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Sample records for targeted paclitaxel delivery

  1. Tumor-targeted delivery of paclitaxel using low density lipoprotein-mimetic solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Ho; Kim, Youngwook; Bae, Ki Hyun; Park, Tae Gwan; Lee, Jung Hee; Park, Keunchil

    2015-04-01

    Water-insoluble anticancer drugs, including paclitaxel, present severe clinical side effects when administered to patients, primarily associated with the toxicity of reagents used to solubilize the drugs. In efforts to develop alternative formulations of water-insoluble anticancer drugs suitable for intravenous administration, we developed biocompatible anticancer therapeutic solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), mimicking the structure and composition of natural particles, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), for tumor-targeted delivery of paclitaxel. These therapeutic nanoparticles contained water-insoluble paclitaxel in the core with tumor-targeting ligand covalently conjugated on the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified surface (targeted PtSLNs). In preclinical human cancer xenograft mouse model studies, the paclitaxel-containing tumor-targeting SLNs exhibited pronounced in vivo stability and enhanced biocompatibility. Furthermore, these SLNs had superior antitumor activity to in-class nanoparticular therapeutics in clinical use (Taxol and Genexol-PM) and yielded long-term complete responses. The in vivo targeted antitumor activities of the SLN formulations in a mouse tumor model suggest that LDL-mimetic SLN formulations can be utilized as a biocompatible, tumor-targeting platform for the delivery of various anticancer therapeutics. PMID:25686010

  2. Targeted Delivery of Paclitaxel to EphA2-Expressing Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Si; Noberini, Roberta; Stebbins, John L.; Das, Swadesh; Zhang, Ziming; Wu, Bainan; Mitra, Sayantan; Billet, Sandrine; Fernandez, Ana; Bhowmick, Neil A.; Kitada, Shinichi; Pasquale, Elena B.; Fisher, Paul B.; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Purpose YSA is an EphA2-targeting peptide that effectively delivers anti-cancer agents to prostate cancer tumors (1). Here, we report on how we increased the drug-like properties of this delivery system. Experimental Design By introducing non-natural amino acids, we have designed two new EphA2 targeting peptides: YNH, where norleucine and homoserine replace the two methionine residues of YSA, and dYNH, where a D-tyrosine replaces the L-tyrosine at the first position of the YNH peptide. We describe the details of the synthesis of YNH and dYNH paclitaxel conjugates (YNH-PTX and dYNH-PTX) and their characterization in cells and in vivo. Results dYNH-PTX showed improved stability in mouse serum and significantly reduced tumor size in a prostate cancer xenograft model and also reduced tumor vasculature in a syngeneic orthotopic allograft mouse model of renal cancer compared to vehicle or paclitaxel treatments. Conclusion This study reveals that targeting EphA2 with dYNH drug conjugates could represent an effective way to deliver anti-cancer agents to a variety of tumor types. Translational Relevance Overexpression of the EphA2 positively correlates with tumor malignancy and poor prognosis. For this reason, EphA2 is an attractive target for cancer cell specific drug delivery. In this study, we report on the development of dYNH, an EphA2 targeting peptide that when coupled to paclitaxel (PTX) has favorable pharmacological properties and possesses powerful anti-tumor activity in vivo. dYNH-PTX may allow for an expanded therapeutic index of paclitaxel as well as precluding the need for complex formulations and long infusion times. PMID:23155185

  3. Folate-decorated hybrid polymeric nanoparticles for chemically and physically combined paclitaxel loading and targeted delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinfeng; Liu, Wenming; Tu, Qin; Wang, Jianchun; Song, Na; Zhang, Yanrong; Nie, Nan; Wang, Jinyi

    2011-01-10

    In this study, folate-functionalized hybrid polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared as carriers of low water solubility paclitaxel for tumor targeting, which were composed of monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide)-paclitaxel (MPEG-PLA-paclitaxel) and d-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-folate (TPGS-FOL). NPs with various weight ratios of MPEG-PLA-paclitaxel and TPGS-FOL were prepared using a solvent extraction/evaporation method, which can also physically encapsulate paclitaxel. The size, size distribution, surface charge, and morphology of the drug-loaded NPs were characterized using a Zetasizer Nano ZS, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The encapsulation and drug loading efficiencies of these polymeric NPs are analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 227 nm. The combination of covalent coupling and physical encapsulation is found to improve the loading of paclitaxel in NPs greatly. The in vitro antitumor activity of the drug-loaded NPs is assessed using a standard method of transcriptional and translational (MTT) assays against HeLa and glioma C6 cells. When the cells were exposed to NPs with the same paclitaxel weights, cell viability decreases in relation to the increase in TPGS-FOL in drug-loaded NPs. To investigate drug-loaded NP cellular uptake, the fluorescent dye coumarin-6 is utilized as a model drug and enveloped in NPs with 0 or 50% TPGS-FOL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis shows that cellular uptake is lower for coumarin-6-loaded NPs with 0% TPGS-FOL than those with 50% TPGS-FOL. However, no difference for NIH 3T3 cells with normally expressed folate receptors is found. Results from in vitro antitumor activity and cellular uptake assay demonstrate that folic acid promotes drug-loaded NP cellular uptake through folate receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME). All of these results demonstrate that folate-decorated hybrid polymeric NPs are potential carriers for tumor-targeted drug delivery. PMID:21158381

  4. Novel thermo-sensitive core-shell nanoparticles for targeted paclitaxel delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanpei; Pan, Shirong; Zhang, Wei; Du, Zhuo

    2009-02-01

    Novel thermo-sensitive nanoparticles self-assembled from poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide- co-acrylamide)-block-poly(?-benzyl L-glutamate) were designed for targeted drug delivery in localized hyperthermia. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of nanoparticles was adjusted to a level between physiological body temperature (37 C) and that used in local hyperthermia (about 43 C). The temperature-dependent performances of the core-shell nanoparticles were systemically studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and atom force microscopy (AFM). The mean diameter of the nanoparticles increased slightly from 110 to 129 nm when paclitaxel (PTX), a poorly water-soluble anti-tumor drug, was encapsulated. A stability study in bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution indicated that the PTX loaded nanoparticles may have a long circulation time under physiological environments as the LCST was above physiological body temperature and the shell remained hydrophilic at 37 C. The PTX release profiles showed thermo-sensitive controlled behavior. The proliferation inhibiting activity of PTX loaded nanoparticles was evaluated against Hela cells in vitro, compared with Taxol (a formulation of paclitaxel dissolved in Cremophor EL and ethanol). The cytotoxicity of PTX loaded nanoparticles increased obviously when hyperthermia was performed. The nanoparticles synthesized here could be an ideal candidate for thermal triggered anti-tumor PTX delivery system.

  5. Targeted delivery of paclitaxel using folate-decorated poly(lactide)-vitamin E TPGS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie; Feng, Si-Shen

    2008-06-01

    We synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) of the blend of two-component copolymers for targeted chemotherapy with paclitaxel used as model drug. One component is poly(lactide)-D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (PLA-TPGS), which is of desired hydrophobic-lipophilic balance, and another is TPGS-COOH, which facilitates the folate conjugation for targeting. The nanoparticles of the two-copolymer blend at various component ratio were prepared by the solvent extraction/evaporation single emulsion method and then decorated by folate, which were characterized by laser light scattering (LLS) for particles' size and size distribution, zeta potential analyzer for surface charge, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for surface chemistry. The drug encapsulation efficiency (EE) and in vitro drug release were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The targeting effect was investigated in vitro by cancer cell uptake of coumarin-6-loaded NPs and further confirmed by cytotoxicity of cancer cells treated with the drug formulated in the NPs. We showed that the NP formulation has great advantages vs the pristine drug in achieving better therapeutic effect, which increased 8.68% for MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and that the folate-decoration can significantly promote targeted delivery of the drug into the corresponding cancer cells and thus enhance its therapeutic effect, which increased 24.4% for the NP formulation of 16.7% TPGS-COOH component and 31.1% for the NP formulation of 33.3% TPGS-COOH component after 24h treatment at the same 25 microg/ml paclitaxel concentration. The experiments on C6 glioma cells further confirmed these advantages. PMID:18396333

  6. CD133-targeted paclitaxel delivery inhibits local tumor recurrence in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Suresh Kumar; Roger, Emilie; Toti, Udaya; Niu, Lin; Ohlfest, John R; Panyam, Jayanth

    2013-11-10

    Expression of the membrane protein CD133 marks a subset of cancer cells with drug resistant phenotype and enhanced tumor initiating ability in xenotransplantation assays. Because drug resistance and tumor relapse are significant problems, approaches to eliminate these cells are urgently needed. As a step towards achieving this goal, we developed polymeric nanoparticles targeting CD133 by conjugating an anti-CD133 monoclonal antibody to nanoparticles formulated using poly(D,L lactide-co-glycolide) polymer. Nanoparticles were loaded with paclitaxel, a microtubule-stabilizing anticancer agent, as well as with 6-coumarin, a fluorescent probe. CD133-targeted nanoparticles (CD133NPs) were efficiently internalized by Caco-2 cells, which abundantly express CD133 (>9-fold higher uptake than non-targeted control nanoparticles). The effectiveness of CD133NPs in reducing tumor initiating cell (TIC) fraction was investigated using mammosphere formation and soft-agar colony formation assays. Free paclitaxel treatment was not effective in decreasing the TIC population relative to untreated control, whereas CD133NPs effectively decreased the number of mammospheres and colonies formed. In vivo studies in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model showed that free paclitaxel was initially effective in inhibiting tumor growth but the tumors rebounded rapidly once the treatment was stopped. Tumor regrowth was significantly lower when paclitaxel was delivered through CD133NPs (tumor volume was 518.6228 vs. 1370.9295mm(3) for free paclitaxel at 63days; P<0.05). Our studies thus show that encapsulation of paclitaxel in CD133NPs results in a significant decrease in the TIC population and improved therapeutic efficacy compared to that with free paclitaxel treatment. These results indicate the potential of targeting anticancer therapeutics to CD133+ cells for reducing tumor recurrence. PMID:23871962

  7. Paclitaxel molecularly imprinted polymer-PEG-folate nanoparticles for targeting anticancer delivery: Characterization and cellular cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Esfandyari-Manesh, Mehdi; Darvishi, Behrad; Ishkuh, Fatemeh Azizi; Shahmoradi, Elnaz; Mohammadi, Ali; Javanbakht, Mehran; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Atyabi, Fatemeh

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize molecularly imprinted polymer-poly ethylene glycol-folic acid (MIP-PEG-FA) nanoparticles for use as a controlled release carrier for targeting delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to cancer cells. MIP nanoparticles were synthesized by a mini-emulsion polymerization technique and then PEG-FA was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles showed high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency, 15.6±0.8 and 100%, respectively. The imprinting efficiency of MIPs was evaluated by binding experiments in human serum. Good selective binding and recognition were found in MIP nanoparticles. In vitro drug release studies showed that MIP-PEG-FA have a controlled release of PTX, because of the presence of imprinted sites in the polymeric structure, which makes it is suitable for sustained drug delivery. The drug release from polymeric nanoparticles was indeed higher at acidic pH. The molecular structure of MIP-PEG-FA was confirmed by Hydrogen-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H NMR), Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR), and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) spectroscopy, and their thermal behaviors by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) results showed that nanoparticles have a smooth surface and spherical shape with an average size of 181nm. MIP-PEG-FA nanoparticles showed a greater amount of intracellular uptake in folate receptor-positive cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) in comparison with the non-folate nanoparticles and free PTX, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 4.9±0.9, 7.4±0.5 and 32.8±3.8nM, respectively. These results suggest that MIP-PEG-FA nanoparticles could be a potentially useful drug carrier for targeting drug delivery to cancer cells. PMID:26952466

  8. Folate-modified lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticles for targeted paclitaxel delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linhua; Zhu, Dunwan; Dong, Xia; Sun, Hongfan; Song, Cunxian; Wang, Chun; Kong, Deling

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel lipid–polymer hybrid drug carrier comprised of folate (FA) modified lipid-shell and polymer-core nanoparticles (FLPNPs) for sustained, controlled, and targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX). The core-shell NPs consist of 1) a poly(ε-caprolactone) hydrophobic core based on self-assembly of poly(ε-caprolactone)–poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) amphiphilic copolymers, 2) a lipid monolayer formed with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy (polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG2000), 3) a targeting ligand (FA) on the surface, and were prepared using a thin-film hydration and ultrasonic dispersion method. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis confirmed the coating of the lipid monolayer on the hydrophobic polymer core. Physicochemical characterizations of PTX-loaded FLPNPs, such as particle size and size distribution, zeta potential, morphology, drug loading content, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release, were also evaluated. Fluorescent microscopy proved the internalization efficiency and targeting ability of the folate conjugated on the lipid monolayer for the EMT6 cancer cells which overexpress folate receptor. In vitro cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of PTX-loaded FLPNPs was lower than that of Taxol®, but higher than that of PTX-loaded LPNPs (without folate conjugation). In EMT6 breast tumor model, intratumoral administration of PTX-loaded FLPNPs showed similar antitumor efficacy but low toxicity compared to Taxol®. More importantly, PTX-loaded FLPNPs showed greater tumor growth inhibition (65.78%) than the nontargeted PTX-loaded LPNPs (48.38%) (P<0.05). These findings indicated that the PTX loaded-FLPNPs with mixed lipid monolayer shell and biodegradable polymer core would be a promising nanosized drug formulation for tumor-targeted therapy. PMID:25844039

  9. Tumor-targeting and pH-sensitive lipoprotein-mimic nanocarrier for targeted intracellular delivery of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Conghui; Hu, Haiyang; Qiao, Mingxi; Zhao, Xiuli; Wang, Yinjie; Chen, Kang; Guo, Xiong; Chen, Dawei

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we constructed a tumor-targeting and pH-sensitive lipoprotein-mimic nanocarrier containing paclitaxel (FA-BSA-LC/DOPE-PTX), by adding 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) and oleic acid as pH-sensitive components into the formulation of lipid core and then coating with folic acid modified bovine serum albumin (FA-BSA) for tumor targeting activity. In vitro drug release study demonstrated that paclitaxel (PTX) was released from FA-BSA-LC/DOPE in a pH-dependent manner. The vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that all the blank nanocarriers were nontoxic. However, MTT assay showed that FA-BSA-LC/DOPE-PTX was highly cytotoxic. Cellular uptake experiments analyzed with flow cytometry and laser scan confocal microscope (LSCM) revealed that FA-BSA-LC/DOPE was taken up in great amount via folate receptor-mediated endocytosis and pH-sensitive release of drug to cytoplasm. Furthermore, the study of intracellular drug release behavior demonstrated that the FA-BSA-LC/DOPE escaped from lysosomes and released drug into cytoplasm. The in vivo targeting activity showed that the nanocarrier selectively targeted tumor and had long residence time for BSA layer increased the stability in blood. Moreover, FA-BSA-LC/DOPE-PTX produced very marked anti-tumor activity in tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Therefore, FA-BSA-LC/DOPE as biocompatible, tumor-targeting and pH-sensitive lipoprotein-mimic nanocarrier is a promising system for effective intracellular delivery of PTX to tumor. PMID:25615984

  10. Anti-HER2/neu peptide-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted delivery of paclitaxel to breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mu, Qingxin; Kievit, Forrest M; Kant, Rajeev J; Lin, Guanyou; Jeon, Mike; Zhang, Miqin

    2015-11-21

    Nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted therapy are required to have appropriate size, stability, drug loading and release profiles, and efficient targeting ligands. However, many of the existing NPs such as albumin, liposomes, polymers, gold NPs, etc. encounter size limit, toxicity and stability issues when loaded with drugs, fluorophores, and targeting ligands. Furthermore, antibodies are bulky and this can greatly affect the physicochemical properties of the NPs, whereas many small molecule-based targeting ligands lack specificity. Here, we report the utilization of biocompatible, biodegradable, small (∼30 nm) and stable iron oxide NPs (IONPs) for targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to HER2/neu positive breast cancer cells using an anti-HER2/neu peptide (AHNP) targeting ligand. We demonstrate the uniform size and high stability of these NPs in biological medium, their effective tumour targeting in live mice, as well as their efficient cellular targeting and selective killing in human HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells. PMID:26469772

  11. Anti-HER2/neu peptide-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted delivery of paclitaxel to breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Qingxin; Kievit, Forrest M.; Kant, Rajeev J.; Lin, Guanyou; Jeon, Mike; Zhang, Miqin

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted therapy are required to have appropriate size, stability, drug loading and release profiles, and efficient targeting ligands. However, many of the existing NPs such as albumin, liposomes, polymers, gold NPs, etc. encounter size limit, toxicity and stability issues when loaded with drugs, fluorophores, and targeting ligands. Furthermore, antibodies are bulky and this can greatly affect the physicochemical properties of the NPs, whereas many small molecule-based targeting ligands lack specificity. Here, we report the utilization of biocompatible, biodegradable, small (~30 nm) and stable iron oxide NPs (IONPs) for targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to HER2/neu positive breast cancer cells using an anti-HER2/neu peptide (AHNP) targeting ligand. We demonstrate the uniform size and high stability of these NPs in biological medium, their effective tumour targeting in live mice, as well as their efficient cellular targeting and selective killing in human HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells.Nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted therapy are required to have appropriate size, stability, drug loading and release profiles, and efficient targeting ligands. However, many of the existing NPs such as albumin, liposomes, polymers, gold NPs, etc. encounter size limit, toxicity and stability issues when loaded with drugs, fluorophores, and targeting ligands. Furthermore, antibodies are bulky and this can greatly affect the physicochemical properties of the NPs, whereas many small molecule-based targeting ligands lack specificity. Here, we report the utilization of biocompatible, biodegradable, small (~30 nm) and stable iron oxide NPs (IONPs) for targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to HER2/neu positive breast cancer cells using an anti-HER2/neu peptide (AHNP) targeting ligand. We demonstrate the uniform size and high stability of these NPs in biological medium, their effective tumour targeting in live mice, as well as their efficient cellular targeting and selective killing in human HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04867b

  12. Enhanced antitumor effect of novel dual-targeted paclitaxel liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Shuyan; Su, Bo; Li, Wei; Ding, Yongmei; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Wei; Song, Yin; Li, Heyan; Zhou, Caicun

    2010-10-01

    A novel dual-targeted peptide containing an alpha V integrins specific ligand and a neuropilin-1 specific motif was developed which showed an increased specific targeting affinity to tumors. Active dual-targeted liposomes were then produced with this peptide and exhibited greater binding activity than single-targeted liposomes in vitro. Paclitaxel entrapped in this formulation greatly increased the uptake of paclitaxel in the targeting cells and significantly suppressed the growth of HUVEC and A549 cells compared with general paclitaxel injections (Taxol) and single-targeted paclitaxel liposomes. The treatment of tumor xenograft models with dual-targeted paclitaxel liposomes also resulted in better tumor growth inhibition than any other treatment groups. Therefore, the dual-targeted paclitaxel liposomes prepared in the present study might be a more promising drug for cancer treatment. Furthermore, the dual-targeting approach may produce synergistic effects that can be applied in the development of new targeted drug delivery systems.

  13. Complete Regression of Xenograft Tumors upon Targeted Delivery of Paclitaxel via Π-Π Stacking Stabilized Polymeric Micelles

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yang; van der Meel, Roy; Theek, Benjamin; Blenke, Erik Oude; Pieters, Ebel H.E.; Fens, Marcel H.A.M.; Ehling, Josef; Schiffelers, Raymond M.; Storm, Gert; van Nostrum, Cornelus F.; Lammers, Twan; Hennink, Wim E.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of cancer patients with taxane-based chemotherapeutics, such as paclitaxel (PTX), is complicated by their narrow therapeutic index. Polymeric micelles are attractive nanocarriers for tumor-targeted delivery of PTX, as they can be tailored to encapsulate large amounts of hydrophobic drugs and achieve prolonged circulation kinetics. As a result, PTX deposition in tumors is increased while drug exposure to healthy tissues is reduced. However, many PTX-loaded micelle formulations suffer from low stability and fast drug release in the circulation, limiting their suitability for systemic drug targeting. To overcome these limitations, we have developed paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded micelles which are stable without chemical crosslinking and covalent drug attachment. These micelles are characterized by excellent loading capacity and strong drug retention, attributed to π-π stacking interaction between PTX and the aromatic groups of the polymer chains in the micellar core. The micelles are based on methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-(N-(2-benzoyloxypropyl) methacrylamide) (mPEG-b-p(HPMAm-Bz)) block copolymers, which improved the pharmacokinetics and the biodistribution of PTX, and substantially increased PTX tumor accumulation (by more than 2000%; as compared to Taxol® or control micellar formulations). Improved biodistribution and tumor accumulation were confirmed by hybrid μCT-FMT imaging using near-infrared labeled micelles and payload. The PTX-loaded micelles were well tolerated at different doses while they induced complete tumor regression in two different xenograft models (i.e. A431 and MDA-MB-468). Our findings consequently indicate that π-π stacking-stabilized polymeric micelles are promising carriers to improve the delivery of highly hydrophobic drugs to tumors and to increase their therapeutic index. PMID:25831471

  14. Liprosomes loading paclitaxel for brain-targeting delivery by intravenous administration: in vitro characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bo; Fang, Guihua; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yi; Liu, Jinwen; Zou, Meijuan; Cheng, Gang

    2014-11-20

    In this study, a lipid-protein nanocomplex (liprosome) was evaluated for its potential use for brain-targeting drug delivery. Liprosome was fabricated with the desolvation-ultrasonication method and characterized in terms of particle size, size distribution, zeta potential, morphology, crystal state of the drug, and in vitro release. The in vivo distribution of paclitaxel loading lipid-protein nanocomplex (PTX-liprosome) and Taxol were compared after i.v. administration in mice. The prepared PTX-liprosome has a high entrapment efficiency (>90%), small particle size (approximately 110 nm), and narrow distribution (P.I.<0.2). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that liprosome had a spherical multilayer structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the conjugate of PTX and BSA was in the interior of the PTX-liprosome. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) demonstrated that the drug existed in a molecular or amorphous state. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) suggested that the hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds among of the PTX, lipid and protein play an important role during the formation of the PTX-liprosome. The hemolysis test showed a good safety profile for the intravenous administration of liprosome. The result of the in vivo distribution suggested that liprosome increased the drug uptake by the brain tissue and decreased drug accumulation in non-target organs. Therefore, liprosome is a potential drug delivery system for transporting PTX to the brain. PMID:25218393

  15. Colocalized Delivery of Rapamycin and Paclitaxel to Tumors Enhances Synergistic Targeting of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Elvin; Sangai, Takafumi; Wu, Suhong; Hsiao, Angela; Ruiz-Esparza, Guillermo U; Gonzalez-Delgado, Carlos A; Cara, Francisca E; Granados-Principal, Sergio; Evans, Kurt W; Akcakanat, Argun; Wang, Ying; Do, Kim-Anh; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Ferrari, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing clinical trials target the aberrant PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in breast cancer through administration of rapamycin, an allosteric mTOR inhibitor, in combination with paclitaxel. However, synergy may not be fully exploited clinically because of distinct pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs. This study explores the synergistic potential of site-specific, colocalized delivery of rapamycin and paclitaxel through nanoparticle incorporation. Nanoparticle drug loading was accurately controlled, and synergistic drug ratios established in vitro. Precise drug ratios were maintained in tumors 48 hours after nanoparticle administration to mice, at levels twofold greater than liver and spleen, yielding superior antitumor activity compared to controls. Simultaneous and preferential in vivo delivery of rapamycin and paclitaxel to tumors yielded mechanistic insights into synergy involving suppression of feedback loop Akt phosphorylation and its downstream targets. Findings demonstrate that a same time, same place, and specific amount approach to combination chemotherapy by means of nanoparticle delivery has the potential to successfully translate in vitro synergistic findings in vivo. Predictive in vitro models can be used to determine optimum drug ratios for antitumor efficacy, while nanoparticle delivery of combination chemotherapies in preclinical animal models may lead to enhanced understanding of mechanisms of synergy, ultimately opening several avenues for personalized therapy. PMID:24569835

  16. Octa-ammonium POSS-conjugated single-walled carbon nanotubes as vehicles for targeted delivery of paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Naghmeh; Madani, Seyed Y.; Mosahebi, Afshin; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, novel properties can be developed by attachment or encapsulation of functional groups. These unique properties facilitate the use of CNTs in drug delivery. We developed a new nanomedicine consisting of a nanocarrier, cell-targeting molecule, and chemotherapeutic drug and assessed its efficacy in vitro. Methods The efficacy of a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-based nanoconjugate system is assessed in the targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to cancer cells. SWCNTs were oxidized and reacted with octa-ammonium polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (octa-ammonium POSS) to render them biocompatible and water dispersable. The functionalized SWCNTs were loaded with PTX, a chemotherapeutic agent toxic to cancer cells, and Tn218 antibodies for cancer cell targeting. The nanohybrid composites were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and ultravioletvisiblenear-infrared (UVVisNIR). Additionally, their cytotoxic effects on Colon cancer cell (HT-29) and Breast cancer cell (MCF-7) lines were assessed in vitro. Results TEM, FTIR, and UVVisNIR studies confirmed side-wall functionalization of SWCNT with COOH-groups, PTX, POSS, and antibodies. Increased cell death was observed with PTXPOSSSWCNT, PTXPOSSAbSWCNT, and free PTX compared to functionalized-SWCNT (f-SWCNT), POSSSWCNT, and cell-only controls at 48 and 72 h time intervals in both cell lines. At all time intervals, there was no significant cell death in the POSSSWCNT samples compared to cell-only controls. Conclusion The PTX-based nanocomposites were shown to be as cytotoxic as free PTX. This important finding indicates successful release of PTX from the nanocomposites and further reiterates the potential of SWCNTs to deliver drugs directly to targeted cells and tissues. PMID:26356347

  17. Targeted delivery of polyamidoamine-paclitaxel conjugate functionalized with anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Pengkai; Zhang, Xuemei; Ni, Ling; Li, Jinming; Zhang, Fengpu; Wang, Zheng; Lian, Shengnan; Sun, Kaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Antibody-dendrimer conjugates have the potential to improve the targeting and release of chemotherapeutic drugs at the tumor site while reducing adverse side effects caused by drug accumulation in healthy tissues. In this study, trastuzumab (TMAB), which binds to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), was used as a targeting agent in a TMAB-polyamidoamine (PAMAM) conjugate carrying paclitaxel (PTX) specifically to cells overexpressing HER2. Methods TMAB was covalently linked to a PAMAM dendrimer via bifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG). PTX was conjugated to PAMAM using succinic anhydride as a cross-linker, yielding TMAB-PEG-PAMAM-PTX. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the conjugates. The cellular uptake and in vivo biodistribution were studied by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and Carestream In Vivo FX, respectively. Results Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated that PEG, PTX, fluorescein isothiocyanate, and cyanine7 were conjugated to PAMAM. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that TMAB was conjugated to PEG-PAMAM. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed that the different conjugates ranged in size between 10 and 35 nm and had a spherical shape. In vitro cellular uptake demonstrated that the TMAB-conjugated PAMAM was taken up by HER2-overexpressing BT474 cells more efficiently than MCF-7 cells that expressed lower levels of HER2. Co-localization experiments indicated that TMAB-conjugated PAMAM was located in the cytoplasm. The in vitro cytotoxicity of TMAB-conjugated PAMAM was lower than free PTX due to the slow release of PTX from the conjugate. In vivo targeting further demonstrated that TMAB-conjugated PAMAM accumulated in the BT474 tumor model more efficiently than non-conjugated PAMAM. Conclusion TMAB can serve as an effective targeting agent, and the TMAB-conjugated PAMAM can be exploited as a potential targeted chemotherapeutic drug delivery system for tumors that overexpress HER2. PMID:25834432

  18. Development of EGFR-Targeted Polymer Blend Nanocarriers for Combination Paclitaxel/Lonidamine Delivery to Treat Multi-Drug Resistance in Human Breast and Ovarian Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Milane, Lara; Duan, Zhenfeng; Amiji, Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant (MDR) cancer is a significant clinical obstacle and is often implicated in cases of recurrent, non-responsive disease. Targeted nanoparticles were made by synthesizing a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)/poly(ethylene glycol)/epidermal growth factor receptor targeting peptide (PLGA/PEG/EGFR-peptide) construct for incorporation in poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles. MDR was induced in a panel of nine human breast and ovarian cancer cell lines using hypoxia. EGFR-targeted polymer blend nanoparticles were shown to actively target EGFR over-expressing cell lines, especially upon induction of hypoxia. The nanoparticles were capable of sustained drug release. Combination therapy with lonidamine and paclitaxel significantly improved the therapeutic index of both drugs. Treatment with a nanoparticle dose of 1 ?M paclitaxel/10 ?M lonidamine resulted in less than 10% cell viability for all hypoxic/MDR cell lines and less than 5% cell viability for all normoxic cell lines. Comparatively, treatment with 1 ?M paclitaxel alone was the approximate IC50 value of the MDR cells while treatment with lonidamine alone had very little effect. PLGA/PEG/EGFR-peptide delivery system actively targets a MDR cell by exploiting the expression of EGFR. This system treats MDR by inhibiting the Warburg effect and promoting mitochondrial binding of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins (lonidamine), while hyperstabilizing microtubules (paclitaxel). This nanocarrier system actively targets a MDR associated phenotype (EGFR receptor over-expression), further enhancing the therapeutic index of both drugs and potentiating the use of lonidamine/paclitaxel combination therapy in the treatment of MDR cancer. PMID:20942457

  19. Biodistribution and Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Combination Lonidamine and Paclitaxel Delivery in an Orthotopic Animal Model of Multi-drug Resistant Breast Cancer Using EGFR-Targeted Polymeric Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Milane, Lara; Duan, Zhen-feng; Amiji, Mansoor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted polymer blend nanoparticles loaded with the anticancer drugs lonidamine and paclitaxel. Plasma, tumor, and tissue distribution profiles were quantified in an orthotopic animal model of multi-drug resistant (MDR) breast cancer and were compared to treatment with non-targeted nanoparticles and to treatment with drug solution. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)/poly(ethylene glycol)/EGFR targeting peptide (PLGA/PEG/EFGR peptide) construct was synthesized for incorporation in poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) particles to achieve active EGFR targeting. An isocratic HPLC method was developed to quantify lonidamine and paclitaxel in mice plasma, tumors, and vital organs. The targeted nanoparticles demonstrated superior pharmacokinetic profile relative to drug solution and non-targeted nanoparticles, particularly for lonidamine delivery. The first target site of accumulation is the liver, followed by the kidneys, and then the tumor mass; maximal tumor accumulation occurs at 3 hours post-administration. Lonidamine/paclitaxel combination therapy administered via EGFR-targeted polymer blend nanocarriers may become a viable platform for the future treatment of MDR cancer. PMID:21220050

  20. Engineering erythrocytes as a novel carrier for the targeted delivery of the anticancer drug paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Harisa, Gamaleldin I.; Ibrahim, Mohamed F.; Alanazi, Fars; Shazly, Gamal A.

    2013-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is formulated in a mixture of Cremophor EL and dehydrated alcohol. The intravenous administration of this formula is associated with a risk of infection and hypersensitivity reactions. The presence of Cremophor EL as a pharmaceutical vehicle contributes to these effects. Therefore, in this study, we used human erythrocytes, instead of Cremophor, as a pharmaceutical vehicle. PTX was loaded into erythrocytes using the preswelling method. Analysis of the obtained data indicates that 148.8?g of PTX was loaded/mL erythrocytes, with an entrapment efficiency of 46.36% and a cell recovery of 75.94%. Furthermore, we observed a significant increase in the mean cell volume values of the erythrocytes, whereas both the mean cell hemoglobin and the mean cell hemoglobin concentration decreased following the loading of PTX. The turbulence fragility index values for unloaded, sham-loaded and PTX-loaded erythrocytes were 3, 2, and 1h, respectively. Additionally, the erythrocyte glutathione level decreased after PTX loading, whereas lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation increased. The release of PTX from loaded erythrocytes followed first-order kinetics, and about 81% of the loaded drug was released into the plasma after 48h. The results of the present study revealed that PTX was loaded successfully into human erythrocytes with acceptable loading parameters and with some oxidative modification to the erythrocytes. PMID:25061408

  1. Enabling Anticancer Therapeutics by Nanoparticle Carriers: The Delivery of Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongjin; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Bing

    2011-01-01

    Anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel (PTX), are indispensable for the treatment of a variety of malignancies. However, the application of most drugs is greatly limited by the low water solubility, poor permeability, or high efflux from cells. Nanoparticles have been widely investigated to enable drug delivery due to their low toxicity, sustained drug release, molecular targeting, and additional therapeutic and imaging functions. This review takes paclitaxel as an example and compares different nanoparticle-based delivery systems for their effectiveness in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:21845085

  2. Enabling anticancer therapeutics by nanoparticle carriers: the delivery of Paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjin; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Bing

    2011-01-01

    Anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel (PTX), are indispensable for the treatment of a variety of malignancies. However, the application of most drugs is greatly limited by the low water solubility, poor permeability, or high efflux from cells. Nanoparticles have been widely investigated to enable drug delivery due to their low toxicity, sustained drug release, molecular targeting, and additional therapeutic and imaging functions. This review takes paclitaxel as an example and compares different nanoparticle-based delivery systems for their effectiveness in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:21845085

  3. The use of ?-conotoxin ImI to actualize the targeted delivery of paclitaxel micelles to ?7 nAChR-overexpressing breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mei, Dong; Lin, Zhiqiang; Fu, Jijun; He, Bing; Gao, Wei; Ma, Ling; Dai, Wenbing; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Wanliang; Zhou, Demin; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7 nAChR), a ligand-gated ion channel, is increasingly emerging as a new tumor target owing to its expression specificity and significancy for cancer. In an attempt to increase the targeted drug delivery to the ?7 nAChR-overexpressing tumors, herein, ?-conotoxin ImI, a disulfide-rich toxin with highly affinity for ?7 nAChR, was modified on the PEG-DSPE micelles (ImI-PMs) for the first time. The DLS, TEM and HPLC detections showed the spherical nanoparticle morphology about 20 nm with negative charge and high drug encapsulation. The ligand modification did not induce significant differences. The immunofluorescence assay confirmed the expression level of ?7 nAChR in MCF-7 cells. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that the ?7 nAChR-targeted nanomedicines could deliver more specifically and faster into ?7 nAChR-overexpressing MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, fluo-3/AM fluorescence imaging technique indicated that the increased specificity was attributed to the ligand-receptor interaction, and the inducitivity for intracellular Ca(2+) transient by ImI was still remained after modification. Moreover, paclitaxel, a clinical frequently-used anti-tumor drug for breast cancer, was loaded in ImI-modified nanomedicines to evaluate the targeting efficacy. Besides of exhibiting greater cytotoxicity and inducing more cell apoptosis in vitro, paclitaxel-loaded ImI-PMs displayed stronger anti-tumor efficacy in MCF-7 tumor-bearing nu/nu mice. Finally, the active targeting system showed low systemic toxicity and myelosuppression evidenced by less changes in body weight, white blood cells, neutrophilic granulocyte and platelet counts. In conclusion, ?7 nAChR is also a promising target for anti-tumor drug delivery and in this case, ?-conotoxin ImI-modified nanocarrier is a potential delivery system for targeting ?7 nAChR-overexpressing tumors. PMID:25542793

  4. Paclitaxel Nano-Delivery Systems: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ping; Mumper, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs ever developed and is active against a broad range of cancers, such as lung, ovarian, and breast cancers. Due to its low water solubility, paclitaxel is formulated in a mixture of Cremophor EL and dehydrated ethanol (50:50, v/v) a combination known as Taxol. However, Taxol has some severe side effects related to Cremophor EL and ethanol. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of alternative Taxol formulations. The encapsulation of paclitaxel in biodegradable and non-toxic nano-delivery systems can protect the drug from degradation during circulation and in-turn protect the body from toxic side effects of the drug thereby lowering its toxicity, increasing its circulation half-life, exhibiting improved pharmacokinetic profiles, and demonstrating better patient compliance. Also, nanoparticle-based delivery systems can take advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect for passive tumor targeting, therefore, they are promising carriers to improve the therapeutic index and decrease the side effects of paclitaxel. To date, paclitaxel albumin-bound nanoparticles (Abraxane®) have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, there are a number of novel paclitaxel nanoparticle formulations in clinical trials. In this comprehensive review, several types of developed paclitaxel nano-delivery systems will be covered and discussed, such as polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based formulations, polymer conjugates, inorganic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanocrystals, and cyclodextrin nanoparticles. PMID:24163786

  5. Folate Receptor Targeted Delivery of siRNA and Paclitaxel to Ovarian Cancer Cells via Folate Conjugated Triblock Copolymer to Overcome TLR4 Driven Chemotherapy Resistance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Steven K; Lizzio, Vincent; Merkel, Olivia M

    2016-01-11

    This paper focuses on the ability of a folate-decorated triblock copolymer to deliver a targeted dose of siRNA in order to overcome chemotherapy resistance which can commonly cause complications in ovarian cancer patients. The micelleplexes that are formed upon electrostatic interaction with siRNA are used to deliver siRNA in a targeted manner to SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells that overexpress folate receptor-? (FR?). The triblock copolymer consists of polyethylenimine-graft-polycaprolactone-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEI-g-PCL-b-PEG-Fol). In this work, polymers of different molecular weights of PEG, as well as different grafting degrees of the (g-PCL-b-PEG-Fol) chains to PEI, were analyzed to optimize targeted siRNA delivery. The polymers, their micelleplexes, and the in vitro performance of the latter were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, flow cytrometry, western blot, confocal microscopy, and in luciferase assays. The different PEI-g-PCL-b-PEG-Fol conjugates showed suitable sizes below 260 nm, especially at N/P 5, which also allowed for full siRNA condensation. Furthermore, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis demonstrated that our best polymer was able to effectively deliver siRNA and that siRNA delivery resulted in efficient protein knockdown of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Consequently, TLR4 knock down within SKOV-3 cells resensitized them toward paclitaxel (PTX) treatment, and apoptotic events increased. This study demonstrates that PEI-g-PCL-b-PEG-Fol conjugates are a reliable delivery system for siRNA and are able to mediate therapeutic protein knockdown within ovarian cancer cells. Additionally, this study provides further evidence to link TLR4 levels to chemotherapy resistance. PMID:26636884

  6. Folate-mediated targeted and intracellular delivery of paclitaxel using a novel deoxycholic acid-O-carboxymethylated chitosan–folic acid micelles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feihu; Chen, Yuxuan; Zhang, Dianrui; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Dandan; Hao, Leilei; Liu, Yue; Duan, Cunxian; Jia, Lejiao; Liu, Guangpu

    2012-01-01

    Background A critical disadvantage for successful chemotherapy with paclitaxel (PTX) is its nontargeting nature to cancer cells. Folic acid has been employed as a targeting ligand of various anticancer agents to increase their cellular uptake within target cells since the folate receptor is overexpressed on the surface of such tumor cells. In this study, a novel biodegradable deoxycholic acid-O-carboxymethylated chitosan–folic acid conjugate (DOMC-FA) was used to form micelles for encapsulating the anticancer drug PTX. Methods and results The drug-loading efficiency, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release and physicochemical properties of PTX-loaded micelles were investigated in detail. In vitro cell culture studies were carried out in MCF-7 cells, a human breast carcinoma cell line, with folate receptor overexpressed on its surface. An increased level of uptake of folate-conjugated micelles compared to plain micelles in MCF-7 cells was observed, and the enhanced uptake of folate-micelles mainly on account of the effective process of folate receptor-mediated endocytosis. The MTT assay, morphological changes, and apoptosis test implied that the folate-conjugated micelles enhanced the cell death by folate-mediated active internalization, and the cytotoxicity of the FA-micellar PTX (DOMC-FA/PTX) to cancer cells was much higher than micelles without folate (DOMC/PTX) or the commercially available injectable preparation of PTX (Taxol). Conclusion Results indicate that the PTX-loaded DOMC-FA micelle is a successful anticancertargeted drug-delivery system for effective cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22287842

  7. The effect of co-delivery of paclitaxel and curcumin by transferrin-targeted PEG-PE-based mixed micelles on resistant ovarian cancer in 3-D spheroids and in vivo tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sarisozen, Can; Abouzeid, Abraham H.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular 3D cancer cell culture (spheroids) resemble to in vivo tumors in terms of shape, cell morphology, growth kinetics, gene expression and drug response. However, these characteristics cause very limited drug penetration into deeper parts of the spheroids. In this study, we used multi drug resistant (MDR) ovarian cancer cell spheroid and in vivo tumor models to evaluate the co-delivery of paclitaxel (PCL) and a potent NF-?B inhibitor curcumin (CUR). PCL and CUR were co-loaded into the polyethylene glycol-phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PEG-PE) based polymeric micelles modified with Transferrin (TF) as the targeting ligand. Cytotoxicity, cellular association and accumulation into the deeper layers were investigated in the spheroids and compared with the monolayer cell culture. Comparing to non-targeted micelles, flow cytometry and confocal imaging proved significantly deeper and higher micelle penetration into the spheroids with TF-targeting. Both in monolayers and spheroids, PCL cytotoxicity was significantly increased when co-delivered with CUR in non-targeted micelles or as single agent in TF-targeted micelles, whereas TF-modification of co-loaded micelles did not further enhance the cytotoxicity. In vivo tumor inhibition studies showed good correlation with the 3D cell culture experiments, which suggests the current spheroid model can be used as an intermediate model for evaluation of co-delivery of anticancer compounds in targeted micelles. PMID:25016976

  8. Paclitaxel delivery to brain tumors from hydrogels: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Alexis J; Zhu, Charles; Shuler, Michael L; Pannullo, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are aggressive forms of primary brain tumors characterized by a poor prognosis. The most successful treatment so far is the local implantation of polymer carriers (Gliadel® wafers) for the sustained release of carmustine. To improve the effectiveness of local drug treatment, new polymer carriers and pharmacological agents are currently being investigated. Of particular interest is a set of novel thermo-gelling polymers for the controlled release of hydrophobic drugs such as paclitaxel (e.g., OncoGel™). Herein, we use computational mass transport simulations to investigate the effectiveness of paclitaxel delivery from hydrogel-forming polymer carriers. We found similar (within 1-2 mm) therapeutic penetration distances of paclitaxel when released from these hydrogels as compared with carmustine released from Gliadel® wafers. Effective therapeutic concentrations were maintained for >30 days for paclitaxel when released from the hydrogel as compared with 4 days for carmustine released from Gliadel® wafers. Convection in brain tissue prevented the formation of a uniform drug concentration gradient around the implant. In addition, the surface area to volume ratio of the gel is an important factor that should be considered to maintain a controlled release of paclitaxel within the degradation lifetime of the polymer matrix. PMID:21786432

  9. Designing Paclitaxel Drug Delivery Systems Aimed at Improved Patient Outcomes: Current Status and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Surapaneni, Madhu S.; Das, Sudip K.; Das, Nandita G.

    2012-01-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most widely used and effective antineoplastic agents derived from natural sources. It has a wide spectrum of antitumor activity, particularly against ovarian cancer, breast cancer, nonsmall cell lung cancer, head and neck tumors, Kaposi's sarcoma, and urologic malignancies. It is a highly lipophilic compound with a log P value of 3.96 and very poor aqueous solubility of less than 0.01?mg/mL. In addition, the compound lacks functional groups that are ionizable which could potentially lead to an increase in its solubility with the alteration in pH. Therefore, the delivery of paclitaxel is associated with substantial challenges. Until the introduction of Abraxane, only commercial formulation was solution of paclitaxel in cremophor, which caused severe side effects. However, in recent years, a number of approaches have been reported to solubilize paclitaxel using cosolvents and inclusion complexes. In addition, innovative approaches have been reported for passive targeting of tumors using nanoparticles, nanosuspensions, liposomes, emulsions, micelles, implants, pastes and gels. All approaches for delivery of improved therapeutic outcome have been discussed in this paper. PMID:22934190

  10. Combination of dendrimer-nanovector-mediated small interfering RNA delivery to target Akt with the clinical anticancer drug paclitaxel for effective and potent anticancer activity in treating ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kala, Shashwati; Mak, Abby Sin Chi; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Posocco, Paola; Pricl, Sabrina; Peng, Ling; Wong, Alice Sze Tsai

    2014-03-27

    The recently discovered small interfering RNA (siRNA) holds great promise in cancer therapy. However, efficient and safe delivery systems are required for the development of new therapeutic paradigms. Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecologic tumors, and there is an urgent need for specific and effective therapies. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway, which is strongly implicated in the biology of ovarian cancer, constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. In this study, we describe a triethanolamine-core poly(amidoamine) dendrimer which forms stable nanoparticles with the Akt siRNA, protects siRNA against RNase digestion, and is highly effective for initiating Akt target-gene silencing both in vitro and in vivo, while being minimally toxic. Most importantly, it could potentiate the antitumor effect of the anticancer drug paclitaxel. These results represent the proof-of-concept, demonstrating that dendrimer-mediated Akt siRNA delivery, in combination with a chemotherapeutic regimen, may constitute a promising nanomedicine approach in cancer therapy. PMID:24592939

  11. Polymeric nanoparticles for the intracellular delivery of paclitaxel in lung and breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubris, Kimberly Ann Veronica

    Nanoparticles are useful for addressing many of the difficulties encountered when administering therapeutic compounds. Nanoparticles are able to increase the solubility of hydrophobic drugs, improve pharmacokinetics through sustained release, alter biodistribution, protect sensitive drugs from low pH environments or enzymatic alteration, and, in some cases, provide targeting of the drug to the desired tissues. The use of functional nanocarriers can also provide controlled intracellular delivery of a drug. To this end, we have developed functional pH-responsive expansile nanoparticles for the intracellular delivery of paclitaxel. The pH-responsiveness of these nanoparticles occurs due to a hydrophobic to hydrophilic transition of the polymer occurring under mildly acidic conditions. These polymeric nanoparticles were systematically evaluated for the delivery of paclitaxel in vitro and in vivo to improve local therapy for lung and breast cancers. Nanoparticles were synthesized using a miniemulsion polymerization process and were subsequently characterized and found to swell when exposed to acidic environments. Paclitaxel was successfully encapsulated within the nanoparticles, and the particles exhibited drug release at pH 5 but not at pH 7.4. In addition, the uptake of nanoparticles was observed using flow cytometry, and the anticancer efficacy of the paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles was measured using cancer cell lines in vitro. The potency of the paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles was close to that of free drug, demonstrating that the drug was effectively delivered by the particles and that the particles could act as an intracellular drug depot. Following in vitro characterization, murine in vivo studies demonstrated the ability of the paclitaxel-loaded responsive nanoparticles to delay recurrence of lung cancer and to prevent establishment of breast cancer in the mammary fat pads with higher efficacy than paclitaxel alone. In addition, the ability of nanoparticles to migrate up to 40 cm through lymphatic channels to local lymph nodes was demonstrated using near infrared imaging in a large animal model. Continued investigation of functional nanoparticles, like the system described here for lung and breast cancer, will facilitate the development of new materials that meet the varied and demanding needs in chemotherapy, and may afford new treatment options for the local and metastatic control of many forms of cancer.

  12. Polysaccharide-based Noncovalent Assembly for Targeted Delivery of Taxol

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Ying-Ming; Chen, Yong; Chen, Jia-Tong; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The construction of synthetic straightforward, biocompatible and biodegradable targeted drug delivery system with fluorescent tracking abilities, high anticancer activities and low side effects is still a challenge in the field of biochemistry and material chemistry. In this work, we constructed targeted paclitaxel (Taxol) delivery nanoparticles composed of permethyl-β-cyclodextrin modified hyaluronic acid (HApCD) and porphyrin modified paclitaxel prodrug (PorTaxol), through host-guest and amphiphilic interactions. The obtained nanoparticles (HATXP) were biocompatible and enzymatic biodegradable due to their hydrophilic hyaluronic acid (HA) shell and hydrophobic Taxol core, and exhibited specific targeting internalization into cancer cells via HA receptor mediated endocytosis effects. The cytotoxicity experiments showed that the HATXP exhibited similar anticancer activities to, but much lower side effects than commercial anticancer drug Taxol. The present work would provide a platform for targeted paclitaxel drug delivery and a general protocol for the design of advanced multifunctional nanoscale biomaterials for targeted drug/gene delivery. PMID:26759029

  13. Polysaccharide-based Noncovalent Assembly for Targeted Delivery of Taxol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Ying-Ming; Chen, Yong; Chen, Jia-Tong; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The construction of synthetic straightforward, biocompatible and biodegradable targeted drug delivery system with fluorescent tracking abilities, high anticancer activities and low side effects is still a challenge in the field of biochemistry and material chemistry. In this work, we constructed targeted paclitaxel (Taxol) delivery nanoparticles composed of permethyl-?-cyclodextrin modified hyaluronic acid (HApCD) and porphyrin modified paclitaxel prodrug (PorTaxol), through host-guest and amphiphilic interactions. The obtained nanoparticles (HATXP) were biocompatible and enzymatic biodegradable due to their hydrophilic hyaluronic acid (HA) shell and hydrophobic Taxol core, and exhibited specific targeting internalization into cancer cells via HA receptor mediated endocytosis effects. The cytotoxicity experiments showed that the HATXP exhibited similar anticancer activities to, but much lower side effects than commercial anticancer drug Taxol. The present work would provide a platform for targeted paclitaxel drug delivery and a general protocol for the design of advanced multifunctional nanoscale biomaterials for targeted drug/gene delivery. PMID:26759029

  14. Covalent linkage of nanodiamond-paclitaxel for drug delivery and cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kuang-Kai; Zheng, Wen-Wei; Wang, Chi-Ching; Chiu, Yu-Chung; Cheng, Chia-Liang; Lo, Yu-Shiu; Chen, Chinpiao; Chao, Jui-I.

    2010-08-01

    A nanoparticle-conjugated cancer drug provides a novel strategy for cancer therapy. In this study, we manipulated nanodiamond (ND), a carbon nanomaterial, to covalently link paclitaxel for cancer drug delivery and therapy. Paclitaxel was bound to the surface of 3-5 nm sized ND through a succession of chemical modifications. The ND-paclitaxel conjugation was measured by atomic force microscope and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and confirmed with infrared spectroscopy by the detection of deuterated paclitaxel. Treatment with 0.1-50 µg ml - 1 ND-paclitaxel for 48 h significantly reduced the cell viability in the A549 human lung carcinoma cells. ND-paclitaxel induced both mitotic arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells. However, ND alone or denatured ND-paclitaxel (after treatment with strong alkaline solution, 1 M NaOH) did not induce the damage effects on A549 cells. ND-paclitaxel was taken into lung cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner using flow cytometer analysis. The ND-paclitaxel particles were located in the microtubules and cytoplasm of A549 cells observed by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, ND-paclitaxel markedly blocked the tumor growth and formation of lung cancer cells in xenograft SCID mice. Together, we provide a functional covalent conjugation of ND-paclitaxel, which can be delivered into lung carcinoma cells and preserves the anticancer activities on the induction of mitotic blockage, apoptosis and anti-tumorigenesis.

  15. Combined Delivery of Paclitaxel and Tanespimycin via Micellar Nanocarriers: Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy and Metabolomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingzhe; Teng, Quincy; Tan, Chalet

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the promising anticancer efficacy observed in preclinical studies, paclitaxel and tanespimycin (17-AAG) combination therapy has yielded meager responses in a phase I clinical trial. One serious problem associated with paclitaxel/17-AAG combination therapy is the employment of large quantities of toxic organic surfactants and solvents for drug solubilization. The goal of this study was to evaluate a micellar formulation for the concurrent delivery of paclitaxel and 17-AAG in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings Paclitaxel/17-AAG-loaded micelles were assessed in mice bearing human ovarian tumor xenografts. Compared with the free drugs at equivalent doses, intravenous administration of paclitaxel/17-AAG-loaded micelles led to 3.5- and 1.7-fold increase in the tumor concentrations of paclitaxel and 17-AAG, respectively, without significant altering drug levels in normal organs. The enhanced tumor accumulation of the micellar drugs was further confirmed by the whole-body near infrared imaging using indocyanine green-labeled micelles. Subsequently, the anticancer efficacy of paclitaxel/17-AAG-loaded micelles was examined in comparison with the free drugs (weekly 20 mg/kg paclitaxel, twice-weekly 37.5 mg/kg 17-AAG). We found that paclitaxel/17-AAG-loaded micelles caused near-complete arrest of tumor growth, whereas the free drug-treated tumors experienced rapid growth shortly after the 3-week treatment period ended. Furthermore, comparative metabolomic profiling by proton nuclear magnetic resonance revealed significant decrease in glucose, lactate and alanine with simultaneous increase in glutamine, glutamate, aspartate, choline, creatine and acetate levels in the tumors of mice treated with paclitaxel/17-AAG-loaded micelles. Conclusions/Significance We have demonstrated in the current wok a safe and efficacious nano-sized formulation for the combined delivery of paclitaxel and 17-AAG, and uncovered unique metabolomic signatures in the tumor that correlate with the favorable therapeutic response to paclitaxel/17-AAG combination therapy. PMID:23505544

  16. SPARC independent drug delivery and antitumour effects of nab-paclitaxel in genetically engineered mice

    PubMed Central

    Neesse, Albrecht; Frese, Kristopher K; Chan, Derek S; Bapiro, Tashinga E; Howat, William J; Richards, Frances M; Ellenrieder, Volker; Jodrell, Duncan I; Tuveson, David A

    2014-01-01

    Design Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of cremophor-paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel (human-albumin-bound paclitaxel, Abraxane) and a novel mouse-albumin-bound paclitaxel (m-nab-paclitaxel) were evaluated in genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), histological and biochemical analysis. Preclinical evaluation of m-nab-paclitaxel included assessment by three-dimensional high-resolution ultrasound and molecular analysis in a novel secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)-deficient GEMM of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Results nab-Paclitaxel exerted its antitumoural effects in a dose-dependent manner and was associated with less toxicity compared with cremophor-paclitaxel. SPARC nullizygosity in a GEMM of PDA, KrasG12D;p53flox/−;p48Cre (KPfC), resulted in desmoplastic ductal pancreas tumours with impaired collagen maturation. Paclitaxel concentrations were significantly decreased in SPARC null plasma samples and tissues when administered as low-dose m-nab-paclitaxel. At the maximally tolerated dose, SPARC deficiency did not affect the intratumoural paclitaxel concentration, stromal deposition and the immediate therapeutic response. Conclusions nab-Paclitaxel accumulates and acts in a dose-dependent manner. The interaction of plasma SPARC and albumin-bound drugs is observed at low doses of nab-paclitaxel but is saturated at therapeutic doses in murine tumours. Thus, this study provides important information for future preclinical and clinical trials in PDA using nab-paclitaxel in combination with novel experimental and targeted agents. PMID:24067278

  17. Polyelectrolyte multilayer nanoshells with hydrophobic nanodomains for delivery of Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Jing; Guillot, Raphael; Paintrand, Isabelle; Auzely-Velty, Rachel; Picart, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and effective delivery of poorly water-soluble drug molecules, which constitute a large part of commercially available drugs, is a major challenge in the field of drug delivery. Several drugs including paclitaxel (PTX) which are used for cancer treatment are hydrophobic, exhibit poor aqueous solubility and need to be delivered using an appropriate carrier. In the present work, we engineered Taxol-loaded polyelectrolyte films and microcapsules by pre-complexing PTX with chemically modified derivative of hyaluronic acid (alkylamino hydrazide) containing hydrophobic nanocavities, and subsequent assembly with either poly(L-lysine) (PLL) or quaternized chitosan (QCHI) as polycations. The PTX loading capacity of the films was found to be dependent on number of layers in the films as well as on the initial concentration of PTX pre-complexed to hydrophobic HA, with a loading capacity up to 5000-fold the initial PTX concentration. The films were stable in physiological medium and were degraded in the presence of hyaluronidase. The PTX-loaded microcapsules were found to decrease the viability and proliferation of MDA MB 231 breast cancer cells, while unloaded microcapsules did not impact cell viability. All together, our results highlight the potential of hyaluronan-based assemblies containing hydrophobic nanodomains for hydrophobic drug delivery. PMID:22300622

  18. Delivery of paclitaxel using PEGylated graphene oxide as a nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Shaojia; Wang, Mingwei; Li, Yongjun; Shi, Ping; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-21

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is an extensively used potent chemotherapy drug; however, low water solubility, poor bioavailability, and emergence of drug resistance in patients limited its biological application. In this report, we proposed a new drug delivery system for cancer therapy based on graphene oxide (GO), a novel 2D nanomaterial obtained from the oxidation of natural graphite, to improve the utilization rate of PTX. PTX was first connected to biocompatible 6-armed poly(ethylene glycol), followed by covalent introduction into the surface of GO sheets via a facile amidation process under mild conditions, affording the drug delivery system, GO-PEG-PTX (size 50-200 nm). GO-PEG nanosized carrier could quickly enter into human lung cancer A549 and human breast cancer MCF-7 cells verified by inverted fluorescence microscope using fluorescein isothiocyanate as probe. This nanocarrier was nontoxic to A549 and MCF-7 cells without linking with PTX. Nevertheless, GO-PEG-PTX showed remarkably high cytotoxicity to A549 and MCF-7 cells in a broad range of concentration of PTX and time compared to free PTX. This kind of nanoscale drug delivery system based on PEGylated GO may find widespread application in biomedicine. PMID:25546399

  19. Hydrophobically modified inulin as an amphiphilic carbohydrate polymer for micellar delivery of paclitaxel for intravenous route.

    PubMed

    Muley, Pratik; Kumar, Sunny; El Kourati, Fadoua; Kesharwani, Siddharth S; Tummala, Hemachand

    2016-03-16

    Micellization offers several advantages for the delivery of water insoluble drugs including a nanoparticulate 'core-shell' delivery system for drug targeting. Recently, hydrophobically modified polysaccharides (HMPs) are gaining recognition as micelle forming polymers to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs. In this manuscript, for the first time, we have evaluated the self-assembling properties of a lauryl carbamate derivative of the poly-fructose natural polymer inulin (Inutec SP1(®) (INT)) to form paclitaxel (PTX) loaded micelles. INT self-assembled into well-defined micellar structures in aqueous environment with a low critical micellar concentration of 27.8μg/ml. INT micelles exhibited excellent hemocompatibility and low toxicity to cultured cells. PTX loaded INT micelles exhibited a mean size of 256.37±10.45nm with excellent drug encapsulation efficiency (95.66±2.25%) and loading (8.69±0.22%). PTX loaded micelles also displayed sustained release of PTX and enhanced anti-cancer efficacy in-vitro in mouse melanoma cells (B16F10) compared to Taxol formulation with Cremophor EL as solvent. In addition, PTX loaded INT micelles exhibited comparable in-vivo antitumor activity in B16F10 allograft mouse model at half the dose of Taxol. In conclusion, INT offers safe, inexpensive and natural alternative to widely used PEG-modified polymers for the formulation of micellar delivery systems for paclitaxel. PMID:26792170

  20. Paclitaxel targets FOXM1 to regulate KIF20A in mitotic catastrophe and breast cancer paclitaxel resistance.

    PubMed

    Khongkow, P; Gomes, A R; Gong, C; Man, E P S; Tsang, J W-H; Zhao, F; Monteiro, L J; Coombes, R C; Medema, R H; Khoo, U S; Lam, E W-F

    2016-02-25

    FOXM1 has been implicated in taxane resistance, but the molecular mechanism involved remains elusive. In here, we show that FOXM1 depletion can sensitize breast cancer cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts into entering paclitaxel-induced senescence, with the loss of clonogenic ability, and the induction of senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and flat cell morphology. We also demonstrate that FOXM1 regulates the expression of the microtubulin-associated kinesin KIF20A at the transcriptional level directly through a Forkhead response element (FHRE) in its promoter. Similar to FOXM1, KIF20A expression is downregulated by paclitaxel in the sensitive MCF-7 breast cancer cells and deregulated in the paclitaxel-resistant MCF-7Tax(R) cells. KIF20A depletion also renders MCF-7 and MCF-7Tax(R) cells more sensitive to paclitaxel-induced cellular senescence. Crucially, resembling paclitaxel treatment, silencing of FOXM1 and KIF20A similarly promotes abnormal mitotic spindle morphology and chromosome alignment, which have been shown to induce mitotic catastrophe-dependent senescence. The physiological relevance of the regulation of KIF20A by FOXM1 is further highlighted by the strong and significant correlations between FOXM1 and KIF20A expression in breast cancer patient samples. Statistical analysis reveals that both FOXM1 and KIF20A protein and mRNA expression significantly associates with poor survival, consistent with a role of FOXM1 and KIF20A in paclitaxel action and resistance. Collectively, our findings suggest that paclitaxel targets the FOXM1-KIF20A axis to drive abnormal mitotic spindle formation and mitotic catastrophe and that deregulated FOXM1 and KIF20A expression may confer paclitaxel resistance. These findings provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of paclitaxel resistance and have implications for the development of predictive biomarkers and novel chemotherapeutic strategies for paclitaxel resistance. PMID:25961928

  1. Paclitaxel-loaded phosphonated calixarene nanovesicles as a modular drug delivery platform.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jingxin; Eggers, Paul K; Yuan, Zhi-Xiang; Raston, Colin L; Lim, Lee Yong

    2016-01-01

    A modular p-phosphonated calix[4]arene vesicle (PCV) loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) and conjugated with folic acid as a cancer targeting ligand has been prepared using a thin film-sonication method. It has a pH-responsive capacity to trigger the release of the encapsulated PTX payload under mildly acidic conditions. PTX-loaded PCV conjugated with alkyne-modified PEG-folic acid ligands prepared via click ligation (fP-PCVPTX) has enhanced potency against folate receptor (FR)-positive SKOV-3 ovarian tumour cells over FR-negative A549 lung tumour cells. Moreover, fP-PCVPTX is also four times more potent than the non-targeting PCVPTX platform towards SKOV-3 cells. Overall, as a delivery platform the PCVs have the potential to enhance efficacy of anticancer drugs by targeting a chemotherapeutic payload specifically to tumours and triggering the release of the encapsulated drug in the vicinity of cancer cells. PMID:27009430

  2. Paclitaxel-loaded phosphonated calixarene nanovesicles as a modular drug delivery platform

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Jingxin; Eggers, Paul K.; Yuan, Zhi-xiang; Raston, Colin L.; Lim, Lee Yong

    2016-01-01

    A modular p-phosphonated calix[4]arene vesicle (PCV) loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) and conjugated with folic acid as a cancer targeting ligand has been prepared using a thin film-sonication method. It has a pH-responsive capacity to trigger the release of the encapsulated PTX payload under mildly acidic conditions. PTX-loaded PCV conjugated with alkyne-modified PEG-folic acid ligands prepared via click ligation (fP-PCVPTX) has enhanced potency against folate receptor (FR)-positive SKOV-3 ovarian tumour cells over FR-negative A549 lung tumour cells. Moreover, fP-PCVPTX is also four times more potent than the non-targeting PCVPTX platform towards SKOV-3 cells. Overall, as a delivery platform the PCVs have the potential to enhance efficacy of anticancer drugs by targeting a chemotherapeutic payload specifically to tumours and triggering the release of the encapsulated drug in the vicinity of cancer cells. PMID:27009430

  3. Localized delivery of paclitaxel using elastic liposomes: formulation development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Utreja, Puneet; Jain, Subheet; Tiwary, A K

    2011-07-01

    In the present study an elastic liposomes-based paclitaxel formulation was developed with the objective to remove Cremophor EL. Cremophor EL is currently used for solubilizing paclitaxel in the marketed formulation and is known to produce toxic effects. Elastic liposomal paclitaxel formulation was extensively characterized in vitro, ex-vivo, and in vivo. The results obtained were compared against the marketed paclitaxel formulation. The maximum amount of paclitaxel loaded in the elastic liposomal formulation was found to be 6.0 mg/ml, which is similar to the commercial strength of marketed paclitaxel formulation. In vitro skin permeation and deposition studies showed 10.8-fold enhanced steady state transdermal flux and 15.0-fold enhanced drug deposition in comparison to drug solution. These results further confirmed with the vesicle-skin interaction study using FTIR technique. Results of the hemolytic toxicity assay indicate that elastic liposomal formulation induced only 11.2 0.2% hemolysis in comparison to the commercial formulation which showed 38 3.0%. Further, results of the Draize test showed no skin irritation of paclitaxel elastic liposomal formulation. Findings of the study demonstrate that elastic liposomes as a carrier is an attractive approach for localized delivery of paclitaxel. PMID:21428706

  4. Tumor-selective peptide-carrier delivery of Paclitaxel increases in vivo activity of the drug

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti, Jlenia; Pillozzi, Serena; Falciani, Chiara; Depau, Lorenzo; Tenori, Eleonora; Scali, Silvia; Lozzi, Luisa; Pini, Alessandro; Arcangeli, Annarosa; Menichetti, Stefano; Bracci, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Taxanes are highly effective chemotherapeutic drugs against proliferating cancer and an established option in the standard treatment of ovarian and breast cancer. However, treatment with paclitaxel is associated with severe side effects, including sensory axonal neuropathy, and its poor solubility in water complicates its formulation. In this paper we report the in vitro and in vivo activity of a new form of paclitaxel, modified for conjugation with a tumor-selective tetrabranched peptide carrier (NT4). NT4 selectively targets tumor cells by binding to membrane sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and to endocytic receptors, like LRP1 and LRP6, which are established tumor markers. Biological activity of NT4-paclitaxel was tested in vitro on MDA-MB 231 and SKOV-3 cell lines, representing breast and ovarian cancer, respectively, and in vivo in an orthotopic mouse model of human breast cancer. Using in vivo bioluminescence imaging, we found that conjugation of paclitaxel with the NT4 peptide led to increased therapeutic activity of the drug in vivo. NT4-paclitaxel induced tumor regression, whereas treatment with unconjugated paclitaxel only produced a reduction in tumor growth. Moreover, unlike paclitaxel, NT4-paclitaxel is very hydrophilic, which may improve its pharmacokinetic profile and allow the use of less toxic dilution buffers, further decreasing its general chemotherapic toxicity. PMID:26626158

  5. Tumor-selective peptide-carrier delivery of Paclitaxel increases in vivo activity of the drug.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Jlenia; Pillozzi, Serena; Falciani, Chiara; Depau, Lorenzo; Tenori, Eleonora; Scali, Silvia; Lozzi, Luisa; Pini, Alessandro; Arcangeli, Annarosa; Menichetti, Stefano; Bracci, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Taxanes are highly effective chemotherapeutic drugs against proliferating cancer and an established option in the standard treatment of ovarian and breast cancer. However, treatment with paclitaxel is associated with severe side effects, including sensory axonal neuropathy, and its poor solubility in water complicates its formulation. In this paper we report the in vitro and in vivo activity of a new form of paclitaxel, modified for conjugation with a tumor-selective tetrabranched peptide carrier (NT4). NT4 selectively targets tumor cells by binding to membrane sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and to endocytic receptors, like LRP1 and LRP6, which are established tumor markers. Biological activity of NT4-paclitaxel was tested in vitro on MDA-MB 231 and SKOV-3 cell lines, representing breast and ovarian cancer, respectively, and in vivo in an orthotopic mouse model of human breast cancer. Using in vivo bioluminescence imaging, we found that conjugation of paclitaxel with the NT4 peptide led to increased therapeutic activity of the drug in vivo. NT4-paclitaxel induced tumor regression, whereas treatment with unconjugated paclitaxel only produced a reduction in tumor growth. Moreover, unlike paclitaxel, NT4-paclitaxel is very hydrophilic, which may improve its pharmacokinetic profile and allow the use of less toxic dilution buffers, further decreasing its general chemotherapic toxicity. PMID:26626158

  6. Molecular Mechanism of Local Drug Delivery with Paclitaxel-Eluting Membranes in Biliary and Pancreatic Cancer: New Application for an Old Drug

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Sookhee; Lee, Su Yeon; Baek, Yi-Yong; Yun, Jieun; Oh, Soo Jin; Lee, Chang Woo; Jo, Eun Ae; Yang, Sugeun; Lee, Don Haeng; Lee, Dong Ki

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) is palliation for patients suffering from inoperable malignant obstructions associated with biliary and pancreatic cancers. Chemotherapeutic agent-eluting stents have been developed because SEMS are susceptible to occlusion by tumor in-growth. We reported recently that paclitaxel-eluting SEMS provide enhanced local drug delivery in an animal model. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which paclitaxel-eluting stents attenuate tumor growth. We investigated the signal transduction pathways underlying the antiproliferative effects of a paclitaxel-eluting membrane (PEM) implanted in pancreatic/cholangiocarcinoma tumor bearing nude mice. Molecular and cellular alterations were analyzed in the PEM-implanted pancreatic/cholangiocarcinoma xenograft tumors by Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence. The quantities of paclitaxel released into the tumor and plasma were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Paclitaxel from the PEM and its diffusion into the tumor inhibited angiogenesis, which involved suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) through regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) and increased apoptosis. Moreover, implantation of the PEM inhibited tumor-stromal interaction-related expression of proteins such as CD44, SPARC, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and vimentin. Local delivery of paclitaxel from a PEM inhibited growth of pancreatic/cholangiocarcinoma tumors in nude mice by suppressing angiogenesis via the mTOR and inducing apoptosis signal pathway. PMID:25983747

  7. Molecular mechanism of local drug delivery with Paclitaxel-eluting membranes in biliary and pancreatic cancer: new application for an old drug.

    PubMed

    Bang, Sookhee; Jang, Sung Ill; Lee, Su Yeon; Baek, Yi-Yong; Yun, Jieun; Oh, Soo Jin; Lee, Chang Woo; Jo, Eun Ae; Na, Kun; Yang, Sugeun; Lee, Don Haeng; Lee, Dong Ki

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) is palliation for patients suffering from inoperable malignant obstructions associated with biliary and pancreatic cancers. Chemotherapeutic agent-eluting stents have been developed because SEMS are susceptible to occlusion by tumor in-growth. We reported recently that paclitaxel-eluting SEMS provide enhanced local drug delivery in an animal model. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which paclitaxel-eluting stents attenuate tumor growth. We investigated the signal transduction pathways underlying the antiproliferative effects of a paclitaxel-eluting membrane (PEM) implanted in pancreatic/cholangiocarcinoma tumor bearing nude mice. Molecular and cellular alterations were analyzed in the PEM-implanted pancreatic/cholangiocarcinoma xenograft tumors by Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence. The quantities of paclitaxel released into the tumor and plasma were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Paclitaxel from the PEM and its diffusion into the tumor inhibited angiogenesis, which involved suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) through regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) and increased apoptosis. Moreover, implantation of the PEM inhibited tumor-stromal interaction-related expression of proteins such as CD44, SPARC, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and vimentin. Local delivery of paclitaxel from a PEM inhibited growth of pancreatic/cholangiocarcinoma tumors in nude mice by suppressing angiogenesis via the mTOR and inducing apoptosis signal pathway. PMID:25983747

  8. Aptamer conjugated paclitaxel and magnetic fluid loaded fluorescently tagged PLGA nanoparticles for targeted cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, Athulya; Nair, Remya; Raveendran, Sreejith; Veeranarayanan, Srivani; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Fukuda, Takahiro; Hasumura, Takahashi; Morimoto, Hisao; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Sakthi Kumar, D.

    2013-10-01

    Controlled and targeted drug delivery is an essential criterion in cancer therapy to reduce the side effects caused by non-specific drug release and toxicity. Targeted chemotherapy, sustained drug release and optical imaging have been achieved using a multifunctional nanocarrier constructed from poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs), an anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX), a fluorescent dye Nile red (NR), magnetic fluid (MF) and aptamers (Apt, AS1411, anti-nucleolin aptamer). The magnetic fluid and paclitaxel loaded fluorescently labeled PLGA NPs (MF-PTX-NR-PLGA NPs) were synthesized by a single-emulsion technique/solvent evaporation method using a chemical cross linker bis (sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) to enable binding of aptamer on to the surface of the nanoparticles. Targeting aptamers were then introduced to the particles through the reaction with the cross linker to target the nucleolin receptors over expressed on the cancer cell surface. Specific binding and uptake of the aptamer conjugated magnetic fluid loaded fluorescently tagged PLGA NPs (Apt-MF-NR-PLGA NPs) to the target cancer cells induced by aptamers was observed using confocal microscopy. Cytotoxicity assay conducted in two cell lines (L929 and MCF-7) confirmed that targeted MCF-7 cancer cells were killed while control cells were unharmed. In addition, aptamer mediated delivery resulting in enhanced binding and uptake to the target cancer cells exhibited increased therapeutic effect of the drug. Moreover, these aptamer conjugated magnetic polymer vehicles apart from actively transporting drugs into specifically targeted tumor regions can also be used to induce hyperthermia or for facilitating magnetic guiding of particles to the tumor regions.

  9. Vaginal delivery of paclitaxel via nanoparticles with non-mucoadhesive surfaces suppresses cervical tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Yu, Tao; Wang, Ying-Ying; Lai, Samuel K.; Zeng, Qi; Miao, Bolong; Tang, Benjamin C.; Simons, Brian W.; Ensign, Laura; Liu, Guanshu; Chan, Kannie W. Y.; Juang, Chih-Yin; Mert, Olcay; Wood, Joseph; Fu, Jie; McMahon, Michael T.; Wu, T.-C.; Hung, Chien-Fu; Hanes, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Local delivery of chemotherapeutics in the cervicovaginal tract using nanoparticles may reduce adverse side effects associated with systemic chemotherapy, while improving outcomes for early stage cervical cancer. We hypothesize drug-loaded nanoparticles must rapidly penetrate cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) lining the female reproductive tract to effectively deliver their payload to underlying diseased tissues in a uniform and sustained manner. We develop paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles, composed entirely of polymers used in FDA-approved products, which rapidly penetrate human CVM and provide sustained drug release with minimal burst effect. We further employ a mouse model with aggressive cervical tumors established in the cervicovaginal tract to compare paclitaxel-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (conventional particles , or CP) and similar particles coated with Pluronic F127 (mucus-penetrating particles , or MPP). CP are mucoadhesive and, thus, aggregated in mucus, while MPP achieve more uniform distribution and close proximity to cervical tumors. Paclitaxel-MPP suppress tumor growth more effectively and prolong median survival of mice compared to free paclitaxel or paclitaxel-CP. Histopathological studies demonstrate minimal toxicity to the cervicovaginal epithelia, suggesting paclitaxel-MPP may be safe for intravaginal use. These results demonstrate for the first time the in vivo advantages of polymer-based MPP for treatment of tumors localized to a mucosal surface. PMID:24339398

  10. Nanosuspension delivery of paclitaxel to xenograft mice can alter drug disposition and anti-tumor activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a common chemotherapeutic agent that is effective against various cancers. The poor aqueous solubility of paclitaxel necessitates a large percentage of Cremophor EL:ethanol (USP) in its commercial formulation which leads to hypersensitivity reactions in patients. We evaluate the use of a crystalline nanosuspension versus the USP formulation to deliver paclitaxel to tumor-bearing xenograft mice. Anti-tumor efficacy was assessed following intravenous administration of three 20 mg/kg doses of paclitaxel. Paclitaxel pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution were evaluated, and differences were observed between the two formulations. Plasma clearance and tissue to plasma ratio of mice that were dosed with the nanosuspension are approximately 33- and 11-fold higher compared to those of mice that were given the USP formulation. Despite a higher tumor to plasma ratio for the nanosuspension treatment group, absolute paclitaxel tumor exposure was higher for the USP group. Accordingly, a higher anti-tumor effect was observed in the xenograft mice that were dosed with the USP formulation (90% versus 42% tumor growth inhibition). This reduction in activity of nanoparticle formulation appeared to result from a slower than anticipated dissolution in vivo. This study illustrates a need for careful consideration of both dose and systemic solubility prior utilizing nanosuspension as a mode of intravenous delivery. PMID:24685243

  11. Nanosuspension delivery of paclitaxel to xenograft mice can alter drug disposition and anti-tumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Gould, Stephen; Nannini, Michelle; Qin, Ann; Deng, Yuzhong; Arrazate, Alfonso; Kam, Kimberly R.; Ran, Yingqing; Wong, Harvey

    2014-04-01

    Paclitaxel is a common chemotherapeutic agent that is effective against various cancers. The poor aqueous solubility of paclitaxel necessitates a large percentage of Cremophor EL:ethanol (USP) in its commercial formulation which leads to hypersensitivity reactions in patients. We evaluate the use of a crystalline nanosuspension versus the USP formulation to deliver paclitaxel to tumor-bearing xenograft mice. Anti-tumor efficacy was assessed following intravenous administration of three 20 mg/kg doses of paclitaxel. Paclitaxel pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution were evaluated, and differences were observed between the two formulations. Plasma clearance and tissue to plasma ratio of mice that were dosed with the nanosuspension are approximately 33- and 11-fold higher compared to those of mice that were given the USP formulation. Despite a higher tumor to plasma ratio for the nanosuspension treatment group, absolute paclitaxel tumor exposure was higher for the USP group. Accordingly, a higher anti-tumor effect was observed in the xenograft mice that were dosed with the USP formulation (90% versus 42% tumor growth inhibition). This reduction in activity of nanoparticle formulation appeared to result from a slower than anticipated dissolution in vivo. This study illustrates a need for careful consideration of both dose and systemic solubility prior utilizing nanosuspension as a mode of intravenous delivery.

  12. PEG-derivatized octacosanol as micellar carrier for paclitaxel delivery.

    PubMed

    Chu, Bingyang; Qu, Ying; Huang, Yixing; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Xiaoxin; Long, Chaofeng; He, Yunqi; Ou, Caiwen; Qian, Zhiyong

    2016-03-16

    In this study, PEG-derivatized octacosanol copolymer was successfully developed to improve the anti-tumor activity and eliminate toxicity of the commercial formulation of paclitaxel (PTX). MPEG2K-C28, the conjugation of monomethoxy Poly(ethylene glycol) 2000 and octacosanol, was readily soluble in aqueous solution and self-assembled to form micelles with small sizes (<20nm) that are efficient in encapsulating PTX with a drug loading of 9.38±0.18% and an encapsulation efficiency of 93.90±2.12%. Meanwhile, octacosanol is very safe for humans and amazingly exhibits antitumor activity through inhibition activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and translocation of the transcription factor (nuclear factor-kappa B, NF-κB) to the nucleus, which may be able to promote synergistic effects with PTX. A sustained and slower in vitro release behavior was observed in the (PTX micelles) than that of Taxol. PTX micelles exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than Taxol in the 4T1 breast cancer cell line. More interestingly, MPEG2K-C28 selectively inhibited the growth of 4T1 cells rather than the normal cells (HEK293 and L929 cell lines), indicating the antitumor activity of octacosanol remained after conjugation with MPEG. Acute toxicity evaluations indicated that MPEG2K-C28 was a safe drug carrier. Pharmacokinetic study revealed that PTX micelles improved the T1/2 and AUC of PTX (compared with Taxol) from 1.910±0.139h and 13.999±1.109mg/l×h to 2.876±0.532h and 76.462±8.619mg/l×h in vivo, respectively. The maximal tolerated dose (MTD) for PTX micelles (ca. 120mg PTX/kg) in mice was significantly higher than that for Taxol (ca. 20mg PTX/kg). PTX micelles exhibited slightly better antitumor activity than Taxol but safer in 4T1 breast cancer model in vivo. The cell apoptosis in the immunofluorescent studies and the cell proliferation in the immunohistochemical studies also proved the results. In conclusion, MPEG2K-C28 is a simple, safe and effective drug delivery carrier for PTX, and has some therapeutic effects in 4T1 cells in vitro. PTX micelles showed significant antitumor activity in vivo with low systemic toxicity in 4T1 breast cancer. MPEG2K-C28 micelles entrapping PTX deserve more studies in the future. PMID:26794876

  13. Sulfatide-containing lipid perfluorooctylbromide nanoparticles as paclitaxel vehicles targeting breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Qin, Fei; Yang, Li; Mo, Liqian; Li, Lei; Hou, Lianbing

    2014-01-01

    Targeted nanoparticle (NP) delivery vehicles are emerging technologies, the full potential of which has yet to be realized. Sulfatide is known to bind to extracellular matrix glycoproteins that are highly expressed in breast tumors. In this study, we report for the first time the combination of sulfatide and lipid perfluorooctylbromide NPs as a targeted breast cancer delivery vehicle for paclitaxel (PTX). PTX-sulfatide-containing lipid perfluorooctylbromide NPs (PTX-SNPs) were prepared using the emulsion/solvent evaporation method. PTX-SNPs exhibited a spherical shape, small particle size, high encapsulation efficiency, and a biphasic release in phosphate-buffered solution. The cytotoxicity study and cell apoptosis assay revealed that blank sulfatide-containing lipid perfluorooctylbromide NPs (SNPs) had no cytotoxicity, whereas PTX-SNPs had greater EMT6 cytotoxicity levels than PTX-lipid perfluorooctylbromide NPs (PTX-NPs) and free PTX. An in vitro cellular uptake study revealed that SNPs can deliver greater amounts of drug with more efficient and immediate access to intracellular targets. In vivo biodistribution measured using high-performance liquid chromatography confirmed that the PTX-SNPs can target breast tumor tissues to increase the accumulation of PTX in these tissues. The in vivo tumor inhibition ability of PTX-SNPs was remarkably higher than PTX-NPs and free PTX. Furthermore, toxicity studies suggested that the blank SNPs had no systemic toxicity. All results suggested that SNPs may serve as efficient PTX delivery vehicles targeting breast carcinoma. PMID:25170267

  14. In vitro and in vivo targeting effect of folate decorated paclitaxel loaded PLATPGS nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Thu, Ha Phuong; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Quang, Bui Thuc; Son, Ho Anh; Toan, Nguyen Linh; Quang, Duong Tuan

    2015-01-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for treating various types of cancer. However, the clinical application of paclitaxel in cancer treatment is considerably limited due to its poor water solubility and low therapeutic index. Thus, it requires an urgent solution to improve therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel. In this study, folate decorated paclitaxel loaded PLATPGS nanoparticles were prepared by a modified emulsification/solvent evaporation method. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) method. The spherical nanoparticles were around 50nm in size with a narrow size distribution. Targeting effect of nanoparticles was investigated in vitro on cancer cell line and in vivo on tumor bearing nude mouse. The results indicated the effective targeting of folate decorated paclitaxel loaded copolymer nanoparticles on cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26702264

  15. In vitro and in vivo targeting effect of folate decorated paclitaxel loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Thu, Ha Phuong; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Quang, Bui Thuc; Son, Ho Anh; Toan, Nguyen Linh; Quang, Duong Tuan

    2015-11-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for treating various types of cancer. However, the clinical application of paclitaxel in cancer treatment is considerably limited due to its poor water solubility and low therapeutic index. Thus, it requires an urgent solution to improve therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel. In this study, folate decorated paclitaxel loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles were prepared by a modified emulsification/solvent evaporation method. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) method. The spherical nanoparticles were around 50nm in size with a narrow size distribution. Targeting effect of nanoparticles was investigated in vitro on cancer cell line and in vivo on tumor bearing nude mouse. The results indicated the effective targeting of folate decorated paclitaxel loaded copolymer nanoparticles on cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26702264

  16. Lipid-dendrimer hybrid nanosystem as a novel delivery system for paclitaxel to treat ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanjie; Ng, Yiwei; Toh, Ming R; Chiu, Gigi N C

    2015-12-28

    Combining lipids and dendrimers into one formulation is an emerging platform in the drug delivery field. This study aims to (i) develop and characterize a lipid-dendrimer hybrid (LDH) nanosystem for the hydrophobic anticancer drug paclitaxel, and (ii) evaluate its in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity in ovarian cancer models. The LDH nanosystems were prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and poly (amidoamine) (PAMAM) G4.0. The size and zeta potential of the LDH nanosystem were 37.66.1nm and +2.90.1mV, respectively, with vesicular morphology observed under cryo-TEM. The encapsulation efficiency of paclitaxel in the LDH system was 78.02.1%. The potency of paclitaxel could be significantly improved by 37-fold when presented in the LDH nanosystem as compared to free drug, whereby paclitaxel and PAMAM G4.0 acted synergistically in killing the ovarian cancer cells. As shown by fluorescence confocal microscopy, majority of the lipids in the LDH nanosystem were located in the plasma membrane, while the dendrimers were distributed intracellularly upon uptake. Despite the use of a 10-fold lower paclitaxel dose, the survival of IGROV-1 ovarian tumor-bearing animals could be significantly prolonged by the paclitaxel-loaded LDH nanosystem, as reflected by a 50% increase in the median survival time. Such hybrid nanosystem emerged from combining two established drug delivery platforms could pave way for the development of multifunctional delivery systems for potential theranostic applications. PMID:26551345

  17. Effect of integrin receptor-targeted liposomal paclitaxel for hepatocellular carcinoma targeting and therapy

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, LIYU; LIU, YANBIN; WANG, WEIYA; LIU, KAI

    2015-01-01

    The major aim of the present study was to develop an integrin receptor-targeted liposomal paclitaxel (PTX) to enhance the targeting specificity and therapeutic effect of PTX on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The specific Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) ligand was conjugated to 1,2-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine-polyethylene glycol 2000 to prepare the RGD-modified liposomes (RGD-LP). Furthermore, physicochemical characteristics of RGD-LP, including particle size, ζ potential, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro PTX release, were evaluated. RGD-modified liposomes were selected as the carrier for the present study, as they exhibit good biocompatibility and are easy to modify using RGD. The cellular uptake efficacy of RGD-LP by HepG2 cells was 3.3-fold higher than that of liposomes without RGD, indicating that RGD-LP may specifically target HepG2 cells by overexpressing integrin αvβ3 receptors. The RGD modification appeared to enhance the anti-proliferative activity of LP-PTX against HepG2 cells, with the extent of anti-proliferative activity dependent on the concentration of PTX and the incubation time. Additionally, evaluation of the homing specificity and anticancer efficacy of RGD-LP on the tumor spheroids indicated that solid tumor penetration was enhanced by the modification of RGD. In agreement with these in vitro findings, in vivo investigations demonstrated that RGD-LP-PTX exhibited a greater inhibitory effect on tumor growth in HepG2-bearing mice than LP-PTX or free PTX. Thus, RGD-LPs may represent an efficient targeted PTX delivery system for the treatment of patients with HCC. PMID:26170980

  18. Targeting of albumin-embedded paclitaxel nanoparticles to tumors

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, Priya Prakash; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Kastantin, Mark; Black, Matthew; Missirlis, Dimitris; Tirrell, Matthew; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    We have used tumor-homing peptides to target abraxane, a clinically approved paclitaxel-albumin nanoparticle, to tumors in mice. The targeting was accomplished with two peptides, CREKA, and LyP-1 (CGQKRTRGC). Fluorescein (FAM)-labeled CREKA-abraxane, when injected intravenously into mice bearing MDA-MB-435 human cancer xenografts, accumulated in tumor blood vessels, forming aggregates that contained red blood cells and fibrin. FAM-LyP-1-abraxane co-localized with extravascular islands expressing its receptor, p32. Self-assembled mixed micelles carrying the homing peptide and the label on different subunits accumulated in the same areas of tumors as LyP-1-abraxane, showing that Lyp-1 can deliver intact nanoparticles into extravascular sites. Untargeted, FAM-abraxane was detected in the form of a faint meshwork in tumor interstitium. LyP-1-abraxane produced a statistically highly significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to untargeted abraxane. These results show that nanoparticles can be effectively targeted into extravascular tumor tissue and that targeting can enhance the activity of a therapeutic nanoparticle. PMID:18829396

  19. Somatostatin receptor-mediated specific delivery of paclitaxel prodrugs for efficient cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Huo, Meirong; Zhu, Qinnv; Wu, Qu; Yin, Tingjie; Wang, Lei; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a novel PTX prodrug, octreotide(Phe)-polyethene glycol-paclitaxel [OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX], was successfully synthesized and used for targeted cancer therapy. A nontargeting conjugate, mPEG-PTX, was also synthesized and used as a control. Chemical structures of OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX and mPEG-PTX were confirmed using (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism. The drug contents in both the conjugates were 12.0% and 14.0%, respectively. Compared with the parent drug (PTX), OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX, and mPEG-PTX prodrugs showed a 20,000- and 30,000-fold increase in water solubility, respectively. PTX release from mPEG-PTX and OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX exhibited a pH-dependent profile. Moreover, compared with mPEG-PTX, OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX exhibited significantly stronger cytotoxicity against NCI-H446 cells (SSTR overexpression) but comparable cytotoxicity against WI-38 cells (no SSTR expression). Results of confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the targeting prodrug labeled with fluorescence probe was selectively taken into tumor cells via SSTR-mediated endocytosis. In vivo investigation of prodrugs in nude mice bearing NCI-H446 cancer xenografts confirmed that OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX prodrug exhibited stronger antitumor efficacy and lower systemic toxicity than mPEG-PTX and commercial Taxol. These results suggested that OCT(Phe)-PEG-PTX is a promising anticancer drug delivery system for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:25820241

  20. Characterization of PEG-iron oxide hydrogel nanocomposites for dual hyperthermia and paclitaxel delivery.

    PubMed

    Meenach, Samantha A; Shapiro, Jenna M; Hilt, J Zach; Anderson, Kimberly W

    2013-01-01

    Hyperthermia, the heating of tissue from 41 to 45?C, has been shown to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy when used in conjunction with irradiation and/or chemotherapy. In this work, hydrogel nanocomposites have been developed that can control the delivery of both heat and a chemotherapeutic agent (e.g. paclitaxel). The nanocomposites studied involve a stealth, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based system comprised of PEG (n?=?1000) methyl ether methacrylate and PEG (n?=?400) dimethacrylate with iron oxide nanoparticles physically entrapped within the hydrogel matrices. The capability of the hydrogel nanocomposites to be heated in an alternating magnetic field was demonstrated. The heating of the hydrogel systems was dependent on the crosslinking of the hydrogel network where hydrogels with lower swelling ratios were found to heat to a greater extent than those with higher ratios. In addition, paclitaxel was shown to exhibit non-Fickian release from the hydrogel systems, with the amount of drug released dependent on the hydrogel network structure. Three cell lines: M059K (glioblastoma), MDA MB 231 (breast carcinoma), and A549 (lung adenocarcinoma) were exposed to paclitaxel only, hyperthermia only, and both paclitaxel and hyperthermia to determine if a synergistic cytotoxic effect was possible for these cell lines. The efficacy of paclitaxel was greater with hyperthermia for the A549 cells; however, the M059K and MDA MB 231 did not show the same response. PMID:23683041

  1. Hybrid films from blends of chitosan and egg phosphatidylcholine for localized delivery of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Grant, J; Blicker, M; Piquette-Miller, M; Allen, C

    2005-07-01

    Chitosan and egg phosphatidylcholine (ePC) were used as a unique combination to prepare composite films for localized drug delivery. In comparison to other phospholipids analyzed, ePC was found to produce chitosan-based films with minimal swelling and a high degree of stability. The properties of the chitosan-ePC films were characterized and found to be dependent on the ratio of chitosan:ePC present. FTIR analysis of chitosan-ePC films revealed that their high stability may be attributed to interactions present between these two biomaterials. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxicity and protein adsorption properties of the films were used to provide a preliminary indication of their biocompatibility. The chitosan-ePC film was also evaluated as a matrix for the localized delivery of the anti-cancer agent, paclitaxel. Nanoparticles containing paclitaxel were dispersed throughout the chitosan-ePC film to result in a drug:material ratio of 1:8 (wt/wt). The film was found to provide a sustained release of paclitaxel over a 4-month period in biologically relevant media. The biological activity of paclitaxel loaded in the chitosan-ePC film was confirmed in SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer cells. PMID:15920770

  2. Paclitaxel-liposome-microbubble complexes as ultrasound-triggered therapeutic drug delivery carriers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Li, Lu; Deng, Zhiting; Jin, Qiaofeng; Chen, Juanjuan; Yang, Wei; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Wu, Junru; Shandas, Robin; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2013-03-28

    Liposome-microbubble complexes (LMC) have become a promising therapeutic carrier for ultrasound-triggered drug delivery to treat malignant tumors. However, the efficacy for ultrasound-assisted chemotherapy in vivo and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the feasibility of using paclitaxel-liposome-microbubble complexes (PLMC) as possible ultrasound (US)-triggered targeted chemotherapy against breast cancer. PTX-liposomes (PL) were conjugated to the microbubble (MB) surface through biotin-avidin linkage, increasing the drug-loading efficiency of MBs. The significant increased release of payloads from liposome-microbubble complexes was achieved upon US exposure. We used fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) as a model drug to show that released QDs were taken up by 4T1 breast cancer cells treated with QD-liposome-microbubble complexes (QLMC) and US, and uptake depended on the exposure time and intensity of insonication. We found that PLMC plus US inhibited tumor growth more effectively than PL plus US or PLMC without US, not only in vitro, but also in vivo. Histologically, the inhibition of tumor growth appeared to result from increased apoptosis and reduced angiogenesis in tumor xenografts. In addition, a significant increase of drug concentration in tumors was observed in comparison to treatment with non-conjugated PL or PLMC without US. The significant increase in an antitumor efficacy of PLMC plus US suggests their potential use as a new targeted US chemotherapeutic approach to inhibit breast cancer growth. PMID:23306023

  3. Paclitaxel Loaded Nanoliposomes in Thermosensitive Hydrogel: A Dual Approach for Sustained and Localized Delivery.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Mohit; Utreja, Puneet; Jain, Subheet Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the localized paclitaxel delivery, carrier based thermoresponsive chitosan hydrogel was exploited in the present study. Nanoliposomes as carrier for paclitaxel were prepared and optimized in strength of 6 mg/ml similar to marketed paclitaxel formulation. The chitosan solution (2% w/v) mixed with different concentrations of dibasic sodium phosphate (DSP) was evaluated as thermoresponsive systems in terms of gelling temperature and time. Finally, the drug loaded nanoliposomes were incorporated in optimized chitosan- DSP hydrogel base to form nanoliposomal in situ thermosensitive hydrogel formulations having dual mechanism of protection and release. The optimal formulation containing DSP was selected on the basis of minimal gelation temperature (37±0.8 ºC) and time (6.7±0.3 min). In vitro drug release experiment illustrated that developed formulation manifested sustained release action in which drug release was extended for more than 72 h compared to marketed formulation. In addition, optimized nanoliposomal hydrogel demonstrated enhanced biological half-life of 15.7±1.5h, depicting maintenance of constant plasma concentration in contrast to marketed formulation that showed the half-life (t1/2) of 3.6±0.4h. The in vivo anti tumor activity tested using EAC model also corroborated the above findings that developed formulation was having significant higher anti-tumor activity and reduced toxicity than the marketed formulation. Tumor volume was found to reduce upto 89.1±3.5% by treatment with in situ hydrogel formulation. The histopathological study of tumor also demonstrated the better safety and efficacy of developed formulation in comparison to marketed paclitaxel formulation. Our results suggest that carrier based chitosan hydrogel could be an efficacious vehicle for sustained and localized delivery of paclitaxel. PMID:26255673

  4. Preparation and characterization of amphiphilic calixarene nanoparticles as delivery carriers for paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zi-Ming; Wang, Yu; Han, Jin; Zhu, Hui-Dong; An, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Two types of amphoteric calix[n]arene carboxylic acid (CnCA) derivative, i.e., calix[6]arene hexa-carboxylic acid (C6HCA) and calix[8]arene octo-carboxylic acid (C8OCA), were synthesized by introducing acetoxyls into the hydroxyls of calix[n]arene (n=6, 8). C6HCA and C8OCA nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared successfully using the dialysis method. CnCA NPs had regular spherical shapes with an average diameter of 180-220 nm and possessed negative charges of greater than -30 mV. C6HCA and C8OCA NPs were stable in 4.5% bovine serum albumin solutions and buffers (pH 5-9), with a low critical aggregation concentration value of 5.7 mg·L(-1) and 4.0 mg·L(-1), respectively. C6HCA and C8OCA NPs exhibited good paclitaxel (PTX) loading capacity, with drug loading contents of 7.5% and 8.3%, respectively. The overall in vitro release behavior of PTX from the CnCA NPs was sustained, and C8OCA NPs had a slower release rate compared with C6HCA NPs. These favorable properties of CnCA NPs make them promising nanocarriers for tumor-targeted drug delivery. PMID:25757488

  5. Thermosensitive and Mucoadhesive Sol-Gel Composites of Paclitaxel/Dimethyl-β-Cyclodextrin for Buccal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bong-Seok; Ng, Choon Lian; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a buccal paclitaxel delivery system using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127) and the mucoadhesive polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). The anticancer agent paclitaxel is usually used to treat ovarian, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer. To improve its aqueous solubility, paclitaxel was incorporated into an inclusion complex with (2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DMβCD). The formation of the paclitaxel inclusion complex was evaluated using various techniques, including x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogels were prepared using a cold method. Concentrations of 18, 20, and 23% (w/v) PF127 were dissolved in distilled water including paclitaxel and stored overnight in a refrigerator at 4°C. PEO was added at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1% (w/v). Each formulation included paclitaxel (0.5 mg/mL). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was measured using the tube-inverting method. Drug release from the hydrogels was measured using a Franz diffusion cell containing pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) buffer at 37°C. The cytotoxicity of each formulation was measured using the MTT assay with a human oral cancer cell (KB cell). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogel decreased when PF127 was present and varied according to the presence of mucoadhesive polymers. The in vitro release was sustained and the release rate was slowed by the addition of the mucoadhesive polymer. The cytotoxicity of the blank formulation was low, although the drug-loaded hydrogel showed acceptable cytotoxicity. The results of our study suggest that the combination of a PF 127-based mucoadhesive hydrogel formulation and inclusion complexes improves the in vitro release and cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel. PMID:25275485

  6. Bioresorbable copolymer of L-lactide and ?-caprolactone for controlled paclitaxel delivery.

    PubMed

    Musia?-Kulik, Monika; G?barowska, Katarzyna; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Pastusiak, Ma?gorzata; Janeczek, Henryk; Dobrzy?ski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Bioresorbable, aliphatic polyesters are known in medicine where serve as orthopedic devices (e.g., rods, pins and screws) or sutures and staples in wound closure. Moreover, such materials are extensively stud- ied as scaffolds--three-dimensional structures for tissue engineering but also drug delivery systems (DDS). The aim of this study was to determine the release profile of paclitaxel, one of the anti-inflammatory, antiprolifera- tive and anti-restenotic agent, from biocompatible copolymer of L-lactide and ?-caprolactone that seems to be very attractive especially for minimally invasive surgery due to its potential shape-memory property. The influ- ence of drug on copolymer hydrolytic degradation was also analyzed. Three types of matrices (3%, 5% of PTX and without drug) were prepared by solvent-casting method and degraded in vitro. The physicochemical changes of copolymer were analyzed by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), gel per- meation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The amount of drug released into media was monitored with the use of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Similar drug release pro- files were obtained for matrices with paclitaxel. The drug-containing matrices degraded slightly slower than drug free matrices, regardless PTX content. Results of this work may be helpful in designing new bioresorbable paclitaxel delivery system applied in anti-cancer therapy or drug-eluting stents technology. PMID:25745774

  7. In vivo prevention of arterial restenosis with paclitaxel-encapsulated targeted lipid–polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Juliana M.; Drum, Chester L.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Golomb, Gershon; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C.

    2011-01-01

    Following recent successes with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for treating coronary artery disease (CAD), many challenges remain. In particular, mechanical injury from the procedure results in extensive endothelial denudation, exposing the underlying collagen IV-rich basal lamina, which promotes both intravascular thrombosis and smooth muscle proliferation. Previously, we reported the engineering of collagen IV-targeting nanoparticles (NPs) and demonstrated their preferential localization to sites of arterial injury. Here, we develop a systemically administered, targeted NP system to deliver an antiproliferative agent to injured vasculature. Approximately 60-nm lipid–polymeric NPs were surface functionalized with collagen IV-targeting peptides and loaded with paclitaxel. In safety studies, the targeted NPs showed no signs of toxicity and a ≥3.5-fold improved maximum tolerated dose versus paclitaxel. In efficacy studies using a rat carotid injury model, paclitaxel (0.3 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg) was i.v. administered postprocedure on days 0 and 5. The targeted NP group resulted in lower neointima-to-media (N/M) scores at 2 wk versus control groups of saline, paclitaxel, or nontargeted NPs. Compared with sham-injury groups, an ∼50% reduction in arterial stenosis was observed with targeted NP treatment. The combination of improved tolerability, sustained release, and vascular targeting could potentially provide a safe and efficacious option in the management of CAD. PMID:22087004

  8. Ultrasound triggered image-guided drug delivery to inhibit vascular reconstruction via paclitaxel-loaded microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xu; Guo, Jun; He, Cancan; Geng, Huaxiao; Yu, Gengsheng; Li, Jinqing; Zheng, Hairong; Ji, Xiaojuan; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) has been recognized as a promising drug for intervention of vascular reconstructions. However, it is still difficult to achieve local drug delivery in a spatio-temporally controllable manner under real-time image guidance. Here, we introduce an ultrasound (US) triggered image-guided drug delivery approach to inhibit vascular reconstruction via paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded microbubbles (PLM) in a rabbit iliac balloon injury model. PLM was prepared through encapsulating PTX in the shell of lipid microbubbles via film hydration and mechanical vibration technique. Our results showed PLM could effectively deliver PTX when exposed to US irradiation and result in significantly lower viability of vascular smooth muscle cells. Ultrasonographic examinations revealed the US signals from PLM in the iliac artery were greatly increased after intravenous administration of PLM, making it possible to identify the restenosis regions of iliac artery. The in vivo anti-restenosis experiments with PLM and US greatly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia at the injured site, showing an increased lumen area and reduced the ratio of intima area and the media area (I/M ratio). No obvious functional damages to liver and kidney were observed for those animals. Our study provided a promising approach to realize US triggered image-guided PTX delivery for therapeutic applications against iliac restenosis. PMID:26899550

  9. Ultrasound triggered image-guided drug delivery to inhibit vascular reconstruction via paclitaxel-loaded microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xu; Guo, Jun; He, Cancan; Geng, Huaxiao; Yu, Gengsheng; Li, Jinqing; Zheng, Hairong; Ji, Xiaojuan; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) has been recognized as a promising drug for intervention of vascular reconstructions. However, it is still difficult to achieve local drug delivery in a spatio-temporally controllable manner under real-time image guidance. Here, we introduce an ultrasound (US) triggered image-guided drug delivery approach to inhibit vascular reconstruction via paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded microbubbles (PLM) in a rabbit iliac balloon injury model. PLM was prepared through encapsulating PTX in the shell of lipid microbubbles via film hydration and mechanical vibration technique. Our results showed PLM could effectively deliver PTX when exposed to US irradiation and result in significantly lower viability of vascular smooth muscle cells. Ultrasonographic examinations revealed the US signals from PLM in the iliac artery were greatly increased after intravenous administration of PLM, making it possible to identify the restenosis regions of iliac artery. The in vivo anti-restenosis experiments with PLM and US greatly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia at the injured site, showing an increased lumen area and reduced the ratio of intima area and the media area (I/M ratio). No obvious functional damages to liver and kidney were observed for those animals. Our study provided a promising approach to realize US triggered image-guided PTX delivery for therapeutic applications against iliac restenosis. PMID:26899550

  10. Two-Step Delivery: Exploiting the Partition Coefficient Concept to Increase Intratumoral Paclitaxel Concentrations In vivo Using Responsive Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colby, Aaron H.; Liu, Rong; Schulz, Morgan D.; Padera, Robert F.; Colson, Yolonda L.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Drug dose, high local target tissue concentration, and prolonged duration of exposure are essential criteria in achieving optimal drug performance. However, systemically delivered drugs often fail to effectively address these factors with only fractions of the injected dose reaching the target tissue. This is especially evident in the treatment of peritoneal cancers, including mesothelioma, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer, which regularly employ regimens of intravenous and/or intraperitoneal chemotherapy (e.g., gemcitabine, cisplatin, pemetrexed, and paclitaxel) with limited results. Here, we show that a “two-step” nanoparticle (NP) delivery system may address this limitation. This two-step approach involves the separate administration of NP and drug where, first, the NP localizes to tumor. Second, subsequent administration of drug then rapidly concentrates into the NP already stationed within the target tissue. This two-step method results in a greater than 5-fold increase in intratumoral drug concentrations compared to conventional “drug-alone” administration. These results suggest that this unique two-step delivery may provide a novel method for increasing drug concentrations in target tissues.

  11. Two-Step Delivery: Exploiting the Partition Coefficient Concept to Increase Intratumoral Paclitaxel Concentrations In vivo Using Responsive Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Colby, Aaron H.; Liu, Rong; Schulz, Morgan D.; Padera, Robert F.; Colson, Yolonda L.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Drug dose, high local target tissue concentration, and prolonged duration of exposure are essential criteria in achieving optimal drug performance. However, systemically delivered drugs often fail to effectively address these factors with only fractions of the injected dose reaching the target tissue. This is especially evident in the treatment of peritoneal cancers, including mesothelioma, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer, which regularly employ regimens of intravenous and/or intraperitoneal chemotherapy (e.g., gemcitabine, cisplatin, pemetrexed, and paclitaxel) with limited results. Here, we show that a “two-step” nanoparticle (NP) delivery system may address this limitation. This two-step approach involves the separate administration of NP and drug where, first, the NP localizes to tumor. Second, subsequent administration of drug then rapidly concentrates into the NP already stationed within the target tissue. This two-step method results in a greater than 5-fold increase in intratumoral drug concentrations compared to conventional “drug-alone” administration. These results suggest that this unique two-step delivery may provide a novel method for increasing drug concentrations in target tissues. PMID:26740245

  12. IRAK1 is a therapeutic target that drives breast cancer metastasis and resistance to paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Wee, Zhen Ning; Yatim, Siti Maryam J M; Kohlbauer, Vera K; Feng, Min; Goh, Jian Yuan; Yi, Bao; Lee, Puay Leng; Zhang, Songjing; Wang, Pan Pan; Lim, Elgene; Tam, Wai Leong; Cai, Yu; Ditzel, Henrik J; Hoon, Dave S B; Tan, Ern Yu; Yu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic tumour recurrence due to failed treatments remains a major challenge of breast cancer clinical management. Here we report that interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) is overexpressed in a subset of breast cancers, in particular triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), where it acts to drive aggressive growth, metastasis and acquired resistance to paclitaxel treatment. We show that IRAK1 overexpression confers TNBC growth advantage through NF-?B-related cytokine secretion and metastatic TNBC cells exhibit gain of IRAK1 dependency, resulting in high susceptibility to genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of IRAK1. Importantly, paclitaxel treatment induces strong IRAK1 phosphorylation, an increase in inflammatory cytokine expression, enrichment of cancer stem cells and acquired resistance to paclitaxel treatment. Pharmacologic inhibition of IRAK1 is able to reverse paclitaxel resistance by triggering massive apoptosis at least in part through inhibiting p38-MCL1 pro-survival pathway. Our study thus demonstrates IRAK1 as a promising therapeutic target for TNBC metastasis and paclitaxel resistance. PMID:26503059

  13. IRAK1 is a therapeutic target that drives breast cancer metastasis and resistance to paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Zhen Ning; Yatim, Siti Maryam J. M.; Kohlbauer, Vera K; Feng, Min; Goh, Jian Yuan; Yi, Bao; Lee, Puay Leng; Zhang, Songjing; Wang, Pan Pan; Lim, Elgene; Tam, Wai Leong; Cai, Yu; Ditzel, Henrik J; Hoon, Dave S. B.; Tan, Ern Yu; Yu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic tumour recurrence due to failed treatments remains a major challenge of breast cancer clinical management. Here we report that interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) is overexpressed in a subset of breast cancers, in particular triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), where it acts to drive aggressive growth, metastasis and acquired resistance to paclitaxel treatment. We show that IRAK1 overexpression confers TNBC growth advantage through NF-κB-related cytokine secretion and metastatic TNBC cells exhibit gain of IRAK1 dependency, resulting in high susceptibility to genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of IRAK1. Importantly, paclitaxel treatment induces strong IRAK1 phosphorylation, an increase in inflammatory cytokine expression, enrichment of cancer stem cells and acquired resistance to paclitaxel treatment. Pharmacologic inhibition of IRAK1 is able to reverse paclitaxel resistance by triggering massive apoptosis at least in part through inhibiting p38-MCL1 pro-survival pathway. Our study thus demonstrates IRAK1 as a promising therapeutic target for TNBC metastasis and paclitaxel resistance. PMID:26503059

  14. A7RC peptide modified paclitaxel liposomes dually target breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jingyan; Wang, Ran; Gao, Ning; Li, Minghui; Tian, Xuyu; Yang, Weili; Ruan, Ying; Zhou, Chunlan; Wang, Guangtian; Liu, Xiaoying; Tang, Shukun; Yu, Yan; Liu, Ying; Sun, Guangyu; Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Qun

    2015-12-10

    A7R peptide (ATWLPPR), a ligand of the NRP-1 receptor, regulates the intracellular signal transduction related to tumor vascularization and tumor growth. Here, we designed A7R-cysteine peptide (A7RC) surface modified paclitaxel liposomes (A7RC-LIPs) to achieve targeting delivery and inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis simultaneously. The cytotoxicity, inhibiting angiogenesis, and internalization of various liposomes by cells were assessed in vitro to confirm the influence of the peptide modification. The accumulations of A7RC-LIPs in various xenografts in mice were tracked to further identify the function of the peptide on the liposomes' surface. The results confirmed that A7RC peptides could enhance the uptake of vesicles by MDA-MB-231 cells, leading to stronger cytotoxicity in vitro and higher accumulation of vesicles in MDA-MB-231 xenografts in vivo. In addition, A7RC peptides enhanced the inhibitory effects of LIPs on the HUVEC tubular formation on Matrigel. The A7RC-LIPs may be promising drug carriers for anticancer therapy. PMID:26291480

  15. Paclitaxel loaded liposomes decorated with a multifunctional tandem peptide for glioma targeting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yayuan; Ran, Rui; Chen, Jiantao; Kuang, Qifang; Tang, Jie; Mei, Ling; Zhang, Qianyu; Gao, Huile; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of glioma is a great challenge because of the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In order to reduce toxicity to the normal brain tissue and achieve efficient treatment, it is also important for drugs to specifically accumulate in the glioma foci and penetrate into the tumor core after entering into the brain. In this study, a specific ligand cyclic RGD peptide was conjugated to a cell penetrating peptide R8 to develop a multifunctional peptide R8-RGD. R8-RGD increased the cellular uptake of liposomes by 2-fold and nearly 30-fold compared to separate R8 and RGD respectively, and displayed effective penetration of three-dimensional glioma spheroids and BBB model invitro. Invivo studies showed that R8-RGD-lipo could be efficiently delivered into the brain and selectively accumulated in the glioma foci after systemic administration in C6 glioma bearing mice. When paclitaxel (PTX) was loaded in liposomes, R8-RGD-lipo could induce the strongest inhibition and apoptosis against C6 cells and finally achieved the longest survival in intracranial C6 glioma bearing mice. In conclusion, all the results indicated that the tandem peptide R8-RGD was a promising ligand possessing multi functions including BBB transporting, glioma targeting and tumor penetrating. And R8-RGD-lipo was proved to be a potential anti-glioma drug delivery system. PMID:24651033

  16. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-graft-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for local delivery of paclitaxel for restenosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Westedt, Ulrich; Kalinowski, Marc; Wittmar, Matthias; Merdan, Thomas; Unger, Florian; Fuchs, Jutta; Schller, Susann; Bakowsky, Udo; Kissel, Thomas

    2007-05-14

    Catheter-based local delivery of biodegradable nanoparticles (NP) with sustained release characteristics represents a therapeutic approach to reduce restenosis. Paclitaxel-loaded NP consisting of poly(vinyl alcohol)-graft-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PVA-g-PLGA) with varying PLGA chain length as well as poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), were prepared by a solvent evaporation technique. NP of <180 nm in diameter characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are spherical and show smooth surfaces. Yields typically range from 80 to 95% with encapsulation efficiencies between 77 and 87%. The extent of initial in vitro paclitaxel release was affected by the PVA-g-PLGA composition. Blank nanoparticles from PVA(300)-g-PLGA(30) and PVA(300)-g-PLGA(15) showed excellent biocompatibility in rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (RbVSMC) at polymer concentrations of 0.37 mg/ml. Paclitaxel-loaded NP have an increased antiproliferative effect on cells in comparison to free drug. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of RbVSMC confirmed cellular uptake of nanoparticles composed of fluorescently labeled PVA(300)-g-PLGA(15) loaded with Oregon Green labeled paclitaxel. Cells showed a clearly increased fluorescence activity with a co-localization of paclitaxel and polymer nanoparticles during incubation with particle suspension. To evaluate the antirestenotic effect in vivo, paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles were administered locally to the wall of balloon-injured rabbit iliac arteries using a porous balloon catheter. As a result a 50% reduction in neointimal area in vessel segments treated with paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles compared to control vessel segments could be observed (local paclitaxel nanoparticle treated segments 0.80+/-0.19 mm(2), control segments 1.58+/-0.6 mm(2); p<0.05). PMID:17346845

  17. Delivery of baicalein and paclitaxel using self-assembled nanoparticles: synergistic antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Xi, Mei; Duan, Xuezhong; Wang, Yong; Kong, Fansheng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Combination anticancer therapy is promising to generate synergistic anticancer effects to maximize the treatment effect and overcome multidrug resistance. The aim of the study reported here was to develop multifunctional, dual-ligand, modified, self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) for the combination delivery of baicalein (BCL) and paclitaxel (PTX) prodrugs. Methods Prodrug of PTX and prodrug of BCL, containing dual-targeted ligands of folate (FA) and hyaluronic acid (HA), were synthesized. Multifunctional self-assembled NPs for combination delivery of PTX prodrug and BCL prodrug (PTX-BCL) were prepared and the synergistic antitumor effect was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro transfection efficiency of the novel modified vectors was evaluated in human lung cancer A549 cells and drug-resistant lung cancer A549/PTX cells. The in vivo antitumor efficiency and systemic toxicity of different formulations were further investigated in mice bearing A549/PTX drug-resistant human lung cancer xenografts. Results The size of the PTX-BCL NPs was approximately 90 nm, with a positive zeta potential of +3.3. The PTX-BCL NPs displayed remarkably better antitumor activity over a wide range of drug concentrations, and showed an obvious synergism effect with CI50 values of 0.707 and 0.513, indicating that double-ligand modification and the co-delivery of PTX and BCL prodrugs with self-assembled NPs had remarkable superiority over other formulations. Conclusion The prepared PTX-BCL NP drug-delivery system was proven efficient by its targeting of drug-resistant human lung cancer cells and delivering of BCL and PTX prodrugs. Enhanced synergistic anticancer effects were achieved by PTX-BCL NPs, and multidrug resistance of PTX was overcome by this promising targeted nanomedicine. PMID:26045664

  18. Transferrin-Targeted Polymeric Micelles Co-Loaded with Curcumin and Paclitaxel: Efficient Killing of Paclitaxel-Resistant Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abouzeid, Abraham H.; Patel, Niravkumar R.; Sarisozen, Can

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The ability to successfully treat advanced forms of cancer remains a challenge due to chemotherapy resistance. Numerous studies indicate that NF-?B, a protein complex that controls the expression of numerous genes, as being a key factor in producing chemo-resistant tumors. In this study, the therapeutic potential of transferrin (TF)-targeted mixed micelles, made of PEG-PE and vitamin E co-loaded with curcumin (CUR), a potent NF-?B inhibitor, and paclitaxel (PCL), was examined. Methods The cytotoxicity of non-targeted and TF-targeted CUR and PCL micelles as a single agent or in combination was investigated against SK-OV-3 human ovarian adenocarcinoma along with its multi-drug resistant (MDR) version SK-OV-3-PCL-resistant (SK-OV-3TR) cells in vitro. Results Our results indicated that the TF-targeted combination micelles were able to improve the net cytotoxic effect of CUR and PCL to clear synergistic one against the SK-OV-3 cells. In addition, even though the non-targeted combination treatment demonstrated a synergistic effect against the SK-OV-3TR cells, the addition of the TF-targeting moiety significantly increased this cytotoxic effect. While keeping CUR constant at 5 and 10 ?M and varying the PCL concentration, the PCL IC50 decreased from ~ 1.78 and 0.68 ?M for the non-targeted formulations to ~ 0.74 and 0.1 ?M for the TF-targeted ones, respectively. Conclusion Our results indicate that such co-loaded targeted mixed micelles could have significant clinical advantages for the treatment of resistant ovarian cancer and provide a clear rational for further in vivo investigation. PMID:24522815

  19. Multidrug resistance reversal by co-delivery of tariquidar (XR9576) and paclitaxel using long-circulating liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Niravkumar R.; Rathi, Alok; Mongayt, Dmitriy; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major obstacles to the success of cancer chemotherapy is the multidrug resistance (MDR) often resulting due to the overexpression of drug efflux transporter pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Highly efficacious third generation P-gp inhibitors, like tariquidar, have shown promising results in overcoming the MDR. However, P-gp is also expressed in normal tissues like blood brain barrier, gastrointestinal track, liver, spleen and kidney. To maximize the efficacy of P-gp inhibitor and reduce the systemic toxicity, it is important to limit the exposure of P-gp inhibitors and the anticancer drugs to normal tissues and increase their co-localization with tumor cells. In this study, we have investigated the co-delivery of the P-gp inhibitor, tariquidar, and cytotoxic drug, paclitaxel, into tumor cells to reverse the MDR using long-circulating liposomes. Tariquidar- and paclitaxel-loaded long-circulating liposomes showed significant resensitization of the resistant variant for paclitaxel, which could be correlated with an increased accumulation of paclitaxel in tumor cells. These results suggest that the co-delivery of the P-gp inhibitor, tariquidar, and the cytotoxicity inducer, paclitaxel, looks like a promising approach to overcome the MDR. PMID:21703341

  20. Endocytosis of fluorescent cyclodextrins by intestinal Caco-2 cells and its role in paclitaxel drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Réti-Nagy, Katalin; Malanga, Milo; Fenyvesi, Éva; Szente, Lajos; Vámosi, György; Váradi, Judit; Bácskay, Ildikó; Fehér, Pálma; Ujhelyi, Zoltán; Róka, Eszter; Vecsernyés, Miklós; Balogh, György; Vasvári, Gábor; Fenyvesi, Ferenc

    2015-12-30

    Cyclodextrins are widely used excipients in pharmaceutical formulations. They are mainly utilized as solubilizers and absorption enhancers, but recent results revealed their effects on cell membranes and pharmacological barriers. In addition to the growing knowledge on their interaction with plasma membranes, it was confirmed that cyclodextrins are able to enter cells by endocytosis. The number of the tested cyclodextrins was limited, and the role of this mechanism in drug absorption and delivery is not known. Our aim was to examine the endocytosis of fluorescently labeled hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, random methyl-β-cyclodextrin and soluble β-cyclodextrin polymer, and the cellular uptake of the fluorescent paclitaxel derivative-random methyl-β-cyclodextrin complex. The studied cyclodextrin derivatives were able to enter Caco-2 intestinal cells and localized in vesicles in the cytoplasm, while their permeability was very limited through Caco-2 monolayers. We demonstrated for the first time that the fluorescent paclitaxel derivative and rhodamine-labeled random methyl-β-cyclodextrin were detected in the same intracellular vesicles after treating cells with their inclusion complex. These results indicate that the endocytosis of cyclodextrin complexes can contribute to drug absorption processes. PMID:26498369

  1. Telodendrimer nanocarrier for co-delivery of paclitaxel and cisplatin: A synergistic combination nanotherapy for ovarian cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Cai, Liqiong; Xu, Gaofei; Shi, Changying; Guo, Dandan; Wang, Xu; Luo, Juntao

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) and paclitaxel (PTX) are two established chemotherapeutic drugs used in combination for the treatment of many cancers, including ovarian cancer. We have recently developed a three-layered linear-dendritic telodendrimer micelles (TM) by introducing carboxylic acid groups in the adjacent layer via "thio-ene" click chemistry for CDDP complexation and conjugating cholic acids via peptide chemistry in the interior layer of telodendrimer for PTX encapsulation. We hypothesize that the co-delivery of low dosage PTX with CDDP could act synergistically to increase the treatment efficacy and reduce their toxic side effects. This design allowed us to co-deliver PTX and CDDP at various drug ratios to ovarian cancer cells. The in vitro cellular assays revealed strongest synergism in anti-tumor effects when delivered at a 1:2 PTX/CDDP loading ratio. Using the SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenograft mouse model, we demonstrate that our co-encapsulation approach resulted in an efficient tumor-targeted drug delivery, decreased cytotoxic effects and stronger anti-tumor effect, when compared with free drug combination or the single loading TM formulations. PMID:25453973

  2. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of vitamin E TPGS-emulsified PLGA nanoparticles for delivery of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanbin; Yu, Bo; Wang, Guoying; Wu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xiaomin; Chen, Yanmin; Tang, Suoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Lee, Robert J; Teng, Lesheng; Xu, Shun

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles are efficient delivery vehicles for cancer therapy such as paclitaxel (PTX). In this study, we formulated PTX into PLGA polymeric nanoparticles. Vitamin E TPGS was used as an emulsifier to stabilize the nanoparticle formulation. PTX was encapsulated in TPGS-emulsified polymeric nanoparticles (TENPs) by a nanoprecipitation method in ethanol-water system. The resultant PTX-TENPs showed a very uniform particle size (?100 nm) and high drug encapsulation (>80%). The cytotoxicity of PTX-TENPs was examined in A549 lung cancer cell line. Preferential tumor accumulation of TENPs was observed in the A549 lung cancer xenograft model. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by intravenous injection of PTX-TENPs. Our results suggested that the modified nanoprecipitation method holds great potential for the fabrication of the PTX loaded polymeric nanoparticles. TPGS can be used in the manufacture of polymeric nanoparticles for the controlled release of PTX and other anti-cancer drugs. PMID:25456995

  3. Enhanced combination therapy effect on paclitaxel-resistant carcinoma by chloroquine co-delivery via liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Menghua; Xu, Yuzhen; Qiu, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    A novel composite liposomal system co-encapsulating paclitaxel (PTX) with chloroquine phosphate (CQ) was designed for treating PTX-resistant carcinoma. It was confirmed that liposomal CQ can sensitize PTX by means of autophagy inhibition and competitively binding with multidrug-resistance transporters. Furthermore, according to the in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis assay, real-time observation of cellular uptake, and in vivo tissue distribution study, co-encapsulation of PTX and CQ in liposomes was validated as superior to the mixture of PTX liposome plus CQ liposome due to the simultaneous delivery and synergetic effect of the two drugs. Consequently, this composite liposome achieved significantly stronger anticancer efficacy in vivo than the PTX liposome plus CQ liposome mixture. This study helps to guide and enlighten ongoing and future clinical trials about the optimal administration modes for drug combination therapy. PMID:26543365

  4. Programmed co-delivery of paclitaxel and doxorubicin boosted by camouflaging with erythrocyte membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Lv, Piping; Chen, Zhongke; Ni, Dezhi; Zhang, Lijun; Yue, Hua; Yue, Zhanguo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Guanghui

    2015-02-01

    Combination chemotherapy has been proven promising for cancer treatment, but unsatisfactory therapeutic data and increased side effects slow down the development in the clinic. In this study, we develop an effective approach to co-encapsulate a hydrophilic-hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drug pair (paclitaxel and doxorubicin) into magnetic O-carboxymethyl-chitosan nanoparticles. To endow them with the ability of programmed delivery, these carriers are further camouflaged with an Arg-Gly-Asp anchored erythrocyte membrane. Compared with the traditional polyethylene glycol coating method, this biomimetic decoration strategy is demonstrated to be superior in prolonging circulation time, improving tumor accumulation, facilitating tumor uptake, and tuning intracellular fate. These outstanding properties enable the as-designed nanodevice to exhibit greater tumor growth inhibition ability and much lower side effects than the combined use of commercial formulations.Combination chemotherapy has been proven promising for cancer treatment, but unsatisfactory therapeutic data and increased side effects slow down the development in the clinic. In this study, we develop an effective approach to co-encapsulate a hydrophilic-hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drug pair (paclitaxel and doxorubicin) into magnetic O-carboxymethyl-chitosan nanoparticles. To endow them with the ability of programmed delivery, these carriers are further camouflaged with an Arg-Gly-Asp anchored erythrocyte membrane. Compared with the traditional polyethylene glycol coating method, this biomimetic decoration strategy is demonstrated to be superior in prolonging circulation time, improving tumor accumulation, facilitating tumor uptake, and tuning intracellular fate. These outstanding properties enable the as-designed nanodevice to exhibit greater tumor growth inhibition ability and much lower side effects than the combined use of commercial formulations. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07027e

  5. Effective Drug Delivery, in vitro and in vivo, By Carbon-Based Nanovectors Non-Covalently Loaded With Unmodified Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Jacob M.; Leonard, Ashley D.; Pham, Tam T.; Sano, Daisuke; Marcano, Daniela C.; Yan, Shayou; Fiorentino, Stefania; Milas, Zvonimir L.; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.; Katherine Price, B.; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca M.; Wen, XiaoXia; Gabriela Raso, M.; Craig, Suzanne L.; Tran, Hai T.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Tour, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Many new drugs have low aqueous solubility and high therapeutic efficacy. Paclitaxel (PTX) is a classic example of this type of compound. Here we show that extremely small (<40 nm) hydrophilic carbon clusters (HCCs) that are PEGylated (PEG-HCCs) are effective drug delivery vehicles when simply mixed with paclitaxel. This formulation of PTX sequestered in PEG-HCCs (PTX/PEG-HCCs) is stable for at least twenty weeks. The PTX/PEG-HCCs formulation was as effective as PTX in a clinical formulation in reducing tumor volumes in an orthotopic murine model of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Preliminary toxicity and biodistribution studies suggest that the PEG-HCCs are not acutely toxic and, like many other nanomaterials, are primarily accumulated in the liver and spleen. This work demonstrates that carbon nanomaterials are effective drug delivery vehicles in vivo when non-covalently loaded with an unmodified drug. PMID:20681596

  6. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-047 (Martonen) GPRA # 10108

    TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS
    T. B. Martonen1, J. Schroeter2, Z. Zhang3, D. Hwang4, and J. S. Fleming5
    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park...

  7. An injectable calcium phosphate cement for the local delivery of paclitaxel to bone.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Heredia, Marco A; Kamphuis, G J Bernard; Thne, Peter C; ner, F Cumhur; Jansen, John A; Walboomers, X Frank

    2011-08-01

    Bone metastases are usually treated by surgical removal, fixation and chemotherapeutic treatment. Bone cement is used to fill the resection voids. The aim of this study was to develop a local drug delivery system using a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) as carrier for chemotherapeutic agents. CPC consisted of alpha-tricalcium phosphate, calcium phosphate dibasic and precipitated hydroxyapatite powders and a 2% Na(2)HPO(4) hardening solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe CPC morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to follow CPC transformation. The loading/release capacity of the CPC was studied by a bovine serum albumin-loading model. Release/retention was measured by high performance liquid chromatography and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. For chemotherapeutic loading, paclitaxel (PX) was loaded onto the CPC discs by absorption. Viability of osteosarcoma U2OS and metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells was measured by an AlamarBlue assay. Results of SEM and XRD showed changes in CPC due to its transformation. The loading model indicated a high retention behavior by the CPC composition. Cell viability tests indicated a PX minimal lethal dose of 90?g/ml. PX released from CPC remained active to influence cell viability. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CPC is a feasible delivery vector for chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:21529931

  8. Covalent functionalization of graphene oxide with biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol) for delivery of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Song; Li, Yongjun; Wang, Mingwei; Shi, Ping; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2014-10-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), a novel 2D nanomaterial prepared by the oxidation of natural graphite, has been paid much attention in the area of drug delivery due to good biocompatibility and low toxicity. In the present work, 6-armed poly(ethylene glycol) was covalently introduced into the surface of GO sheets via a facile amidation process under mild conditions, making the modified GO, GO-PEG (PEG: 65 wt %, size: 50-200 nm), stable and biocompatible in physiological solution. This nanosized GO-PEG was found to be nontoxic to human lung cancer A549 and human breast cancer MCF-7 cells via cell viability assay. Furthermore, paclitaxel (PTX), a widely used cancer chemotherapy drug, was conjugated onto GO-PEG via π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions to afford a nanocomplex of GO-PEG/PTX with a relatively high loading capacity for PTX (11.2 wt %). This complex could quickly enter into A549 and MCF-7 cells evidenced by inverted fluorescence microscopy using Fluorescein isothiocyanate as a probe, and it also showed remarkably high cytotoxicity to A549 and MCF-7 cells in a broad range of concentration of PTX and time compared to free PTX. This kind of nanoscale drug delivery system on the basis of PEGylated GO may find potential application in biomedicine. PMID:25216036

  9. Paclitaxel-loaded polymeric micelles modified with MCF-7 cell-specific phage protein: enhanced binding to target cancer cells and increased cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Petrenko, Valery A; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2010-08-01

    Polymeric micelles are used as pharmaceutical carriers to increase solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Different ligands are used to prepare targeted polymeric micelles. Earlier, we developed the method for use of specific landscape phage fusion coat proteins as targeted delivery ligands and demonstrated the efficiency of this approach with doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomes. Here, we describe a MCF-7 cell-specific micellar formulation self-assembled from the mixture of the micelle-forming amphiphilic polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) conjugate, MCF-7-specific landscape phage fusion coat protein, and the hydrophobic drug paclitaxel. These micelles demonstrated a very low cmc value and specific binding to target cells. Using an in vitro coculture model, FACS analysis, and fluorescence microscopy we showed that MCF-7 targeted phage-micelles preferentially bound to target cells compared to nontarget cells. As a result, targeted paclitaxel-loaded phage-micelles demonstrated a significantly higher cytotoxicity toward target MCF-7 cells than free drug or nontargeted micelle formulations, but failed to show such a differential toxicity toward nontarget C166 cells. Overall, cancer cell-specific phage proteins identified from phage display peptide libraries can serve as targeting ligands ("substitute antibody") for polymeric micelle-based pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:20518562

  10. Dendritic polyglycerol sulfate as a novel platform for paclitaxel delivery: pitfalls of ester linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa-Herves, Ana; Wrfel, Patrick; Wegner, Nicole; Khandare, Jayant; Licha, Kai; Haag, Rainer; Welker, Pia; Caldern, Marcelo

    2015-02-01

    In this study, dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS) is evaluated as a delivery platform for the anticancer, tubulin-binding drug paclitaxel (PTX). The conjugation of PTX to dPGS is conducted via a labile ester linkage. A non-sulfated dendritic polyglycerol (dPG) is used as a control, and the labeling with an indocarbocyanine dye (ICC) renders multifunctional conjugates that can be monitored by fluorescence microscopy. The conjugates are characterized by 1H NMR, UV-vis measurements, and RP-HPLC. In vitro cytotoxicity of PTX and dendritic conjugates is evaluated using A549 and A431 cell lines, showing a reduced cytotoxic efficacy of the conjugates compared to PTX. The study of uptake kinetics reveals a linear, non saturable uptake in tumor cells for dPGS-PTX-ICC, while dPG-PTX-ICC is hardly taken up. Despite the marginal uptake of dPG-PTX-ICC, it prompts tubulin polymerization to a comparable extent as PTX. These observations suggest a fast ester hydrolysis and premature drug release, as confirmed by HPLC measurements in the presence of plasma enzymes.In this study, dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS) is evaluated as a delivery platform for the anticancer, tubulin-binding drug paclitaxel (PTX). The conjugation of PTX to dPGS is conducted via a labile ester linkage. A non-sulfated dendritic polyglycerol (dPG) is used as a control, and the labeling with an indocarbocyanine dye (ICC) renders multifunctional conjugates that can be monitored by fluorescence microscopy. The conjugates are characterized by 1H NMR, UV-vis measurements, and RP-HPLC. In vitro cytotoxicity of PTX and dendritic conjugates is evaluated using A549 and A431 cell lines, showing a reduced cytotoxic efficacy of the conjugates compared to PTX. The study of uptake kinetics reveals a linear, non saturable uptake in tumor cells for dPGS-PTX-ICC, while dPG-PTX-ICC is hardly taken up. Despite the marginal uptake of dPG-PTX-ICC, it prompts tubulin polymerization to a comparable extent as PTX. These observations suggest a fast ester hydrolysis and premature drug release, as confirmed by HPLC measurements in the presence of plasma enzymes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: 1H NMR spectra of the conjugates, HPLC chromatograms, internalization images of dPGS-PTX-ICC (5), elimination kinetics of dPGS-PTX-ICC (5) and dPGS-ICC (7), comparison of IC50 values of PTX and dPGS-PTX (3) in A431 and A549 cell lines and cell viability of dPGS amine (1). See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04428b

  11. Dendritic polyglycerol sulfate as a novel platform for paclitaxel delivery: pitfalls of ester linkage.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Herves, Ana; Wrfel, Patrick; Wegner, Nicole; Khandare, Jayant; Licha, Kai; Haag, Rainer; Welker, Pia; Caldern, Marcelo

    2015-03-01

    In this study, dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS) is evaluated as a delivery platform for the anticancer, tubulin-binding drug paclitaxel (PTX). The conjugation of PTX to dPGS is conducted via a labile ester linkage. A non-sulfated dendritic polyglycerol (dPG) is used as a control, and the labeling with an indocarbocyanine dye (ICC) renders multifunctional conjugates that can be monitored by fluorescence microscopy. The conjugates are characterized by (1)H NMR, UV-vis measurements, and RP-HPLC. In vitro cytotoxicity of PTX and dendritic conjugates is evaluated using A549 and A431 cell lines, showing a reduced cytotoxic efficacy of the conjugates compared to PTX. The study of uptake kinetics reveals a linear, non saturable uptake in tumor cells for dPGS-PTX-ICC, while dPG-PTX-ICC is hardly taken up. Despite the marginal uptake of dPG-PTX-ICC, it prompts tubulin polymerization to a comparable extent as PTX. These observations suggest a fast ester hydrolysis and premature drug release, as confirmed by HPLC measurements in the presence of plasma enzymes. PMID:25516353

  12. Intratumoral delivery of paclitaxel using a thermosensitive hydrogel in human tumor xenografts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ho; Lee, Joo-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Suck; Na, Kun; Song, Soo-Chang; Lee, Jaehwi; Kuh, Hyo-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Poly(organophosphazene), a novel thermosensitive hydrogel, is an injectable drug delivery system (DDS) that transforms from sol to gel at body temperature. Paclitaxel (PTX) is a mitotic inhibitor used in the treatment of various solid tumors. Due to its poor solubility in water and efflux systems in the gastrointestinal tract, PTX is a good candidate for local DDS. Here, we evaluated the penetration kinetics of PTX released from the PTX-poly(organophosphazene) hydrogel mixture in multicellular layers (MCLs) of human cancer cells. We also investigated the tumor pharmacokinetics of PTX (60 mg/kg) when administered as an intratumoral injection using poly(organophosphazene) in mice with human tumor xenografts. When PTX was formulated at 0.6 % w/w into a 10 % w/w hydrogel, the in vitro and in vivo release were found to be 40 and 90 % of the dose, respectively, in a sustained manner over 4 weeks. Exposure of MCLs to PTX-hydrogel showed time-dependent drug penetration and accumulation. In mice, the hydrogel mass was well retained over 6 weeks, and the PTX concentration in the tumor tissue was maximal at 14 days, which rapidly decreased and coincided with rebound tumor growth after 14 days of suppression. These data indicate that PTX-hydrogel should be intratumorally injected every 14 days, or drug release duration should be prolonged in order to achieve a long-term antitumor effect. Overall, poly(organophosphazene) represents a novel thermosensitive DDS for intratumoral delivery of PTX, which can accommodate a large dose of the drug in addition to reducing its systemic exposure by restricting biodistribution to tumor tissue alone. PMID:23371803

  13. Multi-small molecule conjugations as new targeted delivery carriers for tumor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Lingling; Liu, Ming; Wu, Chao; Zhao, Liang; Li, Siwen; Xu, Lisheng; Cao, Wengen; Gao, Guizhen; Gu, Yueqing

    2015-01-01

    In response to the challenges of cancer chemotherapeutics, including poor physicochemical properties, low tumor targeting ability, and harmful side effects, we developed a new tumor-targeted multi-small molecule drug delivery platform. Using paclitaxel (PTX) as a model therapeutic, we prepared two prodrugs, ie, folic acid-fluorescein-5(6)-isothiocyanate-arginine-paclitaxel (FA-FITC-Arg-PTX) and folic acid-5-aminofluorescein-glutamic-paclitaxel (FA-5AF-Glu-PTX), composed of folic acid (FA, target), amino acids (Arg or Glu, linker), and fluorescent dye (fluorescein in vitro or near-infrared fluorescent dye in vivo) in order to better understand the mechanism of PTX prodrug targeting. In vitro and acute toxicity studies demonstrated the low toxicity of the prodrug formulations compared with the free drug. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated that folate receptor-mediated uptake of PTX-conjugated multi-small molecule carriers induced high antitumor activity. Notably, compared with free PTX and with PTX-loaded macromolecular carriers from our previous study, this multi-small molecule-conjugated strategy improved the water solubility, loading rate, targeting ability, antitumor activity, and toxicity profile of PTX. These results support the use of multi-small molecules as tumor-targeting drug delivery systems. PMID:26366078

  14. A First-Time-In-Human Phase I Clinical Trial of Bispecific Antibody-Targeted, Paclitaxel-Packaged Bacterial Minicells

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Mark; McArthur, Grant A.; Pattison, Scott T.; Pattison, Stacey L.; MacDiarmid, Jennifer; Brahmbhatt, Himanshu; Scott, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We have harnessed a novel biological system, the bacterial minicell, to deliver cancer therapeutics to cancer cells. Preclinical studies showed that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted, paclitaxel-loaded minicells (EGFRminicellsPac) have antitumor effects in xenograft models. To examine the safety of the minicell delivery system, we initiated a first-time-in-human, open-label, phase I clinical study of EGFRminicellsPac in patients with advanced solid tumors. Methodology Patients received 5 weekly infusions followed by a treatment free week. Seven dose levels (1x108, 1x109, 3x109, 1x1010, 1.5x1010, 2x1010, 5x1010) were evaluated using a 3+3 dose-escalation design. Primary objectives were safety, tolerability and determination of the maximum tolerated dose. Secondary objectives were assessment of immune/inflammatory responses and antitumor activity. Principal Findings Twenty eight patients were enrolled, 22 patients completed at least one cycle of EGFRminicellsPac; 6 patients did not complete a cycle due to rapidly progressive disease. A total of 236 doses was delivered over 42 cycles, with a maximum of 45 doses administered to a single patient. Most common treatment-related adverse events were rigors and pyrexia. No deaths resulted from treatment-related adverse events and the maximum tolerated dose was defined as 1x1010 EGFRminicellsPac. Surprisingly, only a mild self-limiting elevation in the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα and anti-inflammatory IL-10 was observed. Anti-LPS antibody titers peaked by dose 3 and were maintained at that level despite repeat dosing with the bacterially derived minicells. Ten patients (45%; n = 22) achieved stable disease as their best response. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study in humans of a novel biological system that can provide targeted delivery of a range of chemotherapeutic drugs to solid tumor cells. Bispecific antibody-targeted minicells, packaged with the chemotherapeutic paclitaxel, were shown to be safe in patients with advanced solid tumors with modest clinical efficacy observed. Further study in Phase II trials is planned. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000672257 PMID:26659127

  15. Co-delivery of hydrophobic paclitaxel and hydrophilic AURKA specific siRNA by redox-sensitive micelles for effective treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tingjie; Wang, Lei; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping; Huo, Meirong

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a novel redox-sensitive micellar system constructed from a hyaluronic acid-based amphiphilic conjugate (HA-ss-(OA-g-bPEI), HSOP) was successfully developed for tumor-targeted co-delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) and AURKA specific siRNA (si-AURKA). HSOP exhibited excellent loading capacities for both PTX and siRNA with adjustable dosing ratios and desirable redox-sensitivity independently verified by morphological changes of micelles alongside invitro release of both drugs in different reducing environments. Moreover, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analysis confirmed that HSOP micelles were capable of simultaneously delivering PTX and siRNA into MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via HA-receptor mediated endocytosis followed by rapid transport of cargoes into the cytosol. Successful delivery and transport amplified the synergistic effects between the drugs while leading to substantially greater antitumor efficacy when compared with single drug-loaded micelles and non-sensitive co-loaded micelles. Invivo investigation demonstrated that HSOP micelles could effectively accumulate in tumor sites and possessed the greatest antitumor efficacy over non-sensitive co-delivery control and redox-sensitive single-drug controls. These findings indicated that redox-sensitive HSOP co-delivery system holds great promise for combined drug/gene treatment for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:25996409

  16. Enhanced delivery of Paclitaxel using electrostatically-conjugated Herceptin-bearing PEI/PLGA nanoparticles against HER-positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kongtong; Zhao, Jinlong; Zhang, Zunkai; Gao, Yin; Zhou, Yulin; Teng, Lesheng; Li, Youxin

    2016-01-30

    We have developed a novel nanoparticle delivery system fabricated from polyethylenimine (PEI) and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), which were able to deliver the chemotherapeutic agent Paclitaxel, while the biomacromolecule Herceptin acted as a targeting ligand that was conjugated onto the surfaces of the nanoparticles via electrostatic interactions. In this study, these electrostatically-conjugated Herceptin-bearing PEI/PLGA nanoparticles (eHER-PPNs) were optimized and employed as vectors to target HER2-positive breast cancer cells. The eHER-PPNs had an average diameter of ∼280nm and a neutral surface charge (1.00±0.73mV), which remained stable under physiological conditions. The anticancer effects of eHER-PPNs were investigated in HER2-positive BT474 cells and HER2-negative MCF7 cells. The eHER-PPNs showed enhanced cytotoxicity that was dependent on the receptor expression levels and the incubation time. These conjugated nanoparticles deliver Paclitaxel more efficiently (p<0.001) than unmodified PPNs, Herceptin and the combined effects of these two monotherapies. Furthermore, the chemically-conjugated Herceptin-bearing PEI/PLGA nanoparticles (cHER-PPNs) were fabricated as a comparison. The eHER-PPNs exhibited lower cell viability (46.7%) than that of cHER-PPNs (65.1%). The targeting ability of eHER-PPNs was demonstrated through confocal microscopy images and flow cytometry, which showed that eHER-PPNs displayed higher cellular uptake efficiency (p<0.001) in comparison with cHER-PPNs. Therefore, eHER-PPNs could provide promising platforms for the delivery of therapeutic drugs against HER2-positive breast cancers. PMID:26617314

  17. Integrin-assisted drug delivery of nano-scaled polymer therapeutics bearing paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Eldar-Boock, Anat; Miller, Keren; Sanchis, Joaquin; Lupu, Ruth; Vicent, Mara J.; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays a prominent role in cancer progression. Anti-angiogenic therapy therefore, either alone or in combination with conventional cytotoxic therapy, offers a promising therapeutic approach. Paclitaxel (PTX) is a widely-used potent cytotoxic drug that also exhibits anti-angiogenic effects at low doses. However, its use, at its full potential, is limited by severe side effects. Here we designed and synthesized a targeted conjugate of PTX, a polymer and an integrin-targeted moiety resulting in a polyglutamic acid (PGA)-PTX-E-[c(RGDfK)2] nano-scaled conjugate. Polymer conjugation converted PTX to a macromolecule, which passively targets the tumor tissue exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention effect, while extravasating via the leaky tumor neovasculature. The cyclic RGD peptidomimetic enhanced the effects previously seen for PGA-PTX alone, utilizing the additional active targeting to the ?v?3 integrin overexpressed on tumor endothelial and epithelial cells. This strategy is particularly valuable when tumors are well-vascularized, but they present poor vascular permeability. We show that PGA is enzymatically-degradable leading to PTX release under lysosomal acidic pH. PGA-PTX-E-[c(RGDfK)2] inhibited the growth of proliferating ?v?3-expressing endothelial cells and several cancer cells. We also showed that PGA-PTX-E-[c(RGDfK)2] blocked endothelial cells migration towards vascular endothelial growth factor; blocked capillary-like tube formation; and inhibited endothelial cells attachment to fibrinogen. Orthotopic studies in mice demonstrated preferential tumor accumulation of the RGD-bearing conjugate, leading to enhanced antitumor efficacy and a marked decrease in toxicity as compared with free PTX-treated mice. PMID:21376390

  18. Targeted nanogels: a versatile platform for drug delivery to tumors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eric A; Majeti, Bharat K; Mukthavaram, Rajesh; Acevedo, Lisette M; Barnes, Leo A; Cheresh, David A

    2011-06-01

    Although nanoparticle-based drug delivery formulations can improve the effectiveness and safety of certain anticancer drugs, many drugs, due to their chemical composition, are unsuitable for nanoparticle loading. Here, we describe a targeted nanogel drug delivery platform that can (i) encapsulate a wide range of drug chemotypes, including biological, small molecule, and cytotoxic agents; (ii) display targeting ligands and polymeric coatings on the surface; (iii) enhance drug retention within the nanogel core after photo-cross-linking; and (iv) retain therapeutic activity after lyophilization allowing for long-term storage. For therapeutic studies, we used integrin ?v?3-targeted lipid-coated nanogels with cross-linked human serum albumin in the core for carrying therapeutic cargoes. These particles exhibited potent activity in tumor cell viability assays with drugs of distinct chemotype, including paclitaxel, docetaxel, bortezomib, 17-AAG, sorafenib, sunitinib, bosutinib, and dasatinib. Treatment of orthotopic breast and pancreas tumors in mice with taxane-loaded nanogels produced a 15-fold improvement in antitumor activity relative to Abraxane by blocking both primary tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis. With a modifiable surface and core, the lipid-coated nanogel represents a platform technology that can be easily adapted for specific drug delivery applications to treat a wide range of malignant diseases. PMID:21518727

  19. Self-assembly PEGylation assists SLN-paclitaxel delivery inducing cancer cell apoptosis upon internalization.

    PubMed

    Arranja, Alexandra; Gouveia, Luís F; Gener, Petra; Rafael, Diana F; Pereira, Carolina; Schwartz, Simó; Videira, Mafalda A

    2016-03-30

    In past years, a considerable progress has been made in the conversion of conventional chemotherapy into potent and safe nanomedicines. The ultimate goal is to improve the therapeutic window of current chemotherapeutics by reducing systemic toxicities and to deliver higher concentrations of the chemotherapeutic agents to malignant cells. In this work, we report that PEGylation of the nanocarriers increases drug intracellular bioavailability leading therefore to higher therapeutic efficacy. The surface of the already patented solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) loaded with paclitaxel (SLN-PTX) was coated with a PEG layer (SLN-PTX_PEG) through an innovative process to provide stable and highly effective nanoparticles complying with the predefined pharmaceutical quality target product profile. We observed that PEGylation not only stabilizes the SLN, but also modulates their cellular uptake kinetics. As a consequence, the intracellular concentration of chemotherapeutics delivered by SLN-PTX_PEG increases. This leads to the increase of efficacy and thus it is expected to significantly circumvent cancer cell resistance and increase patient survival and cure. PMID:26853316

  20. Multifunctional hierarchically assembled nanostructures as complex stage-wise dual-delivery systems for coincidental yet differential trafficking of siRNA and paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Shrestha, Ritu; Clark, Corrie; Taylor, Sara; Leonard, Jeffrey; Wooley, Karen L

    2013-05-01

    Development of multifunctional nanostructures that can be tuned to codeliver multiple drugs and diagnostic agents to diseased tissues is of great importance. Hierarchically assembled theranostic (HAT) nanostructures based on anionic cylindrical shell cross-linked nanoparticles and cationic shell cross-linked knedel-like nanoparticles (cSCKs) have recently been developed by our group to deliver siRNA intracellularly and to undergo radiolabeling. In the current study, paclitaxel, a hydrophobic anticancer drug, and siRNA have been successfully loaded into the cylindrical and spherical components of the hierarchical assemblies, respectively. Cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and intracellular delivery mechanism of the HAT nanostructures and their individual components have been investigated. Decoration of nanoparticles with F3-tumor homing peptide was shown to enhance the selective cellular uptake of the spherical particles, whereas the HAT nanoassemblies underwent an interesting disassembly process in contact with either OVCAR-3 or RAW 264.7 cell lines. The HAT nanostructures were found to "stick" to the cell membrane and "trigger" the release of spherical cSCKs templated onto their surfaces intracellularly, while retaining the cylindrical part on the cell surface. Combination of paclitaxel and cell-death siRNA (siRNA that induces cell death) into the HAT nanostructures resulted in greater reduction in cell viability than siRNA complexed with Lipofectamine and the assemblies loaded with the individual drugs. In addition, a shape-dependent immunotoxicity was observed for both spherical and cylindrical nanoparticles with the latter being highly immunotoxic. Supramolecular assembly of the two nanoparticles into the HAT nanostructures significantly reduced the immunotoxicity of both cSCKs and cylinders. HAT nanostructures decorated with targeting moieties, loaded with nucleic acids, hydrophobic drugs, radiolabels, and fluorophores, with control over their toxicity, immunotoxicity, and intracellular delivery might have great potential for biomedical delivery applications. PMID:23574430

  1. Multifunctional hierarchically-assembled nanostructures as complex stage-wise dual-delivery systems for coincidental yet differential trafficking of siRNA and paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Shrestha, Ritu; Clark, Corrie; Taylor, Sara; Leonard, Jeffrey; Wooley, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Development of multifunctional nanostructures that can be tuned to co-deliver multiple drugs and diagnostic agents to diseased tissues is of great importance. Hierarchically-assembled theranostic (HAT) nanostructures based on anionic cylindrical shell crosslinked nanoparticles and cationic shell crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticles (cSCKs) have recently been developed by our group to deliver siRNA intracellularly, and to undergo radiolabeling. In the current study, paclitaxel, a hydrophobic anticancer drug, and siRNA have been successfully loaded into the cylindrical and spherical components of the hierarchical assemblies, respectively. Cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity and intracellular delivery mechanism of the HAT nanostructures and their individual components have been investigated. Decoration of nanoparticles with F3-tumor homing peptide was shown to enhance the selective cellular uptake of the spherical particles, whereas the HAT nanoassemblies underwent an interesting disassembly process in contact with either OVCAR-3 or RAW 264.7 cell lines. The HAT nanostructures were found to “stick” to the cell membrane and “trigger” the release of spherical cSCKs templated onto their surfaces intracellularly, while retaining the cylindrical part on the cell surface. Combination of paclitaxel and cell-death siRNA (siRNA that induces cell death) into the HAT nanostructures resulted in greater reduction in cell viability than siRNA complexed with Lipofectamine and the assemblies loaded with the individual drugs. In addition, a shape-dependent immunotoxicity was observed for both spherical and cylindrical nanoparticles, with the latter being highly immunotoxic. Supramolecular assembly of the two nanoparticles into the HAT nanostructures significantly reduced the immunotoxicity of both cSCKs and cylinders. HAT nanostructures decorated with targeting moieties, loaded with nucleic acids, hydrophobic drugs, radiolabels, fluorophores, with control over their toxicity, immunotoxicity and intracellular delivery might have great potential for biomedical delivery applications. PMID:23574430

  2. Improving paclitaxel delivery: in vitro and in vivo characterization of PEGylated polyphosphoester-based nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuwu; Zhang, Shiyi; Pollack, Stephanie F; Li, Richen; Gonzalez, Amelia M; Fan, Jingwei; Zou, Jiong; Leininger, Sarah E; Pavía-Sanders, Adriana; Johnson, Rachel; Nelson, Laura D; Raymond, Jeffery E; Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Hughes, Dennis M P; Lenox, Mark W; Gustafson, Tiffany P; Wooley, Karen L

    2015-02-11

    Nanomaterials have great potential to offer effective treatment against devastating diseases by providing sustained release of high concentrations of therapeutic agents locally, especially when the route of administration allows for direct access to the diseased tissues. Biodegradable polyphosphoester-based polymeric micelles and shell cross-linked knedel-like nanoparticles (SCKs) have been designed from amphiphilic block-graft terpolymers, PEBP-b-PBYP-g-PEG, which effectively incorporate high concentrations of paclitaxel (PTX). Well-dispersed nanoparticles physically loaded with PTX were prepared, exhibiting desirable physiochemical characteristics. Encapsulation of 10 wt% PTX, into either micelles or SCKs, allowed for aqueous suspension of PTX at concentrations up to 4.8 mg/mL, as compared to <2.0 μg/mL for the aqueous solubility of the drug alone. Drug release studies indicated that PTX released from these nanostructures was defined through a structure-function relationship, whereby the half-life of sustained PTX release was doubled through cross-linking of the micellar structure to form SCKs. In vitro, physically loaded micellar and SCK nanotherapeutics demonstrated IC50 values against osteosarcoma cell lines, known to metastasize to the lungs (CCH-OS-O and SJSA), similar to the pharmaceutical Taxol formulation. Evaluation of these materials in vivo has provided an understanding of the effects of nanoparticle structure-function relationships on intratracheal delivery and related biodistribution and pharmacokinetics. Overall, we have demonstrated the potential of these novel nanotherapeutics toward future sustained release treatments via administration directly to the sites of lung metastases of osteosarcoma. PMID:25629952

  3. Targeted drug delivery nanosystems based on copolymer poly(lactide)-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thu Ha, Phuong; Nguyen, Hoai Nam; Doan Do, Hai; Thong Phan, Quoc; Nguyet Tran Thi, Minh; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan; Nhung Hoang Thi, My; Huong Le, Mai; Nguyen, Linh Toan; Quang Bui, Thuc; Hieu Phan, Van

    2016-03-01

    Along with the development of nanotechnology, drug delivery nanosystems (DDNSs) have attracted a great deal of concern among scientists over the world, especially in cancer treatment. DDNSs not only improve water solubility of anticancer drugs but also increase therapeutic efficacy and minimize the side effects of treatment methods through targeting mechanisms including passive and active targeting. Passive targeting is based on the nano-size of drug delivery systems while active targeting is based on the specific bindings between targeting ligands attached on the drug delivery systems and the unique receptors on the cancer cell surface. In this article we present some of our results in the synthesis and testing of DDNSs prepared from copolymer poly(lactide)-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (PLA-TPGS), which carry anticancer drugs including curcumin, paclitaxel and doxorubicin. In order to increase the targeting effect to cancer cells, active targeting ligand folate was attached to the DDNSs. The results showed copolymer PLA-TPGS to be an excellent carrier for loading hydrophobic drugs (curcumin and paclitaxel). The fabricated DDNSs had a very small size (50–100 nm) and enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of drugs. Most notably, folate-decorated paclitaxel-loaded copolymer PLA-TPGS nanoparticles (Fol/PTX/PLA-TPGS NPs) were tested on tumor-bearing nude mice. During the treatment time, Fol/PTX/PLA-TPGS NPs always exhibited the best tumor growth inhibition compared to free paclitaxel and paclitaxel-loaded copolymer PLA-TPGS nanoparticles. All results evidenced the promising potential of copolymer PLA-TPGS in fabricating targeted DDNSs for cancer treatment.

  4. Improved Biochemical Strategies for Targeted Delivery of Taxoids

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Thota

    2008-01-01

    Paclitaxel (Taxol ®) and docetaxel (Taxotere ®) are very important anti-tumor drugs in clinical use for cancer. However, their clinical utility is limited due to systemic toxicity, low solubility and inactivity against drug resistant tumors. To improve chemotherapeutic levels of these drugs, it would be highly desirable to design strategies which bypass the above limitations. In this respect various prodrug and drug targeting strategies have been envisioned either to improve oral bioavailability or tumor specific delivery of taxoids. Abnormal properties of cancer cells with respect to normal cells have guided in designing of these protocols. This review article records the designed biochemical strategies and their biological efficacies as potential taxoid chemotherapeutics. PMID:17419065

  5. Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polyphosphoester-graft-paclitaxel Conjugates with Acid-labile Linkages as a pH-Sensitive and Functional Nanoscopic Platform for Paclitaxel Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jiong; Zhang, Fuwu; Zhang, Shiyi; Pollack, Stephanie F.; Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Fan, Jingwei; Wooley, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest to develop new types of stimuli-responsive drug delivery vehicles with high drug loading and controlled release properties for chemotherapeutics. An acid-labile, polyphosphoester-based degradable, polymeric paclitaxel (PTX) conjugate containing ultra-high levels of PTX loading has been improved significantly, in this second generation development, which involves connection of each PTX molecule to the polymer backbone via a pH-sensitive β-thiopropionate linkage. The results for this system indicate that it has great potential as an effective anti-cancer agent. Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polyphosphoester-graft-PTX drug conjugate (PEO-b-PPE-g-PTX G2) was synthesized by organocatalyst-promoted ring-opening polymerization of 2-(but-3-en-1-yloxy)-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane-2-oxide from a PEO macroinitiator, followed by thermo-promoted thiolene click conjugation of a thiol-functionalized PTX prodrug to the pendant alkene groups of the block copolymer. The PEO-b-PPE-g-PTX G2 formed well-defined nanoparticles in aqueous solution, by direct dissolution into water, with a number-averaged hydrodynamic diameter of 114 ± 31 nm. The conjugate had PTX loading capacity as high as 53 wt%, and a maximum PTX concentration of 0.68 mg/mL in water (vs. 1.7 μg/mL for free PTX). Although the PTX concentration is ca. 10× less than for our first generation material, its accelerated release allowed for similar free PTX concentrations vs. time. The PEO-b-PPE-g-PTX G2 exhibited accelerated drug release under acidic conditions (~50 wt% PTX released in 8 d) compared to neutral conditions (~20 wt% PTX released in 8 d) and compared to the first generation analog that contained ester linkages between PTX and the polymer backbone (<5 wt% PTX released in 4 d), due to their acid-sensitive hydrolytically-labile β-thiopropionate linkages between PTX molecules and the polymer backbone. The positive cell-killing activity of PEO-b-PPE-g-PTX G2 against two cancer cell lines was demonstrated, and the presence of pendant reactive functionality provides a powerful platform for future work to involve conjugation of multiple numbers and/or types of targeting ligands, other drugs and imaging agents to achieve chemotherapy and bioimaging. Compared to our previously reported polyphosphoester-based PTX drug conjugates, PEO-b-PPE-g-PTX G1 without the β-thiopropionate linker, the PEO-b-PPE-g-PTX G2 showed pH-triggered drug release property and 5-to-8-fold enhanced in vitro cytotoxcity against two cancer cell lines. PMID:23997013

  6. Synergistic treatment of ovarian cancer by co-delivery of survivin shRNA and paclitaxel via supramolecular micellar assembly.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinglian; Li, Wen; Hu, Xiurong; Hu, Qida; Shen, Jie; Jin, Xue; Zhou, Jun; Tang, Guping; Chu, Paul K

    2012-09-01

    Non-viral gene-delivery platforms have been developed to co-deliver chemotherapeutics and siRNAs. The synergistic effects between shRNAs against survivin and Paclitaxel (PTX) using supramolecular micelles self-assembled from the host PEI-CyD (PC) composed of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CyD) and polyethylenimine (PEI, Mw 600) and guest adamantine conjugated PTX (Ada-PTX) in combination cancer therapy are investigated. The Ada-PTX is encapsulated inside the core and shRNA sticks to the shell surface. The physicochemical properties of these supramolecular nanoparticles are favorable to cell uptake and intracellular trafficking. Moreover, PTX and shRNA simultaneously delivered to SKOV-3 cells lead to efficient reduction in the survivin and Bcl-2 expression as well as synergistic cell apoptotic induction in the invitro study. In particular, co-delivery of survivin shRNA and PTX suppresses cancer growth more effectively than delivery of either paclitaxel or shRNA in ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:22717365

  7. Fate of paclitaxel lipid nanocapsules in intestinal mucus in view of their oral delivery

    PubMed Central

    Groo, Anne-Claire; Saulnier, Patrick; Gimel, Jean-Christophe; Gravier, Julien; Ailhas, Caroline; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Lagarce, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    The bioavailability of paclitaxel (Ptx) has previously been improved via its encapsulation in lipid nanocapsules (LNCs). In this work, the interactions between LNCs and intestinal mucus are studied because they are viewed as an important barrier to successful oral delivery. The rheological properties of different batches of pig intestinal mucus were studied under different conditions (the effect of hydration and the presence of LNCs). Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was used to study the stability of LNCs in mucus at 37C for at least 3 hours. Diffusion through 223, 446, and 893 ?m mucus layers of 8.4, 16.8, and 42 ?g/mL Ptx formulated as Taxol (Bristol-Myers Squibb, Rueil-Malmaison, France) or encapsulated in LNCs (Ptx-LNCs) were investigated. The effect of the size of the LNCs on their diffusion was also investigated (range, 25110 nm in diameter). Mucus behaves as a non-Newtonian gel with rheofluidifying properties and a flow threshold. The viscous (G?) and elastic (G?) moduli and flow threshold of the two mucus batches varied with water content, but G? remained below G?. LNCs had no effect on mucus viscosity and flow threshold. The FRET efficiency remained at 78% after 3 hours. Because the destruction of the LNCs would lead to a FRET efficiency below 25%, these results suggest only a slight modification of LNCs after their contact with mucus. The diffusion of Taxol and Ptx-LNCs in mucus decreases if the mucus layer is thicker. Interestingly, the apparent permeability across mucus is higher for Ptx-LNCs than for Taxol for drug concentrations of 16.8 and 42 ?g/mL Ptx (P<0.05). The diffusion of Ptx-LNCs through mucus is not size-dependent. This study shows that LNCs are stable in mucus, do not change mucus rheological properties, and improve Ptx diffusion at low concentrations, thus making these systems good candidates for Ptx oral delivery. The study of the physicochemical interaction between the LNC surface and its diffusion in mucus is now envisioned. PMID:24235827

  8. Poly-cyclodextrin and poly-paclitaxel nano-assembly for anticancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namgung, Ran; Mi Lee, Yeong; Kim, Jihoon; Jang, Yuna; Lee, Byung-Heon; Kim, In-San; Sokkar, Pandian; Rhee, Young Min; Hoffman, Allan S.; Kim, Won Jong

    2014-05-01

    Effective anticancer therapy can be achieved by designing a targeted drug-delivery system with high stability during circulation and efficient uptake by the target tumour cancer cells. We report here a novel nano-assembled drug-delivery system, formed by multivalent host-guest interactions between a polymer-cyclodextrin conjugate and a polymer-paclitaxel conjugate. The multivalent inclusion complexes confer high stability to the nano-assembly, which efficiently delivers paclitaxel into the targeted cancer cells via both passive and active targeting mechanisms. The ester linkages between paclitaxel and the polymer backbone permit efficient release of paclitaxel within the cell by degradation. This novel targeted nano-assembly exhibits significant antitumour activity in a mouse tumour model. The strategy established in this study also provides knowledge for the development of advanced anticancer drug delivery.

  9. MDR1 siRNA loaded hyaluronic acid-based CD44 targeted nanoparticle systems circumvent paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoqian; Lyer, Arun K.; Singh, Amit; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-02-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is an almost universal phenomenon in patients with ovarian cancer, and this severely limits the ultimate success of chemotherapy in the clinic. Overexpression of the MDR1 gene and corresponding P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is one of the best known MDR mechanisms. MDR1 siRNA based strategies were proposed to circumvent MDR, however, systemic, safe, and effective targeted delivery is still a major challenge. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) targeted hyaluronic acid (HA) based nanoparticle has been shown to successfully deliver chemotherapy agents or siRNAs into tumor cells. The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of HA-PEI/HA-PEG to deliver MDR1 siRNA and the efficacy of the combination of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA with paclitaxel to suppress growth of ovarian cancer. We observed that HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles can efficiently deliver MDR1 siRNA into MDR ovarian cancer cells, resulting in down-regulation of MDR1 and Pgp expression. Administration of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles followed by paclitaxel treatment induced a significant inhibitory effect on the tumor growth, decreased Pgp expression and increased apoptosis in MDR ovarian cancer mice model. Our findings suggest that CD44 targeted HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles can serve as a therapeutic tool with great potentials to circumvent MDR in ovarian cancer.

  10. Folate-targeted paclitaxel-conjugated polymeric micelles inhibits pulmonary metastatic hepatoma in experimental murine H22 metastasis models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Fuhong; Liu, Shi; Wang, Rui; Sun, Yingchun; Tong, Ti; Jing, Xiabin

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma shows low response to most conventional chemotherapies; additionally, extrahepatic metastasis from hepatoma is considered refractory to conventional systemic chemotherapy. Target therapy is a promising strategy for advanced hepatoma; however, targeted accumulation and controlled release of therapeutic agents into the metastatic site is still a great challenge. Folic acid (FA) and paclitaxel (PTX) containing composite micelles (FA-M[PTX]) were prepared by coassembling the FA polymer conjugate and PTX polymer conjugate. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the inhibitory efficacy of FA-M(PTX) on the pulmonary metastasis of intravenously injected murine hepatoma 22 (H22) on BALB/c mice models. The lung metastatic burden of H22 were measured and tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histology (hematoxylin and eosin stain), followed by survival analysis. The results indicated that FA-M(PTX) prevented pulmonary metastasis of H22, and the efficacy was stronger than pure PTX and simple PTX-conjugated micelles. In particular, the formation of lung metastasis colonies in mice was evidently inhibited, which was paralleled with the downregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Furthermore, the mice bearing pulmonary metastatic hepatoma in the FA-M(PTX) group gained significantly prolonged survival time when compared with others given equivalent doses of PTX of 30 mg/kg. The enhanced efficacy of FA-M(PTX) is theoretically ascribed to the target effect of FA; moreover, the extensive pulmonary capillary networks may play a role. In conclusion, FA-M(PTX) displayed great potential as a promising antimetastatic agent, and the FA-conjugated micelles is a preferential targeted delivery system when compared to micelles without FA. PMID:24790440

  11. Aptamer-targeted Antigen Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wengerter, Brian C; Katakowski, Joseph A; Rosenberg, Jacob M; Park, Chae Gyu; Almo, Steven C; Palliser, Deborah; Levy, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Effective therapeutic vaccines often require activation of T cell-mediated immunity. Robust T cell activation, including CD8 T cell responses, can be achieved using antibodies or antibody fragments to direct antigens of interest to professional antigen presenting cells. This approach represents an important advance in enhancing vaccine efficacy. Nucleic acid aptamers present a promising alternative to protein-based targeting approaches. We have selected aptamers that specifically bind the murine receptor, DEC205, a C-type lectin expressed predominantly on the surface of CD8α+ dendritic cells (DCs) that has been shown to be efficient at facilitating antigen crosspresentation and subsequent CD8+ T cell activation. Using a minimized aptamer conjugated to the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA), DEC205-targeted antigen crosspresentation was verified in vitro and in vivo by proliferation and cytokine production by primary murine CD8+ T cells expressing a T cell receptor specific for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I-restricted OVA257–264 peptide SIINFEKL. Compared with a nonspecific ribonucleic acid (RNA) of similar length, DEC205 aptamer-OVA-mediated antigen delivery stimulated strong proliferation and production of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2. The immune responses elicited by aptamer-OVA conjugates were sufficient to inhibit the growth of established OVA-expressing B16 tumor cells. Our results demonstrate a new application of aptamer technology for the development of effective T cell-mediated vaccines. PMID:24682172

  12. Biological evaluation of redox-sensitive micelles based on hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid conjugates for tumor-specific delivery of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yin, Tingjie; Wang, Lei; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping; Huo, Meirong

    2015-04-10

    Tumor-targeted drug delivery and microenvironment-responsive drug release are attractive strategies in cancer treatment. Our previous study demonstrated that redox-sensitive micelles based on hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid (HA-ss-DOCA) conjugates exhibited excellent drug-loading capacities (34.1%) for paclitaxel (PTX) and rapid drug release in response to reducing agent, glutathione. In the present study, the physicochemical and biological properties of PTX-loaded HA-ss-DOCA (PTX-HA-ss-DOCA) micelles were investigated further. The micelles have an average size of about 120 nm and a zeta potential of about -36 mV. Transmission electron microscopy and wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated redox-sensitive degradation of micelles in the presence of glutathione. Moreover, the encapsulated payload was effectively released from HA-ss-DOCA micelles into cytoplasm and then rapidly transported into nuclei. In vitro cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis assay further revealed that HA significantly improved the tumor-specific drug delivery of HA-ss-DOCA micelles via receptor-mediated endocytosis, while efficient intracellular drug release and transportation lead to marked inhibition of tumor cell growth, as compared to Taxol() and insensitive micelles. More importantly, PTX-HA-ss-DOCA micelles demonstrated superior in vivo antitumor activity compared with Taxol() and insensitive control, and decreased systemic toxicity. Herein we present data which provide valuable insight into the design and development of tumor-specific drug delivery systems. PMID:25655715

  13. The Effect of Short-term Intra-arterial Delivery of Paclitaxel on Neointimal Hyperplasia and the Local Thrombotic Environment after Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Yajun, E; He Nengshu Fan Hailun

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the effects of short-term intra-arterial delivery of paclitaxel on neointimal hyperplasia and the local thrombotic environment after angioplasty.MethodsAn experimental common carotid artery injury model was established in 60 rats, which were divided into experimental groups (40 rats) and controls (20 rats). Local intra-arterial administration of paclitaxel was applied at 2 doses (90 and 180 {mu}g/30 {mu}l), and the effects of short-term delivery of paclitaxel on neointimal hyperplasia and the expression of tissue factor (TF), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) were evaluated at days 15 and 30 by hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry.ResultsAt 15 and 30 days after injury, neointimal thickness and area, the ratio of intimal area to medial area and the stenotic rate were all significantly decreased in the group provided the high concentrations (180 {mu}g/30 {mu}l) of paclitaxel for 2 min or 10 min and in the group provided the low concentration (90 {mu}g/30 {mu}l) of paclitaxel for 10 min (p < 0.05). At 30 days after injury, there were no significant changes in TF expression among all experimental groups. PAI-1 expression increased in the neointima of the high concentration 10 min group (p < 0.05), while t-PA expression decreased in the neointima of the high concentration 2 min group (p < 0.05).ConclusionIn the rat common carotid artery injury model, the short-term delivery of paclitaxel could effectively inhibit neointimal hyperplasia in the long term, with very little influence on the local expression of TF and PAI-1.

  14. Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polyphosphoester-graft-paclitaxel conjugates with acid-labile linkages as a pH-sensitive and functional nanoscopic platform for paclitaxel delivery.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jiong; Zhang, Fuwu; Zhang, Shiyi; Pollack, Stephanie F; Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Fan, Jingwei; Wooley, Karen L

    2014-03-01

    There has been an increasing interest to develop new types of stimuli-responsive drug delivery vehicles with high drug loading and controlled release properties for chemotherapeutics. An acid-labile poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polyphosphoester-graft-PTX drug conjugate (PEO-b-PPE-g-PTX G2) degradable, polymeric paclitaxel (PTX) conjugate containing ultra-high levels of PTX loading is improved significantly, in this second-generation development, which involves connection of each PTX molecule to the polymer backbone via a pH-sensitive β-thiopropionate linkage. The PEO-b-PPE-g-PTX G2 forms well-defined nanoparticles in an aqueous solution, by direct dissolution into water, with a number-averaged hydrodynamic diameter of 114 ± 31 nm, and exhibits a PTX loading capacity as high as 53 wt%, with a maximum PTX concentration of 0.68 mg mL(-1) in water (vs 1.7 μg mL(-1) for free PTX). The PEO-b-PPE-g-PTX G2 shows accelerated drug release under acidic conditions (≈50 wt% PTX released in 8 d) compared with neutral conditions (≈20 wt% PTX released in 8 d). Compared to previously reported polyphosphoester-based PTX drug conjugates, PEO-b-PPE-g-PTX G1 without the β-thiopropionate linker, the PEO-b-PPE-g-PTX G2 shows pH-triggered drug release property and 5- to 8-fold enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines. PMID:23997013

  15. Positive-charged solid lipid nanoparticles as paclitaxel drug delivery system in glioblastoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Chirio, Daniela; Gallarate, Marina; Peira, Elena; Battaglia, Luigi; Muntoni, Elisabetta; Riganti, Chiara; Biasibetti, Elena; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Valazza, Alberto; Panciani, Pierpaolo; Lanotte, Michele; Annovazzi, Laura; Caldera, Valentina; Mellai, Marta; Filice, Gaetano; Corona, Silvia; Schiffer, Davide

    2014-11-01

    Paclitaxel loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of behenic acid were prepared with the coacervation technique. Generally, spherical shaped SLN with mean diameters in the range 300600 nm were obtained. The introduction of charged molecules, such as stearylamine and glycol chitosan into the formulation allowed to obtain positive SLN with Zeta potential in the 8-20 mV range and encapsulation efficiency in the 2590% range.Bloodbrain barrier (BBB) permeability, tested in vitro through hCMEC/D3 cells monolayer, showed a significantly increase in the permeation of Coumarin-6, used as model drug, when vehicled in SLN. Positive-charged SLN do not seem to enhance permeation although stearylamine-positive SLN resulted the best permeable formulation after 24 h.Cytotoxicity studies on NO3 glioblastoma cell line demonstrated the maintenance of cytotoxic activity of all paclitaxel-loaded SLN that was always unmodified or greater compared with free drug. No difference in cytotoxicity was noted between neutral and charged SLN.Co-culture experiments with hCMEC/D3 and different glioblastoma cells evidenced that, when delivered in SLN, paclitaxel increased its cytotoxicity towards glioblastoma cells. PMID:25445304

  16. Ultrasound-Targeted Retroviral Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Sarah L.; Rahim, Ahad A.; Bush, Nigel L.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Porter, Colin D.

    2007-05-01

    This study demonstrates the ability of focused ultrasound to target retroviral gene delivery. Key to our experiments was the use of non-infectious virus particles lacking the envelope protein required for receptor-mediated entry. The novelty of our approach is that spatial control at a distance is exerted upon viral delivery by subsequent exposure to ultrasound, leading to stable gene delivery. The technology is ideally suited to controlling gene delivery in vivo following systemic vector administration. Our data provide a solution to the critical issue of obtaining tissue specificity with retroviral vectors and impart stability of expression to ultrasound-mediated gene delivery.

  17. Brain tumor-targeted drug delivery strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaoli; Chen, Xishan; Ying, Man; Lu, Weiyue

    2014-01-01

    Despite the application of aggressive surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in clinics, brain tumors are still a difficult health challenge due to their fast development and poor prognosis. Brain tumor-targeted drug delivery systems, which increase drug accumulation in the tumor region and reduce toxicity in normal brain and peripheral tissue, are a promising new approach to brain tumor treatments. Since brain tumors exhibit many distinctive characteristics relative to tumors growing in peripheral tissues, potential targets based on continuously changing vascular characteristics and the microenvironment can be utilized to facilitate effective brain tumor-targeted drug delivery. In this review, we briefly describe the physiological characteristics of brain tumors, including blood–brain/brain tumor barriers, the tumor microenvironment, and tumor stem cells. We also review targeted delivery strategies and introduce a systematic targeted drug delivery strategy to overcome the challenges. PMID:26579383

  18. Targeted Drug Delivery in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xianjun; Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Li, Min

    2009-01-01

    Effective drug delivery in pancreatic cancer treatment remains a major challenge. Because of the high resistance to chemo and radiation therapy, the overall survival rate for pancreatic cancer is extremely low. Recent advances in drug delivery systems hold great promise for improving cancer therapy. Using liposomes, nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes to deliver cancer drugs and other therapeutic agents such as siRNA, suicide gene, oncolytic virus, small molecule inhibitor and antibody has been a success in recent pre-clinical trials. However, how to improve the specificity and stability of the delivered drug using ligand or antibody directed delivery represent a major problem. Therefore, developing novel, specific, tumor-targeted drug delivery systems is urgently needed for this terrible disease. This review summarizes the current progress on targeted drug delivery in pancreatic cancer, and provides important information on potential therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:19853645

  19. MRI-visible liposome nanovehicles for potential tumor-targeted delivery of multimodal therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Lili; Chen, Shizhen; Li, Haidong; Zhang, Zhiying; Ye, Chaohui; Liu, Maili; Zhou, Xin

    2015-07-01

    Real-time diagnosis and monitoring of disease development, and therapeutic responses to treatment, are possible by theranostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we report the synthesis of a multifunctional liposome, which contains Gd-DOTA (an MRI probe), paclitaxel and c(RGDyk) (a targeted peptide). This nanoparticle overcame the insolubility of paclitaxel, reduced the side effects of FDA-approved formulation of PTX-Cre (Taxol®) and improved drug delivery efficiency to the tumor. c(RGDyk) modification greatly enhanced the cytotoxicity of the drug in tumor cells A549. The T1 relaxivity in tumor cells treated with the targeted liposome formulation was increased 16-fold when compared with the non-targeted group. In vivo, the tumors in mice were visualized using T1-weighted imaging after administration of the liposome. Also the tumor growth could be inhibited well after the treatment. Fluorescence images in vitro and ex vivo also showed the targeting effect of this liposome in tumor cells, indicating that this nanovehicle could limit the off-target side effects of anticancer drugs and contrast agents. These findings lay the foundation for further tumor inhibition study and application of this delivery vehicle in cancer therapy settings.

  20. The formulation of aptamer-coated paclitaxel-polylactide nanoconjugates and their targeting to cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, Rong; Yala, Linda; Fan, Timothy M; Cheng, Jianjun

    2010-04-01

    Paclitaxel-polylactide (Ptxl-PLA) conjugate nanoparticles, termed as nanoconjugates (NCs), were prepared through Ptxl/(BDI)ZnN(TMS)(2) (BDI = 2-((2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-amido)-4-((2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imino)-2-pentene)-mediated controlled polymerization of lactide (LA) followed by nanoprecipitation. Nanoprecipitation of Ptxl-PLA resulted in sub-100 nm NCs with monomodal particle distributions and low polydispersities. The sizes of Ptxl-PLA NCs could be precisely controlled by using appropriate water-miscible solvents and by controlling the concentration of Ptxl-PLA during nanoprecipitation. Co-precipitation of a mixture of PLA-PEG-PLA (PLA = 14 kDa; PEG = 5 kDa) and Ptxl-PLA in PBS resulted in NCs that could stay non-aggregated in PBS for an extended period of time. To develop solid formulations of NCs, we evaluated a series of lyoprotectants, aiming to identify candidates that could effectively reduce or eliminate NC aggregation during lyophilization. Albumin was found to be an excellent lyoprotectant for the preparation of NCs in solid form, allowing lyophilized NCs to be readily dispersed in PBS without noticeable aggregates. Aptamer-NCs bioconjugates were prepared and found to be able to effectively target prostate-specific membrane antigen in a cell-specific manner. PMID:20122727

  1. Polymers for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rajpurohit, H.; Sharma, P.; Sharma, S.; Bhandari, A.

    2010-01-01

    The colon targeted drug delivery has a number of important implications in the field of pharmacotherapy. Oral colon targeted drug delivery systems have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration. Targeting of drugs to the colon via oral administration protect the drug from degradation or release in the stomach and small intestine. It also ensures abrupt or controlled release of the drug in the proximal colon. Various drug delivery systems have been designed that deliver the drug quantitatively to the colon and then trigger the release of drug. This review will cover different types of polymers which can be used in formulation of colon targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:21969739

  2. A novel biosensor for quantitative monitoring of on-target activity of paclitaxel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townley, H. E.; Zheng, Y.; Goldsmith, J.; Zheng, Y. Y.; Stratford, M. R. L.; Dobson, P. J.; Ahmed, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    This study describes a system for quantifying paclitaxel activity using the C-terminus of ?-tubulin as a biomarker. Following stabilization of microtubules with paclitaxel, a specific detyrosination reaction occurs at the C-terminus of ?-tubulin which could be used to assess efficacy. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based biosensor was synthesized comprising a short peptide that corresponded to the C-terminus of ?-tubulin, a fluorophore (Abz), and a quencher (Dnp). The fluorophore added to the end of the peptide can be released upon enzymatic detyrosination. In addition, a single fluorophore-tagged peptide was also conjugated to mesoporous silica nanoparticles to examine the feasibility of combining the drug with the peptide biomarker. As a proof of concept, we found that the degree of peptide cleavage, and therefore enzymatic activity, was directly correlated with exogenous bovine carboxypeptidase (CPA) an enzyme that mimics endogenous detyrosination. In addition, we show that cell lysates obtained from paclitaxel-treated cancer cells competed with exogenous CPA for biosensor cleavage in a paclitaxel dose-dependent manner. Our work provides strong evidence for the feasibility of combining paclitaxel with a novel biosensor in a multi-load nanoparticle.This study describes a system for quantifying paclitaxel activity using the C-terminus of ?-tubulin as a biomarker. Following stabilization of microtubules with paclitaxel, a specific detyrosination reaction occurs at the C-terminus of ?-tubulin which could be used to assess efficacy. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based biosensor was synthesized comprising a short peptide that corresponded to the C-terminus of ?-tubulin, a fluorophore (Abz), and a quencher (Dnp). The fluorophore added to the end of the peptide can be released upon enzymatic detyrosination. In addition, a single fluorophore-tagged peptide was also conjugated to mesoporous silica nanoparticles to examine the feasibility of combining the drug with the peptide biomarker. As a proof of concept, we found that the degree of peptide cleavage, and therefore enzymatic activity, was directly correlated with exogenous bovine carboxypeptidase (CPA) an enzyme that mimics endogenous detyrosination. In addition, we show that cell lysates obtained from paclitaxel-treated cancer cells competed with exogenous CPA for biosensor cleavage in a paclitaxel dose-dependent manner. Our work provides strong evidence for the feasibility of combining paclitaxel with a novel biosensor in a multi-load nanoparticle. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01105h

  3. Trastuzumab-cisplatin conjugates for targeted delivery of cisplatin to HER2-overexpressing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong; Wang, Qiucui; Zhang, Xiangyang; Zhu, Jin; Sun, Baiwang

    2015-05-01

    Cisplatin is widely used for the treatment of numerous types of cancer, while its application is limited by the adverse side effects for its poor selectivity. Trastuzumab is a highly targeting protein to HER2 protein, and it is usually combined with paclitaxel or cisplatin for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. In the present work, we used trastuzumab as a targeting carrier for platinum drug delivery. In ELISA assays and immunofluorescence study, Tmab-1 exhibited high and specific binding affinity to HER2 protein and HER2-overexpressing SK-BR-3 cells. In cytotoxicity test, Tmab-1 showed promising antiproliferative activity to SK-BR-3 cells, while it hardly inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells. The cell cycle arrest study showed Tmab-1 induced the cell cycle arrest mainly at G2/M phase. This work indicates that trastuzumab is an effective and potential targeting carrier for drug delivery. PMID:26054670

  4. A Dicarboxylic Fatty Acid Derivative of Paclitaxel for Albumin Assisted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Michael J.; Joolakanti, Shyamsunder; Hartranft, Megan E.; Guley, Patrick C.; Cho, Moo J.

    2013-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a potent chemotherapy for many cancers but it suffers from very poor solubility. Consequently the TAXOL formulation uses copious amounts of the surfactant Cremophor EL to solubilize the drug for injection resulting in severe hypersensitivity and neutropenia. In contrast to Cremophor EL, presented is a way to solubilize paclitaxel (PTX) by conjugation of a dicarboxylic fatty acid for specific binding to the ubiquitous protein, serum albumin. The conjugation chemistry was simplified to a single step using the activated anhydride form of 3-pentadecylglutaric (PDG) acid which is reactive to a variety of nucleophiles. The PDG derivative is less cytotoxic than the parent compound and was found to slowly hydrolyze to PTX (~5% over 72 h) in serum, tumor cytosol, and tumor tissue homogenate. When injected intravenously to tumor bearing mice, [3H]-PTX in the TAXOL formulation was cleared rapidly with a half-life of 7 hours. In the case of the PDG derivative of PTX, the drug is quickly distributed and approximately 20% of the injected dose remained in the vasculature experiencing a 23-h half-life. These improvements from modifying PTX with the PDG fatty acid present the opportunity for PDG to become a generic modification for the improvement of many therapeutics. PMID:22674061

  5. Targeted delivery of therapeutics to endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Eric; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2009-01-01

    The endothelium is a target for therapeutic and diagnostic interventions in a plethora of human disease conditions including ischemia, inflammation, edema, oxidative stress, thrombosis and hemorrhage, and metabolic and oncological diseases. Unfortunately, drugs have no affinity to the endothelium, thereby limiting the localization, timing, specificity, safety, and effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Molecular determinants on the surface of resting and pathologically altered endothelial cells, including cell adhesion molecules, peptidases, and receptors involved in endocytosis, can be used for drug delivery to the endothelial surface and into intracellular compartments. Drug delivery platforms such as protein conjugates, recombinant fusion constructs, targeted liposomes, and stealth polymer carriers have been designed to target drugs and imaging agents to these determinants. We review endothelial target determinants and drug delivery systems, describe parameters that control the binding of drug carriers to the endothelium, and provide examples of the endothelial targeting of therapeutic enzymes designed for the treatment of acute vascular disorders including ischemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and thrombosis. PMID:18815813

  6. Nanocarriers for cancer-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Preeti; Ghosh, Balaram; Biswas, Swati

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles as drug delivery system have received much attention in recent years, especially for cancer treatment. In addition to improving the pharmacokinetics of the loaded poorly soluble hydrophobic drugs by solubilizing them in the hydrophobic compartments, nanoparticles allowed cancer specific drug delivery by inherent passive targeting phenomena and adopted active targeting strategies. For this reason, nanoparticles-drug formulations are capable of enhancing the safety, pharmacokinetic profiles and bioavailability of the administered drugs leading to improved therapeutic efficacy compared to conventional therapy. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of various nanoparticle formulations in both research and clinical applications with a focus on various chemotherapeutic drug delivery systems for the treatment of cancer. The use of various nanoparticles, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, magnetic and other inorganic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer is detailed. PMID:26061298

  7. Reversal of multidrug resistance by co-delivery of paclitaxel and lonidamine using a TPGS and hyaluronic acid dual-functionalized liposome for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Assanhou, Assogba G; Li, Wenyuan; Zhang, Lei; Xue, Lingjing; Kong, Lingyi; Sun, Hongbin; Mo, Ran; Zhang, Can

    2015-12-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains the primary issue in cancer therapy, which is characterized by the overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-included efflux pump or the upregulated anti-apoptotic proteins. In this study, a D-alpha-tocopheryl poly (ethylene glycol 1000) succinate (TPGS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) dual-functionalized cationic liposome containing a synthetic cationic lipid, 1,5-dioctadecyl-N-histidyl-L-glutamate (HG2C18) was developed for co-delivery of a small-molecule chemotherapeutic drug, paclitaxel (PTX) with a chemosensitizing agent, lonidamine (LND) to treat the MDR cancer. It was demonstrated that the HG2C18 lipid contributes to the endo-lysosomal escape of the liposome following internalization for efficient intracellular delivery. The TPGS component was confirmed able to elevate the intracellular accumulation of PTX by inhibiting the P-gp efflux, and to facilitate the mitochondrial-targeting of the liposome. The intracellularly released LND suppressed the intracellular ATP production by interfering with the mitochondrial function for enhanced P-gp inhibition, and additionally, sensitized the MDR breast cancer (MCF-7/MDR) cells to PTX for promoted induction of apoptosis through a synergistic effect. Functionalized with the outer HA shell, the liposome preferentially accumulated at the tumor site and showed a superior antitumor efficacy in the xenograft MCF-7/MDR tumor mice models. These findings suggest that this dual-functional liposome for co-delivery of a cytotoxic drug and an MDR modulator provides a promising strategy for reversal of MDR in cancer treatment. PMID:26426537

  8. A novel biosensor for quantitative monitoring of on-target activity of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Townley, H E; Zheng, Y; Goldsmith, J; Zheng, Y Y; Stratford, M R L; Dobson, P J; Ahmed, A A

    2015-01-21

    This study describes a system for quantifying paclitaxel activity using the C-terminus of ?-tubulin as a biomarker. Following stabilization of microtubules with paclitaxel, a specific detyrosination reaction occurs at the C-terminus of ?-tubulin which could be used to assess efficacy. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based biosensor was synthesized comprising a short peptide that corresponded to the C-terminus of ?-tubulin, a fluorophore (Abz), and a quencher (Dnp). The fluorophore added to the end of the peptide can be released upon enzymatic detyrosination. In addition, a single fluorophore-tagged peptide was also conjugated to mesoporous silica nanoparticles to examine the feasibility of combining the drug with the peptide biomarker. As a proof of concept, we found that the degree of peptide cleavage, and therefore enzymatic activity, was directly correlated with exogenous bovine carboxypeptidase (CPA) an enzyme that mimics endogenous detyrosination. In addition, we show that cell lysates obtained from paclitaxel-treated cancer cells competed with exogenous CPA for biosensor cleavage in a paclitaxel dose-dependent manner. Our work provides strong evidence for the feasibility of combining paclitaxel with a novel biosensor in a multi-load nanoparticle. PMID:25483994

  9. Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery with Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death around the world. Tumor-targeted drug delivery is one of the major areas in cancer research. Aptamers exhibit many desirable properties for tumor-targeted drug delivery, such as ease of selection and synthesis, high binding affinity and specificity, low immunogenicity, and versatile synthetic accessibility. Over the last several years, aptamers have quickly become a new class of targeting ligands for drug delivery applications. In this review, we will discuss in detail about aptamer-based delivery of chemotherapy drugs (e.g. doxorubicin, docetaxel, daunorubicin, and cisplatin), toxins (e.g. gelonin and various photodynamic therapy agents), and a variety of small interfering RNAs. Although the results are promising which warrants enthusiasm for aptamer-based drug delivery, tumor homing of aptamer-based conjugates after systemic injection has only been achieved in one report. Much remains to be done before aptamer-based drug delivery can reach clinical trials and eventually the day-to-day management of cancer patients. Therefore, future directions and challenges in aptamer-based drug delivery are also discussed. PMID:21838687

  10. Polymeric nanoparticles based on chitooligosaccharide as drug carriers for co-delivery of all-trans-retinoic acid and paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Han, Jian; Zhang, Xiuli; Jiang, Jing; Xu, Maolei; Zhang, Daolai; Han, Jingtian

    2015-09-20

    An amphiphilic all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-chitooligosaccharide (RCOS) conjugate was synthesized to form self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles to facilitate the co-delivery of ATRA and paclitaxel (PTX). The blank RCOS nanoparticles possessed low hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity, and could efficiently load PTX with a drug loading of 22.2% and a high encapsulation efficiency of 71.3%. PTX-loaded RCOS nanoparticles displayed a higher cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells compared to PTX plus ATRA solution when corrected by the accumulated drug release. Cellular uptake profiles of RCOS nanoparticles were evaluated via confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry with FITC as a fluorescent mark. The RCOS nanoparticles could be rapidly and continuously taken up by HepG2 cells via endocytosis and transported into the nucleus, and the uptake rates increased with particle concentration. These results revealed the promising potential of RCOS nanoparticles as drug carriers for co-delivery of ATRA and PTX or other hydrophobic therapeutic agents. PMID:26050884

  11. Delivery of paclitaxel from cobalt–chromium alloy surfaces without polymeric carriers

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Gopinath; Macias, Celia E.; Feldman, Marc D.; Marton, Denes; Oh, Sunho; Agrawal, C. Mauli

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-based carriers are commonly used to deliver drugs from stents. However, adverse responses to polymer coatings have raised serious concerns. This research is focused on delivering drugs from stents without using polymers or any carriers. Paclitaxel (PAT), an anti-restenotic drug, has strong adhesion towards a variety of material surfaces. In this study, we have utilized such natural adhesion property of PAT to attach these molecules directly to cobalt–chromium (Co–Cr) alloy, an ultra-thin stent strut material. Four different groups of drug coated specimens were prepared by directly adding PAT to Co–Cr alloy surfaces: Group-A (PAT coated, unheated, and ethanol cleaned); Group-B (PAT coated, heat treated, and ethanol cleaned); Group-C (PAT coated, unheated, and not ethanol cleaned); and Group-D (PAT coated, heat treated and not ethanol cleaned). In vitro drug release of these specimens was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Groups A and B showed sustained PAT release for up to 56 days. A simple ethanol cleaning procedure after PAT deposition can remove the loosely bound drug crystals from the alloy surfaces and thereby allowing the remaining strongly bound drug molecules to be released at a sustained rate. The heat treatment after PAT coating further improved the stability of PAT on Co–Cr alloy and allowed the drug to be delivered at a much slower rate, especially during the initial 7 days. The specimens which were not cleaned in ethanol, Groups C and D, showed burst release. PAT coated Co–Cr alloy specimens were thoroughly characterized using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These techniques were collectively useful in studying the morphology, distribution, and attachment of PAT molecules on Co–Cr alloy surfaces. Thus, this study suggests the potential for delivering paclitaxel from Co–Cr alloy surfaces without using any carriers. PMID:20398928

  12. Anti-HIF-1alpha antibody-conjugated pluronic triblock copolymers encapsulated with Paclitaxel for tumor targeting therapy.

    PubMed

    Song, Hua; He, Rong; Wang, Kan; Ruan, Jing; Bao, Chenchen; Li, Na; Ji, Jiajia; Cui, Daxiang

    2010-03-01

    Targeted uptake of nanoscale controlled release polymer micelles encapsulated with drugs represents a potential powerful therapeutic technology. Herein we reported the development of anti-HIF-1alpha antibody-conjugated unimolecular polymer nano micelles filled with Paclitaxel for cancer targeting therapy. Pluronic triblock copolymers(Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol), PEO-block-PPO-block-PEO) P123 were functionalized with terminal carboxylic groups, and were characterized by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC). The amphiphilic copolymer nano micelles encapsulated with Paclitaxel were fabricated by self-assembly means, and then were conjugated with anti-HIF-1alpha antibody, the resultant anti-HIF-1alpha conjugated nano micelles filled with PTX (anti-HIF-1alpha-NMs-PTX nanocomposites) were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and incubated with stomach cancer MGC-803 cells and HDF fibroblast cells, these treated cells were analyzed by MTT and cell-ELISA. The nanocomposites composed of anti-HIF-1alpha conjugated nano micelles filled with CdTe quantum dots were also prepared, and incubated with stomach cancer MGC-803 cells and HDF fibroblast cells for 24 h, then were observed by fluorescent microscope. Results showed that the anti-HIF-1alpha-NMs-PTX nanocomposites were successfully prepared, bound with stomach cancer MGC-803 cells specifically, were internalized, and released PTX inside cancer cells, and selectively killed cancer cells. In conclusion, unique anti-HIF-1alpha antibody-conjugated nano micelles filled with Paclitaxel can target and selectively kill cancer cells with over-expression of HIF-1alpha, and has great potential in clinical tumor targeting imaging and therapy. PMID:20004970

  13. Paclitaxel/epigallocatechin gallate coloaded liposome: a synergistic delivery to control the invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ramadass, Satiesh Kumar; Anantharaman, Niranjana Vaighya; Subramanian, Saravanan; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Madhan, Balaraman

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been investigated as a potential target for treating invasive breast cancers. The chemotherapy for breast cancer is often prescribed as a combination of drugs. The present study investigates a novel strategy of combining a MMP inhibitor, Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), along with an anticancer drug, Paclitaxel (PTX), in the form of a liposomal co-delivery system. The developed PTX/EGCG co-loaded liposomes showed an entrapment of 77.11±2.30% and 59.11±3.51% for PTX and EGCG, respectively. The in vitro efficacy of the liposomes was assessed by their ability to promote apoptosis and curtail cell invasion. On all parameters, namely cytotoxicity and caspase-3 activity that are indicators of apoptosis, and MMP-2 and - 9 inhibition and invasion assays that are indicators of cell invasion, the PTX/EGCG co-loaded liposomes showed better results than each of the individual drug loaded liposomes. These findings demonstrate the synergistic outcome of PTX/EGCG combination and indicate the suitability of PTX/EGCG co-loaded liposomes for the treatment of invasive breast cancer. PMID:25437065

  14. Nanoparticles for intracellular-targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, Cristiana S. O.; Pires das Neves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Lino S.

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are very promising for the intracellular delivery of anticancer and immunomodulatory drugs, stem cell differentiation biomolecules and cell activity modulators. Although initial studies in the area of intracellular drug delivery have been performed in the delivery of DNA, there is an increasing interest in the use of other molecules to modulate cell activity. Herein, we review the latest advances in the intracellular-targeted delivery of short interference RNA, proteins and small molecules using NPs. In most cases, the drugs act at different cellular organelles and therefore the drug-containing NPs should be directed to precise locations within the cell. This will lead to the desired magnitude and duration of the drug effects. The spatial control in the intracellular delivery might open new avenues to modulate cell activity while avoiding side-effects.

  15. Therapeutic targeting of erbB3 with MM-121/SAR256212 enhances antitumor activity of paclitaxel against erbB2-overexpressing breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Elevated expression of erbB3 rendered erbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells resistant to paclitaxel via PI-3K/Akt-dependent upregulation of Survivin. It is unclear whether an erbB3-targeted therapy may abrogate erbB2-mediated paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer. Here, we study the antitumor activity of an anti-erbB3 antibody MM-121/SAR256212 in combination with paclitaxel against erbB2-overexpressing breast cancer. Methods Cell growth assays were used to determine cell viability. Cells undergoing apoptosis were quantified by a specific apoptotic ELISA. Western blot analyses were performed to assess the protein expression and activation. Lentiviral vector containing shRNA was used to specifically knockdown Survivin. Tumor xenografts were established by inoculation of BT474-HR20 cells into nude mice. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with paclitaxel and/or MM-121/SAR256212 to determine whether the antibody (Ab) enhances paclitaxels antitumor activity. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to study the combinatorial effects on tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in vivo. Results MM-121 significantly facilitated paclitaxel-mediated anti-proliferative/anti-survival effects on SKBR3 cells transfected with a control vector or erbB3 cDNA. It specifically downregulated Survivin associated with inactivation of erbB2, erbB3, and Akt. MM-121 enhances paclitaxel-induced poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, activation of caspase-8 and -3, and apoptosis in both paclitaxel-sensitive and -resistant cells. Specific knockdown of Survivin in the trastuzumab-resistant BT474-HR20 cells dramatically enhanced paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, suggesting that increased Survivin caused a cross-resistance to paclitaxel. Furthermore, the studies using a tumor xenograft model-established from BT474-HR20 cells revealed that either MM-121 (10mg/kg) or low-dose (7.5mg/kg) paclitaxel had no effect on tumor growth, their combinations significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the combinations of MM-121 and paclitaxel significantly reduced the cells with positive staining for Ki-67 and Survivin, and increased the cells with cleaved caspase-3. Conclusions The combinations of MM-121 and paclitaxel not only inhibit tumor cell proliferation, but also promote erbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells to undergo apoptosis via downregulation of Survivin in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that inactivation of erbB3 with MM-121 enhances paclitaxel-mediated antitumor activity against erbB2-overexpressing breast cancers. Our data supports further exploration of the combinatorial regimens consisting of MM-121 and paclitaxel in breast cancer patients with erbB2-overexpressing tumors, particularly those resistant to paclitaxel. PMID:24168763

  16. Tumor-Targeting Multifunctional Rattle-Type Theranostic Nanoparticles for MRI/NIRF Bimodal Imaging and Delivery of Hydrophobic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yunfeng; Sun, Yangfei; Tang, Xiaoling; Ren, Qingguang; Yang, Wuli

    2015-04-24

    The development of theranostic systems capable of diagnosis, therapy, and target specificity is considerably significant for accomplishing personalized medicine. Here, a multifunctional rattle-type nanoparticle (MRTN) as an effective biological bimodal imaging and tumor-targeting delivery system is fabricated, and an enhanced loading ability of hydrophobic anticancer drug (paclitaxel) is also realized. The rattle structure with hydrophobic Fe3 O4 as the inner core and mesoporous silica as the shell is obtained by one-step templates removal process, and the size of interstitial hollow space can be easily adjusted. The Fe3 O4 core with hydrophobic poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PTBA) chains on the surface is not only used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agent, but contributes to improving hydrophobic drug loading amount. Transferrin (Tf) and a near-infrared fluorescent dye (Cy 7) are successfully modified on the surface of the nanorattle to increase the ability of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging and tumor-targeting specificity. In vivo studies show the selective accumulation of MRTN in tumor tissues by Tf-receptor-mediated endocytosis. More importantly, paclitaxel-loaded MRTN shows sustained release character and higher cytotoxicity than the free paclitaxel. This theranostic nanoparticle as an effective MRI/NIRF bimodal imaging probe and drug delivery system shows great potential in cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25504837

  17. Design and Characterization of PEG-Derivatized Vitamin E as a Nanomicellar Formulation for Delivery of Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianqin; Huang, Yixian; Zhao, Wenchen; Chen, Yichao; Li, Jiang; Gao, Xiang; Venkataramanan, Raman; Li, Song

    2013-01-01

    Various PEG-Vitamin E conjugates including D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate 1000 (TPGS) have been extensively studied as a nonionic surfactant in various drug delivery systems. However, limited information is available about the structure-activity relationship of PEG-Vitamin E conjugates as a micellar formulation for paclitaxel (PTX). In this study, four PEG-Vitamin E conjugates were developed that vary in the molecular weight of PEG (PEG2K vs PEG5K) and the molar ratio of PEG/Vitamin E (1/1 vs 1/2) in the conjugates. These conjugates were systematically characterized with respect to CMC, PTX loading efficiency, stability, and their efficiency in delivery of PTX to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Our data show that PEG5K-conjugates have lower CMC values and are more effective in PTX loading with respect to both loading capacity and stability. The conjugates with two Vitamin E molecules also worked better than the conjugates with one molecule of Vitamin E, particularly for PEG2K-system. Furthermore, all of the PEG-Vitamin E conjugates can inhibit P-gp function with their activity being comparable to that of TPGS. More importantly, PTX-loaded PEG5K-VE2 resulted in significantly improved tumor growth inhibitory effect in comparison to PTX formulated in PEG2K-VE or PEG2K-VE2, as well as Cremophor EL (Taxol) in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer (4T1.2). Our study suggests that PEG5K-Vitmin E2 may hold promise as an improved micellar formulation for in vivo delivery of anticancer agents such as PTX. PMID:23768151

  18. D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate-based derivative nanoparticles as a novel carrier for paclitaxel delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yupei; Chu, Qian; Tan, Songwei; Zhuang, Xiangting; Bao, Yuling; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most effective antineoplastic drugs. Its current clinical administration Taxol® is formulated in Cremophor EL, which causes serious side effects. Nanoparticles (NP) with lower systemic toxicity and enhanced therapeutic efficiency may be an alternative formulation of the Cremophor EL-based vehicle for PTX delivery. In this study, novel amphipathic 4-arm-PEG-TPGS derivatives, the conjugation of D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) and 4-arm-polyethylene glycol (4-arm-PEG) with different molecular weights, have been successfully synthesized and used as carriers for the delivery of PTX. These 4-arm-PEG-TPGS derivatives were able to self-assemble to form uniform NP with PTX encapsulation. Among them, 4-arm-PEG5K-TPGS NP exhibited the smallest particle size, highest drug-loading efficiency, negligible hemolysis rate, and high physiologic stability. Therefore, it was chosen for further in vitro and in vivo investigations. Facilitated by the effective uptake of the NP, the PTX-loaded 4-arm-PEG5K-TPGS NP showed greater cytotoxicity compared with free PTX against human ovarian cancer (A2780), non-small cell lung cancer (A549), and breast adenocarcinoma cancer (MCF-7) cells, as well as a higher apoptotic rate and a more significant cell cycle arrest effect at the G2/M phase in A2780 cells. More importantly, PTX-loaded 4-arm-PEG5K-TPGS NP resulted in a significantly improved tumor growth inhibitory effect in comparison to Taxol® in S180 sarcoma-bearing mice models. This study suggested that 4-arm-PEG5K-TPGS NP may have the potential as an anticancer drug delivery system. PMID:26316751

  19. Solid-Nanoemulsion Preconcentrate for Oral Delivery of Paclitaxel: Formulation Design, Biodistribution, and γ Scintigraphy Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Javed; Mir, Showkat R.; Kohli, Kanchan; Chuttani, Krishna; Mishra, Anil K.; Panda, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of present study was to develop a solid nanoemulsion preconcentrate of paclitaxel (PAC) using oil [propylene glycol monocaprylate/glycerol monooleate, 4 : 1 w/w], surfactant [polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan monooleate/polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate, 1 : 1 w/w], and cosurfactant [diethylene glycol monoethyl ether/polyethylene glycol 300, 1 : 1 w/w] to form stable nanocarrier. The prepared formulation was characterized for droplet size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to assess surface morphology and drug encapsulation and its integrity. Cumulative drug release of prepared formulation through dialysis bag and permeability coefficient through everted gut sac were found to be remarkably higher than the pure drug suspension and commercial intravenous product (Intaxel), respectively. Solid nanoemulsion preconcentrate of PAC exhibited strong inhibitory effect on proliferation of MCF-7 cells in MTT assay. In vivo systemic exposure of prepared formulation through oral administration was comparable to that of Intaxel in γ scintigraphy imaging. Our findings suggest that the prepared solid nanoemulsion preconcentrate can be used as an effective oral solid dosage form to improve dissolution and bioavailability of PAC. PMID:25114933

  20. Low molecular weight chitosan-coated polymeric nanoparticles for sustained and pH-sensitive delivery of paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Abouelmagd, Sara A.; Ku, Youn Jin; Yeo, Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) is a promising polymer for surface modification of nanoparticles (NPs), which can impart both stealth effect and electrostatic interaction with cells at mildly acidic pH of tumors. We previously produced LMWC-coated NPs via covalent conjugation to poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA-LMWC NPs). However, this method had several weaknesses including inefficiency and complexity of the production as well as increased hydrophilicity of the polymer matrix, which led to poor drug release control. Here, we used the dopamine polymerization method to produce LMWC-coated NPs (PLGA-pD-LMWC NPs), where the core NPs were prepared with PLGA that served best to load and retain drugs and then functionalized with LMWC via polydopamine layer. The PLGA-pD-LMWC NPs overcame the limitations of PLGA-LMWC NPs while maintaining their advantages. First of all, PLGA-pD-LMWC NPs attenuated the release of paclitaxel to a greater extent than PLGA-LMWC NPs. Moreover, PLGA-pD-LMWC NPs had a pH-dependent surface charge profile and cellular interactions similar to PLGA-LMWC NPs, enabling acid-specific NP-cell interaction and enhanced drug delivery to cells in weakly acidic environment. Although the LMWC layer did not completely prevent protein binding in serum solution, PLGA-pD-LMWC NPs showed less phagocytic uptake than bare PLGA NPs. PMID:26453168

  1. Poly-α,β-Polyasparthydrazide-Based Nanogels for Potential Oral Delivery of Paclitaxel: In Vitro and In Vivo Properties.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingwen; Ma, Mingxin; Chang, Di; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Chen; Yue, Yang; Liu, Jia; Wang, Siling; Jiang, Tongying

    2015-12-01

    A family of nanogel drug carriers has been designed to enhance the oral absorption of paclitaxel (PTX). The PAHy-based nanogels were prepared by the interpenetration of poly-α,β-polyasparthydrazide (PAHy) chains and dicarboxyl-poly (ethylene glycol) (CPEG), forming a smart chain network. The PAHy-based nanogels were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The adhesion and retention properties of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-nanogels in vivo were investigated using an in vivo imaging system and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The smart nanogels had a particle size of -200 nm, increased the degree and rate of release, and spent over 12 h in the gastrointestinal tract. They also produced excellent adhesion, permeability and retention (APR) effects and increased oral absorption, confirming their use as potential sustained-release carriers for the oral delivery of the hydrophobic anticancer agent PTX. PMID:26510316

  2. Delivery of paclitaxel by physically loading onto poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-graftcarbon nanotubes for potent cancer therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng Lay, Chee; Liu, Hui Qi; Tan, Hui Ru; Liu, Ye

    2010-02-01

    Physically loading of paclitaxel (PTX) onto carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is achieved through immersion of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-graft-single walled CNTs (PEG-g-SWNTs) or PEG-graft-multi-walled CNTs (PEG-g-MWNTs) in a saturated solution of PTX in methanol. After loading once the loading capacity (LD%) is 26% (w/w) and 36% (w/w) for PEG-g-SWNTs or PEG-g-MWNTs, respectively. With these PTX contents, PTX loaded PEG-g-SWNTs and PTX loaded PEG-g-MWNTs still have good dispersity in aqueous solution and individual CNTs can be observed in TEM images. PTX can be released from PEG-g-CNTs several times faster than from free PTX but still in a sustained profile with less than 40% of PTX being released in 40 days at pH 7 or 5. In vitro cytotoxicity of samples is evaluated in HeLa cells and MCF-7 cells. PEG-g-SWNTs and PEG-g-MWNTs show low cytotoxicity in both cells with insignificant effects on the cell proliferation rates. However, both PTX loaded PEG-g-SWNTs and PTX loaded PEG-g-MWNTs show high efficacy to kill HeLa cells and MCF-7 cells, as reflected by IC50 lower than free PTX. Therefore, PTX loaded PEG-g-CNTs are promising for cancer therapeutics. Keywords: carbon nanotubes, poly(ethylene glycol), drug delivery, cancer therapy, nanomedicine.

  3. Special delivery: targeted therapy with small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Peer, D; Lieberman, J

    2011-12-01

    Harnessing RNA interference using small RNA-based drugs has great potential to develop drugs designed to knock down expression of any disease-causing gene, thereby greatly expanding the universe of possible drug targets. However, delivering small RNAs into specific tissues and cells is still a hurdle. Here, we review recent progress in overcoming systemic, local and cellular barriers to RNA drug delivery, focusing on strategies for targeted uptake. PMID:21490679

  4. Self-assembled silk sericin/poloxamer nanoparticles as nanocarriers of hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs for targeted delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Biman B.; Kundu, S. C.

    2009-09-01

    In recent times self-assembled micellar nanoparticles have been successfully employed in tissue engineering for targeted drug delivery applications. In this review, silk sericin protein from non-mulberry Antheraea mylitta tropical tasar silk cocoons was blended with pluronic F-127 and F-87 in the presence of solvents to achieve self-assembled micellar nanostructures capable of carrying both hydrophilic (FITC-inulin) and hydrophobic (anticancer drug paclitaxel) drugs. The fabricated nanoparticles were subsequently characterized for their size distribution, drug loading capability, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity. Nanoparticle sizes ranged between 100 and 110 nm in diameter as confirmed by dynamic light scattering. Rapid uptake of these particles into cells was observed in in vitro cellular uptake studies using breast cancer MCF-7 cells. In vitro cytotoxicity assay using paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles against breast cancer cells showed promising results comparable to free paclitaxel drugs. Drug-encapsulated nanoparticle-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was confirmed by FACS and confocal microscopic studies using Annexin V staining. Up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cleavage of regulatory protein PARP through Western blot analysis suggested further drug-induced apoptosis in cells. This study projects silk sericin protein as an alternative natural biomaterial for fabrication of self-assembled nanoparticles in the presence of poloxamer for successful delivery of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs to target sites.

  5. Pluronic-based functional polymeric mixed micelles for co-delivery of doxorubicin and paclitaxel to multidrug resistant tumor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanzuo; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yukun; Gao, Feng; Sha, Xianyi; Fang, Xiaoling

    2015-07-01

    Although doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX) are widely used in clinic as chemotherapeutics, both drug substances are found to be glycoprotein P (P-gp) substrates which are liable to develop the multidrug resistance (MDR). Additionally, the use of single chemotherapeutic drug has known limitations such as high toxicity profile due to the relatively high doses and limited regimen of clinical application. To this end, Pluronic P105-DOX conjugate was successfully designed and developed which can be further used as a hydrophobic core to entrap another anti-cancer drug PTX with Pluronic F127 to form the dual drug-loaded mixed micelles (PF-DP) in our study, which would offer great advantages over conventional micelles, including easy fabrication, high loading capacity, and co-delivery of hydrophilic DOX and hydrophobic PTX to achieve synergistic effect of these two drug substances. Results showed that PF-DP possessed a good polydispersity and sustained release profile for both DOX and PTX in vitro. Studies on cellular uptake demonstrated both anti-cancer drugs in PF-DP can effectively accumulate in MDR cancer cells. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxicity, cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest studies indicated that PF-DP had better antitumor efficacy in MDR cancer cells compared to those of single-drug loaded micelles. It was also found that PF-DP can suppress the growth of tumor cells more efficiently than single drug formulations at the equivalent drug concentrations, suggesting synergistic effect could be achieved. More importantly, a much stronger antitumor efficacy in MCF-7/ADR tumor-bearing mice was observed in PF-DP group than that of combined administration of free DOX and PTX. Collectively, the dual drug-loaded Pluronic-based functional mixed micelles developed in this study might be a potential nano-drug delivery system for MDR cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25899286

  6. A novel localized co-delivery system with lapatinib microparticles and paclitaxel nanoparticles in a peritumorally injectable in situ hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongxiang; Lin, Zhiqiang; He, Bing; Dai, Wenbing; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-12-28

    The combination of high dose of oral lapatinib (LAPA), a HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with intravenous paclitaxel (PTX) exhibited a clinical survival advantage compared with PTX alone against HER2 positive breast cancer. However, localized delivery system with high regional drug level may greatly decrease the dose of drug, leading to higher safety and lower cost. In an attempt to imitate the fast and slow exposure of these two drugs in clinic use, we incorporated PTX nanoparticles and LAPA microparticles into a thermosensitive hydrogel (PL-gel) for peritumoral injection, using PTX-gel plus LAPA-oral (P-gel+L-oral) and so on as controls. To visually study in vitro or in vivo, PTX/DID and LAPA/DIR hybrid crystals were prepared. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated the fast and short-term release of PTX, as well as the slow and long-term release of LAPA from the PL-gel. The most synergistic effect was found between LAPA and PTX on the cell line overexpressing both HER2 and P-gp, and the mechanisms related to LAPA-induced inhibition on P-gp expression, more G2/M phase arrest of PTX and more uptake of PTX in tumor cells. With a dose of LAPA in PL-gel group only less than 5% of that in P-gel+L-oral group, PL-gel demonstrated significant tumor suppression similar to P-gel+L-oral group, and showed longer mice survival time. Besides, PL-gel achieved more steady LAPA accumulation in tumors and revealed significantly less toxicity compared with P-gel+L-oral group. To summarize, this localized co-delivery system with good synergistic effects between LAPA and PTX might offer a potential strategy for HER2 and P-gp positive breast cancer. PMID:26474677

  7. Polymer Nanocomposites Based Thermo-Sensitive Gel for Paclitaxel and Temozolomide Co-Delivery to Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Shen, Ming; Sun, Ying; Gao, Pei; Duan, Yourong

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we have reported the preparation and optimization of paclitaxel (PTX) and temozolomide (TMZ) loaded monomethoxy (polyethylene glycol)-poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (mPEG-PLGA) nanocomposite which is a thermo-sensitive gel delivery system to glioblastoma. We utilized the orthogonal design and homogeneous design for the optimal drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) and composite gel prescription, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of NPs and rheological properties of the gel were analyzed. Then the in vitro release of the gel was determined with a membrane-less diffusion system. Finally, the cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects of the gel on the human malignant glioblastoma cell line U87 and C6 rat glioblastoma cell line were evaluated by MTT and flow cytometry apoptosis assay, respectively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the optimized NPs with a relatively uniform diameter and distribution. The homogeneous design and rheological determination showed that the optimized gel prescription was 250 mg/mL Pluronic F127 (F127), 0.5% hydroxy propyl methylcellulose (HPMC-100M), 0.5% Pluronic F68 (F68), 0.5% sodium alginate (SA) and suitable NPs, which possessed the appropriate gelation behaviors: gelation temperature 28.01 degrees C, gelation time 127.1 s and corrosion speed 0.1892 g/cm2 x hr; and rheological properties: suitable elasticity modulus, viscosity modulus and low phase angle. The in vitro results suggested that the PTX and TMZ were sustainedly released from nanoparticles or the composite gel, and the release and elimination time greatly prolonged; and the composite gel possessed much higher growth-inhibiting effect and apoptosis-inducing rate in U87 and C6 cells than other formulations. These findings demonstrated that the optimal gel was a promising delivery system for the interstitial chemotherapy to glioblastoma. PMID:26682412

  8. In vitro evaluation of paclitaxel coatings for delivery via drug-coated balloons.

    PubMed

    Kempin, Wiebke; Kaule, Sebastian; Reske, Thomas; Grabow, Niels; Petersen, Svea; Nagel, Stefan; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter; Weitschies, Werner; Seidlitz, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Lately, drug-coated balloons have been introduced in interventional cardiology as an approach to treat occluded blood vessel. They were developed for the rapid transfer of antiproliferative drugs during the angioplasty procedure in stenosed vessels with the intent to reduce the risk of restenosis. In this study five different paclitaxel (PTX) balloon coatings were tested in vitro in order to examine how solvents and additives influence coating stability and drug transfer rates. PTX-coated balloons were advanced through a guiding catheter and a simulated coronary artery pathway under perfusion and were then inflated in a hydrogel acceptor compartment. The fractions transferred to the gel, remaining on the balloon and the PTX lost in the simulated coronary pathway were then analysed. The results obtained suggest that the solvent used for the coating process strongly influences the surface structure and the stability of the coating. Ethanol/water and acetone based PTX coatings showed the lowest drug transfer rates to the simulated vessel wall (both <1%) due to their high drug losses during the prior passage through the coronary artery model (more than 95%). Balloons coated with PTX from ethyl acetate-solutions showed smaller drug loss (83%9%), but most of the remaining PTX was not transferred (mean balloon residue approximately 15%). Beside the solvent, the use of additives seemed to have a great impact on transfer properties. The balloon pre-treatment with a crosslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) film was able to increase the PTX transfer rate from less than 1% (without PVP) to approximately 6%. The best results in this study were obtained for balloon coatings with commercially available SeQuent Please balloons containing the contrast agent iopromide. For this formulation drug transfer rates of approximately 17% were determined. Fluorescence microscopic imaging could visualize the particulate transfer of labelled PTX from the balloon surface during dilatation. The findings of this study underline the importance of drug adhesion and coating stability for the efficiency of PTX transfer. PMID:26318979

  9. Simultaneous delivery of therapeutic antagomirs with paclitaxel for the management of metastatic tumors by a pH-responsive anti-microbial peptide-mediated liposomal delivery system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianyu; Ran, Rui; Zhang, Li; Liu, Yayuan; Mei, Ling; Zhang, Zhirong; Gao, Huile; He, Qin

    2015-01-10

    The roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of metastasis have been widely recognized in the recent years. Mir-10b antagomir (antagomir-10b) was shown to impede metastasis through the down-regulation of mir-10b; however, it could not stunt the growth of primary tumors. In this study we showed that the co-delivery of antagomir-10b with paclitaxel (PTX) by a novel liposomal delivery system modified with an anti-microbial peptide [D]-H6L9 (D-Lip) could significantly both hinder the migration of 4T1 cells and induce evident cellular apoptosis and cell death in the meantime. The histidines in the sequence of [D]-H6L9 allowed the peptide to get protonated under pH5.0 (mimicking the lysosome/endosome environment), and strong membrane lytic effect could thus be activated, leading to the escape of liposomes from the lysosomes and the decrease of of mir-10b expression. The in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging showed that D-Lip could reach 4T1 tumors efficaciously. Incorporation of PTX did not influence the antagomir-10b delivery effect of D-Lip; for the in vivo tumor inhibition assay, compared with all the other groups, the combination of antagomir-10b and PTX delivered by D-Lip could prominently delay the growth of 4T1 tumors and reduce the lung metastases at the same time, and the expression of Hoxd10 in tumors was also significantly up-regulated. Taken together, these results demonstrated that D-Lip could act as a sufficient tool in co-delivering antagomir-10b and PTX. PMID:25445692

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of a backbone biodegradable multiblock HPMA copolymer nanocarrier for the systemic delivery of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Luo, Kui; Yang, Jiyuan; Sima, Monika; Sun, Yongen; Jant-Amsbury, Margit M; Kope?ek, Jind?ich

    2013-02-28

    The performance and safety of current antineoplastic agents, particularly water-insoluble drugs, are still far from satisfactory. For example, the currently widely used Cremophor EL-based paclitaxel (PTX) formulation exhibits pharmacokinetic concerns and severe side effects. Thus, the concept of a biodegradable polymeric drug-delivery system, which can significantly improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce side effects is advocated. The present work aims to develop a new-generation of long-circulating, biodegradable carriers for effective delivery of PTX. First, a multiblock backbone biodegradable N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide(HPMA) copolymer-PTX conjugate (mP-PTX) with molecular weight (Mw) of 335 kDa was synthesized by RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer) copolymerization, followed by chain extension. In vitro studies on human ovarian carcinoma A2780 cells were carried out to investigate the cytotoxicity of free PTX, HPMA copolymer-PTX conjugate with Mw of 48 kDa (P-PTX), and mP-PTX. The experiments demonstrated that mP-PTX has a similar cytotoxic effect against A2780 cells as free PTX and P-PTX. To further compare the behavior of this new biodegradable conjugate (mP-PTX) with free PTX and P-PTX in vivo evaluation was performed using female nu/nu mice bearing orthotopic A2780 ovarian tumors. Pharmacokinetics study showed that high Mw mP-PTX was cleared more slowly from the blood than commercial PTX formulation and low Mw P-PTX. SPECT/CT imaging and biodistribution studies demonstrated biodegradability as well as elimination of mP-PTX from the body. The tumors in the mP-PTX treated group grew more slowly than those treated with saline, free PTX, and P-PTX (single dose at 20 mg PTX/kg equivalent). Moreover, mice treated with mP-PTX had no obvious ascites and body-weight loss. Histological analysis indicated that mP-PTX had no toxicity in liver and spleen, but induced massive cell death in the tumor. In summary, this biodegradable drug delivery system has a great potential to improve performance and safety of current antineoplastic agents. PMID:23262201

  11. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Backbone Biodegradable Multiblock HPMA Copolymer Nanocarrier for the Systemic Delivery of Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Luo, Kui; Yang, Jiyuan; Sima, Monika; Sun, Yongen; Janát-Amsbury, Margit M.; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2012-01-01

    The performance and safety of current antineoplastic agents, particularly water-insoluble drugs, are still far from satisfactory. For example, the currently widely used Cremophor EL®-based paclitaxel (PTX) formulation exhibits pharmacokinetic concerns and severe side effects. Thus, the concept of a biodegradable polymeric drug-delivery system, which can significantly improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce side effects is advocated. The present work aims to develop a new-generation of long-circulating, biodegradable carriers for effective delivery of PTX. First, a multiblock backbone biodegradable N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide(HPMA) copolymer- PTX conjugate (mP-PTX) with molecular weight (Mw) of 335 kDa was synthesized by RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer) copolymerization, followed by chain extension. In vitro studies on human ovarian carcinoma A2780 cells were carried out to investigate the cytotoxicity of free PTX, HPMA copolymer-PTX conjugate with Mw of 48 kDa (P-PTX), and mP-PTX. The experiments demonstrated that mP-PTX has a similar cytotoxic effect against A2780 cells as free PTX and P-PTX. To further compare the behavior of this new biodegradable conjugate (mP-PTX) with free PTX and P-PTX in vivo evaluation was performed using female nu/nu mice bearing orthotopic A2780 ovarian tumors. Pharmacokinetics study showed that high Mw mP-PTX was cleared more slowly from the blood than commercial PTX formulation and low Mw P-PTX. SPECT/CT imaging and biodistribution studies demonstrated biodegradability as well as elimination of mP-PTX from the body. The tumors in the mP-PTX treated group grew more slowly than those treated with saline, free PTX, and P-PTX (single dose at 20 mg PTX/kg equivalent). Moreover, mice treated with mP-PTX had no obvious ascites and body-weight loss. Histological analysis indicated that mP-PTX had no toxicity in liver and spleen, but induced massive cell death in the tumor. In summary, this biodegradable drug delivery system has a great potential to improve performance and safety of current antineoplastic agents. PMID:23262201

  12. Targeted delivery of platinum-taxane combination therapy in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Desale, Swapnil S; Soni, Kruti S; Romanova, Svetlana; Cohen, Samuel M; Bronich, Tatiana K

    2015-12-28

    Biodegradable polypeptide-based nanogels have been developed from amphiphilic block copolymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-glutamic acid)-b-poly(l-phenylalanine), which effectively co-incorporate cisplatin and paclitaxel, the clinically used drug combination for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. In order to target both drugs selectively to the tumor cells, we explored the benefits of ligand-mediated drug delivery by targeting folate receptors, which are overexpressed in most ovarian cancers. Drug-loaded nanogels were surface-functionalized with folic acid (FA) with the help of a PEG spacer without affecting the ligand binding affinity and maintaining the stability of the carrier system. FA-decorated nanogels significantly suppressed the growth of intraperitoneal ovarian tumor xenografts outperforming their nontargeted counterparts without extending their cytotoxicity to the normal tissues. We also confirmed that synchronized co-delivery of the platinum-taxane drug combination via single carrier to the same targeted cells is more advantageous than a combination of targeted single drug formulations administered at the same drug ratio. Lastly, we demonstrated that the same platform can also be used for localized chemotherapy. Our data indicate that intraperitoneal administration can be more effective in the context of targeted combination therapy. Our findings suggest that multifunctional nanogels are promising drug delivery carriers for improvement of current treatment for ovarian cancer. PMID:26381902

  13. Evaluation of acrylate-based block copolymers prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization as matrices for paclitaxel delivery from coronary stents.

    PubMed

    Richard, Robert E; Schwarz, Marlene; Ranade, Shrirang; Chan, A Ken; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Sumerlin, Brent

    2005-01-01

    Acrylate-based block copolymers, synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) processes, were evaluated as drug delivery matrices for the controlled release of paclitaxel from coronary stents. The polymers were multiblock copolymers consisting of poly(butyl acrylate) or poly(lauryl acrylate) soft blocks and hard blocks composed of poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(isobornyl acrylate), or poly(styrene) homo- or copolymers. Depending on the ratio of hard to soft blocks in the copolymers, coating formulations were produced that possessed variable elastomeric properties, resulting in stent coatings that maintained their integrity when assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging of overexpanded stents. In vitro paclitaxel release kinetics from coronary stents coated with these copolymers typically showed an early burst followed by sustained release behavior, which permitted the elution of the majority of the paclitaxel over a 10-day time period. It was determined that neither the nature of the polyacrylate (n-butyl or lauryl) nor that of the hard block appeared to affect the release kinetics of paclitaxel at a loading of 25% drug by weight, whereas some effects were observed at lower drug loading levels. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated that the paclitaxel was at least partially miscible with the poly(n-butyl acrylate) phase of those block copolymers. The copolymers were also evaluated for sterilization stability by exposing both the copolymer alone and copolymer/paclitaxel coated stents to e-beam radiation at doses of 1-3 times the nominal dose used for medical device sterilization (25 kGy). It was found that the copolymers containing blocks bearing quaternary carbons within the polymer backbone were less stable to the radiation and showed a decrease in molecular weight as determined by gel-permeation chromatography. Conversely, those without quaternary carbons showed no significant change in molecular weight when exposed to 3 times the standard radiation dose. There was no significant change in drug release profile from any of the acrylate-based copolymers after exposure to 75 kGy of e-beam radiation, and this was attributed to the inherent radiation stability of the poly(n-butyl acrylate) center block. PMID:16283773

  14. Integrin targeted delivery of gene therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Rudy L; Ming, Xin; Nakagawa, Osamu; Xu, Rongzuo; Yoo, Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Integrins have become key targets for molecular imaging and for selective delivery of anti-cancer agents. Here we review recent work concerning the targeted delivery of antisense and siRNA oligonucleotides via integrins. A variety of approaches have been used to link oligonucleotides to ligands capable of binding integrins with high specificity and affinity. This includes direct chemical conjugation, incorporating oligonucleotides into lipoplexes, and use of various polymeric nanocarriers including dendrimers. The ligand-oligonucleotide conjugate or complex associates selectively with the integrin, followed by internalization into endosomes and trafficking through subcellular compartments. Escape of antisense or siRNA from the endosome to the cytosol and nucleus may come about through endogenous trafficking mechanisms, or because of membrane disrupting capabilities built into the conjugate or complex. Thus a variety of useful strategies are available for using integrins to enhance the pharmacological efficacy of therapeutic oligonucleotides. PMID:21547161

  15. Integrin Targeted Delivery of Gene Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Rudy L; Ming, Xin; Nakagawa, Osamu; Xu, Rongzuo; Yoo, Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Integrins have become key targets for molecular imaging and for selective delivery of anti-cancer agents. Here we review recent work concerning the targeted delivery of antisense and siRNA oligonucleotides via integrins. A variety of approaches have been used to link oligonucleotides to ligands capable of binding integrins with high specificity and affinity. This includes direct chemical conjugation, incorporating oligonucleotides into lipoplexes, and use of various polymeric nanocarriers including dendrimers. The ligand-oligonucleotide conjugate or complex associates selectively with the integrin, followed by internalization into endosomes and trafficking through subcellular compartments. Escape of antisense or siRNA from the endosome to the cytosol and nucleus may come about through endogenous trafficking mechanisms, or because of membrane disrupting capabilities built into the conjugate or complex. Thus a variety of useful strategies are available for using integrins to enhance the pharmacological efficacy of therapeutic oligonucleotides. PMID:21547161

  16. Prophylactic cannabinoid administration blocks the development of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic nociception during analgesic treatment and following cessation of drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemotherapeutic treatment results in chronic pain in an estimated 30-40 percent of patients. Limited and often ineffective treatments make the need for new therapeutics an urgent one. We compared the effects of prophylactic cannabinoids as a preventative strategy for suppressing development of paclitaxel-induced nociception. The mixed CB1/CB2 agonist WIN55,212-2 was compared with the cannabilactone CB2-selective agonist AM1710, administered subcutaneously (s.c.), via osmotic mini pumps before, during, and after paclitaxel treatment. Pharmacological specificity was assessed using CB1 (AM251) and CB2 (AM630) antagonists. The impact of chronic drug infusion on transcriptional regulation of mRNA markers of astrocytes (GFAP), microglia (CD11b) and cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2) was assessed in lumbar spinal cords of paclitaxel and vehicle-treated rats. Results Both WIN55,212-2 and AM1710 blocked the development of paclitaxel-induced mechanical and cold allodynia; anti-allodynic efficacy persisted for approximately two to three weeks following cessation of drug delivery. WIN55,212-2 (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg/days.c.) suppressed the development of both paclitaxel-induced mechanical and cold allodynia. WIN55,212-2-mediated suppression of mechanical hypersensitivity was dominated by CB1 activation whereas suppression of cold allodynia was relatively insensitive to blockade by either CB1 (AM251; 3mg/kg/days.c.) or CB2 (AM630; 3mg/kg/days.c.) antagonists. AM1710 (0.032 and 3.2mg/kg /day) suppressed development of mechanical allodynia whereas only the highest dose (3.2mg/kg/days.c.) suppressed cold allodynia. Anti-allodynic effects of AM1710 (3.2mg/kg/days.c.) were mediated by CB2. Anti-allodynic efficacy of AM1710 outlasted that produced by chronic WIN55,212-2 infusion. mRNA expression levels of the astrocytic marker GFAP was marginally increased by paclitaxel treatment whereas expression of the microglial marker CD11b was unchanged. Both WIN55,212-2 (0.5mg/kg/days.c.) and AM1710 (3.2mg/kg/days.c.) increased CB1 and CB2 mRNA expression in lumbar spinal cord of paclitaxel-treated rats in a manner blocked by AM630. Conclusions and implications Cannabinoids block development of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy and protect against neuropathic allodynia following cessation of drug delivery. Chronic treatment with both mixed CB1/CB2 and CB2 selective cannabinoids increased mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2) in a CB2-dependent fashion. Our results support the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for suppressing chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in humans. PMID:24742127

  17. β-Cyclodextrin-Based Inclusion Complexation Bridged Biodegradable Self-Assembly Macromolecular Micelle for the Delivery of Paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanzuo; Huang, Yukun; Qin, Dongdong; Liu, Wenchao; Song, Chao; Lou, Kaiyan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel adamantanamine-paclitaxel (AD-PTX) incorporated oligochitosan- carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CSO-g-CM-β-CD) self-assembly macromolecular (CSO-g-CM-β-CD@AD-PTX) micelle was successfully prepared in water through sonication. The formed molecules were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, two-dimensional NMR, elemental analysis, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, while the correspondent micelles were characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. We showed that the macromolecular micelle contained a spherical core-shell structure with a diameter of 197.1 ± 3.3 nm and zeta potential of -19.1 ± 4.3 mV. The CSO-g-CM-β-CD@AD-PTX micelle exhibited a high drug-loading efficacy up to 31.3%, as well as a critical micelle concentration of 3.4 × 10-7 M, which indicated good stability. Additionally, the in vitro release profile of the CSO-g-CM-β-CD@AD-PTX micelle demonstrated a long-term release pattern, 63.1% of AD-PTX was released from the micelle during a 30-day period. Moreover, the CSO-g-CM-β-CD@AD-PTX micelle displayed cytotoxicity at a sub-μM scale similar to PTX in U87 MG cells, and CSO-g-CM-β-CD exhibited a good safety profile by not manifesting significant toxicity at concentrations up to 100 μM. These results indicated that β-CD-based inclusion complexation resulting in biodegradable self-assembled macromolecular micelles can be utilized as nanocarrier, and may provide a promising platform for drug delivery in the future medical applications. PMID:26964047

  18. Immunosafety and chronic toxicity evaluation of monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) polymer micelles for paclitaxel delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang; Shen, Yan; Sun, Chunmeng; Nihad, Cheraga; Tu, Jiasheng

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the physicochemical properties, immunosafety and chronic toxicity of monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA), a copolymer used as a carrier for paclitaxel (PTX) delivery. The H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR), dynamic light scattering and fluorescence probe technique were conducted to determine the physicochemical properties of mPEG-PLA copolymer. PTX-loaded polymeric micelles were characterized regarding their particle size, entrapment efficiency (EE), drug loading (DL), in vitro drug release and hemolysis rate. The complement activation in human serum and mast cells degranulation were performed by ELISA and RBL-2H3 cell line in vitro, respectively. The chronic toxicity study was carried out on beagle dogs. The optimized PTX-loaded mPEG-PLA (40/60) micelles showed a particle size of 37?nm and EE of 98.0% with a DL of 17.0% w/w. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses showed that mPEG-PLA (40/60) micelles have spherical shape with dense core. In vitro release study showed a sustained release for 24?h, and the hemolysis study revealed that mPEG-PLA (40/60) was a safe nanocarrier for intravenous administration. mPEG-PLA (40/60) showed a lower complement activation ability compared to mPEG-PLA (50/50) and Cremophor® EL (Cr EL). Furthermore, the chronic toxicity of PTX-loaded mPEG-PLA (40/60) micelles was significantly lower than those of mPEG-PLA (50/50) and Cr EL. PMID:24901209

  19. β-Cyclodextrin-Based Inclusion Complexation Bridged Biodegradable Self-Assembly Macromolecular Micelle for the Delivery of Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanzuo; Huang, Yukun; Qin, Dongdong; Liu, Wenchao; Song, Chao; Lou, Kaiyan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel adamantanamine-paclitaxel (AD-PTX) incorporated oligochitosan- carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CSO-g-CM-β-CD) self-assembly macromolecular (CSO-g-CM-β-CD@AD-PTX) micelle was successfully prepared in water through sonication. The formed molecules were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, two-dimensional NMR, elemental analysis, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, while the correspondent micelles were characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. We showed that the macromolecular micelle contained a spherical core-shell structure with a diameter of 197.1 ± 3.3 nm and zeta potential of −19.1 ± 4.3 mV. The CSO-g-CM-β-CD@AD-PTX micelle exhibited a high drug-loading efficacy up to 31.3%, as well as a critical micelle concentration of 3.4 × 10-7 M, which indicated good stability. Additionally, the in vitro release profile of the CSO-g-CM-β-CD@AD-PTX micelle demonstrated a long-term release pattern, 63.1% of AD-PTX was released from the micelle during a 30-day period. Moreover, the CSO-g-CM-β-CD@AD-PTX micelle displayed cytotoxicity at a sub-μM scale similar to PTX in U87 MG cells, and CSO-g-CM-β-CD exhibited a good safety profile by not manifesting significant toxicity at concentrations up to 100 μM. These results indicated that β-CD-based inclusion complexation resulting in biodegradable self-assembled macromolecular micelles can be utilized as nanocarrier, and may provide a promising platform for drug delivery in the future medical applications. PMID:26964047

  20. Hyaluronic acid-shelled acid-activatable paclitaxel prodrug micelles effectively target and treat CD44-overexpressing human breast tumor xenografts in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yinan; Goltsche, Katharina; Cheng, Liang; Xie, Fang; Meng, Fenghua; Deng, Chao; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Haag, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of nanoscale anticancer drug delivery systems is severely truncated by their low tumor-targetability and inefficient drug release at the target site. Here, we report the design and development of novel endosomal pH-activatable paclitaxel prodrug micelles based on hyaluronic acid-b-dendritic oligoglycerol (HA-dOG-PTX-PM) for active targeting and effective treatment of CD44-overexpressing human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice. HA-dOG-PTX-PM had a high drug content of 20.6 wt.% and an average diameter of 155 nm. The release of PTX was slow at pH 7.4 but greatly accelerated at endosomal pH. MTT assays, flow cytometry and confocal experiments showed that HA-dOG-PTX-PM possessed a high targetability and antitumor activity toward CD44 receptor overexpressing MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies showed that HA-dOG-PTX-PM had a prolonged circulation time in the nude mice and a remarkably high accumulation in the MCF-7 tumor (6.19%ID/g at 12 h post injection). Interestingly, HA-dOG-PTX-PM could effectively treat mice bearing MCF-7 human breast tumor xenografts with little side effects, resulting in complete inhibition of tumor growth and a 100% survival rate over an experimental period of 55 days. These results indicate that hyaluronic acid-shelled acid-activatable PTX prodrug micelles have a great potential for targeted chemotherapy of CD44-positive cancers. PMID:26851390

  1. MiR-16 targets Bcl-2 in paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer cells and overexpression of miR-16 along with miR-17 causes unprecedented sensitivity by simultaneously modulating autophagy and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Abhisek; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2015-02-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers as per as the mortality and occurrence is concerned. Paclitaxel based chemotherapeutic regimes are now used as an important option for the treatment of lung cancer. However, resistance of lung cancer cells to paclitaxel continues to be a major clinical problem nowadays. Despite impressive initial clinical response, most of the patients eventually develop some degree of paclitaxel resistance in the course of treatment. Previously, utilizing miRNA arrays we reported that downregulation of miR-17 is at least partly involved in the development of paclitaxel resistance in lung cancer cells by modulating Beclin-1 expression [1]. In this study, we showed that miR-16 was also significantly downregulated in paclitaxel resistant lung cancer cells. We demonstrated that anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was directly targeted miR-16 in paclitaxel resistant lung cancer cells. Moreover, in this report we showed that the combined overexpression of miR-16 and miR-17 and subsequent paclitaxel treatment greatly sensitized paclitaxel resistant lung cancer cells to paclitaxel by inducing apoptosis via caspase-3 mediated pathway. Combined overexpression of miR-16 and miR-17 greatly reduced Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 expressions respectively. Our results indicated that though miR-17 and miR-16 had no common target, both miR-16 and miR-17 jointly played roles in the development of paclitaxel resistance in lung cancer. miR-17 overexpression reduced cytoprotective autophagy by targeting Beclin-1, whereas overexpression of miR-16 potentiated paclitaxel induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. PMID:25435430

  2. Tumor-targeted paclitaxel-loaded folate conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactide) microparticles produced by supercritical fluid technology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaobei; Zhang, Yanzhi; Yin, Guangfu; Pu, Ximing; Liao, Xiaoming; Huang, Zhongbing; Chen, Xianchun; Yao, Yadong

    2015-02-01

    The new biodegradable diblock copolymers poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactide) (PEG-PLLA) were synthesized and were chemically conjugated with folate (FA) in the PEG terminal ends to form FA-PEG-PLLA. Then the hydrophobic drug paclitaxel (PTX) loaded microparticles (PTX/FA-PEG-PLLA) were produced via solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS). These microparticles exhibited sphere-like shape by scanning electron microscopy observation and showed narrow hydrodynamic size distributions by dynamic light scattering measurement. Drug loading of PTX loaded microparticles was about 7-9% and the encapsulation efficiency of PTX loaded microparticles was about 18-23%. Flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscope analyses revealed that fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled FA conjugated microparticles presented significantly higher cellular uptake than FA-free group due to the FA-receptor-mediated endocytosis. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation indicated that FA-PEG-PLLA expressed negligible cytotoxicity to mouse fibroblasts L929 cells. Moreover, PTX/FA-PEG-PLLA microparticles exhibited much higher anti-cancer efficacy than PTX/PEG-PLLA microparticles against human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells. Nude mice xenografted with SKOV3 cells were used in biodistribution studies, the results indicated that an increased amount of PTX was accumulated in the tumor tissue deal with PTX/FA-PEG-PLLA microparticles. These results collectively suggested that PTX/FA-PEG-PLLA microparticles prepared by SEDS would have potential in anti-tumor applications as a tumor-targeted drug delivery formulation. PMID:25649516

  3. Intraperitoneal delivery of a novel liposome-encapsulated paclitaxel redirects metabolic reprogramming and effectively inhibits cancer stem cells in Taxol®-resistant ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yao-An; Li, Wai-Hou; Chen, Po-Hung; He, Chun-Lin; Chang, Yen-Hou; Chuang, Chi-Mu

    2015-01-01

    Taxol® remained as the mainstay therapeutic agent in the treatment of ovarian cancer, however recurrence rate is still high. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subset of cells in the bulk of tumors and play a central role in inducing drug resistance and recurrence. Furthermore, cancer metabolism has been an area under intensive investigation, since accumulating evidence has shown that CSCs and cancer metabolism are closely linked, an effect named as metabolic reprogramming. In this work, we aimed to investigate the impacts of a novel liposome-encapsulated paclitaxel (Nano-Taxol) on the stemness phenotype and metabolic reprogramming. A paclitaxel-resistant cell line (TR) was established at first. Tumor growth was induced in the mice peritoneal cavity by inoculation of TR cells. A 2x2 factorial experiment was designed to test the therapeutic efficacy in which factor 1 represented the comparison of drugs (Taxol® versus Nano-Taxol), while factor 2 represented the delivery route (intravenous versus intraperitoneal delivery). In this work, we found that intraperitoneal delivery of Nano-Taxol redirects metabolic reprogramming, from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, and effectively suppresses cancer stem cells. Also, intraperitoneal delivery of Nano-Taxol led to a significantly better control of tumor growth compared with intravenous delivery of Taxol® (current standard treatment). This translational research may serve as a novel pathway for the drug development of nanomedicine. In the future, this treatment modality may be extended to treat several relevant cancers that have been proved to be suitable for the loco-regional delivery of therapeutic agents, including colon cancer, gastric cancer, and pancreatic cancer. PMID:26175846

  4. Nanogel Carrier Design for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Eckmann, D. M.; Composto, R. J.; Tsourkas, A.; Muzykantov, V. R.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-based nanogel formulations offer features attractive for drug delivery, including ease of synthesis, controllable swelling and viscoelasticity as well as drug loading and release characteristics, passive and active targeting, and the ability to formulate nanogel carriers that can respond to biological stimuli. These unique features and low toxicity make the nanogels a favorable option for vascular drug targeting. In this review, we address key chemical and biological aspects of nanogel drug carrier design. In particular, we highlight published studies of nanogel design, descriptions of nanogel functional characteristics and their behavior in biological models. These studies form a compendium of information that supports the scientific and clinical rationale for development of this carrier for targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:25485112

  5. New Approaches to Targeted Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, James; Oliver, William; Fologea, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    For targeted drug delivery, one of the primary drawbacks lies with the inability to design a delivery system that can be loaded with a variety of drugs and biomolecules. Motivated by this challenge, we will present data showing 400 nm liposomes loaded via the novel method of lysenin pores. These pores are approximately 3 nm in diameter and can be closed with divalent and trivalent ions in addition to charged polymers. This new method allows for the controllable passage of large biomolecules such as DNA and protein without the inherent problems common to active and passive loading methods. We will show proof-of-concept results of this method using fluorescent calcein as a drug simulator. Furthermore, data demonstrating current attempts at loading DNA will also be presented.

  6. Cooperative assembly in targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auguste, Debra

    2012-02-01

    Described as cell analogues, liposomes are self-assembled lipid bilayer spheres that encapsulate aqueous volumes. Liposomes offer several drug delivery advantages due to their structural versatility related to size, composition, bilayer fluidity, and ability to encapsulate a large variety of compounds non-covalently. However, liposomes lack the structural information embedded within cell membranes. Partitioning of unsaturated and saturated lipids into liquid crystalline (Lα) and gel phase (Lβ) domains, respectively, affects local molecular diffusion and elasticity. Liposome microdomains may be used to pattern molecules, such as antibodies, on the liposome surface to create concentrated, segregated binding regions. We have synthesized, characterized, and evaluated a series of homogeneous and heterogeneous liposomal vehicles that target inflamed endothelium. These drug delivery vehicles are designed to complement the heterogeneous presentation of lipids and receptors on endothelial cells (ECs). EC surfaces are dynamic; they segregate receptors within saturated lipid microdomains on the cell surface to regulate binding and signaling events. We have demonstrated that cooperative binding of two antibodies enhances targeting by multiple fold. Further, we have shown that organization of these antibodies on the surface can further enhance cell uptake. The data suggest that EC targeting may be enhanced by designing liposomes that mirror the segregated structure of lipid and receptor molecules involved in neutrophil-EC adhesion. This strategy is employed in an atherosclerotic mouse model in vivo.

  7. Tumor hypoxia, the Warburg effect, and multidrug resistance: Modulation of hypoxia induced MDR using EGFR-targeted polymer blend nanocarriers for combination paclitaxel/lonidamine therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabr-Milane, Lara Scheherazade

    Multi-drug resistant (MDR) cancer is a significant clinical obstacle and is often implicated in cases of recurrent, non-responsive disease. The biological focus of this work is to explore the relationship between the hypoxic microenvironment of a tumor, the development of MDR, and the energetic profile characteristic of the Warburg effect (aerobic glycolysis). The therapeutic aim of this research is to develop an EGFR-targeted nanocarrier system for combination (paclitaxel/lonidamine) therapy for the treatment of MDR cancer. The stability of the nanocarrier formulation was validated in vitro and the system was characterized for drug release kinetics, size, surface modification, and EGFR-targeting ability. An orthotopic animal model of hypoxic, MDR breast cancer was developed for the pre-clinical evaluation of this system. The EGFR-targeted nanoparticles loaded with lonidamine and paclitaxel demonstrated superior pharmacokinetic parameters relative to non-targeted nanoparticles and drug solution. Combination therapy with lonidamine and paclitaxel, in solution and EGFR-targeted nanoparticle form, was more effective at suppressing tumor growth than single agent treatment. However, combination therapy with EGFR-targeted nanoparticles was less toxic than treatment with drug solution. Combination therapy did change the MDR and hypoxic character of the tumors as demonstrated by a decrease in marker proteins. This EGFR-targeted combination nanocarrier therapy has the potential to make the successful treatment of MDR a clinical reality.

  8. Globular protein-coated Paclitaxel nanosuspensions: interaction mechanism, direct cytosolic delivery, and significant improvement in pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongji; Wu, Zhannan; He, Wei; Qin, Chao; Yao, Jing; Zhou, Jianping; Yin, Lifang

    2015-05-01

    About 40% of the marketed drugs and 70-90% of new drug candidates are insoluble in water and therefore poorly bioavailable, which significantly compromises their therapeutic effects. A formulation of nanosuspensions achieved by reducing the pure drug particle size down to seb-micron range is one of the most promising approaches to overcome the insolubility. However, the nanosuspension formulations are subject to instability because of nucleation and particle growth. Therefore, a stabilizer is needed to be incorporated into the nanosuspension formulation during the preparation process to suppress the aggregation of drug particles. ?-LG, a globular protein, is broken by heat-induced denaturation, and its hydrophobic area is exposed, which allows it to associate with organic particles. PTX, an insoluble drug, is widely used for the clinical treatment of human cancer. However, this drug's clinical application is greatly limited by intrinsic defects including poor solubility, adverse side effects, and poor tumor penetration. In this study, we prepared ?-LG-stabilized PTX nanosuspensions (PTX-NS) by coating the protein onto nanoscaled drug particles, investigating the stabilization effect of ?-LG on PTX-NS, and evaluating its in vitro and in vivo performance. PTX-NS with a diameter of approximately 200 nm was easily prepared. ?-LG produced significantly stabilized effect on PTX-NS via the interaction between the hydrophobic area of the protein and the hydrophobic surface of the drug particles, which resulted in a conformational change of the protein, the loss of both secondary and tertiary structures, and the transition of Trp residues to a less hydrophobic condition. Importantly, unlike other conventional nanoparticles, PTX-NS could directly translocated across the membrane into the cytosol in an energy-independent manner, without entrapment within the endosomal-lysosomal system. Moreover, compared with Taxol, PTX-NS increased AUC and Cmax by 26- and 16-fold, respectively, and prolonged T1/2 by 314-fold. As expected, PTX-NS had better in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity compared to PTX alone. Additionally, ?-LG is cyto- and bio-compatible, and PTX-NS is not toxic to healthy tissues. In conclusion, the present study has suggested the high potency of globular proteins, such as ?-LG, as novel biomaterials for nanosuspension platform to improve the drug delivery for disease treatment. PMID:25799282

  9. Targeted delivery of colloids by swimming bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Koumakis, N.; Lepore, A.; Maggi, C.; Di Leonardo, R.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of exploiting motile microorganisms as tiny propellers represents a fascinating strategy for the transport of colloidal cargoes. However, delivery on target sites usually requires external control fields to steer propellers and trigger cargo release. The need for a constant feedback mechanism prevents the design of compact devices where biopropellers could perform their tasks autonomously. Here we show that properly designed three-dimensional (3D) microstructures can define accumulation areas where bacteria spontaneously and efficiently store colloidal beads. The process is stochastic in nature and results from the rectifying action of an asymmetric energy landscape over the fluctuating forces arising from collisions with swimming bacteria. As a result, the concentration of colloids over target areas can be strongly increased or depleted according to the topography of the underlying structures. Besides the significance to technological applications, our experiments pose some important questions regarding the structure of stationary probability distributions in non-equilibrium systems. PMID:24100868

  10. Targeted delivery of colloids by swimming bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumakis, N.; Lepore, A.; Maggi, C.; di Leonardo, R.

    2013-10-01

    The possibility of exploiting motile microorganisms as tiny propellers represents a fascinating strategy for the transport of colloidal cargoes. However, delivery on target sites usually requires external control fields to steer propellers and trigger cargo release. The need for a constant feedback mechanism prevents the design of compact devices where biopropellers could perform their tasks autonomously. Here we show that properly designed three-dimensional (3D) microstructures can define accumulation areas where bacteria spontaneously and efficiently store colloidal beads. The process is stochastic in nature and results from the rectifying action of an asymmetric energy landscape over the fluctuating forces arising from collisions with swimming bacteria. As a result, the concentration of colloids over target areas can be strongly increased or depleted according to the topography of the underlying structures. Besides the significance to technological applications, our experiments pose some important questions regarding the structure of stationary probability distributions in non-equilibrium systems.

  11. Injected nanocrystals for targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Li, Ye; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystals are pure drug crystals with sizes in the nanometer range. Due to the advantages of high drug loading, platform stability, and ease of scaling-up, nanocrystals have been widely used to deliver poorly water-soluble drugs. Nanocrystals in the blood stream can be recognized and sequestered as exogenous materials by mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) cells, leading to passive accumulation in MPS-rich organs, such as liver, spleen and lung. Particle size, morphology and surface modification affect the biodistribution of nanocrystals. Ligand conjugation and stimuli-responsive polymers can also be used to target nanocrystals to specific pathogenic sites. In this review, the progress on injected nanocrystals for targeted drug delivery is discussed following a brief introduction to nanocrystal preparation methods, i.e., top-down and bottom-up technologies. PMID:27006893

  12. Targeted Lung Delivery of Nasally Administered Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Geng; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2014-01-01

    Using the nasal route to deliver pharmaceutical aerosols to the lungs has a number of advantages including co-administration during non-invasive ventilation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and deposition characteristics of nasally administered aerosol throughout the conducting airways based on delivery with streamlined interfaces implementing two forms of controlled condensational growth technology. Characteristic conducting airways were considered including a nose-mouth-throat (NMT) geometry, complete upper tracheobronchial (TB) model through the third bifurcation (B3), and stochastic individual path (SIP) model to the terminal bronchioles (B15). Previously developed streamlined nasal cannula interfaces were used for the delivery of submicrometer particles using either enhanced condensational growth (ECG) or excipient enhanced growth (EEG) techniques. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations predicted aerosol transport, growth and deposition for a control (4.7 ?m) and three submicrometer condensational aerosols with budesonide as a model insoluble drug. Depositional losses with condensational aerosols in the cannula and NMT were less than 5% of the initial dose, which represents an order-of-magnitude reduction compared to the control. The condensational growth techniques increased the TB dose by a factor of 1.12.6x, delivered at least 70% of the dose to the alveolar region, and produced final aerosol sizes ?2.5 ?m. Compared to multiple commercial orally inhaled products, the nose-to-lung delivery approach increased dose to the biologically important lower TB region by factors as large as 35x. In conclusion, nose-to-lung delivery with streamlined nasal cannulas and condensational aerosols was highly efficient and targeted deposition to the lower TB and alveolar regions. PMID:24932058

  13. In vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of surface modified paclitaxel attached hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Venkatasubbu, G Devanand; Ramasamy, S; Reddy, G Pramod; Kumar, J

    2013-08-01

    Targeted drug delivery using nanocrystalline materials delivers the drug at the diseased site. This increases the efficacy of the drug in killing the cancer cells. Surface modifications were done to target the drug to a particular receptor on the cell surface. This paper reports synthesis of hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles and modification of their surface with polyethylene glycol (PEG) followed by folic acid (FA). Paclitaxel, an anticancer drug, is attached to functionalized hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The pure and functionalised nanoparticles are characterised with XRD, TEM and UV spectroscopy. Anticancer analysis was carried out in DEN induced hepatocarcinoma animals. Biochemical, hematological and histopathological analysis show that the surface modified paclitaxel attached nanoparticles have an higher anticancer activity than the pure paclitaxel and surface modified nanoparticles without paclitaxel. This is due to the targeting of the drug to the folate receptor in the cancer cells. PMID:23615724

  14. Clusterin is a potential molecular predictor for ovarian cancer patient's survival: targeting Clusterin improves response to paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clusterin is a cytoprotective chaperone protein involved in numerous physiological processes, carcinogenesis, tumor growth and tissue remodelling. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether clusterin (CLU), an antiapoptotic molecule, could be a potential predictor molecule for ovarian cancer and whether or not targeting this molecule can improve survival of ovarian cancer patients. Methods Clusterin expression was compared between ten primary and their recurrent tumors from same patients immunohistochemically. We analyzed prognostic significance of CLU expression in another 47 ovarian cancer tissue samples by immunohistochemistry. We used small interference RNA to knock down CLU in the chemo-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines. KF-TX and SKOV-3-TX, paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells, were established from parental KF and SKOV-3 chemo-sensitive cell lines, respectively. Either siRNA or second generation antisense oligodeoxynucleotide against CLU (OGX-011), which is currently evaluated in clinical phase II trials in other cancer s, was used to modulate sensitivity to paclitaxel (TX) in ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Cellular viability assay, FACS analysis and annexin V staining were used to evaluate the comparative effect of CLU knocking down in ovarian cancer cells. Results Immunohistochemical analysis of CLU expression in primary ovarian cancer tissue specimens and their recurrent counterparts from same patients demonstrated higher expression of CLU in the recurrent resistant tumors compared with their primary tumors. High expression of CLU by immunohistochemistry among 47 surgical tissue specimens of early-stage (stage I/II) ovarian cancer, who underwent complete cytoreduction as a primary surgery, significantly related to poor survival, while none of other clinicopathological factors analyzed were related to survival in this patient cohort. Secretory CLU (s-CLU; 60 KDa) expression was upregulated in TX-resistant ovarian cancer cells compared to parental cells. Transfection of siRNA or OGX-011 clearly reduced CLU expression. Cell viability assay, FACS analysis and annexin V staining demonstrated that targeting CLU expression by siRNA or OGX-011 sensitized ovarian cancer cells to TX. Conclusion We conclude that CLU could be a potential molecular target to predict survival while targeting this s-CLU may improve survival of patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:22185350

  15. Targeted estrogen delivery reverses the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Brian; Yang, Bin; Ottaway, Nickki; Stemmer, Kerstin; Müller, Timo D; Yi, Chun-Xia; Habegger, Kirk; Schriever, Sonja C; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Kabra, Dhiraj G; Hembree, Jazzminn; Holland, Jenna; Raver, Christine; Seeley, Randy J; Hans, Wolfgang; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Tiano, Joseph P; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Pfluger, Paul; Zhang, Lianshan; Gelfanov, Vasily; DiMarchi, Richard D; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a new combinatorial approach that allows for peptide-mediated selective tissue targeting of nuclear hormone pharmacology while eliminating adverse effects in other tissues. Specifically, we report the development of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-estrogen conjugate that has superior sex-independent efficacy over either of the individual hormones alone to correct obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in mice. The therapeutic benefits are driven by pleiotropic dual hormone action to improve energy, glucose and lipid metabolism, as shown by loss-of-function models and genetic action profiling. Notably, the peptide-based targeting strategy also prevents hallmark side effects of estrogen in male and female mice, such as reproductive endocrine toxicity and oncogenicity. Collectively, selective activation of estrogen receptors in GLP-1–targeted tissues produces unprecedented efficacy to enhance the metabolic benefits of GLP-1 agonism. This example of targeting the metabolic syndrome represents the discovery of a new class of therapeutics that enables synergistic co-agonism through peptide-based selective delivery of small molecules. Although our observations with the GLP-1–estrogen conjugate justify translational studies for diabetes and obesity, the multitude of other possible combinations of peptides and small molecules may offer equal promise for other diseases. PMID:23142820

  16. Targeted estrogen delivery reverses the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Finan, Brian; Yang, Bin; Ottaway, Nickki; Stemmer, Kerstin; Mller, Timo D; Yi, Chun-Xia; Habegger, Kirk; Schriever, Sonja C; Garca-Cceres, Cristina; Kabra, Dhiraj G; Hembree, Jazzminn; Holland, Jenna; Raver, Christine; Seeley, Randy J; Hans, Wolfgang; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrab?; Tiano, Joseph P; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Pfluger, Paul; Zhang, Lianshan; Gelfanov, Vasily; DiMarchi, Richard D; Tschp, Matthias H

    2012-12-01

    We report the development of a new combinatorial approach that allows for peptide-mediated selective tissue targeting of nuclear hormone pharmacology while eliminating adverse effects in other tissues. Specifically, we report the development of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-estrogen conjugate that has superior sex-independent efficacy over either of the individual hormones alone to correct obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in mice. The therapeutic benefits are driven by pleiotropic dual hormone action to improve energy, glucose and lipid metabolism, as shown by loss-of-function models and genetic action profiling. Notably, the peptide-based targeting strategy also prevents hallmark side effects of estrogen in male and female mice, such as reproductive endocrine toxicity and oncogenicity. Collectively, selective activation of estrogen receptors in GLP-1-targeted tissues produces unprecedented efficacy to enhance the metabolic benefits of GLP-1 agonism. This example of targeting the metabolic syndrome represents the discovery of a new class of therapeutics that enables synergistic co-agonism through peptide-based selective delivery of small molecules. Although our observations with the GLP-1-estrogen conjugate justify translational studies for diabetes and obesity, the multitude of other possible combinations of peptides and small molecules may offer equal promise for other diseases. PMID:23142820

  17. Novel ZnO hollow-nanocarriers containing paclitaxel targeting folate-receptors in a malignant pH-microenvironment for effective monitoring and promoting breast tumor regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puvvada, Nagaprasad; Rajput, Shashi; Kumar, B. N. Prashanth; Sarkar, Siddik; Konar, Suraj; Brunt, Keith R.; Rao, Raj R.; Mazumdar, Abhijit; Das, Swadesh K.; Basu, Ranadhir; Fisher, Paul B.; Mandal, Mahitosh; Pathak, Amita

    2015-07-01

    Low pH in the tumor micromilieu is a recognized pathological feature of cancer. This attribute of cancerous cells has been targeted herein for the controlled release of chemotherapeutics at the tumour site, while sparing healthy tissues. To this end, pH-sensitive, hollow ZnO-nanocarriers loaded with paclitaxel were synthesized and their efficacy studied in breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. The nanocarriers were surface functionalized with folate using click-chemistry to improve targeted uptake by the malignant cells that over-express folate-receptors. The nanocarriers released ~75% of the paclitaxel payload within six hours in acidic pH, which was accompanied by switching of fluorescence from blue to green and a 10-fold increase in the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence-switching phenomenon is due to structural collapse of the nanocarriers in the endolysosome. Energy dispersion X-ray mapping and whole animal fluorescent imaging studies were carried out to show that combined pH and folate-receptor targeting reduces off-target accumulation of the nanocarriers. Further, a dual cell-specific and pH-sensitive nanocarrier greatly improved the efficacy of paclitaxel to regress subcutaneous tumors in vivo. These nanocarriers could improve chemotherapy tolerance and increase anti-tumor efficacy, while also providing a novel diagnostic read-out through fluorescent switching that is proportional to drug release in malignant tissues.

  18. Novel ZnO hollow-nanocarriers containing paclitaxel targeting folate-receptors in a malignant pH-microenvironment for effective monitoring and promoting breast tumor regression.

    PubMed

    Puvvada, Nagaprasad; Rajput, Shashi; Kumar, B N Prashanth; Sarkar, Siddik; Konar, Suraj; Brunt, Keith R; Rao, Raj R; Mazumdar, Abhijit; Das, Swadesh K; Basu, Ranadhir; Fisher, Paul B; Mandal, Mahitosh; Pathak, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Low pH in the tumor micromilieu is a recognized pathological feature of cancer. This attribute of cancerous cells has been targeted herein for the controlled release of chemotherapeutics at the tumour site, while sparing healthy tissues. To this end, pH-sensitive, hollow ZnO-nanocarriers loaded with paclitaxel were synthesized and their efficacy studied in breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. The nanocarriers were surface functionalized with folate using click-chemistry to improve targeted uptake by the malignant cells that over-express folate-receptors. The nanocarriers released ~75% of the paclitaxel payload within six hours in acidic pH, which was accompanied by switching of fluorescence from blue to green and a 10-fold increase in the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence-switching phenomenon is due to structural collapse of the nanocarriers in the endolysosome. Energy dispersion X-ray mapping and whole animal fluorescent imaging studies were carried out to show that combined pH and folate-receptor targeting reduces off-target accumulation of the nanocarriers. Further, a dual cell-specific and pH-sensitive nanocarrier greatly improved the efficacy of paclitaxel to regress subcutaneous tumors in vivo. These nanocarriers could improve chemotherapy tolerance and increase anti-tumor efficacy, while also providing a novel diagnostic read-out through fluorescent switching that is proportional to drug release in malignant tissues. PMID:26145450

  19. Novel ZnO hollow-nanocarriers containing paclitaxel targeting folate-receptors in a malignant pH-microenvironment for effective monitoring and promoting breast tumor regression

    PubMed Central

    Puvvada, Nagaprasad; Rajput, Shashi; Kumar, B.N. Prashanth; Sarkar, Siddik; Konar, Suraj; Brunt, Keith R.; Rao, Raj R.; Mazumdar, Abhijit; Das, Swadesh K.; Basu, Ranadhir; Fisher, Paul B.; Mandal, Mahitosh; Pathak, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Low pH in the tumor micromilieu is a recognized pathological feature of cancer. This attribute of cancerous cells has been targeted herein for the controlled release of chemotherapeutics at the tumour site, while sparing healthy tissues. To this end, pH-sensitive, hollow ZnO-nanocarriers loaded with paclitaxel were synthesized and their efficacy studied in breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. The nanocarriers were surface functionalized with folate using click-chemistry to improve targeted uptake by the malignant cells that over-express folate-receptors. The nanocarriers released ~75% of the paclitaxel payload within six hours in acidic pH, which was accompanied by switching of fluorescence from blue to green and a 10-fold increase in the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence-switching phenomenon is due to structural collapse of the nanocarriers in the endolysosome. Energy dispersion X-ray mapping and whole animal fluorescent imaging studies were carried out to show that combined pH and folate-receptor targeting reduces off-target accumulation of the nanocarriers. Further, a dual cell-specific and pH-sensitive nanocarrier greatly improved the efficacy of paclitaxel to regress subcutaneous tumors in vivo. These nanocarriers could improve chemotherapy tolerance and increase anti-tumor efficacy, while also providing a novel diagnostic read-out through fluorescent switching that is proportional to drug release in malignant tissues. PMID:26145450

  20. Fibronectin-targeted drug delivery in cancer.

    PubMed

    Kumra, Heena; Reinhardt, Dieter P

    2016-02-01

    Fibronectin is an extracellular matrix protein with pivotal physiological and pathological functions in development and adulthood. Alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA, produced from the single copy fibronectin gene, occurs at three sites coding for the EDA, EDB and IIICS domains. Fibronectin isoforms comprising the EDA or EDB domains are known as oncofetal forms due to their developmental importance and their re-expression in tumors, contrasting with restricted presence in normal adult tissues. These isoforms are also recognized as important markers of angiogenesis, a crucial physiological process in development and required by tumor cells in cancer progression. Attributed to this feature, EDA and EDB domains have been extensively used for the targeted delivery of cytokines, cytotoxic agents, chemotherapy drugs and radioisotopes to fibronectin-expressing tumors to exert therapeutic effects on primary cancers and metastatic lesions. In addition to drug delivery, the EDA and EDB domains of fibronectin have also been utilized to develop imaging strategies for tumor tissues. Furthermore, EDA and EDB based vaccines seem to be promising for the treatment and prevention of certain cancer types. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in fibronectin EDA and EDB-based therapeutic strategies developed to treat cancer. PMID:26639577

  1. Co-delivery of cisplatin and paclitaxel by folic acid conjugated amphiphilic PEG-PLGA copolymer nanoparticles for the treatment of non-small lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Zelai; Huang, Jingwen; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiangyu; Teng, Yanwei; Huang, Can; Wu, Yufeng; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Huijun; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    An amphiphilic copolymer, folic acid (FA) modified poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (FA-PEG-PLGA) was prepared and explored as a nanometer carrier for the co-delivery of cisplatin (cis-diaminodichloroplatinum, CDDP) and paclitaxel (PTX). CDDP and PTX were encapsulated inside the hydrophobic inner core and chelated to the middle shell, respectively. PEG provided the outer corona for prolonged circulation. An in vitro release profile of the CDDP + PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles revealed that the PTX chelation cross-link prevented an initial burst release of CDDP. After an incubation period of 24 hours, the CDDP+PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles exhibited a highly synergistic effect for the inhibition of A549 (FA receptor negative) and M109 (FA receptor positive) lung cancer cell line proliferation. Pharmacokinetic experiment and distribution research shows that nanoparticles have longer circulation time in the blood and can prolong the treatment times of chemotherapeutic drugs. For the in vivo treatment of A549 cells xeno-graft lung tumor, the CDDP+PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles displayed an obvious tumor inhibiting effect with an 89.96% tumor suppression rate (TSR). This TSR was significantly higher than that of free chemotherapy drug combination or nanoparticles with a single drug. For M109 cells xeno-graft tumor, the TSR was 95.03%. In vitro and in vivo experiments have all shown that the CDDP+PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles have better targeting and antitumor effects in M109 cells than CDDP+PTX-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles (p < 0.05). In addition, more importantly, the enhanced anti-tumor efficacy of the CDDP+PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles came with reduced side-effects. No obvious body weight loss or functional changes occurred within blood components, liver, or kidneys during the treatment of A549 and M109 tumor-bearing mice with the CDDP+PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles. Thus, the FA modified amphiphilic copolymer-based combination of CDDP and PTX may provide useful guidance for effective and safe cancer chemotherapy, especially in tumors with high FA receptor expression. PMID:26517524

  2. Co-delivery of cisplatin and paclitaxel by folic acid conjugated amphiphilic PEG-PLGA copolymer nanoparticles for the treatment of non-small lung cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Zelai; Huang, Jingwen; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiangyu; Teng, Yanwei; Huang, Can; Wu, Yufeng; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Huijun; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-12-01

    An amphiphilic copolymer, folic acid (FA) modified poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (FA-PEG-PLGA) was prepared and explored as a nanometer carrier for the co-delivery of cisplatin (cis-diaminodichloroplatinum, CDDP) and paclitaxel (PTX). CDDP and PTX were encapsulated inside the hydrophobic inner core and chelated to the middle shell, respectively. PEG provided the outer corona for prolonged circulation. An in vitro release profile of the CDDP + PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles revealed that the PTX chelation cross-link prevented an initial burst release of CDDP. After an incubation period of 24 hours, the CDDP+PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles exhibited a highly synergistic effect for the inhibition of A549 (FA receptor negative) and M109 (FA receptor positive) lung cancer cell line proliferation. Pharmacokinetic experiment and distribution research shows that nanoparticles have longer circulation time in the blood and can prolong the treatment times of chemotherapeutic drugs. For the in vivo treatment of A549 cells xeno-graft lung tumor, the CDDP+PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles displayed an obvious tumor inhibiting effect with an 89.96% tumor suppression rate (TSR). This TSR was significantly higher than that of free chemotherapy drug combination or nanoparticles with a single drug. For M109 cells xeno-graft tumor, the TSR was 95.03%. In vitro and in vivo experiments have all shown that the CDDP+PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles have better targeting and antitumor effects in M109 cells than CDDP+PTX-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles (p < 0.05). In addition, more importantly, the enhanced anti-tumor efficacy of the CDDP+PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles came with reduced side-effects. No obvious body weight loss or functional changes occurred within blood components, liver, or kidneys during the treatment of A549 and M109 tumor-bearing mice with the CDDP+PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles. Thus, the FA modified amphiphilic copolymer-based combination of CDDP and PTX may provide useful guidance for effective and safe cancer chemotherapy, especially in tumors with high FA receptor expression. PMID:26517524

  3. Mitochondrial biology, targets, and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Milane, Lara; Trivedi, Malav; Singh, Amit; Talekar, Meghna; Amiji, Mansoor

    2015-06-10

    In recent years, mitochondrial medicine has emerged as a new discipline resting at the intersection of mitochondrial biology, pathology, and pharmaceutics. The central role of mitochondria in critical cellular processes such as metabolism and apoptosis has placed mitochondria at the forefront of cell science. Advances in mitochondrial biology have revealed that these organelles continually undergo fusion and fission while functioning independently and in complex cellular networks, establishing direct membrane contacts with each other and with other organelles. Understanding the diverse cellular functions of mitochondria has contributed to understanding mitochondrial dysfunction in disease states. Polyplasmy and heteroplasmy contribute to mitochondrial phenotypes and associated dysfunction. Residing at the center of cell biology, cellular functions, and disease pathology and being laden with receptors and targets, mitochondria are beacons for pharmaceutical modification. This review presents the current state of mitochondrial medicine with a focus on mitochondrial function, dysfunction, and common disease; mitochondrial receptors, targets, and substrates; and mitochondrial drug design and drug delivery with a focus on the application of nanotechnology to mitochondrial medicine. Mitochondrial medicine is at the precipice of clinical translation; the objective of this review is to aid in the advancement of mitochondrial medicine from infancy to application. PMID:25841699

  4. Bioinspired Nanonetworks for Targeted Cancer Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Rady Raz, Nasibeh; Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Tafaghodi, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    A biomimicry approach to nanonetworks is proposed here for targeted cancer drug delivery (TDD). The swarm of bioinspired nanomachines utilizes the blood distribution network and chemotaxis to carry drug through the vascular system to the cancer site, recognized by a high concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our approach is multi-scale and includes processes that occur both within cells and with their neighbors. The proposed bionanonetwork takes advantage of several organic processes, some of which already occur within the human body, such as a plate-like structure similar to those of red blood cells for more environmental contact; a berry fruit architecture for its internal multi-foams architecture; the penetrable structure of cancer cells, tissue, as well as the porous structure of the capillaries for drug penetration; state of glycocalyx for ligand-receptor adhesion; as well as changes in pH state of blood and O 2 release for nanomachine communication. For a more appropriate evaluation, we compare our work with a conventional chemotherapy approach using a mathematical model of cancer under actual experimental parameter settings. Simulation results show the merits of the proposed method in targeted cancer therapy by improving the densities of the relevant cancer cell types and VEGF concentration, while following more organic and natural processes. PMID:26529771

  5. Overcoming drug-resistant lung cancer by paclitaxel loaded dual-functional liposomes with mitochondria targeting and pH-response.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Li, Li; He, Xiaodan; Yi, Qiangying; He, Bin; Cao, Jun; Pan, Weisan; Gu, Zhongwei

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrion-orientated transportation of smart liposomes has been developed as a promising strategy to deliver anticancer drugs directly to tumor sites, and these have a tremendous potential for killing cancer cells, especially those with multidrug resistance (MDR). Herein we report a novel dual-functional liposome system possessing both extracellular pH response and mitochondrial targeting properties to enhance drug accumulation in mitochondria and trigger apoptosis of drug-resistant cancer cells. Briefly, peptide D[KLAKLAK]2 (KLA) was modified with 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (DMA) and combined with 1, 2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DSPE) to yield a DSPE-KLA-DMA (DKD) lipid. This dual-functional DKD was then mixed with other commercially available lipids to fabricate liposomes. Invitro anticancer efficacy of this liposome system was evaluated in human lung cancer A549 cells and drug-resistant lung cancer A549/Taxol cells. At tumor extracellular pH (?6.8), liposomes could reverse their surface charge (negative to positive), facilitating liposome internalization. After cellular uptake, KLA peptide directed delivery-enabled selective accumulation of these liposomes into mitochondria and favored release of their cargo paclitaxel (PTX) into desired sites. Specifically, enhanced apoptosis of MDR cancer cells through mitochondrial signaling pathways was evidenced by release of cytochrome c and increased activity of caspase-9 and -3. These dual-functional liposomes had the greatest efficacy for treating A549 cells and A549/Taxol cells invitro, and in treating drug-resistant lung cancer A549/Taxol cells xenografted onto nude mice (tumor growth inhibition 86.7%). In conclusion, dual-functional liposomes provide a novel and versatile approach for overcoming MDR in cancer treatment. PMID:25818419

  6. Toward Intracellular Targeted Delivery of Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Hetal; Debinski, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    A number of anti-cancer drugs have their targets localized to particular intracellular compartments. These drugs reach the targets mainly through diffusion, dependent on biophysical and biochemical forces that allow cell penetration. This means that both cancer cells and normal cells will be subjected to such diffusion; hence many of these drugs, like chemotherapeutics, are potentially toxic and the concentration achieved at the site of their action is often suboptimal. The same relates to radiation that indiscriminately affects normal and diseased cells. However, nature-designed systems enable compounds present in the extracellular environment to end up inside the cell and even travel to more specific intracellular compartments. For example, viruses and bacterial toxins can more or less specifically recognize eukaryotic cells, enter these cells, and direct some protein portions to designated intracellular areas. These phenomena have led to creative thinking, such as employing viruses or bacterial toxins for cargo delivery to cells and, more specifically, to cancer cells. Proteins can be genetically engineered in order to not only mimic what viruses and bacterial toxins can do, but also to add new functions, extending or changing the intracellular routes. It is possible to make conjugates or, more preferably, single-chain proteins that recognize cancer cells and deliver cargo inside the cells, even to the desired subcellular compartment. These findings offer new opportunities to deliver drugs/labels only to cancer cells and only to their site of action within the cells. The development of such dual-specificity vectors for targeting cancer cells is an attractive and potentially safer and more efficacious way of delivering drugs. We provide examples of this approach for delivering brain cancer therapeutics, using a specific biomarker on glioblastoma tumor cells. PMID:22671766

  7. pH-Sensitive Biocompatible Nanoparticles of Paclitaxel-Conjugated Poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) for Anticancer Drug Delivery in Solid Tumors of Syngeneic Mice.

    PubMed

    Dalela, Manu; Shrivastav, T G; Kharbanda, Surender; Singh, Harpal

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we have synthesized poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride), a biocompatible copolymer that was further conjugated with paclitaxel (PTX) via ester linkage and self-assembled to form poly(styrene-co-maleic acid)-paclitaxel (PSMAC-PTX) nanoparticles (NPs). The in vitro release of PTX from PSMAC-PTX NPs showed a higher release at lower pH than at the physiological pH of 7.4, confirming its pH-dependent release. The cell viability of PSMAC-PTX nanoparticles was evaluated using MTT assay. IC50 values of 9.05-18.43 ng/mL of PTX equivalent were observed in various cancer cell lines after 72 h of incubation. Confocal microscopy, Western blotting, and Flow cytometry results further supported that the cellular uptake and apoptosis of cancer cells with PSMAC-PTX NPs. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the conjugation of PTX to the PSMAC co-polymer not only increased the plasma and tumor Cmax of PTX but also prolonged its plasma half-life and retention in tumor via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Administration of PSMAC-PTX NPs showed significant tumor growth inhibition with improved apoptosis effects in vivo on Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT)-bearing BALB/c syngeneic mice in comparison with Taxol, without showing any cytotoxicity. On the basis of preliminary results, no subacute toxicity was observed in major organs, tissues and hematological system up to a dosage of 60 mg/kg body weight in mice. Therefore, PSMAC-PTX NPs may be considered as an alternative nanodrug delivery system for the delivery of PTX in solid tumors. PMID:26528585

  8. Nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajesh; Lillard, James W

    2009-06-01

    Nanotechnology could be defined as the technology that has allowed for the control, manipulation, study, and manufacture of structures and devices in the "nanometer" size range. These nano-sized objects, e.g., "nanoparticles", take on novel properties and functions that differ markedly from those seen from items made of identical materials. The small size, customized surface, improved solubility, and multi-functionality of nanoparticles will continue to open many doors and create new biomedical applications. Indeed, the novel properties of nanoparticles offer the ability to interact with complex cellular functions in new ways. This rapidly growing field requires cross-disciplinary research and provides opportunities to design and develop multifunctional devices that can target, diagnose, and treat devastating diseases such as cancer. This article presents an overview of nanotechnology for the biologist and discusses the attributes of our novel XPclad((c)) nanoparticle formulation that has shown efficacy in treating solid tumors, single dose vaccination, and oral delivery of therapeutic proteins. PMID:19186176

  9. Nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajesh; Lillard, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology could be defined as the technology that has allowed for the control, manipulation, study, and manufacture of structures and devices in the “nanometer” size range. These nano-sized objects, e.g., “nanoparticles”, take on novel properties and functions that differ markedly from those seen from items made of identical materials. The small size, customized surface, improved solubility, and multi-functionality of nanoparticles will continue to open many doors and create new biomedical applications. Indeed, the novel properties of nanoparticles offer the ability to interact with complex cellular functions in new ways. This rapidly growing field requires cross-disciplinary research and provides opportunities to design and develop multifunctional devices that can target, diagnose, and treat devastating diseases such as cancer. This article presents an overview of nanotechnology for the biologist and discusses the attributes of our novel XPclad© nanoparticle formulation that has shown efficacy in treating solid tumors, for single dose vaccination, and oral delivery of therapeutic proteins. PMID:19186176

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a peptide-paclitaxel conjugate which targets the integrin αvβ₆.

    PubMed

    Li, Shunzi; Gray, Bethany Powell; McGuire, Michael J; Brown, Kathlynn C

    2011-09-15

    The integrin α(v)β(6) is an emergent biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as well as other carcinomas. We previously developed a tetrameric peptide, referred to as H2009.1, which binds α(v)β(6) and displays minimal affinity for other RGD-binding integrins. Here we report the use of this peptide to actively deliver paclitaxel to α(v)β(6)-positive cells. We synthesized a water soluble paclitaxel-H2009.1 peptide conjugate in which the 2'-position of paclitaxel is attached to the tetrameric peptide via an ester linkage. The conjugate maintains its specificity for α(v)β(6)-expressing NSCLC cells, resulting in selective cytotoxicity. Treatment of α(v)β(6)-positive cells with the conjugate results in cell cycle arrest followed by induction of apoptosis in the same manner as free paclitaxel. However, initiation of apoptosis and the resultant cell death is delayed compared to free drug. The conjugate demonstrates anti-tumor activity in a H2009 xenograft model of NSCLC with efficacy comparable to treatment with free paclitaxel. PMID:21868241

  11. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 3 weeks. When paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma, it may be given once every 2 or 3 weeks.Ask your pharmacist or doctor for a copy of the manufacturer's information for the patient.

  12. Enhanced anti-tumor efficacy by co-delivery of doxorubicin and paclitaxel with amphiphilic methoxy PEG-PLGA copolymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai; Zhao, Ying; Wu, Yan; Hu, Yu-lin; Nan, Kaihui; Nie, Guangjun; Chen, Hao

    2011-11-01

    The use of single chemotherapeutic drug has shown some limitations in anti-tumor treatment, such as development of drug resistance, high toxicity and limited regime of clinical uses. The combination of two or more therapeutic drugs is feasible means to overcome the limitations. Co-delivery strategy has been proposed to minimize the amount of each drug and to achieve the synergistic effect for cancer therapies. Attempts have been made to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs simultaneously using drug carriers, such as micelles, liposomes, and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs). Here we reported core-shell NPs that were doubly emulsified from an amphiphilic copolymer methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (mPEG-PLGA). These NPs offered advantages over other nanocarriers, as they were easy to fabricate by improved double emulsion method, biocompatible, and showed high loading efficacy. More importantly, these NPs could co-deliver hydrophilic doxorubicin (DOX) and hydrophobic paclitaxel (TAX). The drug-loaded NPs possessed a better polydispersity, indicating that they are more readily subject to controlled size distribution. Studies on drug release and cellular uptake of the co-delivery system demonstrated that both drugs were effectively taken up by the cells and released simultaneously. Furthermore, the co-delivery nanocarrier suppressed tumor cells growth more efficiently than the delivery of either DOX or TAX at the same concentrations, indicating a synergistic effect. Moreover, the NPs loading drugs with a DOX/TAX concentration ratio of 2:1 showed the highest anti-tumor activity to three different types of tumor cells. This nanocarrier might have important potential in clinical implications for co-delivery of multiple anti-tumor drugs with different properties. PMID:21807411

  13. pH-sensitive polymeric micelles formed by doxorubicin conjugated prodrugs for co-delivery of doxorubicin and paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yakun; Fan, Xiaohui; Li, Lingbing

    2016-02-10

    A doxorubicin conjugated prodrug incorporated acid-sensitive linkage between drug and Pluronic F127-chitosan (F127-CS) polymer was successfully synthesized. Subsequently a pH-sensitive polymeric micelle system was designed based on the conjugated prodrugs (F127-CS-DOX) to co-deliver doxorubicin and paclitaxel. Paclitaxel (PTX) was physically entrapped in the hydrophobic inner core of the micelles simultaneously. The structures of conjugates were analyzed by means of (1)H NMR and UV-vis spectrum. Size distribution and morphology of the micelles were observed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that obtained micelles had good dispersity and the diameter was between 56.3 and 403.4nm. The loading of PTX into the micelle increased with higher DOX content. DOX and PTX release from polymeric micelles followed an acid-triggered manner. Furthermore, in vivo pharmacokinetic study also showed that the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC0-?) values of PTX and DOX for PTX-loaded F127-CS-DOX micelles in rats were 3.97 and 4.38-fold higher than those for PTX plus DOX solution. These results suggested the PTX-loaded F127-CS-DOX micelles would be a promising carrier for co-delivering DOX and PTX. PMID:26686101

  14. Design of a paclitaxel prodrug conjugate for active targeting of an enzyme upregulated in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Satsangi, Arpan; Roy, Sudipa S; Satsangi, Rajiv K; Vadlamudi, Ratna K; Ong, Joo L

    2014-06-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Chemotherapy is an important treatment modality, and paclitaxel (PTX) is often the first-line therapy for its metastatic form. The two most notable limitations related to PTX-based treatment are the poor hydrophilicity of the drug and the systemic toxicity due to the drug's nonspecific and indiscriminate distribution among the tissues. The present work describes an approach to counter both challenges by designing a conjugate of PTX with a hydrophilic macromolecule that is coupled through a biocleavable linker, thereby allowing for active targeting to an enzyme significantly upregulated in cancer cells. The resultant strategy would allow for the release of the active ingredient preferentially at the site of action in related cancer cells and spare normal tissue. Thus, PTX was conjugated to the hydrophilic poly(amdioamine) [PAMAM] dendrimer through the cathepsin B-cleavable tetrapeptide Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly. The PTX prodrug conjugate (PGD) was compared to unbound PTX through in vitro evaluations against breast cancer cells and normal kidney cells as well as through in vivo evaluations using xenograft mice models. As compared to PTX, PGD demonstrated a higher cytotoxicity specific to cell lines with moderate-to-high cathepsin B activity; cells with comparatively lower cathepsin B activity demonstrated an inverse of this relationship. Regression analysis between the magnitude of PGD-induced cytotoxic increase over PTX and cathepsin B expression showed a strong, statistically significant correlation (r(2) = 0.652, p < 0.05). The PGD conjugate also demonstrated a markedly higher tumor reduction as compared to PTX treatment alone in MDA-MB-231 tumor xenograft models, with PGD-treated tumor volumes being 48% and 34% smaller than PTX-treated volumes at weeks 2 and 3 after treatment initiation. PMID:24847940

  15. Intraperitoneal delivery of paclitaxel by poly(ether-anhydride) microspheres effectively suppresses tumor growth in a murine metastatic ovarian cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Yu, Tao; Wood, Joseph; Wang, Ying-Ying; Tang, Benjamin C.; Zeng, Qi; Simons, Brian W.; Fu, Jie; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Lai, Samuel K.; Wu, T.-C.; Hung, Chien-Fu; Hanes, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy is more effective than systemic chemotherapy for treating advanced ovarian cancer, but is typically associated with severe complications due to high dose, frequent administration schedule, and use of non-biocompatible excipients/delivery vehicles. Here, we developed paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded microspheres composed of di-block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(sebacic acid) (PEG-PSA) for safe and sustained IP chemotherapy. PEG-PSA microspheres provided efficient loading (~ 13% w/w) and prolonged release (~ 13 days) of PTX. In a murine ovarian cancer model, a single dose of IP PTX/PEG-PSA particles effectively suppressed tumor growth for more than 40 days and extended the median survival time to 75 days compared to treatments with Taxol (47 days) or IP placebo particles (34 days). IP PTX/PEG-PSA was well tolerated, with only minimal to mild inflammation. Our findings support PTX/PEGPSA microspheres as a promising drug delivery platform for IP therapy of ovarian cancer, and potentially other metastatic peritoneal cancers. PMID:24816829

  16. Enhanced transfection efficiency and targeted delivery of self-assembling h-R3-dendriplexes in EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Li, Shengnan; Xia, Songyun; Feng, Jinfeng; Zhang, Xuedi; Hao, Yanli; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoning

    2015-01-01

    The efficient gene transfection, cellular uptake and targeted delivery in vivo are key issues for non-viral gene delivery vectors in cancer therapy. To solve these issues, we designed a new targeted gene delivery system based on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting strategy. An anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody h-R3 was introduced to dendriplexes of PAMAM and DNA via electrostatic interactions to form self-assembled h-R3-PAMAM-DNA complexes (h-R3-dendriplexes). Dendriplexes h-R3-dendriplexes represented excellent DNA encapsulation ability and formed unique nanostructures. Compared to dendriplexes, h-R3-dendriplexes presented lower cytotoxicity, higher gene transfection efficiency, excellent endosome escape ability and high nuclear accumulation in the EGFR-overexpressing HepG2 cells. Both ex vivo fluorescence imaging and confocal results of frozen section revealed that h-R3-dendriplexes showed higher targeted delivery and much better gene expression in the tumors than dendriplexes at the same N/P ratio, and h-R3-dendriplexes had accumulation primarily in the tumor and kidney. Moreover, h-R3-dendriplexes for p53 delivery indicated efficient cell growth inhibition and potentiated paclitaxel-induced cell death. These results indicate that the h-R3-dendriplexes represent a great potential to be used as efficient targeted gene delivery carriers in EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. PMID:26309162

  17. ?-Lapachone and Paclitaxel Combination Micelles with Improved Drug Encapsulation and Therapeutic Synergy as Novel Nanotherapeutics for NQO1-Targeted Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Zhen; Yang, Kuan; Liu, Chun; Gao, Jinming; Qian, Feng

    2015-11-01

    ?-Lapachone (LPC) is a novel cytotoxic agent that is bioactivated by NADP(H): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), an enzyme elevated in a variety of tumors, such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, and breast cancer. Despite its unique mechanism of action, its clinical evaluation has been largely hindered by low water solubility, short blood half-life, and narrow therapeutic window. Although encapsulation into poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) micelles could modestly improve its solubility and prolong its half-life, the extremely fast intrinsic crystallization tendency of LPC prevents drug loading higher than ?2 wt %. The physical stability of the LPC-loaded micelles is also far from satisfactory for further development. In this study, we demonstrate that paclitaxel (PTX), a front-line drug for many cancers, can provide two functions when coencapsulated together with LPC in the PEG-PLA micelles; first, as a strong crystallization inhibitor for LPC, thus to significantly increase the LPC encapsulation efficiency in the micelle from 11.7 2.4% to 100.7 2.2%. The total drug loading efficiency of both PTX and LPC in the combination polymeric micelle reached 100.3 3.0%, and the drug loading density reached 33.2 1.0%. Second, the combination of LPC/PTX demonstrates strong synergistic cytotoxicity effect against the NQO1 overexpressing cancer cells, including A549 NSCLC cells, and several pancreatic cancer cells (combination index <1). In vitro drug release study showed that LPC was released faster than PTX either in phosphate-buffered saline (PH = 7.4) or in 1 M sodium salicylate, which agrees with the desired dosing sequence of the two drugs to exert synergistic pharmacologic effect at different cell checkpoints. The PEG-PLA micelles coloaded with LPC and PTX offer a novel nanotherapeutic, with high drug loading, sufficient physical stability, and biological synergy to increase drug delivery efficiency and optimize the therapeutic window for NOQ1-targeted therapy of cancer. PMID:26415823

  18. Magnetic nanoscale metal organic frameworks for potential targeted anticancer drug delivery, imaging and as an MRI contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Ray Chowdhuri, Angshuman; Bhattacharya, Dipsikha; Sahu, Sumanta Kumar

    2016-02-21

    The development of a novel multifunctional porous nanoplatform for targeted anticancer drug delivery with cell imaging and magnetic resonance imaging has been realised in the current work. Here we have developed a magnetic nanoscale metal organic frameworks (NMOF) for potential targeted drug delivery. These magnetic NMOFs were fabricated by incorporation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles into porous isoreticular metal organic frameworks (IRMOF-3). To achieve targeted drug delivery towards cancer cells specifically, folic acid was conjugated to the NMOF surface. Then, the fluorescent molecule rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) was conjugated to the NMOFs for biological imaging applications. The synthesized magnetic NMOFs were fully characterised by FTIR, powder XRD, XPS, SQUID, TGA, TEM, FESEM, and DLS. The synthesized magnetic NMOFs were observed to be smaller than 100 nm and were found to be nontoxic towards human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and murine fibroblast (NIH3T3) cells according to cell viability assays. The cancer chemotherapy drug paclitaxel was conjugated to the magnetic NMOFs through hydrophobic interactions with a relatively high loading capacity. Moreover, these folic acid-conjugated magnetic NMOFs showed stronger T2-weighted MRI contrast towards the cancer cells, justifying their possible significance in imaging. PMID:26754449

  19. Paclitaxel-loaded microparticles for intratumoral administration via the TMT technique: preparation, characterization, and preliminary antitumoral evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hamoudeh, Misara; Diab, Roudayna; Fessi, Hatem; Dumontet, Charles; Cuchet, Delphine

    2008-07-01

    In our pursuit to develop suitable therapeutic particulate systems for intratumoral delivery by the targeted multi-therapy (TMT) technique, we describe the preparation of paclitaxel-loaded poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) (drug loading 35-38%, wt/wt; size 0.7-5 microm). Magnetite (15%, wt/wt) was also incorporated in some preparations for a future magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided delivery. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments showed that paclitaxel was not encapsulated in its initial crystalline form. The paclitaxel in vitro release pattern showed a biphasic tendency with a burst effect followed by a sustained release (28% released amount after 1 month), which was accompanied with MP erosion and degradation signs as confirmed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) micrographs. The paclitaxel-loaded MPs demonstrated a dose-dependent antitumor effect on human uterine cancer cells, with an IC(50) value relatively close to that of commercial Taxol. This paclitaxel delivery system represents a potent antiprofilerative and radiosensitizer agent for intratumoral administration via the TMT technique. PMID:18612910

  20. Use of a Lipid-Coated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle Platform for Synergistic Gemcitabine and Paclitaxel Delivery to Human Pancreatic Cancer in Mice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a commercial albumin-bound paclitaxel (PTX) nanocarrier (Abraxane) was approved as the first new drug for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in almost a decade. PTX improves the pharmaceutical efficacy of the first-line pancreatic cancer drug, gemcitabine (GEM), through suppression of the tumor stroma and inhibiting the expression of the GEM-inactivating enzyme, cytidine deaminase (CDA). We asked, therefore, whether it was possible to develop a mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSNP) carrier for pancreatic cancer to co-deliver a synergistic GEM/PTX combination. High drug loading was achieved by a custom-designed coated lipid film technique to encapsulate a calculated dose of GEM (40 wt %) by using a supported lipid bilayer (LB). The uniform coating of the 65 nm nanoparticles by a lipid membrane allowed incorporation of a sublethal amount of hydrophobic PTX, which could be co-delivered with GEM in pancreatic cells and tumors. We demonstrate that ratiometric PTX incorporation and delivery by our LB-MSNP could suppress CDA expression, contemporaneous with induction of oxidative stress as the operating principle for PTX synergy. To demonstrate the in vivo efficacy, mice carrying subcutaneous PANC-1 xenografts received intravenous (IV) injection of PTX/GEM-loaded LB-MSNP. Drug co-delivery provided more effective tumor shrinkage than GEM-loaded LB-MSNP, free GEM, or free GEM plus Abraxane. Comparable tumor shrinkage required coadministration of 12 times the amount of free Abraxane. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of tumor-associated GEM metabolites confirmed that, compared to free GEM, MSNP co-delivery increased the phosphorylated DNA-interactive GEM metabolite 13-fold and decreased the inactivated and deaminated metabolite 4-fold. IV injection of MSNP-delivered PTX/GEM in a PANC-1 orthotopic model effectively inhibited primary tumor growth and eliminated metastatic foci. The enhanced in vivo efficacy of the dual delivery carrier could be achieved with no evidence of local or systemic toxicity. In summary, we demonstrate the development of an effective LB-MSNP nanocarrier for synergistic PTX/GEM delivery in pancreatic cancer. PMID:25776964

  1. Oral delivery of paclitaxel nanocrystal (PNC) with a dual Pgp-CYP3A4 inhibitor: preparation, characterization and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ketan; Patil, Anand; Mehta, Miten; Gota, Vikram; Vavia, Pradeep

    2014-09-10

    Several molecular inheritances have severely restrained the peroral delivery of taxanes. The main objective of the present investigation was to develop a paclitaxel (PTX) formulation which can circumvent the hurdles of its extremely poor solubility and permeability, Pgp efflux and high pre-systemic metabolism. Positively charged PTX nanocrystals of 209 nm were prepared by sonoprecipitation with high pressure homogenization technique, wherein an arginine based surfactant was explored as a stabilizer. The BET surface area analysis revealed that the surface area of PNC was 8.53 m(2)/gm, reflecting significant rise in surface area with nanonization of PTX. The DSC and XRD pattern suggested that the PTX is in the form of the most stable dihydrate crystal. The PNC showed very rapid dissolution profile compared to plain PTX in both sinks and non-sink conditions. Clarithromycin (CLM) was evaluated as a better alternative to cyclosporin A in improving PTX permeability. The PNC-CLM showed remarkable enhancement of 453% in relative bioavailability along with maintaining the therapeutic concentration of PTX for 8h. Efficacy data in B16 F10 melanoma tumor bearing mice showed substantial reduction in tumor volume and improvement in percentage survival compared to the control group. PMID:24954663

  2. Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics: tumor-activated prodrug therapy.

    PubMed

    Chari

    1998-04-01

    The potential of targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of cancer has not yet been realized owing to the difficulty of delivering therapeutic concentrations to the target site. While in vivo studies in animal tumor models have produced very encouraging results, clinical studies with antibody-drug conjugates have been less successful. This paper will review the current status of the targeted delivery approach and analyze some of the reasons for the lack of success so far. Starting with a historical perspective, this review will end with a description of newer, more potent and specific antibody-drug conjugates, which behave like tumor-activated prodrugs that may yet fulfil the promise of the targeted delivery approach for the treatment of cancer. PMID:10837619

  3. Receptor-targeted nanocarriers for therapeutic delivery to cancer

    PubMed Central

    YU, BO; TAI, HENG CHIAT; XUE, WEIMING; LEE, L. JAMES; LEE, ROBERT J.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient and site-specific delivery of therapeutic drugs is a critical challenge in clinical treatment of cancer. Nano-sized carriers such as liposomes, micelles, and polymeric nanoparticles have been investigated for improving bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of therapeutics via various mechanisms, for example, the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Further improvement can potentially be achieved by conjugation of targeting ligands onto nanocarriers to achieve selective delivery to the tumour cell or the tumour vasculature. Indeed, receptor-targeted nanocarrier delivery has been shown to improve therapeutic responses both in vitro and in vivo. A variety of ligands have been investigated including folate, transferrin, antibodies, peptides and aptamers. Multiple functionalities can be incorporated into the design of nanoparticles, e.g., to enable imaging and triggered intracellular drug release. In this review, we mainly focus on recent advances on the development of targeted nanocarriers and will introduce novel concepts such as multi-targeting and multi-functional nanoparticles. PMID:21028937

  4. Development of multifunctional lipid nanocapsules for the co-delivery of paclitaxel and CpG-ODN in the treatment of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Lollo, Giovanna; Vincent, Marie; Ullio-Gamboa, Gabriela; Lemaire, Laurent; Franconi, Florence; Couez, Dominique; Benoit, Jean-Pierre

    2015-11-30

    In this work, multifunctional lipid nanocapsules (M-LNC) were designed to combine the activity of the cytotoxic drug paclitaxel (PTX) with the immunostimulant CpG. This nanosystem, consisting of modified lipid nanocapsules coated with a cationic polymeric shell composed of chitosan (CS), was able to allocate the hydrophobic drug PTX in the inner oily core, and to associate onto the surface the genetic material CpG. The CS-coated LNC (CS-LNC), showed a narrow size distribution with an average size of 70 nm and a positive zeta potential (+25 mV). They encapsulated PTX in a high amount (98%), and, due to the cationic surface charge, were able to adsorb CpG without losing stability. As a preliminary in vitro study, the apoptotic effect on GL261 glioma cells was investigated. The drug-loaded CS-LNC exhibited the ability to interact with glioma cells and induce an important apoptotic effect in comparison with blank systems. Finally, the M-LNC made of CS-LNC loaded with both CpG and PTX were tested in vivo, injected via convention enhanced delivery (CED) in GL261-glioma-bearing mice. The results showed that the overall survival of mice treated with the M-LNC was significantly increased in comparison with the control, Taxol(), or the separated injection of PTX-loaded LNC and CpG. This effect was also confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which revealed the reduction of tumor growth in the animals treated with CpG and PTX-loaded M-LNC. All these findings suggested that the developed M-LNC could potentiate both CpG immunopotency and PTX antitumor activity by enhancing its delivery into the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26428632

  5. Strategies for optimizing targeting and delivery of mucosal HIV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Jeffrey D; Belyakov, Igor M

    2009-10-01

    Effective frontline defenses against HIV-1 will require targeting vaccines to mucosal tissue in order to induce alphabeta CD8(+) lymphocytes in mucosal effector sites (lamina propria and intraepithelial compartment) as well as antibody secreting plasma cells that can neutralize and limit free virus. A concerted second wave of assault against the virus will require the activation and recruitment of antigen specific memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes and distal secondary lymphoid organs. New delivery strategies targeting the "right" DC subsets in combination with delivery of mucosal adjuvants and innate signals for activating DC will be essential for mucosal vaccines in order to circumvent the naturally tolerogenic environment and the induction of Tregs. Mucosal delivery of antigen in combination with inflammatory signals has been shown to empower systemic immunization by directing responses to mucosal sites for imprinting optimum mucosal memory. Here, we discuss novel vaccine strategies and adjuvants for optimizing mucosal delivery of HIV vaccines. PMID:19609978

  6. Single-step surface functionalization of polymeric nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Patil, Yogesh B; Toti, Udaya S; Khdair, Ayman; Ma, Linan; Panyam, Jayanth

    2009-02-01

    Targeted drug delivery using nanocarriers is achieved by functionalizing the carrier surface with a tissue-recognition ligand. Current surface modification methods require tedious and inefficient synthesis and purification steps, and are not easily amenable to incorporating multiple functionalities on a single surface. In this report, we describe a versatile, single-step surface functionalizing technique for polymeric nanoparticles. The technique utilizes the fact that when a diblock copolymer like polylactide-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) is introduced in the oil/water emulsion used in polymeric nanoparticle formulation, the PLA block partitions into the polymer containing organic phase and PEG block partitions into the aqueous phase. Removal of the organic solvent results in the formation of nanoparticles with PEG on the surface. When a PLA-PEG-ligand conjugate is used instead of PLA-PEG copolymer, this technique permits a 'one-pot' fabrication of ligand-functionalized nanoparticles. In the current study, the IAASF approach facilitated the simultaneous incorporation of biotin and folic acid, known tumor-targeting ligands, on drug-loaded nanoparticles in a single step. Incorporation of the ligands on nanoparticles was confirmed by using NMR, surface plasmon resonance, transmission electron microscopy and tumor cell uptake studies. Simultaneous functionalization with both ligands significantly enhanced nanoparticle accumulation in tumors in vivo, and resulted in greatly improved efficacy of paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles in a mouse xenograft tumor model. This new surface functionalization approach will enable the development of targeting strategies based on the use of multiple ligands on a single surface to target a tissue of interest. PMID:19019427

  7. Limited Efficiency of Drug Delivery to Specific Intracellular Organelles Using Subcellularly "Targeted" Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Maity, Amit Ranjan; Stepensky, David

    2016-01-01

    Many drugs have been designed to act on intracellular targets and to affect intracellular processes inside target cells. For the desired effects to be exerted, these drugs should permeate target cells and reach specific intracellular organelles. This subcellular drug targeting approach has been proposed for enhancement of accumulation of these drugs in target organelles and improved efficiency. This approach is based on drug encapsulation in drug delivery systems (DDSs) and/or their decoration with specific targeting moieties that are intended to enhance the drug/DDS accumulation in the intracellular organelle of interest. During recent years, there has been a constant increase in interest in DDSs targeted to specific intracellular organelles, and many different approaches have been proposed for attaining efficient drug delivery to specific organelles of interest. However, it appears that in many studies insufficient efforts have been devoted to quantitative analysis of the major formulation parameters of the DDSs disposition (efficiency of DDS endocytosis and endosomal escape, intracellular trafficking, and efficiency of DDS delivery to the target organelle) and of the resulting pharmacological effects. Thus, in many cases, claims regarding efficient delivery of drug/DDS to a specific organelle and efficient subcellular targeting appear to be exaggerated. On the basis of the available experimental data, it appears that drugs/DDS decoration with specific targeting residues can affect their intracellular fate and result in preferential drug accumulation within an organelle of interest. However, it is not clear whether these approaches will be efficient in in vivo settings and be translated into preclinical and clinical applications. Studies that quantitatively assess the mechanisms, barriers, and efficiencies of subcellular drug delivery and of the associated toxic effects are required to determine the therapeutic potential of subcellular DDS targeting. PMID:26587994

  8. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Forte, Trudy M.; Nikanjam, Mina

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  9. A phase I study of paclitaxel, estramustine phosphate and vinorelbine (Pacl-E-Vin) in advanced malignancies: triple tubulin targeting.

    PubMed

    Sewak, Sanjeev; Chachoua, Abraham; Hamilton, Anne; Taneja, Samir; Lee, Janet; Utate, Minerva; Sorich, Joan; Muggia, Franco M

    2003-01-01

    Anti-tubulin couplets have activity in hormone-resistant prostate cancer. This study was designed to define the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and recommended phase II dose (RPTD) of the unique triplet combination of paclitaxel, estramustine phosphate (EMP) and vinorelbine (Pacl-E-Vin). Patients with advanced malignancies who had failed standard therapy, ECOG performance status (PS 0-2) and adequate organ function were included. Dose of EMP was fixed at 300 mg/m2/dose p.o. t.i.d. on days 1-3 and 8-10. Vinorelbine dose was 20 mg/m2/day i.v. on days 3 and 10. Paclitaxel was dose escalated from 40 to 50 mg/m /day i.v. on days 3 and 10. Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks. Twelve adults (median age 72) were entered on this study. Primary tumors included prostate (n=7), cervix (n=2), melanoma (n=1), colon (1) and lung with synchronous prostate cancer (n=1). Nine patients had received no prior chemotherapy, one had received a prior regimen and two had received two or more prior regimens. Of four evaluable patients at dose level 1, one patient had grade 3 neutropenia leading to the day 10 dose being withheld. Of five evaluable patients at dose level 2, there was one DLT (febrile neutropenia) and two grade 3 neutropenias leading to the day 10 dose being withheld. One patient had a lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Other side effects were mild and reversible. Nine patients were evaluable for efficacy: three with prostate cancer had a greater than 50% prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response, and a patient with synchronous prostate and lung cancer had a greater than 50% PSA response. We conclude that the DLT of Pacl-E-Vin is neutropenia. RPTD is vinorelbine 20 mg/m2, paclitaxel 40 mg/m2, both administered on days 3 and 10, and EMP 900 mg/m2/day on days 1-3 and 8-10, q3w. Dose omission at day 10 followed by 20% dose reduction of paclitaxel and vinorelbine is recommended in the event of grade 3 neutropenia. Activity in hormone-refractory prostate cancer is promising and warrants phase II evaluation. PMID:12544260

  10. Targeted Delivery of Radioprotective Agents to Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Zabbarova, Irina; Kanai, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Adverse effects of ionizing radiation are mediated through reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Mitochondria are the principal source of these species in the cell and play an important role in irradiation-induced apoptosis. The use of free radical scavengers and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors has proven to protect normal tissues and, in some cases, to sensitize tumor tissues to radiation damage. Dual molecules that combine radical-scavenging and NOS-inhibitory functions may be particularly effective. Drugging strategies that target mitochondria can enhance the effectiveness of such agents, in comparison to systemic administration, and circumvent side effects. PMID:19144902

  11. The eradication of breast cancer and cancer stem cells using octreotide modified paclitaxel active targeting micelles and salinomycin passive targeting micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Tumor stem cells have emerged as the new targets for anti-cancer therapy, besides tumor cells themselves. To eradicate both breast cancer cells and breast cancer stem cells which can not be eliminated by the conventional chemotherapy, octreotide (Oct)-modified paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded PEG-b-PCL polymeric micelles (Oct-M-PTX) and salinomycin (SAL)-loaded PEG-b-PCL polymeric micelles (M-SAL) were developed and investigated in combination. In this study, Oct that targets somatostatin receptors (SSTR) overexpressed in tumors including breast cancer, was coupled to the PEG end of PEG-b-PCL, and all the micelles were prepared using thin film hydration method. Results showed that the particle size of all the micelles was approximately 25-30 nm, and the encapsulation efficiency was >90%. Quantitative and qualitative analysis demonstrated that Oct facilitates the uptake of micelles in SSTR overexpressed breast cancer MCF-7 cells while free Oct inhibited cellular uptake of Oct-modified micelles, revealing the mechanism of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Breast cancer stem cells (side population cells, SP cells) were sorted from MCF-7 cells and identified with the CD44+/CD24- phenotype. M-SAL was capable of decreasing the proportion of SP cells, and its suppression was more potent in SP cells than that in cancer cells. As compared to PTX-loaded micelles (M-PTX), the inhibition of Oct-M-PTX against MCF-7 cells was stronger while such effect significantly increased when applying Oct-M-PTX in combination with M-SAL. In the MCF-7 xenografts, the combination therapy with Oct-M-PTX plus M-SAL produced the strongest antitumor efficacy, in accord with the combination treatment in vitro. Compared with free SAL, M-SAL was found to be more effective in suppressing breast cancer stem cells in vivo. Thus, this combination therapy may provide a strategy to improve treatment of breast cancers for eradication of breast cancer cells together with breast cancer stem cells. PMID:22019123

  12. Untethered magnetic millirobot for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Iacovacci, Veronica; Lucarini, Gioia; Ricotti, Leonardo; Dario, Paolo; Dupont, Pierre E; Menciassi, Arianna

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design and development of a novel millimeter-sized robotic system for targeted therapy. The proposed medical robot is conceived to perform therapy in relatively small diameter body canals (spine, urinary system, ovary, etc.), and to release several kinds of therapeutics, depending on the pathology to be treated. The robot is a nearly-buoyant bi-component system consisting of a carrier, in which the therapeutic agent is embedded, and a piston. The piston, by exploiting magnetic effects, docks with the carrier and compresses a drug-loaded hydrogel, thus activating the release mechanism. External magnetic fields are exploited to propel the robot towards the target region, while intermagnetic forces are exploited to trigger drug release. After designing and fabricating the robot, the system has been tested in vitro with an anticancer drug (doxorubicin) embedded in the carrier. The efficiency of the drug release mechanism has been demonstrated by both quantifying the amount of drug released and by assessing the efficacy of this therapeutic procedure on human bladder cancer cells. PMID:26009273

  13. Nanoparticles for oral delivery: Targeted nanoparticles with peptidic ligands for oral protein delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeonhee; Cho, Yong Woo; Park, Kinam

    2012-01-01

    As the field of biotechnology has advanced, oral protein delivery has also made significant progress. Oral delivery is the most common method of drug administration with high levels of patient acceptance. Despite the preference of oral delivery, administration of therapeutic proteins has been extremely difficult. Increasing the bioavailability of oral protein drugs to the therapeutically acceptable level is still a challenging goal. Poor membrane permeability, high molecular weight, and enzymatic degradation of protein drugs have remained unsolved issues. Among diverse strategies, nanotechnology has provided a glimpse of hope in oral delivery of protein drugs. Nanoparticles have advantages, such as small size, high surface area, and modification using functional groups for high capacity or selectivity. Nanoparticles with peptidic ligands are especially worthy of notice because they can be used for specific targeting in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This article reviews the transport mechanism of the GI tract, barriers to protein absorption, current status and limitations of nanotechnology for oral protein delivery system. PMID:23123292

  14. Targeted delivery to bone and mineral deposits using bisphosphonate ligands.

    PubMed

    Cole, Lisa E; Vargo-Gogola, Tracy; Roeder, Ryan K

    2016-04-01

    The high concentration of mineral present in bone and pathological calcifications is unique compared with all other tissues and thus provides opportunity for targeted delivery of pharmaceutical drugs, including radiosensitizers and imaging probes. Targeted delivery enables accumulation of a high local dose of a therapeutic or imaging contrast agent to diseased bone or pathological calcifications. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most widely utilized bone-targeting ligand due to exhibiting high binding affinity to hydroxyapatite mineral. BPs can be conjugated to an agent that would otherwise have little or no affinity for the sites of interest. This article summarizes the current state of knowledge and practice for the use of BPs as ligands for targeted delivery to bone and mineral deposits. The clinical history of BPs is briefly summarized to emphasize the success of these molecules as therapeutics for metabolic bone diseases. Mechanisms of binding and the relative binding affinity of various BPs to bone mineral are introduced, including common methods for measuring binding affinity in vitro and in vivo. Current research is highlighted for the use of BP ligands for targeted delivery of BP conjugates in various applications, including (1) therapeutic drug delivery for metabolic bone diseases, bone cancer, other bone diseases, and engineered drug delivery platforms; (2) imaging probes for scintigraphy, fluorescence, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography; and (3) radiotherapy. Last, and perhaps most importantly, key structure-function relationships are considered for the design of drugs with BP ligands, including the tether length between the BP and drug, the size of the drug, the number of BP ligands per drug, cleavable tethers between the BP and drug, and conjugation schemes. PMID:26482186

  15. Systemic delivery of micelles loading with paclitaxel using N-succinyl-palmitoyl-chitosan decorated with cRGDyK peptide to inhibit non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhi-qiang; Li, Ji-zhao; Liu, Yang; Chen, Wei-liang; Yang, Shu-di; Zhang, Chun-ge; Zhu, Wen-jing; Zhou, Xiao-feng; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Xue-nong

    2015-08-15

    This study aimed to prepare efficient cRGDyK peptide-decorated micelles for the targeted therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An amphiphilic copolymer N-succinyl-palmitoyl-chitosan (SPCS) was synthesized and characterized. cRGDyK peptide is a ligand that can target tumors via specific binding integrin receptor overexpressed on tumor neovascularization and cells. cRGDyK-functionalized SPCS micelles loaded with paclitaxel (PTX/cRGDyK-SPCS) were prepared by film dispersion method and then characterized according to morphology, size, and zeta potential. PTX/cRGDyK-SPCS micelles presented pH-triggered drug release behavior under acidic conditions. The accumulation of micelles detected by laser confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that cRGDyK-SPCS micelles were easily taken up by A549 cells marked with the luciferase gene (luc-A549). Meanwhile, co-localization of the micelles and lysosomes was recorded dynamically using a live cell station. MTT assays and cell apoptosis studies revealed that cell viability was significantly inhibited by PTX/cRGDyK-SPCS micelles. More importantly, in vivo animal studies showed that cRGDyK-SPCS micelles mainly accumulated in the orthotopic tumor site. PTX/cRGDyK-SPCS micelles exhibited better anti-tumor activity in subcutaneous and orthotopic lung tumors compared with PTX/SPCS micelles and Taxol(). These results suggested that PTX/cRGDyK-SPCS micelles had better cancer targeting capacity and superior anti-tumor efficacy. Thus, these micelles have great potential as novel carriers in delivering anti-tumor drugs. PMID:26188316

  16. Linear-dendritic copolymer composed of polyethylene glycol and all-trans-retinoic acid as drug delivery platform for paclitaxel against breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Jiang, Xutao; Guo, Yubo; An, Sai; Kuang, Yuyang; Ma, Haojun; He, Xi; Jiang, Chen

    2015-03-18

    A new linear-dendritic copolymer composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) was synthesized as the anticancer drug delivery platform (PEG-G3-RA8). It can self-assemble into core-shell micelles with a low critical micelle concentration (CMC) at 3.48 mg/L. Paclitaxel (PTX) was encapsulated into PEG-G3-RA8 to form PEG-G3-RA8/PTX micelles for breast cancer treatment. The optimized formulation had high drug loading efficacy (20% w/w of drug copolymer ratio), nanosized diameter (27.6 nm), and narrow distribution (PDI = 0.103). Compared with Taxol, PEG-G3-RA8/PTX remained highly stable in the serum-containing cell medium and exhibited 4-fold higher cellular uptake. Besides, near-infrared fluorescence (NIR) optical imaging results indicated that fluorescent probe loaded micelle had a preferential accumulation in breast tumors. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies (10 mg/kg) showed the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-?) and mean residence time (MRT0-?) for PEG-G3-RA8/PTX and Taxol were 12.006 0.605 mg/L h, 2.264 0.041 h and 15.966 1.614 mg/L h, 1.726 0.097 h, respectively. The tumor accumulation of PEG-G3-RA8/PTX group was 1.89-fold higher than that of Taxol group 24 h postinjection. With the advantages like efficient cellular uptake and preferential tumor accumulation, PEG-G3-RA8/PTX showed superior therapeutic efficacy on MCF-7 tumor bearing mice compared to Taxol. PMID:25675244

  17. Liver cell-targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Hun; Toita, Riki; Murata, Masaharu

    2016-02-01

    The liver is the largest internal organ in mammals and is involved in metabolism, detoxification, synthesis of proteins and lipids, secretion of cytokines and growth factors and immune/inflammatory responses. Hepatitis, alcoholic or non-alcoholic liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic veno-occlusive disease, and liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are the most common liver diseases. Safe and efficient delivery of therapeutic molecules (drugs, genes or proteins) into the liver is very important to increase the clinical efficacy of these molecules and to reduce their side effects in other organs. Several liver cell-targeted delivery systems have been developed and tested in vivo or ex vivo/in vitro. In this review, we discuss the literature concerning liver cell-targeted delivery systems, with a particular emphasis on the results of in vivo studies. PMID:25025274

  18. Bioengineered Silk Gene Delivery System for Nuclear Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Yigit, Sezin; Tokareva, Olena; Varone, Antonio; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Gene delivery research has gained momentum with the use of lipophilic vectors that mimic viral systems to increase transfection efficiency. However, maintaining cell viability with these systems remains a major challenge. Therefore biocompatible and nontoxic biopolymers that are designed by combining non-immunological viral mimicking components with suitable carriers have been explored to address these limitations. In the present study recombinant DNA technology was used to design a multi-functional gene delivery system for nuclear targeting, while also supporting cell viability. Spider dragline silk recombinant proteins were modified with DNA condensing units and the proton sponge endosomal escape pathway was utilized for enhanced delivery. Short-term transfection efficiency in a COS-7 cell line (adherent kidney cells isolated from African green monkey) was enhanced compared to lipofectamine and polyethyleneimine (PEI), as was cell viability with these recombinant bio-polyplexes. Endosomal escape and consequent nuclear targeting were shown with fluorescence microscopy. PMID:24889658

  19. Delivery of Therapeutic RNAs Into Target Cells IN VIVO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Mei Ying; Hagen, Thilo

    2014-02-01

    RNA-based therapy is one of the most promising approaches to treat human diseases. Specifically, the use of short interfering RNA (siRNA) siRNA and microRNA (miRNA) mimics for in vivo RNA interference has immense potential as it directly lowers the expression of the therapeutic target protein. However, there are a number of major roadblocks to the successful implementation of siRNA and other RNA based therapies in the clinic. These include the instability of RNAs in vivo and the difficulty to efficiently deliver the RNA into the target cells. Hence, various innovative approaches have been taken over the years to develop effective RNA delivery methods. These methods include liposome-, polymeric nanoparticle- and peptide-mediated cellular delivery. In a recent innovative study, bioengineered bacterial outer membrane vesicles were used as vehicles for effective delivery of siRNA into cells in vivo.

  20. 'Smart' non-viral delivery systems for targeted delivery of RNAi to the lungs.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Joanne M; Hibbitts, Alan; Barlow, James; Kelly, Ciara; Sivadas, Neeraj; Cryan, Sally-Ann

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of RNAi offers a potentially exciting new therapeutic paradigm for respiratory diseases. However, effective delivery remains a key requirement for their translation into the clinic and has been a major factor in the limited clinical success seen to date. Inhalation offers tissue-specific targeting of the RNAi to treat respiratory diseases and a diminished risk of off-target effects. In order to deliver RNAi directly to the respiratory tract via inhalation, 'smart' non-viral carriers are required to protect the RNAi during delivery/aerosolization and enhance cell-specific uptake to target cells. Here, we review the state-of-the-art in therapeutic aerosol bioengineering, and specifically non-viral siRNA delivery platforms, for delivery via inhalation. This includes developments in inhaler device engineering and particle engineering, including manufacturing methods and excipients used in therapeutic aerosol bioengineering that underpin the development of smart, cell type-specific delivery systems to target siRNA to respiratory epithelial cells and/or alveolar macrophages. PMID:23323781

  1. Self-Assembling Peptide Amphiphiles for Targeted Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, Tyson

    The systemic delivery of therapeutics is currently limited by off-target side effects and poor drug uptake into the cells that need to be treated. One way to circumvent these issues is to target the delivery and release of therapeutics to the desired location while limiting systemic toxicity. Using self-assembling peptide amphiphiles (PAs), this work has investigated supramolecular nanostructures for the development of targeted therapies. Specifically, the research has focused on the interrelationships between presentation of targeting moeities and the control of nanostructure morphology in the context of systemic delivery for targeting cancer and vascular injuries. The self-assembly region of the PA was systematically altered to achieve control of nanostructure widths, from 100 nm to 10 nm, by the addition of valine-glutamic acid dimers into the chemical structure, subsequently increasing the degree of nanostructure twist. For the targeting of tumors, a homing PA was synthesized to include a dimeric, cyclic peptide sequence known to target the cancer-specific, death receptor 5 (DR5) and initiate apoptosis through the oligomerization of DR5. This PA presented a multivalent display of DR5-binding peptides, resulting in improved binding affinity measured by surface plasmon resonance. The DR5-targeting PA also showed enhanced efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo tumor models relative to non-targeted controls. Alternative modifications to the PA-based antitumor therapies included the use of a cytotoxic, membrane-lytic PA coassembled with a pegylated PA, which showed enhanced biodistribution and in vivo activity after coassembly. The functionalization of the hydrophobic core was also accomplished through the encapsulation of the chemotherapy camptothecin, which was shown to be an effective treatment in vivo. Additionally, a targeted PA nanostructure was designed to bind to the site of vascular intervention by targeting collagen IV. Following balloon angioplasty, targeted PA nanofibers showed enhanced binding by fluorescence relative to spherical micelles with the same targeting sequence, demonstrating the importance of nanostructure shape for vascular binding. Nitric oxide was functionalized onto the PA nanostructure through the S-nitrosylation (SNO) of a cysteine residue. Two weeks after vascular injury, the SNO-functionalized, targeted nanofibers showed significantly decreased levels of restenosis. In all treatment methods described, the control of multivalency through the tuning of supramolecular structure was essential to achieve optimal binding. Understanding the role of dynamic, supramolecular structures for the systemic delivery of peptide therapeutics should be an important focus of future work.

  2. Six1 mediates resistance to paclitaxel in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoming; Tian, Tian; Hu, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Xudong; Nan, Feifei; Chang, Yu; Lv, Feng; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2013-11-22

    Paclitaxel resistance remains a major challenge in the treatment of breast cancer. Six1 is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor invloved in the initiation, progression and metastasis of breast cancer. We herein investigate the relationship between Six1 and resistance of paclitaxel in this study. The results indicate that six1 is a mediator of the paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer. The expression level of Six1 in breast cancer cells correlates with their resistance to paclitaxel. On the one hand, forced overexpression of Six1 in Six1-low/paclitaxel-sensitive MCF-7 or HS578T breast cancer cells induce their resistance to paclitaxel treatment directly; On the other hand, knockdown of endogenous Six1 in Six1-high/drug-resistant BT-474 breast cancer cells sensitized these cells to paclitaxel treatment. Besides, Six1 overexpression confers resistance to paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, clinical data and the publicly available breast cancer gene expression datasets display that the association of Six1 expression with paclitaxel sensitivity is clinically relevant. In conclusion, these data suggest that Six1 may function as an important modifier of the paclitaxel response in breast cancer cells, and serve as a potential target for overcoming paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer. PMID:24184484

  3. Macitentan (ACT-064992), a tissue-targeting endothelin receptor antagonist, enhances therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel by modulating survival pathways in orthotopic models of metastatic human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Jin; Kim, Jang Seong; Kim, Seung Wook; Brantley, Emily; Yun, Seok Joong; He, Junqin; Maya, Marva; Zhang, Fahao; Wu, Qiuyu; Lehembre, François; Regenass, Urs; Fidler, Isaiah J

    2011-02-01

    Potential treatments for ovarian cancers that have become resistant to standard chemotherapies include modulators of tumor cell survival, such as endothelin receptor (ETR) antagonist. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the dual ETR antagonist, macitentan, on human ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3ip1 and IGROV1, growing orthotopically in nude mice. Mice with established disease were treated with vehicle (control), paclitaxel (weekly, intraperitoneal injections), macitentan (daily oral administrations), or a combination of paclitaxel and macitentan. Treatment with paclitaxel decreased tumor weight and volume of ascites. Combination therapy with macitentan and paclitaxel reduced tumor incidence and further reduced tumor weight and volume of ascites when compared with paclitaxel alone. Macitentan alone occasionally reduced tumor weight but alone had no effect on tumor incidence or ascites. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that treatment with macitentan and macitentan plus paclitaxel inhibited the phosphorylation of ETRs and suppressed the survival pathways of tumor cells by decreasing the levels of pVEGFR2, pAkt, and pMAPK. The dose of macitentan necessary for inhibition of phosphorylation correlated with the dose required to increase antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel. Treatment with macitentan enhanced the cytotoxicity mediated by paclitaxel as measured by the degree of apoptosis in tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. Collectively, these results show that administration of macitentan in combination with paclitaxel prevents the progression of ovarian cancer in the peritoneal cavity of nude mice in part by inhibiting survival pathways of both tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. PMID:21403842

  4. Clinical implementation of target tracking by breathing synchronized delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Tewatia, Dinesh; Zhang Tiezhi; Tome, Wolfgang; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Metha, Minesh

    2006-11-15

    Target-tracking techniques can be categorized based on the mechanism of the feedback loop. In real time tracking, breathing-delivery phase correlation is provided to the treatment delivery hardware. Clinical implementation of target tracking in real time requires major hardware modifications. In breathing synchronized delivery (BSD), the patient is guided to breathe in accordance with target motion derived from four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). Violations of mechanical limitations of hardware are to be avoided at the treatment planning stage. Hardware modifications are not required. In this article, using sliding window IMRT delivery as an example, we have described step-by-step the implementation of target tracking by the BSD technique: (1) A breathing guide is developed from patient's normal breathing pattern. The patient tries to reproduce this guiding cycle by following the display in the goggles; (2) 4D-CT scans are acquired at all the phases of the breathing cycle; (3) The average tumor trajectory is obtained by deformable image registration of 4D-CT datasets and is smoothed by Fourier filtering; (4) Conventional IMRT planning is performed using the images at reference phase (full exhalation phase) and a leaf sequence based on optimized fluence map is generated; (5) Assuming the patient breathes with a reproducible breathing pattern and the machine maintains a constant dose rate, the treatment process is correlated with the breathing phase; (6) The instantaneous average tumor displacement is overlaid on the dMLC position at corresponding phase; and (7) DMLC leaf speed and acceleration are evaluated to ensure treatment delivery. A custom-built mobile phantom driven by a computer-controlled stepper motor was used in the dosimetry verification. A stepper motor was programmed such that the phantom moved according to the linear component of tumor motion used in BSD treatment planning. A conventional plan was delivered on the phantom with and without motion. The BSD plan was also delivered on the phantom that moved with the prescheduled pattern and synchronized with the delivery of each beam. Film dosimetry showed underdose and overdose in the superior and inferior regions of the target, respectively, if the tumor motion is not compensated during the delivery. BSD delivery resulted in a dose distribution very similar to the planned treatments.

  5. Polysaccharide-Gold Nanocluster Supramolecular Conjugates as a Versatile Platform for the Targeted Delivery of Anticancer Drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ming; Yang, Yang; Su, Yue; Chen, Jia-Tong; Liu, Yu

    2014-02-01

    Through the high affinity of the ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) cavity for adamantane moieties, novel polysaccharide-gold nanocluster supramolecular conjugates (HACD-AuNPs) were successfully constructed from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) bearing adamantane moieties and cyclodextrin-grafted hyaluronic acid (HACD). Due to their porous structure, the supramolecular conjugates could serve as a versatile and biocompatible platform for the loading and delivery of various anticancer drugs, such as doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), paclitaxel (PTX), camptothecin (CPT), irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11), and topotecan hydrochloride (TPT), by taking advantage of the controlled association/dissociation of drug molecules from the cavities formed by the HACD skeletons and AuNPs cores as well as by harnessing the efficient targeting of cancer cells by hyaluronic acid. Significantly, the release of anticancer drugs from the drug@HACD-AuNPs system was pH-responsive, with more efficient release occurring under a mildly acidic environment, such as that in a cancer cell. Taking the anticancer drug DOX as an example, cell viability experiments revealed that the DOX@HACD-AuNPs system exhibited similar tumor cell inhibition abilities but lower toxicity than free DOX due to the hyaluronic acid reporter-mediated endocytosis. Therefore, the HACD-AuNPs supramolecular conjugates may possess great potential for the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs.

  6. Polysaccharide-Gold Nanocluster Supramolecular Conjugates as a Versatile Platform for the Targeted Delivery of Anticancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ming; Yang, Yang; Su, Yue; Chen, Jia-Tong; Liu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Through the high affinity of the ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) cavity for adamantane moieties, novel polysaccharide-gold nanocluster supramolecular conjugates (HACD-AuNPs) were successfully constructed from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) bearing adamantane moieties and cyclodextrin-grafted hyaluronic acid (HACD). Due to their porous structure, the supramolecular conjugates could serve as a versatile and biocompatible platform for the loading and delivery of various anticancer drugs, such as doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), paclitaxel (PTX), camptothecin (CPT), irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11), and topotecan hydrochloride (TPT), by taking advantage of the controlled association/dissociation of drug molecules from the cavities formed by the HACD skeletons and AuNPs cores as well as by harnessing the efficient targeting of cancer cells by hyaluronic acid. Significantly, the release of anticancer drugs from the drug@HACD-AuNPs system was pH-responsive, with more efficient release occurring under a mildly acidic environment, such as that in a cancer cell. Taking the anticancer drug DOX as an example, cell viability experiments revealed that the DOX@HACD-AuNPs system exhibited similar tumor cell inhibition abilities but lower toxicity than free DOX due to the hyaluronic acid reporter-mediated endocytosis. Therefore, the HACD-AuNPs supramolecular conjugates may possess great potential for the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. PMID:24566666

  7. Targeting homeostasis in drug delivery using bioresponsive hydrogel microforms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A Nolan; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2014-01-30

    A drug delivery platform comprising a biocompatible, bioresponsive hydrogel and possessing a covalently tethered peptide-drug conjugate was engineered to achieve stasis, via a closed control loop, of the external biochemical activity of the actuating protease. The delivery platform contains a peptide-drug conjugate covalently tethered to the hydrogel matrix, which in the presence of the appropriate protease, was cleaved and the drug released into the bathing environment. This platform was developed and investigated in silico using a finite element modeling (FEM) approach. Firstly, the primary governing phenomena guiding drug release profiles were investigated, and it was confirmed that under transport-limited conditions, the diffusion of the enzyme within the hydrogel and the coupled enzyme kinetics accurately model the system and are in agreement with published results. Secondly, the FEM model was used to investigate the release of a competitive protease inhibitor, MAG283, via cleavage of Acetyl-Pro-Leu-Gly|Leu-MAG-283 by MMP9 in order to achieve targeted homeostasis of MMP-9 activity, such as in the pathophysiology of chronic wounds, via closed-loop feedback control. The key engineering parameters for the delivery device are the radii of the hydrogel microspheres and the concentration of the peptide-inhibitor conjugate. Homeostatic drug delivery, where the focus turns away from the drug release rate and turns toward achieving targeted control of biochemical activity within a biochemical pathway, is an emerging approach in drug delivery methodologies for which the potential has not yet been fully realized. PMID:24333901

  8. Delivery of Polymeric Nanoparticles to Target Vascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Agyare, Edward; Kandimalla, Karunyna

    2015-01-01

    Current advances in nanotechnology have paved the way for the early detection, prevention and treatment of various diseases such as vascular disorders and cancer. These advances have provided novel approaches or modalities of incorporating or adsorbing therapeutic, biosensor and targeting agents into/on nanoparticles. With significant progress, nanomedicine for vascular therapy has shown significant advantages over traditional medicine because of its ability to selectively target the disease site and reduce adverse side effects. Targeted delivery of nanoparticles to vascular endothelial cells or the vascular wall provides an effective and more efficient way for early detection and/or treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis and Cerebrovascular Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA). Clinical applications of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers in areas such as vascular graft, implantable drug delivery, stent devices and tissue engineering scaffolds have advanced the candidature of polymers as potential nano-carriers for vascular-targeted delivery of diagnostic agents and drugs. This review focuses on the basic aspects of the vasculature and its associated diseases and relates them to polymeric nanoparticle-based strategies for targeting therapeutic agents to diseased vascular site. PMID:26069867

  9. Prostate Cancer Relevant Antigens and Enzymes for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Barve, Ashutosh; Jin, Wei; Cheng, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used approaches in combating advanced prostate cancer, but its therapeutic efficacy is usually insufficient due to lack of specificity and associated toxicity. Lack of targeted delivery to prostate cancer cells is also the primary obstacles in achieving feasible therapeutic effect of other promising agents including peptide, protein, and nucleic acid. Consequently, there remains a critical need for strategies to increase the selectivity of anti-prostate cancer agents. This review will focus on various prostate cancer-specific antigens and enzymes that could be exploited for prostate cancer targeted drug delivery. Among various targeting strategies, active targeting is the most advanced approach to specifically deliver drugs to their designated cancer cells. In this approach, drug carriers are modified with targeting ligands that can specifically bind to prostate cancer-specific antigens. Moreover, there are several specific enzymes in the tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer that can be exploited for stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems. These systems can specifically release the active drug in the tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer, leading to enhanced tumor penetration efficiency. PMID:24878184

  10. Localized, targeted, and sustained siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Melissa D; Alsberg, Eben

    2011-03-01

    Short interfering RNA (siRNA) functions directly in the cytoplasm, where it is assembled into an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). The localized delivery of siRNA to a specific site in vivo is highly challenging. There are many disease states in which a systemic effect of RNAi may be desirable; some examples include non-localized cancers, HIV, neurodegenerative diseases, respiratory viruses, and heart and vascular disease. In this Concept, we will focus on the localized delivery of siRNA to a target site using various delivery modalities. In certain tissues, such as the eye, central nervous system and lung, it has been demonstrated that a simple injection of naked siRNA will silence gene expression specifically in that tissue. To achieve local gene silencing in other tissues, a variety of approaches have been pursued to help stabilize the siRNA and facilitate uptake; they include chemical modification of the siRNA or complexation within liposomes or polymers to form nanoparticles. Recently, the use of macroscopic biomaterial scaffolds for siRNA delivery has been reported, and although there is still significant work to be done in this area to optimize the delivery systems, it is an important area of research that offers the potential for having great impact on the field of siRNA delivery. PMID:21341332

  11. Targeted drug delivery using genetically engineered diatom biosilica.

    PubMed

    Delalat, Bahman; Sheppard, Vonda C; Rasi Ghaemi, Soraya; Rao, Shasha; Prestidge, Clive A; McPhee, Gordon; Rogers, Mary-Louise; Donoghue, Jacqueline F; Pillay, Vinochani; Johns, Terrance G; Krger, Nils; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-01-01

    The ability to selectively kill cancerous cell populations while leaving healthy cells unaffected is a key goal in anticancer therapeutics. The use of nanoporous silica-based materials as drug-delivery vehicles has recently proven successful, yet production of these materials requires costly and toxic chemicals. Here we use diatom microalgae-derived nanoporous biosilica to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to cancer cells. The diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana is genetically engineered to display an IgG-binding domain of protein G on the biosilica surface, enabling attachment of cell-targeting antibodies. Neuroblastoma and B-lymphoma cells are selectively targeted and killed by biosilica displaying specific antibodies sorbed with drug-loaded nanoparticles. Treatment with the same biosilica leads to tumour growth regression in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model of neuroblastoma. These data indicate that genetically engineered biosilica frustules may be used as versatile 'backpacks' for the targeted delivery of poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs to tumour sites. PMID:26556723

  12. Non-Spherical Particles for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinrong; Clay, Nicholas; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2015-01-01

    Nano- and microparticles loaded with various bioimaging contrast agents or therapeutic molecules have been increasingly used for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and tissue defects. These particles, often a filled or hollow sphere, can extend the lifetime of encapsulated biomedical modalities in circulation and in target tissue. However, there is a great need to improve the drug loading and targeting efficiency of these particles. Recently, several simulation and in vitro experimental studies reported that particle shape plays a pivotal role in the targeted delivery of molecules. To better understand these findings and subsequently expedite the use of particles in biomedical applications, this review paper summarizes the methods to prepare non-spherical nano- and micro-scaled particles. In addition, this review covers studies reporting the effects of particle shape on the loading, delivery and release of encapsulated bioactive cargos. Finally, it discusses future directions to further improve the properties of non-spherical particles. PMID:25838583

  13. Peptide-Functionalized Nanogels for Targeted siRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, William H.; Dickerson, Erin B.; Smith, Michael H.; McDonald, John F.; Lyon, L. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A major bottleneck in the development of siRNA therapies is their delivery to the desired cell type or tissue, followed by effective passage across the cell membrane with subsequent silencing of the targeted mRNA. To address this problem, we describe the synthesis of core/shell hydrogel nanoparticles (nanogels) with surface-localized peptides that specifically target ovarian carcinoma cell lines possessing high expression levels of the Eph2A receptor. These nanogels are also demonstrated to be highly effective in the noncovalent encapsulation of siRNA and enable cell-specific delivery of the oligonucleotides in serum-containing medium. Cell toxicity and viability assays reveal that the nanogel construct is nontoxic under the conditions studied, as no toxicity or decrease in cell proliferation is observed following delivery. Importantly, a preliminary investigation of gene silencing illustrates that nanogel-mediated delivery of siRNA targeted to the EGF receptor results in knockdown of that receptor. Excellent protection of siRNA during endosomal uptake and endosomal escape of the nanogels is suggested by these results since siRNA activity in the cytosol is required for gene silencing. PMID:19341276

  14. Polyethylene GlycolPhosphatidylethanolamine (PEGPE)/Vitamin E Micelles for Co-Delivery of Paclitaxel and Curcumin to Overcome Multi-Drug Resistance in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abouzeid, Abraham H.; Patel, Niravkumar R.

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of mixed micelles, made of PEG-PE and vitamin E co-loaded with curcumin and paclitaxel, was investigated against SK-OV-3 human ovarian adenocarcinoma along with its multi-drug resistant version SK-OV-3-paclitaxel-resistant (TR) cells in vitro and in vivo. The addition of curcumin at various concentrations did not significantly enhance the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel against SK-OV-3 in vitro. However, a clear synergistic effect was observed with the combination treatment against SK-OV-3TR in vitro. In vivo, this combination treatment produced a three-fold tumor inhibition with each of these cell lines. Our results indicate that such co-loaded mixed micelles could have significant clinical advantages for the treatment of resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:24440402

  15. Targeted Drug Delivery to Treat Pain and Cerebral Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Limited drug penetration is an obstacle that is often encountered in treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases including pain and cerebral hypoxia. Over the past several years, biochemical characteristics of the brain (i.e., tight junction protein complexes at brain barrier sites, expression of influx and efflux transporters) have been shown to be directly involved in determining CNS permeation of therapeutic agents; however, the vast majority of these studies have focused on understanding those mechanisms that prevent drugs from entering the CNS. Recently, this paradigm has shifted toward identifying and characterizing brain targets that facilitate CNS drug delivery. Such targets include the organic aniontransporting polypeptides (OATPs in humans; Oatps in rodents), a family of sodium-independent transporters that are endogenously expressed in the brain and are involved in drug uptake. OATP/Oatp substrates include drugs that are efficacious in treatment of pain and/or cerebral hypoxia (i.e., opioid analgesic peptides, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors). This clearly suggests that OATP/Oatp isoforms are viable transporter targets that can be exploited for optimization of drug delivery to the brain and, therefore, improved treatment of CNS diseases. This review summarizes recent knowledge in this area and emphasizes the potential that therapeutic targeting of OATP/Oatp isoforms may have in facilitating CNS drug delivery and distribution. Additionally, information presented in this review will point to novel strategies that can be used for treatment of pain and cerebral hypoxia. PMID:23343976

  16. TLR9-Targeted SiRNA Delivery In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Dewan Md Sakib; Moreira, Dayson; Zhang, Qifang; Nechaev, Sergey; Swiderski, Piotr; Kortylewski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The SiRNA strategy is a potent and versatile method for modulating expression of any gene in various species for investigational or therapeutic purposes. Clinical translation of SiRNA-based approaches proved challenging, mainly due to the difficulty of targeted SiRNA delivery into cells of interest and the immunogenic side effects of oligonucleotide reagents. However, the intrinsic sensitivity of immune cells to nucleic acids can be utilized for the delivery of SiRNAs designed for the purpose of cancer immunotherapy. We have demonstrated that synthetic ligands for the intracellular receptor TLR9 can serve as targeting moiety for cell-specific delivery of SiRNAs. Chemically synthesized CpG-SiRNA conjugates are quickly internalized by TLR9-positive cells in the absence of transfection reagents, inducing target gene silencing. The CpG-SiRNA strategy allows for effective targeting of TLR9-positive cells in vivo after local or systemic administration of these oligonucleotides into mice. PMID:26472451

  17. Targeted Cellular Drug Delivery using Tailored Dendritic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kolhe, Parag; Kannan, Sujatha; Lieh-Lai, Mary

    2002-03-01

    Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers possess highly branched architectures, with a large number of controllable, tailorble, peripheral functionalities. Since the surface chemistry of these materials can be modified with relative ease, these materials have tremendous potential in targeted drug and gene delivery. The large number of end groups can also be tailored to create special affinity to targeted cells, and can also encapsulate drugs and deliver them in a controlled manner. We are developing tailor-modified dendritic systems for drug delivery. Synthesis, in-vitro drug loading, in-vitro drug delivery, and the targeting efficiency to the cell are being studied systematically using a wide variety of experimental tools. Polyamidoamine and Polyol dendrimers, with different generations and end-groups are studied, with drugs such as Ibuprofen and Methotrexate. Our results indicate that a large number of drug molecules can be encapsulated/attached to the dendrimers, depending on the end groups. The drug-encapsulated dendrimer is able to enter the cells rapidly and deliver the drug. Targeting strategies being explored

  18. [Nab-paclitaxel].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Trabada Ataz, Daniel; Dumont, Sarah; Andr, Thierry

    2015-06-01

    Paclitaxel is conventionally used in a wide range of oncology indications. Nab-paclitaxel is synthesized by a process of high pressure homogenization of paclitaxel in the presence of human albumin and it was originally developed to reduce the toxicity usually associated with cremophor in soluble paclitaxel and to increase its penetration in tumor tissues. After the trials that led to its approval in first-line treatment of metastatic pancreatic carcinomas and in second line therapy for metastatic breast cancer, nab-paclitaxel is being tested for many other situations in oncology due to its profile of security and its good tolerance. Different lines of research are being developed about the possible biomarkers that could predict the effect of nab-paclitaxel. This review summarizes the results of trials that led to the approval of the nab-paclitaxel in advanced breast cancer and pancreatic cancer, and also resumes the lines of research to the future development of the drug. PMID:26008630

  19. Immunoliposomes for Targeted Delivery of an Antifibrotic Drug.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Liane; Seifert, Oliver; Vollmer, Stefanie; Kontermann, Roland E; Schlosshauer, Burkhard; Hartmann, Hanna

    2015-09-01

    Excessive extracellular matrix formation in organs and tissues arises from an imbalance between the synthesis and degradation of matrix proteins, especially collagen. This condition interferes with proper wound healing and regeneration, and to date, no specific treatment is available. In the present study, we propose a targeted drug delivery system consisting of cell-specific immunoliposomes (ILs) loaded with deferoxamine (DFO) as an antifibrotic drug. ILs were functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to improve the steric stability and prolong their half-life. In addition, a single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragment that specifically targets fibroblast activation protein (FAP) was incorporated. An in vitro fibrosis model was employed to test this construct. This model consisted of highly activated pro-fibrotic fibroblasts with 2- to 6-fold induction of selected fibrosis markers: cell/matrix deposited collagen I, total soluble collagen, and ? smooth muscle actin. The activation was accompanied by a significant and cell-specific elevation of FAP expression and activity, thereby confirming that FAP is an adequate target for antifibrotic drug delivery. Purified anti-FAP scFv was shown to bind specifically to these cells without influencing the FAP enzymatic activity. DFO was demonstrated to have a dose-dependent antifibrotic activity as quantified by collagen deposition. Specific binding and intracellular uptake of DiI-labeled ILs into the activated fibroblasts were shown by flow cytometry and microscopy. Finally, DFO-loaded ILs targeted to FAP caused a significant reduction in the collagen deposition, whereas no effect was observed using liposomes that lacked the targeting antibody fragment. These results suggest that the FAP-specific scFv-conjugated liposomes have considerable potential for cell-specific targeting applicable as a therapy for excessive collagen deposition during fibrosis. In general, through liposome encapsulation, bioactive molecules, such as DFO, that have broad effects and poor cell penetration can be converted into cell-specific composites for targeted drug delivery. PMID:26181293

  20. Breakable mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Laura; Cabrera, Ingrid; Ruiz-Carretero, Amparo; Prasetyanto, Eko A; Robinet, Eric; De Cola, Luisa

    2016-03-24

    "Pop goes the particle". Here we report on the preparation of redox responsive mesoporous organo-silica nanoparticles containing disulfide (S-S) bridges (ss-NPs) that, even upon the exohedral grafting of targeting ligands, retained their ability to undergo structural degradation, and increase their local release activity when exposed to a reducing agent. This degradation could be observed also inside glioma C6 cancer cells. Moreover, when anticancer drug-loaded pristine and derivatized ss-NPs were fed to glioma C6 cells, the responsive hybrids were more effective in their cytotoxic action compared to non-breakable particles. The possibility of tailoring the surface functionalization of this hybrid, yet preserving its self-destructive behavior and enhanced drug delivery properties, paves the way for the development of effective biodegradable materials for in vivo targeted drug delivery. PMID:26974603

  1. Targeted delivery of doxorubicin using stealth liposomes modified with transferrin.

    PubMed

    Li, XueMing; Ding, Liyan; Xu, Yuanlong; Wang, Yonglu; Ping, QiNeng

    2009-05-21

    Site-specific delivery of drugs and therapeutics can significantly reduce drug toxicity and increase the therapeutic effect. Transferrin (Tf) is one suitable ligand to be conjugated to drug delivery systems to achieve site-specific targeting, due to its specific binding to transferrin receptors (TfR), highly expressed on the surfaces of tumor cells. Stealth liposomes are effective vehicles for drugs, genes and vaccines and can be easily modified with proteins, antibodies, and other appropriate ligands, resulting in attractive formulations for targeted drug delivery. In this study, we prepared doxorubicin-loaded stealth liposomes (Tf-SL-DOX) by film dispersion followed by ammonium sulphate gradient method, then conjugated Tf to the liposome surface by an amide bound between DSPE-PEG(2000)-COOH and Tf. The results of the intracellular uptake study indicated that Tf-modified SL was able to enhance the intracellular uptake of the entrapped DOX by HepG2 cells compared to SL-DOX. We studied tissue distribution and therapeutic effects of Free DOX, SL-DOX and Tf-SL-DOX in tumor-bearing mice and pharmacokinetics in rats. The pharmacokinetic behavior of Tf-SL-DOX in the plasma was closed to SL-DOX. Administration of Tf-SL-DOX to tumor-bearing mice could be used to deliver DOX effectively to the targeted site, significantly increasing DOX concentration in tumor and decreasing DOX concentration in heart and kidney. In summary, our study indicated that the Tf-coupled PEG liposomes (Tf-SL) could be as the targeted carriers to facilitate the delivery of the encapsulated anticancer drugs into tumor cells by receptor-mediated way. PMID:19429296

  2. Peptide Anchor for Folate-Targeted Liposomal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugnia; Mangialavori, Irene C; Loureiro, Ana; Azoia, Nuno G; Srria, Marisa P; Nogueira, Patrcia; Freitas, Jaime; Hrmark, Johan; Shimanovich, Ulyana; Rollett, Alexandra; Lacroix, Ghislaine; Bernardes, Gonalo J L; Guebitz, Georg; Hebert, Hans; Moreira, Alexandra; Carmo, Alexandre M; Rossi, Juan Pablo F C; Gomes, Andreia C; Preto, Ana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-09-14

    Specific folate receptors are abundantly overexpressed in chronically activated macrophages and in most cancer cells. Directed folate receptor targeting using liposomes is usually achieved using folate linked to a phospholipid or cholesterol anchor. This link is formed using a large spacer like polyethylene glycol. Here, we report an innovative strategy for targeted liposome delivery that uses a hydrophobic fragment of surfactant protein D linked to folate. Our proposed spacer is a small 4 amino acid residue linker. The peptide conjugate inserts deeply into the lipid bilayer without affecting liposomal integrity, with high stability and specificity. To compare the drug delivery potential of both liposomal targeting systems, we encapsulated the nuclear dye Hoechst 34580. The eventual increase in blue fluorescence would only be detectable upon liposome disruption, leading to specific binding of this dye to DNA. Our delivery system was proven to be more efficient (2-fold) in Caco-2 cells than classic systems where the folate moiety is linked to liposomes by polyethylene glycol. PMID:26241560

  3. Injectable nanomaterials for drug delivery: carriers, targeting moieties, and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Webster, David M; Sundaram, Padma; Byrne, Mark E

    2013-05-01

    Therapeutics such as nucleic acids, proteins/peptides, vaccines, anti-cancer, and other drugs have disadvantages of low bio-availability, rapid clearance, and high toxicity. Thus, there is a significant need for the development of efficient delivery methods and carriers. Injectable nanocarriers have received much attention due to their vast range of structures and ability to contain multiple functional groups, both within the bulk material and on the surface of the particles. Nanocarriers may be tailored to control drug release and/or increase selective cell targeting, cellular uptake, drug solubility, and circulation time, all of which lead to a more efficacious delivery and action of therapeutics. The focus of this review is injectable, targeted nanoparticle drug delivery carriers highlighting the diversity of nanoparticle materials and structures as well as highlighting current therapeutics and targeting moieties. Structures and materials discussed include liposomes, polymersomes, dendrimers, cyclodextrin-containing polymers (CDPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and gold nanoparticles. Additionally, current clinical trial information and details such as trial phase, treatment, active drug, carrier sponsor, and clinical trial identifier for different materials and structures are presented and discussed. PMID:23313176

  4. Self-Assembled Smart Nanocarriers for Targeted Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Li, Junbai; Decher, Gero

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured drug-carrier systems promise numerous benefits for drug delivery. They can be engineered to precisely control drug-release rates or to target specific sites within the body with a specific amount of therapeutic agent. However, to achieve the best therapeutic effects, the systems should be designed for carrying the optimum amount of a drug to the desired target where it should be released at the optimum rate for a specified time. Despite numerous attempts, fulfilling all of these requirements in a synergistic way remains a huge challenge. The trend in drug delivery is consequently directed toward integrated multifunctional carrier systems, providing selective recognition in combination with sustained or triggered release. Capsules as vesicular systems enable drugs to be confined for controlled release. Furthermore, carriers modified with recognition groups can enhance the capability of encapsulated drug efficacy. Here, recent advances are reviewed regarding designing and preparing assembled capsules with targeting ligands or size controllable for selective recognition in drug delivery. PMID:26436442

  5. Magnetically Targeted Stem Cell Delivery for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cores, Jhon; Caranasos, Thomas G.; Cheng, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells play a special role in the body as agents of self-renewal and auto-reparation for tissues and organs. Stem cell therapies represent a promising alternative strategy to regenerate damaged tissue when natural repairing and conventional pharmacological intervention fail to do so. A fundamental impediment for the evolution of stem cell therapies has been the difficulty of effectively targeting administered stem cells to the disease foci. Biocompatible magnetically responsive nanoparticles are being utilized for the targeted delivery of stem cells in order to enhance their retention in the desired treatment site. This noninvasive treatment-localization strategy has shown promising results and has the potential to mitigate the problem of poor long-term stem cell engraftment in a number of organ systems post-delivery. In addition, these same nanoparticles can be used to track and monitor the cells in vivo, using magnetic resonance imaging. In the present review we underline the principles of magnetic targeting for stem cell delivery, with a look at the logic behind magnetic nanoparticle systems, their manufacturing and design variants, and their applications in various pathological models. PMID:26133387

  6. Multifunctional TK-VLPs nanocarrier for tumor-targeted delivery.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yachao; Mu, Yu; Jiang, Lei; Yu, Hui; Yang, Shuman; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Hunan; Xiao, Cuihong; Peng, Haisheng; Zhou, Yulong; Lu, Weiyue

    2016-04-11

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) have been exploited for various biomedical applications, such as the monitoring, prevention, diagnosis and therapy of disease. In this study, a novel multifunctional VLPs nanocarrier (TK-VLPs) was prepared and used for tumor-targeted delivery. The SPR and cell uptake results indicated that the TK peptide is a "bi-functional ligand" with high affinity for Caco-2, HRT-18 and HUVEC cells through the integrin α6β1 and integrin αvβ3 receptors. The results of the direct immunofluorescence, SDS-PAGE and western blot assays demonstrated that the TK-VLPs were successfully prepared using the baculovirus expression system. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and the flow cytometry analysis validated that the TK-VLPs could target to Caco-2, HRT-18 and HUVEC cells. An in vivo study further confirmed that the TK-VLPs could target and efficiently deliver fluorescein to tumor cells and the tumor vasculature in mice bearing subcutaneous tumors. TK-VLPs-DOX displayed a uniform, spherical shape and an average size of approximately 28nm. The results of the cell uptake and cytotoxicity assays indicated that TK-VLPs-DOX could enhance the selectivity for colorectal cancer cells. Together, our studies provide strong evidence that TK-VLPs could target colon tumor cells and tumor angiogenesis with enhanced permeability and retention effects, suggesting that the TK-VLPs are a multifunctional nanocarrier with potential applications in a colon tumor-targeted drug delivery system. PMID:26915810

  7. In vivo targeted delivery of nanoparticles for theranosis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Heebeom; Huh, Myung Sook; Sun, In-Cheol; Yuk, Soon Hong; Choi, Kuiwon; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan

    2011-10-18

    Therapy and diagnosis are two major categories in the clinical treatment of disease. Recently, the word "theranosis" has been created, combining the words to describe the implementation of these two distinct pursuits simultaneously. For successful theranosis, the efficient delivery of imaging agents and drugs is critical to provide sufficient imaging signal or drug concentration in the targeted disease site. To achieve this purpose, biomedical researchers have developed various nanoparticles composed of organic or inorganic materials. However, the targeted delivery of these nanoparticles in animal models and patients remains a difficult hurdle for many researchers, even if they show useful properties in cell culture condition. In this Account, we review our strategies for developing theranostic nanoparticles to accomplish in vivo targeted delivery of imaging agents and drugs. By applying these rational strategies, we achieved fine multimodal imaging and successful therapy. Our first strategy involves physicochemical optimization of nanoparticles for long circulation and an enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. We accomplished this result by testing various materials in mouse models and optimizing the physical properties of the materials with imaging techniques. Through these experiments, we developed a glycol chitosan nanoparticle (CNP), which is suitable for angiogenic diseases, such as cancers, even without an additional targeting moiety. The in vivo mechanism of this particle was examined through rationally designed experiments. In addition, we evaluated and compared the biodistribution and target-site accumulation of bare and drug-loaded nanoparticles. We then focus on the targeting moieties that bind to cell surface receptors. Small peptides were selected as targeting moieties because of their stability, low cost, size, and activity per unit mass. Through phage display screening, the interleukin-4 receptor binding peptide was discovered, and we combined it with our nanoparticles. This product accumulated efficiently in atherosclerotic regions or tumors during both imaging and therapy. We also developed hyaluronic acid nanoparticles that can bind efficiently to the CD44 antigen receptors abundant in many tumor cells. Their delivery mechanism is based on both physicochemical optimization for the EPR effect and receptor-mediated endocytosis by their hyaluronic acid backbone. Finally, we introduce the stimuli-responsive system related to the chemical and biological changes in the target disease site. Considering the relatively low pH in tumors and ischemic sites, we applied pH-sensitive micelle to optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, anticancer drug delivery, and photodynamic therapy. In addition, we successfully evaluated the in vivo imaging of enzyme activity at the target site with an enzyme-specific peptide sequence and CNPs. On the basis of these strategies, we were able to develop self-assembled nanoparticles for in vivo targeted delivery, and successful results were obtained with them in animal models for both imaging and therapy. We anticipate that these rational strategies, as well as our nanoparticles, will be applied in both the diagnosis and therapy of many human diseases. These theranostic nanoparticles are expected to greatly contribute to optimized therapy for individual patients as personalized medicine, in the near future. PMID:21851104

  8. Magnetic nanoparticles as targeted delivery systems in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Prijic, Sara; Sersa, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Background Many different types of nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles being just a category among them, offer exciting opportunities for technologies at the interfaces between chemistry, physics and biology. Some magnetic nanoparticles have already been utilized in clinical practice as contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their physicochemical properties are constantly being improved upon also for other biological applications, such as magnetically-guided delivery systems for different therapeutics. By exposure of magnetic nanoparticles with attached therapeutics to an external magnetic field with appropriate characteristics, they are concentrated and retained at the preferred site which enables the targeted delivery of therapeutics to the desired spot. Conclusions The idea of binding chemotherapeutics to magnetic nanoparticles has been around for 30 years, however, no magnetic nanoparticles as delivery systems have yet been approved for clinical practice. Recently, binding of nucleic acids to magnetic nanoparticles has been demonstrated as a successful non-viral transfection method of different cell lines in vitro. With the optimization of this method called magnetofection, it will hopefully become another form of gene delivery for the treatment of cancer. PMID:22933928

  9. Angiopep-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(?-caprolactone) nanoparticles as dual-targeting drug delivery system for brain glioma.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hongliang; Jiang, Xinyi; Gu, Jijin; Sha, Xianyi; Chen, Liangcen; Law, Kitki; Chen, Yanzuo; Wang, Xiao; Jiang, Ye; Fang, Xiaoling

    2011-06-01

    Dual-targeting nanoparticle drug delivery system was developed by conjugating Angiopep with PEG-PCL nanoparticles (ANG-NP) through bifunctional PEG to overcome the limitations of low transport of chemotherapeutics across the Blood-brain barrier (BBB) and poor penetration into tumor tissue. ANG-NP can target the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) which is over-expressed on the BBB and glioma cells. Compared with non-targeting nanoparticles, a significantly higher amount of rhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled dual-targeting nanoparticles were endocytosed by U87 MG cells. The antiproliferative and cell apoptosis assay of paclitaxel-loaded ANG-NP (ANG-NP-PTX) demonstrated that ANG-NP-PTX resulted in enhanced inhibitory effects to U87 MG glioma cells. The transport ratios across the BBB model in vitro were significantly increased and the cell viability of U87 MG glioma cells after crossing the BBB was obviously decreased by ANG-NP-PTX. Enhanced accumulation of ANG-NP in the glioma bed and infiltrating margin of intracranial U87 MG glioma tumor-bearing in vivo model were observed by real time fluorescence image. In conclusion, Angiopep-conjugated PEG-PCL nanoparticles were prospective in dual-targeting drug delivery system for targeting therapy of brain glioma. PMID:21427009

  10. Peptide ligand and PEG-mediated long-circulating liposome targeted to FGFR overexpressing tumor in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lulu; Wang, Xianhuo; Wang, Wenwen; Qiu, Neng; Wen, Jiaolin; Duan, Xingmei; Li, Xia; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Li; Qian, Zhiyong; Wei, Yuquan; Chen, Lijuan

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Paclitaxel, a widely used antitumor agent, has limited clinical application due to its hydrophobicity and systemic toxicity. To achieve sustained and targeted delivery of paclitaxel to tumor sites, liposomes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and distearolyphosphatidyl ethanolamine-N-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG2000) were prepared by a lipid film method. In addition, the liposomes also contained truncated fibroblast growth factor fragment-PEG-cholesterol as a ligand targeting the tumor marker fibroblast growth factor receptor. Physicochemical characteristics, such as particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and release profiles were investigated. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were evaluated in C57BL/6 J mice bearing B16 melanoma after intravenous injection of paclitaxel formulated in Cremophor EL (free paclitaxel), conventional liposomes (CL-PTX), or in targeted PEGylated liposomes (TL-PTX). Results Compared with CL-PTX and free paclitaxel, TL-PTX prolonged the half-life of paclitaxel by 2.01-fold and 3.40-fold, respectively, in plasma and improved the AUC0?t values of paclitaxel by 1.56-fold and 2.31-fold, respectively, in blood. Biodistribution studies showed high accumulation of TL-PTX in tumor tissue and organs containing the mononuclear phagocyte system (liver and spleen), but a considerable decrease in other organs (heart, lung, and kidney) compared with CL-PTX and free paclitaxel. Conclusion The truncated fibroblast growth factor fragment-conjugated PEGylated liposome has promising potential as a long-circulating and tumor-targeting carrier system. PMID:22923988

  11. Polymeric nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Masood, Farha

    2016-03-01

    A targeted delivery system based on the polymeric nanoparticles as a drug carrier represents a marvelous avenue for cancer therapy. The pivotal characteristics of this system include biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity, prolonged circulation and a wide payload spectrum of a therapeutic agent. Other outstanding features are their distinctive size and shape properties for tissue penetration via an active and passive targeting, specific cellular/subcellular trafficking pathways and facile control of cargo release by sophisticated material engineering. In this review, the current implications of encapsulation of anticancer agents within polyhydroxyalkanoates, poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and cyclodextrin based nanoparticles to precisely target the tumor site, i.e., cell, tissue and organ are highlighted. Furthermore, the promising perspectives in this emerging field are discussed. PMID:26706565

  12. Delivery and targeting of nanoparticles into hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chia-Lang; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Li, Yi-Ching; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that nanoparticles used for follicular delivery provide some advantages over conventional pathways, including improved skin bioavailability, enhanced penetration depth, prolonged residence duration, fast transport into the skin and tissue targeting. This review describes recent developments using nanotechnology approaches for drug delivery into the follicles. Different types of nanosystems may be employed for management of follicular permeation, such as polymeric nanoparticles, metallic nanocrystals, liposomes, and lipid nanoparticles. This review systematically introduces the mechanisms of follicles for nanoparticulate penetration, highlighting the therapeutic potential of drug-loaded nanoparticles for treating skin diseases. Special attention is paid to the use of nanoparticles in treating appendage-related disorders, in particular, nanomedical strategies for treating alopecia, acne, and transcutaneous immunization. PMID:25375342

  13. Multifunctional particles for melanoma-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wadajkar, Aniket S; Bhavsar, Zarna; Ko, Cheng-Yu; Koppolu, Bhanuprasanth; Cui, Weina; Tang, Liping; Nguyen, Kytai T

    2012-08-01

    New magnetic-based core-shell particles (MBCSPs) were developed to target skin cancer cells while delivering chemotherapeutic drugs in a controlled fashion. MBCSPs consist of a thermo-responsive shell of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide-allylamine) and a core of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) embedded with magnetite nanoparticles. To target melanoma cancer cells, MBCSPs were conjugated with Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) peptides that specifically bind to the α(5)β(3) receptors of melanoma cells. MBCSPs consist of unique multifunctional and controlled drug delivery characteristics. Specially, they can provide dual drug release mechanisms (a sustained release of drugs through degradation of PLGA core and a controlled release in response to changes in temperature via thermo-responsive polymer shell), and dual targeting mechanisms (magnetic localization and receptor-mediated targeting). Results from in vitro studies indicate that GRGDS-conjugated MBCSPs have an average diameter of 296 nm and exhibit no cytotoxicity towards human dermal fibroblasts up to 500 μg ml(-1). Further, a sustained release of curcumin from the core and a temperature-dependent release of doxorubicin from the shell of MBCSPs were observed. The particles also produced a dark contrast signal in magnetic resonance imaging. Finally, the particles were accumulated at the tumor site in a B16F10 melanoma orthotopic mouse model, especially in the presence of a magnet. Results indicate great potential of MBCSPs as a platform technology to target, treat and monitor melanoma for targeted drug delivery to reduce side effects of chemotherapeutic reagents. PMID:22561668

  14. Cell membrane-formed nanovesicles for disease-targeted delivery.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jin; Chu, Dafeng; Wang, Zhenjia

    2016-02-28

    Vascular inflammation is the underlying component of most diseases. To target inflamed vasculature, nanoparticles are commonly engineered by conjugating antibody to the nanoparticle surface, but this bottom-up approach could affect nanoparticle targeting and therapeutic efficacy in complex, physiologically related systems. During vascular inflammation endothelium via the NF-κB pathway instantly upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) which binds integrin β2 on neutrophil membrane. Inspired by this interaction, we created a nanovesicle-based drug delivery system using nitrogen cavitation which rapidly disrupts activated neutrophils to make cell membrane nanovesicles. Studies using intravital microscopy of live mouse cremaster venules showed that these vesicles can selectively bind inflamed vasculature because they possess intact targeting molecules of integrin β2. Administering of nanovesicles loaded with TPCA-1 (a NF-κB inhibitor) markedly mitigated mouse acute lung inflammation. Our studies reveal a new top-down strategy for directly employing a diseased tissue to produce biofunctional nanovesicle-based drug delivery systems potentially applied to treat various diseases. PMID:26778696

  15. Specifically targeted delivery of protein to phagocytic macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Min; Chen, Zeming; Guo, Wenjun; Wang, Jin; Feng, Yupeng; Kong, Xiuqi; Hong, Zhangyong

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play important roles in the pathogenesis of various diseases, and are important potential therapeutic targets. Furthermore, macrophages are key antigen-presenting cells and important in vaccine design. In this study, we report on the novel formulation (bovine serum albumin [BSA]-loaded glucan particles [GMP-BSA]) based on β-glucan particles from cell walls of baker’s yeast for the targeted delivery of protein to macrophages. Using this formulation, chitosan, tripolyphosphate, and alginate were used to fabricate colloidal particles with the model protein BSA via electrostatic interactions, which were caged and incorporated BSA very tightly within the β-glucan particle shells. The prepared GMP-BSA exhibited good protein-release behavior and avoided protein leakage. The particles were also highly specific to phagocytic macrophages, such as Raw 264.7 cells, primary bone marrow-derived macrophages, and peritoneal exudate macrophages, whereas the particles were not taken up by nonphagocytic cells, including NIH3T3, AD293, HeLa, and Caco-2. We hypothesize that these tightly encapsulated protein-loaded glucan particles deliver various types of proteins to macrophages with notably high selectivity, and may have broad applications in targeted drug delivery or vaccine design against macrophages. PMID:25784802

  16. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles in target drug delivery system: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Charu; Nagaich, Upendra; Pal, Ashok Kumar; Gulati, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Due to lack of specification and solubility of drug molecules, patients have to take high doses of the drug to achieve the desired therapeutic effects for the treatment of diseases. To solve these problems, there are various drug carriers present in the pharmaceuticals, which can used to deliver therapeutic agents to the target site in the body. Mesoporous silica materials become known as a promising candidate that can overcome above problems and produce effects in a controllable and sustainable manner. In particular, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are widely used as a delivery reagent because silica possesses favorable chemical properties, thermal stability, and biocompatibility. The unique mesoporous structure of silica facilitates effective loading of drugs and their subsequent controlled release of the target site. The properties of mesoporous, including pore size, high drug loading, and porosity as well as the surface properties, can be altered depending on additives used to prepare MSNs. Active surface enables functionalization to changed surface properties and link therapeutic molecules. They are used as widely in the field of diagnosis, target drug delivery, bio-sensing, cellular uptake, etc., in the bio-medical field. This review aims to present the state of knowledge of silica containing mesoporous nanoparticles and specific application in various biomedical fields. PMID:26258053

  17. "Nanotheranostics" for tumor imaging and targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Peng

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique is a promising tool that improves cancer detection, facilitates diagnosis and monitors therapeutic effects. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) have emerged as MRI contrast agents for tumor imaging and as potential vectors for targeted anti-cancer drug delivery; nevertheless, the application of SPIOs has been hampered due to a lack of specificity to tumor tissues and premature drug release. This project aims at developing multifunctional SPIOs for both cancer imaging and targeted drug delivery via conjugation of tumor specific antibodies with SPIOs. The application of anti-TAG-72 antibodies as tumor targeting modalities was evaluated in cultured colorectal cancer cells and in xenograft models by using fluorescent imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. It was demonstrated that antibody-labeled SPIOs were superior imaging agents and drug carriers for increased tumor specificity. The regulation and kinetics of intracellular drug release from SPIOs were explored by means of fluorescence imaging. In vitro and in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging was employed to investigate the mechanisms of premature drug release from nanocarriers. The large volume and high hydrophobicity of cell membranes were found to play an important role in premature drug release. The encapsulation of SPIOs into nanocarriers decreased drug release in a dose-dependent mode. This study provided future opportunities to improve the efficiency of nanocarriers by exploring the mechanism of drug release and disassembly of SPIO-loaded polymeric nanoparticles.

  18. Transferrin conjugated poly (?-glutamic acid-maleimide-co-L-lactide)-1,2-dipalmitoylsn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine copolymer nanoparticles for targeting drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Caiyan; Liu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Junxing; Yang, Zhiwei; Rong, Xianghui; Li, Mingjun; Liang, Xingjie; Wu, Yan

    2014-11-01

    Targeted drug delivery strategies have shown great potential in solving some problems of chemotherapy, such as non-selectivity and severe side effects, thus enhancing the anti-tumor efficiency of chemotherapeutic agents. In this work, we have prepared a novel nanoparticle consisted of amphiphilic poly(?-glutamic acid-maleimide-co-L-lactide)-1,2-dipalmitoylsn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (?-PGA-MAL-PLA-DPPE) copolymer decorated with transferrin (Tf), which can specifically deliver anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) to the tumor cells for targeting chemotherapy. These nanoparticles (NPs) have preferable particle size, high encapsulation efficiency and a pH-dependent release profile. As expected, The Tf modification mediate specific targeting to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (C666-1) cells and human cervical carcinoma (Hela) cells with the transferrin receptor (TfR) overexpressed and enhance cellular uptake of the NPs, as demonstrated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy assays. In vitro cytotoxicity studies reveal that the NPs have excellent biocompatibility, and the presence of Tf enhance the activity of PTX to the targeted cells. All these results prove that Tf modified ?-PGA-MAL-PLA-DPPE NPs could facilitate the tumor-specific therapy. Therefore, such a targeting drug delivery system provides significant advances toward cancer therapy. PMID:25454663

  19. AC1MMYR2 impairs high dose paclitaxel-induced tumor metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Zhou, Xuan; Yang, Juan-Juan; Liu, Xia; Zhao, Xiao-hui; Wang, Qi-xue; Han, Lei; Song, Xin; Zhu, Zhi-yan; Tian, Wei-ping; Zhang, Lun; Mei, Mei; Kang, Chun-sheng

    2015-07-01

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is a widely used chemo-drug for many solid tumors, while continual taxol treatment is revealed to stimulate tumor dissemination. We previously found that a small molecule inhibitor of miR-21, termed AC1MMYR2, had the potential to impair tumorigenesis and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether combining AC1MMYR2 with taxol could be explored as a means to limit tumor metastasis. Here we showed that abnormal activation of miR-21/CDK5 axis was associated with breast cancer lymph node metastasis, which was also contribute to high dose taxol-induced invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and glioblastoma cell line U87VIII. AC1MMYR2 attenuated CDK5 activity by functional targeting CDK5RAP1, CDK5 activator p39 and target p-FAK(ser732). A series of in vitro assays indicated that treatment of AC1MMYR2 combined with taxol suppressed tumor migration and invasion ability in both MDA-MB-231 and U87VIII cell. More importantly, combination therapy impaired high-dose taxol induced invadopodia, and EMT markers including ?-catenin, E-cadherin and vimentin. Strikingly, a significant reduction of lung metastasis in mice was observed in the AC1MMYR2 plus taxol treatment. Taken together, our work demonstrated that AC1MMYR2 appeared to be a promising strategy in combating taxol induced cancer metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis, which highlighted the potential for development of therapeutic modalities for better clinic taxol application. PMID:25827073

  20. Modular Nanotransporters for Targeted Intracellular Delivery of Drugs: Folate Receptors as Potential Targets

    PubMed Central

    Slastnikova, Tatiana A.; Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Sobolev, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to a subcellular drug delivery system, modular nanotransporters (MNT) that can penetrate into target cells and deliver a therapeutic into their subcellular compartments, particularly into the nucleus. The therapeutics which need such type of delivery belong to two groups: (i) those that exert their effect only when delivered into a certain cell compartment (like DNA delivered into the nucleus); and (ii) those drugs that are capable of exerting their effect in different parts of the cells, however there can be found a cell compartment that is the most sensitive to their effect. A particular interest attract such cytotoxic agents as Auger electron emitters which are known to be ineffective outside the cell nucleus, whereas they possess high cytotoxicity in the vicinity of nuclear DNA through the induction of non-reparable double-strand DNA breaks. The review discusses main approaches permitting to choose internalizable receptors permitting both recognition of target cells and penetration into them. Special interest attract folate receptors which become accessible to blood circulating therapeutics after malignant transformation or on activated macrophages which makes them an attractive target for both several oncological and inflammatory diseases, like atherosclerosis. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that MNT is a promising platform for targeted delivery of different therapeutics into the nuclei of target cells. PMID:25312738

  1. Antibody-drug conjugates: targeted drug delivery for cancer.

    PubMed

    Alley, Stephen C; Okeley, Nicole M; Senter, Peter D

    2010-08-01

    The antibody-drug conjugate field has made significant progress recently owing to careful optimization of several parameters, including mAb specificity, drug potency, linker technology, and the stoichiometry and placement of conjugated drugs. The underlying reason for this has been obtained in pre-clinical biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies showing that targeted delivery leads to high intratumoral free drug concentrations, while non-target tissues are largely spared from chemotherapeutic exposure. Recent developments in the field have led to an increase in the number of ADCs being tested clinically, with 3 in late stage clinical trials: brentuximab vedotin (also referred to as SGN-35) for Hodgkin lymphoma; Trastuzumab-DM1 for breast cancer; and Inotuzumab ozogamicin for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This review highlights the recent pre-clinical and clinical advances that have been made. PMID:20643572

  2. Nanostructured porous Si-based nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Herranz, Barbara; Santos, Hlder A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the backbones in nanomedicine is to deliver drugs specifically to unhealthy cells. Drug nanocarriers can cross physiological barriers and access different tissues, which after proper surface biofunctionalization can enhance cell specificity for cancer therapy. Recent developments have highlighted the potential of mesoporous silica (PSiO2) and silicon (PSi) nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery. In this review, we outline and discuss the most recent advances on the applications and developments of cancer therapies by means of PSiO2 and PSi nanomaterials. Bio-engineering and fine tuning of anti-cancer drug vehicles, high flexibility and potential for sophisticated release mechanisms make these nanostructures promising candidates for smart cancer therapies. As a result of their physicochemical properties they can be controllably loaded with large amounts of drugs and coupled to homing molecules to facilitate active targeting. The main emphasis of this review will be on the in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:23507894

  3. Cancer nanomedicine: from targeted delivery to combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyang; Ho, William; Zhang, Xueqing; Bertrand, Nicolas; Farokhzad, Omid

    2015-04-01

    The advent of nanomedicine marks an unparalleled opportunity to advance the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. The unique properties of nanoparticles (NPs), such as large surface-to-volume ratio, small size, the ability to encapsulate various drugs, and tunable surface chemistry, give them many advantages over their bulk counterparts. This includes multivalent surface modification with targeting ligands, efficient navigation of the complex in vivo environment, increased intracellular trafficking, and sustained release of drug payload. These advantages make NPs a mode of treatment potentially superior to conventional cancer therapies. This review highlights the most recent developments in cancer treatment using NPs as drug delivery vehicles, including promising opportunities in targeted and combination therapy. PMID:25656384

  4. Potential application of functional porous TiO2 nanoparticles in light-controlled drug release and targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyi; Jiang, Haitao; Wan, Long; Zhao, Qinfu; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Bing; Wang, Siling

    2015-02-01

    Novel multifunctional porous titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles modified with polyethylenimine (PEI) were developed to explore the feasibility of exploiting the photocatalytic property of titanium dioxide to achieve ultraviolet (UV) light triggered drug release. Additionally, in order to further realize targeting delivery, folic acid, which chemically conjugated to the surface of the functionalized multifunctional porous TiO2 nanoparticles through amide linkage with free amine groups of PEI, was used as a cancer-targeting agent to effectively promote cancer-cell-specific uptake through receptor-mediated endocytosis. And a typical poorly water-soluble anti-cancer drug, paclitaxel, was encapsulated in multifunctional porous TiO2 nanoparticles. The PEI on the surface of multifunctional porous TiO2 nanoparticles could effectively block the channel to prevent premature drug release, thus providing enough circulation time to target cancer cells. Following UV light radiation, PEI molecules on the surface were cut off by the free radicals (OH? and O2-) that TiO2 produced, and then the drug loaded in the carrier was released rapidly into the cytoplasm. Importantly, the amount of drug released from multifunctional porous TiO2 nanoparticles can be regulated by the UV-light radiation time to further control the anti-cancer effect. This multifunctional porous TiO2 nanoparticle exhibits a combination of stimuli-triggered drug release and cancer cell targeting. The authors believe that the present study will provide important information for the use of porous TiO2 nanomaterials in light-controlled drug release and targeted therapy. PMID:25462846

  5. Targeted Intracellular Delivery of Proteins with Spatial and Temporal Control

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    While a host of methods exist to deliver genetic materials or small molecules to cells, very few are available for protein delivery to the cytosol. We describe a modular, light-activated nanocarrier that transports proteins into cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis and delivers the cargo to the cytosol by light triggered endosomal escape. The platform is based on hollow gold nanoshells (HGN) with polyhistidine tagged proteins attached through an avidity-enhanced, nickel chelation linking layer; here, we used green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model deliverable cargo. Endosomal uptake of the GFP loaded nanocarrier was mediated by a C-end Rule (CendR) internalizing peptide fused to the GFP. Focused femtosecond pulsed-laser excitation triggered protein release from the nanocarrier and endosome disruption, and the released protein was capable of targeting the nucleoli, a model intracellular organelle. We further demonstrate the generality of the approach by loading and releasing Sox2 and p53. This method for targeting of individual cells, with resolution similar to microinjection, provides spatial and temporal control over protein delivery. PMID:25490248

  6. Amphoteric hyaluronic acid derivative for targeting gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jing; Fan, Ying; Du, Ronghui; Zhou, Jianping; Lu, Yun; Wang, Wei; Ren, Jin; Sun, Xiaojing

    2010-12-01

    The study aimed to develop an amphoteric hyaluronic acid (HA) derivative with polyethyleneimine (PEI) chains (HAP) for gene delivery to overcome the disadvantages of PEI as gene carrier including the cytotoxicity caused by excess of positive charge, non-special interaction and aggregation in the blood, and non-target gene delivery. The HAP was synthesized by an imine reaction between periodate-oxidized HA and PEI. The HAP/DNA complex was prepared, and its characterization was investigated. The size of complex with higher molecular weight HA in PBS was about 200nm at optimal charge ratio. No apparent aggregation among the particles was observed. The HAPs also showed high protection of DNA from nuclease, better dissociation of DNA from the complex and lower cytotoxicity. It also exhibited higher transfection efficiency in HepG2 cells than the PEI/DNA complex. Among all complexes, the HAP50/DNA complex was especially found to be most efficient, yielding comparable transfection efficiency with that of Lipofectamine/DNA lipoplexes. Moreover, the HAP-IR820 obviously accumulated in tumor after i.v. administration as compared to the PEI-IR820, which indicated that the HAP could assist the DNA targeting to the tumor. Therefore, HAP should be a promising non-viral gene vector. PMID:20864163

  7. Targeted electrohydrodynamic printing for micro-reservoir drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tae Heon; Kim, Jin Bum; Som Yang, Da; Park, Yong-il; Ryu, WonHyoung

    2013-03-01

    Microfluidic drug delivery systems consisting of a drug reservoir and microfluidic channels have shown the possibility of simple and robust modulation of drug release rate. However, the difficulty of loading a small quantity of drug into drug reservoirs at a micro-scale limited further development of such systems. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing was employed to fill micro-reservoirs with controlled amount of drugs in the range of a few hundreds of picograms to tens of micrograms with spatial resolution of as small as 20 µm. Unlike most EHD systems, this system was configured in combination with an inverted microscope that allows in situ targeting of drug loading at micrometer scale accuracy. Methylene blue and rhodamine B were used as model drugs in distilled water, isopropanol and a polymer solution of a biodegradable polymer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Also tetracycline-HCl/DI water was used as actual drug ink. The optimal parameters of EHD printing to load an extremely small quantity of drug into microscale drug reservoirs were investigated by changing pumping rates, the strength of an electric field and drug concentration. This targeted EHD technique was used to load drugs into the microreservoirs of PDMS microfluidic drug delivery devices and their drug release performance was demonstrated in vitro.

  8. Construction of paclitaxel-loaded poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-g-poly (lactide)-1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine copolymer nanoparticle delivery system and evaluation of its anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaowei; Wang, Huan; Jin, Shubin; Wu, Yan; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to develop drug-loaded biocompatible nanoscale packages with improved therapeutic efficacy for effective clinical treatment. To address this need, a novel poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-poly (lactide)-1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [PHEMA-g-(PLA-DPPE)] copolymer was designed and synthesized to enable these nanoparticles to be pH responsive under pathological conditions. Methods The structural properties and thermal stability of the copolymer was measured and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and thermogravimetric analysis. In order to evaluate its feasibility as a drug carrier, paclitaxel-loaded PHEMA-g-(PLA-DPPE) nanoparticles were prepared using the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Results The PHEMA-g-(PLA-DPPE) nanoparticles could be efficiently loaded with paclitaxel and controlled to release the drug gradually and effectively. In vitro release experiments demonstrated that drug release was faster at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.4. The anticancer activity of the PHEMA-g-(PLA-DPPE) nanoparticles was measured in breast cancer MCF-7 cells in vivo and in vitro. In comparison with the free drug, the paclitaxel-loaded PHEMA-g-(PLA-DPPE) nanoparticles could induce more significant tumor regression. Conclusion This study indicates that PHEMA-g-(PLA-DPPE) nanoparticles are promising carriers for hydrophobic drugs. This system can passively target cancer tissue and release drugs in a controllable manner, as determined by the pH value of the area in which the drug accumulates. PMID:22419875

  9. Combinatorial approaches for the identification of brain drug delivery targets.

    PubMed

    Stutz, Charles C; Zhang, Xiaobin; Shusta, Eric V

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents a large obstacle for the treatment of central nervous system diseases. Targeting endogenous nutrient transporters that transcytose the BBB is one promising approach to selectively and noninvasively deliver a drug payload to the brain. The main limitations of the currently employed transcytosing receptors are their ubiquitous expression in the peripheral vasculature and the inherent low levels of transcytosis mediated by such systems. In this review, approaches designed to increase the repertoire of transcytosing receptors which can be targeted for the purpose of drug delivery are discussed. In particular, combinatorial protein libraries can be screened on BBB cells in vitro or in vivo to isolate targeting peptides or antibodies that can trigger transcytosis. Once these targeting reagents are discovered, the cognate BBB transcytosis system can be identified using techniques such as expression cloning or immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry. Continued technological advances in BBB genomics and proteomics, membrane protein manipulation, and in vitro BBB technology promise to further advance the capability to identify and optimize peptides and antibodies capable of mediating drug transport across the BBB. PMID:23789958

  10. Reversing multidrug resistance in breast cancer cells by silencing ABC transporter genes with nanoparticle-facilitated delivery of target siRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong Tsuey; Chua, Ming Jang; Kunnath, Anil Philip; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2012-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance, a major impediment to successful cancer chemotherapy, is the result of overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters extruding internalized drugs. Silencing of ABC transporter gene expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA) could be an attractive approach to overcome multidrug resistance of cancer, although delivery of siRNA remains a major hurdle to fully exploit the potential of siRNA-based therapeutics. Recently, we have developed pH-sensitive carbonate apatite nanoparticles to efficiently carry and transport siRNA across the cell membrane, enabling knockdown of the cyclin B1 gene and consequential induction of apoptosis in synergy with anti-cancer drugs. Methods and results We report that carbonate apatite-mediated delivery of the siRNAs targeting ABCG2 and ABCB1 gene transcripts in human breast cancer cells which constitutively express both of the transporter genes dose-dependently enhanced chemosensitivity to doxorubicin, paclitaxel and cisplatin, the traditionally used chemotherapeutic agents. Moreover, codelivery of two specific siRNAs targeting ABCB1 and ABCG2 transcripts resulted in a more robust increase of chemosensitivity in the cancer cells, indicating the reversal of ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance. Conclusion The delivery concept of multiple siRNAs against ABC transporter genes is highly promising for preclinical and clinical investigation in reversing the multidrug resistance phenotype of breast cancer. PMID:22701315

  11. Initial experience with paclitaxel-coated stents.

    PubMed

    Grube, Eberhard; Büllesfeld, Lutz

    2002-12-01

    Local delivery of immunosuppressive or antiproliferative agents using a drug-eluting stent is a new technology that is supposed to inhibit in-stent restenosis, thus providing a biological and mechanical solution. This technique is a very promising. To date, several agents have been used, including paclitaxel, QP-2, rapamycin, actinomycin D, dexamethason, tacrolimus, and everolimus. Several studies, published recently or still ongoing, have evaluated these drugs as to their release kinetics, effective dosage, safety in clinical practice, and benefit. These studies include: SCORE (paclitaxel derivative), TAXUS I-VI, ELUTES, ASPECT, DELIVER (paclitaxel), RAVEL, SIRIUS (sirolimus), ACTION (actinomycin), EVIDENT, PRESENT (tacrolimus), EMPEROR (dexamethason), and FUTURE (everolimus). Paclitaxel was one of the first stent-based antiproliferative agents under clinical investigation that provided profound inhibition of neointimal thickening depending on delivery duration and drug dosage. The randomized, multicenter SCORE trail (Quanam stent, paclitaxel-coated) enrolled 266 patients at 17 sites. At 6-month's follow-up, a drop of 83% in stent restenosis using the drug-eluting stent could be achieved (6.4% drug-eluting stent vs 36.9% control group), which was attributable to a remarkable decrease in intimal proliferation. Unfortunately, due to frequent stent thrombosis and side-branch occlusions, the reported 30-day MACE rate was 10.2%. The randomized TAXUS-I safety trial (BSC, NIRx, paclitaxel-coated) also demonstrated beneficial reduction of restenotic lesions at 6-month's follow-up (0% vs 10%) but was associated with the absence of thrombotic events presumably due to less drug dosage. The ongoing TAXUS II-VI trials are addressing additional insight regarding the efficacy of the TAXUS paclitaxel-eluting stent. ASPECT and ELUTES evaluated paclitaxel-coated stents (i.e., Cook and Supra G), including subgroups with different drug dosages. With respect to stent restenosis and neointimal proliferation, both studies demonstrated a clear dose response. The RAVEL and the SIRIUS trials evaluated sirolimus-coated stents (i.e., Cordis, Johnson & Johnson, and Bx VELOCITY stents). Results confirmed the beneficial findings regarding reduction of renarrowing using a drug-eluting stent without any major adverse effects. Although parameters such as drug toxicity, optimal drug dosage, or delayed endothelial healing still need to be evaluated, today's clinical experience indicates that drug-coated stents are extremely beneficial in the interventional treatment of coronary lesions. PMID:12476650

  12. Targeting tumor metastases: drug delivery mechanisms and technologies

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, Vidya; Moghe, Prabhas V.; Roth, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    Primary sites of tumor are the focal triggers of cancers, yet it is the subsequent metastasis events that cause the majority of the morbidity and mortality. Metastatic tumor cells exhibit a phenotype that differs from that of the parent cells, as they represent a resistant, invasive subpopulation of the original tumor, may have acquired additional genetic or epigenetic alterations under exposure to prior chemotherapeutic or radiotherapeutic treatments, and reside in a microenvironment differing from that of its origin. This combination of resistant phenotype and distal location make tracking and treating metastases particularly challenging. In this review, we highlight some of the unique biological traits of metastasis, which in turn, inspire emerging strategies for targeted imaging of metastasized tumors and metastasis-directed delivery of therapeutics. PMID:26409123

  13. Engineering Polymer Hydrogel Nanoparticles for Lymph Node-Targeted Delivery.

    PubMed

    De Koker, Stefaan; Cui, Jiwei; Vanparijs, Nane; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Grooten, Johan; Caruso, Frank; De Geest, Bruno G

    2016-01-01

    The induction of antigen-specific adaptive immunity exclusively occurs in lymphoid organs. As a consequence, the efficacy by which vaccines reach these tissues strongly affects the efficacy of the vaccine. Here, we report the design of polymer hydrogel nanoparticles that efficiently target multiple immune cell subsets in the draining lymph nodes. Nanoparticles are fabricated by infiltrating mesoporous silica particles (ca. 200 nm) with poly(methacrylic acid) followed by disulfide-based crosslinking and template removal. PEGylation of these nanoparticles does not affect their cellular association in vitro, but dramatically improves their lymphatic drainage in vivo. The functional relevance of these observations is further illustrated by the increased priming of antigen-specific T cells. Our findings highlight the potential of engineered hydrogel nanoparticles for the lymphatic delivery of antigens and immune-modulating compounds. PMID:26666207

  14. Possibilities of acoustic thermometry for controlling targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anosov, A. A.; Nemchenko, O. Yu.; Less, Yu. A.; Kazanskii, A. S.; Mansfel'd, A. D.

    2015-07-01

    Model acoustic thermometry experiments were conducted during heating of an aqueous liposome suspension. Heating was done to achieve the liposome phase transition temperature. At the moment of the phase transition, the thermal acoustic signal achieved a maximum and decreased, despite continued heating. During subsequent cooling of the suspension, when lipids again passed through the phase transition point, the thermal acoustic signal again increased, despite a reduction in temperature. This effect is related to an increase in ultrasound absorption by the liposome suspension at the moment of the lipid phase transition. The result shows that acoustic thermography can be used to control targeted delivery of drugs mixed in thermally sensitive liposomes, the integrity of which is violated during heating to the phase transition temperature.

  15. Enhanced oral delivery of paclitaxel using acetylcysteine functionalized chitosan-vitamin E succinate nanomicelles based on a mucus bioadhesion and penetration mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lian, He; Zhang, Tianhong; Sun, Jin; Liu, Xiaohong; Ren, Guolian; Kou, Longfa; Zhang, Youxi; Han, Xiaopeng; Ding, Wenya; Ai, Xiaoyu; Wu, Chunnuan; Li, Lin; Wang, Yongjun; Sun, Yinghua; Wang, Siling; He, Zhonggui

    2013-09-01

    In addition to being a physiological protective barrier, the gastrointestinal mucosal membrane is also a primary obstacle that hinders the oral absorption of many therapeutic compounds, especially drugs with a poor permeability. In order to resolve this impasse, we have designed multifunctional nanomicelles based on the acetylcysteine functionalized chitosan-vitamin E succinate copolymer (CS-VES-NAC, CVN), which exhibit marked bioadhesion, possess the ability to penetrate mucus, and enhance the oral absorption of a hydrophobic drug with a poor penetrative profile, paclitaxel. The intestinal absorption (Ka = 0.38 ± 0.04 min(-1), Papp = 0.059 cm · min(-1)) of CVN nanomicelles was greatly improved (4.5-fold) in comparison with paclitaxel solution, and CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscope) pictures also showed not only enhanced adhesion to the intestinal surface but improved accumulation within intestinal villi. The in vivo pharmacokinetics indicated that the AUC0-t (586.37 ng/mL · h) of CVN nanomicelles was markedly enhanced compared with PTX solution. In summary, the novel multifunctional CVN nanomicelles appear to be a promising nanocarrier for insoluble and poorly permeable drugs due to their high bioadhesion and permeation-enhancing capability. PMID:23909663

  16. Target gene delivery from targeting ligand conjugated chitosan-PEI copolymer for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joung-Pyo; Nah, Jae-Woon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we designed a novel carrier which was having low cytotoxicity, site-specific target function, and high transfection efficiency using low molecular weight water soluble O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMCh), branched low molecular weight poly(ethyleneimine) (bPEI), and targeting ligand (epitope type, HER-2/neu). OCMCh/bPEI/targeting ligand, HPOCP copolymer, and targeting ligand-modified polyamphoteric polymer, and were prepared by chemical reaction and characterized by (1)H NMR and FT-IR. The binding affinity, protecting efficiency, and releasing ability of gene/HPOCP polyplex were confirmed by gel retardation assay. The pDNA(pEGFP)/HPOCP polyplexes showed high gene transfection efficiency in HCT 119 cell. In addition, siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes formed spherical shape and have particle sizes from 100 to 300nm. The siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes have lower cytotoxicity than PEI in the all of siRNA concentrations ranging from 0 to 2?g/?L in HEK 293 cells. The cell viability of siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes was performed in SK-Br3 cells with VEGF siRNA or BCL2 siRNA. In addition, confocal laser-scanning microscopy and flow cytometry assay were performed for cellular localization and cellular uptake efficiency of siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes. The results of the present study demonstrate that HPOCP copolymer is a good candidate as gene delivery carriers for gene delivery system or gene therapy. PMID:26453863

  17. Glucan Particles for Macrophage Targeted Delivery of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ernesto R.; Caras, Abaigeal C.; Kut, Lindsey C.; Castle, Melissa K.; Ostroff, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Glucan particles (GPs) are hollow, porous 24??m microspheres derived from the cell walls of Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The 1,3-?-glucan outer shell provides for receptor-mediated uptake by phagocytic cells expressing ?-glucan receptors. GPs have been used for macrophage-targeted delivery of soluble payloads (DNA, siRNA, protein, and small molecules) encapsulated inside the hollow GPs via core polyplex and layer-by-layer (LbL) synthetic strategies. In this communication, we report the incorporation of nanoparticles as cores inside GPs (GP-NP) or electrostatically bound to the surface of chemically derivatized GPs (NP-GP). GP nanoparticle formulations benefit from the drug encapsulation properties of NPs and the macrophage-targeting properties of GPs. GP nanoparticle formulations were synthesized using fluorescent anionic polystyrene nanoparticles allowing visualization and quantitation of NP binding and encapsulation. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) containing the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (Dox) were bound to cationic GPs. Dox-MSN-GPs efficiently delivered Dox into GP phagocytic cells resulting in enhanced Dox-mediated growth arrest. PMID:22013535

  18. Magnetically responsive microparticles for targeted drug and radionuclide delivery.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, M. D.; Ghebremeskel, A. N.; Nunez, L.; Kasza, K. E.; Chang, F.; Chien, T.-H.; Fisher, P. F.; Eastman, J. A.; Rosengart, A. J.; McDonald, L.; Xie, Y.; Johns, L.; Pytel, P.; Hafeli, U. O.

    2004-02-16

    We are currently investigating the use of magnetic particles--polymeric-based spheres containing dispersed magnetic nanocrystalline phases--for the precise delivery of drugs via the human vasculature. According to this review, meticulously prepared magnetic drug targeting holds promise as a safe and effective method of delivering drugs to specific organ, tissue or cellular targets. We have critically examined the wide range of approaches in the design and implementation of magnetic-particle-based drug delivery systems to date, including magnetic particle preparation, drug encapsulation, biostability, biocompatibility, toxicity, magnetic field designs, and clinical trials. However, we strongly believe that there are several limitations with past developments that need to be addressed to enable significant strides in the field. First, particle size has to be carefully chosen. Micrometer-sized magnetic particles are better attracted over a distance than nanometer sized magnetic particles by a constant magnetic field gradient, and particle sizes up to 1 {micro}m show a much better accumulation with no apparent side effects in small animal models, since the smallest blood vessels have an inner diameter of 5-7 {micro}m. Nanometer-sized particles <70 nm will accumulate in organ fenestrations despite an effective surface stabilizer. To be suitable for future human applications, our experimental approach synthesizes the magnetic drug carrier according to specific predefined outcome metrics: monodisperse population in a size range of 100 nm to 1.0 {micro}m, non-toxic, with appropriate magnetic properties, and demonstrating successful in vitro and in vivo tests. Another important variable offering possible improvement is surface polarity, which is expected to prolong particle half-life in circulation and modify biodistribution and stability of drugs in the body. The molecules in the blood that are responsible for enhancing the uptake of particles by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) prefer to associate with hydrophobic surfaces. Accordingly, we will tackle this challenge by modifying the particles with hydrophilic coatings such as PEG or poloxamer (co-polymers containing hydrophobic polyoxypropylene segments and repetitive polyoxyethylene hydrophilic groups), which have a proven ability to mask recognition by the RES. Modeling is needed to help optimize the performance of targeted magnetic-particle delivery, enhance its medicinal value, and expedite its medical application. To this end, scientists at Argonne National Laboratory, working with The University of Chicago and Cleveland Clinic Hospital, are working on an effective magnetic drug targeting system based on custom magnetic field designs coupled to a three-dimensional imaging platform that addresses all associated physical and theoretical problems. Furthermore, while our clinical trial results are encouraging with regard to the tolerance and applicability of the system, more improvements must be made with respect to future study designs and systems being used. Given the technical hurdles in developing this potentially important technology, we believe we have made great progress and that we have a strong developmental plan.

  19. Chimeric aptamers in cancer cell-targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Jagat R; Roy, Kislay; Kanwar, Rupinder K

    2011-01-01

    Aptamers are single-stranded structured oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) that can bind to a wide range of targets ("apatopes") with high affinity and specificity. These nucleic acid ligands, generated from pools of random-sequence by an in vitro selection process referred to as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), have now been identified as excellent tools for chemical biology, therapeutic delivery, diagnosis, research, and monitoring therapy in real-time imaging. Today, aptamers represent an interesting class of modern Pharmaceuticals which with their low immunogenic potential mimic extend many of the properties of monoclonal antibodies in diagnostics, research, and therapeutics. More recently, chimeric aptamer approach employing many different possible types of chimerization strategies has generated more stable and efficient chimeric aptamers with aptamer-aptamer, aptamer-nonaptamer biomacromolecules (siRNAs, proteins) and aptamer-nanoparticle chimeras. These chimeric aptamers when conjugated with various biomacromolecules like locked nucleic acid (LNA) to potentiate their stability, biodistribution, and targeting efficiency, have facilitated the accurate targeting in preclinical trials. We developed LNA-aptamer (anti-nucleolin and EpCAM) complexes which were loaded in iron-saturated bovine lactofeerin (Fe-blf)-coated dopamine modified surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (SPIONs). This complex was used to deliver the specific aptamers in tumor cells in a co-culture model of normal and cancer cells. This review focuses on the chimeric aptamers, currently in development that are likely to find future practical applications in concert with other therapeutic molecules and modalities. PMID:21955150

  20. Development of paclitaxel-TyroSpheres for topical skin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kilfoyle, Brian E.; Sheihet, Larisa; Zhang, Zheng; Laohoo, Marissa; Kohn, Joachim; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2012-01-01

    A potential topical psoriasis therapy has been developed consisting of tyrosine-derived nanospheres (TyroSpheres) with encapsulated anti-proliferative paclitaxel. TyroSpheres provide enhancement of paclitaxel solubility (almost 4,000 times greater than PBS) by effective encapsulation and enable sustained, dose-controlled release over 72 hours under conditions mimicking skin permeation. TyroSpheres offer potential in the treatment of psoriasis, a disease resulting from over-proliferation of keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, by (a) enabling delivery of paclitaxel into the epidermis at concentrations >100 ng/cm2 of skin surface area and (b) enhancing the cytotoxicity of loaded paclitaxel to human keratinocytes (IC50 of paclitaxel-TyroSpheres was approximately 45% lower than that of free paclitaxel). TyroSpheres were incorporated into a gel-like viscous formulation to improve their flow characteristics with no impact on homogeneity, release or skin distribution of the payload. The findings reported here confirm that the TyroSpheres provide a platform for paclitaxel topical administration allowing skin drug localization and minimal systemic escape. PMID:22732474

  1. Development and Evaluation of Transferrin-Stabilized Paclitaxel Nanocrystal Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ying; Wang, Zhao-hui; Li, Tonglei; McNally, Helen; Park, Kinam; Sturek, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare and evaluate a paclitaxel nanocrystal-based formulation stabilized by serum protein transferrin in a non-covalent manner. The pure paclitaxel nanocrystals were first prepared using an antisolvent precipitation method augmented by sonication. The serum protein transferrin was selected for use after evaluating the stabilizing effect of several serum proteins including albumin and immunoglobulin G. The formulation contained approximately 55~60% drug and was stable for at least 3 months at 4 °C. In vivo antitumor efficacy studies using mice inoculated with KB cells demonstrate significantly higher tumor inhibition rate of 45.1% for paclitaxel-transferrin formulation compared to 28.8% for paclitaxel nanosuspension treatment alone. Interestingly, the Taxol® formulation showed higher antitumor activity than the paclitaxel-transferrin formulation, achieving a 93.3% tumor inhibition rate 12 days post initial dosing. However, the paclitaxel-transferrin formulation showed a lower level of toxicity, which is indicated by steady increase in body weight of mice over the treatment period. In comparison, treatment with Taxol® resulted in toxicity issues as body weight decreased. These results suggest the potential benefit of using a serum protein in a non-covalent manner in conjunction with paclitaxel nanocrystals as a promising drug delivery model for anticancer therapy. PMID:24378441

  2. Electrospun Nanofibers of Guar Galactomannan for Targeted Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hsiao Mei Annie

    2011-12-01

    Guar galactomannan is a biodegradable polysaccharide used widely in the food industry but also in the cosmetics, pharmaceutical, oil drilling, textile and paper industries. Guar consists of a mannose backbone and galactose side groups that are both susceptible to enzyme degradation, a unique property that can be explored for targeted drug delivery especially since those enzymes are naturally secreted by the microflora in human colon. The present study can be divided into three parts. In the first part, we discuss ways to modify guar to produce nanofibers by electrospinning, a process that involves the application of an electric field to a polymer solution or melt to facilitate production of fibers in the sub-micron range. Nanofibers are currently being explored as the next generation of drug carriers due to its many advantages, none more important than the fact that nanofibers are on a size scale that is a fraction of a hair's width and have large surface-to-volume ratio. The incorporation and controlled release of nano-sized drugs is one way in which nanofibers are being utilized in drug delivery. In the second part of the study, we explore various methods to crosslink guar nanofibers as a means to promote water-resistance in a potential drug carrier. The scope and utility of water-resistant guar nanofibers can only be fully appreciated when subsequent drug release studies are carried out. To that end, the third part of our study focuses on understanding the kinetics and diffusion mechanisms of a model drug, Rhodamine B, through moderately-swelling (crosslinked) hydrogel nanofibers in comparison to rapidly-swelling (non-crosslinked) nanofibers. Along the way, our investigations led us to a novel electrospinning set-up that has a unique collector designed to capture aligned nanofibers. These aligned nanofiber bundles can then be twisted to hold them together like yarn. From a practical standpoint, these yarns are advantageous because they come freely suspended and without any attached support. As composites of aligned nanofibers, yarns potentially combine the inherent advantages of nanofibers with the strength and pliability of larger sized fibers. As such, we became interested in exploring the potential of nanofiber yarns as drug carriers. Our study evolved to accommodate comparative studies between the behavior of traditional nonwoven mats and nanofiber yarns. Throughout the process, we sought to answer the bigger question: Can guar galactomannan nanofibers be used as a new biodegradable platform for drug delivery?

  3. Buparvaquone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for targeted delivery in theleriosis

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Maheshkumar P.; Shelkar, Nilakash; Gaikwad, Rajiv V.; Vanage, Geeta R.; Samad, Abdul; Devarajan, Padma V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Buparvaquone (BPQ), a hydroxynaphthoquinone derivative, has been investigated for the treatment of many infections and is recommended as the gold standard for the treatment of theileriosis. Theileriosis, an intramacrophage infection is localized mainly in reticuloendotheileial system (RES) organs. The present study investigates development of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of BPQ for targeted delivery to the RES. Materials and Methods: BPQ SLN was prepared using melt method by adding a molten mixture into aqueous Lutrol F68 solution (80C). Larger batches were prepared up to 6 g of BPQ with GMS: BPQ, 2:1. SLN of designed size were obtained using ultraturrax and high pressure homogenizer. A freeze and thaw study was used to optimize type and concentration of cryoprotectant with Sf: Mean particle size, Si: Initial particle size <1.3. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) study was performed on optimized formulation. Formulation was investigated for in vitro serum stability, hemolysis and cell uptake study. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study was performed in Holtzman rat. Results: Based on solubility in lipid; glyceryl monostearate (GMS) was selected for preparation of BPQ SLN. Batches of BPQ SLN were optimized for average particle size and entrapment efficiency at <100 mg solid content. A combination of Solutol HS-15 and Lutrol F68 at 2% w/v and greater enabled the desired Sf/Si < 1.3. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction revealed decrease in crystallinity of BPQ in BPQ SLN while, scanning electron microscope revealed spherical morphology. BPQ SLN revealed good stability at 4C and 25C. Low hemolytic potential (<8%) and in vitro serum stability up to 5 h was observed. Cytotoxicity of SLN to the U937 cell was low. The macrophage cell line revealed high (52%) uptake of BPQ SLN in 1 h suggesting the potential to RES uptake. SLN revealed longer circulation and biodistrbution study confirmed high RES uptake (75%) in RES organs like liver lung spleen etc. Conclusion: The high RES uptake suggests BPQ SLN as a promising approach for targeted and improved delivery in theileriosis. PMID:24459400

  4. Disulfide-based multifunctional conjugates for targeted theranostic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Hee; Sessler, Jonathan L; Kim, Jong Seung

    2015-11-17

    Theranostics, chemical entities designed to combine therapeutic effects and imaging capability within one molecular system, have received considerable attention in recent years. Much of this interest reflects the promise inherent in personalized medicine, including disease-targeted treatments for cancer patients. One important approach to realizing this latter promise involves the development of so-called theranostic conjugates, multicomponent constructs that selectively target cancer cells and deliver cytotoxic agents while producing a readily detectable signal that can be monitored both in vitro and in vivo. This requires the synthesis of relatively complex systems comprising imaging reporters, masked chemotherapeutic drugs, cleavable linkers, and cancer targeting ligands. Ideally, the cleavage process should take place within or near cancer cells and be activated by cellular components that are associated with cancer states or specifically expressed at a higher level in cancer cells. Among the cleavable linkers currently being explored for the construction of such localizing conjugates, disulfide bonds are particularly attractive. This is because disulfide bonds are stable in most blood pools but are efficiently cleaved by cellular thiols, including glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (Trx), which are generally found at elevated levels in tumors. When disulfide bonds are linked to fluorophores, changes in emission intensity or shifts in the emission maxima are typically seen upon cleavage as the result of perturbations to internal charge transfer (ICT) processes. In well-designed systems, this allows for facile imaging. In this Account, we summarize our recent studies involving disulfide-based fluorescent drug delivery conjugates, including preliminary tests of their biological utility in vitro and in vivo. To date, a variety of chemotherapeutic agents, such as doxorubicin, gemcitabine, and camptothecin, have been used to create disulfide-based conjugates, as have a number of fluorophores, including naphthalimide, coumarin, BODIPY, rhodol, and Cy7. The resulting theranostic core (drug-disulfide-fluorophore) can be further linked to any of several site-localizing entities, including galactose, folate, biotin, and the RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptide sequence, to create systems with an intrinsic selectivity for cancer cells over normal cells. Site-specific cleavage by endogenous thiols serves to release the cytotoxic drug and produce an easy-to-monitor change in the fluorescence signature of the cell. On the basis of the results summarized in this Account, we propose that disulfide-based cancer-targeting theranostics may have a role to play in advancing drug discovery efforts, as well as improving our understanding of cellular uptake and drug release mechanisms. PMID:26513450

  5. Acute and subchronic toxicity analysis of surface modified paclitaxel attached hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Venkatasubbu, Gopinath Devanand; Ramasamy, S; Gaddam, Pramod Reddy; Kumar, J

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are widely used for targeted drug delivery applications. Surface modification with appropriate polymer and ligands is carried out to target the drug to the affected area. Toxicity analysis is carried out to evaluate the safety of the surface modified nanoparticles. In this study, paclitaxel attached, folic acid functionalized, polyethylene glycol modified hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were used for targeted drug delivery system. The toxicological behavior of the system was studied in vivo in rats and mice. Acute and subchronic studies were carried out. Biochemical, hematological, and histopathological analysis was also done. There were no significant alterations in the biochemical parameters at a low dosage. There was a small change in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level at a high dosage. The results indicate a safe toxicological profile. PMID:26491315

  6. Acute and subchronic toxicity analysis of surface modified paclitaxel attached hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Venkatasubbu, Gopinath Devanand; Ramasamy, S; Gaddam, Pramod Reddy; Kumar, J

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are widely used for targeted drug delivery applications. Surface modification with appropriate polymer and ligands is carried out to target the drug to the affected area. Toxicity analysis is carried out to evaluate the safety of the surface modified nanoparticles. In this study, paclitaxel attached, folic acid functionalized, polyethylene glycol modified hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were used for targeted drug delivery system. The toxicological behavior of the system was studied in vivo in rats and mice. Acute and subchronic studies were carried out. Biochemical, hematological, and histopathological analysis was also done. There were no significant alterations in the biochemical parameters at a low dosage. There was a small change in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level at a high dosage. The results indicate a safe toxicological profile. PMID:26491315

  7. Transporter targeted gatifloxacin prodrugs: synthesis, permeability, and topical ocular delivery.

    PubMed

    Vooturi, Sunil K; Kadam, Rajendra S; Kompella, Uday B

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we aim to design and synthesize prodrugs of gatifloxacin targeting organic cation transporter (OCT), monocarboxylate transporter (MCT), and ATB (0, +) transporters and to identify a prodrug with enhanced delivery to the back of the eye. Dimethylamino-propyl, carboxy-propyl, and amino-propyl(2-methyl) derivatives of gatifloxacin (GFX), DMAP-GFX, CP-GFX, and APM-GFX, were designed and synthesized to target OCT, MCT, and ATB (0, +) transporters, respectively. An LC-MS method was developed to analyze drug and prodrug levels in various studies. Solubility and log D (pH 7.4) were measured for prodrugs and the parent drug. The permeability of the prodrugs was determined in the cornea, conjunctiva, and sclera-choroid-retinal pigment epitheluim (SCRPE) and compared with gatifloxacin using an Ussing chamber assembly. Permeability mechanisms were elucidated by determining the transport in the presence of transporter specific inhibitors. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide (MPP+), nicotinic acid sodium salt, and α-methyl-DL-tryptophan were used to inhibit OCT, MCT, and ATB (0, +) transporters, respectively. A prodrug selected based on in vitro studies was administered as an eye drop to pigmented rabbits, and the delivery to various eye tissues including vitreous humor was compared with gatifloxacin dosing. DMAP-GFX exhibited 12.8-fold greater solubility than GFX. All prodrugs were more lipophilic, with the measured log D (pH 7.4) values ranging from 0.05 to 1.04, when compared to GFX (log D: -1.15). DMAP-GFX showed 1.4-, 1.8-, and 1.9-fold improvement in permeability across the cornea, conjunctiva, and SCRPE when compared to GFX. Moreover, it exhibited reduced permeability in the presence of MPP+ (competitive inhibitor of OCT), indicating OCT-mediated transport. CP-GFX showed 1.2-, 2.3-, and 2.5-fold improvement in permeability across the cornea, conjunctiva, and SCRPE, respectively. In the presence of nicotinic acid (competitive inhibitor of MCT), the permeability of CP-GFX was reduced across the conjunctiva. However, the cornea and SCRPE permeability of CP-GFX was not affected by nicotinic acid. APM-GFX did not show any improvement in permeability when compared to GFX across the cornea, conjunctiva, and SCRPE. Based on solubility and permeability, DMAP-GFX was selected for in vivo studies. DMAP-GFX showed 3.6- and 1.95-fold higher levels in vitreous humor and CRPE compared to that of GFX at 1 h after topical dosing. In vivo conversion of DMAP-GFX prodrug to GFX was quantified in tissues isolated at 1 h after dosing. The parent drug-to-prodrug ratio was 8, 70, 24, 21, 29, 13, 55, and 60% in the cornea, conjunctiva, iris-ciliary body, aqueous humor, sclera, CRPE, retina, and vitreous humor, respectively. In conclusion, DMAP-GFX prodrug enhanced solubility, log D, as well as OCT mediated delivery of gatifloxacin to the back of the eye. PMID:23003105

  8. Targeting interleukin-6 receptor inhibits preterm delivery induced by inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Atsuko; Sawada, Kenjiro; Nakayama, Masahiro; Toda, Aska; Kimoto, Akihito; Mabuchi, Seiji; Kinose, Yasuto; Nakamura, Koji; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Kurachi, Hirohisa; Kimura, Tadashi

    2013-11-01

    Intrauterine infection is still a common trigger of preterm delivery (PTD) and also a determinant risk factor for the subsequent development of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in neonates. In this study, we examined the expressional pattern of various inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in placentae complicated with severe chorioamnionitis (CAM) and found that IL-6 is mainly expressed in macrophages in villous mesenchyme by immunohistochemical analysis with anti-CD-68 antibody. Using an experimental lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PTD model, the therapeutic potential of targeting this cytokine was investigated. Anti-IL-6 receptor antibody (MR16-1) was delivered 6 h before LPS treatment. Mice in the MR16-1 group had a significantly lower rate of PTD (17%) than in the controls (53%, P = 0.026). As a result, MR16-1 treatment significantly prolonged the gestational period (control; 18.4 1.7d, MR16-1; 19.8 1.5d, P = 0.007) without any apparent adverse events on the mice and their pups. In primary human amniotic epithelial cells, pretreatment with a humanized anti-human IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab, significantly inhibited the production of prostaglandin E2 induced by IL-6. In conclusion, IL-6 was strongly expressed mainly in macrophages in villous mesenchyme in placentae complicated with CAM. Anti-IL-6R antibody significantly decreased the rate of PTD in LPS-induced inflammatory model in mice, and inhibited PGE2 production from human primary amniotic epithelial cells. Targeting IL-6 signaling could be a promising option for the prevention of PTD and needs to be further explored for future clinical application. PMID:23969038

  9. Modern prodrug design for targeted oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Arik; Zimmermann, Ellen M; Ben-Shabat, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    The molecular information that became available over the past two decades significantly influenced the field of drug design and delivery at large, and the prodrug approach in particular. While the traditional prodrug approach was aimed at altering various physiochemical parameters, e.g., lipophilicity and charge state, the modern approach to prodrug design considers molecular/cellular factors, e.g., membrane influx/efflux transporters and cellular protein expression and distribution. This novel targeted-prodrug approach is aimed to exploit carrier-mediated transport for enhanced intestinal permeability, as well as specific enzymes to promote activation of the prodrug and liberation of the free parent drug. The purpose of this article is to provide a concise overview of this modern prodrug approach, with useful successful examples for its utilization. In the past the prodrug approach used to be viewed as a last option strategy, after all other possible solutions were exhausted; nowadays this is no longer the case, and in fact, the prodrug approach should be considered already in the very earliest development stages. Indeed, the prodrug approach becomes more and more popular and successful. A mechanistic prodrug design that aims to allow intestinal permeability by specific transporters, as well as activation by specific enzymes, may greatly improve the prodrug efficiency, and allow for novel oral treatment options. PMID:25317578

  10. Identification of pathways involved in paclitaxel activity in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wen-Juan; Cheng, Hai-Yan; Li, Chun-Quan; Jin, Hong; Yang, Shan-Shan; Li, Xia; Zhang, Yun-Yan

    2011-01-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the key chemotherapeutic drugs widely used to treat various types of cancer. Many cervical cancer patients exhibit selectivity in response to thereapy, however, which is considered to be correlated with drug-gene-pathways. The aim of this study was to identify pathways involved in paclitaxel activity in cervical cancer. Gene expression data was obtained from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus and the associations between paclitaxel and genes from DrugBank, MATADOR, TTD, CTD and SuperTarget databases. Differentially expressed genes in cervical cancer were identified using the significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) statistical technique. Pathway analysis was performed according to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database using the software package SubpathwayMiner to predict target genes of paclitaxel in cervical cancer and regulated pathways. We found that paclitaxel, which exhibits anticancer activity in cervical cancer, may interact with these differentially expressed genes and their corresponding signaling pathways. Our study presents the first in-depth, large-scale analysis of pathways involved in paclitaxel activity in cervical cancer. Interestingly, these pathways have not been reported to be involved in other tumors. Thus our findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying paclitaxel resistance in cervical cancer. PMID:21517239

  11. Targeted drug delivery using immunoconjugates: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Pasquetto, Maria Valentina; Vecchia, Luca; Covini, Daniele; Digilio, Rita; Scotti, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (also known as "immunoconjugates") have only recently entered the arsenal of anticancer drugs, but the number of undergoing clinical trials including them is ever increasing and most therapeutic antibodies are now patented including their potential immunoconjugate derivatives. They typically consist of three components: antibody, linker, and cytotoxin. An antibody or antibody fragment targeted to a tumor-associated antigen acts as a carrier for drug delivery and can be conjugated by cleavable or uncleavable linkers to a variety of effector molecules, either a drug, toxin, radioisotope, enzyme (the latter also used in Antibody-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy), or to drug-containing liposomes or nanoparticles. In this review, we propose a general outline of the field, starting from the diagnostic and clinical applications of this class of molecules. Special attention will be devoted to the principles and issues in molecular design (choice of tumor-associated antigen, critical milestones in antibody development, available alternatives for linkers and effector molecule, and strategies for fusion proteins building) to the importance of antibody affinity modulation to optimize therapeutic effect and the potential of emerging alternative scaffolds. Most of the power of these molecules is to reach high concentrations in the tumor, relatively unaffecting normal cells, although one drawback lies in their short half-life. In this respect, modifications of immunoconjugates, which have shown to strongly influence pharmacokinetics, like glycosylation and PEGylation, will be discussed. Undergoing clinical trials and active patents will be analyzed and problems present in clinical use will be reported. PMID:21989410

  12. Evolving Evidence of the Efficacy and Safety of nab-Paclitaxel in the Treatment of Cancers with Squamous Histologies

    PubMed Central

    Loong, Herbert H.; Chan, Alvita C.Y.; Wong, Ashley C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Taxanes, such as paclitaxel and docetaxel, are well-established cytotoxic chemotherapeutics used in the treatment of a variety of cancers, including those of squamous histology. In their formulation, both agents require solvents, which have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions, peripheral neuropathy, hepatic toxicities, and impaired drug delivery. nab-Paclitaxel is a novel, albumin-bound form of paclitaxel with improved tolerability, bioavailability, and efficacy compared with solvent-based paclitaxel. Currently, nab-paclitaxel is approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, locally advanced/metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and metastatic pancreatic cancer. Clinical studies suggest that nab-paclitaxel may be particularly effective in cancers with squamous histology, including NSCLC. This article reviews the emerging evidence supporting nab-paclitaxel as an effective agent in the treatment of malignancies of squamous histology. PMID:26918039

  13. Co-delivery of Pirarubicin and Paclitaxel by Human Serum Albumin Nanoparticles to Enhance Antitumor Effect and Reduce Systemic Toxicity in Breast Cancers.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaoli; Lian, Xianghong; Dong, Jianxia; Wan, Zhuoya; Xia, Chunyu; Song, Xu; Fu, Yao; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-11-01

    In our study, we aimed to develop a codelivery nanoparticulate system of pirarubicin (THP) and paclitaxel (PTX) (Co-AN) using human serum albumin to improve the therapeutic effect and reduce systemic toxicities. The prepared Co-AN demonstrated a narrow size distribution around 156.9 ± 3.2 nm (PDI = 0.16 ± 0.02) and high loading efficiency (87.91 ± 2.85% for THP and 80.20 ± 2.21% for PTX) with sustained release profiles. Significantly higher drug accumulation in tumors and decreased distribution in normal tissues were observed for Co-AN in xenograft 4T1 murine breast cancer bearing BALB/c mice. Cytotoxicity test against 4T1 cells in vitro and antitumor assay on 4T1 breast cancer in vivo demonstrated that the antitumor effect of Co-AN was superior to that of the single drug or free combination. Also, Co-AN induced increased apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest against 4T1 cells compared to that of the single drug formulation. Remarkably, Co-AN exhibited significantly lower side effects regarding bone marrow suppression and organ and gastrointestinal toxicities. This human serum albumin-based codelivery system represents a promising platform for combination chemotherapy in breast cancers. PMID:26422373

  14. Inhibition of neointimal proliferation after bare metal stent implantation with low-pressure drug delivery using a paclitaxel-coated balloon in porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Bodo; Kelsch, Bettina; Clever, Yvonne P; Hattangadi, Neil; Mahnkopf, Dirk; Speck, Ulrich; Taupitz, Matthias; Scheller, Bruno

    2012-05-01

    A variety of mechanical and laser-based methods remove or shift atherosclerotic plaques and reopen the artery to its original lumen. Subsequent treatment with drug-coated balloons (DCB) may smooth the vessel wall but does not require high-pressure inflation. We investigated the efficacy of paclitaxel-coated balloons inflated with only 2atm after bare metal stent implantation in coronary arteries of 24 pigs. Angiography and histomorphometry was performed on day 28. DCB inflated with 2atm caused similar reduction of late lumen loss (LLL) as high-pressure inflation with 12atm (0.890.58 vs. 0.720.39mm, p=0.34). Both DCB treatments significantly (p<0.01) reduced LLL versus uncoated balloons (1.500.51mm). Treatment with low-pressure DCB resulted in less maximal intimal thickness (0.450.15 vs. 0.670.25mm) and neointimal area (2.930.73 vs. 3.821.27mm(2)) than treatment with uncoated balloons (p<0.05). In conclusion, low-pressure treatment with DCB was similarly effective as high-pressure treatment justifying clinical trials in vessels which will benefit from inhibition of neointimal proliferation but may not tolerate high inflation pressure. PMID:22237489

  15. Hierarchical targeted hepatocyte mitochondrial multifunctional chitosan nanoparticles for anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhipeng; Zhang, Liujie; Song, Yang; He, Jiayu; Wu, Li; Zhao, Can; Xiao, Yanyu; Li, Wei; Cai, Baochang; Cheng, Haibo; Li, Weidong

    2015-06-01

    The overwhelming majority of drugs exert their pharmacological effects after reaching their target sites of action, however, these target sites are mainly located in the cytosol or intracellular organelles. Consequently, delivering drugs to the specific organelle is the key to achieve maximum therapeutic effects and minimum side-effects. In the work reported here, we designed, synthesized, and evaluated a novel mitochondrial-targeted multifunctional nanoparticles (MNPs) based on chitosan derivatives according to the physiological environment of the tumor and the requirement of mitochondrial targeting drug delivery. The intelligent chitosan nanoparticles possess various functions such as stealth, hepatocyte targeting, multistage pH-response, lysosomal escape and mitochondrial targeting, which lead to targeted drug release after the progressively shedding of functional groups, thus realize the efficient intracellular delivery and mitochondrial localization, inhibit the growth of tumor, elevate the antitumor efficacy, and reduce the toxicity of anticancer drugs. It provides a safe and efficient nanocarrier platform for mitochondria targeting anticancer drug delivery. PMID:25818430

  16. Microemulsion-based drug delivery system for transnasal delivery of Carbamazepine: preliminary brain-targeting study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rashmin Bharatbhai; Patel, Mrunali Rashmin; Bhatt, Kashyap K; Patel, Bharat G; Gaikwad, Rajiv V

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the development and evaluation of Carbamazepine (CMP)-loaded microemulsions (CMPME) for intranasal delivery in the treatment of epilepsy. The CMPME was prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method and characterized for physicochemical parameters. All formulations were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc (technetium) and biodistribution of CMP in the brain was investigated using Swiss albino rats. Brain scintigraphy imaging in rats was also performed to determine the uptake of the CMP into the brain. CMPME were found crystal clear and stable with average globule size of 34.11 ± 1.41 nm. (99m)Tc-labeled CMP solution (CMPS)/CMPME/CMP mucoadhesive microemulsion (CMPMME) were found to be stable and suitable for in vivo studies. Brain/blood ratio at all sampling points up to 8 h following intranasal administration of CMPMME compared to intravenous CMPME was found to be 2- to 3-fold higher signifying larger extent of distribution of the CMP in brain. Drug targeting efficiency and direct drug transport were found to be highest for CMPMME post-intranasal administration compared to intravenous CMP. Rat brain scintigraphy also demonstrated higher intranasal uptake of the CMP into the brain. This investigation demonstrates a prompt and larger extent of transport of CMP into the brain through intranasal CMPMME, which may prove beneficial for treatment of epilepsy. PMID:24825492

  17. Paclitaxel for treating KS.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    Paclitaxel (Taxol) received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for use as a second-line therapy, in combination with G-CSF growth factor, for treating Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Paclitaxel study results are highlighted showing that those patients who responded to Paclitaxel did so in about 2 months with a duration of 9 months, and some sustained responses for upwards of 2 years. Chemotherapies encapsulated in fat that appear to be more effective and less toxic than traditional combination chemotherapy regimens are also highlighted. Two such KS therapies, liposomal daunorubicin (DaunoXome) and liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil), have been approved for use. More information can be obtained by contacting the Project Inform Hotline. PMID:11365372

  18. Biodegradation and Toxicity of Protease/Redox/pH Stimuli-Responsive PEGlated PMAA Nanohydrogels for Targeting Drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sha; Wan, Jiaxun; Meng, Lizheng; Huang, Xiaoxing; Guo, Jia; Liu, Li; Wang, Changchun

    2015-09-01

    The application of nanomaterials in intelligent drug delivery is developing rapidly for treatment of cancers. In this paper, we fabricated a new kind of protease/redox/pH stimuli-responsive biodegradable nanohydrogels with methacrylic acid (MAA) as the monomer and N,N-bis(acryloyl)cystamine (BACy) as the cross-linker through a facile reflux-precipitation polymerization. After that, the polyethylene glycol (PEG) and folic acid (FA) were covalently grafted onto the surface of the nanohydrogels for enhancement of their long in vivo circulation lifetime and active targeting ability to the tumor cells and tissues. This kind of nanohydrogels could be disassembled into short polymer chains (Mn<1140; PDI<1.35) both in response to glutathione (GSH) through reduction of the sensitive disulfide bonds and protease by breakage of the amido bonds in the cross-linked networks. The nanohydrogels were utilized to simultaneously load both hydrophilic drug doxorubicin (DOX) and hydrophobic drug paclitaxel (PTX) with high drug loading efficiency. The cumulative release profile showed that the drug release from the drug-loaded nanohydrogels was significantly expedited by weak acidic (pH 5.0) and reducing environment (GSH), which exhibited an distinct redox/pH dual stimuli-responsive drug release to reduce the leakage of drugs before they reach tumor site. In addition, the in vitro experiment results indicated that the multidrug-loaded system had synergistic effect on cancer therapy. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity and intravital fluorescence imaging studies were adopted to evaluate the biocompatibility and biotoxicity of the nanohydrogels, the experimental results showed that the PEG modification could greatly enhance the long in vivo circulation lifetime and reduce the acute toxicity (LD50: from 138.4 mg/kg to 499.7 mg/kg) of the nanohydrogels. PMID:26288386

  19. Targeted lung cancer therapy: preparation and optimization of transferrin-decorated nanostructured lipid carriers as novel nanomedicine for co-delivery of anticancer drugs and DNA

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhenyu; Shao, Jingyu; Tan, Bingxu; Guan, Shanghui; Liu, Zhulong; Zhao, Zengjun; He, Fangfang; Zhao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) represent an improved generation of lipid nanoparticles. They have specific nanostructures to accommodate drugs/genes, and thus achieve higher loading capacity. The aim of this study was to develop transferrin (Tf)-decorated NLC as multifunctional nanomedicine for co-delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) and enhanced green fluorescence protein plasmid. Methods Firstly, Tf-conjugated ligands were synthesized. Secondly, PTX- and DNA-loaded NLC (PTX-DNA-NLC) was prepared. Finally, Tf-containing ligands were used for the surface decoration of NLC. Their average size, zeta potential, drug, and gene loading were evaluated. Human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line (NCl-H460 cells) was used for the testing of in vitro transfection efficiency, and in vivo transfection efficiency of NLC was evaluated on mice bearing NCl-H460 cells. Results Tf-decorated PTX and DNA co-encapsulated NLC (Tf-PTX-DNA-NLC) were nano-sized particles with positive zeta potential. Tf-PTX-DNA-NLC displayed low cytotoxicity, high gene transfection efficiency, and enhanced antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion The results demonstrated that Tf-PTX-DNA-NLC can achieve impressive antitumor activity and gene transfection efficiency. Tf decoration also enhanced the active targeting ability of the carriers to NCl-H460 cells. The novel drug and gene delivery system offers a promising strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:25709444

  20. Dual responsive PNIPAM-chitosan targeted magnetic nanopolymers for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadavalli, Tejabhiram; Ramasamy, Shivaraman; Chandrasekaran, Gopalakrishnan; Michael, Isaac; Therese, Helen Annal; Chennakesavulu, Ramasamy

    2015-04-01

    A dual stimuli sensitive magnetic hyperthermia based drug delivery system has been developed for targeted cancer treatment. Thermosensitive amine terminated poly-N-isopropylacrylamide complexed with pH sensitive chitosan nanoparticles was prepared as the drug carrier. Folic acid and fluorescein were tagged to the nanopolymer complex via N-hydroxysuccinimide and ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide reaction to form a fluorescent and cancer targeting magnetic carrier system. The formation of the polymer complex was confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Gadolinium doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles prepared by a hydrothermal method were encapsulated in the polymer complex to form a magnetic drug carrier system. The proton relaxation studies on the magnetic carrier system revealed a 200% increase in the T1 proton relaxation rate. These magnetic carriers were loaded with curcumin using solvent evaporation method with a drug loading efficiency of 86%. Drug loaded nanoparticles were tested for their targeting and anticancer properties on four cancer cell lines with the help of MTT assay. The results indicated apoptosis of cancer cell lines within 3 h of incubation.

  1. Delivery of drugs to intracellular organelles using drug delivery systems: Analysis of research trends and targeting efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Maity, Amit Ranjan; Stepensky, David

    2015-12-30

    Targeting of drug delivery systems (DDSs) to specific intracellular organelles (i.e., subcellular targeting) has been investigated in numerous publications, but targeting efficiency of these systems is seldom reported. We searched scientific publications in the subcellular DDS targeting field and analyzed targeting efficiency and major formulation parameters that affect it. We identified 77 scientific publications that matched the search criteria. In the majority of these studies nanoparticle-based DDSs were applied, while liposomes, quantum dots and conjugates were used less frequently. The nucleus was the most common intracellular target, followed by mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. In 65% of the publications, DDSs surface was decorated with specific targeting residues, but the efficiency of this surface decoration was not analyzed in predominant majority of the studies. Moreover, only 23% of the analyzed publications contained quantitative data on DDSs subcellular targeting efficiency, while the majority of publications reported qualitative results only. From the analysis of publications in the subcellular targeting field, it appears that insufficient efforts are devoted to quantitative analysis of the major formulation parameters and of the DDSs' intracellular fate. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for future studies in the field of organelle-specific drug delivery and targeting. PMID:26516100

  2. Thermoreversible Pluronic F127-based hydrogel containing liposomes for the controlled delivery of paclitaxel: in vitro drug release, cell cytotoxicity, and uptake studies

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shufang; Hsiao, WL Wendy; Pan, Weisan; Yang, Zhijun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To develop an in situ gel system comprising liposome-containing paclitaxel (PTX) dispersed within the thermoreversible gel (Pluronic F127 gel) for controlled release and improved antitumor drug efficiency. Methods The dialysis membrane and membrane-less diffusion method were used to investigate the in vitro drug release behavior. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermal analysis was used to investigate the micellization and sol/gel transition process of in situ gel systems. In vitro cytotoxicity and drug uptake in KB cancer cells were determined by MTT, intercellular drug concentration, and fluorescence intensity assay. Results The in vitro release experiment performed with a dialysis membrane model showed that the liposomal gel exhibited the longest drug-release period compared with liposome, general gel, and commercial formulation Taxol. This effect is presumably due to the increased viscosity of liposomal gel, which has the effect of creating a drug reservoir. Both drug and gel release from the in situ gel system operated under zero-order kinetics and showed a correlation of release of PTX with gel, indicating a predominating release mechanism of the erosion type. Dispersing liposomes into the gel replaced larger gel itself for achieving the same gel dissolution rate. Both the critical micelle temperature and the sol/gel temperature, detected by DSC thermal analysis, were shifted to lower temperatures by adding liposomes. The extent of the shifts depended on the amount of embedded liposomes. MTT assay and drug uptake studies showed that the treatment with PTX-loaded liposomal 18% Pluronic F127 yielded cytotoxicities, intercellular fluorescence intensity, and drug concentration in KB cells much higher than that of conventional liposome, while blank liposomal 18% Pluronic F127 gel was far less than the Cremophor EL vehicle and empty liposomes. Conclusions A thermosensitive hydrogel with embedded liposome is a promising carrier for hydrophobic anticancer agents, to be used in parenteral formulations for treating local cancers. PMID:21499415

  3. Contact-facilitated drug delivery with Sn2 lipase labile prodrugs optimize targeted lipid nanoparticle drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dipanjan; Pham, Christine TN; Weilbaecher, Katherine N; Tomasson, Michael H; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Sn2 lipase labile phospholipid prodrugs in conjunction with contact-facilitated drug delivery offer an important advancement in Nanomedicine. Many drugs incorporated into nanosystems, targeted or not, are substantially lost during circulation to the target. However, favorably altering the pharmacokinetics and volume of distribution of systemic drug delivery can offer greater efficacy with lower toxicity, leading to new prolonged-release nanoexcipients. However, the concept of achieving Paul Erhlich's inspired vision of a ‘magic bullet’ to treat disease has been largely unrealized due to unstable nanomedicines, nanosystems achieving low drug delivery to target cells, poor intracellular bioavailability of endocytosed nanoparticle payloads, and the substantial biological barriers of extravascular particle penetration into pathological sites. As shown here, Sn2 phospholipid prodrugs in conjunction with contact-facilitated drug delivery prevent premature drug diffusional loss during circulation and increase target cell bioavailability. The Sn2 phospholipid prodrug approach applies equally well for vascular constrained lipid-encapsulated particles and micelles the size of proteins that penetrate through naturally fenestrated endothelium in the bone marrow or thin-walled venules of an inflamed microcirculation. At one time Nanomedicine was considered a ‘Grail Quest’ by its loyal opposition and even many in the field adsorbing the pains of a long-learning curve about human biology and particles. However, Nanomedicine with innovations like Sn2 phospholipid prodrugs has finally made ‘made the turn’ toward meaningful translational success. PMID:26296541

  4. Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Different CalciumRegulating Mechanisms Depending on External Calcium Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhi; Avila, Andrew; Gollahon, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an Enhanced Calcium Efflux mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxels stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. PMID:24549172

  5. Cell-mediated Delivery and Targeted Erosion of Noncovalently Crosslinked Hydrogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiick, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds from hydrogels is presented. The method involves administering to a cell a hydrogel in which a therapeutic compound is noncovalently bound to heparin.

  6. Co-delivery of drugs and DNA from cationic core-shell nanoparticles self-assembled from a biodegradable copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Gao, Shujun; Ye, Wen-Hui; Yoon, Ho Sup; Yang, Yi-Yan

    2006-10-01

    Non-viral gene-delivery systems are safer to use and easier to produce than viral vectors, but their comparatively low transfection efficiency has limited their applications. Co-delivery of drugs and DNA has been proposed to enhance gene expression or to achieve the synergistic/combined effect of drug and gene therapies. Attempts have been made to deliver drugs and DNA simultaneously using liposomes. Here we report cationic core-shell nanoparticles that were self-assembled from a biodegradable amphiphilic copolymer. These nanoparticles offer advantages over liposomes, as they are easier to fabricate, and are more readily subject to modulation of their size and degree of positive charge. More importantly, they achieve high gene-transfection efficiency and the possibility of co-delivering drugs and genes to the same cells. Enhanced gene transfection with the co-delivery of paclitaxel has been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies. In particular, the co-delivery of paclitaxel with an interleukin-12-encoded plasmid using these nanoparticles suppressed cancer growth more efficiently than the delivery of either paclitaxel or the plasmid in a 4T1 mouse breast cancer model. Moreover, the co-delivery of paclitaxel with Bcl-2-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.

  7. Cell targeted gene delivery system based on modified pectin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus pectin modified with various amine groups have been studied for its potential as a novel non-viral gene delivery carrier. The modified cationic pectin was able to condense DNA and mediate transfection in a cell type specific manner. The modified pectin seems to be a promising carrier, attra...

  8. Nanostructured lipid carriers and their current application in targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Piyush; Gidwani, Bina; Vyas, Amber

    2016-02-01

    In the last few decades, various drug-delivery technologies have emerged and a fascinating part of this has been the development of nanoscale drug delivery devices. Nanoparticles (NPs) and other colloidal drug-delivery systems modify the kinetics, drug distribution in the body and release profile of an associated drug. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) have been reported to be an alternative system to emulsions, liposomes, microparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and their polymeric counterparts due to their numerous advantages. This paper basically reviews the types of NLCs, mechanism of skin penetration, stability related issues along with their production techniques, characterisation and applications towards targeted drug delivery. PMID:24813223

  9. Protocells and their use for targeted delivery of multicomponent cargos to cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C Jeffrey; Ashley, Carlee Erin; Jiang, Xingmao; Liu, Juewen; Peabody, David S; Wharton, Walker Richard; Carnes, Eric; Chackerian, Bryce; Willman, Cheryl L

    2015-03-31

    Various embodiments provide materials and methods for synthesizing protocells for use in targeted delivery of cargo components to cancer cells. In one embodiment, the lipid bilayer can be fused to the porous particle core to form a protocell. The lipid bilayer can be modified with targeting ligands or other ligands to achieve targeted delivery of cargo components that are loaded within the protocell to a target cell, e.g., a type of cancer. Shielding materials can be conjugated to the surface of the lipid bilayer to reduce undesired non-specific binding.

  10. Sunitinib Plus Paclitaxel Versus Bevacizumab Plus Paclitaxel for First-Line Treatment of Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer: A Phase III, Randomized, Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Nicholas J.; Saleh, Mansoor N.; Paul, Devchand; Generali, Daniele; Gressot, Laurent; Copur, Mehmet S.; Brufsky, Adam M.; Minton, Susan E.; Giguere, Jeffrey K.; Smith, John W.; Richards, Paul D.; Gernhardt, Diana; Huang, Xin; Liau, Katherine F.; Kern, Kenneth A.; Davis, John

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A multicenter, open-label phase III study was conducted to test whether sunitinib plus paclitaxel prolongs progression-free survival (PFS) compared with bevacizumab plus paclitaxel as first-line treatment for patients with HER2? advanced breast cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with HER2? advanced breast cancer who were disease free for ? 12 months after adjuvant taxane treatment were randomized (1:1; planned enrollment 740 patients) to receive intravenous (I.V.) paclitaxel 90 mg/m2 every week for 3 weeks in 4-week cycles plus either sunitinib 25 to 37.5 mg every day or bevacizumab 10 mg/kg I.V. every 2 weeks. Results The trial was terminated early because of futility in reaching the primary endpoint as determined by the independent data monitoring committee during an interim futility analysis. At data cutoff, 242 patients had been randomized to sunitinib-paclitaxel and 243 patients to bevacizumab-paclitaxel. Median PFS was shorter with sunitinib-paclitaxel (7.4 vs. 9.2 months; hazard ratio [HR] 1.63 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.182.25]; 1-sided P = .999). At a median follow-up of 8.1 months, with 79% of sunitinib-paclitaxel and 87% of bevacizumab-paclitaxel patients alive, overall survival analysis favored bevacizumab-paclitaxel (HR 1.82 [95% CI, 1.162.86]; 1-sided P = .996). The objective response rate was 32% in both arms, but median duration of response was shorter with sunitinib-paclitaxel (6.3 vs. 14.8 months). Bevacizumab-paclitaxel was better tolerated than sunitinib-paclitaxel. This was primarily due to a high frequency of grade 3/4, treatment-related neutropenia with sunitinib-paclitaxel (52%) precluding delivery of the prescribed doses of both drugs. Conclusion The sunitinib-paclitaxel regimen evaluated in this study was clinically inferior to the bevacizumab-paclitaxel regimen and is not a recommended treatment option for patients with advanced breast cancer. PMID:21569994

  11. Synthetic Aptamer-Polymer Hybrid Constructs for Programmed Drug Delivery into Specific Target Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Viruses have evolved specialized mechanisms to efficiently transport nucleic acids and other biomolecules into specific host cells. They achieve this by performing a coordinated series of complex functions, resulting in delivery that is far more efficient than existing synthetic delivery mechanisms. Inspired by these natural systems, we describe a process for synthesizing chemically defined molecular constructs that likewise achieve targeted delivery through a series of coordinated functions. We employ an efficient click chemistry technique to synthesize aptamer-polymer hybrids (APHs), coupling cell-targeting aptamers to block copolymers that secure a therapeutic payload in an inactive state. Upon recognizing the targeted cell-surface marker, the APH enters the host cell via endocytosis, at which point the payload is triggered to be released into the cytoplasm. After visualizing this process with coumarin dye, we demonstrate targeted killing of tumor cells with doxorubicin. Importantly, this process can be generalized to yield APHs that specifically target different surface markers. PMID:25290917

  12. Progress and Challenges in Developing Aptamer-Functionalized Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Feng; Liu, Biao; Lu, Jun; Li, Fangfei; Li, Defang; Liang, Chao; Dang, Lei; Liu, Jin; He, Bing; Atik Badshah, Shaikh; Lu, Cheng; He, Xiaojuan; Guo, Baosheng; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Tan, Weihong; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers, which can be screened via systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are superior ligands for molecular recognition due to their high selectivity and affinity. The interest in the use of aptamers as ligands for targeted drug delivery has been increasing due to their unique advantages. Based on their different compositions and preparation methods, aptamer-functionalized targeted drug delivery systems can be divided into two main categories: aptamer-small molecule conjugated systems and aptamer-nanomaterial conjugated systems. In this review, we not only summarize recent progress in aptamer selection and the application of aptamers in these targeted drug delivery systems but also discuss the advantages, challenges and new perspectives associated with these delivery systems. PMID:26473828

  13. Nanomicellar carriers for targeted delivery of anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Huang, Yixian; Li, Song

    2014-01-01

    Clinical application of anticancer drugs is limited by problems such as low water solubility, lack of tissue-specificity and toxicity. Formulation development represents an important approach to these problems. Among the many delivery systems studied, polymeric micelles have gained considerable attention owing to ease in preparation, small sizes (10–100 nm), and ability to solubilize water-insoluble anticancer drugs and accumulate specifically at the tumors. This article provides a brief review of several promising micellar systems and their applications in tumor therapy. The emphasis is placed on the discussion of the authors’ recent work on several nanomicellar systems that have both a delivery function and antitumor activity, named dual-function drug carriers. PMID:24341817

  14. Size matters: gold nanoparticles in targeted cancer drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Dreaden, Erik C; Austin, Lauren A; Mackey, Megan A; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is the current leading cause of death worldwide, responsible for approximately one quarter of all deaths in the USA and UK. Nanotechnologies provide tremendous opportunities for multimodal, site-specific drug delivery to these disease sites and Au nanoparticles further offer a particularly unique set of physical, chemical and photonic properties with which to do so. This review will highlight some recent advances, by our laboratory and others, in the use of Au nanoparticles for systemic drug delivery to these malignancies and will also provide insights into their rational design, synthesis, physiological properties and clinical/preclinical applications, as well as strategies and challenges toward the clinical implementation of these constructs moving forward. PMID:22834077

  15. Computational design of nanoparticle drug delivery systems for selective targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Gregg A.; Bevan, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles capable of selectively binding to diseased versus healthy cell populations are attractive for improved efficacy of nanoparticle-based drug and gene therapies. However, nanoparticles functionalized with high affinity targeting ligands may lead to undesired off-target binding to healthy cells. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantitatively determine net surface interactions, binding valency, and selectivity between targeted nanoparticles and cell surfaces. Dissociation constant, KD, and target membrane protein density, ?R, are explored over a range representative of healthy and cancerous cell surfaces. Our findings show highly selective binding to diseased cell surfaces can be achieved with multiple, weaker affinity targeting ligands that can be further optimized by varying the targeting ligand density, ?L. Using the approach developed in this work, nanomedicines can be optimally designed for exclusively targeting diseased cells and tissues.Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles capable of selectively binding to diseased versus healthy cell populations are attractive for improved efficacy of nanoparticle-based drug and gene therapies. However, nanoparticles functionalized with high affinity targeting ligands may lead to undesired off-target binding to healthy cells. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantitatively determine net surface interactions, binding valency, and selectivity between targeted nanoparticles and cell surfaces. Dissociation constant, KD, and target membrane protein density, ?R, are explored over a range representative of healthy and cancerous cell surfaces. Our findings show highly selective binding to diseased cell surfaces can be achieved with multiple, weaker affinity targeting ligands that can be further optimized by varying the targeting ligand density, ?L. Using the approach developed in this work, nanomedicines can be optimally designed for exclusively targeting diseased cells and tissues. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Movie showing simulation renderings of targeted (?L = 1820/?m2, KD = 120 ?M) nanoparticle selective binding to cancer (?R = 256/?m2) vs. healthy (?R = 64/?m2) cell surfaces. Target membrane proteins have linear color scale depending on binding energy ranging from white when unbound (URL = 0) to red when tightly bound (URL = UM). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03691g

  16. Novel targeted bladder drug-delivery systems: a review

    PubMed Central

    Zacchè, Martino Maria; Srikrishna, Sushma; Cardozo, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The objective of pharmaceutics is the development of drugs with increased efficacy and reduced side effects. Prolonged exposure of the diseased tissue to the drug is of crucial importance. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs) have been introduced to control rate, time, and place of release. Drugs can easily reach the bladder through a catheter, while systemically administered agents may undergo extensive metabolism. Continuous urine filling and subsequent washout hinder intravesical drug delivery (IDD). Moreover, the low permeability of the urothelium, also described as the bladder permeability barrier, poses a major challenge in the development of the IDD. DDSs increase bioavailability of drugs, therefore improving therapeutic effect and patient compliance. This review focuses on novel DDSs to treat bladder conditions such as overactive bladder, interstitial cystitis, bladder cancer, and recurrent urinary tract infections. The rationale and strategies for both systemic and local delivery methods are discussed, with emphasis on new formulations of well-known drugs (oxybutynin), nanocarriers, polymeric hydrogels, intravesical devices, encapsulated DDSs, and gene therapy. We give an overview of current and future prospects of DDSs for bladder disorders, including nanotechnology and gene therapy. PMID:26649286

  17. Claudin 4-targeted protein incorporated into PLGA nanoparticles can mediate M cell targeted delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksa, Thejani E.; Stover-Hamer, Mary; Fernandez, Xiomara; Eckelhoefer, Holly A.; Lo, David D.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer-based microparticles are in clinical use mainly for their ability to provide controlled release of peptides and compounds, but they are also being explored for their potential to deliver vaccines and drugs as suspensions directly into mucosal sites. It is generally assumed that uptake is mediated by epithelial M cells, but this is often not directly measured. To study the potential for optimizing M cell uptake of polymer microparticles in vivo, we produced sub-micron size PLGA particles incorporating a recombinant protein. This recombinant protein was produced with or without a c-terminal peptide previously shown to have high affinity binding to Claudin 4, a protein associated with M cell endocytosis. While the PLGA nanoparticles incorporate the protein throughout the matrix, much of the protein was also displayed on the surface, allowing us to take advantage of the binding activity of the targeting peptide. Accordingly, we found that instillation of these nanoparticles into the nasal passages or stomach of mice was found to significantly enhance their uptake by upper airway and intestinal M cells. Our results suggest that a reasonably simple nanoparticle manufacture method can provide insight into developing an effective needle-free delivery system. PMID:19896996

  18. Targeted and controlled anticancer drug delivery and release with magnetoelectric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rodzinski, Alexandra; Guduru, Rakesh; Liang, Ping; Hadjikhani, Ali; Stewart, Tiffanie; Stimphil, Emmanuel; Runowicz, Carolyn; Cote, Richard; Altman, Norman; Datar, Ram; Khizroev, Sakhrat

    2016-01-01

    It is a challenge to eradicate tumor cells while sparing normal cells. We used magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENs) to control drug delivery and release. The physics is due to electric-field interactions (i) between MENs and a drug and (ii) between drug-loaded MENs and cells. MENs distinguish cancer cells from normal cells through the membrane's electric properties; cancer cells have a significantly smaller threshold field to induce electroporation. In vitro and in vivo studies (nude mice with SKOV-3 xenografts) showed that (i) drug (paclitaxel (PTX)) could be attached to MENs (30-nm CoFe2O4@BaTiO3 nanostructures) through surface functionalization to avoid its premature release, (ii) drug-loaded MENs could be delivered into cancer cells via application of a d.c. field (~100 Oe), and (iii) the drug could be released off MENs on demand via application of an a.c. field (~50 Oe, 100 Hz). The cell lysate content was measured with scanning probe microscopy and spectrophotometry. MENs and control ferromagnetic and polymer nanoparticles conjugated with HER2-neu antibodies, all loaded with PTX were weekly administrated intravenously. Only the mice treated with PTX-loaded MENs (15/200 μg) in a field for three months were completely cured, as confirmed through infrared imaging and post-euthanasia histology studies via energy-dispersive spectroscopy and immunohistochemistry. PMID:26875783

  19. Targeted and controlled anticancer drug delivery and release with magnetoelectric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rodzinski, Alexandra; Guduru, Rakesh; Liang, Ping; Hadjikhani, Ali; Stewart, Tiffanie; Stimphil, Emmanuel; Runowicz, Carolyn; Cote, Richard; Altman, Norman; Datar, Ram; Khizroev, Sakhrat

    2016-01-01

    It is a challenge to eradicate tumor cells while sparing normal cells. We used magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENs) to control drug delivery and release. The physics is due to electric-field interactions (i) between MENs and a drug and (ii) between drug-loaded MENs and cells. MENs distinguish cancer cells from normal cells through the membrane’s electric properties; cancer cells have a significantly smaller threshold field to induce electroporation. In vitro and in vivo studies (nude mice with SKOV-3 xenografts) showed that (i) drug (paclitaxel (PTX)) could be attached to MENs (30-nm CoFe2O4@BaTiO3 nanostructures) through surface functionalization to avoid its premature release, (ii) drug-loaded MENs could be delivered into cancer cells via application of a d.c. field (~100 Oe), and (iii) the drug could be released off MENs on demand via application of an a.c. field (~50 Oe, 100 Hz). The cell lysate content was measured with scanning probe microscopy and spectrophotometry. MENs and control ferromagnetic and polymer nanoparticles conjugated with HER2-neu antibodies, all loaded with PTX were weekly administrated intravenously. Only the mice treated with PTX-loaded MENs (15/200 μg) in a field for three months were completely cured, as confirmed through infrared imaging and post-euthanasia histology studies via energy-dispersive spectroscopy and immunohistochemistry. PMID:26875783

  20. Targeted and controlled anticancer drug delivery and release with magnetoelectric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodzinski, Alexandra; Guduru, Rakesh; Liang, Ping; Hadjikhani, Ali; Stewart, Tiffanie; Stimphil, Emmanuel; Runowicz, Carolyn; Cote, Richard; Altman, Norman; Datar, Ram; Khizroev, Sakhrat

    2016-02-01

    It is a challenge to eradicate tumor cells while sparing normal cells. We used magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENs) to control drug delivery and release. The physics is due to electric-field interactions (i) between MENs and a drug and (ii) between drug-loaded MENs and cells. MENs distinguish cancer cells from normal cells through the membrane’s electric properties; cancer cells have a significantly smaller threshold field to induce electroporation. In vitro and in vivo studies (nude mice with SKOV-3 xenografts) showed that (i) drug (paclitaxel (PTX)) could be attached to MENs (30-nm CoFe2O4@BaTiO3 nanostructures) through surface functionalization to avoid its premature release, (ii) drug-loaded MENs could be delivered into cancer cells via application of a d.c. field (~100 Oe), and (iii) the drug could be released off MENs on demand via application of an a.c. field (~50 Oe, 100 Hz). The cell lysate content was measured with scanning probe microscopy and spectrophotometry. MENs and control ferromagnetic and polymer nanoparticles conjugated with HER2-neu antibodies, all loaded with PTX were weekly administrated intravenously. Only the mice treated with PTX-loaded MENs (15/200 μg) in a field for three months were completely cured, as confirmed through infrared imaging and post-euthanasia histology studies via energy-dispersive spectroscopy and immunohistochemistry.

  1. Paclitaxel uptake and transport in Taxus cell suspension cultures

    PubMed Central

    Naill, Michael C.; Kolewe, Martin E.; Roberts, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of paclitaxel in Taxus canadensis suspension cultures was studied with a fluorescence analogue of paclitaxel (Flutax-2®) in combination with flow cytometry detection. Experiments were carried out using both isolated protoplasts and aggregated suspension cell cultures. Flutax-2® was shown to be greater than 90% stable in Taxus suspension cultures over the required incubation time (24 hours). Unlabeled paclitaxel was shown to inhibit the cellular uptake of Flutax-2®, although structurally similar taxanes such as cephalomannine, baccatin III, and 10-deacetylbaccatin III did not inhibit Flutax-2® uptake. Saturation kinetics of Flutax-2® uptake was demonstrated. These results indicate the presence of a specific transport system for paclitaxel. Suspension cells elicited with methyl jasmonate accumulated 60% more Flutax-2® than unelicited cells, possibly due to an increased cellular storage capacity following methyl jasmonate elicitation. The presence of a specific mechanism for paclitaxel transport is an important first result that will provide the basis of more detailed studies as well as the development of targeted strategies for increased paclitaxel secretion to the extracellular medium. PMID:23180977

  2. Apoptosis induced by paclitaxel-loaded copolymer PLA-TPGS in Hep-G2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoai Nam; Tran Thi, Hong Ha; Le Quang, Duong; Nguyen Thi, Toan; Tran Thi, Nhu Hang; Huong Le, Mai; Thu Ha, Phuong

    2012-12-01

    Paclitaxel is an important anticancer drug in clinical use for treatment of a variety of cancers. The clinical application of paclitaxel in cancer treatment is considerably limited due to its serious poor delivery characteristics. In this study paclitaxel-loaded copolymer poly(lactide)-d-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-TPGS) nanoparticles were prepared by a modified solvent extraction/evaporation technique. The characteristics of the nanoparticles, such as surface morphology, size distribution, zeta potential, solubility and apoptosis were investigated in vitro. The obtained spherical nanoparticles were negatively charged with a zeta potential of about -18 mV with the size around 44 nm and a narrow size distribution. The ability of paclitaxel-loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles to induce apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Hep-G2) indicates the possibility of developing paclitaxel nanoparticles as a potential universal cancer chemotherapeutic agent.

  3. Organ-targeted high-throughput in vivo biologics screen identifies materials for RNA delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tsung-Yao; Shi, Peng; Steinmeyer, Joseph D.; Chatnuntawech, Itthi; Tillberg, Paul; Love, Kevin T.; Eimon, Peter M.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Therapies based on biologics involving delivery of proteins, DNA, and RNA are currently among the most promising approaches. However, although large combinatorial libraries of biologics and delivery vehicles can be readily synthesized, there are currently no means to rapidly characterize them in vivo using animal models. Here, we demonstrate high-throughput in vivo screening of biologics and delivery vehicles by automated delivery into target tissues of small vertebrates with developed organs. Individual zebrafish larvae are automatically oriented and immobilized within hydrogel droplets in an array format using a microfluidic system, and delivery vehicles are automatically microinjected to target organs with nearly perfect repeatability and precision. We screened a library of lipid-like delivery vehicles for their ability to facilitate the expression of protein-encoding RNAs in the central nervous system. We discovered delivery vehicles that are effective in both larval zebrafish and rats. Our results showed that the in vivo zebrafish model can be significantly more predictive of both false positives and false negatives in mammals than in vitro mammalian cell culture assays. Our screening results also suggest certain structure-activity relationship, which can potentially be applied to design novel delivery vehicles. PMID:25184623

  4. Organ-targeted high-throughput in vivo biologics screen identifies materials for RNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsung-Yao; Shi, Peng; Steinmeyer, Joseph D; Chatnuntawech, Itthi; Tillberg, Paul; Love, Kevin T; Eimon, Peter M; Anderson, Daniel G; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    2014-10-01

    Therapies based on biologics involving delivery of proteins, DNA, and RNA are currently among the most promising approaches. However, although large combinatorial libraries of biologics and delivery vehicles can be readily synthesized, there are currently no means to rapidly characterize them in vivo using animal models. Here, we demonstrate high-throughput in vivo screening of biologics and delivery vehicles by automated delivery into target tissues of small vertebrates with developed organs. Individual zebrafish larvae are automatically oriented and immobilized within hydrogel droplets in an array format using a microfluidic system, and delivery vehicles are automatically microinjected to target organs with high repeatability and precision. We screened a library of lipid-like delivery vehicles for their ability to facilitate the expression of protein-encoding RNAs in the central nervous system. We discovered delivery vehicles that are effective in both larval zebrafish and rats. Our results showed that the in vivo zebrafish model can be significantly more predictive of both false positives and false negatives in mammals than in vitro mammalian cell culture assays. Our screening results also suggest certain structure-activity relationships, which can potentially be applied to design novel delivery vehicles. PMID:25184623

  5. Magnetizable implants and functionalized magnetic carriers: A novel approach for noninvasive yet targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengart, Axel J.; Kaminski, Michael D.; Chen, Haitao; Caviness, Patricia L.; Ebner, Armin D.; Ritter, James A.

    2005-05-01

    We describe a targeted drug delivery system consisting of two steps: first, intravenous injection and circulation of biocompatible, magnetic nanospheres encapsulated with a drug; and second, focal concentration and release of the drug at the target site utilizing an implanted, magnetizable intraluminal stent or seed. We introduce the system concept, outline the biomedical feasibility, and discuss potential clinical advantages.

  6. Contact-facilitated drug delivery with Sn2 lipase labile prodrugs optimize targeted lipid nanoparticle drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dipanjan; Pham, Christine T N; Weilbaecher, Katherine N; Tomasson, Michael H; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Sn2 lipase labile phospholipid prodrugs in conjunction with contact-facilitated drug delivery offer an important advancement in Nanomedicine. Many drugs incorporated into nanosystems, targeted or not, are substantially lost during circulation to the target. However, favorably altering the pharmacokinetics and volume of distribution of systemic drug delivery can offer greater efficacy with lower toxicity, leading to new prolonged-release nanoexcipients. However, the concept of achieving Paul Erhlich's inspired vision of a 'magic bullet' to treat disease has been largely unrealized due to unstable nanomedicines, nanosystems achieving low drug delivery to target cells, poor intracellular bioavailability of endocytosed nanoparticle payloads, and the substantial biological barriers of extravascular particle penetration into pathological sites. As shown here, Sn2 phospholipid prodrugs in conjunction with contact-facilitated drug delivery prevent premature drug diffusional loss during circulation and increase target cell bioavailability. The Sn2 phospholipid prodrug approach applies equally well for vascular constrained lipid-encapsulated particles and micelles the size of proteins that penetrate through naturally fenestrated endothelium in the bone marrow or thin-walled venules of an inflamed microcirculation. At one time Nanomedicine was considered a 'Grail Quest' by its loyal opposition and even many in the field adsorbing the pains of a long-learning curve about human biology and particles. However, Nanomedicine with innovations like Sn2 phospholipid prodrugs has finally made 'made the turn' toward meaningful translational success. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2015, 8:85-106. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1355 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26296541

  7. Targeted drug delivery to the brain using magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Moos, Torben

    2015-10-01

    Brain capillary endothelial cells denote the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and conjugation of nanoparticles with antibodies that target molecules expressed by these endothelial cells may facilitate their uptake and transport into the brain. Magnetic nanoparticles can be encapsulated in liposomes and carry large molecules with therapeutic potential, for example, siRNA, cDNA and polypeptides. An additional approach to enhance the transport of magnetic nanoparticles across the BBB is the application of extracranially applied magnetic force. Stepwise targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to brain capillary endothelial cells followed by transport through the BBB using magnetic force may prove a novel mechanism for targeted therapy of macromolecules to the brain. PMID:26446407

  8. Cancer cell-targeted drug delivery utilizing oligopeptide transport activity.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, T; Tamai, I; Takaki, A; Tsuji, A

    2000-10-15

    To study the drug delivery to tumor by utilization of an oligopeptide transport activity, we examined the accumulation of dipeptides and the peptide-mimetic anti-cancer drug, bestatin, a substrate of oligopeptide transporter PepT1. Firstly, we established HeLa cells stably expressing human peptide transporter (hPepT1) (HeLa-hPepT1). Secondly, we constructed an experimental model by inoculation of HeLa-hPepT1 cells subcutaneously into Balb/c nu/nu mice to demonstrate the contribution of PepT1 to the tissue-selective drug delivery. The accumulations of a hydrolysis-resistant dipeptide [(3)H]carnosine and bestatin in solid tumors formed by HeLa-hPepT1 or HeLa-pcDNA3, which are transfected with vector DNA (pcDNA3) were measured. After I.V. administration, tissue-to-plasma concentration ratios (K(p)) of both compounds, in HeLa-hPepT1 tumor was significantly greater than that of [(14)C]inulin, a marker for extracellular fluid space, those of dipeptides in muscle, or those in HeLa-pcDNA3 tumor. Furthermore, bestatin exhibited growth inhibition of HeLa-hPepT1 in vitro. In vivo, repeated oral administration of bestatin for 28 days suppressed the growth of HeLa-hPepT1 tumor specifically. When HT-1080 cells, which may naturally express oligopeptide transport activity, were transplanted, K(p) of [(3)H]carnosine was significantly increased in comparison with that in muscle. In addition, oligopeptide transport activities among various human cell lines were examined. These results provide the first demonstration for the selective delivery of oligopeptides to tumors by specific oligopeptide transport activity. PMID:11004680

  9. Functionalized Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Tumor Vasculature Targeting and PET Image-Guided Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Goel, Shreya; Hong, Hao; Chen, Feng; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Hernandez, Reinier; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Aim Development of multifunctional and well-dispersed hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) for tumor vasculature targeted drug delivery and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Materials and Methods Amine functionalized HMSNs (150250 nm) were conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator, NOTA, PEGylated and loaded with anti-angiogenesis drug, Sunitinib. Cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys) (cRGDyK) peptide was attached to the nanoconjugate and radiolabeled with 64Cu for PET imaging. Results 64Cu-NOTA-HMSN-PEG-cRGDyK exhibited integrin specific uptake both in vitro and in vivo. PET results indicated ~ 8 %ID/g uptake of targeted nanoconjugates in U87MG tumors, which correlated well with ex vivo and histological analyses. Enhanced tumor targeted delivery of sunitinib was also observed. Conclusions We successfully developed tumor vasculature targeted HMSNs for PET imaging and image guided drug delivery. PMID:25955122

  10. Paclitaxel conjugated Fe3O4@LaF3:Ce3+,Tb3+ nanoparticles as bifunctional targeting carriers for Cancer theranostics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangaiyarkarasi, Rajendiran; Chinnathambi, Shanmugavel; Karthikeyan, Subramani; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-02-01

    The bi-functional Chitosan functionalized magnetite doped luminescent rare earth nanoparticles (Fe3O4@LaF3: Ce3+,Tb3+/chi NPs) as a carrier of paclitaxel (PTX) drug was designed using a co-precipitation and facile direct precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles are spherical in shape with a typical diameter of 19-37 nm respectively. They are water soluble, super paramagnetic and biocompatible, in which the amino groups on the nanoparticles surface are used for the conjugation with an anticancer drug, paclitaxel. The nature of PTX binding with Fe3O4@LaF3: Ce3+,Tb3+/chi nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer and scanning electron micrograph. The nature of interactions between PTX and Fe3O4@LaF3: Ce3+,Tb3+/chi NPs due to complex formation were conceded out by various spectroscopic methods viz., UV-visible, steady state and excited state fluorescence spectroscopy. The photo-physical characterization reveals that the adsorption and release of PTX from Fe3O4@LaF3:Tb3+/chi nanoparticles is quicker when compared with other nanoparticles and also confirms that this may be due to the hydrogen bond formation between the hydroxyl group of drug and amino group of nanoparticles respectively. The maximum loading capacity and entrapment efficiency of 83.69% and 80.51% were attained at a ratio of 5:8 of PTX and Fe3O4@LaF3: Ce3+,Tb3+/chi NPs respectively. In addition with that, antitumoral activity study of PTX conjugated Fe3O4@LaF3:Tb3+/chi nanoparticles exhibits increased cytotoxic effects on A549 lung cancer cell lines than that of unconjugated PTX.

  11. Magnetic Targeted Delivery of Dexamethasone Acetate across the Round Window Membrane in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaoping; Chen, Kejian; Kuriyavar, Satish; Kopke, Richard D.; Grady, Brian P.; Bourne, David H.; Li, Wei; Dormer, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis Magnetically susceptible PLGA nanoparticles will effectively target the round window membrane (RWM) for delivery of dexamethasone-acetate (Dex-Ac) to the scala tympani. Background Targeted delivery of therapeutics to specific tissues can be accomplished using different targeting mechanisms. One technology includes iron oxide nanoparticles, susceptible to external magnetic fields. If a nanocomposite composed of biocompatible polymer (PLGA), magnetite, and Dex-Ac can be pulled into and across the mammalian RWM, drug delivery can be enhanced. Method In vitro targeting and release kinetics of PLGA-magnetite-Dex-Ac nanoparticles first were measured using a RWM model. Next, these optimized nanocomposites were targeted to the RWM by filling the niche in anesthetized guinea pigs. A permanent magnet was placed opposite the RWM for 1 hour. Cochlear soft tissues, perilymph, and RWM were harvested after euthanasia and steroid levels were measured using HPLC. Results Membrane transport, in vitro, proved optimal targeting using a lower particle magnetite concentration (1 versus 5 or 10 mg/ml). In vivo targeted PLGA-magnetite-Dex-Ac particles had an average size of 482.8 158 nm (DLS) and an average zeta potential ?19.9 3.3 mV. In 1 hour, there was significantly increased cochlear targeted delivery of Dex or Dex-Ac, compared with diffusion alone. Conclusion Superparamagnetic PLGA-magnetite-Dex-Ac nanoparticles under an external magnetic field (0.26 mT) for 1 hour significantly increased Dex-Ac delivery to the inner ear. The RWM was not completely permeated and also became loaded with nanocomposites, indicating that delivery to the cochlea would continue for weeks by PLGA degradation and passive diffusion. PMID:23187928

  12. Dendritic polymer-based nanodevices for targeted drug delivery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, R. M.; Kolhe, Parag; Gurdag, Sezen; Khandare, Jayant; Lieh-Lai, Mary

    2004-03-01

    Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers are unimolecular micellar nanostructures, characterized by globular shape ( 20 nm) and large density of functional groups at periphery. The tailorable end groups make them ideal for conjugation with drugs, ligands, and imagining agents, making them an attractive molecular nanodevices for drug delivery. Compared to linear polymers and nanoparticles, these nanodevices enter cells rapidly, carrying drugs and delivering them inside cells. Performance of nanodevices prepared for asthma and cancer drug delivery will be discussed. Our conjugation procedure produced very high drug payloads. Dendritic polymer-drug conjugates were very effective in transporting methotrexate (a chemotherapy drug) into both sensitive (CCRF-CEM cell line) and resistant cell line (CEM-MTX). The conjugate nanodevice was 3 times more effective than free drug in the sensitive line, and 9 times more effective in the resistant cell line (based on IC50). The physics of cell entry and drug release from these nanodevices are being investigated. The conjugates appear to enter cells through endocytosis, with the rate of entry dependent on end-group, molecular weight, the pH of the medium, and the cancerous nature of the cells.

  13. Targeted drug delivery system for oral cancer therapy using sonoporation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hironobu; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Iwanaga, Kenjiro; Nagao, Fuminori; Habu, Manabu; Tsujisawa, Toshiyuki; Seta, Yuji; Toyoshima, Kuniaki; Fukuda, Jin-ichi; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2009-08-01

    Ultrasound-mediated destruction of microbubbles has been proposed as an innovative non-invasive drug delivery system for cancer therapy. We developed a specific drug delivery system for squamous cell carcinoma that uses sonoporation with the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody. Administration of a low dose of bleomycin (BLM) by sonoporation with the anti-EGFR antibody produced a marked growth inhibition of Ca9-22 cells in vitro. In addition, scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed apparent surface deformation of Ca9-22 cells treated with sonoporation in the presence of the antibody. Interestingly, the population of apoptotic cells was remarkably increased when a low dose of BLM was delivered using sonoporation with the Fab fragment of the anti-EGFR antibody. These findings indicate that sonoporation with the Fab fragment makes it possible to administer drugs into cells more efficiently and specifically, suggesting a novel application for chemotherapy and gene therapy treatments for oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:19549112

  14. Conceptual design report for the University of Rochester cryogenic target delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Fagaly, R.L.; Alexander, N.B.; Bourque, R.F.; Dahms, C.F.; Lindgren, J.R.; Miller, W.J.; Bittner, D.N.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1993-05-01

    The upgrade of the Omega laser at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) will result in a need for large targets filled with D{sub 2} or Dt and maintained at cryogenic temperatures. This mandates a cryogenic target delivery system capable of filling, layering, characterizing and delivering cryogenic targets to the Omega Upgrade target chamber. The program goal is to design, construct, and test the entire target delivery system by June 1996. When completed (including an operational demonstration), the system will be shipped to Rochester for reassembly and commissioning in time for the Omega Upgrade cryogenic campaign, scheduled to start in 1998. General Atomics has been assigned the task of developing the conceptual design for the cryogenic target delivery system. Design and fabrication activities will be closely coordinated with the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), drawing upon their knowledge base in fuel layering and cryogenic characterization. The development of a target delivery system for Omega could also benefit experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the other ICF Laboratories in that the same technologies could be applied to NOVA, the National Ignition Facility or the future Laboratory Microfusion Facility.

  15. Conceptual design report for the University of Rochester cryogenic target delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Fagaly, R.L.; Alexander, N.B.; Bourque, R.F.; Dahms, C.F.; Lindgren, J.R.; Miller, W.J. ); Bittner, D.N.; Hendricks, C.D. )

    1993-05-01

    The upgrade of the Omega laser at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) will result in a need for large targets filled with D[sub 2] or Dt and maintained at cryogenic temperatures. This mandates a cryogenic target delivery system capable of filling, layering, characterizing and delivering cryogenic targets to the Omega Upgrade target chamber. The program goal is to design, construct, and test the entire target delivery system by June 1996. When completed (including an operational demonstration), the system will be shipped to Rochester for reassembly and commissioning in time for the Omega Upgrade cryogenic campaign, scheduled to start in 1998. General Atomics has been assigned the task of developing the conceptual design for the cryogenic target delivery system. Design and fabrication activities will be closely coordinated with the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), drawing upon their knowledge base in fuel layering and cryogenic characterization. The development of a target delivery system for Omega could also benefit experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the other ICF Laboratories in that the same technologies could be applied to NOVA, the National Ignition Facility or the future Laboratory Microfusion Facility.

  16. Colon Targeted Drug Delivery Systems: A Review on Primary and Novel Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Anil K.; Philip, Betty

    2010-01-01

    The colon is a site where both local and systemic delivery of drugs can take place. Local delivery allows topical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. However, treatment can be made effective if the drugs can be targeted directly into the colon, thereby reducing the systemic side effects. This review, mainly compares the primary approaches for CDDS (Colon Specific Drug Delivery) namely prodrugs, pH and time dependent systems, and microbially triggered systems, which achieved limited success and had limitations as compared with newer CDDS namely pressure controlled colonic delivery capsules, CODESTM, and osmotic controlled drug delivery which are unique in terms of achieving in vivo site specificity, and feasibility of manufacturing process. PMID:22125706

  17. Cell-Mediated Delivery of Nanoparticles: Taking Advantage of Circulatory Cells to Target Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Anselmo, Aaron C.; Mitragotri, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Cellular hitchhiking leverages the use of circulatory cells to enhance the biological outcome of nanoparticle drug delivery systems, which often suffer from poor circulation time and limited targeting. Cellular hitchhiking utilizes the natural abilities of circulatory cells to: (i) navigate the vasculature while avoiding immune system clearance, (ii) remain relatively inert until needed and (iii) perform specific functions, including nutrient delivery to tissues, clearance of pathogens, and immune system surveillance. A variety of synthetic nanoparticles attempt to mimic these functional attributes of circulatory cells for drug delivery purposes. By combining the advantages of circulatory cells and synthetic nanoparticles, many advanced drug delivery systems have been developed that adopt the concept of cellular hitchhiking. Here, we review the development and specific applications of cellular hitchhiking-based drug delivery systems. PMID:24747161

  18. Possible Side Effects of Paclitaxel

    Cancer.gov

    Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Paclitaxel (Table Version Date: August 23, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Paclitaxel, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Anemia which may cause tiredness, or may require blood transfusions Infection,

  19. Cancer targeted therapeutics: From molecules to drug delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Daxing; Auguste, Debra T

    2015-12-10

    The pitfall of all chemotherapeutics lies in drug resistance and the severe side effects experienced by patients. One way to reduce the off-target effects of chemotherapy on healthy tissues is to alter the biodistribution of drug. This can be achieved in two ways: Passive targeting utilizes shape, size, and surface chemistry to increase particle circulation and tumor accumulation. Active targeting employs either chemical moieties (e.g. peptides, sugars, aptamers, antibodies) to selectively bind to cell membranes or responsive elements (e.g. ultrasound, magnetism, light) to deliver its cargo within a local region. This article will focus on the systemic administration of anti-cancer agents and their ability to home to tumors and, if relevant, distant metastatic sites. PMID:26342659

  20. New approaches to targeted drug delivery to tumour cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Basic approaches to the design of targeted drugs for the treatment of human malignant tumours have been considered. The stages of the development of these approaches have been described in detail and theoretically substantiated, and basic experimental results have been reported. Considerable attention is paid to the general characteristic of nanopharmacological drugs and to the description of mechanisms of cellular interactions with nanodrugs. The potentialities and limitations of application of nanodrugs for cancer therapy and treatment of other diseases have been considered. The use of nanodrugs conjugated with vector molecules seems to be the most promising trend of targeted therapy of malignant tumours. The bibliography includes 122 references.

  1. A RNA-DNA Hybrid Aptamer for Nanoparticle-Based Prostate Tumor Targeted Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Leach, John C; Wang, Andrew; Ye, Kaiming; Jin, Sha

    2016-01-01

    The side effects of radio- and chemo-therapy pose long-term challenges on a cancer patient's health. It is, therefore, highly desirable to develop more effective therapies that can specifically target carcinoma cells without damaging normal and healthy cells. Tremendous efforts have been made in the past to develop targeted drug delivery systems for solid cancer treatment. In this study, a new aptamer, A10-3-J1, which recognizes the extracellular domain of the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), was designed. A super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer-doxorubicin (SPIO-Apt-Dox) was fabricated and employed as a targeted drug delivery platform for cancer therapy. This DNA RNA hybridized aptamer antitumor agent was able to enhance the cytotoxicity of targeted cells while minimizing collateral damage to non-targeted cells. This SPIO-Apt-Dox nanoparticle has specificity to PSMA⁺ prostate cancer cells. Aptamer inhibited nonspecific uptake of membrane-permeable doxorubic to the non-target cells, leading to reduced untargeted cytotoxicity and endocytic uptake while enhancing targeted cytotoxicity and endocytic uptake. The experimental results indicate that the drug delivery platform can yield statistically significant effectiveness being more cytotoxic to the targeted cells as opposed to the non-targeted cells. PMID:26985893

  2. Mechanisms and biomaterials in pH-responsive tumour targeted drug delivery: A review.

    PubMed

    Kanamala, Manju; Wilson, William R; Yang, Mimi; Palmer, Brian D; Wu, Zimei

    2016-04-01

    As the mainstay in the treatment of various cancers, chemotherapy plays a vital role, but still faces many challenges, such as poor tumour selectivity and multidrug resistance (MDR). Targeted drug delivery using nanotechnology has provided a new strategy for addressing the limitations of the conventional chemotherapy. In the last decade, the volume of research published in this area has increased tremendously, especially with functional nano drug delivery systems (nanocarriers). Coupling a specific stimuli-triggered drug release mechanism with these delivery systems is one of the most prevalent approaches for improving therapeutic outcomes. Among the various stimuli, pH triggered delivery is regarded as the most general strategy, targeting the acidic extracellular microenvironment and intracellular organelles of solid tumours. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the development of pH-sensitive nanocarriers for tumour-targeted drug delivery. The review focuses on the chemical design of pH-sensitive biomaterials, which are used to fabricate nanocarriers for extracellular and/or intracellular tumour site-specific drug release. The pH-responsive biomaterials bring forth conformational changes in these nanocarriers through various mechanisms such as protonation, charge reversal or cleavage of a chemical bond, facilitating tumour specific cell uptake or drug release. A greater understanding of these mechanisms will help to design more efficient drug delivery systems to address the challenges encountered in conventional chemotherapy. PMID:26871891

  3. Method for Targeted Therapeutic Delivery of Proteins into Cells

    Cancer.gov

    Current methods to deliver proteins into cells (e.g., using retrovirus, DNA transfection, protein transduction, microinjection, complexing the protein with lipids, etc.) have many shortcomings, such as lack of target specificity toxicity, or unwanted random integration into the host chromosome.

  4. Targeted Delivery System of Nanobiomaterials in Anticancer Therapy: From Cells to Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Su-Eon; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Hong, Soon-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Targeted delivery systems of nanobiomaterials are necessary to be developed for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Nanobiomaterials can be engineered to recognize cancer-specific receptors at the cellular levels and to deliver anticancer drugs into the diseased sites. In particular, nanobiomaterial-based nanocarriers, so-called nanoplatforms, are the design of the targeted delivery systems such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles/micelles, nanoconjugates, norganic materials, carbon-based nanobiomaterials, and bioinspired phage system, which are based on the nanosize of 1–100 nm in diameter. In this review, the design and the application of these nanoplatforms are discussed at the cellular levels as well as in the clinics. We believe that this review can offer recent advances in the targeted delivery systems of nanobiomaterials regarding in vitro and in vivo applications and the translation of nanobiomaterials to nanomedicine in anticancer therapy. PMID:24672796

  5. Recent advances in dendrimer-based nanovectors for tumor-targeted drug and gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Kesharwani, Prashant; Iyer, Arun K

    2015-05-01

    Advances in the application of nanotechnology in medicine have given rise to multifunctional smart nanocarriers that can be engineered with tunable physicochemical characteristics to deliver one or more therapeutic agent(s) safely and selectively to cancer cells, including intracellular organelle-specific targeting. Dendrimers having properties resembling biomolecules, with well-defined 3D nanopolymeric architectures, are emerging as a highly attractive class of drug and gene delivery vector. The presence of numerous peripheral functional groups on hyperbranched dendrimers affords efficient conjugation of targeting ligands and biomarkers that can recognize and bind to receptors overexpressed on cancer cells for tumor-cell-specific delivery. The present review compiles the recent advances in dendrimer-mediated drug and gene delivery to tumors by passive and active targeting principles with illustrative examples. PMID:25555748

  6. Impacts of Blood-Brain Barrier in Drug Delivery and Targeting of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Yadollah; Barar, Jaleh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Entry of blood circulating agents into the brain is highly selectively con-trolled by specific transport machineries at the blood brain barrier (BBB), whose excellent barrier restrictiveness make brain drug delivery and targeting very challenging. Methods Essential information on BBB cellular microenvironment were reviewed and discussed towards impacts of BBB on brain drug delivery and targeting. Results Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) form unique biological structure and architecture in association with astrocytes and pericytes, in which microenvironment the BCECs express restrictive tight junctional complexes that block the paracellular inward/outward traverse of biomolecules/compounds. These cells selectively/specifically control the transportation process through carrier and/or receptor mediated transport machineries that can also be exploited for the delivery of pharmaceuticals into the brain. Intelligent molecular therapies should be designed using such transport machineries for the efficient delivery of designated drugs into the brain. For better clinical outcomes, these smart pharmaceuticals should be engineered as seamless nanosystems to provide simultaneous imaging and therapy (multimodal theranostics). Conclusion The exceptional functional presence of BBB selectively controls inward and outward transportation mechanisms, thus advanced smart multifunctional nanomedicines are needed for the effective brain drug delivery and targeting. Fully understanding the biofunctions of BBB appears to be a central step for engineering of intelligent seamless therapeutics consisting of homing device for targeting, imaging moiety for detecting, and stimuli responsive device for on-demand liberation of therapeutic agent. PMID:23678437

  7. Transferrin receptor-targeted theranostic gold nanoparticles for photosensitizer delivery in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Suraj; Novak, Thomas; Miller, Kayla; Zhu, Yun; Kenney, Malcolm E.

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is not only inefficient, but also nonspecific to brain stroma. These are major limitations in the effective treatment of brain cancer. Transferrin peptide (Tfpep) targeted gold nanoparticles (Tfpep-Au NPs) loaded with the photodynamic pro-drug, Pc 4, have been designed and compared with untargeted Au NPs for delivery of the photosensitizer to brain cancer cell lines. In vitro studies of human glioma cancer lines (LN229 and U87) overexpressing the transferrin receptor (TfR) show a significant increase in cellular uptake for targeted conjugates as compared to un-targeted particles. Pc 4 delivered from Tfpep-Au NPs clusters within vesicles after targeting with the Tfpep. Pc 4 continues to accumulate over a 4 hour period. Our work suggests that TfR-targeted Au NPs may have important therapeutic implications for delivering brain tumor therapies and/or providing a platform for noninvasive imaging. PMID:25519743

  8. Novel colon targeted drug delivery system using natural polymers.

    PubMed

    Ravi, V; Pramod Kumar, T M; Siddaramaiah

    2008-01-01

    A novel colon targeted tablet formulation was developed using pectin as carrier and diltiazem HCl and indomethacin as model drugs. The tablets were coated with inulin followed by shellac and were evaluated for average weight, hardness and coat thickness. In vitro release studies for prepared tablets were carried out for 2 h in pH 1.2 HCl buffer, 3 h in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer and 6 h in simulated colonic fluid. The drug release from the coated systems was monitored using UV/Vis spectroscopy. In vitro studies revealed that the tablets coated with inulin and shellac have limited the drug release in stomach and small intestinal environment and released maximum amount of drug in the colonic environment. The study revealed that polysaccharides as carriers and inulin and shellac as a coating material can be used effectively for colon targeting of both water soluble and insoluble drugs. PMID:20390095

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of a Novel Amphiphilic Polymer RGD-PEG-Chol for Target Drug Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shi; Li, Bo; Song, Xiangrong; Zheng, Yu; Peng, Cheng; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    An amphiphilic polymer RGD-PEG-Chol which can be produced in large scale at a very low cost has been synthesized successfully. The synthesized intermediates and final products were characterized and confirmed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (1H NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR). The paclitaxel- (PTX-) loaded liposomes based on RGD-PEG-Chol were then prepared by film formation method. The liposomes had a size within 100 nm and significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel to B16F10 cell as demonstrated by MTT test (IC50 = 0.079 μg/mL of RGD-modified PTX-loaded liposomes compared to 9.57 μg/mL of free PTX). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the cellular uptake of coumarin encapsulated in the RGD-PEG-Chol modified liposome was increased for HUVEC cells. This work provides a reasonable, facile, and economic approach to prepare peptide-modified liposome materials with controllable performances and the obtained linear RGD-modified PTX-loaded liposomes might be attractive as a drug delivery system. PMID:24578646

  10. Nab-paclitaxel in patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Leon-Ferre, Roberto A; Markovic, Svetomir N

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most aggressive and resistant malignancies in humans. Until recently, progress in the treatment of metastatic melanoma remained dormant for nearly two decades. However, recent advances in immune and targeted therapeutic approaches have led to dramatic and paradigm-shifting advances in the management of metastatic melanoma, that are now leading the way for other malignancies. With the advent of these new therapeutic options, chemotherapy is no longer favored as a first line strategy in metastatic melanoma, but continues to play a role in the salvage treatment of patients that have become refractory to immune-based or targeted therapies. Nab-paclitaxel, a solvent-free alternative to solvent-based paclitaxel, has shown in several trials to be active in metastatic melanoma. Herein, we summarize the role of nab-paclitaxel in the management of patients with advanced melanoma. PMID:26536477

  11. Stathmin Potentiates Vinflunine and Inhibits Paclitaxel Activity

    PubMed Central

    Malesinski, Soazig; Tsvetkov, Philipp O.; Kruczynski, Anna; Peyrot, Vincent; Devred, François

    2015-01-01

    Cell biology and crystallographic studies have suggested a functional link between stathmin and microtubule targeting agents (MTAs). In a previous study we showed that stathmin increases vinblastine (VLB) binding to tubulin, and that conversely VLB increases stathmin binding to tubulin. This constituted the first biochemical evidence of the direct relationship between stathmin and an antimitotic drug, and revealed a new mechanism of action for VLB. The question remained if the observed interaction was specific for this drug or represented a general phenomenon for all MTAs. In the present study we investigated the binding of recombinant stathmin to purified tubulin in the presence of paclitaxel or another Vinca alkaloid, vinflunine, using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). These experiments revealed that stathmin binding to tubulin is increased in the presence of vinflunine, whereas no signal is observed in the presence of paclitaxel. Further investigation using turbidity and co-sedimentation showed that stathmin inhibited paclitaxel microtubule-stabilizing activity. Taken together with the previous study using vinblastine, our results suggest that stathmin can be seen as a modulator of MTA activity and binding to tubulin, providing molecular explanation for multiple previous cellular and in vivo studies showing that stathmin expression level affects MTAs efficiency. PMID:26030092

  12. Stathmin potentiates vinflunine and inhibits Paclitaxel activity.

    PubMed

    Malesinski, Soazig; Tsvetkov, Philipp O; Kruczynski, Anna; Peyrot, Vincent; Devred, Franois

    2015-01-01

    Cell biology and crystallographic studies have suggested a functional link between stathmin and microtubule targeting agents (MTAs). In a previous study we showed that stathmin increases vinblastine (VLB) binding to tubulin, and that conversely VLB increases stathmin binding to tubulin. This constituted the first biochemical evidence of the direct relationship between stathmin and an antimitotic drug, and revealed a new mechanism of action for VLB. The question remained if the observed interaction was specific for this drug or represented a general phenomenon for all MTAs. In the present study we investigated the binding of recombinant stathmin to purified tubulin in the presence of paclitaxel or another Vinca alkaloid, vinflunine, using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). These experiments revealed that stathmin binding to tubulin is increased in the presence of vinflunine, whereas no signal is observed in the presence of paclitaxel. Further investigation using turbidity and co-sedimentation showed that stathmin inhibited paclitaxel microtubule-stabilizing activity. Taken together with the previous study using vinblastine, our results suggest that stathmin can be seen as a modulator of MTA activity and binding to tubulin, providing molecular explanation for multiple previous cellular and in vivo studies showing that stathmin expression level affects MTAs efficiency. PMID:26030092

  13. Restoration of paclitaxel resistance by CDK1 intervention in drug-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bae, Taejeong; Weon, Kwon-Yeon; Lee, Jeong-Won; Eum, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Sungchul; Choi, Jin Woo

    2015-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) commonly acquires resistance to chemotherapy, and this is the major obstacle to the better prognosis. Elucidating the molecular targets altered by chemotherapy is critically required to understand and overcome drug resistance. As a drug combination including paclitaxel is a prevalent prescription for treatment of EOC, to uncover gene expression altered in paclitaxel-resistant EOC, we analyzed multidirectional microarray profiles in both EOC cell lines and patients with paclitaxel resistance. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) was found to be a potential target of transcription factors to regulate paclitaxel resistance. As a result of the subsequent pharmacogenomics analysis, CDK1 inhibitor alsterpaullone was also indicated as a promising chemical that may be used in combinatorial therapies to reverse paclitaxel-induced chemoresistance. Although a CDK1 inhibitor has the potential to kill cancer cells, short-term treatment over 2 weeks at sublethal doses effectively induced cell death only upon additional treatment with paclitaxel. A prominent reduction in the tumor growth rate was observed upon paclitaxel subsequent to alsterpaullone treatment in EOC xenograft model. Thus, we suggest that inhibition of CDK1 with alsterpaullone may be a novel therapeutic method to reverse paclitaxel-induced resistance in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26442525

  14. Preparation and biological activity of a paclitaxel-single-walled carbon nanotube complex.

    PubMed

    Fu, X D; Zhang, Y Y; Wang, X J; Shou, J X; Zhang, Z Z; Song, L J

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have unique transmembrane abilities. The huge superficial area and abundance of π electrons confer SWCNTs perfect absorptive capability toward proteins, nucleates, and many drugs. These characteristics make SWCNTs a new and efficient drug carrier. The purpose of this study was to disperse SWCNTs in water and have paclitaxel absorbed onto them in order to construct an asparagine-glycine-arginine (NGR)-SWCNT-Paclitaxel complex as a targeting nanoparticle system. The NGR-SWCNT-Paclitaxel complex was systematically studied, and analytical methods, including spectrophotometry for SWCNTs and high-performance liquid chromatography for paclitaxel, were employed. The preparation and the prescription of the NGR-SWCNT-Paclitaxel complex lyophilized powder were investigated. MCF-7 cancer cells, Sprague-Dawley rats, and S180 tumor-bearing mice were used as experimental subjects to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo activity of NGR-SWCNT-Paclitaxel complex dispersion. The complex dispersion showed obvious inhibition activity against MCF-7 cancer cells. Within 1 h, the NGR-SWCNT-Paclitaxel complex could be transferred to cells, and sustained the release of drugs. In addition, the tumor and liver targeting and improved therapeutic effects of the NGR-SWCNT-Paclitaxel complex were confirmed. PMID:24668633

  15. Stimuli-responsive PEGylated prodrugs for targeted doxorubicin delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minghui; Qian, Junmin; Liu, Xuefeng; Liu, Ting; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, stimuli-sensitive prodrugs have been extensively studied for the rapid "burst" release of antitumor drugs to enhance chemotherapeutic efficiency. In this study, a novel stimuli-sensitive prodrug containing galactosamine as a targeting moiety, poly(ethylene glycol)-doxorubicin (PEG-DOX) conjugate, was developed for targeting HepG2 human liver cancer cells. To obtain the PEG-DOX conjugate, both galactosamine-decorated poly(ethylene glycol) aldehyde (Gal-PEG-CHO) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) aldehyde (mPEG-CHO) were firstly synthesized and functionalized with dithiodipropionate dihydrazide (TPH) through direct reductive amination via Schiff's base formation, and then DOX molecules were chemically conjugated to the hydrazide end groups of TPH-functionalized Gal-/m-PEG chains via pH-sensitive hydrazone linkages. The chemical structures of TPH-functionalized PEG and PEG-DOX prodrug were confirmed by (1)H NMR analysis. The PEG-DOX conjugate could self-assemble into spherical nanomicelles with a mean diameter of 140 nm, as indicated by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The drug loading content and loading efficiency in the prodrug nanomicelles were as high as 20 wt.% and 75 wt.%, respectively. In vitro drug release studies showed that DOX was released rapidly from the prodrug nanomicelles at the intracellular levels of pH and reducing agent. Cellular uptake and MTT experiments demonstrated that the galactosamine-decorated prodrug nanomicelles were more efficiently internalized into HepG2 cells via a receptor-mediated endocytosis process and exhibited a higher toxicity, compared with pristine prodrug nanomicelles. These results suggest that the novel Gal-PEG-DOX prodrug nanomicelles have tremendous potential for targeted liver cancer therapy. PMID:25746279

  16. The application of carbon nanotubes in target drug delivery systems for cancer therapies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Among all cancer treatment options, chemotherapy continues to play a major role in killing free cancer cells and removing undetectable tumor micro-focuses. Although chemotherapies are successful in some cases, systemic toxicity may develop at the same time due to lack of selectivity of the drugs for cancer tissues and cells, which often leads to the failure of chemotherapies. Obviously, the therapeutic effects will be revolutionarily improved if human can deliver the anticancer drugs with high selectivity to cancer cells or cancer tissues. This selective delivery of the drugs has been called target treatment. To realize target treatment, the first step of the strategies is to build up effective target drug delivery systems. Generally speaking, such a system is often made up of the carriers and drugs, of which the carriers play the roles of target delivery. An ideal carrier for target drug delivery systems should have three pre-requisites for their functions: (1) they themselves have target effects; (2) they have sufficiently strong adsorptive effects for anticancer drugs to ensure they can transport the drugs to the effect-relevant sites; and (3) they can release the drugs from them in the effect-relevant sites, and only in this way can the treatment effects develop. The transporting capabilities of carbon nanotubes combined with appropriate surface modifications and their unique physicochemical properties show great promise to meet the three pre-requisites. Here, we review the progress in the study on the application of carbon nanotubes as target carriers in drug delivery systems for cancer therapies. PMID:21995320

  17. Impact of ?-Targeted Radiation Therapy on Gene Expression in a Pre-Clinical Model for Disseminated Peritoneal Disease when Combined with Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Kwon Joong; Milenic, Diane E.; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the molecular basis of the enhanced cell killing effected by the combined modality of paclitaxel and 212Pb-trastuzumab (Pac/212Pb-trastuzumab), gene expression in LS-174T i.p. xenografts was investigated 24 h after treatment. Employing a real time quantitative PCR array (qRT-PCR array), 84 DNA damage response genes were quantified. Differentially expressed genes following therapy with Pac/212Pb-trastuzumab included those involved in apoptosis (BRCA1, CIDEA, GADD45?, GADD45?, GML, IP6K3, PCBP4, PPP1R15A, RAD21, and p73), cell cycle (BRCA1, CHK1, CHK2, GADD45?, GML, GTSE1, NBN, PCBP4, PPP1R15A, RAD9A, and SESN1), and damaged DNA repair (ATRX, BTG2, EXO1, FEN1, IGHMBP2, OGG1, MSH2, MUTYH, NBN, PRKDC, RAD21, and p73). This report demonstrates that the increased stressful growth arrest conditions induced by the Pac/212Pb-trastuzumab treatment suppresses cell proliferation through the regulation of genes which are involved in apoptosis and damaged DNA repair including single and double strand DNA breaks. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that 212Pb-trastuzumab potentiation of cell killing efficacy results from the perturbation of genes related to the mitotic spindle checkpoint and BASC (BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex), suggesting cross-talk between DNA damage repair and the spindle damage response. PMID:25268703

  18. Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to mitochondria using mesoporous silica nanoparticle nanocarriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Qiuyu; Ma, Xing; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-10-01

    A lot of investigations have been conducted using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) functionalized with different targeting ligands in order to deliver various hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs to targeted cancer cells. However, the utilization of MSNPs to deliver drug molecules to targeted subcellular organelles has been rarely reported. In this work, we applied targeting ligand-conjugated MSNPs with an average diameter of 80 nm to deliver the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) to mitochondria. Triphenoylphosphonium (TPP) was functionalized on MSNPs as a mitochondria targeting ligand. Mitochondria targeting efficiency was demonstrated in HeLa cells by a co-localization study of mitochondria and functionalized MSNPs as well as by fluorescence analysis in isolated mitochondria. In addition, enhanced cancer cell killing efficacy was achieved when using DOX-loaded and TPP-functionalized MSNPs for mitochondria-targeted delivery. Lowered adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential were observed, demonstrating the mitochondria dysfunction caused by delivered DOX. The positive results indicate promising application potential of MSNPs in targeted subcellular drug delivery.A lot of investigations have been conducted using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) functionalized with different targeting ligands in order to deliver various hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs to targeted cancer cells. However, the utilization of MSNPs to deliver drug molecules to targeted subcellular organelles has been rarely reported. In this work, we applied targeting ligand-conjugated MSNPs with an average diameter of 80 nm to deliver the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) to mitochondria. Triphenoylphosphonium (TPP) was functionalized on MSNPs as a mitochondria targeting ligand. Mitochondria targeting efficiency was demonstrated in HeLa cells by a co-localization study of mitochondria and functionalized MSNPs as well as by fluorescence analysis in isolated mitochondria. In addition, enhanced cancer cell killing efficacy was achieved when using DOX-loaded and TPP-functionalized MSNPs for mitochondria-targeted delivery. Lowered adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential were observed, demonstrating the mitochondria dysfunction caused by delivered DOX. The positive results indicate promising application potential of MSNPs in targeted subcellular drug delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional synthesis and characterization data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05139h

  19. Laser-induced disruption of systemically administered liposomes for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackanos, Mark A.; Larabi, Malika; Shinde, Rajesh; Simanovskii, Dmitrii M.; Guccione, Samira; Contag, Christopher H.

    2009-07-01

    Liposomal formulations of drugs have been shown to enhance drug efficacy by prolonging circulation time, increasing local concentration and reducing off-target effects. Controlled release from these formulations would increase their utility, and hyperthermia has been explored as a stimulus for targeted delivery of encapsulated drugs. Use of lasers as a thermal source could provide improved control over the release of the drug from the liposomes with minimal collateral tissue damage. Appropriate methods for assessing local release after systemic delivery would aid in testing and development of better formulations. We use in vivo bioluminescence imaging to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of luciferin, used as a model small molecule, and demonstrate laser-induced release from liposomes in animal models after systemic delivery. These liposomes were tested for luciferin release between 37 and 45 C in PBS and serum using bioluminescence measurements. In vivo studies were performed on transgenic reporter mice that express luciferase constitutively throughout the body, thus providing a noninvasive readout for controlled release following systemic delivery. An Nd:YLF laser was used (527 nm) to heat tissues and induce rupture of the intravenously delivered liposomes in target tissues. These data demonstrate laser-mediated control of small molecule delivery using thermally sensitive liposomal formulations.

  20. Acoustic Molecular Imaging and Targeted Drug Delivery with Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, Gregory M.; Hughes, Michael. S.; Marsh, Jon N.; Scott, Michael J.; Zhang, Huiying; Lacy, Elizabeth K.; Allen, John S.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2005-03-01

    Advances in molecular biology and cellular biochemistry are providing new opportunities for diagnostic medical imaging to "see" beyond the anatomical manifestations of disease to the earliest biochemical signatures of disease. Liquid perfluorocarbon nanoparticles provide inherent acoustic contrast when bound to targets, e.g., fibrin deposits in a thrombus, but unbound nanoparticles are undetectable. This nanoparticle platform may be further functionalized with paramagnetic metals, such as gadolinium, or radionuclides, with homing ligands, like anti-αvβ3-integrins, and therapeutic agents. Acoustic imaging of densely distributed biomarkers, e.g., fibrin epitopes, is readily accommodated with fundamental imaging, but for sparse biomarkers, e.g., integrins, we have developed and implemented novel, nonlinear imaging techniques based upon information-theoretic receivers (i.e., thermodynamic receivers). These novel receivers allow sensitive direct imaging of contrast development.

  1. Characterization of magnetic viral complexes for targeted delivery in oncology.

    PubMed

    Almsttter, Isabella; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Settles, Marcus; Altomonte, Jennifer; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel; Rummeny, Ernst J; Ebert, Oliver; Plank, Christian; Braren, Rickmer

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses are promising new agents in cancer therapy. Success of tumor lysis is often hampered by low intra-tumoral titers due to a strong anti-viral host immune response and insufficient tumor targeting. Previous work on the co-assembly of oncolytic virus particles (VPs) with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was shown to provide shielding from inactivating immune response and improve targeting by external field gradients. In addition, MNPs are detected by magnet resonance imaging (MRI) enabling non-invasive therapy monitoring. In this study two selected core-shell type iron oxide MNPs were assembled with adenovirus (Ad) or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The selected MNPs were characterized by high r2 and r2(*) relaxivities and thus could be quantified non-invasively by 1.5 and 3.0 tesla MRI with a detection limit below 0.001 mM iron in tissue-mimicking phantoms. Assembly and cell internalization of MNP-VP complexes resulted in 81 - 97 % reduction of r2 and 35 - 82 % increase of r2(*) compared to free MNPs. The relaxivity changes could be attributed to the clusterization of particles and complexes shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In a proof-of-principle study the non-invasive detection of MNP-VPs by MRI was shown in vivo in an orthotopic rat hepatocellular carcinoma model. In conclusion, MNP assembly and compartmentalization have a major impact on relaxivities, therefore calibration measurements are required for the correct quantification in biodistribution studies. Furthermore, our study provides first evidence of the in vivo applicability of selected MNP-VPs in cancer therapy. PMID:25897333

  2. Characterization of Magnetic Viral Complexes for Targeted Delivery in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Almstätter, Isabella; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Settles, Marcus; Altomonte, Jennifer; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Ebert, Oliver; Plank, Christian; Braren, Rickmer

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses are promising new agents in cancer therapy. Success of tumor lysis is often hampered by low intra-tumoral titers due to a strong anti-viral host immune response and insufficient tumor targeting. Previous work on the co-assembly of oncolytic virus particles (VPs) with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was shown to provide shielding from inactivating immune response and improve targeting by external field gradients. In addition, MNPs are detected by magnet resonance imaging (MRI) enabling non-invasive therapy monitoring. In this study two selected core-shell type iron oxide MNPs were assembled with adenovirus (Ad) or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The selected MNPs were characterized by high r2 and r2* relaxivities and thus could be quantified non-invasively by 1.5 and 3.0 tesla MRI with a detection limit below 0.001 mM iron in tissue-mimicking phantoms. Assembly and cell internalization of MNP-VP complexes resulted in 81 - 97 % reduction of r2 and 35 - 82 % increase of r2* compared to free MNPs. The relaxivity changes could be attributed to the clusterization of particles and complexes shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In a proof-of-principle study the non-invasive detection of MNP-VPs by MRI was shown in vivo in an orthotopic rat hepatocellular carcinoma model. In conclusion, MNP assembly and compartmentalization have a major impact on relaxivities, therefore calibration measurements are required for the correct quantification in biodistribution studies. Furthermore, our study provides first evidence of the in vivo applicability of selected MNP-VPs in cancer therapy. PMID:25897333

  3. Targeted delivery of carbon nanotubes to cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Pavitra

    CD22 is broadly expressed on human B cell lymphomas. Monoclonal anti-CD22 antibodies (MAbs) alone, or coupled to toxins, have been used to selectively target these tumors both in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with xenografted human lymphomas and in patients. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) attached to antibodies or peptides represent another approach to targeting cancer cells. CNTs convert absorbed near-infrared (NIR) light into heat, which can thermally ablate cells in the vicinity of the CNTs. We have made MAb-CNT constructs where the MAb was either noncovalently or covalently coupled to CNTs, and investigated their ability to bind specifically to cells and to thermally ablate them after exposure to NIR light. The specific binding of these MAb-CNT constructs to antigen-positive and antigen-negative cells was demonstrated in vitro by using CD22+CD25 - Daudi cells, CD22-CD25+ phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and CNTs coupled non-covalently or covalently to either anti-CD22 or anti-CD25. We then demonstrated that the MAb-CNTs could bind to tumor cells expressing the relevant antigen but not to cells lacking the antigen. Furthermore we showed that, following exposure to NIR light, the cells could be thermally ablated. We also determined the stability of the MAb-CNTs in conditions designed to mimic the in vivo environment, i.e. mouse serum at 37°C. We then use the intrinsic Raman signature of CNTs to study the circulation and tissue distribution of intravenously injected MAb-CNTs in a murine xenograft model of lymphoma in vivo over a period of 24 hrs. We demonstrated that the MAb-CNTs have a short half-life in blood and that most of them are cleared by the reticuloendothelial system (RES). In the current embodiment, these constructs would therefore be of limited effectiveness in vivo.

  4. Multifunctional hybrid-carbon nanotubes: new horizon in drug delivery and targeting.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as an intriguing nanotechnological tool for numerous biomedical applications including biocompatible modules for the bioactives delivery ascribed to their unique properties, such as greater loading efficiency, biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, high surface area and photoluminescence, that make them ideal candidate in pharmaceutical and biomedical science. The design of multifunctional hybrid-CNTs for drug delivery and targeting may differ from the conventional drug delivery system. The conventional nanocarriers have few limitations, such as inappropriate availability of surface-chemical functional groups for conjugation, low entrapment/loading efficiency as well as stability as per ICH guidelines with generally regarded as safe (GRAS) prominences. The multifunctional hybrid-CNTs will sparked and open a new door for researchers, scientist of the pharmaceutical and biomedical arena. This review summarizes the vivid aspects of CNTs like characterization, supramolecular chemistry of CNTs-dendrimer, CNTs-nanoparticles, CNTs-quantum dots conjugate for delivery of bioactives, not discussed so far. PMID:26147085

  5. Magnetic nanoparticles for targeted therapeutic gene delivery and magnetic-inducing heating on hepatoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chenyan; An, Yanli; Zhang, Jia; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2014-08-01

    Gene therapy holds great promise for treating cancers, but their clinical applications are being hampered due to uncontrolled gene delivery and expression. To develop a targeted, safe and efficient tumor therapy system, we constructed a tissue-specific suicide gene delivery system by using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carriers for the combination of gene therapy and hyperthermia on hepatoma. The suicide gene was hepatoma-targeted and hypoxia-enhanced, and the MNPs possessed the ability to elevate temperature to the effective range for tumor hyperthermia as imposed on an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The tumoricidal effects of targeted gene therapy associated with hyperthermia were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The experiment demonstrated that hyperthermia combined with a targeted gene therapy system proffer an effective tool for tumor therapy with high selectivity and the synergistic effect of hepatoma suppression.

  6. Mineralocorticoid receptor mediated liposomal delivery system for targeted induction of apoptosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Narayan, Kumar Pranav

    2016-02-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are ubiquitously present in all cell types and are known to mediate distinct physiological functions like regulating Na(+) and K(+) balance and water excretion. MRs are linked to cell proliferation and can be exploited for the targeted control of cell mass in cancer. The present study is aimed towards extending the concept of using MR ligand spironolactone for selective delivery of genes in cancer cells. The lipoplex (SP) has shown MR mediated targeted transfections as indicated by receptor down-regulation studies using MR antagonists and siRNA. SP-targeted delivery of genes resulted in apoptosis in cell-specific manner while free drug was found to be cytotoxic irrespective of the cancerous or non-cancerous nature. In conclusion, this study presents MR as a target for efficiently delivering anticancer genes and thereby treating cancer through MR-mediated pathway. PMID:26620075

  7. Transferrin receptor-targeted theranostic gold nanoparticles for photosensitizer delivery in brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Suraj; Novak, Thomas; Miller, Kayla; Zhu, Yun; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Broome, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is not only inefficient, but also nonspecific to brain stroma. These are major limitations in the effective treatment of brain cancer. Transferrin peptide (Tfpep) targeted gold nanoparticles (Tfpep-Au NPs) loaded with the photodynamic pro-drug, Pc 4, have been designed and compared with untargeted Au NPs for delivery of the photosensitizer to brain cancer cell lines. In vitro studies of human glioma cancer lines (LN229 and U87) overexpressing the transferrin receptor (TfR) show a significant increase in cellular uptake for targeted conjugates as compared to untargeted particles. Pc 4 delivered from Tfpep-Au NPs clusters within vesicles after targeting with the Tfpep. Pc 4 continues to accumulate over a 4 hour period. Our work suggests that TfR-targeted Au NPs may have important therapeutic implications for delivering brain tumor therapies and/or providing a platform for noninvasive imaging.

  8. Hyaluronic acid modified mesoporous carbon nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Long; Jiao, Jian; Cui, Yu; Guo, Jingwen; Han, Ning; Di, Donghua; Chang, Di; Wang, Pu; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalized uniform mesoporous carbon spheres (UMCS) were synthesized for targeted enzyme responsive drug delivery using a facile electrostatic attraction strategy. This HA modification ensured stable drug encapsulation in mesoporous carbon nanoparticles in an extracellular environment while increasing colloidal stability, biocompatibility, cell-targeting ability, and controlled cargo release. The cellular uptake experiments of fluorescently labeled mesoporous carbon nanoparticles, with or without HA functionalization, demonstrated that HA-UMCS are able to specifically target cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. Moreover, the cargo loaded doxorubicin (DOX) and verapamil (VER) exhibited a dual pH and hyaluronidase-1 responsive release in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, VER/DOX/HA-UMCS exhibited a superior therapeutic effect on an in vivo HCT-116 tumor in BALB/c nude mice. In summary, it is expected that HA-UMCS will offer a new method for targeted co-delivery of drugs to tumors overexpressing CD44 receptors.

  9. Towards a targeted multi-drug delivery approach to improve therapeutic efficacy in breast cancer.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Wang B; Rosano JM; Cheheltani R; Achary MP; Kiani MF

    2010-10-01

    IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Significant improvements in breast cancer treatments have resulted in a significant decrease in mortality. However, current breast cancer therapies, for example, chemotherapy, often result in high toxicity and nonspecific side effects. Other treatments, such as hormonal and antiangiogenic therapies, often have low treatment efficacy if used alone. In addition, acquired drug resistance decreases further the treatment efficacy of these therapies. Intra-tumor heterogeneity of the tumor tissue may be a major reason for the low treatment efficacy and the development of chemoresistance. Therefore, targeted multi-drug therapy is a valuable option for addressing the multiple mechanisms that may be responsible for reduced efficacy of current therapies.AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: In this article, different classes of drugs for treating breast cancer, the possible reasons for the drug resistance in breast cancer, as well as different targeted drug delivery systems are summarized. The current targeting strategies used in cancer treatment are discussed.WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: This article considers the current state of breast cancer therapy and the possible future directions in targeted multi-drug delivery for treating breast cancer.TAKE HOME MESSAGE: A better understanding of tumor biology and physiological responses to nanoparticles, as well as advanced nanoparticle design, are needed to improve the therapeutic outcomes for treating breast cancer using nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery systems. Moreover, selective delivery of multi-drugs to tumor tissue using targeted drug delivery systems may reduce systemic toxicity further, overcome drug resistances, and improve therapeutic efficacy in treating breast cancer.

  10. Targeting blood–brain barrier changes during inflammatory pain: an opportunity for optimizing CNS drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ronaldson, Patrick T; Davis, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is the most significant obstacle to effective CNS drug delivery. It possesses structural and biochemical features (i.e., tight-junction protein complexes and, influx and efflux transporters) that restrict xenobiotic permeation. Pathophysiological stressors (i.e., peripheral inflammatory pain) can alter BBB tight junctions and transporters, which leads to drug-permeation changes. This is especially critical for opioids, which require precise CNS concentrations to be safe and effective analgesics. Recent studies have identified molecular targets (i.e., endogenous transporters and intracellular signaling systems) that can be exploited for optimization of CNS drug delivery. This article summarizes current knowledge in this area and emphasizes those targets that present the greatest opportunity for controlling drug permeation and/or drug transport across the BBB in an effort to achieve optimal CNS opioid delivery. PMID:22468221

  11. Computational and Pharmacological Target of Neurovascular Unit for Drug Design and Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Mirazul; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic and highly selective permeable interface between central nervous system (CNS) and periphery that regulates the brain homeostasis. Increasing evidences of neurological disorders and restricted drug delivery process in brain make BBB as special target for further study. At present, neurovascular unit (NVU) is a great interest and highlighted topic of pharmaceutical companies for CNS drug design and delivery approaches. Some recent advancement of pharmacology and computational biology makes it convenient to develop drugs within limited time and affordable cost. In this review, we briefly introduce current understanding of the NVU, including molecular and cellular composition, physiology, and regulatory function. We also discuss the recent technology and interaction of pharmacogenomics and bioinformatics for drug design and step towards personalized medicine. Additionally, we develop gene network due to understand NVU associated transporter proteins interactions that might be effective for understanding aetiology of neurological disorders and new target base protective therapies development and delivery. PMID:26579539

  12. Biomolecular corona on nanoparticles: a survey of recent literature and its implications in targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Ryan M.; Juettner, Vanessa V.; Hong, Seungpyo

    2014-01-01

    Achieving controlled cellular responses of nanoparticles (NP) is critical for the successful development and translation of NP-based drug delivery systems. However, precise control over the physicochemical and biological properties of NPs could become convoluted, diminished, or completely lost as a result of the adsorption of biomolecules to their surfaces. Characterization of the formation of the biomolecular corona has thus received increased attention due to its impact on NP and protein structure as well as its negative effect on NP-based targeted drug delivery. This review presents a concise survey of the recent literature concerning the importance of the NP-biomolecule corona and how it can be utilized to improve the in vivo efficacy of targeted delivery systems. PMID:25506050

  13. Overcoming transport barriers for interstitial-, lymphatic-, and lymph node-targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Susan N.; Schudel, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Despite drug formulation improving circulation times and targeting, efficacy is stymied by inadequate penetration into and retention within target tissues. This review highlights the barriers restricting delivery to the connective tissue interstitium, lymphatics, and lymph nodes as well as advances in engineering drug carriers to overcome these delivery challenges. Three-dimensional tissue physiology is discussed in the context of providing material design principles for delivery to these tissues; in particular the influence of interstitial and lymphatic flows as well as differential permeabilities of the blood and lymphatic capillaries. Key examples of materials with different characteristics developed to overcome these transport barriers are discussed as well as potential areas for further development. PMID:25745594

  14. Colon-targeted delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics including microencapsulated live bacterial cells

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Satya; Malgorzata Urbanska, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    There has been an ample interest in delivery of therapeutic molecules using live cells. Oral delivery has been stipulated as best way to deliver live cells to humans for therapy. Colon, in particular, is a part of gastrointestinal (GI) tract that has been proposed to be an oral targeted site. The main objective of these oral therapy procedures is to deliver live cells not only to treat diseases like colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and other GI tract diseases like intestinal obstruction and gastritis, but also to deliver therapeutic molecules for overall therapy in various diseases such as renal failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and others. This review provides a comprehensive summary of recent advancement in colon targeted live bacterial cell biotherapeutics. Current status of bacterial cell therapy, principles of artificial cells and its potentials in oral delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics for clinical applications as well as biotherapeutic future perspectives are also discussed in our review. PMID:19707368

  15. Chimeric nucleolin aptamer with survivin DNAzyme for cancer cell targeted delivery.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Nithya; Kanwar, Jagat R; Akilandeswari, Balachandran; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Khetan, Vikas; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2015-04-25

    A chimeric aptamer-DNAzyme conjugate was generated for the first time using a nucleolin aptamer (NCL-APT) and survivin Dz (Sur_Dz) and exhibited the targeted killing of cancer cells. This proof of concept of using an aptamer for the delivery of DNAzyme can be applied to other cancer types to target survivin in cancer cells in a specific manner. PMID:25797393

  16. Alveolar targeting of aerosol pentamidine. Toward a rational delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Simonds, A.K.; Newman, S.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Talaee, N.; Lee, C.A.; Clarke, S.W. )

    1990-04-01

    Nebulizer systems that deposit a high proportion of aerosolized pentamidine on large airways are likely to be associated with marked adverse side effects, which may lead to premature cessation of treatment. We have measured alveolar deposition and large airway-related side effects (e.g., cough, breathlessness, and effect on pulmonary function) after aerosolization of 150 mg pentamidine isethionate labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-Sn-colloid. Nine patients with AIDS were studied using three nebulizer systems producing different droplet size profiles: the Acorn System 22, Respirgard II, and Respirgard II with the inspiratory baffle removed. Alveolar deposition was greatest and side effects least with the nebulizer producing the smallest droplet size profile (Respirgard II), whereas large airway-related side effects were prominent and alveolar deposition lowest with the nebulizer producing the largest droplet size (Acorn System 22). Values for alveolar deposition and adverse airway effects were intermediate using the Respirgard with inspiratory baffle removed, thus indicating the importance of the baffle valve in determining droplet size. Addition of a similar baffle valve to the Acorn System 22 produced a marked improvement in droplet size profile. Selection of a nebulizer that produces an optimal droplet size range offers the advantage of enhancing alveolar targeting of aerosolized pentamidine while reducing large airway-related side effects.

  17. Targeted delivery of curcumin for treating type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Maradana, Muralidhara Rao; Thomas, Ranjeny; O'Sullivan, Brendan J

    2013-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition in which cells have reduced insulin signalling, leading to hyperglycemia and long-term complications, including heart, kidney and liver disease. Macrophages activated by dying or stressed cells, induce the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-B leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF and IL-6. These inflammatory macrophages in liver and adipose tissue promote insulin resistance, and medications which reduce inflammation and enhance insulin signalling improve glucose control. Curcumin is an anti-oxidant and nuclear factor kappa-B inhibitor derived from turmeric. A number of studies have shown that dietary curcumin reduces inflammation and delays or prevents obesity-induced insulin resistance and associated complications, including atherosclerosis and immune mediate liver disease. Unfortunately dietary curcumin is poorly absorbed by the digestive system and undergoes glucuronidation and excretion rather than being released into the serum and systemically distributed. This confounds understanding of how dietary curcumin exerts its beneficial effects in type 2 diabetes and associated diseases. New improved methods of delivering curcumin are being developed including nanoparticles and lipid/liposome formulations that increase absorption and bioavailability of curcumin. Development and refinement of these technologies will enable cell-directed targeting of curcumin and improved therapeutic outcome. PMID:23495213

  18. Towards multifunctional, targeted drug delivery systems using mesoporous silica nanoparticles - opportunities & challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenholm, Jessica M.; Sahlgren, Cecilia; Lindén, Mika

    2010-10-01

    One of the big challenges of medicine today is to deliver drugs specifically to defected cells. Nanoparticulate drug carriers have the potential to answer to this call, as nanoparticles can cross physiological barriers and access different tissues, and also be provided in a targetable form aimed at enhancing cell specificity of the carrier. Recent developments within material science and strong collaborative efforts crossing disciplinary borders have highlighted the potential of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for such targeted drug delivery. Here we outline recent advances which in this sense push MSNs to the forefront of drug delivery development. Relatively straightforward inside-out tuning of the vehicles, high flexibility, and potential for sophisticated release mechanisms make these nanostructures promising candidates for targeted drug delivery such as `smart' cancer therapies. Moreover, due to the large surface area and the controllable surface functionality of MSNs, they can be controllably loaded with large amounts of drugs and coupled to homing molecules to facilitate active targeting, simultaneously carrying traceable (fluorescent or magnetically active) modalities, also making them highly interesting as theragnostic agents. However, the increased relative surface area and small size, and flexible surface functionalization which is beneficially exploited in nanomedicine, consequently also includes potential risks in their interactions with biological systems. Therefore, we also discuss some safety issues regarding MSNs and highlight how different features of the drug delivery platform influence their behaviour in a biological setting. Addressing these burning questions will facilitate the application of MSNs in nanomedicine.

  19. Sodium Dependent Multivitamin Transporter (SMVT): A Potential Target for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; product of the SLC5A6 gene) is an important transmembrane protein responsible for translocation of vitamins and other essential cofactors such as biotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. Hydropathy plot (Kyte-Dolittle algorithm) revealed that human SMVT protein consists of 635 amino acids and 12 transmembrane domains with both amino and carboxyl termini oriented towards the cytoplasm. SMVT is expressed in various tissues such as placenta, intestine, brain, liver, lung, kidney, cornea, retina and heart. This transporter displays broad substrate specificity and excellent capacity for utilization in drug delivery. Drug absorption is often limited by the presence of physiological (epithelial tight junctions), biochemical (efflux transporters and enzymatic degradation) and chemical (size, lipophilicity, molecular weight, charge, etc.) barriers. These barriers may cause many potential therapeutics to be dropped from the preliminary screening portfolio and subsequent entry into the market. Transporter targeted delivery has become a powerful approach to deliver drugs to target tissues because of the ability of the transporter to translocate the drug to intracellular organelles at a higher rate. This review highlights studies employing SMVT transporter as a target for drug delivery to improve bioavailability and investigate the feasibility of developing SMVT targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:22420308

  20. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PHARMACEUTICALS USING AN IN SILICO DOSIMETRY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present an in silico dosimetry model which can be used for inhalation toxicology (risk assessment of inhaled air pollutants) and aerosol therapy ( targeted delivery of inhaled drugs). This work presents scientific and clinical advances beyond the development of the original in...

  1. Degradable Magnetic Composites for Minimally Invasive Interventions: Device Fabrication, Targeted Drug Delivery, and Cytotoxicity Tests.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christian; Hoop, Marcus; Pan, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J; Hierold, Christofer

    2016-01-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles and a functional, degradable polymer matrix based on poly(ethylene glycol) are combined to enable fully degradable magnetic microdevices for minimally invasive biomedical applications. A bioinspired helical microrobot platform mimicking Escherichia coli bacteria is fabricated and actuated using weak rotating magnetic fields. Locomotion based on corkscrew propulsion, targeted drug delivery, and low-degradation-product cytotoxicity are demonstrated. PMID:26603856

  2. Method for Targeted Therapeutic Delivery of Proteins into Cells | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The Protein Expression Laboratory at the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, MD is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop a platform technology for the targeted intra-cellular delivery of proteins using virus-like particles (VLPs).

  3. Synthesis of Biomolecule-Modified Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Targeted Hydrophobic Drug Delivery to Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Daniel P.; Lu, Jie; Gothard, Chris; Yanes, Rolando; Thomas, Courtney R.; Olsen, John-Carl; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Zink, Jeffrey I.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic methodologies integrating hydrophobic drug delivery and biomolecular targeting with mesoporous silica nanoparticles are described. Transferrin and cyclic-RGD peptides are covalently attached to the nanoparticles utilizing different techniques and provide selectivity between primary and metastatic cancer cells. The increase in cellular uptake of the targeted particles is examined using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Transferrin-modified silica nanoparticles display enhancement in particle uptake by Panc-1 cancer cells over that of normal HFF cells. The endocytotic pathway for these particles is further investigated through plasmid transfection of the transferrin receptor into the normal HFF cell line, which results in an increase in particle endocytosis as compared to unmodified HFF cells. By designing and attaching a synthetic cyclic-RGD, selectivity between primary cancer cells (BT-549) and metastatic cancer cells (MDA-MB 435) is achieved with enhanced particle uptake by the metastatic cancer cell line. Incorporation of the hydrophobic drug Camptothecin into these two types of biomolecular-targeted nanoparticles causes an increase in mortality of the targeted cancer cells compared to that caused by both the free drug and nontargeted particles. These results demonstrate successful biomolecular-targeted hydrophobic drug delivery carriers that selectively target specific cancer cells and result in enhanced drug delivery and cell mortality. PMID:21595023

  4. Theranostic Nanoparticles Carrying Doxorubicin Attenuate Targeting Ligand Specific Antibody Responses Following Systemic Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Emmy; Qian, Weiping; Cao, Zehong; Wang, Liya; Bozeman, Erica N.; Ward, Christina; Yang, Bin; Selvaraj, Periasamy; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Wang, Y. Andrew; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of immune responses on targeted delivery of nanoparticles is important for clinical translations of new cancer imaging and therapeutic nanoparticles. In this study, we found that repeated administrations of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) conjugated with mouse or human derived targeting ligands induced high levels of ligand specific antibody responses in normal and tumor bearing mice while injections of unconjugated mouse ligands were weakly immunogenic and induced a very low level of antibody response in mice. Mice that received intravenous injections of targeted and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated IONPs further increased the ligand specific antibody production due to differential uptake of PEG-coated nanoparticles by macrophages and dendritic cells. However, the production of ligand specific antibodies was markedly inhibited following systemic delivery of theranostic nanoparticles carrying a chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin. Targeted imaging and histological analysis revealed that lack of the ligand specific antibodies led to an increase in intratumoral delivery of targeted nanoparticles. Results of this study support the potential of further development of targeted theranostic nanoparticles for the treatment of human cancers. PMID:25553097

  5. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery: Strategies for the targeted delivery of therapeutics for osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, DP

    2014-01-01

    Background Conventional therapy for osteosarcoma has reached a plateau of 60-70%, a five-year survival rate that has changed little in two decades, highlighting the need for new approaches. Objective I wished to review the alternate means of delivering effective therapy for osteosarcoma that reach beyond the central venous catheter. Methods Drawing on my own experiences providing care to high-risk osteosarcoma patients and reviewing the last two decades of literature describing sarcoma therapy, I summarize available information about potential osteosarcoma treatments that deliver therapy by a less conventional route. Results/Conclusions Intra-arterial chemotherapy has a limited impact on survival, but may help achieve a better limb salvage. Intrapleural chemotherapy is important for managing malignant effusions. Development of inhalation therapies, treatments that target new bone formation such as bisphosphonates, chemically targeted radiation and antibody-based therapies all have potential to improve osteosarcoma therapy. PMID:19761419

  6. Systemic delivery of blood-brain barrier-targeted polymeric nanoparticles enhances delivery to brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K; Deng, Yang; Seo, Young-Eun; Cheng, Christopher J; Zhang, Junwei; Quijano, Elias; Saltzman, W Mark

    2015-01-01

    Delivery of therapeutic agents to the central nervous system is a significant challenge, hindering progress in the treatment of diseases such as glioblastoma. Due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), therapeutic agents do not readily transverse the brain endothelium to enter the parenchyma. Previous reports suggest that surface modification of polymer nanoparticles (NPs) can improve their ability to cross the BBB, but it is unclear whether the observed enhancements in transport are large enough to enhance therapy. In this study, we synthesized two degradable polymer NP systems surface-modified with ligands previously suggested to improve BBB transport, and tested their ability to cross the BBB after intravenous injection in mice. All the NP preparations were able to cross the BBB, although generally in low amounts (<0.5% of the injected dose), which was consistent with prior reports. One NP produced significantly higher brain uptake (?0.8% of the injected dose): a block copolymer of polylactic acid and hyperbranched polyglycerol, surface modified with adenosine (PLA-HPG-Ad). PLA-HPG-Ad NPs provided controlled release of camptothecin, killing U87 glioma cells in culture. When administered intravenously in mice with intracranial U87 tumors, they failed to increase survival. These results suggest that enhancing NP transport across the BBB does not necessarily yield proportional pharmacological effects. PMID:26453169

  7. Synthesis of Doxorubicin loaded magnetic chitosan nanoparticles for pH responsive targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Unsoy, Gozde; Khodadust, Rouhollah; Yalcin, Serap; Mutlu, Pelin; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2014-10-01

    Targeted drug delivery is a promising alternative to overcome the limitations of classical chemotherapy. In an ideal targeted drug delivery system carrier nanoparticles would be directed to the tumor tissue and selectively release therapeutic molecules. As a novel approach, chitosan coated magnetic nanoparticles (CS MNPs) maintain a pH dependent drug delivery which provides targeting of drugs to the tumor site under a magnetic field. Among various materials, chitosan has a great importance as a pH sensitive, natural, biodegradable, biocompatible and bioadhesive polymer. The aim of this study was to obtain an effective targeted delivery system for Doxorubicin, using chitosan coated MNPs. Different sized CS MNPs were produced by in situ synthesis method. The anti-cancer agent Doxorubicin was loaded onto CS MNPs which were characterized previously. Doxorubicin loading was confirmed by FTIR. Drug loading and release characteristics, and stability of the nanoparticles were investigated. Our results showed that the CS MNPs have pH responsive release characteristics. The cellular internalization of Doxorubicin loaded CS MNPs were visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Doxorubicin loaded CS MNPs are efficiently taken up by MCF-7 (MCF-7/S) and Doxorubicin resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/1 ?M) breast cancer cells, which increases the efficacy of drug and also maintains overcoming the resistance of Doxorubicin in MCF-7/Dox cells. Consequently, CS MNPs synthesized at various sizes can be effectively used for the pH dependent release of Doxorubicin in cancer cells. Results of this study can provide new insights in the development of pH responsive targeted drug delivery systems to overcome the side effects of conventional chemotherapy. PMID:24931189

  8. Novel free paclitaxel-loaded poly(L-?-glutamylglutamine)-paclitaxel nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Danbo; Van, Sang; Jiang, Xinguo; Yu, Lei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel formulation of paclitaxel (PTX) that would improve its therapeutic index. Here, we combined a concept of polymer-PTX drug conjugate with a concept of polymeric micelle drug delivery to form novel free PTX-loaded poly(L-?-glutamylglutamine) (PGG)-PTX conjugate nanoparticles. The significance of this drug formulation emphasizes the simplicity, novelty, and flexibility of the method of forming nanoparticles that contain free PTX and conjugated PTX in the same drug delivery system. The results of effectively inhibiting tumor growth in mouse models demonstrated the feasibility of the nanoparticle formulation. The versatility and potential of this dual PTX drug delivery system can be explored with different drugs for different indications. Novel and simple formulations of PTX-loaded PGG-PTX nanoparticles could have important implications in translational medicines. PMID:21289985

  9. Targeted in vivo delivery of siRNA and an endosome-releasing agent to hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sebestyn, Magdolna G; Wong, So C; Trubetskoy, Vladimir; Lewis, David L; Wooddell, Christine I

    2015-01-01

    The discoveries of RNA interference (RNAi) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have provided the opportunity to treat diseases in a fundamentally new way: by co-opting a natural process to inhibit gene expression at the mRNA level. Given that siRNAs must interact with the cells' natural RNAi machinery in order to exert their silencing effect, one of the most fundamental requirements for their use is efficient delivery to the desired cell type and, specifically, into the cytoplasm of those cells. Numerous research efforts involving the testing of a large number of delivery approaches using various carrier molecules and inventing several distinct formulation technologies during the past decade illustrate the difficulty and complexity of this task. We have developed synthetic polymer formulations for in vivo siRNA delivery named Dynamic PolyConjugates (DPCs) that are designed to mimic the features viruses possess for efficient delivery of their nucleic acids. These include small size, long half-life in circulation, capability of displaying distinct host cell tropism, efficient receptor binding and cell entry, disassembly in the endosome and subsequent release of the nucleic acid cargo to the cytoplasm. Here we present an example of this delivery platform composed of a hepatocyte-targeted endosome-releasing agent and a cholesterol-conjugated siRNA (chol-siRNA). This delivery platform forms the basis of ARC-520, an siRNA-based therapeutic for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In this chapter, we provide a general overview of the steps in developing ARC-520 and detailed protocols for two critical stages of the discovery process: (1) verifying targeted in vivo delivery to hepatocytes and (2) evaluating in vivo drug efficacy using a mouse model of chronic HBV infection. PMID:25319651

  10. Targeted Delivery of Proteasome Inhibitors to Somatostatin-Receptor-Expressing Cancer Cells by Octreotide Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Beck, Philipp; Cui, Haissi; Hegemann, Julian D; Marahiel, Mohammed A; Krger, Achim; Groll, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Clinical application of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) is so far limited to peripheral blood cancers due to the pronounced cytotoxicity towards all cell types. Targeted delivery of PIs could permit the treatment of other cancers along with decreasing side effects. Herein we describe the first small-molecule proteasome inhibitor conjugate for targeted delivery, created by fusing PIs to a synthetic ligand of somatostatin receptors, which are highly expressed in a variety of tumors. X-ray crystallographic studies and in vitro IC50 measurements demonstrated that addition of the cyclopeptide octreotide as a targeting vehicle does not affect the PI's binding mode. The cytotoxicity of the conjugate against somatostatin-receptor-expressing cells was up to 11-fold higher than that of a non-targeting surrogate. We have therefore established PIs as a new payload for drug conjugates and have shown that targeted delivery thereof could be a promising approach for the broader application of this FDA-approved class of compounds. PMID:26471124

  11. Targeted delivery of CCR2 antagonist to activated pulmonary endothelium prevents metastasis.

    PubMed

    Roblek, Marko; Calin, Manuela; Schlesinger, Martin; Stan, Daniela; Zeisig, Reiner; Simionescu, Maya; Bendas, Gerd; Borsig, Lubor

    2015-12-28

    Enhanced levels of the inflammatory chemokine CCL2 are known to correlate with increased tumorigenesis and metastases, and thereby poor prognosis for cancer patients. The CCL2-CCR2 chemokine axis was shown to facilitate the metastatic initiation through the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and the activation of endothelial cells at metastatic sites. Both steps are required for efficient cancer cell trans-endothelial migration and seeding in the targeted tissue. The translation of preclinical evidence proved to be challenging due to systemic effects of chemokine inhibition and limited target specificity. Here we tested an approach of a targeted delivery of the CCR2 antagonist Teijin Compound 1 to metastatic sites. VCAM-1 binding peptide tagged liposomes carrying the CCR2 antagonist enabled a specific delivery to cancer cell-activated endothelium. The subsequent binding of target-sensitive liposomes triggered the release of the Teijin Compound 1 and thereby local inhibition of CCR2 in the lungs. Blocking of CCR2 resulted in reduced induction of the lungs vascular permeability, and thereby reduced tumor cell extravasation. However, the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes to the pre-metastatic lungs remained unaltered. Endothelial VCAM-1 targeted delivery of the CCR2 antagonist resulted in inhibition of pulmonary metastases both in a murine (MC-38GFP cells) and a human xenograft (patient-derived cells) model. Thus, timely- and spatially-defined inhibition of CCR2 signaling represents a potential therapeutic approach for treatment of metastasis without affecting homeostatic functions. PMID:26522070

  12. The implications of recent advances in carboxymethyl chitosan based targeted drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Laxmi; Singh, Jay; Agarwal, Vishnu; Tewari, Ravi Prakash

    2014-07-28

    Over the last decade carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) has emerged as a promising biopolymer for the development of new drug delivery systems and improved scaffolds along with other tissue engineering devices for regenerative medicine that is currently one of the most rapidly growing fields in the life sciences. CMCS is amphiprotic ether, derived from chitosan, exhibiting enhanced aqueous solubility, excellent biocompatibility, controllable biodegradability, osteogenesis ability and numerous other outstanding physicochemical and biological properties. More strikingly, it can load hydrophobic drugs and displays strong bioactivity which highlight its suitability and extensive usage for preparing different drug delivery and tissue engineering formulations respectively. This review provides a comprehensive introduction to various types of CMCS based formulations for delivery of therapeutic agents and tissue regeneration and further describes their preparation procedures and applications in different tissues/organs. Detailed information of CMCS based nano/micro systems for targeted delivery of drugs with emphasis on cancer specific and organ specific drug delivery have been described. Further, we have discussed various CMCS based tissue engineering biomaterials along with their preparation procedures and applications in different tissues/organs. The article then, gives a brief account of therapy combining drug delivery and tissue engineering. Finally, identification of major challenges and opportunities for current and ongoing application of CMCS based systems in the field are summarised. PMID:24806482

  13. Recent advances in lymphatic targeted drug delivery system for tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Lu, Wei-Yue

    2014-01-01

    The lymphatic system has an important defensive role in the human body. The metastasis of most tumors initially spreads through the surrounding lymphatic tissue and eventually forms lymphatic metastatic tumors; the tumor cells may even transfer to other organs to form other types of tumors. Clinically, lymphatic metastatic tumors develop rapidly. Given the limitations of surgical resection and the low effectiveness of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the treatment of lymphatic metastatic tumors remains a great challenge. Lymph node metastasis may lead to the further spread of tumors and may be predictive of the endpoint event. Under these circumstances, novel and effective lymphatic targeted drug delivery systems have been explored to improve the specificity of anticancer drugs to tumor cells in lymph nodes. In this review, we summarize the principles of lymphatic targeted drug delivery and discuss recent advances in the development of lymphatic targeted carriers. PMID:25610710

  14. DNA and aptamer stabilized gold nanoparticles for targeted delivery of anticancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Alfonso; Posch, Christian; Garcimartn, Yolanda; Celli, Anna; Sanlorenzo, Martina; Vujic, Igor; Ma, Jeffrey; Zekhtser, Mitchell; Rappersberger, Klemens; Ortiz-Urda, Susana; Somoza, lvaro

    2014-07-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can be used as carriers of a variety of therapeutics. Ideally, drugs are released in the target cells in response to cell specific intracellular triggers. In this study, GNPs are loaded with doxorubicin or AZD8055, using a self-immolative linker which facilitates the release of anticancer therapeutics in malignant cells without modifications of the active compound. An additional modification with the aptamer AS1411 further increases the selectivity of GNPs towards cancer cells. Both modifications increase targeted delivery of therapeutics with GNPs. Whereas GNPs without anticancer drugs do not affect cell viability in all cells tested, AS1411 modified GNPs loaded with doxorubicin or AZD8055 show significant and increased reduction of cell viability in breast cancer and uveal melanoma cell lines. These results highlight that modified GNPs can be functionalized to increase the efficacy of cancer therapeutics and may further reduce toxicity by increasing targeted delivery towards malignant cells. PMID:24882040

  15. Influence of Red Blood Cells on Nanoparticle Targeted Delivery in Microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jifu; Thomas, Antony; Liu, Yaling

    2011-12-22

    Multifunctional nanomedicine holds considerable promise as the next generation of medicine that allows for targeted therapy with minimal toxicity. Most current studies on Nanoparticle (NP) drug delivery consider a Newtonian fluid with suspending NPs. However, blood is a complex biological fluid composed of deformable cells, proteins, platelets, and plasma. For blood flow in capillaries, arterioles and venules, the particulate nature of the blood needs to be considered in the delivery process. The existence of the cell-free-layer and NP-cell interaction will largely influence both the dispersion and binding rates, thus impact targeted delivery efficacy. In this paper, a particle-cell hybrid model is developed to model NP transport, dispersion, and binding dynamics in blood suspension. The motion and deformation of red blood cells is captured through the Immersed Finite Element Method. The motion and adhesion of individual NPs are tracked through Brownian adhesion dynamics. A mapping algorithm and an interaction potential function are introduced to consider the cell-particle collision. NP dispersion and binding rates are derived from the developed model under various rheology conditions. The influence of red blood cells, vascular flow rate, and particle size on NP distribution and delivery efficacy is characterized. A non-uniform NP distribution profile with higher particle concentration near the vessel wall is observed. Such distribution leads to over 50% higher particle binding rate compared to the case without RBC considered. The tumbling motion of RBCs in the core region of the capillary is found to enhance NP dispersion, with dispersion rate increases as shear rate increases. Results from this study contribute to the fundamental understanding and knowledge on how the particulate nature of blood influences NP delivery, which will provide mechanistic insights on the nanomedicine design for targeted drug delivery applications. PMID:22375153

  16. Colon-targeted oral drug delivery systems: design trends and approaches.

    PubMed

    Amidon, Seth; Brown, Jack E; Dave, Vivek S

    2015-08-01

    Colon-specific drug delivery systems (CDDS) are desirable for the treatment of a range of local diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pancreatitis, and colonic cancer. In addition, the colon can be a potential site for the systemic absorption of several drugs to treat non-colonic conditions. Drugs such as proteins and peptides that are known to degrade in the extreme gastric pH, if delivered to the colon intact, can be systemically absorbed by colonic mucosa. In order to achieve effective therapeutic outcomes, it is imperative that the designed delivery system specifically targets the drugs into the colon. Several formulation approaches have been explored in the development colon-targeted drug delivery systems. These approaches involve the use of formulation components that interact with one or more aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, such as the difference in the pH along the GI tract, the presence of colonic microflora, and enzymes, to achieve colon targeting. This article highlights the factors influencing colon-specific drug delivery and colonic bioavailability, and the limitations associated with CDDS. Further, the review provides a systematic discussion of various conventional, as well as relatively newer formulation approaches/technologies currently being utilized for the development of CDDS. PMID:26070545

  17. Feasibility of noninvasive ultrasound delivery for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; McDannold, Nathan; Clement, Greg; White, Jason; Treat, Lisa; Yin, Xiangtao; Jolesz, Ferenc; Sheikov, Nickolai; Vykhodtseva, Natalia

    2005-04-01

    The objective of our research during the past few years has been to develop multichannel ultrasound phased arrays for noninvasive brain interventions. We have been successful in developing methods for correcting the skull induced beam distortions and thus, are able to produce sharp focusing through human skulls. This method is now being tested for thermal ablation of tumors, with results from animal studies demonstrating feasibility. In addition, the ability of ultrasound to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) locally has been explored in animal models. The results suggest that the transcranial ultrasound exposures can induce BBB opening such that therapeutic agents can be localized in the brain. This tool is especially powerful since the beam can be guided by MR images, thus providing anatomical or functional targeting. This talk will review our current status in this research, which ultimately aims for the clinical use of this methodology.

  18. Reiterated Targeting Peptides on the Nanoparticle Surface Significantly Promote Targeted Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Delivery to Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Dong; Yang, Mingying; Zhu, Ye; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-12-14

    Nonviral gene delivery vectors hold great promise for gene therapy due to the safety concerns with viral vectors. However, the application of nonviral vectors is hindered by their low transfection efficiency. Herein, in order to tackle this challenge, we developed a nonviral vector integrating lipids, sleeping beauty transposon system and 8-mer stem cell targeting peptides for safe and efficient gene delivery to hard-to-transfect mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The 8-mer MSC-targeting peptides, when synthetically reiterated in three folds and chemically presented on the surface, significantly promoted the resultant lipid-based nanoparticles (LBNs) to deliver VEGF gene into MSCs with a high transfection efficiency (?52%) and long-lasting gene expression (for longer than 170 h) when compared to nonreiterated peptides. However, the reiterated stem cell targeting peptides do not enable the highly efficient gene transfer to other control cells. This work suggests that the surface presentation of the reiterated stem cell-targeting peptides on the nonviral vectors is a promising method for improving the efficiency of cell-specific nonviral gene transfection in stem cells. PMID:26588028

  19. New Tools for the Quantitative Assessment of Prodrug Delivery and Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    VanSaun, Michael N.; Fan, Kang-Hsien; Dozier, E. Ashley; Carter, Kathy J.; Koyama, Tatsuki; Shyr, Yu; Aschner, Michael; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Bornhop, Darryl J.; Matrisian, Lynn M.; McIntyre, J. Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Systemic off-target toxicities, including neurotoxicity, are prevalent side effects in cancer patients treated with a number of otherwise highly efficacious anticancer drugs. In the current study, we have: 1) developed a new analytical metric for the in vivo preclinical assessment of systemic toxicities/neurotoxicity of new drugs and delivery systems; and 2) evaluated, in mice, the in vivo efficacy and toxicity of a versatile and modular NanoDendron (ND) drug delivery and imaging platform that we recently developed. Our paclitaxel-carrying ND prodrug, NDPXL, is activated following proteolytic cleavage by MMP9, resulting in localized cytotoxic chemotherapy. Using click chemistry, we combined NDPXL with a traceable beacon, NDPB, yielding NDPXL-NDPB that functions as a theranostic compound. In vivo fluorescence FRET imaging of this theranostic platform was used to confirm localized delivery to tumors and to assess the efficiency of drug delivery to tumors, achieving 25-30% activation in the tumors of an immunocompetent mouse model of breast cancer. In this model, ND-drug exhibited anti-tumor efficacy comparable to nab-paclitaxel, a clinical formulation. In addition, we combined neurobehavioral metrics of nociception and sensorimotor performance of individual mice to develop a novel composite toxicity score that reveals and quantifies peripheral neurotoxicity, a debilitating long-term systemic toxicity of paclitaxel therapy. Importantly, mice treated with nab-paclitaxel developed changes in behavioral metrics with significantly higher toxicity scores indicative of peripheral neuropathy, while mice treated with NDPXL showed no significant changes in behavioral responses or toxicity score. Our ND formulation was designed to be readily adaptable to incorporate different drugs, imaging modalities and/or targeting motifs. This formulation has significant potential for preclinical and clinical tools across multiple disease states. The studies presented here report a novel toxicity score for assessing peripheral neuropathy and demonstrate that our targeted, theranostic NDs are safe and effective, providing localized tumor delivery of a chemotherapeutic and with reduced common neurotoxic side-effects. PMID:25732874

  20. DNA and aptamer stabilized gold nanoparticles for targeted delivery of anticancer therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Alfonso; Posch, Christian; Garcimartn, Yolanda; Celli, Anna; Sanlorenzo, Martina; Vujic, Igor; Ma, Jeffrey; Zekhtser, Mitchell; Rappersberger, Klemens; Ortiz-Urda, Susana; Somoza, lvaro

    2014-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can be used as carriers of a variety of therapeutics. Ideally, drugs are released in the target cells in response to cell specific intracellular triggers. In this study, GNPs are loaded with doxorubicin or AZD8055, using a self-immolative linker which facilitates the release of anticancer therapeutics in malignant cells without modifications of the active compound. An additional modification with the aptamer AS1411 further increases the selectivity of GNPs towards cancer cells. Both modifications increase targeted delivery of therapeutics with GNPs. Whereas GNPs without anticancer drugs do not affect cell viability in all cells tested, AS1411 modified GNPs loaded with doxorubicin or AZD8055 show significant and increased reduction of cell viability in breast cancer and uveal melanoma cell lines. These results highlight that modified GNPs can be functionalized to increase the efficacy of cancer therapeutics and may further reduce toxicity by increasing targeted delivery towards malignant cells.Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can be used as carriers of a variety of therapeutics. Ideally, drugs are released in the target cells in response to cell specific intracellular triggers. In this study, GNPs are loaded with doxorubicin or AZD8055, using a self-immolative linker which facilitates the release of anticancer therapeutics in malignant cells without modifications of the active compound. An additional modification with the aptamer AS1411 further increases the selectivity of GNPs towards cancer cells. Both modifications increase targeted delivery of therapeutics with GNPs. Whereas GNPs without anticancer drugs do not affect cell viability in all cells tested, AS1411 modified GNPs loaded with doxorubicin or AZD8055 show significant and increased reduction of cell viability in breast cancer and uveal melanoma cell lines. These results highlight that modified GNPs can be functionalized to increase the efficacy of cancer therapeutics and may further reduce toxicity by increasing targeted delivery towards malignant cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00019f

  1. Phage display: development of nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery to the brain.

    PubMed

    Bakhshinejad, Babak; Karimi, Marzieh; Khalaj-Kondori, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    The blood brain barrier represents a formidable obstacle for the transport of most systematically administered neurodiagnostics and neurotherapeutics to the brain. Phage display is a high throughput screening strategy that can be used for the construction of nanomaterial peptide libraries. These libraries can be screened for finding brain targeting peptide ligands. Surface functionalization of a variety of nanocarriers with these brain homing peptides is a sophisticated way to develop nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery platforms that are able to cross the blood brain barrier. These efficient drug delivery systems raise our hopes for the diagnosis and treatment of various brain disorders in the future. PMID:26199590

  2. Phage display: development of nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery to the brain

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshinejad, Babak; Karimi, Marzieh; Khalaj-Kondori, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The blood brain barrier represents a formidable obstacle for the transport of most systematically administered neurodiagnostics and neurotherapeutics to the brain. Phage display is a high throughput screening strategy that can be used for the construction of nanomaterial peptide libraries. These libraries can be screened for finding brain targeting peptide ligands. Surface functionalization of a variety of nanocarriers with these brain homing peptides is a sophisticated way to develop nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery platforms that are able to cross the blood brain barrier. These efficient drug delivery systems raise our hopes for the diagnosis and treatment of various brain disorders in the future. PMID:26199590

  3. Nanoparticles for targeted delivery of therapeutics and small interfering RNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Farzan, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 5th most common malignancy which is responsible for more than half million annual mortalities; also, it is the third leading cause of cancer related death. Unfavorable systemic side-effects of chemotherapeutic agents and susceptibility to the degradation of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which can knock down a specific gene involved in the disease, have hampered their clinical application. So, it could be beneficial to develop an efficient carrier for the stabilization and specific delivery of drugs and siRNA to cells. Targeted nanoparticles have gained considerable attention as an efficient drug and gene delivery system, which is due to their capability in achieving the highest accumulation of cytotoxic agents in tumor tissue, modifiable drug pharmacokinetic- and bio-distribution, improved effectiveness of treatment, and limited side-effects. Recent studies have shed more light on the advantages of novel drug loaded carrier systems vs free drugs. Most of the animal studies have reported improvement in treatment efficacy and survival rate using novel carrier systems. Targeted delivery may be achieved passively or actively. In passive targeting, no ligand as homing device is used, while targeting is achieved by incorporating the therapeutic agent into a macromolecule or nanoparticle that passively reaches the target organ. However, in active targeting, the therapeutic agent or carrier system is conjugated to a tissue or cell-specific receptor which is over-expressed in a special malignancy using a ligand called a homing device. This review covers a broad spectrum of targeted nanoparticles as therapeutic and non-viral siRNA delivery systems, which are developed for enhanced cellular uptake and targeted gene silencing in vitro and in vivo and their characteristics and opportunities for the clinical applications of drugs and therapeutic siRNA are discussed in this article. Asialoglycoprotein receptors, low-density lipoprotein, ganglioside GM1 cell surface ligand, epidermal growth factor receptor receptors, monoclonal antibodies, retinoic acid receptors, integrin receptors targeted by Arg-Gly-Asp peptide, folate, and transferrin receptors are the most widely studied cell surface receptors which are used for the site specific delivery of drugs and siRNA-based therapeutics in HCC and discussed in detail in this article. PMID:26576089

  4. Nanoparticles-mediated drug delivery approaches for cancer targeting: a review.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Shaheen; Khan, Mohd Rashid; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Sokindra; Ali, Mohammed

    2013-02-01

    Cancer has become the leading cause of death among different populations of the world. The treatment is limited to chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. Selective targeting to the tumor cells is possible by nanoparticles-based drug delivery system. It maximizes the drug concentration at the desired target and protects the surrounding healthy tissues at the same time. To improve the targeting potential of the anticancer drugs, nanoparticles were optimized for the size and surface characteristics to enhance their circulation time and targeting efficiency. Passive targeting involves surface modification with polyethylene glycol to avoid its elimination by natural body defense mechanism. Active targeting involves chemical interaction with certain antigen, receptors, and genes which are over expressed during progression of disease. In addition, the article highlights recent developments in "smart"-stimulus-responsive-drug carriers designed to enhance the localization and efficacy of therapeutic payloads as compared with free drug. Enhanced targeting potential, imaging, and controlled release of drugs or therapeutic molecules could be possible through multi-functional nanocarrier. Such multi-faceted, versatile nanocarriers and drug delivery systems promise a substantial increase in the efficacy of diagnostic and therapeutic applications in pharmaceutical sciences. PMID:22873288

  5. Molecular design and nanoparticle-mediated intracellular delivery of functional proteins to target cellular pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Dhiral Ashwin

    Intracellular delivery of specific proteins and peptides represents a novel method to influence stem cells for gain-of-function and loss-of-function. Signaling control is vital in stem cells, wherein intricate control of and interplay among critical pathways directs the fate of these cells into either self-renewal or differentiation. The most common route to manipulate cellular function involves the introduction of genetic material such as full-length genes and shRNA into the cell to generate (or prevent formation of) the target protein, and thereby ultimately alter cell function. However, viral-mediated gene delivery may result in relatively slow expression of proteins and prevalence of oncogene insertion into the cell, which can alter cell function in an unpredictable fashion, and non-viral delivery may lead to low efficiency of genetic delivery. For example, the latter case plagues the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and hinders their use for in vivo applications. Alternatively, introducing proteins into cells that specifically recognize and influence target proteins, can result in immediate deactivation or activation of key signaling pathways within the cell. In this work, we demonstrate the cellular delivery of functional proteins attached to hydrophobically modified silica (SiNP) nanoparticles to manipulate specifically targeted cell signaling proteins. In the Wnt signaling pathway, we have targeted the phosphorylation activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) by designing a chimeric protein and delivering it in neural stem cells. Confocal imaging indicates that the SiNP-chimeric protein conjugates were efficiently delivered to the cytosol of human embryonic kidney cells and rat neural stem cells, presumably via endocytosis. This uptake impacted the Wnt signaling cascade, indicated by the elevation of beta-catenin levels, and increased transcription of Wnt target genes, such as c-MYC. The results presented here suggest that functional proteins can be delivered intracellularly in vitro using nanoparticles and used to target key signaling proteins and regulate cell signaling pathways. The same concept of naturally occurring protein-protein interactions can also be implemented to selectively bring intracellular protein targets in close proximity to proteasomal degradation machinery in cells and effect their depletion from the cellular compartments. This approach will be able to not only target entire pool of proteins to ubiquitination-mediated degradation, but also to specific sub-pools of posttranslationally modified proteins in the cell, provided peptides having distinct binding affinities are identified for posttranslational modifications. This system can then be tested for intracellular protein delivery using nanoparticle carriers to identify roles of different posttranslational modifications on the protein's activity. In future work, we propose to develop a cellular detection system, based on GFP complementation, which can be used to evaluate the efficiency of different protein delivery carriers to internalize proteins into the cell cytosol. We envision the application of nanoscale materials as intracellular protein delivery vehicles to target diverse cell signaling pathways at the posttranslational level, and subsequent metabolic manipulation, which may have interesting therapeutic properties and can potentially target stem cell fate.

  6. Is a reduction in radiation lung volume and dose necessary with paclitaxel chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Taghian, Alphonse G. . E-mail: ataghian@partners.org; Assaad, Sherif I.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Floyd, Scott R.; Powell, Simon N.

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and quantify the effect of irradiated lung volume, radiation dose, and paclitaxel chemotherapy on the development of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in breast cancer patients with positive lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: We previously reported the incidence of RP among 41 patients with breast cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT) and adjuvant paclitaxel-containing chemotherapy. We recorded the central lung distance, a measure of the extent of lung included in the RT volume, in these patients. We used this measure and the historical and observed rates of RP in our series to model the lung tolerance to RT in patients receiving chemotherapy (CHT) both with and without paclitaxel. To evaluate the risk factors for the development of RP, we performed a case-control study comparing paclitaxel-treated patients who developed RP with those who did not, and a second case-control study comparing patients receiving paclitaxel in addition to standard CHT/RT (n = 41) and controls receiving standard CHT/RT alone (n 192). Results: The actuarial rate of RP in the paclitaxel-treated group was 15.4% compared with 0.9% among breast cancer patients treated with RT and non-paclitaxel-containing CHT. Our mathematical model found that the effective lung tolerance for patients treated with paclitaxel was reduced by approximately 24%. No statistically significant difference was found with regard to the dose delivered to specific radiation fields, dose per fraction, central lung distance, or percentage of lung irradiated in the case-control study of paclitaxel-treated patients who developed RP compared with those who did not. In the comparison of 41 patients receiving RT and CHT with paclitaxel and 192 matched controls receiving RT and CHT without paclitaxel, the only significant differences identified were the more frequent use of a supraclavicular radiation field and a decrease in the RT lung dose among the paclitaxel-treated patients. This finding indicates that the major factor associated with development of RP was paclitaxel treatment. Conclusions: The use of paclitaxel chemotherapy and RT in the primary treatment of node-positive breast cancer is likely to increase the incidence of RP. In patients treated with paclitaxel, reducing the percentage of lung irradiated by 24% should reduce the risk of RP to 1%, according to our calculations of lung tolerance. Future clinical trials using combination CHT that includes paclitaxel and RT should carefully evaluate the incidence and severity of RP and should also accurately monitor the extent of lung included within the RT volume to develop safe guidelines for the delivery of what is becoming standard therapy for node-positive breast cancer.

  7. Fabrication of poly hydroxybutyrate-polyethylene glycol-folic acid nanoparticles loaded by Paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Rafienia, Mohammad; Keshvari, Hamid; Sattary, Mansooreh; Naeimi, Mitra; Keyvani, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In this study drug (paclitaxel)-loaded nanoparticles of poly hydroxybutyrate-polyethylene glycol-folic acid (PHB-PEG-FOL) were prepared by using an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The functionalization and conjugation steps in the chemical synthesis were confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance tests ((1)H NMR). Morphology of nanoparticles was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nanoparticles were characterized by particle size analyzer. Between two samples containing drug, the lower doses showed more homogeneous distribution, and the lowest aggregation. The drug release profiles showed a two-phase release including initial rapid release and a continuous release. MG63 cells were used to evaluate cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of PHB-PEG-FOL nanoparticles with drug against cancer cells was much higher and longer than free drug sample. These nanoparticles were successfully synthesized as a novel system for targeted drug delivery against cancer cells. PMID:26234551

  8. Targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy: the other side of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Firer, Michael A; Gellerman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibody (TMA) based therapies for cancer have advanced significantly over the past two decades both in their molecular sophistication and clinical efficacy. Initial development efforts focused mainly on humanizing the antibody protein to overcome problems of immunogenicity and on expanding of the target antigen repertoire. In parallel to naked TMAs, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have been developed for targeted delivery of potent anti-cancer drugs with the aim of bypassing the morbidity common to conventional chemotherapy. This paper first presents a review of TMAs and ADCs approved for clinical use by the FDA and those in development, focusing on hematological malignancies. Despite advances in these areas, both TMAs and ADCs still carry limitations and we highlight the more important ones including cancer cell specificity, conjugation chemistry, tumor penetration, product heterogeneity and manufacturing issues. In view of the recognized importance of targeted drug delivery strategies for cancer therapy, we discuss the advantages of alternative drug carriers and where these should be applied, focusing on peptide-drug conjugates (PDCs), particularly those discovered through combinatorial peptide libraries. By defining the advantages and disadvantages of naked TMAs, ADCs and PDCs it should be possible to develop a more rational approach to the application of targeted drug delivery strategies in different situations and ultimately, to a broader basket of more effective therapies for cancer patients. PMID:23140144

  9. Construction of targeting-clickable and tumor-cleavable polyurethane nanomicelles for multifunctional intracellular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Song, Nijia; Ding, Mingming; Pan, Zhicheng; Li, Jiehua; Zhou, Lijuan; Tan, Hong; Fu, Qiang

    2013-12-01

    New strategies for the construction of versatile nanovehicles to overcome the multiple challenges of targeted delivery are urgently needed for cancer therapy. To address these needs, we developed a novel targeting-clickable and tumor-cleavable polyurethane nanomicelle for multifunctional delivery of antitumor drugs. The polyurethane was synthesized from biodegradable poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) and L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (LDI), further extended by a new designed L-cystine-derivatized chain extender bearing a redox-responsive disulfide bond and clickable alkynyl groups (Cys-PA), and finally terminated by a detachable methoxyl-poly(ethylene glycol) with a highly pH-sensitive benzoic-imine linkage (BPEG). The obtained polymers show attractive self-assembly characteristics and stimuli-responsiveness, good cytocompatibility, and high loading capacity for doxorubicin (DOX). Furthermore, folic acid (FA) as a model targeting ligand was conjugated to the polyurethane micelles via an efficient click reaction. The decoration of FA results in an enhanced cellular uptake and improved drug efficacy toward FA-receptor positive HeLa cancer cells in vitro. As a proof-of-concept, this work provides a facile approach to the design of extracellularly activatable nanocarriers for tumor-targeted and programmed intracellular drug delivery. PMID:24219322

  10. Targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy: the other side of antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibody (TMA) based therapies for cancer have advanced significantly over the past two decades both in their molecular sophistication and clinical efficacy. Initial development efforts focused mainly on humanizing the antibody protein to overcome problems of immunogenicity and on expanding of the target antigen repertoire. In parallel to naked TMAs, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have been developed for targeted delivery of potent anti-cancer drugs with the aim of bypassing the morbidity common to conventional chemotherapy. This paper first presents a review of TMAs and ADCs approved for clinical use by the FDA and those in development, focusing on hematological malignancies. Despite advances in these areas, both TMAs and ADCs still carry limitations and we highlight the more important ones including cancer cell specificity, conjugation chemistry, tumor penetration, product heterogeneity and manufacturing issues. In view of the recognized importance of targeted drug delivery strategies for cancer therapy, we discuss the advantages of alternative drug carriers and where these should be applied, focusing on peptide-drug conjugates (PDCs), particularly those discovered through combinatorial peptide libraries. By defining the advantages and disadvantages of naked TMAs, ADCs and PDCs it should be possible to develop a more rational approach to the application of targeted drug delivery strategies in different situations and ultimately, to a broader basket of more effective therapies for cancer patients. PMID:23140144

  11. Cell-mediated Delivery and Targeted Erosion of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Crosslinked Hydrogelsa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hye; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported a novel polymeric delivery vehicle that is assembled via interaction between heparin and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Here, the cell-responsiveness of this hydrogel including the delivery of VEGF in response to VEGFR-2 overexpressing PAE/KDR cells (porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAE) equipped with the transcript for the kinase insert domain receptor (KDR)), consequent erosion of the hydrogel matrix, and cellular response are highlighted. The release of VEGF and hydrogel erosion reached 100% only in the presence of PAE/KDR. The [PEG-LMWH/VEGF] hydrogel (PEG = poly(ethylene glycol), LMWH = low molecular weight heparin) correspondingly prompted increases in VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and proliferation of PAE/KDR cells. This study proves that growth factor-crosslinked hydrogels can liberate VEGF in response to specific receptors, causing gel erosion and desired cell responses. The promise of these approaches in therapeutic applications, including targeted delivery, is suggested. PMID:21567519

  12. Radiofrequency-triggered tumor-targeting delivery system for theranostics application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Panpan; Shi, Jinjin; Hao, Yongwei; Meng, Dehui; Zhao, Yalin; Yanyan, Yin; Li, Dong; Chang, Junbiao; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2015-03-18

    In this study, a new type of magnetic tumor-targeting PEGylated gold nanoshell drug delivery system (DOX-TSMLs-AuNSs-PEG) based on doxorubicin-loaded thermosensitive magnetoliposomes was successfully obtained. The reverse-phase evaporation method was used to construct the magnetoliposomes, and then gold nanoshells were coated on the surface of it. The DOX-TSMLs-AuNSs-PEG delivery system was synthesized after SH-PEG2000 modification. This multifunction system was combined with a variety of functions, such as radiofrequency-triggered release, chemo-hyperthermia therapy, and dual-mode magnetic resonance/X-ray imaging. Importantly, the DOX-TSMLs-AuNSs-PEG complex was found to escape from endosomes after cellular uptake by radiofrequency-induced endosome disruption before lysosomal degradation. All results in vitro and in vivo indicated that DOX-TSMLs-AuNSs-PEG is a promising effective drug delivery system for diagnosis and treatment of tumors. PMID:25706857

  13. Liver-Targeted SiRNA Delivery Using Biodegradable Poly(amide) Polymer Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Stephanie E; Guidry, Erin N

    2016-01-01

    The realization of polymer conjugate-based RNA delivery as a clinical modality requires the development and optimization of novel formulations. Although many literature examples of polymer conjugate-based SiRNA delivery systems exist, the protocols described herein represent a robust and facile way of screening any poly(amine)-based polymer system for SiRNA delivery. In this chapter, we describe the synthetic methods used to prepare poly(amide) polymers using a controlled polymerization method, as well as the preparation of the resulting targeted SiRNA polymer conjugates. In addition, detailed methods are provided for the characterization of the biodegradable poly(peptides) as well as the polymer conjugate that ensues. PMID:26472438

  14. Smart Cancer Cell Targeting Imaging and Drug Delivery System by Systematically Engineering Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Nan; Tian, Ying; Tian, Wei; Huang, Peng; Liu, Ying; Tang, Yuxia; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Shouju; Su, Yunyan; Zhang, Yunlei; Pan, Jing; Teng, Zhaogang; Lu, Guangming

    2016-02-10

    The integration of diagnosis and therapy into one nanoplatform, known as theranostics, has attracted increasing attention in the biomedical areas. Herein, we first present a cancer cell targeting imaging and drug delivery system based on engineered thioether-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (PMOs). The PMOs are stably and selectively conjugated with near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dye Cyanine 5.5 (Cy5.5) and anti-Her2 affibody on the outer surfaces to endow them with excellent NIRF imaging and cancer targeting properties. Also, taking the advantage of the thioether-group-incorporated mesopores, the release of chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) loaded in the PMOs is responsive to the tumor-related molecule glutathione (GSH). The drug release percentage reaches 84.8% in 10 mM of GSH solution within 24 h, which is more than 2-fold higher than that without GSH. In addition, the drug release also exhibits pH-responsive, which reaches 53.6% at pH 5 and 31.7% at pH 7.4 within 24 h. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry analysis demonstrate that the PMOs-based theranostic platforms can efficiently target to and enter Her2 positive tumor cells. Thus, the smart imaging and drug delivery nanoplatforms induce high tumor cell growth inhibition. Meanwhile, the Cy5.5 conjugated PMOs perform great NIRF imaging ability, which could monitor the intracellular distribution, delivery and release of the chemotherapy drug. In addition, cell viability and histological assessments show the engineered PMOs have good biocompatibility, further encouraging the following biomedical applications. Over all, the systemically engineered PMOs can serve as a novel cancer cell targeting imaging and drug delivery platform with NIRF imaging, GSH and pH dual-responsive drug release, and high tumor cell targeting ability. PMID:26767305

  15. Targeted drug delivery into reversibly injured myocardium with silica nanoparticles: surface functionalization, natural biodistribution, and acute toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Galagudza, Michael M; Korolev, Dmitry V; Sonin, Dmitry L; Postnov, Viktor N; Papayan, Garry V; Uskov, Ivan S; Belozertseva, Anastasia V; Shlyakhto, Eugene V

    2010-01-01

    The clinical outcome of patients with ischemic heart disease can be significantly improved with the implementation of targeted drug delivery into the ischemic myocardium. In this paper, we present our original findings relevant to the problem of therapeutic heart targeting with use of nanoparticles. Experimental approaches included fabrication of carbon and silica nanoparticles, their characterization and surface modification. The acute hemodynamic effects of nanoparticle formulation as well as nanoparticle biodistribution were studied in male Wistar rats. Carbon and silica nanoparticles are nontoxic materials that can be used as carriers for heart-targeted drug delivery. Concepts of passive and active targeting can be applied to the development of targeted drug delivery to the ischemic myocardial cells. Provided that ischemic heart-targeted drug delivery can be proved to be safe and efficient, the results of this research may contribute to the development of new technologies in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20463939

  16. In vitro Assay for Screening of Optimal Targets for Antigen-Delivery to Murine Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Pugholm, L H; Varming, K; Agger, R

    2015-12-01

    Targeting of antigen to dendritic cells (DCs) increase the efficiency of immunization procedures and may facilitate the development of more effective vaccines. Several surface molecules on DCs have shown to be useful for antigen targeting, but many more deserves investigation for their efficacy in this respect. With this end in mind, a simple invitro assay for screening of optimal targets for antigen-delivery to murine DCs was established. Splenocytes from mice immunized with rat IgG were targeted invitro with a panel of different rat monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against surface markers on murine DCs. The resulting T-cell activation was analysed by determining the number of IFN-? and IL-4 secreting cells by ELISPOT. A positive effect of targeting was evident with several of the mAbs. Thus, mAbs against CD11c, CD36, CD205 and Clec7A all induced IFN-? responses that were significantly higher than those induced by non-targeting control mAbs. Anti-CD36 also induced IL-4 responses that were significantly higher than the control. The assay described here allows simultaneous analysis of a large number of potential target structures and facilitates direct comparison between the different targets regarding the strength of the T-cell responses induced by the targeted DCs. The assay could be useful as a first-line screening of potential target structures on murine DCs. PMID:26331836

  17. Targeted magnetic delivery and tracking of cells using a magnetic resonance imaging system.

    PubMed

    Riegler, Johannes; Wells, Jack A; Kyrtatos, Panagiotis G; Price, Anthony N; Pankhurst, Quentin A; Lythgoe, Mark F

    2010-07-01

    The success of cell therapies depends on the ability to deliver the cells to the site of injury. Targeted magnetic cell delivery is an emergent technique for localised cell transplantation therapy. The use of permanent magnets limits such a treatment to organs close to the body surface or an implanted magnetic source. A possible alternative method for magnetic cell delivery is magnetic resonance targeting (MRT), which uses magnetic field gradients inherent to all magnetic resonance imaging system, to steer ferromagnetic particles to their target region. In this study we have assessed the feasibility of such an approach for cell targeting, using a range of flow rates and different super paramagnetic iron oxide particles in a vascular bifurcation phantom. Using MRT we have demonstrated that 75% of labelled cells could be guided within the vascular bifurcation. Furthermore we have demonstrated the ability to image the labelled cells before and after magnetic targeting, which may enable interactive manipulation and assessment of the distribution of cellular therapy. This is the first demonstration of cellular MRT and these initial findings support the potential value of MRT for improved targeting of intravascular cell therapies. PMID:20382425

  18. Targeted Delivery of Antiglaucoma Drugs to the Supraciliary Space Using Microneedles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoo C.; Edelhauser, Henry F.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that highly targeted delivery of antiglaucoma drugs to the supraciliary space by using a hollow microneedle allows dramatic dose sparing of the drug compared to topical eye drops. The supraciliary space is the most anterior portion of the suprachoroidal space, located below the sclera and above the choroid and ciliary body. Methods. A single, hollow 33-gauge microneedle, 700 to 800 ?m in length, was inserted into the sclera and used to infuse antiglaucoma drugs into the supraciliary space of New Zealand white rabbits (N = 36 per group). Sulprostone, a prostaglandin analog, and brimonidine, an ?2-adrenergic agonist, were delivered via supraciliary and topical administration at various doses. The drugs were delivered unilaterally, and intraocular pressure (IOP) of both eyes was measured by rebound tonometry for 9 hours after injection to assess the pharmacodynamic responses. To assess safety of the supraciliary injection, IOP change immediately after intravitreal and supraciliary injection were compared. Results. Supraciliary delivery of both sulprostone and brimonidine reduced IOP by as much as 3 mm Hg bilaterally in a dose-related response; comparison with topical administration at the conventional human dose showed approximately 100-fold dose sparing by supraciliary injection for both drugs. A safety study showed that the kinetics of IOP elevation immediately after supraciliary and intravitreal injection of placebo formulations were similar. Conclusions. This study introduced the use of targeted drug delivery to the supraciliary space by using a microneedle and demonstrated dramatic dose sparing of antiglaucoma therapeutic agents compared to topical eye drops. Targeted delivery in this way can increase safety by reducing side effects and could allow a single injection to contain enough drug for long-term sustained delivery. PMID:25212782

  19. Light-Controlled Delivery of Monoclonal Antibodies for Targeted Photoinactivation of Ki-67.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sijia; Httmann, Gereon; Zhang, Zhenxi; Vogel, Alfred; Birngruber, Reginald; Tangutoori, Shifalika; Hasan, Tayyaba; Rahmanzadeh, Ramtin

    2015-09-01

    The selective inhibition of intracellular and nuclear molecules such as Ki-67 holds great promise for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. However, the choice of the target protein and the intracellular delivery of the functional agent remain crucial challenges. Main hurdles are (a) an effective delivery into cells, (b) endosomal escape of the delivered agents, and (c) an effective, externally triggered destruction of cells. Here we show a light-controlled two-step approach for selective cellular delivery and cell elimination of proliferating cells. Three different cell-penetrating nano constructs, including liposomes, conjugates with the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), and conjugates with the cell penetrating peptide Pep-1, delivered the light activatable antibody conjugate TuBB-9-FITC, which targets the proliferation associated protein Ki-67. HeLa cells were treated with the photosensitizer benzoporphyrin monoacid derivative (BPD) and the antibody constructs. In the first optically controlled step, activation of BPD at 690 nm triggered a controlled endosomal escape of the TuBB-9-FITC constructs. In more than 75% of Ki-67 positive, irradiated cells TuBB-9-FITC antibodies relocated within 24 h from cytoplasmic organelles to the cell nucleus and bound to Ki-67. After a second light irradiation at 490 nm, which activated FITC, cell viability decreased to approximately 13%. Our study shows an effective targeting strategy, which uses light-controlled endosomal escape and the light inactivation of Ki-67 for cell elimination. The fact that liposomal or peptide-assisted delivery give similar results leads to the additional conclusion that an effective mechanism for endosomal escape leaves greater variability for the choice of the delivery agent. PMID:26226545

  20. LHRH-targeted nanogels as delivery system for cisplatin to ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nukolova, Natalia V.; Oberoi, Hardeep S.; Zhao, Yi; Chekhonin, Vladimir P.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana K.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery using multifunctional polymeric nanocarriers is a modern approach for cancer therapy. Our purpose was to prepare targeted nanogels for selective delivery of chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor overexpressing tumor in vivo. Building blocks of such delivery systems consisted of innovative soft block copolymer nanogels with ionic cores serving as a reservoir for cisplatin (loading 35%) and a synthetic analog of LHRH conjugated to the nanogels via poly(ethylene glycol) spacer. Covalent attachment of (D-Lys6)-LHRH to nanogels was shown to be possible without loss in either the ligand binding affinity or the nanogel drug incorporation ability. LHRH-nanogel accumulation was specific to the LHRH-receptor positive A2780 ovarian cancer cells and not towards LHRH-receptor negative SKOV-3 cells. The LHRH-nanogel cisplatin formulation was more effective and less toxic than equimolar doses of free cisplatin or untargeted nanogels in the treatment of receptor-positive ovarian cancer xenografts in mice. Collectively, the study indicates that LHRH mediated nanogel-cisplatin delivery is a promising formulation strategy for therapy of tumors that express the LHRH receptor. PMID:23957812

  1. Intranasal microemulsion for targeted nose to brain delivery in neurocysticercosis: Role of docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Rajshree L; Bharkad, Gopal P; Devarajan, Padma V

    2015-10-01

    Intranasal Microemulsions (MEs) for nose to brain delivery of a novel combination of Albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO) and Curcumin (CUR) for Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a brain infection are reported. MEs prepared by simple solution exhibited a globule size <20nm, negative zeta potential and good stability. The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ME revealed high and rapid ex vivo permeation of drugs through sheep nasal mucosa. Intranasal DHA ME resulted in high brain concentrations and 10.76 (ABZ-SO) and 3.24 (CUR) fold enhancement in brain area-under-the-curve (AUC) compared to intravenous DHA MEs at the same dose. Direct nose to brain transport (DTP) of >95% was seen for both drugs. High drug targeting efficiency (DTE) to the brain compared to Capmul ME and drug solution (P<0.05) suggested the role of DHA in aiding nose to brain delivery. Histopathology study confirmed no significant changes. High efficacy of ABZ-SO: CUR (100:10ng/mL) DHA ME in vitro on Taenia solium cysts was confirmed by complete ALP inhibition and disintegration of cysts at 96h. Considering that the brain concentration at 24h was 1400160.1ng/g (ABZ-SO) and 12035.2ng/g (CUR), the in vitro efficacy seen at a 10 fold lower concentration of the drugs strongly supports the assumption of clinical efficacy. The intranasal DHA ME is a promising delivery system for targeted nose to brain delivery. PMID:26318978

  2. Quantification of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) Delivery to a Target Site Using In Vivo Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Luke J.; Levy, Oren; Phillips, Joseph P.; Stratton, Tara; Triana, Brian; Ruiz, Juan P.; Gu, Fangqi; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Lin, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to deliver cells to appropriate target tissues is a prerequisite for successful cell-based therapy. To optimize cell therapy it is therefore necessary to develop a robust method of in vivo cell delivery quantification. Here we examine Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) labeled with a series of 4 membrane dyes from which we select the optimal dye combination for pair-wise comparisons of delivery to inflamed tissue in the mouse ear using confocal fluorescence imaging. The use of an optimized dye pair for simultaneous tracking of two cell populations in the same animal enables quantification of a test population that is referenced to an internal control population, thereby eliminating intra-subject variations and variations in injected cell numbers. Consistent results were obtained even when the administered cell number varied by more than an order of magnitude, demonstrating an ability to neutralize one of the largest sources of in vivo experimental error and to greatly reduce the number of cells required to evaluate cell delivery. With this method, we are able to show a small but significant increase in the delivery of cytokine pre-treated MSCs (TNF-α & IFN-γ) compared to control MSCs. Our results suggest future directions for screening cell strategies using our in vivo cell delivery assay, which may be useful to develop methods to maximize cell therapeutic potential. PMID:24205131

  3. Enhanced Delivery of Gold Nanoparticles with Therapeutic Potential for Targeting Human Brain Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etame, Arnold B.

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) remains a major challenge to the advancement and application of systemic anti-cancer therapeutics into the central nervous system. The structural and physiological delivery constraints of the BBB significantly limit the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, thereby making systemic administration a non-viable option for the vast majority of chemotherapy agents. Furthermore, the lack of specificity of conventional systemic chemotherapy when applied towards malignant brain tumors remains a major shortcoming. Hence novel therapeutic strategies that focus both on targeted and enhanced delivery across the BBB are warranted. In recent years nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as attractive vehicles for efficient delivery of targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. In particular, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained prominence in several targeting applications involving systemic cancers. Their enhanced permeation and retention within permissive tumor microvasculature provide a selective advantage for targeting. Malignant brain tumors also exhibit transport-permissive microvasculature secondary to blood brain barrier disruption. Hence AuNPs may have potential relevance for brain tumor targeting. However, the permeation of AuNPs across the BBB has not been well characterized, and hence is a potential limitation for successful application of AuNP-based therapeutics within the central nervous system (CNS). In this dissertation, we designed and characterized AuNPs and assessed the role of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the physical and biological properties of AuNPs. We established a size-dependent permeation profile with respect to core size as well as PEG length when AuNPs were assessed through a transport-permissive in-vitro BBB. This study was the first of its kind to systematically examine the influence of design on permeation of AuNPs through transport-permissive BBB. Given the significant delivery limitations through the non-transport permissive and intact BBB, we also assessed the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) disruption of the BBB in enhancing permeation of AuNPs across the intact BBB and tumor BBB in vivo. MRgFUS is a novel technique that can transiently increase BBB permeability thereby allowing delivery of therapeutics into the CNS. We demonstrated enhanced delivery of AuNPs with therapeutic potential into the CNS via MRgFUS. Our study was the first to establish a definitive role for MRgFUS in delivering AuNPs into the CNS. In summary, this thesis describes results from a series of research projects that have contributed to our understanding of the influence of design features on AuNP permeation through the BBB and also the potential role of MRgFUS in AuNP permeation across the BBB.

  4. Targeted delivery of growth factors by HSV-mediated gene transfer for peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Munmun

    2013-10-01

    Dysfunction of peripheral nerves due to metabolic, toxic, infectious, or genetic causes is a common and debilitating syndrome resulting in sensory loss. Peripheral neuropathies are one of the most widespread neurological disorders, affecting nearly 20 million people in the United States alone. Pharmacologic treatment for peripheral neuropathies is one of the most challenging fields in the clinical research. Sensory neurons are widely distributed and relatively inaccessible to direct drug delivery. Targeted delivery of neurotrophic factors to the primary sensory afferent for treatment of polyneuropathy by gene transfer approach offers the possibility of a highly selective targeted release of bioactive molecules within the nervous system. Preclinical studies with non-replicating herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based vectors injected into the skin to transduce neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) have demonstrated efficacy in preventing progression of sensory neuropathy without any possible systemic side effects. PMID:24369058

  5. An interbacterial NAD(P)(+) glycohydrolase toxin requires elongation factor Tu for delivery to target cells.

    PubMed

    Whitney, John C; Quentin, Dennis; Sawai, Shin; LeRoux, Michele; Harding, Brittany N; Ledvina, Hannah E; Tran, Bao Q; Robinson, Howard; Goo, Young Ah; Goodlett, David R; Raunser, Stefan; Mougous, Joseph D

    2015-10-22

    Type VI secretion (T6S) influences the composition of microbial communities by catalyzing the delivery of toxins between adjacent bacterial cells. Here, we demonstrate that a T6S integral membrane toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Tse6, acts on target cells by degrading the universally essential dinucleotides NAD(+) and NADP(+). Structural analyses of Tse6 show that it resembles mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase proteins, such as diphtheria toxin, with the exception of a unique loop that both excludes proteinaceous ADP-ribose acceptors and contributes to hydrolysis. We find that entry of Tse6 into target cells requires its binding to an essential housekeeping protein, translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). These proteins participate in a larger assembly that additionally directs toxin export and provides chaperone activity. Visualization of this complex by electron microscopy defines the architecture of a toxin-loaded T6S apparatus and provides mechanistic insight into intercellular membrane protein delivery between bacteria. PMID:26456113

  6. Occlusion of retinal vessels using targeted delivery of a platelet aggregating agent.

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Y; Guran, T; Takahashi, K; Zeimer, R

    1993-01-01

    Local laser targeted delivery of a platelet aggregating agent to occlude retinal and choroidal vessels was evaluated in rabbits and rats. Liposomes containing adenosine diphosphate (ADP) were administered intravenously and an argon laser was used to lyse the liposomes in main retinal arteries. Control vessels were treated with the same energy of laser without administering ADP. Fluorescein angiography performed 2 weeks later showed that all the control vessels were perfused. Ninety percent of the ADP-treated arteries showed complete or partial occlusion. Successful occlusion increased with the laser energy and decreased with increasing vessel diameter. Histopathology showed that occlusion was achieved in retinal as well as choroidal vessels. The inner retina remained relatively unaffected at the treatment site but the outer retina was thermally damaged. These preliminary results suggest that targeted delivery of a platelet aggregating agent holds promise for occluding vessels in the fundus. Images PMID:8494860

  7. Collagen Coated Nanoliposome as a Targeted and Controlled Drug Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, G.; Stephen, P.; Prabhu, M.; Sehgal, P. K.; Sadulla, S.

    2010-10-01

    The collagen coated nanoliposome (CCNL) have been prepared and characterized in order to develop a targeted and controlled drug delivery system. The zeta potential (ZP) measurement, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Cell viability assay data showed that the collagen coated nanoliposome particle size and charges, structural interaction and surface morphology and high bio-cyto-compatibility of collagen coated nanoliposome. The particle sizes of nanoliposome (NL) and collagen coated nanoliposome are 20-300 nm and 0.1-10 ?m respectively. The introduction of triple helical, coiled coil and fibrous protein of collagen into nanoliposome can improves the stability of nanoliposome, resistant to phospholipase activities and decreasing the phagocytosis of liposomes by reticuloendothelial system. The collagen coated nanoliposome is expected to be used as for targeted and controlled drug delivery system, and tissue engineering application.

  8. Dual surface-functionalized Janus nanocomposites for targeted stimulus responsive drug delivery.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Yilong; Pauletti, Giovanni; Shi, Donglu

    2014-03-01

    A novel superparamagnetic Janus nanocomposite (SJNC) of polystyrene/Fe3O4@SiO2 was designed and developed for the first time using a miniemulsion method. Both surfaces were readily functionalized for bio-medical application. Folic acid (FA) and doxorubicin (DOX) were conjugated stepwise to the surfaces. It was found that SJNCs achieved cell-targeted drug delivery in a pH-responsive manner.

  9. Transferrin receptors and the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents against cancer

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Tracy R.; Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Rodríguez, José A.; Patel, Shabnum; Kozman, Maggie; Chiappetta, Diego A.; Holler, Eggehard; Ljubimova, Julia Y.; Helguera, Gustavo; Penichet, Manuel L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional cancer therapy can be successful in destroying tumors, but can also cause dangerous side effects. Therefore, many targeted therapies are in development. The transferrin receptor (TfR) functions in cellular iron uptake through its interaction with transferrin. This receptor is an attractive molecule for the targeted therapy of cancer since it is upregulated on the surface of many cancer types and is efficiently internalized. This receptor can be targeted in two ways: 1) for the delivery of therapeutic molecules into malignant cells or 2) to block the natural function of the receptor leading directly to cancer cell death. Scope of review In the present article we discuss the strategies used to target the TfR for the delivery of therapeutic agents into cancer cells. We provide a summary of the vast types of anti-cancer drugs that have been delivered into cancer cells employing a variety of receptor binding molecules including Tf, anti-TfR antibodies, or TfR-binding peptides alone or in combination with carrier molecules including nanoparticles and viruses. Major conclusions Targeting the TfR has been shown to be effective in delivering many different therapeutic agents and causing cytotoxic effects in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. General significance The extensive use of TfR for targeted therapy attests to the versatility of targeting this receptor for therapeutic purposes against malignant cells. More advances in this area are expected to further improve the therapeutic potential of targeting the TfR for cancer therapy leading to an increase in the number of clinical trials of molecules targeting this receptor. PMID:21851850

  10. Alteration of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is key to acquired paclitaxel resistance and can be reversed by ABT-737

    PubMed Central

    Kutuk, Ozgur; Letai, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a microtubule-targeting antineoplastic drug widely used in human cancers. Even when tumors are initially responsive, progression of disease despite continued taxane therapy is all too common in the treatment of many of the most common epithelial cancers, including breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying paclitaxel resistance in cancer cells are not completely understood. Our hypothesis is that changes in the intrinsic (or mitochondrial) cell death pathway controlled by the BCL-2 family are key to the development of acquired paclitaxel resistance. Here we show that paclitaxel activates the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, which can be blocked by BCL-2 overexpression. Treatment with ABT-737, a small molecule BCL-2 antagonist, restores sensitivity to paclitaxel in BCL-2 overexpressing cells. To investigate the importance of changes in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in the absence of enforced BCL-2 expression, we generated two independent breast cancer cell lines with acquired resistance to apoptosis induced by paclitaxel. In these lines, acquired resistance to paclitaxel is mediated either by increased antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins or decreased proapoptotic BCL-2 proteins. In both cases, ABT-737 can engage the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway to restore sensitivity to paclitaxel to cell lines with acquired paclitaxel resistance. In summary, these findings suggest that alterations in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway controlled by BCL-2 protein family members may be crucial to causing paclitaxel resistance. Furthermore, our results suggest that combining small molecule BCL-2 antagonists with paclitaxel may offer benefit to patients with paclitaxel-resistant tumors, an oncologic problem of great prevalence. PMID:18829556

  11. A smart multifunctional nanocomposite for intracellular targeted drug delivery and self-release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chan; Lv, Piping; Wei, Wei; Tao, Shengyang; Hu, Tao; Yang, Jingbang; Meng, Changgong

    2011-10-01

    A multifunctional 'all-in-one' nanocomposite is fabricated using a colloid, template and surface-modification method. This material encompasses magnetic induced target delivery, cell uptake promotion and controlled drug release in one system. The nanocomposite is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and vibrating sample magnetometry. The prepared material has a diameter of 350-400 nm, a high surface area of 420.29 m2 g - 1, a pore size of 1.91 nm and a saturation magnetization of 32 emu g - 1. Doxorubicin (DOX) is loaded in mesopores and acid-sensitive blockers are introduced onto the orifices of the mesopores by a Schiff base linker to implement pH-dependent self-release. Folate was also introduced to improve DOX targeted delivery and endocytosis. The linkers remained intact to block pores with ferrocene valves and inhibit the diffusion of DOX at neutral pH. However, in lysosomes of cancer cells, which have a weak acidic pH, hydrolysis of the Schiff base group removes the nanovalves and allows the trapped DOX to be released. These processes are demonstrated by UV-visible absorption spectra, confocal fluorescence microscopy images and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assays in vitro, which suggest that the smart nanocomposite successfully integrates targeted drug delivery with internal stimulus induced self-release and is a potentially useful material for nanobiomedicine.

  12. Aptamer-MiRNA Conjugates for Cancer Cell-Targeted Delivery.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Carla L; Catuogno, Silvia; de Franciscis, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that effectively regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes. Increasing evidences have shown a fundamental role of miRNAs in cancer initiation and progression, thus indicating these molecules among the most promising for new approaches in cancer therapy. However, several hurdles limit the translation of miRNAs into the clinic. One of the most critical aspects is represented by the lack of a safe and reliable way to selectively target organs and tissues. Therefore, the development of cell-specific delivery means has become an essential step for the translation of miRNA-based therapeutics to clinic for cancer management. To this end aptamer-based approaches may provide efficient delivery tools for the selective accumulation of miRNA to target tumors, their intracellular uptake, processing, and functional silencing of target genes. In this chapter, we discuss the direct conjugation of miRNAs to aptamers against transmembrane receptors as innovative experimental approach for their selective delivery to cancer cells. PMID:26472452

  13. Formulation design for target delivery of iron nanoparticles to TCE zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziheng; Acosta, Edgar

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (NZVI) are effective reducing agents for some dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, target delivery of iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones in the aquifer remains an elusive feature for NZVI technologies. This work discusses three strategies to deliver iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones. To this end, iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleate (OL) ions were used as stable analogs for NZVI. The OL-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are rendered lipophilic via (a) the addition of CaCl2, (b) acidification, or (c) the addition of a cationic surfactant, benzethonium chloride (BC). Mixtures of OL and BC show promise as a target delivery strategy due to the high stability of the nanoparticles in water, and their preferential partition into TCE in batch experiments. Column tests show that while the OL-BC coated iron oxide nanoparticles remain largely mobile in TCE-free columns, a large fraction of these particles are retained in TCE-contaminated columns, confirming the effectiveness of this target delivery strategy.

  14. Targeted Delivery with Imaging Assessment of siRNA Expressing Nanocassettes into Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yang, Lily

    2016-01-01

    Molecular therapy using small interfering RNA (siRNA) shows great promise in the development of novel therapeutics for cancer. Although various approaches have been developed for in vivo delivery of siRNAs into tumors, stability of siRNA in blood circulation, and low efficiency of siRNA delivery into tumor cells are the major obstacles for further translation into cancer therapeutics. In this protocol, we describe methods of the production of shRNA expressing DNA nanocassettes by PCR amplification of double-stranded DNA fragments containing a U6 promoter and a shRNA gene. Those DNA nanocassettes can be conjugated to the polymer coating of nanoparticles that are targeted to cellular receptors highly expressed in tumor cells, such as urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), for targeted delivery and receptor mediated internalization of shRNA expressing DNA nanocassettes. Methods for in vitro and in vivo evaluation of target specificity and gene-knockdown effect are also provided. PMID:26530914

  15. Inter-molecular β-sheet structure facilitates lung-targeting siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jihan; Li, Dong; Wen, Hao; Zheng, Shuquan; Su, Cuicui; Yi, Fan; Wang, Jue; Liang, Zicai; Tang, Tao; Zhou, Demin; Zhang, Li-He; Liang, Dehai; Du, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Size-dependent passive targeting based on the characteristics of tissues is a basic mechanism of drug delivery. While the nanometer-sized particles are efficiently captured by the liver and spleen, the micron-sized particles are most likely entrapped within the lung owing to its unique capillary structure and physiological features. To exploit this property in lung-targeting siRNA delivery, we designed and studied a multi-domain peptide named K-β, which was able to form inter-molecular β-sheet structures. Results showed that K-β peptides and siRNAs formed stable complex particles of 60 nm when mixed together. A critical property of such particles was that, after being intravenously injected into mice, they further associated into loose and micron-sized aggregates, and thus effectively entrapped within the capillaries of the lung, leading to a passive accumulation and gene-silencing. The large size aggregates can dissociate or break down by the shear stress generated by blood flow, alleviating the pulmonary embolism. Besides the lung, siRNA enrichment and targeted gene silencing were also observed in the liver. This drug delivery strategy, together with the low toxicity, biodegradability, and programmability of peptide carriers, show great potentials in vivo applications. PMID:26955887

  16. Inter-molecular β-sheet structure facilitates lung-targeting siRNA delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jihan; Li, Dong; Wen, Hao; Zheng, Shuquan; Su, Cuicui; Yi, Fan; Wang, Jue; Liang, Zicai; Tang, Tao; Zhou, Demin; Zhang, Li-He; Liang, Dehai; Du, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Size-dependent passive targeting based on the characteristics of tissues is a basic mechanism of drug delivery. While the nanometer-sized particles are efficiently captured by the liver and spleen, the micron-sized particles are most likely entrapped within the lung owing to its unique capillary structure and physiological features. To exploit this property in lung-targeting siRNA delivery, we designed and studied a multi-domain peptide named K-β, which was able to form inter-molecular β-sheet structures. Results showed that K-β peptides and siRNAs formed stable complex particles of 60 nm when mixed together. A critical property of such particles was that, after being intravenously injected into mice, they further associated into loose and micron-sized aggregates, and thus effectively entrapped within the capillaries of the lung, leading to a passive accumulation and gene-silencing. The large size aggregates can dissociate or break down by the shear stress generated by blood flow, alleviating the pulmonary embolism. Besides the lung, siRNA enrichment and targeted gene silencing were also observed in the liver. This drug delivery strategy, together with the low toxicity, biodegradability, and programmability of peptide carriers, show great potentials in vivo applications. PMID:26955887

  17. Glycan-targeted drug delivery for intravesical therapy: in the footsteps of uropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Neutsch, Lukas; Gabor, Franz; Wirth, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The human urothelium belongs to the most efficient biobarriers, and represents a highly rewarding but challenging target for local drug administration. Inadequate urothelial bioavailability is a major obstacle for successful treatment of bladder cancer and other diseases, yet little research has addressed the development of advanced delivery concepts for the intravesical route. A prominent example of how to overcome the urothelial barrier by means of specific biorecognition is the efficient cytoinvasion of UPEC bacteria, mediated by the mannose-targeted lectin domain FimH. Similar mechanisms of non-bacterial origin may be exploited for enhancing drug uptake from the bladder cavity. This review covers the current status in the development of lectin-based delivery strategies for the urinary tract. Different concepts for preparing and optimizing carbohydrate-targeted delivery systems are presented, along with important design parameters, benefits and shortcomings. Bioconjugate- and nano-/microparticle-based systems are discussed in further detail with regard to their performance in preclinical testing. PMID:24998273

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Aptamer-Targeted SNALPs for the Delivery of siRNA.

    PubMed

    Wilner, Samantha E; Levy, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers selected against cell surface receptors represent a unique set of ligands that can be used to target nanoparticles and other therapeutics to specific cell types. Here, we describe a method for using aptamers to deliver stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALPs) encapsulating small interfering RNA (siRNA) to cells in vitro. Using this method, we have demonstrated the ability of aptamer-conjugated SNALPs to achieve target-specific delivery and siRNA-mediated knockdown of a gene of interest. We also describe methods to characterize SNALP size, siRNA encapsulation efficiency, and aptamer conjugation efficiency. PMID:26552829

  19. Furin Targeted Drug Delivery for Treatment of Rhabdomyosarcoma in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Hajdin, Katarina; D'Alessandro, Valentina; Niggli, Felix K.; Schfer, Beat W.; Bernasconi, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. Improvement of treatment efficacy and decreased side effects through tumor-targeted drug delivery would be desirable. By panning with a phage-displayed cyclic random peptide library we selected a peptide with strong affinity for RMS in vitro and in vivo. The peptide minimal binding motif Arg-X-(Arg/Lys)(Arg/Lys) identified by alanine-scan, suggested the target receptor to be a proprotein convertase (PC). Expression profiling of all PCs in RMS biopsies and cell lines revealed consistent high expression levels for the membrane-bound furin and PC7. Direct binding of RMS-P3 peptide to furin was demonstrated by affinity chromatography and supported by activity and colocalization studies. Treatment of RMS in mice with doxorubicin coupled to the targeting peptide resulted in a two-fold increase in therapeutic efficacy compared to doxorubicin treatment alone. Our findings indicate surface-furin binding as novel mechanism for therapeutic cell penetration which needs to be further investigated. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that specific targeting of membrane-bound furin in tumors is possible for and suggests that RMS and other tumors might benefit from proprotein convertases targeted drug delivery. PMID:20454619

  20. AAV9-mediated central nervous system–targeted gene delivery via cisterna magna route in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lukashchuk, Vera; Lewis, Katherine E; Coldicott, Ian; Grierson, Andrew J; Azzouz, Mimoun

    2016-01-01

    Current barriers to the use of adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) in clinical trials for treating neurological disorders are its high expression in many off-target tissues such as liver and heart, and lack of cell specificity within the central nervous system (CNS) when using ubiquitous promoters such as human cytomegalovirus (CMV) or chicken-β-actin hybrid (CAG). To enhance targeting the transgene expression in CNS cells, self-complementary (sc) AAV9 vectors, scAAV9-GFP vectors carrying neuronal Hb9 and synapsin 1, and nonspecific CMV and CAG promoters were constructed. We demonstrate that synapsin 1 and Hb9 promoters exclusively targeted neurons in vitro, although their strengths were up to 10-fold lower than that of CMV. In vivo analyses of mouse tissue after scAAV9-GFP vector delivery via the cisterna magna revealed a significant advantage of synapsin 1 promoter over both Hb9 variants in targeting neurons throughout the brain, since Hb9 promoters were driving gene expression mainly within the motor-related areas of the brain stem. In summary, this study demonstrates that cisterna magna administration is a safe alternative to intracranial or intracerebroventricular vector delivery route using scAAV9, and introduces a novel utility of the Hb9 promoter for the targeted gene expression for both in vivo and in vitro applications. PMID:26942208

  1. The impact of nanoparticle protein corona on cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity and target drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Corbo, Claudia; Molinaro, Roberto; Parodi, Alessandro; Toledano Furman, Naama E; Salvatore, Francesco; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-01-01

    In a perfect sequence of events, nanoparticles (NPs) are injected into the bloodstream where they circulate until they reach the target tissue. The ligand on the NP surface recognizes its specific receptor expressed on the target tissue and the drug is released in a controlled manner. However, once injected in a physiological environment, NPs interact with biological components and are surrounded by a protein corona (PC). This can trigger an immune response and affect NP toxicity and targeting capabilities. In this review, we provide a survey of recent findings on the NP-PC interactions and discuss how the PC can be used to modulate both cytotoxicity and the immune response as well as to improve the efficacy of targeted delivery of nanocarriers. PMID:26653875

  2. Towards Targeted Delivery Systems: Ligand Conjugation Strategies for mRNA Nanoparticle Tumor Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Kyle K. L.

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles encapsulating messenger RNA (mRNA) as a vaccine has recently attracted much attention because of encouraging results achieved in many nonviral genetic antitumor vaccination studies. Notably, in all of these studies, mRNA nanoparticles are passively targeted to dendritic cells (DCs) through careful selection of vaccination sites. Hence, DC-targeted mRNA nanoparticle vaccines may be an imminent next step forward. In this brief report, we will discuss established conjugation strategies that have been successfully applied to both polymeric and liposomal gene delivery systems. We will also briefly describe promising DC surface receptors amenable for targeting mRNA nanoparticles. Practicable conjugation strategies and receptors reviewed in this paper will provide a convenient reference to facilitate future development of targeted mRNA nanoparticle vaccine. PMID:26819957

  3. A Review of Paclitaxel and Novel Formulations Including Those Suitable for Use in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Khanna, C; Rosenberg, M; Vail, D M

    2015-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent with a broad spectrum of activity against cancers in humans. In 1992, paclitaxel was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as Taxol() for use in advanced ovarian cancer. Two years later, it was approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Paclitaxel was originally isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, Taxus brevifolia in 1971. Taxanes are a family of microtubule inhibitors. As a member of this family, paclitaxel suppresses spindle microtubule dynamics. This activity results in the blockage of the metaphase-anaphase transitions, and ultimately in the inhibition of mitosis, and induction of apoptosis in a wide spectrum of cancer cells. Additional anticancer activities of paclitaxel have been defined that are independent of these effects on the microtubules and may include the suppression of cell proliferation as well as antiangiogenic effects. Based on its targeting of a fundamental feature of the cancer phenotype, the mitotic complex, it is not surprising that paclitaxel has been found to be active in a wide variety of cancers in humans. This review summarizes the evidence in support of paclitaxel's broad anticancer activity and introduces the rationale for, and the progress in development of novel formulations of paclitaxel that may preferentially target cancers and that are not associated with the risks for hypersensitivity in dogs. Of note, a novel nanoparticle formulation of paclitaxel that substantially limits hypersensitivity was recently given conditional approval by the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine for use in dogs with resectable and nonresectable squamous cell carcinoma and nonresectable stage III, IV and V mammary carcinoma. PMID:26179168

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted immunoliposomes for delivery of celecoxib to cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Limasale, Yanuar Dwi Putra; Tezcaner, Ay?en; zen, Can; Keskin, Dilek; Banerjee, Sreeparna

    2015-02-20

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is highly expressed in many different cancers. Therefore, the inhibition of the COX-2 pathway by a selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib (CLX), may be an alternative strategy for cancer prevention and therapy. Liposomal drug delivery systems can be used to increase the therapeutic efficacy of CLX while minimizing its side effects. Previous studies have reported the encapsulation of CLX within the non-targeted long circulating liposomes and functional effect of these formulations against colorectal cancer cell lines. However, the selectivity and internalization of CLX-loaded liposomes can further be improved by grafting targeting ligands on their surface. Cetuximab (anti-epidermal growth factor receptor - EGFR - monoclonal antibody) is a promising targeting ligand since EGFR is highly expressed in a wide range of solid tumors. The aim of this study was to develop EGFR-targeted immunoliposomes for enhancing the delivery of CLX to cancer cells and to evaluate the functional effects of these liposomes in cancer cell lines. EGFR-targeted ILs, having an average size of 120nm, could encapsulate 40% of the CLX, while providing a sustained drug release profile. Cell association studies have also shown that the immunoliposome uptake was higher in EGFR-overexpressing cells compared to the non-targeted liposomes. In addition, the CLX-loaded-anti-EGFR immunoliposomes were significantly more toxic compared to the non-targeted ones in cancer cells with EGFR-overexpression but not in the cells with low EGFR expression, regardless of their COX-2 expression status. Thus, selective targeting of CLX with anti-EGFR immunoliposomes appears to be a promising strategy for therapy of tumors that overexpress EGFR. PMID:25595386

  5. Enhanced Affinity Bifunctional Bisphosphonates for Targeted Delivery of Therapeutic Agents to Bone

    PubMed Central

    Yewle, Jivan N.; Puleo, David A.; Bachas, Leonidas G.

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal diseases have a major impact on the worldwide population and economy. Although several therapeutic agents and treatments are available for addressing bone diseases, they are not being fully utilized because of their uptake in non-targeted sites and related side effects. Active targeting with controlled delivery is an ideal approach for treatment of such diseases. Because bisphosphonates are known to have high affinity to bone and are being widely used in treatment of osteoporosis, they are well-suited for drug targeting to bone. In this study, a targeted delivery of therapeutic agent to resorption sites and wound healing sites of bone was explored. Towards this goal, bifunctional hydrazine-bisphosphonates (HBPs), with spacers of various lengths, were synthesized and studied for their enhanced affinity to bone. Crystal growth inhibition studies showed that these HBPs have high affinity to hydroxyapatite, and HBPs with shorter spacers bind stronger than alendronate to hydroxyapatite. The HBPs did not affect proliferation of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts, did not induce apoptosis, and were not cytotoxic at the concentration range tested (10−6 - 10−4 M). Furthermore, drugs can be linked to the HBPs through a hydrazone linkage that is cleavable at the low pH of bone resorption and wound healing sites, leading to release of the drug. This was demonstrated using hydroxyapatite as a model material of bone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde as a model drug. This study suggests that these HBPs could be used for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to bone. PMID:22073906

  6. Tumor targeting RGD conjugated bio-reducible polymer for VEGF siRNA expressing plasmid delivery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ah; Nam, Kihoon; Kim, Sung Wan

    2014-08-01

    Targeted delivery of therapeutic genes to the tumor site is critical for successful and safe cancer gene therapy. The arginine grafted bio-reducible poly (cystamine bisacrylamide-diaminohexane, CBA-DAH) polymer (ABP) conjugated poly (amido amine) (PAMAM), PAM-ABP (PA) was designed previously as an efficient gene delivery carrier. To achieve high efficacy in cancer selective delivery, we developed the tumor targeting bio-reducible polymer, PA-PEG1k-RGD, by conjugating cyclic RGDfC (RGD) peptides, which bind ?v?3/5 integrins, to the PAM-ABP using polyethylene glycol (PEG, 1kDa) as a spacer. Physical characterization showed nanocomplex formation with bio-reducible properties between PA-PEG1k-RGD and plasmid DNA (pDNA). In transfection assays, PA-PEG1k-RGD showed significantly higher transfection efficiency in comparison with PAM-ABP or PA-PEG1k-RAD in ?v?3/5 positive MCF7 breast cancer and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. The targeting ability of PA-PEG1k-RGD was further established using a competition assay. To confirm the therapeutic effect, the VEGF siRNA expressing plasmid was constructed and then delivered into cancer cells using PA-PEG1k-RGD. PA-PEG1k-RGD showed 20-59% higher cellular uptake rate into MCF7 and PANC-1 than that of non-targeted polymers. In addition, MCF7 and PANC-1 cancer cells transfected with PA-PEG1k-RGD/pshVEGF complexes had significantly decreased VEGF gene expression (51-71%) and cancer cell viability (35-43%) compared with control. These results demonstrate that a tumor targeting bio-reducible polymer with an anti-angiogenic therapeutic gene could be used for efficient and safe cancer gene therapy. PMID:24894645

  7. Matrix-specific anchors: a new concept for targeted delivery and retention of therapeutic cells.

    PubMed

    Steplewski, Andrzej; Fertala, Jolanta; Beredjiklian, Pedro; Wang, Mark L; Fertala, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Biomedical strategies for tissue engineering and repair utilize specific cells, scaffolds, and growth factors to reconstruct elements of damaged tissue. The cellular element of these strategies is limited, however, by poor efficiency of delivery and retention of therapeutic cells in target sites. We propose that the presence of a cellular anchor that is able to specifically bind a defined element of target tissue will facilitate efficient binding and retention of therapeutic cells, thereby promoting repair of the target site. To do so, we engineered an artificial collagen-specific anchor (ACSA) that is able to specifically bind collagen I. The ACSA was engineered by creating a construct comprising rationally designed consecutive domains. The binding specificity of the ACSA was achieved by employing variable regions of a monoclonal antibody that recognizes a unique epitope present in human collagen I. Meanwhile, cell membrane localization of the ACSA was provided by the presence of a transmembrane domain. We determined that the ACSA was localized within cell membranes and interacted with its intended target, that is, collagen I. We have demonstrated that, in comparison to the control, the cells expressing the ACSA attached better to collagen I and exhibited improved retention in sites of seeding. We have also demonstrated that the presence of the ACSA did not interfere with cell proliferation, the biosynthesis of endogenous collagen I, or the biological functions of native collagen receptors. Since the presented cell delivery system utilizes a common characteristic of major connective tissues, namely the presence of collagen I, the findings described here could have a broad positive impact for improving the repair processes of tendon, ligament, bone, intervertebral disc, skin, and other collagen I-rich connective tissues. If successful, the ACSA approach to deliver cells will serve as an outline for developing cell delivery methods that target other elements of extracellular matrices, including other collagen types, laminins, and fibronectins. PMID:25435302

  8. Targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to cholangiocarcinoma cells using folic acid as a targeting agent.

    PubMed

    Ngernyuang, Nipaporn; Seubwai, Wunchana; Daduang, Sakda; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Daduang, Jureerut

    2016-03-01

    There are limits to the standard treatment for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) including drug resistance and side effects. The obje