNA

  15. Optimizing tumor targeting of the lipophilic EGFR-binding radiotracer SKI243 using a liposomal nanoparticle delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Glekas, Athanasios; Punzalan, Blesida; Longo, Valerie; Gönen, Mithat; Zanzonico, Pat; Smith-Jones, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase-specific radiolabeled tracers could provide a means for non-invasively characterizing EGFR expression and signaling activity in patients' tumors before, during, and after therapy with EGFR inhibitors. Towards this goal, our group has developed PET tracers which irreversibly bind to EGFR. However, tumor uptake is relatively low because of both the lipophilicity of such tracers (e.g. the morpholino-[124I]-IPQA [SKI212243]), with octanol-to-water partition coefficients of up to 4, and a short dwell time in the blood and significant hepatobiliary clearance and intestinal reuptake. Liposomal nanoparticle delivery systems may favorably alter the pharmacokinetic profile and improve tumor targeting of highly lipophilic but otherwise promising cancer imaging tracers, such as the EGFR inhibitor SKI243. SKI243 is therefore an interesting model molecule for incorporation into lipid-based nanoparticles, as it would not only improve their solubility but also increase the circulation time, availability and, potentially, targeting of tumors. In the current study, we compared the pharmacokinetics and tumor targeting of the bare EGFR kinase-targeting radiotracer SKI212243 (SKI243) with that of the same tracer embedded in liposomes. SKI243 and liposomal SKI243 are both taken up by tumor xenografts but liposomal SKI243 remained in the blood longer and consequently exhibited a 3- to 6-fold increase in uptake in the tumor among several other organs. PMID:21047536

  16. Targeted delivery of 10-hydroxycamptothecin to human breast cancers by cyclic RGD-modified lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Luo, Xingen; Zhang, Xiaofang; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Qing

    2013-04-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) combining the positive attributes of both liposomes and polymeric NPs are increasingly being considered as promising candidates to carry therapeutic agents safely and efficiently into targeted sites. Herein, a modified emulsification technique was developed and optimized for the targeting lipid-polymer hybrid NPs fabrication; the surface properties and stability of the hybrid NPs were systematically investigated, which confirmed that the hybrid NPs consisted of a poly (lactide-co-glycolide) core with ?90% surface coverage of the lipid monolayer and a ?4.4 nm hydrated polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell. Optimization results showed that the lipid:polymer mass ratio and the lipid-PEG:lipid molar ratio could affect the size, lipid association efficiency and stability of hybrid NPs. Furthermore, a model chemotherapy drug, 10-hydroxycamptothecin, was encapsulated into hybrid NPs with a higher drug loading compared to PLGA NPs. Surface modification of the lipid layer and the PEG conjugated targeting ligand did not affect their drug release kinetics. Finally, the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies indicated that the lipid coverage and the c(RGDyk) conjugation of the hybrid NPs gained a significantly enhanced ability of cell killing and endocytosis. Our results suggested that lipid-polymer hybrid NPs prepared by the modified emulsion technique have great potential to be utilized as an engineered drug delivery system with precise control ability of surface targeting modification. PMID:23507576

  17. Nanogels from Metal-Chelating Crosslinkers as Versatile Platforms Applied to Copper-64 PET Imaging of Tumors and Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lux, Jacques; White, Alexander G.; Chan, Minnie; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Almutairi, Adah

    2015-01-01

    Metals are essential in medicine for both therapy and diagnosis. We recently created the first metal-chelating nanogel imaging agent, which employed versatile, reproducible chemistry that maximizes chelation stability. Here we demonstrate that our metal chelating crosslinked nanogel technology is a powerful platform by incorporating 64Cu to obtain PET radiotracers. Polyacrylamide-based nanogels were crosslinked with three different polydentate ligands (DTPA, DOTA, NOTA). NOTA-based nanogels stably retained 64Cu in mouse serum and accumulated in tumors in vivo as detected by PET/CT imaging. Measurement of radioactivity in major organs ex vivo confirmed this pattern, revealing a high accumulation (12.3% ID/g and 16.6% ID/g) in tumors at 24 and 48 h following administration, with lower accumulation in the liver (8.5% ID/g at 24 h) and spleen (5.5% ID/g). Nanogels accumulated even more efficiently in metastases (29.9% and 30.4% ID/g at 24 and 48 h). These metal-chelating nanogels hold great promise for future application as bimodal PET/MRI agents; chelation of ?-emitting radionuclides could enable radiation therapy. PMID:25553115

  18. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of folate receptor-targeted liposomes for docetaxel delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Guangxi; Wu, Jun; Xiang, Guangya; Mao, Wenxue; Yu, Bo; Li, Hong; Piao, Longzhu; Lee, L James; Lee, Robert J

    2009-03-01

    A novel liposomal formulation of docetaxel targeting the folate receptor (FR) was synthesized and characterized. Liposomal formulations are less toxic and can provide longer systemic circulation time than the Tween 80 and ethanol based clinical formulation of docetaxel. Folate receptor-alpha (FR) is frequently over-expressed on epithelial cancer cells. Therefore, FR targeted liposomes can potentially enhance tumor cell uptake and antitumor efficacy of encapsulated drugs. The formulation studied had the compositions of egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol/methoxy-polyethylene glycol (PEG)2,000-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine/folate-PEG3,350-cholesteryl hemisuccinate (ePC/Chol/mPEG-DSPE/folate-PEG-CHEMS) at ratios of (80:15:4.5:0.5, mol/mol) and a drug-to-lipid ratio of 1:20, wt/wt. Sucrose was used as a lyoprotectant. The liposomes were prepared by thin-film hydration, polycarbonate membrane extrusion, followed by lyophilization. They remained stable for more than 5 months when stored as lyophilized powder and for 72 h at 4 degrees C following rehydration. The mean particle size of reconstituted liposomes ranged from 110 to 120 nm. FR-targeted liposomes of the same lipid composition entrapping calcein were shown to be efficiently taken up by FR + KB oral carcinoma cells. FR-targeted liposomes containing docetaxel showed 4.4-fold greater cytotoxicity compared to non-targeted liposomes in KB cells. Plasma clearance profiles of FR-targeted and non-targeted liposomeal docetaxel were evaluated and compared with that of docetaxel in Tween 80/ethanol formulation. The liposomal formulations showed much longer terminal half lives (4.92 h and 6.75 h for FR-targeted and non-targeted, respectively) than docetaxel in Tween 80/ethanol solution (1.09 h). FR-targeted liposomes are promising tumor cell-selective nanocarriers for docetaxel with potential for therapeutic applications. PMID:19435095

  19. Triblock Copolymer Nanovesicles for pH-Responsive Targeted Delivery and Controlled Release of siRNA to Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Gallon, Elena; Matini, Teresa; Sasso, Luana; Mantovani, Giuseppe; Armiñan de Benito, Ana; Sanchis, Joaquin; Caliceti, Paolo; Alexander, Cameron; Vicent, Maria J; Salmaso, Stefano

    2015-07-13

    New pH-responsive polymersomes for active anticancer oligonucleotide delivery were prepared from triblock copolymers. The delivery systems were formed by two terminal hydrophilic blocks, PEG and polyglycerolmethacrylate (poly-GMA), and a central weakly basic block, polyimidazole-hexyl methacrylate (poly-ImHeMA), which can complex with oligonucleotides and control vesicle formation/disassembly via pH variations. Targeted polymersomes were prepared by mixing folate-derivatized and underivatized copolymers. At pH 5, ds-DNA was found to complex with the pH-responsive copolymers at a N/P molar ratio above ?2:1, which assisted the encapsulation of ds-DNA in the polymersomes, while low association was observed at pH 7.4. Cytotoxicity studies performed on folate receptor overexpressing KB and B16-F10 cells and low folate receptor expressing MCF-7 cells showed high tolerance of the polymersomes at up to 3 mg/mL concentration. Studies performed with red blood cells showed that at pH 5.0 the polymersomes have endosomolytic properties. Cytofluorimetric studies showed a 5.5-fold higher uptake of ds-DNA loaded folate-functional polymersomes in KB cells compared to nontargeted polymersomes. In addition, ds-DNA was found to be localized both in the nucleus and in the cytosol. The incubation of luciferase transfected B16-F10 cells with targeted polymersomes loaded with luciferase and Hsp90 expression silencing siRNAs yielded 31 and 23% knockdown in target protein expression, respectively. PMID:25988940

  20. Radiation-induced Galectin-1 by endothelial cells: A promising molecular target for preferential drug delivery to the tumor vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Meenakshi; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Apana, Scott; Berridge, Marc; Fologea, Daniel A; Koonce, Nathan A; Henry, Ralph L; Griffin, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports on a new strategy for selective, radiation therapy-amplified drug delivery using an antiangiogenic 33-a.a., tumor vasculature targeting ligand, anginex to improve the therapeutic ratio for strategies developed against solid tumors. Our findings indicate that Galectin-1 is (i) one of the major receptors for anginex (ii) over expressed by tumor neo-vasculature; and (iii) further specifically upregulated in endothelial cells in response to radiation exposure as low as 0.5 Gy. An investigation of [18]-F-labeled anginex biodistribution in SCK tumors indicates that anginex is an effective targeting molecule for image and radiation-guided therapy of solid tumors. An anginex-conjugated liposome capable of being loaded with drug was shown to selectively target endothelial cells post-radiation. The presence of endothelial cells in a three dimensional co-culture system with tumor cells developed to study tumor/endothelial cell interactions in vitro led to higher levels of galectin-1 and showed a further increase in expression upon radiation exposure when compared to tumor cell spheroids alone. Similar increase in galectin-1 was observed in tumor tissue originating from the tumor-endothelial cell spheroids in vivo and radiation exposure further induced galectin-1 in these tumors. The overall results suggest feasibility of using a clinical or subclinical radiation dose to increase expression of the Galectin-1 receptor on the tumor microvasculature to promote delivery of therapeutics via the anginex peptide. This approach may reduce systemic toxicity, overcome drug resistance and improve the therapeutic efficacy of conventional chemo/radiation strategies. PMID:23090010

  1. Tumor-targeting Nanocomplex Delivery of Tumor Suppressor RB94 Chemosensitizes Bladder Carcinoma Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pirollo, Kathleen F.; Rait, Antonina; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Xin-qiao; Zhou, Jain; Kim, Chang-Soo; Benedict, William F.; Chang, Esther H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose RB94, a truncated form of RB110, has enhanced tumor suppressor potency and activity against all tumor types tested to date, including bladder carcinoma. However, efficient, systemic delivery of the gene encoding RB94 specifically to tumors is an obstacle to clinical application as an anti-cancer therapeutic. We have developed a systemically administered, nanosized liposome DNA delivery system that specifically targets primary and metastatic disease. The ability of RB94, delivered via this nanocomplex, to sensitize bladder carcinoma to chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo was assessed. Experimental Design The nanocomplex is an RB94 plasmid encapsulated by a cationic liposome (Lip), the surface of which is decorated with a tumor-targeting moiety, either transferrin (Tf) (Tf/Lip/RB94), or an anti-transferrin receptor single-chain antibody fragment (TfRScFv) (TfRScFv/Lip/RB94). The ability of the complex to sensitize human bladder carcinoma HTB-9 cells to chemotherapeutics was assessed in vitro by XTT. In vivo tumor specificity, and efficacy were tested in mice carrying HTB-9 tumors by PCR, and tumor growth inhibition, respectively. Results Transfection with Tf/Lip/RB94 significantly sensitized HTB-9 cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro. Tumor specificity of the complex was demonstrated in an orthotopic bladder tumor model by immunohistochemistry and PCR. Moreover, in mice bearing subcutaneous HTB-9 tumors, the combination of systemically administered Tf/Lip/RB94 or TfRScFv/Lip/RB94 plus gemcitabine resulted in significant (p<0.0005) tumor growth inhibition/regression and induction of apoptosis. Conclusions Use of our tumor-targeting nanocomplex to specifically deliver the potent tumor suppressor RB94 efficiently to tumors has potential as a more effective treatment modality for genitourinary and other cancers. PMID:18381961

  2. Enhanced delivery of liposomes to lung tumor through targeting interleukin-4 receptor on both tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chi, Lianhua; Na, Moon-Hee; Jung, Hyun-Kyung; Vadevoo, Sri Murugan Poongkavithai; Kim, Cheong-Wun; Padmanaban, Guruprasath; Park, Tae-In; Park, Jae-Yong; Hwang, Ilseon; Park, Keon Uk; Liang, Frank; Lu, Maggie; Park, Jiho; Kim, In-San; Lee, Byung-Heon

    2015-07-10

    A growing body of evidence suggests that pathological lesions express tissue-specific molecular targets or biomarkers within the tissue. Interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) is overexpressed in many types of cancer cells, including lung cancer. Here we investigated the properties of IL-4R-binding peptide-1 (IL4RPep-1), a CRKRLDRNC peptide, and its ability to target the delivery of liposomes to lung tumor. IL4RPep-1 preferentially bound to H226 lung tumor cells which express higher levers of IL-4R compared to H460 lung tumor cells which express less IL-4R. Mutational analysis revealed that C1, R2, and R4 residues of IL4RPep-1 were the key binding determinants. IL4RPep-1-labeled liposomes containing doxorubicin were more efficiently internalized in H226 cells and effectively delivered doxorubicin into the cells compared to unlabeled liposomes. In vivo fluorescence imaging of nude mice subcutaneously xenotransplanted with H226 tumor cells indicated that IL4RPep-1-labeled liposomes accumulate more efficiently in the tumor and inhibit tumor growth more effectively compared to unlabeled liposomes. Interestingly, expression of IL-4R was high in vascular endothelial cells of tumor, while little was detected in vascular endothelial cells of control organs including the liver. IL-4R expression in cultured human vascular endothelial cells was also up-regulated when activated by a pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-?. Moreover, the up-regulation of IL-4R expression was observed in primary human lung cancer tissues. These results indicate that IL-4R-targeting nanocarriers may be a useful strategy to enhance drug delivery through the recognition of IL-4R in both tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells. PMID:25979323

  3. Focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening for non-viral, non-invasive, and targeted gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Yin; Hsieh, Han-Yi; Pitt, William G; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Tseng, I-Chou; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Liu, Hao-Li

    2015-08-28

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) exposure in the presence of microbubbles can temporally open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and is an emerging technique for non-invasive brain therapeutic agent delivery. Given the potential to deliver large molecules into the CNS via this technique, we propose a reliable strategy to synergistically apply FUS-BBB opening for the non-invasive and targeted delivery of non-viral genes into the CNS for therapeutic purpose. In this study, we developed a gene-liposome system, in which the liposomes are designed to carry plasmid DNA (pDNA, containing luciferase reporter gene) to form a liposomal-plasmid DNA (LpDNA) complex. Pulsed FUS exposure was delivered to induce BBB opening (500-kHz, burst length=10ms, 1% duty cycle, PRF=1Hz). The longitudinal expression of luciferase was quantitated via an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). The reporter gene expression level was confirmed via immunoblotting, and histological staining was used to identify transfected cells via fluorescent microscopy. In a comparison of gene transduction efficiency, the LpDNA system showed better cell transduction than the pDNA system. With longitudinal observation of IVIS monitoring, animals with FUS treatment showed significant promotion of LpDNA release into the CNS and demonstrated enhanced expression of genes upon sonication with FUS-BBB opening, while both the luciferase and GDNF protein expression were successfully measured via Western blotting. The gene expression peak was observed at day 2, and the gene expression level was up to 5-fold higher than that in the untreated hemisphere (compared to a 1-fold increase in the direct-inject positive-control group). The transfection efficiency was also found to be LpDNA dose-dependent, where higher payloads of pDNA resulted in a higher transfection rate. Immunoblotting and histological staining confirmed the expression of reporter genes in glial cells as well as astrocytes. This study suggests that IV administration of LpDNA in combination with FUS-BBB opening can provide effective gene delivery and expression in the CNS, demonstrating the potential to achieve non-invasive and targeted gene delivery for treatment of CNS diseases. PMID:26071631

  4. A biomimetic nanovector-mediated targeted cholesterol-conjugated siRNA delivery for tumor gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yang; Wang, Wei; Feng, Meiqing; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Jianping; Ding, Xuefang; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Congyan; Wang, Ruoning; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-12-01

    RNA interference holds tremendous potential as a therapeutic approach of malignant tumors. However, safe and efficient nanovectors are extremely lack for systemic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA). The study aimed to develop a biomimetic nanovector, reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL), mediating targeted cholesterol-conjugated siRNA (Chol-siRNA) delivery for Pokemon gene silencing therapy. Chol-siRNA-loaded rHDL nanoparticles (rHDL/Chol-siRNA complexes) were prepared using thin-film dispersion method and their characteristics were investigated in detail. RHDL/Chol-siRNA complexes at the optimal volume ratio (lipid: Chol-siRNA) exhibited high Chol-siRNA-loading efficiency (~99%), desirable nanoparticle size and excellent stability in serum. In addition, by analyzing Chol-siRNA release profile, rHDL/Chol-siRNA complexes displayed sustained-release characteristic and storage stability. Observations from FACS and confocal microscopic analyses revealed that rHDL-mediated carboxyfluorescein tagged Chol-siRNA (FAM-Chol-siRNA) transfection resulted in highly efficient uptake and specific cytoplasmic delivery of FAM-Chol-siRNA into human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 via HDL-receptor mediated mechanism. In vitro cytotoxicity, apoptosis and Western-blot analyses revealed significant cellular growth inhibition and decrease of Pokemon and Bcl-2 protein expression in HepG2 cells treated with Chol-siRNA-Pokemon-loaded rHDL nanoparticles (rHDL/Chol-siRNA-Pokemon complexes), respectively. In in vivo studies, the near-infrared (NIR) dye Cy5 labeled Chol-siRNA-loaded rHDL nanoparticles (rHDL/Cy5-Chol-siRNA complexes) obviously accumulated in tumor of nude mice after i.v. administration as compared with Cy5-Chol-siRNA-loaded lipoplexes (Lipos/Cy5-Chol-siRNA complexes). Morover, rHDL/Chol-siRNA-Pokemon complexes demonstrated great tumor growth inhibition and significant decrease of Pokemon and Bcl-2 protein expression in vivo. These results suggested that rHDL should be an ideal non-viral tumor-targeting vector for Chol-siRNA transfer, and rHDL-mediated Chol-siRNA-Pokemon delivery might be a promising new strategy for gene therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:22979990

  5. Targeted in utero delivery of a retroviral vector for gene transfer in the rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Stott, Simon R W; Kirik, Deniz

    2006-10-01

    In vivo application of viral vectors for gene transfer is a commonly used tool in anatomical and functional studies, as well as in development of neuroprotective and restorative strategies for therapy. Although the most common route of administration is via direct injection into the brain parenchyma in adult animals, a number of short-term studies have been performed in the developing central nervous system. Here we investigated the long-term transgene expression following in utero delivery of a retroviral vector encoding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker gene at embryonic days 14.5-17.5 using an ultrasound-guided injection system. Intraparenchymal injections of the ganglionic eminence were compared with vector delivery to the intracerebroventricular space. Injections into the ganglionic eminences resulted in a predominantly unilateral transduction localized to the forebrain, giving rise to GFP-positive (GFP+) neurons and astrocytes in the striatum, olfactory bulb, cortex and hippocampus. When the vector was injected into the lateral ventricle, on the other hand, widespread expression of GFP was seen throughout the brain. The total number of GFP+ cells in the striatum was estimated to be between 20,000 and 50,000 cells using a computerized stereological quantification tool. Phenotypic characterization of these transduced cells using confocal microscopical analysis showed that 64% were NeuN+ neurons, 14% APC+ oligodendrocytes and 15% glial cells labelled with GFAP, S100beta and Iba1, when the vector injection was performed at E14.5. Delivery into later embryos resulted in a reduction in neuronal profiles with a reciprocal increase in glial cells. PMID:17067293

  6. Multifunctional CPP polymer system for tumor-targeted pDNA and siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Dohmen, Christian; Wagner, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a very interesting class of molecules to be introduced in gene and siRNA vectors. They can be used to overcome one of the biggest hurdles in gene and siRNA delivery in vitro and in vivo, the transfer across cell membranes. This chapter describes protocols for the synthesis and biological evaluation of a polylysine-based polymer. In this carrier system, melittin is used as CPP with a high activity to disrupt membranes. pH-Labile masking is applied to render the lytic activity specific for intracellular acidic endolysosomal organelles. PMID:21053149

  7. Maleimide-functionalised platinum(IV) complexes as a synthetic platform for targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Heffeter, Petra; Dömötör, Orsolya; Enyedy, Éva A.; Hermann, Gerrit; Groza, Diana; Köllensperger, Gunda; Galanksi, Markus; Berger, Walter; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Kowol, Christian R.

    2014-01-01

    Maleimide-functionalised Pt(IV) complexes with highly selective binding properties to thiol groups were synthesised as precursors for binding of thiol-containing tumour-targeting molecules like human serum albumin. PMID:23396381

  8. The hair follicle and its stem cells as drug delivery targets.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2006-05-01

    The hair follicle is a skin appendage with a complex structure containing many cell types that produce highly specialised proteins. The hair follicle is in a continuous cycle: anagen is the hair growth phase, catagen the involution phase and telogen is the resting phase. The follicle offers many potential therapeutic targets. Hoffman and colleagues have pioneered hair-follicle-specific targeting using liposomes to deliver small and large molecules, including genes. They have also pioneered ex vivo hair-follicle targeting with continued expression of the introduced gene following transplantation. Recently, it has been discovered that hair follicle stem cells are highly pluripotent and can form neurons, glial cells and other cell types, and this has suggested that hair follicle stem cells may serve as gene therapy targets for regenerative medicine. PMID:16640502

  9. Targeted delivery of paclitaxel using folate-decorated poly(lactide)–vitamin E TPGS nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Pan; Si-Shen Feng

    2008-01-01

    We synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) of the blend of two-component copolymers for targeted chemotherapy with paclitaxel used as model drug. One component is poly(lactide)–d-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (PLA–TPGS), which is of desired hydrophobic–lipophilic balance, and another is TPGS–COOH, which facilitates the folate conjugation for targeting. The nanoparticles of the two-copolymer blend at various component ratio were prepared by the solvent extraction\\/evaporation

  10. Cancer siRNA therapy by tumor selective delivery with ligand-targeted sterically stabilized nanoparticle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond M. Schiffelers; Aslam Ansari; Jun Xu; Qin Zhou; Qingquan Tang; Gert Storm; Grietje Molema; Patrick Y. Lu; Puthupparampil V. Scaria; Martin C. Woodle

    2004-01-01

    Potent sequence selective gene inhibition by siRNA 'targeted' therapeutics promises the ultimate level of specificity, but siRNA therapeutics is hindered by poor intracellular uptake, limited blood stability and non-specific immune stimulation. To address these problems, ligand-targeted, sterically stabil- ized nanoparticles have been adapted for siRNA. Self-assembling nanoparticles with siRNA were constructed with polyethyleneimine (PEI) that is PEGylated with an Arg-Gly-Asp

  11. Formulation of functionalized PLGA–PEG nanoparticles for in vivo targeted drug delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Cheng; Benjamin A. Teply; Ines Sherifi; Josephine Sung; Gaurav Luther; Frank X. Gu; Etgar Levy-Nissenbaum; Aleksandar F. Radovic-Moreno; Robert Langer; Omid C. Farokhzad

    2007-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) size has been shown to significantly affect the biodistribution of targeted and non-targeted NPs in an organ specific manner. Herein we have developed NPs from carboxy-terminated poly(d,l-lactide–co–glycolide)–block–poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA–b–PEG–COOH) polymer and studied the effects of altering the following formulation parameters on the size of NPs: (1) polymer concentration, (2) drug loading, (3) water miscibility of solvent, and (4)

  12. Opportunities in discovery and delivery of anticancer drugs targeting mitochondria and cancer cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pathania, Divya; Millard, Melissa; Neamati, Nouri

    2009-11-30

    Cancer cells are characterized by self-sufficiency in the absence of growth signals, their ability to evade apoptosis, resistance to anti-growth signals, sustained angiogenesis, uncontrolled proliferation, and invasion and metastasis. Alterations in cellular bioenergetics are an emerging hallmark of cancer. The mitochondrion is the major organelle implicated in the cellular bioenergetic and biosynthetic changes accompanying cancer. These bioenergetic modifications contribute to the invasive, metastatic and adaptive properties typical in most tumors. Moreover, mitochondrial DNA mutations complement the bioenergetic changes in cancer. Several cancer management therapies have been proposed that target tumor cell metabolism and mitochondria. Glycolytic inhibitors serve as a classical example of cancer metabolism targeting agents. Several TCA cycle and OXPHOS inhibitors are being tested for their anticancer potential. Moreover, agents targeting the PDC/PDK (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex/pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase) interaction are being studied for reversal of Warburg effect. Targeting of the apoptotic regulatory machinery of mitochondria is another potential anticancer field in need of exploration. Additionally, oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers, potassium channel modulators, and mitochondrial redox are under investigation for their anticancer potential. To this end there is an increased demand for agents that specifically hit their target. Delocalized lipophilic cations have shown tremendous potential in delivering anticancer agents selectively to tumor cells. This review provides an overview of the potential anticancer agents that act by targeting cancer cell metabolism and mitochondria, and also brings us face to face with the emerging opportunities in cancer therapy. PMID:19716393

  13. E-selectin liposomal and nanotube-targeted delivery of doxorubicin to circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Michael J.; Chen, Christina S.; Ponmudi, Varun; Hughes, Andrew D.; King, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is believed to lead to the formation of secondary tumors via an adhesion cascade involving interaction between adhesion receptors of endothelial cells and ligands on CTCs. Many CTCs express sialylated carbohydrate ligands on their surfaces that adhere to selectin protein found on inflamed endothelial cells. We have investigated the feasibility of using immobilized selectin proteins as a targeting mechanism for CTCs under flow. Herein, targeted liposomal doxorubicin (L-DXR) was functionalized with recombinant human E-selectin (ES) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to target and kill cancer cells under shear flow, both when immobilized along a microtube device or sheared in a cone-and-plate viscometer in a dilute suspension. Healthy circulating cells such as red blood cells were not targeted by this mechanism and were left to freely circulate, and minimal leukocyte death was observed. Halloysite nanotube (HNT)-coated microtube devices immobilized with nanoscale liposomes significantly enhanced the targeting, capture, and killing of cancer cells. This work demonstrates that E-selectin functionalized L-DXR, sheared in suspension or immobilized onto microtube devices, provides a novel approach to selectively target and deliver chemotherapeutics to CTCs in the bloodstream. PMID:22421423

  14. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule aptamer functionalized PLGA-lecithin-curcumin-PEG nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Xiang, Dongxi; Shigdar, Sarah; Yang, Wenrong; Li, Qiong; Lin, Jia; Liu, Kexin; Duan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of drug delivery, active targeted nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems are gaining considerable attention as they have the potential to reduce side effects, minimize toxicity, and improve efficacy of anticancer treatment. In this work CUR-NPs (curcumin-loaded lipid-polymer-lecithin hybrid nanoparticles) were synthesized and functionalized with ribonucleic acid (RNA) Aptamers (Apts) against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for targeted delivery to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. These CUR-encapsulated bioconjugates (Apt-CUR-NPs) were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation, stability, and release. The in vitro specific cell binding, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity of Apt-CUR-NPs were also studied. The Apt-CUR-NP bioconjugates exhibited increased binding to HT29 colon cancer cells and enhancement in cellular uptake when compared to CUR-NPs functionalized with a control Apt (P<0.01). Furthermore, a substantial improvement in cytotoxicity was achieved toward HT29 cells with Apt-CUR-NP bioconjugates. The encapsulation of CUR in Apt-CUR-NPs resulted in the increased bioavailability of delivered CUR over a period of 24 hours compared to that of free CUR in vivo. These results show that the EpCAM Apt-functionalized CUR-NPs enhance the targeting and drug delivery of CUR to colorectal cancer cells. Further development of CUR-encapsulated, nanosized carriers will lead to improved targeted delivery of novel chemotherapeutic agents to colorectal cancer cells. PMID:24591829

  15. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule aptamer functionalized PLGA-lecithin-curcumin-PEG nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Xiang, Dongxi; Shigdar, Sarah; Yang, Wenrong; Li, Qiong; Lin, Jia; Liu, Kexin; Duan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of drug delivery, active targeted nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems are gaining considerable attention as they have the potential to reduce side effects, minimize toxicity, and improve efficacy of anticancer treatment. In this work CUR-NPs (curcumin-loaded lipid-polymer-lecithin hybrid nanoparticles) were synthesized and functionalized with ribonucleic acid (RNA) Aptamers (Apts) against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for targeted delivery to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. These CUR-encapsulated bioconjugates (Apt-CUR-NPs) were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation, stability, and release. The in vitro specific cell binding, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity of Apt-CUR-NPs were also studied. The Apt-CUR-NP bioconjugates exhibited increased binding to HT29 colon cancer cells and enhancement in cellular uptake when compared to CUR-NPs functionalized with a control Apt (P<0.01). Furthermore, a substantial improvement in cytotoxicity was achieved toward HT29 cells with Apt-CUR-NP bioconjugates. The encapsulation of CUR in Apt-CUR-NPs resulted in the increased bioavailability of delivered CUR over a period of 24 hours compared to that of free CUR in vivo. These results show that the EpCAM Apt-functionalized CUR-NPs enhance the targeting and drug delivery of CUR to colorectal cancer cells. Further development of CUR-encapsulated, nanosized carriers will lead to improved targeted delivery of novel chemotherapeutic agents to colorectal cancer cells. PMID:24591829

  16. Dual-layered nanogel-coated hollow lipid/polypeptide conjugate assemblies for potential pH-triggered intracellular drug release.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wen-Hsuan; Huang, Wen-Chia; Shen, Ming-Yin; Wang, Che-Hsu; Huang, Yi-Fong; Lin, Sung-Chyr; Chern, Chorng-Shyan; Chiu, Hsin-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    To achieve effective intracellular anticancer drug delivery, the polymeric vesicles supplemented with the pH-responsive outlayered gels as a delivery system of doxorubicin (DOX) were developed from self-assembly of the lipid/polypeptide adduct, distearin grafted poly(?-glutamic acid) (poly(?-GA)), followed by sequential deposition of chitosan and poly(?-GA-co-?-glutamyl oxysuccinimide)-g-monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) in combination with in situ covalent cross-linking on assembly surfaces. The resultant gel-caged polymeric vesicles (GCPVs) showed superior performance in regulating drug release in response to the external pH change. Under typical physiological conditions (pH 7.4 and 37 °C) at which the ?-GA/DOX ionic pairings remained mostly undisturbed, the dense outlayered gels of GCPVs significantly reduced the premature leakage of the uncomplexed payload. With the environmental pH being reduced from pH 7.4 to 4.7, the drug liberation was appreciably promoted by the massive disruption of the ionic ?-GA/DOX complexes along with the significant swelling of nanogel layers upon the increased protonation of chitosan chain segments. After being internalized by HeLa cells via endocytosis, GCPVs exhibited cytotoxic effect comparable to free DOX achieved by rapidly releasing the payload in intracellular acidic endosomes and lysosomes. This strongly implies the great promise of such unique GCPVs as an intracellular drug delivery carrier for potential anticancer treatment. PMID:24651156

  17. Receptor-targeted liposomal delivery of boron-containing cholesterol mimics for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).

    PubMed

    Thirumamagal, B T S; Zhao, Xiaobin B; Bandyopadhyaya, Achintya K; Naranyanasamy, Sureshbabu; Johnsamuel, Jayaseharan; Tiwari, Rohit; Golightly, Danold W; Patel, Vimalkumar; Jehning, Brian T; Backer, Marina V; Barth, Rolf F; Lee, Robert J; Backer, Joseph M; Tjarks, Werner

    2006-01-01

    Liposomes have been a main focus of tumor-selective boron delivery strategies in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a binary method for the treatment of cancer that is based on the nuclear reaction between boron atoms and low-energy thermal neutrons. Three novel carboranyl cholesterol derivatives were prepared as lipid bilayer components for the construction of nontargeted and receptor-targeted boronated liposomes for BNCT. A major structural feature of these novel boronated cholesterol mimics is the replacement of the B and the C ring of cholesterol with a carborane cluster. Computational analyses indicated that all three boronated compounds have structural features and physicochemical properties that are very similar to those of cholesterol. One of the synthesized boronated cholesterol mimics was stably incorporated into non-, folate receptor (FR)-, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-targeted liposomes. No major differences were found in appearance, size distribution, and lamellarity between conventional dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/cholesterol liposomes, nontargeted, and FR-targeted liposomal formulations of this carboranyl cholesterol derivative. FR-targeted boronated liposomes were taken up extensively in FR overexpressing KB cells in vitro, and the uptake was effectively blocked in the presence of free folate. In contrast, a boronated cholesterol mimic incorporated into nontargeted liposomes showed significantly lower cellular uptake. There was no apparent in vitro cytotoxicity in FR overexpressing KB cells and VEGFR-2 overexpressing 293/KDR cells when these were incubated with boronated FR- and (VEGFR-2)-targeted liposomes, respectively, although the former accumulated extensively in KB cells and the latter effectively interacted with VEGFR-2 by causing autophosphorylation and protecting 293/KDR cells from SLT (Shiga-like toxin)-VEGF cytotoxicity. PMID:16984121

  18. Potential application of functional porous TiO2 nanoparticles in light-controlled drug release and targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyi; Jiang, Haitao; Wan, Long; Zhao, Qinfu; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Bing; Wang, Siling

    2015-02-01

    Novel multifunctional porous titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles modified with polyethylenimine (PEI) were developed to explore the feasibility of exploiting the photocatalytic property of titanium dioxide to achieve ultraviolet (UV) light triggered drug release. Additionally, in order to further realize targeting delivery, folic acid, which chemically conjugated to the surface of the functionalized multifunctional porous TiO2 nanoparticles through amide linkage with free amine groups of PEI, was used as a cancer-targeting agent to effectively promote cancer-cell-specific uptake through receptor-mediated endocytosis. And a typical poorly water-soluble anti-cancer drug, paclitaxel, was encapsulated in multifunctional porous TiO2 nanoparticles. The PEI on the surface of multifunctional porous TiO2 nanoparticles could effectively block the channel to prevent premature drug release, thus providing enough circulation time to target cancer cells. Following UV light radiation, PEI molecules on the surface were cut off by the free radicals (OH? and O2-) that TiO2 produced, and then the drug loaded in the carrier was released rapidly into the cytoplasm. Importantly, the amount of drug released from multifunctional porous TiO2 nanoparticles can be regulated by the UV-light radiation time to further control the anti-cancer effect. This multifunctional porous TiO2 nanoparticle exhibits a combination of stimuli-triggered drug release and cancer cell targeting. The authors believe that the present study will provide important information for the use of porous TiO2 nanomaterials in light-controlled drug release and targeted therapy. PMID:25462846

  19. Antibody conjugated PLGA nanoparticles for targeted delivery of paclitaxel palmitate: efficacy and biofate in a lung cancer mouse model.

    PubMed

    Karra, Nour; Nassar, Taher; Ripin, Alina Nemirovski; Schwob, Ouri; Borlak, Jürgen; Benita, Simon

    2013-12-20

    Aberrant signaling of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is common to a variety of human cancers and is also found to be over-expressed in most cases of non-small cell lung cancer. For the development of a molecularly targeted therapy, cetuximab-conjugated nanoparticles (immunonanoparticles, INPs) are designed and loaded with the lipophilic paclitaxel palmitate (pcpl) prodrug. Oleyl cysteineamide (OCA) is synthesized whereby its amphiphilic nature enables interfacial anchoring and thiol surface functionalization of PLGA NPs, facilitating bioconjugation to cetuximab by thioether bonds. It is demonstrated that the in vitro targeting efficiency and improved cellular internalization and cytotoxicity of this targeted delivery system in lung cancer cells over-expressing EGFR. A quantitative measure of the high binding affinity of INPs to EGFR is demonstrated using surface plasmon resonance. In vivo tolerability and enhanced efficacy of cetuximab pcpl INPs in a metastatic lung cancer model are reported. Its therapeutic efficacy in A549-luc-C8 lung tumors is shown using non-invasive bioluminescent imaging. Intravenous administration of cetuximab pcpl INPs to mice results in significantly higher inhibition of tumor growth and increased survival rates as compared to the non-targeted drug solution, drug-loaded nanoparticles or blank INPs. Pharmacokinetics and organ biodistribution of the prodrug and parent drug are evaluated by LC-MS/MS in lung tumor bearing mice. No enhanced total accumulation of nanoparticles or INPs is found at the tumor tissue. However, persistent pcpl levels with sustained conversion and release of paclitaxel are observed for the encapsulated prodrug possibly suggesting the formation of a drug reservoir. The overall results indicate the potential of this promising targeted platform for the improved treatment of lung cancer and other EGFR positive tumors. PMID:23873835

  20. Targeted and controlled release delivery of daunorubicin to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia by aptamer-modified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Danesh, Noor Mohammad; Lavaee, Parirokh; Ramezani, Mohammad; Abnous, Khalil; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-07-15

    Clinical administration of daunorubicin (Dau) in treatment of leukemia has been limited by its cardiotoxicity. Targeted delivery of chemotherapy drugs could reduce their side effects and increase the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs. Biocompatibility and large surface area of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) make these nanoparticles great candidates for biomedical applications. In this study sgc8c aptamer (Apt)-Dau-AuNPs complex was designed and evaluated for treatment of Molt-4 cells (human acute lymphoblastic leukemia T-cell, target). Apt-Dau-AuNPs complex formation was analyzed by fluorometric analysis and gel retardation assay. Dau release profiles from the complex were evaluated in pHs 5.5 and 7.4. For cytotoxic studies (MTT assay) U266 (B lymphocyte human myeloma, nontarget) and Molt-4 cells (target) were treated with Dau Apt-Dau conjugate and Apt-Dau-AuNPs complex. Internalization was monitored by flow cytometry and confocal imaging. 12?M Dau was efficiently loaded onto 1mL of Apt-modified AuNPs. Dau was released from the complex in a pH-dependent manner (higher rate of release at pH 5.5). The results of flow cytometry analysis and confocal imaging showed that the complex was effectively internalized into Molt-4 cells, but not into U266 cells. The results of MTT assay also confirmed the internalization data. Apt-Dau-AuNPs complex was less cytotoxic in U266 cells compared to Dau alone and even Apt-Dau conjugate. The complex was more cytotoxic in target cells in comparison with Dau alone and even Apt-Dau conjugate. In conclusion, Apt-Dau-AuNPs complex was able to selectively target Molt-4 cells. Another advantage of this system was pH-dependent release of drug from the complex. Furthermore, this complex has characteristics which make it ideal for clinical use. PMID:25936625

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Folate-Targeted Dextran/Retinoic Acid Micelles for Doxorubicin Delivery in Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Varshosaz, J.; Hassanzadeh, F.; Sadeghi Aliabadi, H.; Nayebsadrian, M.; Banitalebi, M.; Rostami, M.

    2014-01-01

    Folate and retinoic acid grafted/dextran (FA-RA/DEX) copolymers with different molecular weight of DEX were synthesized using carbonyldiimidazole and dimethylaminopyridine for targeted delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). The copolymers structure was confirmed by 1H NMR and FTIR. Critical micelle concentration (CMC) of each copolymer was determined using pyrene as a fluorescent probe. DOX was loaded in micelles by the direct dissolution method. Physical properties of micelles, including particle size, zeta potential, drug loading efficiency, and drug release profiles, were examined. The orientation of the folate ligand on the surface of the micelles was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique. The cytotoxicity of micelles loaded with DOX at different concentrations was studied in KG1 cells using MTT assay and their cellular uptake by flow cytometry technique. FTIR and 1H NMR spectra confirmed successful production of the targeted micelles and XPS spectra showed the surface orientation of folate. R15D10F7 copolymer produced micelles with particle size of 82.86?nm, polydispersity index of 0.3, zeta potential of ?4.68?mV, drug loading efficiency of 96%, and release efficiency of 63%. DOX loaded in folate-targeted micelles of RA/DEX was more toxic than that in nontargeted micelles and free drug and seems promising in reducing drug resistance in AML. PMID:24719872

  2. Formulation and characterization of inhalable magnetic nanocomposite microparticles (MnMs) for targeted pulmonary delivery via spray drying.

    PubMed

    Stocke, Nathanael A; Meenach, Samantha A; Arnold, Susanne M; Mansour, Heidi M; Hilt, J Zach

    2015-02-20

    Targeted pulmonary delivery facilitates the direct application of bioactive materials to the lungs in a controlled manner and provides an exciting platform for targeting magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to the lungs. Iron oxide MNPs remotely heat in the presence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) providing unique opportunities for therapeutic applications such as hyperthermia. In this study, spray drying was used to formulate magnetic nanocomposite microparticles (MnMs) consisting of iron oxide MNPs and d-mannitol. The physicochemical properties of these MnMs were evaluated and the in vitro aerosol dispersion performance of the dry powders was measured by the Next Generation Impactor(®). For all powders, the mass median aerosol diameter (MMAD) was <5?m and deposition patterns revealed that MnMs could deposit throughout the lungs. Heating studies with a custom AMF showed that MNPs retain excellent thermal properties after spray drying into composite dry powders, with specific absorption ratios (SAR)>200W/g, and in vitro studies on a human lung cell line indicated moderate cytotoxicity of these materials. These inhalable composites present a class of materials with many potential applications and pose a promising approach for thermal treatment of the lungs through targeted pulmonary administration of MNPs. PMID:25542988

  3. Intravenous Delivery of siRNA Targeting CD47 Effectively Inhibits Melanoma Tumor Growth and Lung Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuhua; Xu, Zhenghong; Guo, Shutao; Zhang, Lu; Sharma, Arati; Robertson, Gavin P; Huang, Leaf

    2013-01-01

    CD47 is a “self marker” that is usually overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells to enable them to escape immunosurveillance. Recognition of CD47 by its receptor, signal regulatory protein ? (SIRP?), which is expressed in the macrophages, inhibits phagocytic destruction of cancer cells by the macrophages. In this study, we have first shown that clinical isolates of human melanoma significantly upregulate CD47, possibly as a mechanism to defend themselves against the macrophages. We then exploited RNA interference (RNAi) technology to test the hypothesis that knocking down CD47 in the tumor cells will render them targets for macrophage destruction; hence, creating a novel anti-cancer therapy. Anti-CD47 siRNA was encapsulated in a liposome-protamine-hyaluronic acid (LPH) nanoparticle (NP) formulation to address the challenge of targeted delivery of siRNA-based therapeutics in vivo. Efficient silencing of CD47 in tumor tissues with systemic administration of LPH(CD47) also significantly inhibited the growth of melanoma tumors. In a lung metastasis model, LPH(CD47) efficiently inhibited lung metastasis to about 27% of the untreated control. Moreover, no hematopoietic toxicity was observed in the animals that received multiple doses of LPH(CD47). Our findings indicate CD47 as a potential prognostic marker for melanoma development as well as a target for therapeutic intervention with RNAi-based nanomedicines. PMID:23774794

  4. Smuggling Drugs into the Brain: An Overview of Ligands Targeting Transcytosis for Drug Delivery across the Blood–Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Georgieva, Julia V.; Hoekstra, Dick; Zuhorn, Inge S.

    2014-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier acts as a physical barrier that prevents free entry of blood-derived substances, including those intended for therapeutic applications. The development of molecular Trojan horses is a promising drug targeting technology that allows for non-invasive delivery of therapeutics into the brain. This concept relies on the application of natural or genetically engineered proteins or small peptides, capable of specifically ferrying a drug-payload that is either directly coupled or encapsulated