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1

Earth Interactions 1 The Opening of the Tasman Sea: A Gravity  

E-print Network

Earth Interactions 1 The Opening of the Tasman Sea: A Gravity Anomaly Animation C. Gaina,1 School plate tectonic gravity anomaly grid animation using data from the Tasman Sea is presented. In this animation the tectonic elements are represented by their respective gravity fields, based on recent marine

Müller, Dietmar

2

Discovery of Continental Stretching and Oceanic Spreading in the Tasman Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deep seismic survey conducted within the western part of New Caledonia's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) (Figure 1) during September-October 2004 revealed for the first time both the thinned continental and oceanic natures of the crust beneath the eastern Tasman Sea. The survey, which was conducted by an international group of scientists aboard the Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation

Y. Lafoy; L. Géli; F. Klingelhoefer; R. Vially; B. Sichler; H. Nouzé

2005-01-01

3

Merging ancient and modern DNA: extinct seabird taxon rediscovered in the North Tasman Sea  

PubMed Central

Ancient DNA has revolutionized the way in which evolutionary biologists research both extinct and extant taxa, from the inference of evolutionary history to the resolution of taxonomy. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first study to report the rediscovery of an ‘extinct’ avian taxon, the Tasman booby (Sula tasmani), using classical palaeontological data combined with ancient and modern DNA data. Contrary to earlier work, we show an overlap in size between fossil and modern birds in the North Tasman Sea (classified currently as S. tasmani and Sula dactylatra fullagari, respectively). In addition, we show that Holocene fossil birds have mitochondrial control region sequences that are identical to those found in modern birds. These results indicate that the Tasman booby is not an extinct taxon: S. dactylatra fullagari O'Brien & Davies, 1990 is therefore a junior synonym of Sula tasmani van Tets, Meredith, Fullagar & Davidson, 1988 and all North Tasman Sea boobies should be known as S. d. tasmani. In addition to reporting the rediscovery of an extinct avian taxon, our study highlights the need for researchers to be cognizant of multidisciplinary approaches to understanding taxonomy and past biodiversity. PMID:19675005

Steeves, Tammy E.; Holdaway, Richard N.; Hale, Marie L.; McLay, Emma; McAllan, Ian A. W.; Christian, Margaret; Hauber, Mark E.; Bunce, Michael

2010-01-01

4

Modern Tasman Sea surface reservoir ages from deep-sea black corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine reservoir ages are a key element in calculating and constraining uncertainty in radiocarbon age estimates and are also essential to better understand regional ocean circulation. In this study, we present a new method to reconstruct long-term, high-resolution sea surface reservoir ages based on analysis of the organic skeleton of deep-sea (560 m) black coral (Anthozoa, Antipatharia). Our results confirm that antipatharians are extremely slow growing (typical radial growth rate for a South Pacific specimen around 0.03 mm/yr). Coupled uranium series and radiocarbon measurements were made on black coral collected live from the Norfolk Ridge (north Tasman Sea) to provide the first modern reservoir ages for this region. At the Norfolk Ridge, the average reservoir age between 1790 AD and 1900 AD was ?330 years. This was followed by a steep decrease over time of about 70 years to 1950 AD (our most modern value). This indicates an increase in surface ocean ventilation of water masses in this region. These results are consistent with observational studies for the early twentieth century, which suggest significant changes in regional circulation of the southwest pacific.

Komugabe, Aimée F.; Fallon, Stewart J.; Thresher, Ronald E.; Eggins, Stephen M.

2014-01-01

5

Relationships between nutrient stocks and inventories and phytoplankton physiological status along an oligotrophic meridional transect in the Tasman Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waters of the north Tasman Sea are adjacent to the arid Australian sub-continent and are north of the circumpolar Subtropical convergence. Nutrient and phytoplankton stocks in this region were investigated on two voyages during February 2005 and March 2006 to establish the spatial extent and magnitude of oligotrophy in the region. Surface nitrate, phosphate, ammonium and nitrite were all in the nanomolar concentration range north and south of the Tasman Front (?33°S; 165-175°E). The location of the nitracline was found to be at or above the 1% light level. The distributions of pico-eukaryotic cells, Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus showed strong latitudinal and vertical gradients, with higher abundances south of the Tasman Front that decreased northward, but consistent with changes in nutrient concentration. A nitrite maximum was observed at and below the 1% light level and results from incomplete assimilatory nitrate reduction by phytoplankton. Mixed layer dissolved iron concentrations varied between 0.05 and 0.70 nmol L-1, and were dependent on the vertical supply rate of iron from below and on sporadic atmospheric dust deposition. Based on the rate of iron supply, phytoplankton located south of the Tasman Front were unlikely to be iron limited whereas phytoplankton located north of the Tasman Front were near the threshold for iron limitation. Deck-board incubation experiments involving the addition of macro- (ammonium, nitrate and phosphate) and micro- (iron, dust and zinc) nutrients confirm nitrogen availability to be the primary control on biological production, with the potential for secondary phosphate, silicate and dissolved organic carbon limitation, when nitrogen limitation was alleviated. The form of nitrogen required to stimulate the phytoplankton community also varied; ammonium stimulated Prochlorococcus growth whereas nitrate stimulated Synechococcus growth. Predator-free incubation experiments indicate that grazing was an important constraint on phytoplankton production. Water column observations and incubation results confirm that the supply of dissolved inorganic nitrogen into the euphotic zone was the primary factor controlling new primary production in the northern Tasman Sea region.

Ellwood, Michael J.; Law, Cliff S.; Hall, Julie; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Strzepek, Robert; Kuparinen, Joma; Thompson, Karen; Pickmere, Stuart; Sutton, Philip; Boyd, Philip W.

2013-02-01

6

Orbital forced sea level fluctuations during the Middle Eocene (ODP site 1172, East Tasman Plateau)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean Drilling Program leg 189 was undertaken to test and refine the hypothesis (by Kennett et al., 1975), that the reconfiguration of continents around Antarctica (e.g.: the opening of the Tasmanian Gateway and Drake passage) led to the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that, in turn, would cause thermal isolation and hence cooling of Antarctica. This would possibly even cause global cooling, as suggested by the 33.3 Ma Oi1 event. The cores of leg 189, site 1172 on the eastern side of the Tasmanian Gateway provided a nearly complete succession of Eocene and Oligocene sediments. Cyclostratigraphic analysis based on XRF derived Ca and Fe records indicates distinct Milankovitch cyclicity between 40 and 36 Ma. (Röhl et al, in press). In the core-section representing magnetochron 18n-1n, the Ca record shows precession cycles in combination with obliquity, suggested to reflect sea level fluctuations (Röhl et al, in press). New datasets include microfossil data (organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts, pollen/spores and diatoms), loss-on-ignition measurements, magnetic data (environmental magnetics - ARM). Here, we aim to further investigate the proposed relationship between astronomical forcing and sea-level fluctuations. Additionally, we aim to obtain insight in the palaeoecology of the distinct endemic circum-Antarctic late Middle to Late Eocene dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. Results corroborate the concept that the cyclicity recorded by Ca and Fe measurements is the result of sea-level fluctuations. This implies that during late Middle Eocene times, astronomical forcing has modulated sea level - most likely through Antarctic ice buildup and meltdown. In turn, this would indicate the presence of significant, though probably modest, ice masses already ~40 Ma ago, well before the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Kennett, J. P., R. E. Houtz, et al. (1975). Development of the circum-Antarctic current. Science 186: 144-147. Röhl, U.; H. Brinkhuis, C.E. Stickley, M. Fuller, S.A. Schellenberg, G. Wefer, G. Williams, Cyclostratigraphy of Middle and Late Eocene sediments from the East Tasman Plateau (site 1172), in press.

Warnaar, J.; Stickley, C.; Jovane, L.; Roehl, U.; Brinkhuis, H.; Visscher, H.

2004-12-01

7

Centennial - Scale Shoreface, Shoreline And Sand Transport Change In Response To Tasman Sea Wave Climate Variability During The Late Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant variability in the modality of mean and storm wave climates along the south-eastern Australian coast, has been observed on annual to decadal time scales. On longer timescales of interest to marine geologists, wave climate shifts result in switching of sand transport paths on the lower shoreface and alongshore via headland bypassing. Using a novel approach we use wave climate hindcasting and marine geoscience investigations to illuminate sand supply and transport processes for sections of the eastern Australian coast, over two time periods: (i) the past 120 years; and (ii) the past 2,000 years. Over the past 120 year period, the problem is approached through the combined analysis of shoreface bathymetric change and related nearshore, shoreline and spit behaviour, together with wave climate variability associated with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). A rotation in the seabed bathymetry and shoreline is interpreted as a response to multidecadal processes, including: a rotation in the dominant deepwater south-easterly wave power from 120-140° to 140-160° and changes in modality between La Nina-like to El Nino-like phases of the IPO; and, associated changes in across-shoreface and headland bypassing longshore sand transport paths. The shift from unimodal mean and storm wave climate in the 1800's to bimodalilty in the 1900's is associated with large scale changes in the windfield over the Tasman Sea. The modal wave climate change causes switching in headland sand bypassing modes on interannual to decadal timescales and has important implications for understanding shoreline rotation on open compartments. Over the past 2,000 year period, progradational strandplain sequences of relic shoreline planform geometry is investigated to hindcast nearshore wave climate change. The relic shorelines were mapped from LIDAR terrain models and chronologically constrained by Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating methods. The progradational sedimentary stratigraphy was obtained by Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) methods. Centennial to multi-centennial shifts in nearshore wave climate are interpreted from the relic shoreline rotation and planform geometry. Sub-aerial progradational sand volumes indicate that the sand supply rate to the shoreline varies from 0.5 to 4 m3/m/a. The higher sand supply rates occur during periods of anticlockwise shoreline rotation when wave direction is more shore-normal. Lower supply rates occur during oblique wave climate under longshore sand transport. The higher sand supply is considered to be transported from the lower shoreface since the shelf profile is overfit and in disequilibrium with Holocene sea-level. The centennial scale evolution of the shoreline and shoreface provides an insight into the sensitivity of the east Australian coast to changes in wave climate and sand supply.

Goodwin, I. D.; Freeman, R.; Blackmore, K.

2012-12-01

8

Tasman Leakage of intermediate waters as inferred from Argo floats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

use Argo float trajectories to infer ocean current velocity at the sea surface and 1000 dbar near Australia. The East Australian Current flows southward along the east coast of Australia at both surface and intermediate levels, but only the intermediate waters leak round the southern tip of Tasmania and cross the Great Australian Bight. We calculate the transport of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) between the southern Australian coast and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) as the velocity at 1000 dbar times the layer thickness. Between March 2006 and December 2012, the Eulerian AAIW transport through 147°E ranges between 0 and 12.0 sverdrup (Sv). The mean Tasman Leakage of intermediate waters from the Pacific Ocean into the Indian Ocean, obtained using all Argo data until March 2013, is 3.8 ± 1.3 Sv. The mean intermediate water transport into the Indian Ocean through 115°E increases to 5.2 ± 1.8 Sv due to contributions from the westward recirculation of ACC waters.

Rosell-Fieschi, Miquel; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Gourrion, Jeröme; Pelegrí, Josep L.

2013-10-01

9

The Tasmanian Marine Analysis Network (TasMAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tasmanian Marine Analysis Network (TasMAN) has been developed and deployed to help manage the multiple uses of the estuaries and coastal regions of southern Tasmania, Australia. These regions are used by industry, shipping, aquaculture and tourism operators along with commercial and recreational boaters and fishers. The network is designed to collect real-time data that will help monitor the health

G. P. Timms; J. W. McCulloch; P. McCarthy; B. Howell; P. A. de Souza; M. D. Dunbabin; K. Hartmann

2009-01-01

10

Effect of the deepening of the Tasman Gateway on the global ocean  

E-print Network

on Antarctica. Nonetheless, the Antarctic deep sinking regions11 cool sufficiently to lead to a global deep et al. 2005). Climate cooling is global (Liu et al. 2009; Lear et al. 2008). Terrestrial ice16Effect of the deepening of the Tasman Gateway on the global ocean Willem P. Sijp , Matthew H

Sijp, Willem

11

Motueka River plume facilitates transport of ruminant faecal contaminants into shellfish growing waters, Tasman Bay, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrographic and water quality surveys of the Motueka River and its river plume were conducted during a moderate flood event (peak flow of 420 m\\/s) to assess the source and fate of faecal contaminants transported into Tasman Bay. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococci concentrations in the river were up to 10000 and 7300 Most Probable Number (MPN)\\/100 ml during

CD Cornelisen; PA Gillespie; M Kirs; RG Young; RW Forrest; PJ Barter; BR Knight; VJ Harwood

2011-01-01

12

Working towards a group A streptococcal vaccine: report of a collaborative Trans-Tasman workshop.  

PubMed

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections represent a major public health burden in both developing and developed countries. In Australia and New Zealand GAS associated diseases are serious problems in Indigenous populations and a major cause of health inequality. Political recognition of these inequalities is providing impetus for strategies that reduce GAS disease and the development of a GAS vaccine now has governmental support in both Australia and New Zealand. Accordingly, an expert workshop was convened in March 2013 to consider available data on GAS vaccines. M-protein based vaccines constructed from the hyper-variable N-terminal region (30-valent vaccine) or the conserved C-repeat domain (J8 vaccine) were reviewed together with vaccine candidates identified using multi high-throughput approaches. Performing a comprehensive assessment of regional GAS strain epidemiology, defining the immune correlates of protection, and the establishment of clinical trial sites were identified as critical activities for a Trans-Tasman vaccine development programme. PMID:24837510

Moreland, Nicole J; Waddington, Claire S; Williamson, Deborah A; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Smeesters, Pierre R; Proft, Thomas; Steer, Andrew C; Walker, Mark J; Baker, Edward N; Baker, Michael G; Lennon, Diana; Dunbar, Rod; Carapetis, Jonathan; Fraser, John D

2014-06-24

13

Southern high-latitude terrestrial climate change during the Paleocene-Eocene derived from a marine pollen record (ODP Site 1172, East Tasman Plateau)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructing the early Paleogene climate dynamics of terrestrial settings in the high southern latitudes is important to assess the role of high-latitude physical and biogeochemical processes in the global climate system. However, whereas a number of high-quality Paleogene climate records has become available for the marine realm of the high southern latitudes over the recent past, the long-term evolution of coeval terrestrial climates and ecosystems is yet poorly known. We here explore the climate and vegetation dynamics on Tasmania from the middle Paleocene to the early Eocene (60.7-54.2 Ma) based on a sporomorph record from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1172 on the East Tasman Plateau. Our results show that three distinctly different vegetation types thrived on Tasmania under a high-precipitation regime during the middle Paleocene to early Eocene, with each type representing different temperature conditions: (i) warm-temperate forests dominated by gymnosperms that were dominant during the middle and late Paleocene; (ii) cool-temperate forests dominated by southern beech (Nothofagus) and araucarians across the middle/late Paleocene transition interval (~59.5 to ~59.0 Ma); and (iii) paratropical forests rich in ferns that were established during and in the wake of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The transient establishment of cool-temperate forests lacking any frost-sensitive elements (i.e., palms and cycads) across the middle/late Paleocene transition interval indicates markedly cooler conditions, with the occurrence of frosts in winter, on Tasmania during that time. The integration of our sporomorph data with previously published TEX86-based sea-surface temperatures from ODP Site 1172 documents that the vegetation dynamics on Tasmania were closely linked with the temperature evolution in the Tasman sector of the Southwest Pacific region. Moreover, the comparison of our season-specific climate estimates for the sporomorph assemblages from ODP Site 1172 with the TEX86L- and TEX86H-based temperature data suggests a warm-season bias of both calibrations for the early Paleogene of the high southern latitudes.

Contreras, L.; Pross, J.; Bijl, P. K.; O'Hara, R. B.; Raine, J. I.; Sluijs, A.; Brinkhuis, H.

2014-01-01

14

Quality assurance experience with the randomized neuropathic bone pain trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group, 96.05)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgroundandpurpose: Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96.05 is a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing a single 8 Gy with 20 Gy in five fractions of radiotherapy (RT) for neuropathic pain due to bone metastases. This paper summarizes the quality assurance (QA) activities for the first 234 patients (accrual target 270).Materialsandmethods: Independent audits to assess compliance with eligibility\\/exclusion criteria and appropriateness of

Daniel E. Roos; Sidney R. Davis; Sandra L. Turner; Peter C. O'Brien; Nigel A. Spry; Bryan H. Burmeister; Peter J. Hoskin; David L. Ball

2003-01-01

15

@Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution's at-sea research expeditions and presents both current and archived expeditions from 1999 to the present. Each expedition is described in a feature story with background, definitions, research technology and sampling equipment, maps, photos, daily logs, some videos and virtual tours, researcher profiles, and related links. HBOI scientists have studied maritime history, pharmaceuticals from the sea, sharks, behavior and physiology of marine life, marine sanctuaries and submersible technology.

16

The Cretaceous/Paleogene Transition on the East Tasman Plateau, Southwestern Pacific  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ocean Drilling Program Leg 189 recovered a potentially complete shallow marine record of the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (KPB) at Site 1172 on the East Tasman Plateau. Here we present high-resolution (cm-scale) data from micropaleontology, geochemistry, sedimentology, and paleomagnetism that provide no evidence for a complete KPB, but instead suggest a boundary-spanning hiatus of at least 0.8 Ma. We interpret this hiatus to represent the sequence boundary between the uppermost Maastrichtian Tal.1 and lowermost Danian Ta1.2/ Da- 1 3rd-order sequence stratigraphic cycles. Microfloral assemblages indicate generally shallow paleodepths, restricted circulation, and eutrophic conditions through the section. Paleodepths progressively shallow through the late Maastrichtian, while more oceanic and warmer conditions dominate the early Danian. The Site 1172 KPB section is broadly comparable to other southern highlatitude sections in Antarctica and New Zealand, but appears to record a shallower and more restricted environment that permitted a eustatically-driven hiatus across the KPB mass extinction event.

Schellenberg, Stephen A.; Brinkhuis, Henk; Stickley, Catherine E.; Fuller, Michael; Kyte, Frank T.; Williams, Graham L.

2004-01-01

17

Genome Sequence of “Thalassospira australica” NP3b2T Isolated from St. Kilda Beach, Tasman Sea  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the draft genome of “Thalassospira australica” NP3b2T, a potential poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) plastic biodegrader. This genomic information will enhance information on the genetic basis of metabolic pathways for the degradation of PET plastic. PMID:25395631

López-Pérez, Mario; Webb, Hayden K.; Crawford, Russell J.

2014-01-01

18

Dust-induced changes in phytoplankton composition in the Tasman Sea during the last four glacial cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in iron supply associated with enhanced dust inputs could be responsible for higher marine phytoplankton production leading to the typically lower glacial atmospheric CO2 concentrations, as suggested by the “iron hypothesis.” The enhanced dust supply may also have provided the oceans with significant amounts of silica, which would have favored the growth of diatoms over coccolithophores, as suggested

Eva Calvo; Carles Pelejero; Graham A. Logan; Patrick De Deckker

2004-01-01

19

Genome Sequence of "Thalassospira australica" NP3b2T Isolated from St. Kilda Beach, Tasman Sea.  

PubMed

Here, we present the draft genome of "Thalassospira australica" NP3b2(T), a potential poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) plastic biodegrader. This genomic information will enhance information on the genetic basis of metabolic pathways for the degradation of PET plastic. PMID:25395631

López-Pérez, Mario; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Webb, Hayden K; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

2014-01-01

20

Mean circulation of the Coral Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mean absolute geostrophic circulation of the Coral Sea is constructed from climatological hydrographic data referenced to a 1000 m velocity field derived from Argo float drift. Two branches of the South Equatorial Current (SEC) enter the Coral Sea between New Caledonia and the Solomon Islands: the broad, upper thermocline North Vanuatu Jet (NVJ), and the narrow North Caledonian Jet (NCJ) extending to at least 1500 m. Most of this incoming flow leaves to the Solomon Sea. Four distinct pathways through the Coral Sea are traced by their water properties: (1) The NCJ crosses the Sea to the coast of Australia and turns north at densities sigma 25-27.4 as the main source of the Gulf of Papua (GPC) western boundary current, eventually feeding the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent; (2) part of the shallow NVJ turns into the Solomon Sea in midbasin, carrying high-salinity water above sigma 25.5; (3) another part of the NVJ continues to Australia, then turns north to join the GPC, extending it to the surface; (4) a shallow finger of NVJ water, traced by low oxygen above sigma 25, turns south along the coast, beginning the East Australian Current (EAC) at 15°S. Total transport from the Coral to the Tasman Sea is small and shallow; instead, most of the EAC is fed from south of New Caledonia, consistent with the Island Rule. However, large transport fractions occur in narrow jets close to coastlines and reefs and are not well sampled, precluding a quantitative estimate of meridional redistribution of the incoming SEC.

Kessler, William S.; Cravatte, Sophie

2013-12-01

21

SEA TURTLES Sea Turtles  

E-print Network

the loggerhead, Kemp's ridley, olive ridley, green, leatherback, and hawks- bill turtles. In the Pacific Ocean317 SEA TURTLES UNIT 24 Sea Turtles Unit 24 PROTECTED RESOURCES STAFF NMFS Office of Protected Center La Jolla, CA INTRODUCTION Sea turtles are highly migratory and widely distributed throughout

22

Beaufort Sea! Chukchi Sea!  

E-print Network

Beaufort Sea! Chukchi Sea! Herald Shoal Hanna Shoal Barrow Canyon Herald Canyon Bering Strait of the Alaska Coastal Current (a) Bering Strait! (b) Central Shelf! (c) BCH! (d) BCC/DBO! (e) BCM! BCC avg the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait is transported across the shallow and expansive Chukchi Sea through

Pickart, Robert S.

23

Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea World informational resource on all eight species of sea turtles. Excellent introduction to sea turtles including information on their classification, habitat, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout. Features two teaching activities for grades K-2.

2012-07-26

24

Sea urchin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sea urchin is a type of echinoderm. It is a consumer because it cannot make its own food and must eat other organisms to get energy. Sea urchins are omnivores, meaning they eat both plants and other animals to gain energy. Sea urchins have been known to eat algae, mussels, and sponges.

N/A N/A (NOAA;Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary)

2004-12-23

25

Sea Chest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By exploring life at sea for sailors and passengers, the Maritime Museum of San Diego offers insight into the history of maritime exploration, emigration, and commerce. Background and classroom activities are applicable to history, geography, social studies, science, art and other subjects. Emphasis on 19th Century sea travel and sailing ships, with topics including navigation techniques and technology, sailor's crafts, health and medicine at sea, shipboard life and social interactions.

26

Sea Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At first glance, starfish, more properly called sea stars, arenât doing much of anything. In this video, Jonathanâs investigations reveal a slow-motion predator that hunts and attacks its prey. Traveling the world, Jonathan investigates sea stars from the tropics to the Antarctic and uses time-lapse photography to reveal an amazing complexity to the world of the sea star. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-10-06

27

Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Malaysia there is an island known for more sea turtles than virtually anywhere on Earth. In this video, Jonathan visits this amazing ecosystem to learn about the life cycle of sea turtles. He is surprised to discover an amazingly complex and competitive environment. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-03-29

28

Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem provides an opportunity to increase familiarity with negative and positive numbers on a number line. The vertical number line is presented as black markings every one meter all the way up a lighthouse and on the underwater support going down to the sea bed, with sea level being "0". In answering the nine questions, children begin to calculate with negative numbers in the context of the distances between the sea creatures. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and a link to a related resource, Swimming Pool (cataloged separately).

2008-01-01

29

A Paired, Double-Blind, Randomized Comparison of a Moisturizing Durable Barrier Cream to 10% Glycerine Cream in the Prophylactic Management of Postmastectomy Irradiation Skin Care: Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 04.01  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A previous, unblinded study demonstrated that an alcohol-free barrier film containing an acrylate terpolymer (ATP) was effective in reducing skin reactions compared with a 10% glycerine cream (sorbolene). The different appearances of these products precluded a blinded comparison. To test the acrylate terpolymer principle in a double-blinded manner required the use of an alternative cream formulation, a moisturizing durable barrier cream (MDBC); the study was conducted by the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) as protocol 04.01. Methods and Materials: A total of 333 patients were randomized; 1 patient was ineligible and 14 patients withdrew or had less than 7 weeks' observations, leaving 318 for analysis. The chest wall was divided into medial and lateral compartments, and patients were randomized to have MDBC applied daily to the medial or lateral compartment and sorbolene to the other compartment. Weekly observations, photographs, and symptom scores (pain and pruritus) were collected to week 12 or resolution of skin reactions if earlier. Skin dose was confirmed by centrally calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters. Results: Rates of medial and lateral compartment Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), version 3, greater than or equal to grade 3 skin reactions were 23% and 41%, but rates by skin care product were identical at 32%. There was no significant difference between MDBC and sorbolene in the primary endpoint of peak skin reactions or secondary endpoints of area-under-the-curve skin reaction scores. Conclusions: The MDBC did not reduce the peak skin reaction compared to sorbolene. It is possible that this is related to the difference in the formulation of the cream compared with the film formulation. Skin dosimetry verification and double blinding are essential for radiation skin care comparative studies.

Graham, Peter H., E-mail: peter.graham@sesiahs.health.nsw.gov.au [Cancer Care Centre, St. George Hospital, Kogarah, New South Wales (Australia); Plant, Natalie; Graham, Jennifer L.; Browne, Lois [Cancer Care Centre, St. George Hospital, Kogarah, New South Wales (Australia)] [Cancer Care Centre, St. George Hospital, Kogarah, New South Wales (Australia); Borg, Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia); Capp, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mater Hospital, Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mater Hospital, Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia); Delaney, Geoff P. [Cancer Care Centre, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia)] [Cancer Care Centre, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Harvey, Jennifer [Mater Hospital, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)] [Mater Hospital, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Kenny, Lisbeth [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia)] [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Francis, Michael [Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Geelong (Australia)] [Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Geelong (Australia); Zissiadis, Yvonne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth (Australia)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth (Australia)

2013-05-01

30

Student Experiments at Sea (SEAS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interdisciplinary curriculum introduces the scientific process, experimental design and data analysis. Units on plate tectonics, hydrothermal vents, ridge visualization, surveying deep sea organisms. Students become the scientists, developing proposals for at-sea investigations, teacher coordinates submission to researchers studying the East Pacific Rise. Students retrieve, organize, analyze and report data from their experiment. Past experimental journals are posted. Free registration required to access curriculum and submit proposal.

2010-12-23

31

Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

2014-10-01

32

Savage Seas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion site to the new PBS series offers a collection of informative pieces and activities centered around the world's oceans. The site is divided into four principal sections, each of which features an article, brief sidebars, video clips, and in some cases, animations. The first, The Captain's Bridge, explores shipwrecks, stormy seas, and ocean rescues. The second, The Crow's Nest, dives into the power of waves. The Deep Sea section takes users to the nether regions of the ocean, while The Weather Factory touches on cyclones, ice and icebergs, and El Nino. Additional features at the site include Ask the Expert, Facts from the Sea, an annotated collection of related sites, and information about the series.

33

Sea Launch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea Launch is an international satellite launch service company that has a unique way of delivering payloads into space. With the launch platform situated on the equator in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, a specially designed rocket propels satellites into orbit with very good accuracy. The Sea Launch home page has plenty of information about its operation, including an overview of the technology, statistics about its successes and failures, and Webcasts of many of its launches. A 200+ page user's guide goes into detail about all the various stages of a mission; everything from design considerations for the spacecraft to transportation to the launch site is mentioned in the document.

34

Aral Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This series of MODIS images shows the dwindling Aral Sea. Once one of the world's largest freshwater lakes, the Aral Sea has decreased by as much as 60% over the past few decades due to diversion of the water to grow cotton and rice. These diversion have dropped the lake levels, increased salinity, and nearly decimated the fishing industry. The previous extent of the lake is clearly visible as a whitish perimeter in these image from April 16, May 18, and June 3, 2002. s. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

35

Sea ice in the China Sea  

SciTech Connect

In every winter, sea ice occurring in Bohai Sea and the North Yellow Sea is the first-year ice which is going through generating, developing and thawing processes. Therefore, it is necessary to spatially and temporally describe ice period, freezing range, thickness variations and general motion of sea ice. The purpose of this paper is to provide initial general situation and features of sea ice for forecasting and researching sea ice.

Deng Shuqi [National Research Center for Marine Environmental Forecasts, Beijing (China)

1993-12-31

36

Celtic Sea  

... carbonate. The plates, or coccoliths, give the ocean a milky white or turquoise appearance during intense blooms. The long-term flux of ... Sea for several weeks in summer. The coccoliths backscatter light from the water column to create a bright optical effect. Other algal ...

2013-04-17

37

Sea World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Excellent resource for information and teaching activities on marine life, designed primarily for elementary level. Teachers can sign up for a monthly e-newsletter (or access archived newsletters) filled with classroom activities, current information, and special links. Also features a searchable database of Sea World education materials and information on camps, marine science careers, and Shamu TV, an award-winning series broadcast around the country via satellite and cable.

38

Sea World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an excellent resource for information and teaching activities on marine life, designed primarily for elementary level. Teachers can sign up for a monthly e-newsletter (or access archived newsletters) filled with classroom activities, current information, and special links. Also features a searchable database of Sea World education materials and information on camps, marine science careers, and Shamu TV, an award-winning series broadcast around the country via satellite and cable.

2012-09-07

39

Sea Cucumbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What reef animal comes in a rainbow of crazy colors, can throw out its innards to immobilize predators, then creep away and regrow a brand-new stomach? Itâs the sea cucumber, prized as a gastronomic delight by some cultures and beginning to yield some of its secrets to scientists. Follow host Ari Daniel Shapiro from a Chinatown market to the reefs of Fiji to learn more about this amazing creature. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

40

Sea Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

2005-01-01

41

Melting Ice, Rising Seas  

NASA Video Gallery

Sea level rise is an indicator that our planet is warming. Much of the world's population lives on or near the coast, and rising seas are something worth watching. Sea level can rise for two reason...

42

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS sea otter researcher Tim Tinker drives the boat on an expedition to track and observe sea otters in Monterey Bay, California. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

43

Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures  

PubMed Central

Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10–17 °C (1? SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ?7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands. PMID:24753570

Douglas, Peter M. J.; Affek, Hagit P.; Ivany, Linda C.; Houben, Alexander J. P.; Sijp, Willem P.; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

2014-01-01

44

Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures.  

PubMed

Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10-17 °C (1? SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ?7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands. PMID:24753570

Douglas, Peter M J; Affek, Hagit P; Ivany, Linda C; Houben, Alexander J P; Sijp, Willem P; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

2014-05-01

45

Plate-tectonic setting of the Tasmanian region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Tasman Rise is a large submarine plateau of continental origin, located south of Tasmania. In the light of satellite?derived gravity data and shipboard swath?bathymetry and magnetic data collected in 1994 in the South Tasman Rise region, this paper re?examines the sea?floor spreading history of the surrounding ocean basins (northeastern Australian?Antarctic Basin and southwestern Tasman Sea). This information is

N. Rollet

1997-01-01

46

Beaufort Sea: information update  

SciTech Connect

The report is based on a multi-disciplinary meeting held March 6-7, 1985, as part of preparations for the Beaufort Sea Sale 97. The chapters are based on presentations given: The causeway effect: Modification of nearshore thermal regime resulting from causeways; Summertime sea ice intrusions in the Chukchi Sea; The deepwater limit of ice gouging on the Beaufort Sea shelf; Distribution, abundance, migration, harvest, and stock identity of Belukha Whales in the Beaufort Sea; Ringed seals in the Beaufort Sea; Beaufort Sea socioeconomics; The Baffin Island Oil Spill, (BIOS) Project.

Becker, P.R.

1988-04-01

47

Southern ocean warming, sea level and hydrological change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief (~150 kyr) period of widespread global average surface warming marks the transition between the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, ~56 million years ago. This so-called "Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum" (PETM) is associated with the massive injection of 13C-depleted carbon, reflected in a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Biotic responses include a global abundance peak (acme) of the subtropical dinoflagellate Apectodinium. Here we identify the PETM in a marine sedimentary sequence deposited on the East Tasman Plateau at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1172 and show, based on the organic paleothermometer TEX86, that southwest Pacific sea surface temperatures increased from ~26 °C to ~33°C during the PETM. Such temperatures before, during and after the PETM are >10 °C warmer than predicted by paleoclimate model simulations for this latitude. In part, this discrepancy may be explained by potential seasonal biases in the TEX86 proxy in polar oceans. Additionally, the data suggest that not only Arctic, but also Antarctic temperatures may be underestimated in simulations of ancient greenhouse climates by current generation fully coupled climate models. An early influx of abundant Apectodinium confirms that environmental change preceded the CIE on a global scale. Organic dinoflagellate cyst assemblages suggest a local decrease in the amount of river run off reaching the core site during the PETM, possibly in concert with eustatic rise. Moreover, the assemblages suggest changes in seasonality of the regional hydrological system and storm activity. Finally, significant variation in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages during the PETM indicates that southwest Pacific climates varied significantly over time scales of 103 - 104 years during this event, a finding comparable to similar studies of PETM successions from the New Jersey Shelf.

Sluijs, A.; Bijl, P. K.; Schouten, S.; Röhl, U.; Reichart, G.-J.; Brinkhuis, H.

2011-01-01

48

Clownfish in sea anemone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sea anemone allows the clownfish to hide in its tentacles. Sea anemones normally sting organisms that get too close. This is a commensalistic relationship because the clownfish benefits while the anemone is neither harmed nor helped.

Mohammed Al Momany (U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration;)

2005-08-29

49

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

2010-01-01

50

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

2012-01-01

51

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

2011-01-01

52

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

2013-01-01

53

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

2014-01-01

54

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors campaigns undertaken to observe the EAC and the Tasman Sea eddies as well as the motivation to renew the deployment of drifting buoys into the EAC and the Tasman Sea. The specific features discussed are motivated

55

All That Unplowed Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hunting and gathering at sea may fast be approaching their productive limits. Aquaculture - farming at sea - linked to conservation represents the sea's promise. If the system works, it might prove to be the key to supplying large amounts of food and fresh water at no cost in nonrenewable energy resources. (BT)

MOSAIC, 1975

1975-01-01

56

Deep-Sea Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will learn about special vehicles used in recent Black Sea research and the theory that the Black Sea during the Ice Age was an isolated freshwater lake surrounded by farmland that was eventually flooded. Students will describe the purpose of the research vehicles by writing newspaper articles pretending they have just returned from the Black Sea expedition.

57

Deep sea waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include incineration at sea, the modelling and biological effects of industrial wastes, microbial studies of ocean dumping, deep-sea mining wastes, the chemical analysis of ferromanganese nodules, and economic aspects of deep-sea disposal.

Kester, D.R.; Burt, W.V.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Park, P.K.; Ketchum, B.W.; Duedall, I.W.

1985-01-01

58

Sea Education Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Headquartered in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, SEA offers a variety of science programs at sea for high school and college students. Site features information on the vessels, the crew, current voyages, admissions information, and a wealth of photographs from past expeditions. Also includes a section where you can track the progress of the SEA boats and hear daily, and archived, audio reports.

59

Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn the difference between sea ice and glaciers in relation to sea level rise. They will create and explore topographic maps as a means of studying sea level rise and how it will affect Alaska's coastline.

Fairbanks, Geophysical I.

60

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Sea otter researchers Michelle Staedler, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and Tim Tinker, USGS, work together to locate sea otters in their study project. USGS scientists and their partners study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

61

Dust Storm, Aral Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

2002-01-01

62

Marinobacter salarius sp. nov. and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., Isolated from Sea Water.  

PubMed

Two non-pigmented, motile, Gram-negative marine bacteria designated R9SW1T and A3d10T were isolated from sea water samples collected from Chazhma Bay, Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean, Russia and St. Kilda Beach, Port Phillip Bay, the Tasman Sea, Pacific Ocean, respectively. Both organisms were found to grow between 4°C and 40°C, between pH 6 to 9, and are moderately halophilic, tolerating up to 20% (w/v) NaCl. Both strains were found to be able to degrade Tween 40 and 80, but only strain R9SW1T was found to be able to degrade starch. The major fatty acids were characteristic for the genus Marinobacter including C16:0, C16:1?7c, C18:1?9c and C18:1?7c. The G+C content of the DNA for strains R9SW1T and A3d10T were determined to be 57.1 mol% and 57.6 mol%, respectively. The two new strains share 97.6% of their 16S rRNA gene sequences, with 82.3% similarity in the average nucleotide identity (ANI), 19.8% similarity in the in silico genome-to-genome distance (GGD), 68.1% similarity in the average amino acid identity (AAI) of all conserved protein-coding genes, and 31 of the Karlin's genomic signature dissimilarity. A phylogenetic analysis showed that R9SW1T clusters with M. algicola DG893T sharing 99.40%, and A3d10T clusters with M. sediminum R65T sharing 99.53% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The results of the genomic and polyphasic taxonomic study, including genomic, genetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequence similarities, the analysis of the protein profiles generated using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and DNA-DNA relatedness data, indicated that strains R9SW1T and A3d10T represent two novel species of the genus Marinobacter. The names Marinobacter salarius sp. nov., with the type strain R9SW1T (?=? LMG 27497T ?=? JCM 19399T ?=? CIP 110588T ?=? KMM 7502T) and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., with the type strain A3d10T (?=? JCM 19398T ?=? CIP 110589T ?=? KMM 7501T), are proposed. PMID:25198502

Ng, Hooi Jun; López-Pérez, Mario; Webb, Hayden K; Gomez, Daniela; Sawabe, Tomoo; Ryan, Jason; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Bizet, Chantal; Malherbe, François; Mikhailov, Valery V; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

2014-01-01

63

Marinobacter salarius sp. nov. and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., Isolated from Sea Water  

PubMed Central

Two non-pigmented, motile, Gram-negative marine bacteria designated R9SW1T and A3d10T were isolated from sea water samples collected from Chazhma Bay, Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean, Russia and St. Kilda Beach, Port Phillip Bay, the Tasman Sea, Pacific Ocean, respectively. Both organisms were found to grow between 4°C and 40°C, between pH 6 to 9, and are moderately halophilic, tolerating up to 20% (w/v) NaCl. Both strains were found to be able to degrade Tween 40 and 80, but only strain R9SW1T was found to be able to degrade starch. The major fatty acids were characteristic for the genus Marinobacter including C16:0, C16:1?7c, C18:1?9c and C18:1?7c. The G+C content of the DNA for strains R9SW1T and A3d10T were determined to be 57.1 mol% and 57.6 mol%, respectively. The two new strains share 97.6% of their 16S rRNA gene sequences, with 82.3% similarity in the average nucleotide identity (ANI), 19.8% similarity in the in silico genome-to-genome distance (GGD), 68.1% similarity in the average amino acid identity (AAI) of all conserved protein-coding genes, and 31 of the Karlin's genomic signature dissimilarity. A phylogenetic analysis showed that R9SW1T clusters with M. algicola DG893T sharing 99.40%, and A3d10T clusters with M. sediminum R65T sharing 99.53% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The results of the genomic and polyphasic taxonomic study, including genomic, genetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequence similarities, the analysis of the protein profiles generated using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and DNA-DNA relatedness data, indicated that strains R9SW1T and A3d10T represent two novel species of the genus Marinobacter. The names Marinobacter salarius sp. nov., with the type strain R9SW1T (?=? LMG 27497T ?=? JCM 19399T ?=? CIP 110588T ?=? KMM 7502T) and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., with the type strain A3d10T (?=? JCM 19398T ?=? CIP 110589T ?=? KMM 7501T), are proposed. PMID:25198502

Ng, Hooi Jun; López-Pérez, Mario; Webb, Hayden K.; Gomez, Daniela; Sawabe, Tomoo; Ryan, Jason; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Bizet, Chantal; Malherbe, François; Mikhailov, Valery V.; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

2014-01-01

64

Preliminary results of the cruise dedicated to the bifurcation of the North Caledonian Jet onto the Queensland Plateau in the Coral Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, we intend to detail preliminary results and observations collected during the BIRFURCATION cruise, staged on board the R/V Alis of the IRD and operated under the auspices of SPICE (Southwest PacIfic Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment). A specific effort during SPICE was made to establish an observational program to survey air-sea fluxes and currents in the Coral, Solomon, and Tasman Seas, and their inflows and outflows, with special attention to the strong boundary currents. During its transit into the Coral Sea, the southern branch of the Southern Equatorial Current is affected by the presence of many reefs and small islands of a coral archipelago that cause it to form intense fine-scale oceanic jets downstream of these topographic obstacles. The North Caledonian Jet formed at its entry into the Coral Sea is further separated into flows towards the South (feeding the East Australian Current) and towards the equator (through the Solomon Sea). The obstacle responsible for this separation is the plateau of Queensland, near 17°S-152°E, which is composed of a group of small islands and coral reefs that are distinct from the Great Barrier Reef. The precise pathways and the relative contributions of the various water masses that arrive at the base of this plateau are still unknown and represent the focus of BIFURCATION. This cruise should thus supplement our vision of the circulation of the North Caledonian Jet within the Coral Sea, and make it possible to test to what extent this water contributes to the composition of the current at the western edge of the New Guinea UnderCurrent which feeds the equatorial band and whose climatological mass transport is estimated in the literature to vary by a factor of 2. By determining the characteristics of these water masses before their final arrival at the Australian coast it will also be possible to estimate to what extent they undergo further mixing with yet other water masses within the Coral and Solomon Seas before their arrival at the equator. Complementing the physical description, biogeochemical and biological samples would be collected in order to study the N2-fixing organisms that play a central role in providing nitrogen in support of primary productivity and the subsequent downward flux of organic matter to the deep ocean that serves to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Finally, all these results will become part of the description of climatic conditions prevailing in the Pacific Ocean.Rosette and ADCP instruments used in physical oceanography

Maes, C.; Marin, F.; Bonnet, S.; Desnues, A.; Finot, L.; Varillon, D.

2012-12-01

65

the East Sea Sea of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores collected from the deep basins of the East Sea Sea of Japan provide an ongoing and historical record of artificial radionuclides contamination into one of the most highly publicized radioactive waste dumping areas in the world ocean. The depth distributions of 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in sediment cores were investigated with 210 . the aid of Pb-derived sediment

Gi-Hoon Hong; Sang-Han Lee; Suk-Hyun Kim; Chang-Soo Chung; M. Baskaran

66

East Siberian Sea, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

67

National Sea Grant Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Sea Grant Library (NSGL) is the digital library and official archive for NOAA Sea Grant documents. It is the only comprehensive collection of Sea Grant Âfunded documents from over 30 programs and projects across the country. This collection encompasses a wide variety of subjects, including oceanography, marine education, aquaculture, fisheries, aquatic nuisance species, coastal hazards, seafood safety, limnology, coastal zone management, marine recreation, and law.

68

Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

level extremes in the Caribbean Sea are analyzed on the basis of hourly records from 13 tide gauges. The largest sea level extreme observed is 83 cm at Port Spain. The largest nontidal residual in the records is 76 cm, forced by a category 5 hurricane. Storm surges in the Caribbean are primarily caused by tropical storms and stationary cold fronts intruding the basin. However, the seasonal signal and mesoscale eddies also contribute to the creation of extremes. The five stations that have more than 20 years of data show significant trends in the extremes suggesting that flooding events are expected to become more frequent in the future. The observed trends in extremes are caused by mean sea level rise. There is no evidence of secular changes in the storm activity. Sea level return periods have also been estimated. In the south Colombian Basin, where large hurricane-induced surges are rare, stable estimates can be obtained with 30 years of data or more. For the north of the basin, where large hurricane-induced surges are more frequent, at least 40 years of data are required. This suggests that the present data set is not sufficiently long for robust estimates of return periods. ENSO variability correlates with the nontidal extremes, indicating a reduction of the storm activity during positive ENSO events. The period with the highest extremes is around October, when the various sea level contributors' maxima coincide.

Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

2014-08-01

69

Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea.  

PubMed

Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

Lillywhite, Harvey B; Sheehy, Coleman M; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

2014-05-01

70

Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata), such as the one hiding here under a boulder, and Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) are occasionally seen in Hurricane Hole. Hawksbills feed mostly on sponges while Greens eat mostly sea grasses....

2010-05-03

71

Migrations in the Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE terms ``anadromous'' and ``catadromous'' are employed to distinguish fish which leave the sea to spawn in fresh water and fish which migrate from fresh water to the sea when they reach maturity. Gilson, in his paper, ``L'Anguille'' (1908, Ann. d. I. Spc. toy, Zool. et Malacca, d Belgique, T. 43), proposed that the words should be used to define

A. Meek

1915-01-01

72

Sea Level Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video and animations of sea level from NASA's Climate website. Since 1992, NASA and CNES have studied sea surface topography as a proxy for ocean temperatures. NASA Missions TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason 1 and Jason 2 have been useful in predicting major climate, weather, and geologic events including El Nino, La Nina, Hurricane Katrina, and the Indian Ocean Tsunami.

Jackson, Randall; Nasa, For

73

Bering Sea Expedition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this investigation learners research the effects of melting sea ice in the Bering Sea Ecosystem. They create research proposals to earn a place on the scientific research vessel Healy and present their findings and proposals to a Research Board committee.

Curriculum, Alaska S.; Grant, Alaska S.

74

White Sea - Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

2002-01-01

75

Kara Sea radioactivity assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea

Iolanda Osvath; Pavel P Povinec; Murdoch S Baxter

1999-01-01

76

Sea Anemone: Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several investigations can be undertaken with live sea anemones. A sea anemone's feeding response, fighting power, color, and symbiotic relationships to other invertebrates (such as a marine hermit crab) can be investigated in the high school classroom. Background information and laboratory procedures are provided. (Author/JN)

Hunt, John D.

1982-01-01

77

Getting Your Sea Legs  

PubMed Central

Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoit G.

2013-01-01

78

Sea Lion Skeleton - Nostrils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The carnivorous sea lion uses its sharp pointed teeth and large mouth to shred and tear its prey. The large nose and large eyes on either side of the skull help the sea lion to detect prey. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-26

79

Sea Lion Skeleton - Skull  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The carnivorous sea lion uses its sharp pointed teeth and large mouth to shred and tear its prey. The large nose and large eyes on either side of the skull help the sea lion to detect prey. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-26

80

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS wildlife biologist Alisha Kage holds out a VHF receiver, hoping to hear the tell-tale beep that helps her locate sea otters that are part of study to monitor and learn more about the species. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from nea...

81

Black Sea in Bloom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

82

The Bering Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, dense clouds of phytoplankton (microscopic plants that live in water) have appeared in the Bering Sea each summer. One class of phytoplankton are particularly easy to spot from overhead. Called coccolithophores, these phytoplankton grow calcium-rich shells. These shells are bright white and turn the water where they grow a milky blue. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this image of coccolithophores off the coast of Alaska on September 13 and 14, 2000. (The Bering Sea straddles the International Dateline, so the left side of the image is the 14th while the right is the 13th.) The bloom covers approximately 400,000 square kilometers (154,000 square miles). Swirls of water with varying shades show ocean currents and eddies. In general, the brighter the water, the higher the concentration of coccolithophores. SeaWiFS has been taking pictures of this area since 1997. Follow these links to see more images: June 27, 2000 April 29, 2000 Changing Currents Color the Bering Sea a new Shade of Blue (several images from 1998) Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE.

2002-01-01

83

STELLER SEA LIONS AND FISHERIES: COMPETITION AT SEA?  

E-print Network

STELLER SEA LIONS AND FISHERIES: COMPETITION AT SEA? by TABITHA CHENG YEE HUI B.Sc., The University the decline of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in western Alaska is the reduction of prey abundance that attempted to assess competition between sea lions and fisheries by estimating the local amounts of prey

84

Arctic Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how the area of Arctic sea ice has changed over recent years. First, learners graph the area of Arctic sea ice over time from 1979 to 2007. Then, learners use this information to extrapolate what the area will be in 2018 and graph their predictions. In part two of the activity, learners make a flip book to simulate the sea changes they just graphed. This resource includes background information related to the Northwest Passage and questions for learners to answer after completing this activity.

Meier, Beverly L.

2012-06-26

85

Dead Sea Scrolls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

1994-01-01

86

Record Sea Ice Minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

2007-01-01

87

Sea ice ecosystems.  

PubMed

Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters. PMID:24015900

Arrigo, Kevin R

2014-01-01

88

Purple sea urchin swarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea urchins live in low tide regions and eat seaweed. Urchins have no arms but have five rows of tube feet for movement. They are found in holes and use their spines for protection and to burrow into the rocks.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-04

89

2011 Sea Ice Minimum  

NASA Video Gallery

This video shows Arctic sea ice from March 7, 2011, to Sept. 9, 2011, ending with a comparison of the 30-year average minimum extent, shown in yellow, and the Northwest Passage, in red. (no audio) ...

90

Smart Sea Lions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from NOVA scienceNOW explores whether animals and humans are more similar than we think. Meet Rio, a sea lion who demonstrates to researchers reasoning skills once thought limited to humans.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-08-31

91

Stellar Sea Lion Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the decline in population of western Stellar Sea Lions from 1969 to 1986, shown in a series of three images. The accompanying text describes the possible factors that may be contributing to the change in population.

92

Sea Raiders of Acadia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the French allies, the Micmac, waged much of the war against the English on the sea. This article discusses the determined stand by the Micmac seamen of the eastern coasts for their lands and way of life. (NQ)

Dickason, Olive Patricia

1976-01-01

93

Sea Floor Spreading I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this introductory Excel tutorial (Activity I) students use Excel to explore the geodynamics model equation for ocean depth around a sea-floor spreading center. For students with no prior Excel experience.

Activity And Starting Point Page By R.m. Mackay. Clark College, Physics A.

94

Black Sea Becomes Turquoise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of color variance. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably due to sediments carried in from high waters and snowmelt from upstream. This scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on May 14, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is ?one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.? The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated'supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea.

2002-01-01

95

Sea bed mechanics  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a discussion on sea bed processes with engineering applications. It brings together the material currently available only in technical reports of research papers. It provides formulae and background references necessary for design calculation of problems such as sea bed or coastal erosion, and sub-marine pipeline stability. It also covers dissipation of wave energy, formation of ripples and dunes, and the transportation of sediments.

Sleath, J.F.A.

1984-01-01

96

Sea Level Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents ocean topography as measured by sea surface heights taken from space by NASA and CNES. Ocean heat circulation impacts weather and causes events such as Large El Nino, Hurricane Katrina, Indian Ocean Tsunami and La Nina. These events and the latest view of sea surface height are depicted with this 3D interactive viewer. Objectives of NASA missions TOPEX/Poseiden, Jason 1, and Jason 2/OSTM are charted. Closed Captioning is available.

97

Sea Urchin Embryology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Advanced high school level laboratory activities using sea urchins to observe fertilization and early developmental stages. This is a comprehensive site complete with multiple labs, support lessons, background information, animated graphics illustrating lab techniques, printable overheads (also available in Spanish and French), and a glossary of terms. A one-stop site for sea urchin information, experiments, suppliers, and research. Links to additional resources are available.

98

Global sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm\\/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise

Bruce C. Douglas

1991-01-01

99

The genesis of sea level variability in the Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional variability of sea level is an integral indicator of changing oceanographic conditions due to different processes of oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial origin. The present study explores the nature of sea level variability in the Barents Sea-a marginal shelf sea of the Arctic Ocean. A characteristic feature that distinguishes this sea from other Arctic shelf seas is that it is largely ice free throughout the year. This allows continuous monitoring of sea level by space-borne altimeters. In this work we combine satellite altimetry, ocean gravity measurements by GRACE satellites, available hydrography data, and a high-resolution ocean data synthesis product to estimate the steric and mass-related components of sea level in the Barents Sea. We present one of the first observational evidence of the local importance of the mass-related sea level changes. The observed 1-3 month phase lag between the annual cycles of sea level in the Barents Sea and in the Nordic seas (Norwegian, Iceland, Greenland seas) is explained by the annual mass-related changes. The analysis of the barotropic vorticity budget shows that the mass-related sea level variability in the central part of the Barents Sea is determined by the combined effect of wind stress, flow over the varying bottom topography, and dissipation, while the impact of vorticity fluxes is negligible. Overall, the steric sea level has smaller amplitudes and mainly varies on the seasonal time scale. The thermosteric sea level is the main contributor to the steric sea level along the pathways of the Atlantic inflow into the Barents Sea. The relative contribution of the halosteric sea level is dominant in the southeastern, eastern, and northern parts of the Barents Sea, modulated by the seasonal sea ice formation/melt as well as by continental runoff. The variability of the thermosteric sea level in the Barents Sea is mostly driven by variations in the net surface heat flux, whereas the contribution of heat advection becomes as important as the ocean-atmosphere heat exchange at interannual time scales.

Volkov, Denis L.; Landerer, Felix W.; Kirillov, Sergey A.

2013-09-01

100

The Dead Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea.

With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

Size: 18.5 by 48.1 kilometers (11.5 by 29.8 miles) Location: 31.4 degrees North latitude, 35.4 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: May 3, 2005

2006-01-01

101

Bioprospecting / Deep Sea Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first portion of the radio broadcast discusses the relatively new field of bioprospecting, the exploration of the sea floor for novel compounds and processes that may have industrial or medical applications. Bioprospectors are trying to collect samples of deep-sea organisms which may yield new pharmaceutical compounds, as in the case of Conus magnus, a sea snail whose venom has yielded a painkiller 1000 times more potent than morphine. There is also discussion of who owns these resources and what can be done to protect them. This segment is 12 minutes in length. The second segment of the broadcast traces the history of undersea exploration, including methods of measuring ocean depth, the bathysphere used by William Beebe and Otis Barton, the modern Alvin submersible, and remotely operated vehicles. There is also discussion of the motives and inspiration for ocean exploration; the deep sea knowledge of whalers; and comparisons of deep sea research with space exploration. This segment is 34 minutes and 40 seconds in length.

102

Sea Slug Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Australian Museum and maintained by Dr. Bill Rudman, the recently redesigned Sea Slug Forum is an excellent resource for information on nudibranchs and related sea slugs such as bubble-shells, sea hares, and side-gilled slugs. One of the chief features of the site is a lengthy species list that links to lovely photos, brief descriptions, distribution information, and related messages from the site's Forum. The site also offers a sizable collection of short pieces and archived forum messages on a variety of general topics, arranged alphabetically. Users can send their own questions and review messages sent to the site along with Dr. Rudman's replies by date or via a keyword search engine. Additional resources include suggested reading, related annotated links, and information on forum participants.

103

Mountains in the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 6-7 day investigation, learners begin with an introduction to seamounts that are present in the Gulf of Alaska. They learn how seamounts were formed and look at a bathymetric map of a seamount. In Activity 3A, learners explore sea floor mapping techniques as they participate in an activity to create a map of a sea feature they have molded out of clay. In Activity 3B, learners watch a short animated presentation, "Who cares about Sea Floor Mapping?" and create a model of a seamount found in Alaska. They use pre-sonar techniques to collect data and create a graph of their seamount using Excel. This detailed lesson plan includes learner hand-outs, evaluation questions, curricular connections, and tips.

Grant, Alaska S.

2011-01-01

104

Geology of Barents Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Barents Sea is situated on the continental shelf between Norway, the Spitsbergen Islands, and Novaya Zemlya. The main structural framework of the area was formed during the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies, whereas the western parts were reactivated by the Kimmerian and Alpine orogenies. Because of the complex opening of the Greenland Norwegian Sea, important tertiary reactivation of Mesozoic normal faults occurred along southwest-northeast-trending systems of wrench faults. Owing to substantial erosion in the late Tertiary, the subsidence history and thermal development are more difficult to unravel in this area than in other places along the Norwegian Shelf. The erosion products were deposited in a huge sedimentary wedge extending onto the oceanic crust. The hydrocarbon discoveries in the Troms area in the southern part of the Barents Sea are encouraging for further exploration. However, the petroleum potential for large areas is not well known at this stage.

Riis, F.; Vollset, J.

1984-09-01

105

Understanding Sea Level Changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean sea level; any short-term or long-term sea level change relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such changes in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global sea-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of sea water) following global climate; (2) mass-budget changes due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of sea surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding sea level changes "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of climate change and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.

Chao, Benjamin F.

2004-01-01

106

Deep Drilling at Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science News for Kids article provides an image-rich overview of a deep-sea drilling project off the coast of British Columbia. The article guides students through the exploration, explaining how deep sediment cores are taken, what researchers find in the cores, and details of what life is like on a research ship. It features links to an online poll, an opportunity for students to submit comments, a deep-sea drilling word find, and links to supplementary reading questions and related sites.

Ramsayer, Kate; Magazine, Science N.

107

Lighting Up the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic lesson plan explores bioluminescent organisms in the sea. In this activity, students explore the benefits of bioluminescence by conducting a simulation and viewing pictures of bioluminescent marine animals on the Web. The conclusion of the activity entails students pretending to be deep-sea divers and writing journal entries about their impressions of a bioluminescent animal they have encountered. In addition to a detailed procedure, the lesson plan includes suggestions for assessment, ideas for extending the lesson, and links to related websites.

Xpeditions, National G.

108

Lighting Up the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic lesson plan explores bioluminescent organisms in the sea. In this activity, students explore the benefits of bioluminescence by conducting a simulation and viewing pictures of bioluminescent marine animals on the Web. The conclusion of the activity entails students pretending to be deep-sea divers and writing journal entries about their impressions of a bioluminescent animal they have encountered. In addition to a detailed procedure, the lesson plan includes suggestions for assessment, ideas for extending the lesson, and links to related websites.

2009-07-09

109

RADIOCARBON RESERVOIR AGES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA AND BLACK SEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured apparent marine radiocarbon ages for the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Red Sea by accel- erator mass spectrometry radiocarbon analyses of 26 modern, pre-bomb mollusk shells collected living between AD 1837 and 1950. The marine reservoir (R(t)) ages were estimated at some 390 ± 85 yr BP, 415 ± 90 yr BP and 440 ± 40 yr BP,

Nadine Tisnerat; Franck Bassinot

110

Sea Grant Publications Index 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This index lists all publications, including newsletters, received by the National Sea Grant Depository (NSGD) in 1977. It supplements the earlier publications covering the period 1968-1976. A separate Sea Grant Newsletters Index will not be published thi...

B. Edel, C. Roques

1978-01-01

111

SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND  

E-print Network

385: SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN 1947 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN, 1947 Part I- -Sea surface temperature monthly average charts, northeastern Pacific Ocean 5 Part II- -Sea

112

Seafloor Control on Sea Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The seafloor has a profound role in Arctic sea ice formation and seasonal evolution. Ocean bathymetry controls the distribution and mixing of warm and cold waters, which may originate from different sources, thereby dictating the pattern of sea ice on the ocean surface. Sea ice dynamics, forced by surface winds, are also guided by seafloor features in preferential directions. Here, satellite mapping of sea ice together with buoy measurements are used to reveal the bathymetric control on sea ice growth and dynamics. Bathymetric effects on sea ice formation are clearly observed in the conformation between sea ice patterns and bathymetric characteristics in the peripheral seas. Beyond local features, bathymetric control appears over extensive ice-prone regions across the Arctic Ocean. The large-scale conformation between bathymetry and patterns of different synoptic sea ice classes, including seasonal and perennial sea ice, is identified. An implication of the bathymetric influence is that the maximum extent of the total sea ice cover is relatively stable, as observed by scatterometer data in the decade of the 2000s, while the minimum ice extent has decreased drastically. Because of the geologic control, the sea ice cover can expand only as far as it reaches the seashore, the continental shelf break, or other pronounced bathymetric features in the peripheral seas. Since the seafloor does not change significantly for decades or centuries, sea ice patterns can be recurrent around certain bathymetric features, which, once identified, may help improve short-term forecast and seasonal outlook of the sea ice cover. Moreover, the seafloor can indirectly influence cloud cover by its control on sea ice distribution, which differentially modulates the latent heat flux through ice covered and open water areas.

Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Rigor, I. G.; Hall, D. K.; Neumann, G.

2011-01-01

113

Sailing the Cyber Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To successfully navigate stormy and uncertain seas requires operating by an internationally agreed-to set of standards and norms affectionately known as the Rules of the Road. There are 'rules' like these that apply to all the 'global commons' -- what we ...

I. E. Parker, J. G. Stavridis

2012-01-01

114

Sea Level Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive program focuses on the role of sea level in climate change. Sections include an overview and a list of relevant NASA satellite missions and their objectives. A third section, entitled Global View, covers the following 5 topics: Latest View, Large El Niño, Hurricane Katrina, Indian Ocean Tsunami, and La Niña.

115

Fire in the Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legend of the lost city of Atlantis has captivated the human imagination for centuries. Did this city actually exist, and, if so, what happened to it? Was it destroyed in the greatest cataclysmic event of the Bronze Age? While the truth behind the legend of Atlantis may never be known, Fire in the Sea tells the story of one

Walter L. Friedrich

2000-01-01

116

SeaWeb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A multimedia public education project designed to raise awareness of the world ocean and the life within it. Find articles on the latest ocean issues, links to resources and audio clips of the radio show Ocean Report. Also features information on SeaWeb programs, such as aquaculture initiatives for both fish and their eggs (caviar), and publications.

117

Flowers of the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

`Flowers of the sea' is an attempt to respond to the question of dream writing with a different type of gesture. It was written in 2004, coming out of work done in what you might call the field of creative-critical writing, and is part of a series of what I call `legends'. Three of these legends have been published elsewhere,

Jonathan Tiplady

2008-01-01

118

Ships to the Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson contains materials for the U.S. Navy Museum's "Ships to the Sea" program. The program is appropriate for students in grades 2-4 and was designed in accordance with local and national social studies standards. The materials introduce students to the world of ship technology and naval terminology. The lesson is presented in five…

Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

119

Sea Lion Skeleton - Backbone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-27

120

Sea Lion Skeleton - Ribcage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-15

121

Farming the Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

Morgan, William

1971-01-01

122

Steller Sea Lion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A comprehensive site featuring the threatened Steller Sea Lion. Site includes information on its critical habitat, protection measures, distribution information, and much more. Explore the Literature, Presentations, and Images section for an abundance of information from conferences, workshops, and research. Site features a wealth of photographs and video, as well as contact information for the program.

2011-01-10

123

DELIVERABLE Central North Sea  

E-print Network

.scottish-enterprise.com/~/media/SE/Resources/Documents/DEF/Economic%20Potential%20of%20CO2%20EOR%20in%20Scotland.pdf Central North Sea ­ CO2 Storage Hub : Enabling CCS into a guaranteed network for transportation and storage of captured CO2. Recent studies examining the levelised

Haszeldine, Stuart

124

Redlands Institute: Salton Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea Database Program (SSDP) at the University of Redlands, Redlands Institute (RI) was a project administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Center for Special Programs. The purpose behind the SSDP was to bring a wide range of data management and analysis tools and professionals "to support multi-disciplinary and coordinated decision-making across all the professional and scientific teams and stakeholders involved in the restoration of California's largest inland body of water, the Salton Sea." Part of their outreach work includes this fine website, which includes sections titled "Ecological Issues", "Data & Research", and "Exploring the Area". First-time visitors may want to start by clicking on the "Ecological Issues" area. Here they can learn about the science of the area, the contemporary issues facing the survival of the Salton Sea, and some of the proposed solutions to restore the Sea. Journalists and scientists will appreciate the "Data & Research" area, as it features digital maps of the area, GIS data, public policy documents, and an image database. The casual traveler will enjoy the "Exploring the Area" section, and here they will find information about current weather conditions, fishing reports, and California State park materials.

125

Whither Arctic Sea Ice?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students work with real datasets to investigate a real situation regarding disappearing Arctic sea ice. The case study has students working side-by-side with a scientist from the National Snow and Ice Data Center and an Inuit community in Manitoba.

Youngman, Betsy; Chapter, Earth E.

126

The Cosmonaut Sea Wedge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A set of multi-channel seismic profiles (~15000 km) acquired by Russia, Norway and Australia has been used to investigate the depositional evolution of the Cosmonaut Sea margin of East Antarctica. We recognize a regional sediment wedge below the upper part of the continental rise. The wedge, herein termed the Cosmonaut Sea Wedge, is positioned stratigraphically underneath the inferred glaciomarine section and extends for at least 1200 km along the continental margin and from 80 to about 250 km seaward or to the north. Lateral variations in the growth pattern of the wedge indicate several overlapping depocentres, which at their distal northern end are flanked by elongated mounded drifts and contourite sheets. The internal stratification of the mounded drift deposits suggests that westward flowing bottom currents reworked the marginal deposits. The action of these currents together with sea-level changes is considered to have controlled the growth of the wedge. We interpret the Cosmonaut Sea Wedge as a composite feature comprising several bottom current reworked fan systems.

Solli, K.; Kuvaas, B.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Leitchenkov, G.; Guseva, J.; Gandyukhin, V.

2007-01-01

127

Biotechnology and the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of recent discoveries in genetic engineering to marine plants and animals offers enormous potential for harvesting more food, pharmaceuticals, and industrial compounds from the sea. Using biotechnology's ability to excise and replace genetic material selected for specific functions, such efforts would allow manifold increases in production of substances conventionally reliant on the capture of often rare marine species.

Rita R. Colwell; Jack R. Greer

1986-01-01

128

The Dirac Sea  

E-print Network

We give an alternate definition of the free Dirac field featuring an explicit construction of the Dirac sea. The treatment employs a semi-infinite wedge product of Hilbert spaces. We also show that the construction is equivalent to the standard Fock space construction.

J. Dimock

2010-11-26

129

Classroom of the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most students do not have the opportunity to conduct in situ research projects until college, the Classroom of the Sea program at the American School for the Deaf (ASD) provides an unusual opportunity for students to work directly with scientists

Monte, Denise; Hupper, Mary L.; Scheifele, Peter

2000-03-01

130

Tides & Currents: Sea Level Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services has been measuring sea level for over 150 years. This resource illustrates regional trends in sea level, with arrows representing the direction and magnitude of change including national and global stations. Impacts on changing sea levels in relation to atmospheric and oceanic processes as well as other Earth systems are explained and supported with educations resources.

2010-01-01

131

Sea ice microbial communities (SIMCO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea ice microbial communities (SIMCO) grow luxuriantly within several microhabitats of sea ice, indicating that the microorganisms comprising these communities are well adapted to the physicochemical gradients which characterize sea ice. We used SIMCO obtained from the bottom of congelation ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, to test the hypothesis that low temperature limits microbial productivity in polar oceans and also

Steven T. Kottmeier; Cornelius W. Sullivan

1988-01-01

132

National Sea Grant Educators Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compilation of Sea Grant marine education resources. Site includes the latest news, a pdf file discussing Sea Grant education initiatives, links to all Sea Grant Education websites, several teaching and learning resources, and several interactive classroom activities. An excellent site to begin preparations for a marine science or oceanography course.

133

South China Sea Circulation and  

E-print Network

, P.C., N.L. Edmons, and C.W. Fan, "Dynamical mechanisms for the South China Sea seasonal circulation.C., S.H. Lu, and Y.C. Chen, 2001: Evaluation of the Princeton Ocean Model using the South China SeaSouth China Sea Circulation and Thermohaline Structure Peter C Chu Naval Postgraduate School pcchu

Chu, Peter C.

134

Sea Level : Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can find answers to frequently asked questions regarding sea level and sea level changes. Topics addressed include how mean sea level is defined, how much sea level would rise if all the worlds ice were to melt, differences in sea level between oceans and at different latitudes, the meaning of altitude above sea level, and others.

2007-12-12

135

Northern Sand Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

136

Sea ice radiative forcing, sea ice area, and climate sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in sea ice cover affect climate sensitivity by modifying albedo and surface heat flux exchange, which in turn affect the absorbed solar radiation at the surface as well as cloud cover, atmospheric water content and poleward atmospheric heat transport. Here, we use a configuration of the Community Earth System Model 1.0.4 with a slab ocean model and a thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice model to investigate the overall net effect of feedbacks associated with the sea ice loss. We analyze the strength of the overall sea ice feedback in terms of two factors: the sensitivity of sea ice area to changes in temperature, and the sensitivity of sea ice radiative forcing to changes in sea ice area. In this model configuration, sea ice area decreases by ~3 × 1012 m2 per K of global warming, while the effective global radiative forcing per square meter of sea ice loss is ~0.1 × 10-12 W m-2. The product of these two terms (~0.3 W m-2 K-1) approximately equals the difference in climate feedback parameter found in simulations with sea ice response (1.05 W m-2 K-1) and simulations without sea ice response (1.31 W m-2 K-1 or 1.35 W m-2 K-1, depending on the method used to disable changes in sea ice cover). Thus, we find that in our model simulations, sea ice response accounts for about 20% to 22% of the climate sensitivity to an imposed change in radiative forcing. In our model, the additional radiative forcing resulting from a loss of all sea ice in the 'pre-industrial' state is comparable to but somewhat less than the radiative forcing from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content.

Caldeira, Ken; Cvijanovic, Ivana

2014-05-01

137

The Aral Sea Disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aral Sea is a huge terminal lake located among the deserts of Central Asia. Over the past 10 millennia, it has repeatedly filled and dried, owing both to natural and human forces. The most recent desiccation started in the early 1960s and owes overwhelmingly to the expansion of irrigation that has drained its two tributary rivers. Lake level has fallen 23 m, area shrunk 74%, volume decreased 90%, and salinity grew from 10 to more than 100g/l, causing negative ecological changes, including decimation of native fish species, initiation of dust/salt storms, degradation of deltaic biotic communities, and climate change around the former shoreline. The population residing around the lake has also been negatively impacted. There is little hope in the foreseeable future to fully restore the Aral Sea, but measures to preserve/rehabilitate parts of the water body and the deltas are feasible.

Micklin, Philip

2007-05-01

138

The Disappearing Aral Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In just 30 years, the Aral Sea has lost more than 60 percent of its water. Barring change, it may disappear entirely by 2020. In this visualization, satellite images dating from 1973 to 2000 show how water diverted from this inland lake for agriculture has caused it to shrink considerably over a short period of time. The feature can be run as an animation or as a series of slides. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

139

Secrets@Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ace on the Case: Secrets@sea invites students to solve a mystery by tracking down ecological clues in an interactive story format. As students click on bubbles, they move forward through the story. Topics woven into the mystery include food webs, bioaccumulations, killer whales, salmon, plankton, salinity, and others. There is a study room where students can click on objects to get more clues. Field Guides are divided by topic and offer additional information for students.

Science NetLinks (Engaging Science;)

2004-04-29

140

Salish Sea Expeditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At-sea education program combines classroom study with shipboard science studies in Puget Sound, Washington. Offers spring programs for schools and home schoolers, summer programs for families and youngsters; expeditions of 1 to 5 days involve oceanographic sampling activities, navigation and sailing responsibilities aboard a 61-foot sailing vessel. Teachers can join a preview sail to evaluate; site provides details on water quality, plankton and other studies and equipment used.

141

Sea Grants awarded  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has awarded sea grants to the following institutions:The University of Rhode Island will receive $1,125,000 for coastal zone and fisheries research.The University of North Carolina has been awarded $410,000 for research in marine law, ocean engineering, aquaculture, and a wide range of estuarine studies of particular interest to North Carolina and the southeast coast

Anonymous

1971-01-01

142

Sea & Ships: Explore online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Maritime Museum (NMM) in England notes that its goal is "working to illustrate for everyone the importance of the sea, ships, time and the stars and their relationship with people." There is so much to explore in the "Sea and Ships" portion of the NMM website, but a great way to see everything it has to offer is by using the "Sea and Ships Directory" at the bottom of the homepage. It divides the material up by "Subjects", "People", "Collections", "Online Galleries", and "Games and Interactives". Visitors interested in lessons about the ocean that come in the form of games, quizzes and stories, should definitely check out the "Your Ocean" link from the "Games and Interactives". The "Your Waste" lesson gives visitors the opportunity to test their skills at "managing an oil spill clean-up operation", in the game "Oil Crisis!" Keeping waste to a minimum is what the quiz "Pollution Solutions" addresses, and is also on the "Your Waste" page. Other lessons include "Your Energy", "Your Stuff" and "Your Climate".

143

Dead Sea rhodopsins revisited.  

PubMed

The Dead Sea is a unique hypersaline ecosystem with near toxic magnesium levels (?2?M), dominance of divalent cations and a slightly acidic pH. Previously, we reported a haloarchaeon related to Halobacterium salinarum to dominate in a microbial bloom that developed in 1992 in the upper water layers of the lake following massive freshwater runoff. Whether this clade also dominated an earlier bloom in 1980-1982 cannot be ascertained as no samples for cultivation-independent analysis were preserved. The presence of the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin was reported in the 1980-1982 bloom of prokaryotes that had developed in the Dead Sea. To test the hypothesis that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping may play a major role in determining what type of haloarchaea may dominate in specific bloom conditions, we compared rhodopsin genes recovered from Dead Sea biomass collected in different periods with genes coding for retinal proteins in isolated haloarchaea. Novel bacteriorhodopsin and sensory rhodopsin genes were found in samples collected in 2007 and 2010. The fact that no rhodopsin genes were recovered from samples collected during the 1992 bloom, which was dominated by a single species, suggests that different clades were present in the 1980-1982 and 1992 blooms, and that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping did not necessarily play a determinative role in the dominance of specific halophiles in the blooms. PMID:23760932

Bodaker, Idan; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Oren, Aharon; Béjà, Oded

2012-12-01

144

Kara Sea radioactivity assessment.  

PubMed

Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya bays as well as soil from the shore of Abrosimov bay have shown that radionuclide contamination of the open Kara Sea is mainly due to global fallout, with smaller contributions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant, the Chernobyl accident run-off from the Ob and Yenisey rivers and local fallout. Computer modelling results have shown that maximum annual doses of approximately 1 mSv are expected for a hypothetical critical group subsisting on fish caught in the Novaya Zemlya bays whereas populations living on the mainland can be expected to receive doses at least three orders of magnitude lower. PMID:10568274

Osvath, I; Povinec, P P; Baxter, M S

1999-09-30

145

Aral Sea Evaporation (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Aral Sea is actually not a sea at all, but an immense fresh water lake. In the last thirty years, more than sixty percent of the lake has disappeared because much of the river flow feeding the lake was diverted to irrigate cotton fields and rice paddies. Concentrations of salts and minerals began to rise in the shrinking body of water, leading to staggering alterations in the lakes ecology and precipitous drops in the Arals fish population. Powerful winds that blow across this part of Asia routinely pick up and deposit the now exposed lake bed soil. This has contributed to a significant reduction in breathable air quality, and crop yields have been appreciably affected due to heavily salt laden particles falling on arable land. This series of Landsat images taken in 1973, 1987 and 2000 show the profound reduction in overall area at the north end of the Aral, and a commensurate increase in land area as the floor of the sea now lies exposed.

Thomson, Joycelyn; Mitchell, Horace; Williams, Darrel

2005-02-15

146

Seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal sea level cycle has been investigated in the Caribbean Sea using altimetry and tide gauge time series from 27 stations and is characterized by large spatial variability. The coastal annual harmonic has amplitudes that range from 2 cm to 9 cm, peaking between August and October and semi-annual harmonic with maximum amplitude of 6 cm, with most stations peaking in April and October. The coastal seasonal sea level cycle contributes significantly at most areas to sea level variability and can explain the sea level variance up to 78%. The barometric effect on the coastal sea level seasonal cycles is insignificant in the annual component but dominant at 9 stations in the semi-annual cycle. The seasonal sea level cycle from 18 years of altimetry confirm the results obtained from the tide-gauges and allow us to identify some dominant sea level forcing parameters in the annual and semi-annual frequencies such as the Panama-Colombia gyre driven by the wind stress curl and the Caribbean Low Level Jet modulating the sea level in the northern coast of South America and linked to the local upwelling. The seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea is unsteady in time, with large variations in amplitude and phase lag at most of the stations, where the 5-year amplitude in the coastal annual cycle can change over 6 cm in a 24 year period. The seasonal sea level cycle peaks about October when the probability of coastal impacts increases, especially in the northern coast of South America where the range is larger.

Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

2012-07-01

147

Seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal sea level cycle has been investigated in the Caribbean Sea using altimetry and tide gauge time series from 27 stations and is characterized by large spatial variability. The coastal annual harmonic has amplitudes that range from 2 cm to 9 cm, peaking between August and October and semi-annual harmonic with maximum amplitude of 6 cm, with most stations peaking in April and October. The coastal seasonal sea level cycle accounts for up to 76% of the monthly sea level variance. The barometric effect on the coastal sea level seasonal cycles is insignificant in the annual component but dominant at 9 stations in the semi-annual cycle. The seasonal sea level cycle from 18 years of altimetry confirm the results obtained from the tide-gauges. In addition it illustrates areas where particularities in the seasonal cycle exist. The seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea is unsteady in time, with significant variations in amplitude and phase lag at most of the stations, where the 5-year amplitude in the coastal annual cycle can change over 6 cm in a 24 year period. The seasonal sea level cycle has a larger range than the range from the annual and semi-annual components, and peaks about October when the probability of coastal impacts increases, especially in the northern coast of South America where the range is larger. This analysis is supported by the Lloyd's Register Trust Fund project Marine Extremes.

Torres, R.; Tsimplis, M.

2012-04-01

148

Supervising Doctorates at a Distance: Three Trans-Tasman Stories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges of post-traditional, distance PhD supervision and suggest pedagogical interventions to bridge the distance. The paper investigates the skills and understandings necessary for mediating the supervisor-supervisee dyad within faceless encounters. Design/methodology/approach: Grounded in…

Andrew, Martin

2012-01-01

149

Water Mass Properties and Distribution between South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A definition of water mass properties, characteristics and its origin along the coast of northern Borneo are presented based on 55 CTD casts cruises in July 2009 combined with five Argo profiling floats at surrounding seas. The T-S relation in the study area, which includes South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea, show existences of eight water masses. In reference of earlier studies, we define water masses in the surface mixed layer with strong mixed of Open Sea Water (OSW), Continental Shelf Water (CSW) and Tropical Surface Water (TSW). Below the layer of this active mixing is a zone of rapid transition called the Seasonal Thermocline Water (STW). Meanwhile, the Maximum Salinity Water (MSW), Permanent Thermocline Water (PTW), North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) and Deep Water (DW) were found at the depth range from below the seasonal thermocline to about 1000 m. In addition, study of BRAN (BLUElink ReANalysis) global ocean model was conducted to demonstrate how current circulation influence the exchange of water mass between the 3 seas. Sulu Sea sits in the middle and has very limited connection between the other two seas. Connection with Celebes Sea occurs at the inlet of 200m depth. Water exchange happens in two ways; surface inflow and subsurface outflow. While in South China Sea, inlet is limited to 50m depth and surface flow is mostly dominant. The current circulation of the adjacent sea demonstrate some of the water mass were origiated as far as north South China Sea and Pacific Ocean. Water mass differences between the seas were further classified to distinguish dissimilarities and define the origin the difference. Given the unique geographical background and current circulation of the area, the characteristics of the interaction between water mass distribution and current circulation has provide important overview to the area which previously not well understood.

Fadzil Akhir, Mohd; Arsad, Shukri

2013-04-01

150

Sea Scallop Shell Lab Handout  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Used in combination with the Sea Scallop Shell Lab teacher's guide, students will examine sea scallop shells to figure out as much as possible about the scallops living on the sea floor in one three important fishery grounds, Hudson Canyon, off New Bedford, MA, and George's Bank. The activity emphasizes observation, measurements, and basic calculations. The teacher's guide is available from the COSEE-NE OSEI resource site.

151

Aerosols Over Yellow Sea Sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This SeaWiFS image shows complex phytoplankton distribution patterns in the Bohai and Yellow seas. A wide band of brownish water along the coast north and south of the mouth of the Yangtze River indicates a heavy load of suspended sediment. The air over eastern central China and the Yellow Sea is thick with aerosols. Farther north over the Manchurian Plain and Greater Khingan Range, the air is much clearer.

2002-01-01

152

Experiencing the Full Research Process at Sea Education Association (SEA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While some undergraduate research experiences include only a small piece of the research process, students attending Sea Education Association's SEA Semester complete all aspects of oceanographic research in an intensive 12 week program that earns a full semester's credit. In the first half of the program, students read and discuss background literature on a subject, ask questions, pose hypotheses, and develop a written research proposal, which they defend orally. The second half of the course takes place at sea on one of SEA's state-of-the-art oceanographic research vessels where students carry out their sampling plans, analyze samples and data, write a final paper and present their results before the vessel reaches port, completing the course. At sea, students participate in sample collection and analysis for all student projects in addition to learning the general oceanography along their cruise track. This structure exposes students to the realities of research from start to finish and allows them to take full ownership of their projects. In addition to honing writing, public speaking, and problem-solving skills, students learn that research requires dedication, flexibility, and creativity, particularly when their results are unexpected or negate their hypothesis. SEA's undergraduate research program has been developing since 1971. Over that time, SEA has collected an extensive historical oceanographic database in the western Atlantic and Caribbean, plus Pacific data since 2001. This database is available to both students and outside research scientists. Collaborations with scientists outside SEA enhance the student experience and help facilitate oceanographic research by providing "ship-of-opportunity" sampling in remote locations. SEA Semester provides an excellent model for undergraduate research experiences with over 5000 alumni, about 30% of whom enter graduate school. About half the students in SEA's undergraduate programs are non-science majors. Although their experience at SEA may be their only hands-on exposure to scientific research, they take away an understanding of the process and an ability to think critically about scientific problems.

Harris, S. E.; Joyce, P.; Jaroslow, G.; Graziano, L.; Lea, C.; Witting, J.; Bower, A.

2003-12-01

153

Regime shifts in North Sea and Baltic Sea: A comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ICES subdivisions in the North Sea (SD IIIa, SD IVa, and SD IVb) and the subdivisions in the Baltic Sea (SD 29, SD 27/28-2, and SD 25/26) are selected to compare the response in long term monitoring data (1970-2000) with respect to climate regime shifts. A modified AMOEBA model is applied to the data sets to identify the status and development of the North Sea and Baltic Sea system during two recent regime shifts. Biological regime shifts can be identified 1989/1990 in SD IIIa in the North Sea and in SD 25/26 in the Baltic Sea. A synchronous appearance of regime shifts could only be identified in the central and southern Baltic Sea for both regime shifts 1975/76 and 1989/90 where the AMOEBA model indicated a high similarity in ecosystem response. A clear difference was identified in the response of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Inter-annual and inter-decadal variability as well as regime shifts are driven in the Baltic Sea by direct atmospheric forcing only. In contrast, the changes in the North Sea are influenced by both the direct atmospheric forcing and the indirect forcing from the changes in North Atlantic. The fact that regime shifts as well as their synchronous appearance can be identified with the AMOEBA model might be of major interest for the management of sustainable use of ecosystem goods and services, the development of ecosystem approach to management and the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of the European Union (EU).

Dippner, Joachim W.; Möller, Caroline; Hänninen, Jari

2012-12-01

154

Volume III, Chapter 17 Steller Sea Lions  

E-print Network

Volume III, Chapter 17 Steller Sea Lions #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 16.0 STELLER SEA LION (EUMETOPIAS................................................................................................................. 17-8 #12;STELLER SEA LION III, 17-1 May 2004 17.0 Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) 17.1 Introduction The Steller sea lion (Eumetopia jubatus) is the largest of the eared or otariid seals in northwest

155

The USGS Salton Sea Science Office  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Salton Sea Science Office (SSSO) provides scientific information and evaluations to decisionmakers who are engaged in restoration planning and actions associated with the Salton Sea. The primary focus is the natural resources of the Salton Sea, including the sea?s ability to sustain biological resources and associated social and economic values.

Case, Harvey Lee, III; Barnum, Douglas A.

2007-01-01

156

Sea Otter, River Otter. The Wonder Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is all about otters and provides information on both sea and river otters. Included are activities related to the diet of sea otters, the adaptations sea otters have made to live in the sea, their tool-using abilities, where they live and how to spot them, comparative anatomy of sea and river otters, and otter movement. The…

Robinson, Sandra Chisholm

157

Isotope studies in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanographic and isotopic investigations in the Caspian Sea and the analyses of the available data on the discharge to the sea and the observed sea level changes suggest that climatically caused changes of river inflow are the major cause of the sea level fluctuations over the last century. Hydrogen-3 and 3H–3He data indicate that the deep basins of the sea

K. Froehlich; K. Rozanski; P. Povinec; B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud

1999-01-01

158

Aliens among us SEA-MONKEYS  

E-print Network

Aliens among us SEA-MONKEYS� FUN FACTS Did you know? Sea-Monkeys� � breathe through their legs, so adults have three. W hat is the connection between Sea-Monkeys� and aliens? Be- lieve it or not NASA scientists think it is possible that some alien life might resemble Sea-Monkeys�. Sea

Maxwell, Bruce D.

159

Clues from the Black Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students apply scientific theory and hypothesis to studies being conducted in the Black Sea. They will discuss the purpose of and theory behind the Black Sea study and use maps to explain the flood theory. Students will also write hypotheses suggesting what certain pieces of evidence might reveal about the Black Sea and the flood. Next, they will read about the researchers' discoveries and list the items they found. Students will conclude by writing plans, pretending they are going to lead the next Black Sea expedition, and hypothesizing what they might find and what those findings might signify.

160

SeaWeb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWeb is a project designed to raise awareness of the world's oceans and the lifeforms within them, and to encourage conservation efforts. Information provided here includes the latest news about ocean-related issues, audio files of the Ocean Report which provides a tour of the world's oceans, email updates, a bookstore, and an on-line book about issues facing our oceans. This includes habitats, fisheries and other issues. This site is searchable and provides links and resources for further information.

161

The Sea Around Us  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published in 1951, The Sea Around Us is one of the most remarkably successful books ever written about the natural world. Rachel Carson's rare ability to combine scientific insight with moving, poetic prose catapulted her book to first place on The New York Times best-seller list, where it enjoyed wide attention for thirty-one consecutive weeks. It remained on the list for more than a year and a half and ultimately sold well over a million copies, has been translated into 28 languages, inspired an Academy Award-winning documentary, and won both the 1952 National Book Award and the John Burroughs Medal. This classic work remains as fresh today as when it first appeared. Carson's writing teems with stunning, memorable images--the newly formed Earth cooling beneath an endlessly overcast sky; the centuries of nonstop rain that created the oceans; giant squids battling sperm whales hundreds of fathoms below the surface; and incredibly powerful tides moving 100 billion tons of water daily in the Bay of Fundy. Quite simply, she captures the mystery and allure of the ocean with a compelling blend of imagination and expertise. Reintroducing a classic work to a whole new generation of readers, this Special Edition features a new chapter written by Jeffrey Levinton, a leading expert in marine ecology, that brings the scientific side of The Sea Around Us completely up to date. Levinton incorporates the most recent thinking on continental drift, coral reefs, the spread of the ocean floor, the deterioration of the oceans, mass extinction of sea life, and many other topics. In addition, acclaimed nature writer Ann Zwinger has contributed a brief foreword. Today, with the oceans endangered by the dumping of medical waste and ecological disasters such as the Exxon oil spill in Alaska, this illuminating volume provides a timely reminder of both the fragility and the importance of the ocean and the life that abounds within it. Anyone who loves the sea, or who is concerned about our natural environment, will want to read this classic work.

Carson, Rachel L.

1991-12-01

162

NOVA: Deep Sea Invasion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the companion Web site to "Deep Sea Invasion," a PBS NOVA documentary broadcast April 1, 2003. The program follows marine biologist Alexandre Meinesz and his scientific detective work to explain the rampant spread of the tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia through the Mediterranean and his struggle to instigate control efforts. The features of this Web site include a timeline chronicling the invasion, an article by Meinesz on the impact of invasive species, another article addressing strategies for controlling invasives, and an interactive quiz in which users match up species with their invasive characteristics. With interesting material covering a range of ecological topics, this Web site should be of interest to any reader.

2003-01-01

163

Sea and Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive site contains information about both astronomy and the oceans. The Sky section contains astronomical resources, news links, an image gallery, games and general links for more information. The Cosmos contains details about stars, planets, moons, pulsars, galaxies, black holes, quasars, star clusters, nebulas, dark matter and constellations. There is also a section about astronomers and a timeline of space exploration. The Sea section contains news links, aquarium resources, an image gallery, games and links for more information about the oceans. The Ocean Realm highlights the many creatures that live in the oceans. There are also details about ocean exploration and an exploration timeline.

Knight, J.

164

SeaWiFS: Bloom in the Barents Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The clouds opened up enough on July 24, 2001, over the Barents Sea to reveal part of a suspected coccolithophore bloom to SeaWiFS. The personnel attempting to raise the sunken Russian submarine, the Kursk, probably have a good view of the milky water.

2002-01-01

165

Experiencing the Full Research Process at Sea Education Association (SEA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

While some undergraduate research experiences include only a small piece of the research process, students attending Sea Education Association's SEA Semester complete all aspects of oceanographic research in an intensive 12 week program that earns a full semester's credit. In the first half of the program, students read and discuss background literature on a subject, ask questions, pose hypotheses, and

S. E. Harris; P. Joyce; G. Jaroslow; L. Graziano; C. Lea; J. Witting; A. Bower

2003-01-01

166

Two Sea-Level Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"No place on the sandy ocean shores of the world has been shown to be eroding because of sea level rise." This statement appeared nearly 19 years ago in bold print at the top of the page in a brief article published in Shore and Beach (Galvin,1990). The term "sea level rise" was defined in 1990 as follows: "In this statement, "sea level rise" has the meaning that the average person on the street usually attaches to that term. That is, sea level is rising; not, as in some places like the Mississippi River delta, land level is sinking." While still a subject of controversy, it is now (2008) increasingly plausible (Tornqvist et al,2008) that damage from Hurricane Katrina was significantly worse on the Mississippi River delta because floodwaters exploited wetlands and levees whose elevations had been lowered by decades of compaction in the underlying soil. (1) "Sea level" commonly appears in the literature as "relative sea level rise", occurring that way in 711 publications between 1980 and 2009 (GeoRef database on 8 Sep 08). "Relative sea level rise" does not appear in the 2005 AGI Glossary. The nearest Glossary term is "relative change in sea level", but that term occurs in only 12 publications between 1980 and 2009. The Glossary defines this term in a sequence stratigraphy sense, which infers that "relative sea level rise" is the sum of bottom subsidence and eustatic sea level rise. In plain English, "relative sea level rise" means "water depth increase". For present day coastal environments, "relative sea level rise" is commonly used where eustatic sea level rise is less than subsidence, that is, where the magnitude of actual sea level rise is smaller than the magnitude of subsidence. In that situation, "relative sea level rise" misleads both the average person and the scientist who is not a coastal geologist. Thus, the first challenge is to abandon "relative sea level rise" in favor of "water depth increase", in order that the words accurately descibe what happens. It would further clarify popular understanding if the term "actual sea level rise" were used in place of "eustatic sea level rise". (2)Geologists have approximated the the practice of paleontologists and biologists in establishing type examples of important geological features. This is a useful practice. A graduate geologist holds in mind clear conceptions of "beach cusps", "drumlin fields", "birdfoot deltas", and "igneous sills" based on seeing field examples accepted by professional geologists as representative of these features. However, although publications frequently report that sea level rise erodes a particular beach, no one identifies a type beach where that cause has been proven to produce the alleged effect. At the type beach, it is necessary to show that sea level is rising, and that the beach erodes primarily from this sea level rise, rather than from interrupted longshore transport. Thus, the second challenge is to identify a type ocean beach proven to erode because of sea level rise.

Galvin, C.

2008-12-01

167

Polar Sea Ice Mapping Using SeaWinds Data Hyrum S. Anderson and David G. Long  

E-print Network

Polar Sea Ice Mapping Using SeaWinds Data Hyrum S. Anderson and David G. Long Brigham Young for mapping polar sea ice extent. In this study, a new al- gorithm for polar sea ice mapping is developed of Bayes detection to produce sea ice extent maps. Statistical models for sea ice and ocean are represented

Long, David G.

168

Sea ice terminology  

SciTech Connect

A group of definitions of terms related to sea ice is presented, as well as a graphic representation of late winter ice zonation of the Beaufort Sea Coast. Terms included in the definition list are belt, bergy bit, bight, brash ice, calving, close pack ice, compacting, compact pack ice, concentration, consolidated pack ice, crack, diffuse ice edge, fast ice, fast-ice boundary, fast-ice edge, first-year ice, flaw, flaw lead, floe, flooded ice, fractured, fractured zone, fracturing, glacier, grey ice, grey-white ice, growler, hummock, iceberg, iceberg tongue, ice blink, ice boundary, ice cake, ice edge, ice foot, ice free, ice island, ice shelf, large fracture, lead, medium fracture, multiyear ice, nilas, old ice, open pack ice, open water, pack ice, polar ice, polynya, puddle, rafted ice, rafting, ram, ridge, rotten ice, second-year ice, shearing, shore lead, shore polynya, small fracture, strip, tabular berg, thaw holes, very close pack ice, very open pack ice, water sky, young coastal ice, and young ice.

Not Available

1980-09-01

169

Sea modeling and rendering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

2010-10-01

170

THE STATE OF SEA GRANT 2010  

E-print Network

Lakeshore, Lake Michigan (Michigan Sea Grant); A Taku Fisheries processing plant worker shows off a nice by the National Sea Grant Advisory Board, November 2010 National Sea Grant College Program Biennial Report

171

Sea Grant Newsletter Index, 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The index contains all issues of newsletters that were produced in 1973 with Sea Grant support and received by the National Sea Grant Depository (NSGD). Most of the articles in the newsletters are indexed. Some exceptions are those that merely list new pu...

P. K. Weedman

1974-01-01

172

Evidence of Ice Free Seas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students make a model sea floor sediment core using two types of buttons to represent fossil diatoms. They then compare the numbers of diatom fossils in the sediment at different depths to determine whether the seas were free of ice while the diatoms were alive.

Dahlman, Luann; Andrill

173

Glass Munchers Under the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA Astrobiology Institute article documents recent findings of bacterial life beneath the sea floor. These newly discovered bacteria are thought to live as far down as 500 meters beneath the sea floor and eat through volcanic rock, leaving behind burrows. The article contains hyperlinks to websites explaining some key vocabulary, related websites, and color photos and maps.

Mullen, Leslie; Institute, Nasa A.

174

Salton: A Sea of Controversy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea is an accidental lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the area's ecosystems. The sea is important for wildlife and recreation but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be sav

Vessey, Kristin B.

2000-09-01

175

Gallery: Sound in the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sound in the Sea offers a selection of audio recordings captured beneath the ocean surface. This page contains a selection of audio files of whales, ships, seismic disturbances, and unknown noises. There are also related video and animation products, and several spectrograms and other images of ocean sound. Students can click any image to listen and learn more about sound in the sea.

176

Holocene Deep-Sea Ecosystem Variability of the Aegean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We accomplished high-resolution analyses on late glacial and Holocene benthic foraminiferal faunas and stable isotopes of two sediment cores from the deep northern and southern Aegean Sea to reconstruct the variability of paleoceanography and paleoclimate of this region. During the last glacial maximum and the transition to the Holocene diverse faunas and elevated benthic foraminiferal numbers indicate enhanced organic matter availability and well-ventilated deep-water masses. Highest organic matter availability is observed in the southern Aegean Sea. The organic matter is likely derived from a combination of elevated marine productivity as response to wind-induced mixing and the transfer of degraded organic matter from continental sources and with bottom currents. During the formation of sapropel S1, drops in benthic foraminiferal numbers and diversity are more significant at the shallower site in the southern Aegean Sea when compared to the deeper site in the northern Aegean Sea. This suggests the persistence of local deep-water formation in the northern Aegean Sea during sapropel formation. In addition, faunal fluctuations at both sites suggest the repeated influence of short-term climate changes on re-ventilation and re-colonization of deep-sea ecosystems in the whole Aegean Sea. During the middle and late Holocene the faunas indicate a clear spatial differentiation of Aegean deep-sea environments. While the southern Aegean Sea is characterized by oligotrophic and well-ventilated conditions, the faunas at the northern site reflect repeated drops in oxygenation of deep-waters. These fluctuations are likely caused by perturbations of local deep-water sources during periods of enhanced fresh-water runoff of local rivers. Particularly humid intervals are centered around 4 and 2 kyr as indicated by the presence of deep infaunal species that are adapted to low oxygen contents. Comparison with records from different climate archives suggests that these events are part of periodic millennial-scale changes in humidity of the borderlands.

Kuhnt, T.

2005-12-01

177

226Ra in the Black Sea and Sea of Marmara  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water column distributions of 226Ra were determined at stations in the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea as part of the 1988 Joint U.S.—Turkish Black Sea Expedition. Black Sea surface water 226Ra concentrations were a factor of three to four lower than measurements made 20 years earlier. The most likely cause is increased removal of 226Ra and Ba [35] due to increased surface biological activity; a secondary effect is decreased fluvial discharge and related dimunition of inputs by desorption from fluvial suspended sediments. The amount of 226Ra missing from the surface waters of the Black Sea over this period is accounted for in the high-porosity surficial "fluff" sediment layer. Throughout the Black Sea, depth profiles of 226Ra exhibited pronounced maxima of approximately 25 dpm/100 L at about ? ? = 16.2-16.3 , in the vicinity of a bacterial maximum, but slightly shallower than the total dissolved Mn and Fe maxima ( ? ? = 16.4-16.5 ) reported by Lewis and Landing [38]. While the 226Ra maximum may, in part, be linked to the cycling of Mn and Fe oxyhydroxides near the O 2H 2S interface, its distribution appears to be more plausibly explained as a result of the microbial breakdown of particulate organic matter and the subsequent release and partial dissolution of associated barite in this region. A simple steady-state two-? model has been used to obtain a semiquantitative understanding of the behavior of 226Ra in the Black Sea. By incorporating reasonable estimates for the input and removal of 226Ra in the Black Sea, an excellent agreement between predicted and observed (1988) 226Ra concentrations was achieved. The model suggests that the dominant variables controlling the distribution of 226Ra in the Black Sea are riverine input and cycling with Ba.

O'Neill, Dennis J.; Todd, James F.; Moore, Willard S.

1992-05-01

178

Deep Sea Duel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app for the Illuminations online card game Deep Sea Duel (cataloged separately) helps users develop mental computation skills by finding sums of 3 or 4 numbers. A student and the opponent, Okta the octopus take turns selecting cards. The first one to reach the target sum with 3 cards (in the 9-card game) or 4 cards (in the 16-card game) wins the game. You can choose how many cards are presented (9 or 16), what types of numbers they display (small integers through tricky decimals), and Okta's level of strategy. The game is not timed but depends on strategic planning in order to defend against Okta's moves while trying to collect a winning group of cards.

2012-08-02

179

Deep Sea Duel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Android app for the Illuminations online game Deep Sea Duel card game helps users develop mental computation skills by finding sums of 3 or 4 numbers. A student and the opponent, Okta the octopus take turns selecting cards. The first one to reach the target sum with 3 cards (in the 9-card game) or 4 cards (in the 16-card game) wins the game. You can choose how many cards are presented (9 or 16), what types of numbers they display (small integers through tricky decimals), and Okta's level of strategy. The game is not timed but depends on strategic planning in order to defend against Okta's moves while trying to collect a winning group of cards.

2012-08-29

180

Fire in the Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The legend of the lost city of Atlantis has captivated the human imagination for centuries. Did this city actually exist, and, if so, what happened to it? Was it destroyed in the greatest cataclysmic event of the Bronze Age? While the truth behind the legend of Atlantis may never be known, Fire in the Sea tells the story of one of the largest and most devastating natural disasters of classical history that may also hold vital clues to the possible existence and fate of the lost city. In vivid prose, author Walter L. Friedrich describes the eruption of the Greek island of Santorini, or Thera, sometime in the 17th or 16th century BC. This eruption, perhaps one of the largest explosions ever witnessed by humankind, sent a giant cloud of volcanic ash into the air that eventually covered settlements on the island. Friedrich relates how this event forever altered the course of civilization in the region, and inspired a mystery that has fired humanity's imagination ever since. More than 160 elegant, full-color photographs and vivid prose capture the beauty, the geology, archaeology, history, peoples and environmental setting of Santorini. Fire in the Sea will readily appeal to the general reader interested in natural catastrophies as well as the beauty of the region. It will also enchant anyone who has ever dreamt about uncovering the mystery of the legend of Atlantis. Walter Friedrich is currently an associate professor at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Aarhus, Denmark. He has visited Santorini at least 35 times since 1975 and has published numerous scientific articles in such international journals as Nature, Lethaia, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, and other publications.

Friedrich, Walter L.

2000-05-01

181

The Aral Sea: Then and Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan asks students to consider what happens when a sea shrinks and to compare pictures of the Aral Sea at different times. They will conclude by pretending to be residents of the Aral Sea region, drawing before and after pictures of how changes to the sea have affected their lives. Students will conduct an experiment to see whether salt evaporates with water; hypothesize what might happen to people, animals, and plants living near a shrinking sea; compare satellite images of the Aral Sea from 1973 and 1999; match problems in the Aral Sea region with statements about these problems in the Aral Sea family activity; discuss changes that are occurring in the Aral Sea region; and create drawings depicting the lives of people in the Aral Sea region before and after the sea began to shrink.

182

Contrasts in Arctic shelf sea-ice regimes and some implications: Beaufort Sea versus Laptev Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The winter ice-regime of the 500 km) from the mainland than in the Beaufort Sea. As a result, the annual freeze-up does not incorporate old, deep-draft ice, and with a lack of compression, such deep-draft ice is not generated in situ, as on the Beaufort Sea shelf. The Laptev Sea has as much as 1000 km of fetch at the end of summer, when freezing storms move in and large (6 m) waves can form. Also, for the first three winter months, the polynya lies inshore at a water depth of only 10 m. Turbulence and freezing are excellent conditions for sediment entrainment by frazil and anchor ice, when compared to conditions in the short-fetched Beaufort Sea. We expect entrainment to occur yearly. Different from the intensely ice-gouged Beaufort Sea shelf, hydraulic bedforms probably dominate in the Laptev Sea. Corresponding with the large volume of ice produced, more dense water is generated in the Laptev Sea, possibly accompanied by downslope sediment transport. Thermohaline convection at the midshelf polynya, together with the reduced rate of bottom disruption by ice keels, may enhance benthic productivity and permit establishment of open-shelf benthic communities which in the Beaufort Sea can thrive only in the protection of barrier islands. Indirect evidence for high benthic productivity is found in the presence of walrus, who also require year-round open water. By contrast, lack of a suitable environment restricts walrus from the Beaufort Sea, although over 700 km farther to the south. We could speculate on other consequences of the different ice regimes in the Beaufort and Laptev Seas, but these few examples serve to point out the dangers of exptrapolating from knowledge gained in the North American Arctic to other shallow Arctic shelf settings. ?? 1994.

Reimnitz, E.; Dethleff, D.; Nurnberg, D.

1994-01-01

183

Salton, A Sea of Controversy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea is an “accidental” lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the area’s ecosystems. The Salton Sea is important for wildlife and recreation, but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be saved? This case examines the Salton Sea’s problems and uncertain future. The case would be suitable for introductory environmental, biology, geography and geology classes, and courses dealing with land use, water resources, agriculture, birds or fish, ecosystems, and government policy.

Vessey, Kristin B.

1999-01-01

184

Salton sea project, phase 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

Peelgren, M. L.

1982-01-01

185

2013 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum  

NASA Video Gallery

After an unusually cold summer in the northernmost latitudes, Arctic sea ice appears to have reached its annual minimum summer extent for 2013 on Sept. 13, the NASA-supported National Snow and Ice ...

186

A Can of Sea Worms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

Zinn, Donald J.

1977-01-01

187

By Land, Sea or Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn that navigational techniques change when people travel to different places â land, sea, air and space. For example, an explorer traveling by land uses different navigation methods and tools than a sailor or an astronaut.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

188

Deep Sea Vents Web List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This student-friendly list has eight web sites that relate to deep sea vents. A short description follows each site, listing the reference materials, interactive tools, videos, sound recordings, photo archives, or other resources that can be found there.

189

Find the Deep Sea Vent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tool helps students grasp the difficult task of locating deep sea vents. By allowing them to virtually survey a portion of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean, they get to experience the process firsthand.

190

Arctic Sea Ice Satellite Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity produced for Teachers' Domain, learn how Arctic sea ice has changed over the past 25 years in terms of maximum winter extent, concentration, and the timing of breakup each spring.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2008-01-17

191

Consistent and contrasting decadal Arctic sea ice thickness predictions from a highly optimized sea ice  

E-print Network

Consistent and contrasting decadal Arctic sea ice thickness predictions from a highly optimized sea of Arctic Ocean sea ice thickness made by a modern dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model and forced comprehensive data sets of observations made between 1979 and 2001 of sea ice thickness, draft, extent

Feltham, Daniel

192

Title: Improving sea level reconstructions from 1900 to 2011 using non-sea level measurements  

E-print Network

surface temperature can be leveraged to create an improved reconstructed sea level dataset spanning functions. The resulting sea level and sea surface temperature basis functions are fit to tide gauge data and historical sea surface temperature data, respectively, to produce a reconstructed sea level dataset spanning

Kim, Guebuem

193

Sea ice, atmosphere and upper ocean variability in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequency domain singular value decomposition is performed on 20 years (1979-1998) of monthly sea ice concentration, sea ice drift and sea level pressure data in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Interannual oscillations with periods of around 3-4 years are found to dominate the variability in this region. Anomalous atmospheric patterns periodically reach the Weddell Sea from the west and perturb

Silvia A. Venegas; Mark R. Drinkwater

2001-01-01

194

Deep-Sea Research I 49 (2002) 895913 Anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons in the Black Sea  

E-print Network

Deep-Sea Research I 49 (2002) 895­913 Anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons in the Black Sea in the Black Sea indicate that CFC-11 is non-conservative relative to CFC-12 in the strongly reducing anoxic; Mathematical models; Residence time; Tracers; Black Sea 1. Introduction The Black Sea (Fig. 1) is the world

Murray, James W.

195

Nearshore, seasonally persistent fronts in sea surface temperature on Red Sea tropical reefs  

E-print Network

Nearshore, seasonally persistent fronts in sea surface temperature on Red Sea tropical reefs. 2011. Nearshore, seasonally persistent fronts in sea surface temperature on Red Sea tropical reefs in sea surface temperature (SST) were observed, including cold fronts (colder inshore) during winter

Pineda, Jesús

196

Sea Level Variaton in the Java Sea Derived from Topex\\/Poseidon and Tide Gauge Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flooding and coastal erosion in the big cities like Jakarta, Semarang and Surabaya are easily affected by the sea level changes of the Java Sea. Past sea level changes in the Java Sea are investigated using satellite altimetry and tide gauges. Monthly mean sea level anomalies from TOPEX\\/Poseidon (T\\/P) and tide gauges between January 1993 and December 1999 are used.

Ibnu Sofian; Kozai Kozai

2004-01-01

197

SEA GRANT AT A GLANCE February 2014 National Sea Grant Office's  

E-print Network

:40pm � 11:10am Lake Champlain Sea Grant (Garber) #12;SEA GRANT AT A GLANCE � February 2014 3 11:10am at a glance USC Sea Grant at a glance TEXAS Sea Grant at a glance LAKE CHAMPLAIN Sea Grant at a glance

198

Springtime coupling between chlorophyll a, sea ice and sea surface temperature in Disko Bay, West Greenland  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Springtime coupling between chlorophyll a, sea ice and sea surface, 53°W) (using chlorophyll a concentrations as a proxy) under contrasting sea ice conditions in 2001 and 2003 (heavy sea ice) and 2002 and 2004 (light sea ice). Satellite-based observations of chlorophyll a

Laidre, Kristin L.

199

Sea Turtle Protection and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site describes the population status of each U.S. sea turtle species and how they are protected by law. Each species' scientific name, biology, threatened or endangered status, description, human impacts, population trends, distribution, and photos are documented. Read the downloadable Recovery Plans for each species, as well as learn about turtle legislation. Site also features reports and proceedings from various sea turtle symposia and conferences.

200

Earthwatch Radio: Sea Lamprey Resurgence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast describes efforts to control the population of sea lampreys in the Great Lakes. Sea lampreys, an invasive species from the Atlantic Ocean, have populated the lakes for years, but have recently increased in numbers despite efforts to control them. A hole in a dam on the Manistique River on the northern edge of Lake Michigan is thought to have caused the problem. The clip is 2 minutes in length and may be downloaded in MP3 format.

Kalinowski, Laura

2012-09-17

201

Sea Turtle First Aid Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 4 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into testing a repair material. Groups of learners perform âfirst aidâ on a cut orange, which represents propeller damage on the back of a leatherback sea turtle. Learners use a variety of repair materials and predict how well various treatments will work, then observe treated, untreated, and uncut control oranges for 4 days. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Sea Turtles.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

202

SeaWIFS: Teacher Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The SeaWIFS project uses space technology to study phytoplankton. Site contains: The Living Ocean Teacher's Guide, a guide for grades 9-10 that discusses satellites, ocean color, phytoplankton, the carbon cycle, and greenhouse effect; Classic CZCS Scenes, a tutorial about ocean color using some of the more interesting CZCS images; and Monitoring the Earth from Space with SeaWiFS, an presentation about ocean color; and several other remote sensing resources.

203

Mapping Deep-sea Habitats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate bathymetric mapping of deep-sea habitats to see how deep-sea areas of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands can be mapped to facilitate their exploration with a manned submersible. Students will create a two-dimensional topographic map from bathymetric survey data, a three-dimensional model of landforms from a two-dimensional topographic map, and will interpret two- and three-dimensional topographic data.

Goodwin, Mel

204

From Shore to Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the dog days of summer begin to set in, humans tend to flock like seagulls to the sun and sand of the shore and sea. This Topic in Depth examines several topics of interest from food chain on a beach to coral reefs.The first site (1), from the National Park Service, offers a look at the exceptionally beautiful Canaveral National Seashore. The site gives information about the flora and fauna found at the seashore as well a great photo gallery. The second link(2) leads to a white paper by Peter Entnoyer, Chad Nelson, and Kevin Ranker of the Surfider Foundation on the value of beach sand in the food chain. At the third site (3) from Mother Jones, visitors will find an article about the status of coral reefs. The fourth site, (4) from Ask a Scientist provides several questions and answers about plants and algae. The next link leads to the Online Marine Picture Book (5), a great resource for great photos from everything from crabs to starfish. The last site, from SUNY Stony Brook(6), provides a great glossary of marine biology related terms from Abyssal Plain to Zooxanthellae.

205

Applied Sea Ice Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1960s oil and gas development became an issue in the northern coastal areas of Alaska and Canada. More lately this has also become an issue in the Euroasian Arctic with the Barents and Kara Seas as example on where offshore hydrocarbon production now is being planned. In such waters the key questions prior to a development are related to water depths at the site and in case of ice, how frequent and what type of ice features will be met. Especially the ice conditions and knowledge about them are very decisive for the field development solutions to be chosen. The paper will highlight examples on development solutions where the ice conditions have played a paramount role in the field development plans. An example is the consequences of iceberg threaten in an area and the effect sudden changes in ice drift directions may have on the exploration and drilling solutions chosen. The paper will also discuss how to derive design ice actions values for such waters including scaling from nature to model ice basins.

Løset, S.

2009-04-01

206

DESERVE - Dead Sea Research Venue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DESERVE 'Dead Sea Research Venue' focuses on the Dead Sea region as it is a unique environment and may be considered as one of the most inspiring natural laboratories on Earth. The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. DESERVE addresses three grand challenges: Environmental Risks, Water Availability, Climate Change and comprises long term monitoring of geophysical parameters, studies of coupled processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as well as modeling of prediction and remediation strategies of geogenic risks. The Dead Sea has been selected for this integrated approach because it constitutes an outstanding 'natural laboratory' to study these phenomena, as - all 3 challenges are critical in this region. - the region is especially sensitive to climate change and human influences such as ground and surface water over-exploitation for agriculture and industrial purposes. - environmental processes are subject to boundary conditions that cannot be found elsewhere on Earth - understanding their interactions and the future evolution of the whole Dead Sea region are of key importance for economic development in peaceful cooperation. Results obtained in the Dead Sea region are also of prototype relevance for other (semi)-arid terminal basins of the world.

Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.

2013-12-01

207

Intermittent sea-level acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

2013-10-01

208

State estimation of the Labrador Sea with a coupled sea ice-ocean adjoint model  

E-print Network

Sea ice (SI) and ocean variability in marginal polar and subpolar seas are closely coupled. SI variability in the Labrador Sea is of climatic interest because of its relationship to deep convection/mode water formation, ...

Fenty, Ian Gouverneur

2010-01-01

209

SeaWinds - Greenland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The frequent coverage provided by NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite provides unprecedented capability to monitor daily and seasonal changes in the key melt zones of Greenland, which is covered with a thick ice sheet that resulted from snow accumulating over tens of thousands of years. The thickness of the snow layers reveals details about the past global climate, and comparing snow accumulation and snow melting can provide insight into climate change and global warming. In particular, the extent of summer melting of snow in Greenland is considered a sensitive indicator of global change.

Earlier scatterometer data has suggested that Greenland has experienced significantly more melting in recent years. This figure compares the melting observed over 15 days during July 1999 in Greenland. The red areas around the central blue and white areas are the main melt zones and have lower radar back scatter because of water on the surface that saturates the surface snow. As the days warm up, the melt extent dramatically increases. Comparing this data with computer models and past scatterometer data will help scientists evaluate the inter-annual variability of the melting as a step toward understanding potential climate change.

The world's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica act as vast storehouses of freshwater. Summer season melting releases large quantities of freshwater into the ocean, and year-to-year variations can have a significant impact on global sea level. Furthermore, long-term changes in the patterns and extent of melting on the large ice sheets reflect the effects of climate variability; thus Greenland is considered a sensitive indicator of global warming.

Satellite microwave radars are extremely sensitive to melting and can provide the only effective means of accurately measuring the year-round picture of the extent and variability in ice sheet melting. Daily mean images were produced from QuikScat data collected over the Greenland ice sheet at the height of the present summer melt period. In the top row, four images are shown at intervals of 5 days, for (a) day 203, (b) 208,(c) 213, and (d) 218 in 1999. Blue and white colors indicate surfaces which are cold and dry, while read and black indicate wet snow surfaces experiencing melting. The coastal regions are lower in elevation and begin to melt first. As summer progresses, the area of melting expands inland and northwards along the western coast of Greenland as air temperatures warm. A large pale and dark blue region in the central, high-elevation part of the ice sheet survives each summer without experiencing any melting. This is known as the dry snow region, and its area is a measure of the stability of the central part of the ice sheet. The line dividing the melt area and the dry snow is very sensitive to climate conditions and monitoring this line will help scientists determine whether the Earth's climate is changing.

The lower series of four images shows the daily variability in the radar data within each image. White patches in these images identify regions where the most rapid changes are taking place. Air temperature and precipitation variations are responsible for the patterns, with the greatest impact over the southern tip of Greenland occurring from storms originating over the Atlantic. Note that the red areas of central and northern Greenland experience much smaller or slower changes, with the central ice sheet showing little change during this summer period.

With its frequent coverage, the SeaWinds instrument is a power and unique tool for monitoring the health of the large ice sheets. The continuing time-series of data is a valuable contribution to assessments of the effects and impact of global change in the polar regions.

NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

1999-01-01

210

Deep-Sea Research II 54 (2007) 25432559 Comparison of atmospheric forcing in four sub-arctic seas  

E-print Network

: the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea shelf, the Labrador Sea, and the Barents Sea. Based on data from the Labrador and the Barents Sea in the Atlantic sector is observed during the past 50 years before 2000 in the Sea of Okhotsk since 1980, in the Barents Sea since 2000, and in early spring/late winter

211

Cenozoic stratigraphic evolution, North Sea and Labrador Sea  

SciTech Connect

The authors are studying Cenozoic correlation patterns, burial trends, and subsidence history of the Central North Sea, Labrador, and Orphan basins. The authors objectives are (1) to detail intraregional mid-high latitude biozonations using noise filtering and probabilistic zonation techniques; (2) to detail paleobathymetric trends from basin margins to centers; (3) to apply this knowledge to model basin evolution, in the perspective of the evolving North Atlantic Ocean; (4) to evaluate causes for the occurrence of major hiatuses and rapid changes of subsidence; and (5) to relate rapid changes in sedimentation in the last few millions of years to model observed undercompaction trends. Cenozoic microfossil assemblages in these basins are similar, related to similarities in sedimentary and paleoeceanographic conditions. In more basinal wells, flysch-type agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages occur, also known from Carpathians, Trinidad, and Moroccan foredeeps. Over 90% of agglutinated taxa are common between these basins, although local stratigraphic ranges vary sufficiently to rely on the concept of average ranges, rather than total ones for correlations. Cenozoic stratigraphic resolution in the North Sea and Labrador basins generally is in 3-5-Ma units. and paleobathymetric zonations define a minimum of five niches, from inner shelf to middle slope regimes. Significant hiatuses occurred in the late Eocene through the Miocene, particularly in northern Labrador and northern North Sea. Subsidence in the Labrador/Grand Banks passive margin half grabens was strongly influenced by Labrador Sea opening between anomalies 34 (Campanian) and 13 (early Oligocene), when subsidence exceeded sedimentation and bathyal conditions prevailed along the margin. Thermally induced subsidence in the central North Sea grabens was considerable in the late Paleocene, when the Norwegian Sea started to open.

Gradstein, F.M.; Grant, A.C.; Mudford, B.S. (Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada)); Berggren, W.A. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, MA (USA)); Kaminski, M.A. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)); D'Lorio, M.A. (Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Nepean, Ontario (Canada)); Cloetingh, S. (Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Griffiths, C.M. (Univ. of Trondheim (Norway))

1990-05-01

212

Sea Ice, an Antarctic Habitat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A 'click-and-learn' sub site hosted by the Alfred Wegener Institute Foundation for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), this is a succinct, educational tour of sea-ice and its associated ecological communities. Short synopses introduce the dynamics of sea-ice formation, the microstructure of sea-ice (including crystal structure, brine channels, and ice algae), the effects of ice melt on resident organisms, the logistics of sea-ice research, and _land fast-ice_ and platelet ice habitats. Introductions also exist for the following organisms: krill; whales (i.e., Orcas, southern bottlenosesd dolphins, minke whales); sea birds (i.e., skuas and snow petrals), penguins (i.e., emperor, adelie, and chinstraps), and seals (i.e., weddell, crabeater, leopard, and ross.) Enlargeable thumbnail images accompany the habitat and inhabitant descriptions. Further investigations (at an accelerated level) are prompted with the inclusion of bibliographic references and scientific research presentations (in PDF format) on fast-ice and platelet ice, as well as links to the main site for the AWI.

213

Thermally-forced Circulation I: Sea Breezes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module describes the phenomena of the sea breeze. It examines factors that lead to the formation of a sea breeze, modifying effects on sea breeze development, how mesoscale NWP models handle sea breezes, and sea breeze forecast parameters. The module places instruction in the context of a sea breeze case from Florida and compares surface and satellite observations to a model simulation using the AFWA MM5. Like other modules in the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer, this module comes with audio narration, rich graphics, and a companion print version.

Spangler, Tim

2001-09-01

214

Effects of sea spray geoengineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic climate warming is leading to consideration of options for geoengineering to offset rising carbon dioxide levels. One potential technique involves injecting artificial sea spray into the atmosphere. The sea salt particles would affect Earth's radiation budget directly, by scattering incoming solar radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei, which could lead to whiter clouds that reflect more radiation. However, the potential effects of this method, especially the direct effects, are not fully known. Partanen et al. studied the effects of artificial sea spray using climate model simulations. They found that outside of the most heavily clouded regions the direct effect of scattering of radiation was an important part of the total effect. They also examined the effect of particle size and found that decreasing the size of injected particles could improve the efficiency of the geoengineering technique.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-03-01

215

Late Glacial to Holocene benthic foraminifera in the Marmara Sea: implications for Black Sea^Mediterranean Sea  

E-print Network

a low-lying low salinity `Black Sea Lake' at V7.15 ka (popularly known as the `Noah's Flood Hypothesis and persistent stratification of the water column in the Marmara Sea throughout the Holocene is entirely

Kaminski, Michael A.

216

Gas-related sea floor craters in the Barents Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cluster of craterlike depressions in the central Barents Sea are several hundred meters across, have steep walls, and are cut into underlying Triassic rocks. Their formation is explained in relation to the glacial history of the region, and a possible model suggests that gas from a deeper, thermogenic source allowed a hydrate layer of considerable thickness to form during

A. Solheim; A. Elverhøi

1993-01-01

217

Future sea-level rise in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secular sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea are the result of a number of processes characterized by distinct time scales and spatial patterns. Here we predict the future sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea to year 2050 combining the contributions from terrestrial ice melt (TIM), glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), and the ocean response (OR) that includes the thermal expansion and the ocean circulation contributions. The three contributions are characterized by comparable magnitudes but distinctly different sea-level fingerprints across the Mediterranean basin. The TIM component of future sea-level rise is taken from Spada et al. (2013) and it is mainly driven by the melt of small glaciers and ice caps and by the dynamic ice loss from Antarctica. The sea-level fingerprint associated with GIA is studied using two distinct models available from the literature: ICE-5G(VM2) (Peltier, 2004) and the ice model progressively developed at the Research School of Earth Sciences (RSES) of the National Australian University (KL05) (see Fleming and Lambeck, 2004 and references therein). Both the GIA and the TIM sea-level predictions have been obtained with the aid of the SELEN program (Spada and Stocchi, 2007). The spatially-averaged OR component, which includes thermosteric and halosteric sea-level variations, recently obtained using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model (Carillo et al., 2012), vary between 2 and 7 cm according to scenarios adopted (EA1B and EA1B2, see Meehl at al., 2007). Since the sea-level variations associated with TIM mainly result from the gravitational interactions between the cryosphere components, the oceans and the solid Earth, and long-wavelength rotational variations, they are characterized by a very smooth global pattern and by a marked zonal symmetry reflecting the dipole geometry of the ice sources. Since the Mediterranean Sea is located in the intermediate far-field of major ice sources, TIM sea-level changes have sub-eustatic values (i.e. they do not exceed the global average) and show little (but still significant) variations across the basin associated with the subsidence driven by the meltwater load. For year 2050, TIM calculations predict a sea-level rise of ~10 and ~30 cm for the mid range and the high end scenarios, respectively. Mainly because of the distinct mantle viscosity profiles adopted in ICE-5G(VM2) and KL05, the GIA patterns differ significantly and, in contrast with the TIM fingerprint, are both characterized by strong variations across the Mediterranean Sea, showing maximum values in the bulk of the basin. For the OR component, a significant geographical variation is observed across the Mediterranean sub-basins, corresponding to different Atlantic boundary conditionsAccording to this study, the total future sea-level rise for year 2050 will reach maximum values for the extreme scenario (hig-hend prediction for TIM, KL05 for GIA and EA1B2 for OR) of ˜ 27 cm in average with peak of ˜ 30 cm in the central sub-basins. Our results show that when these three components of future sea-level rise are simultaneously considered, the spatial variability is enhanced because of the neatly distinct geometry of the three fingerprints. References: Carillo, A., Sannino, G., Artale, V., Ruti, P., Calmanti, S., DellAquila, A., 2012, Clim. Dyn. 39 (9-10), 2167-2184; Fleming, K. and Lambeck, K., 2004, Quat. Sci. Rev. 23 (9-10), 1053-1077; Meehl, G.A., and 11 others, 2007, in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Cambridge University Press; Peltier W.R., 2004, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 32, 111-149; Spada, G. and Stocchi, P., 2007, Comput. and Geosci., 33(4), 538-562; Spada G., Bamber J. L., Hurkmans R. T. W. L., 2013, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1-5, 40.

Galassi, Gaia; Spada, Giorgio

2014-05-01

218

Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) instructional module on Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults. The module includes activities and materials required, procedures, summary questions, and extension ideas for teaching Sea-Floor Spreading. (SL)

Armstrong, Ronald E.; And Others

1978-01-01

219

Current Research 1. Suboxic Environments Black Sea  

E-print Network

Current Research 1. Suboxic Environments ­ Black Sea The web sites for three recent cruises and sediments in the oxic/suboxic/anoxic zones of the Black Sea with ancient sediments thought to be deposited

Carrington, Emily

220

Antarctic sea ice mapping using the AVHRR  

SciTech Connect

A sea ice mapping scheme based on Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar orbiting satellites has been developed and applied to daylight images taken between November 1989 to January 1990 and November 1990 to January 1991 over the Weddell and the Ross Seas. After masking the continent and ice shelves, sea ice is discriminated from clouds and open sea using thresholds applied to the multidimensional space formed by AVHRR Channel 2, 3, and 4 radiances. Sea ice concentrations in cloud-free regions are then computed using the tie-point method. Results based on the analysis of more than 70 images show that the proposed scheme is capable of properly discriminating between sea ice, open sea, and clouds, under most conditions, thus allowing high resolution sea ice maps to be produced during the austral summer season.

Zibordi, G. (Inst. for the Study of Geophysical and Environmental Methodologies, Modena (Italy)); Van Woert, M.L. (San Diego State Univ., CA (United States). SeaSpace, Inc.)

1993-08-01

221

AMSR2 Daily Arctic Sea Ice - 2014  

NASA Video Gallery

In this animation, the daily Arctic sea ice and seasonal land cover change progress through time, from March 21, 2014 through the 3rd of August, 2014. Over the water, Arctic sea ice changes from da...

222

34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300.230 Education Regulations... Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State fiscal effort in certain...

2011-07-01

223

34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.  

...Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300.230 Education Regulations... Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State fiscal effort in certain...

2014-07-01

224

34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300.230 Education Regulations... Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State fiscal effort in certain...

2012-07-01

225

34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300.230 Education Regulations... Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State fiscal effort in certain...

2013-07-01

226

Sea Otter Pup Wants the Worm  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sea otter pup watches eagerly as its mother eats a fat innkeeper worm in Monterey Bay, California. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

227

Clues to Variability in Arctic Minimum Sea Ice Extent  

E-print Network

of the variation in winter ice extent in the Bering Sea, Barents Sea, and Sea of Okhotsk, but oceanographic forcing of these three points directly southward to the coast was recorded as a time series, except in the Barents Sea

Francis, Jennifer

228

ConcepTest: Effect of Rain on Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A majority of Earth's water is in the oceans. Predict what would happen to sea level if rain fell continuously all over the world's oceans. a. Sea level would rise b. Sea level would fall c. Sea level ...

229

European Enclosed and Semi-enclosed Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brackish-water seas of Europe, i.e. the Black (including the Sea of Azov), Caspian and Baltic Seas, can be regarded as\\u000a “brackish-water islands”, locked in by land masses and isolated from other major brackish-water bodies by physical (ocean\\u000a and land) barriers. During the last two centuries, more than 300 alien species have been recorded in the four seas. Introduced\\u000a species

Erkki Leppäkoski; Tamara Shiganova; Boris Alexandrov

230

State authority in an expanded territorial sea  

E-print Network

development and current status of state authority in the territorial sea. The possi- bility of the United States expanding its territorial sea to twelve miles is then examined. This paper then proceeds with an examination of what types of authoritl... territorial sea is an area in which both the state and federal governments exercise extensive rights and responsibilities. The United States currently has a three-mile territorial sea, but it appears likely that this will be expanded to twelve miles...

Fulbright, Michael Gene

2012-06-07

231

The German Sea Rescue Service (SAR).  

PubMed

The German Sea Rescue Service (GSRS) history, organisation and operations are presented. The institution was founded in 1865 to provide sea rescue services for the German coasts in the North Sea and in the Baltic Sea. Its fleet counts 61 vessels based in 54 stations of the service. In 2001, the rescue crafts were called for assistance 2428 times and 207 lives were saved. The service is supported by voluntary donations. PMID:12608596

2002-01-01

232

Development and properties of sea ice in the coastal regime of the southeastern Weddell Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

From October to December 1986 a program consisting of sea ice core analysis in combination with sea ice observations was carried out from the icebreaker R\\/V Polarstern as part of the Winter Weddel Sea Project. The ship operated in the central and southeastern Weddell Sea with interests focusing on the ice shelf front between 70°S and 77°S where a system

Hajo Eicken; Manfred A. Lange

1989-01-01

233

Deep-Sea Research I 51 (2004) 21372169 Ventilation of the Black Sea pycnocline. Parameterization of  

E-print Network

Deep-Sea Research I 51 (2004) 2137­2169 Ventilation of the Black Sea pycnocline. Parameterization to understand and quantify the pathways by which passive tracers penetrate into the Black Sea intermediate strong decrease with increasing density in the Black Sea and illustrate the very slow rate of ventilation

Murray, James W.

234

Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route: Studies and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the rapid changes that are under way in Arctic sea ice extent, Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route is a timely work. The Northern Sea Route (NSR), along the Arctic coast of Russia, has a long history, dating back to 1932, when the Soviet Union established the NSR administration to develop hydrometeorological services. Shipping along

Roger G. Barry

2008-01-01

235

Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands  

E-print Network

Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands of the environmental, social, and economic effects of alternatives to the Steller sea lion protection measures and Pacific cod fisheries. The western distinct population segment (WDPS) of Steller sea lion is listed

236

Short Term Variability of Sea Ice Thickness in the Beaufort Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationship between variability of sea ice thickness and ice dynamics, helicopter borne electromagnetic sea ice thickness sounding was performed at the APLIS ice camp in the Beaufort sea in April 2007. The field campaign includes sea ice thickness observations close to the camp with repeated flight tracks of different length scales and a transect ranging from 75°N

S. Hendricks; J. Hutchings

2007-01-01

237

Isotopic Composition and Origin of the Red Sea and Salton Sea Geothermal Brines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements show that the Red Sea and Salton Sea brines are the results of a single process, the leaching of sediments by surface water circulating downward to a geothermal reservoir. The Salton Sea brine is derived from local precipitation but the Red Sea brine originates 1000 kilometers south of its basin, on the shallow sill which controls

H. Craig

1966-01-01

238

Salton Sea geothermal reservoir simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Salton Sea geothermal field (SSGF) is a high salinity, high-temperature resource. Intermittent brine production\\/injection has been performed since May 1976, but no associated fluid flow data have been published. However, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has correlated the data available from surface measurements and logs from various wells in the SSGF. The limited data base and the MUSHRM simulator have

T. D. Riney; J. W. Pritchett; S. K. Garg

1978-01-01

239

Doppler Characteristics of Sea Clutter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different ...

A. M. Raynal, A. W. Doerry

2010-01-01

240

Doppler characteristics of sea clutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can

Ann Marie Raynal; Armin Walter Doerry

2010-01-01

241

Why is the Sea Salty?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity combines science and art to provide an understanding about why the sea is salty. Students will obseve how salt concentration increases in water and how the salt remains after the water evaporates. They will do a salt painting using water, salt, and food coloring to observe the evaporation process.

1998-01-01

242

DDT in California Sea Lions  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE wish to report extraordinary concentrations of DDT residues* in California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, which inhabit year round the coastal waters of California and Baja California, Mexico1. These waters receive agricultural runoff from California valleys where DDT has been used extensively2-4, and where residues have been increasing in the primary stages of some coastal pelagic food chains5.

Burney J. Le Boeuf

1971-01-01

243

Past and present Aral Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tragedy of disappearing of Aral Sea is well known to the World. Before and after collapse of Soviet Union, a huge quantity of scientific and popular editions described with grief the situation around the Aral Sea. After the NIS states became independent, World Bank, UNDP, UNEP in proper competition with each other had provided some assessment of the situation through presentation of some small and medium grants, but after 2000, the local population remained alone with own problems. Although on the eyes of the present generation a unique transformation of great water body into deserts took place, the global scientific community did not find forces and financing for real and detail investigation of the processes accompanying the Sea shrinking and land formation. We should acknowledge and give big respect to NATO, later to German Government that through GTZ (now GIZ) - German International Collaboration Agency - and GFZ (Potzdam) paid attention to this area of environment crisis and organized scientific and protective design in the so-called Priaralie - the territory around the drying Sea and delta of the two rivers - Amudarya and Syrdarya. Thank to this assistance, the local specialists in collaboration with limited a number of foreign scientists (N.Aladin, P.Zavialov, Joop de Schutter, Hans Wilps, Hedi Oberhansli) organized significant works for detail socioeconomic, ecological and hydrological assessment situation in Priaralie and on the Aral sea coast. On this base, Ministry of Agriculture and Water resources of Uzbekistan and State Committee of Water resources of Kazakhstan developed a plan of rehabilitation of Amudarya and Syrdarya deltas and started implementation of these projects. If Kazakh water authority moved ahead in wetland restoration faster, a forestation of delta and drying bed of Aral Sea got big success in Uzbek territory. 244 thousands hectares of saxsaul and tamarix were planted for protection of the Priaralie. By request of GTZ SIC, ICWC organized in 2005-2009 sixth expeditions for complex remote sensing and ground investigations Aral Sea former bottom that were complemented in 2010 -2011 by two expeditions with GFZ. As a result, the landscape, soils and environment mapping was done with determination of ecologically unstable zones and assessment total change of lands situation compared with the pre-independence time. Moreover - methodic of monitoring water, environment and hydro geological indicators on the all deltas area was elaborated, organized its testing and combined with remote sensing data on Amudarya delta for 2009-2012. It permits to SIC ICWC to organize systematic permanent (decadal) monitoring and recording of size, volume and level of water in Aral Sea. Since the beginning of regular observations over the Aral Sea level, 2 periods can be emphasized: 1. Conditionally natural period - 1911-1960 - characterized by a relatively stable hydrological regime, with fluctuations in the level around 53 m and the range of inter-annual fluctuations at no more than 1 m., when the sea received annually about a half of the run-off in the Syrdarya and Amudarya Rivers, i.e. 50-60 km3/yr. 2. Intensive anthropogenic impact period - since the 1960s, a vast extension of irrigable land was carried out in Central Asia that resulted in intensive diversion of river run-off. Since then, the sea level has been falling steadily, causing a dramatic reduction in the water surface area, a decrease in water volume and depths, great changes in shoreline configuration and an expansion of the desert areas adjacent to the Aral Sea. From 1960-1985, when the sea was an integral water body, slight lowering in the sea level took place until the 1970s, when the sea-level decreased with the mean level lowering 1 m. The desiccation process accelerated visibly from the mid 1970s. In 1975-1980, the level decreased by 0.65 m a year on average. Moreover, the level dropped greatly, when the run-off of the Amudarya did not reach the Aral Sea any more (1980-1990). Kokaral was the first of the large islands becoming a peninsula, separa

Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

2013-04-01

244

Sea Lion Skeleton (Gliding Joint)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, B)

2007-07-14

245

Good news for sea turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the overexploitation of sea turtle populations, conservation measures are now in place in many areas. However, the overall impact of these measures is often unknown because there are few long time-series showing trends in population sizes. In a recent paper, George Balazs and Milani Chaloupka chart the number of green turtles Chelonia mydas nesting in Hawaii over the past

Graeme C. Hays

2004-01-01

246

Ploughing the deep sea floor.  

PubMed

Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land. PMID:22951970

Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

2012-09-13

247

Sea Surface Height 1993 - 2011  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation depicts year-to-year variability in sea surface height, and chronicles two decades of El Niño and La Niña events. It was created using NASA ocean altimetry data from 1993 to 2011, ...

248

Salton Sea Ecosystem Monitoring Project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salton Sea is critically important for wintering and breeding waterbirds, but faces an uncertain future due to water delivery reductions imposed by the Interstate and Federal Quantification Settlement Agreement of 2003. The current preferred alternative for wetland restoration at the Salton Sea is saline habitat impoundments created to mitigate the anticipated loss of wetland habitat. In 2006, a 50-hectare experimental complex that consisted of four inter-connected, shallow water saline habitat ponds (SHP) was constructed at the southeastern shoreline of the Salton Sea and flooded with blended waters from the Alamo River and Salton Sea. The present study evaluated ecological risks and benefits of the SHP concept prior to widespread restoration actions. This study was designed to evaluate (1) baseline chemical, nutrient, and contaminant measures from physical and biological constituents, (2) aquatic invertebrate community structure and colonization patterns, and (3) productivity of and contaminant risks to nesting waterbirds at the SHP. These factors were evaluated and compared with those of nearby waterbird habitat, that is, reference sites.

Miles, A. Keith; Ricca, Mark A.; Meckstroth, Anne; Spring, Sarah E.

2009-01-01

249

[Medical emergencies and sea rescue].  

PubMed

Military nurses and doctors are on permanent standby to respond to any medical emergency which may arise at sea. This atypical form of practice is part of a specific organisation, in order to provide optimal, high-quality care in the most remote places of the oceans. PMID:23951619

Lefebvre, Fabien; Albert, Christophe; Gunepin, David; Pondaven, Eric; Querellou, Emgan

2013-01-01

250

Ice2sea initial progress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice2sea is an EU Framework 7 funded project with 24 partners across Europe with the goal of constraining predictions of contributions of continental ice to sea-level rise over the next 200 years. We will do this through an integrated programme that includes targeted studies of key processes in mountain glacier systems and ice caps (e.g. Svalbard, Patagonia), and in ice sheets in both polar regions (Greenland and Antarctica); improved satellite determinations of changes in continental ice mass; development and implementation of ice-sheet/glacier models to generate detailed projections of the contribution of continental ice to sea-level rise over the next 200 years. We will deliver these results in forms accessible to scientists, policy-makers and the general public, which will include clear presentations of the sources of uncertainty. We are now a year into the project and in addition to some initial model output, recent field campaigns have provided data to be analysed. We summarise progress made to date, the targets for the coming year, and explain how you can stand informed and perhaps get involved in ice2sea.

Ford, Elaina; Vaughan, David

2010-05-01

251

Sea Level Rise in Tampa Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding relative sea level (RSL) rise during periods of rapid climatic change is critical for evaluating modern sea level rise given the vulnerability of Antarctic ice shelves to collapse, the retreat of the world's glaciers, and mass balance trends of the Greenland ice sheet. The first-order pattern of global sea level rise following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~21,000 years

Thomas Cronin; N. Terence Edgar; Gregg Brooks; David Hastings; Rebekka Larson; Albert Hine; Stanley Locker; Beau Suthard; Benjamin Flower; David Hollander; John Wehmiller; Debra Willard; Shannon Smith

2007-01-01

252

Arctic Sea Ice Extent Plummets in 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic sea ice declined rapidly to unprecedented low extents in the summer of 2007, raising concern that the Arctic may be on the verge of a fundamental transition toward a seasonal ice cover. Arctic sea ice extent typically attains a seasonal maximum in March and minimum in September. Over the course of the modern satellite record (1979 to present), sea

Julienne Stroeve; Mark Serreze; Sheldon Drobot; Shari Gearheard; Marika Holland; James Maslanik; Walt Meier; Ted Scambos

2008-01-01

253

3, 9991020, 2007 Summer sea ice  

E-print Network

CPD 3, 999­1020, 2007 Summer sea ice during the early Holocene H. Goosse et al. Title Page Abstract on the early Holocene climate constrains the summer sea ice projections for the 21st century H. Goosse, E #12;CPD 3, 999­1020, 2007 Summer sea ice during the early Holocene H. Goosse et al. Title Page

Boyer, Edmond

254

Surface Impedance Tomography for Antarctic Sea Ice  

E-print Network

Surface Impedance Tomography for Antarctic Sea Ice C. Sampsona , K. M. Goldena , A. Gullya , A. P measured the electrical conductivity of sea ice via surface impedance tomography. Resistance data from, this approach assumes that the conductivity profile of sea ice does not change very much with depth. In order

Golden, Kenneth M.

255

Sea Ice Rheology Daniel L. Feltham  

E-print Network

Sea Ice Rheology Daniel L. Feltham Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling, Department of Earth-4189/08/0115-0091$20.00 Key Words Arctic, Antarctic, climate model Abstract The polar oceans of Earth are covered by sea ice. On timescales much greater than a day, the motion and deformation of the sea ice cover (i.e., its dynamics

Feltham, Daniel

256

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Volume II Final Regulatory Impact Review North Pacific Administration National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Region December 2009 #12;Bering Sea Chinook Salmon effects of alternative measures to minimize Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fishery

257

Recent State of Arctic Sea Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the recent state of Arctic sea ice including observations from 2008 in a context of a multi-decadal perspective. A new record has been set in the reduction of Arctic perennial sea ice extent this winter. As of 1 March 2008, the extent of perennial sea ice was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same

S. V. Nghiem; I. G. Rigor; P. Clemente-Colón; D. K. Perovich; J. A. Richter-Menge; Y. Chao; G. Neumann; M. Ortmeyer

2008-01-01

258

South China Sea Circulation and Thermohaline Structure  

E-print Network

.H. Wang, 2003: Seasonal variability of thermohaline front in the central South China Sea. Journal, 2001: Seasonal and intrasesonal thermocline variability in the central South China Sea. Geophysical, and C.W. Fan, "Dynamical mechanisms for the South China Sea seasonal circulation and thermohaline

Chu, Peter C.

259

DNA barcoding of Brazilian sea turtles (Testudines)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five out of the seven recognized species of sea turtles (Testudines) occur on the Brazilian coast. The Barcode Initia- tive is an effort to undertake a molecular inventory of Earth biodiversity. Cytochrome Oxidase c subunit I (COI) mo- lecular tags for sea turtle species have not yet been described. In this study, COI sequences for the five species of sea

Sarah M. Vargas; Flávia C. F. Araújo; Fabrício R. Santos

2009-01-01

260

Yellow Sea Thermohaline and Acoustic Variability  

E-print Network

Yellow Sea Thermohaline and Acoustic Variability Peter C Chu, Carlos J. Cintron Naval Postgraduate School, USA Steve Haeger Naval Oceanographic Office, USA #12;Yellow Sea Bottom Sediment Chart · Four Bottom Sediment types 1. MudMud 2. Sand2. Sand 3.3. GravelGravel 4.4. RockRock #12;Yellow Sea Bottom

Chu, Peter C.

261

Projected sea level rise in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future sea level rise will lead to salt water intrusion, beach\\/dune recession, and many other coastal problems. This paper addresses a data based forecasting approach to provide relative sea level rise estimates at locations in Florida where historical water level data exist. Many past estimates of sea level rise have treated the rise as a linear straight line trend over

Todd L. Walton

2007-01-01

262

8, 27712793, 2008 Sea surface wind  

E-print Network

ACPD 8, 2771­2793, 2008 Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar Y. Hu et al. Title;ACPD 8, 2771­2793, 2008 Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar Y. Hu et al. Title 8, 2771­2793, 2008 Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar Y. Hu et al. Title Page

263

[Comparative analysis of sea-ice diatom species composition in the seas of Russian Arctic].  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of species composition of ice diatom algae (IDA) of the White, Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi Seas and the Basin of the Arctic Ocean was conducted on the basis of both original and published data. Species composition of IDA counts 567 taxa including 122 centric and 446 pennate diatoms. The freshwater algae composed about 18% of the total species number. In the White Sea, IDA were the most numerous (272 taxa), in the Kara Sea they are the least numerous (57 taxa). The species compositions in different seas differ significantly from each other. Similarity of IDA was consistent with the Arctic Ocean circulation and ice drift. IDA of Chukchi, East Siberian and Laptev Seas are the most similar, as are IDA of White and Kara Seas. Similarity of IDA of Chukchi Sea to those of other seas decrease in the west direction. IDA species differences between regions within one sea could be greater than those between different seas. PMID:19425351

Il'iash, L V; Zhitina, L S

2009-01-01

264

Sea water in coastal aquifers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Investigations in the coastal part of the Biscayne aquifer, a highly productive aquifer of limestone and sand in the Miami area, Florida, show that the salt-water front is dynamically stable as much as 8 miles seaward of the position computed according to the Ghyben-Herzberg principle. This discrepancy results, at least in part, from the fact that the salt water in the Biscayne aquifer is not static, as explanations of the dynamic balance commonly assume. Cross sections showing lines of equal fresh-water potential indicate that during periods of heavy recharge, the fresh-water head is high enough to cause the fresh water, the salt water, and the zone of diffusion between them to move seaward. When the fresh-water head is low, salt water in the lower part of the aquifer intrudes inland, but some of the diluted sea water in the zone of diffusion continues to flow seaward. Thus, salt water circulates inland from the floor of the sea through the lower part of the aquifer becoming progressively diluted with fresh water to a line along which there is no horizontal component of flow, after which it moves upward and returns to the sea. This cyclic flow is demonstrated by a flow net which is constructed by the use of horizontal gradients determined from the low-head equipotential diagram. The flow net shows that about seven-eights of the total discharge at the shoreline originates as fresh water in inland parts of the aquifer. The remaining one-eighth represents a return of sea water entering the aquifer through the floor of the sea.

Cooper, Hilton Hammond

1964-01-01

265

Thermal biology of sea snakes and sea kraits.  

PubMed

Temperature probably had no direct effect on the evolution of sea kraits within their center of origin, a geologically stable thermal zone straddling the equator, but may have indirectly affected expansions and contractions in distributions beyond that zone through global fluctuations that caused alternation of higher and lower sea levels. The northern limit of the Laticauda colubrina complex seems to be the 20°C isotherm; in the south, the range does not reach that isotherm because there is no land (also a habitat requirement of sea kraits) within the zone of suitable temperature. The relationship of temperature to the pattern of geographic variation in morphology supports either the hypothesis of peripheral convergence or the developmental hypothesis but does not distinguish between them. Quadratic surfaces relating cumulative scores for coloration and morphological characters to global position showed a strong latitudinal component and an even stronger longitudinal one in which the direction of the latitudinal effect was reversed between east and west. A multivariate analysis revealed that while morphological characters vary significantly by location and climate when tested separately, when the influence of location on morphology is taken into account, no residual relationship between climate and morphology remains. Most marine snakes have mean upper temperature tolerances between 39°C and 40°C and operate at temperatures much nearer their upper thermal limits than their lower limits but still avoid deleterious extremes by diving from excessively hot water to deeper, cooler strata, and by surfacing when water is cold. At the surface in still water in sunlight, Pelamis can maintain its body temperature slightly above that of the water, but whether this is significant in nature is questionable. As temperature falls below 18-20°C, survival time is progressively reduced, accompanied by the successive occurrence of cessation of feeding, cessation of swimming, and failure to orient. Acclimation does not seem to be in this species' repertoire. In the water column, marine snakes track water temperature; on land, sea kraits can thermoregulate by basking, selecting favorable locations, and by kleptothermy. Laticauda colubrina adjusts its reproductive cycle geographically in ways that avoid breeding in the coldest months. Mean voluntary diving time is not temperature-dependent within the normal range of temperatures experienced by marine snakes in the field, but is reduced in water colder than 20°C. On land, much as while diving in the sea, sea kraits maintain long periods of apnea; intervals between breaths are inversely related to temperature. PMID:22669175

Heatwole, Harold; Grech, Alana; Monahan, John F; King, Susan; Marsh, Helene

2012-08-01

266

Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996-2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8 kg km -2, and low in the East China Sea, with densities of 30.6 kg km -2. Fishing gear, such as pots, nets, octopus jars, and fishing lines, accounted for about 42-72% and 37-62% of litter items in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea, respectively, whereas the contributions of rubber, vinyl, metal, plastic, glass, wood, and clothing were below 30% mainly. Rope and drum composition fluctuated greatly, between 54% and 0%. Eel and net pots dominated the marine debris of the South Sea of Korea, and some vinyl, plastics, and fishing gear made in Korea, China, and Japan were collected in abundance in the East China Sea. Fishing gear was probably discarded into the sea, deliberately or inadvertently, by fishing operations. A comprehensive joint approach by Korea, China, and Japan is needed for the continuous monitoring of input sources, the actual conditions, and the behavior of marine litter for protection against litter pollution and fisheries resource management in this area.

Lee, Dae-In; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Jeong, Sun-Beom

2006-10-01

267

On the cloudiness and cloud types around the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Aral Sea regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten years (2000-2010) of cloud ground observations from 332 synoptic stations (with 3h time resolution) for the regions around the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea were analyzed. The considered variables were: total cloud cover (TCLD), cloud cover from low or middle clouds (LMCLD), low cloud type (LCLD), middle cloud type (MCLD) and high cloud type (HCLD). Data analyses were carried out for the whole dataset and several subsets: cloudless observations, 1-layer observations, and multi-layer observations. For the whole dataset, the analyses included frequency of cloudy observations, frequency of multilayer observations, and mean TCLD. We studied also frequency of 1-layer of clouds only, and frequency of each type of clouds (low, middle, high). Results show a large spatial and seasonal variability with respect to TCLD, cloud types and the frequency of multilayer cloud observations. Moreover, over the ten-year period, the evolution of the annual mean TCLD is investigated, showing a positive trend in the northern region of the Black Sea. Acknowledgements: This work has been undertaken within the frame and support of the CLIMSEAS project FP7-IRSES-2009 (ref. 247512).

Badosa, J.; Dmitrieva, L. R.; Shatunova, M.; Chumako, M.; Khan, V.; Calbó, J.; González, J.-A.

2012-04-01

268

Modeling the Structure of the Sea Anemone, Stomphia Coccinea and the Sea Star, Dermasterias Imbricata Using Implicit Surfaces  

E-print Network

Modeling the Structure of the Sea Anemone, Stomphia Coccinea and the Sea Star, Dermasterias invertebrates, the sea anemone, Stomphia Coccinea, and the sea star, Dermas- terias Imbricata. The sea star arrangement of the sea anemone's tentacles. Using a hierarchical construction of the model, we can re- fine

Wyvill, Brian

269

Diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea.  

PubMed

A differential equation of a Riccati type for the diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea is proposed. For a homogeneous sea with arbitrary inherent optical properties this equation is solved analytically. For an inhomogeneous sea it is solved approximately for any arbitrary stratification. The resulting equation expresses the diffuse reflection coefficient of the sea through vertical profiles of absorption and backscattering coefficients, bottom albedo, and sea depth. The results of calculations with this equation are compared with Monte Carlo computations. It was found that the precision of this approach is in the range of 15%. PMID:18305694

Haltrin, V I

1999-02-20

270

Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations  

E-print Network

Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

Ardakanian, Reza

2013-01-01

271

Sea ice in the Baltic Sea A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the seasonal ice cover of the Baltic Sea has many similarities to its oceanic counterpart in Polar Seas and Oceans, there are many unique characteristics that mainly result from the brackish waters from which the ice is formed, resulting in low bulk salinities and porosities. In addition, due to the milder climate than Polar regions, the annual maximum ice extent is highly variable, and rain and freeze-melt cycles can occur throughout winter. Up to 35% of the sea ice mass can be composed from metamorphic snow, rather than frozen seawater, and in places snow and superimposed ice can make up to 50% of the total ice thickness. There is pronounced atmospheric deposition of inorganic nutrients and heavy metals onto the ice, and in the Bothnian Bay it is estimated that 5% of the total annual flux of nitrogen and phosphorus and 20-40% of lead and cadmium may be deposited onto the ice fields from the atmosphere. It is yet unclear whether or not the ice is simply a passive store for atmospherically deposited compounds, or if they are transformed through photochemical processes or biological accumulation before released at ice and snow melt. As in Polar sea ice, the Baltic ice can harbour rich biological assemblages, both within the ice itself, and on the peripheries of the ice at the ice/water interface. Much progress has been made in recent years to study the composition of these assemblages as well as measuring biogeochemical processes within the ice related to those in underlying waters. The high dissolved organic matter loading of Baltic waters and ice result in the ice having quite different chemical characteristics than those known from Polar Oceans. The high dissolved organic material load is also responsible in large degree to shape the optical properties of Baltic Sea ice, with high absorption of solar radiation at shorter wavelengths, a prerequisite for active photochemistry of dissolved organic matter. Land-fast ice in the Baltic also greatly alters the mixing characteristics of river waters flowing into coastal waters. River plumes extend under the ice to a much greater distance, and with greater stability than in ice-free conditions. Under-ice plumes not only alter the mixing properties of the waters, but also result in changed ice growth dynamics, and ice biological assemblages, with the underside of the ice being encased, in the extreme case, with a frozen freshwater layer. There is a pronounced gradient in ice types from more saline ice in the south to freshwater ice in the north. The former is characteristically more porous and supports more ice-associated biology than the latter. Ice conditions also vary considerably in different parts of the Baltic Sea, with ice persisting for over half a year in the northernmost part of the Baltic Sea, the Bothnian Bay. In the southern Baltic Sea, ice appears only during severe winters.

Granskog, Mats; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Kuosa, Harri; Thomas, David N.; Vainio, Jouni

2006-10-01

272

Sea level trends and interannual variability in the Caribbean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level trends and interannual variability has been investigated in the Caribbean Sea using altimetry and tide gauge time series from 19 stations. Relative sea level trends range between -2.0 and 10.7 mm/y depending on the length of the available record. Records from stations longer than 40 years converge toward values between 1.2 - 5.2 mm/yr, still a significant range which in some stations is less and in some other significantly larger than the global average. The longest station, Cristobal (102 years) shows a trend of 1.9 mm/yr and, in addition a significant acceleration of 1.6±0.3 mm/y/cy. The observed sea level trends are not affected by the atmospheric pressure effect, within the levels of significance. They are also the same (within the levels of significance) at all seasons. Altimetry shows trends (over 18 years of data) with values up to 5.2 mm/y. In some areas the values are statistically insignificant, but at no areas statistically significant negative values are found. Steric trends from the top 800 m (over the period of altimetric observations) have a basin average trend of 1 mm/y, but it shows large spatial variability with negative trends of -7 mm/y in the Yucatan Basin and positive trends up to 4.9 mm/y in the Venezuela Basin. Decadal trends were found to vary significantly at tide-gauge records as well as altimetric and steric measurements. We further explore the residual interannual variability by comparison with surface wind and climatic indices. This analysis is supported by the Lloyd's Register Trust Fund project Marine Extremes.

Torres, R.; Tsimplis, M.

2012-04-01

273

The distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on the distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea was carried out in July 2009. The survey was done using wandering transect underwater with SCUBA. Twelve species of sea cucumber were found from four different families and nine genera. The most dominant family was Holothuriidae (five species), followed by Stichopodidae (three species), Synaptidae (three species) and Cucumariidae with only one species. The most dominant species found around the island was Pearsonothuria graffei, which can be found abundantly on substrate of dead corals in a wide range of depth (6-15 m). The Sulawesi Sea showed a higher diversity of sea cucumber with seven different species compared to the South China Sea with only six different species and Sulu Sea with only two species. Ordination by multidimensional scaling of Bray-Curtis similarities clustered the sampling locations to three main clusters with two outgroups. Previous studies done indicated a higher diversity of sea cucumber as compared to this study. This can be indication that the population and diversity of sea cucumbers in the reef is under threat.

Woo, Sau Pinn; Yasin, Zulfigar; Ismail, Siti Hasmah; Tan, Shau Hwai

2013-11-01

274

Contemporary Sea Level Variations, Observations and Causes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level change is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. For example, as the ocean warms in response to global warming, seawaters expand, and thus sea level rises. When mountain glaciers melt in response to increasing air temperature, sea level rises because of freshwater mass input to the oceans. Similarly, ice mass loss from the ice sheets causes sea level rise. Corresponding increase of freshwater into the oceans changes water salinity, hence seawater density as well as ocean circulation that in turn affects sea level and its spatial variability. Modification of the land hydrological cycle due to climate variability and direct anthropogenic forcing leads to increased or decreased runoff, hence ultimately to sea level change. Hence local and regional climate changes may affect the sea level.

Cazenave, Anny

275

Episodic sea-floor spreading in the Southern Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Sea represents the most spectacular example of a juvenile ocean basin on the modern Earth. Synthesis of regional aeromagnetic data, gravity data, seismic refraction data coupled with structural mapping from the Farasan Islands suggest that the opening of the Red Sea is complex and episodic. Modeling of magnetic and gravity data constrained by seismic refraction data reveals the Arabian Shelf is underlain by oceanic and transitional crust and that mafic diking and intrusions are focused at the continental-transitional crust boundary. This relationship is interpreted to indicate that early Miocene diking along the Arabian Escarpment heralded termination of oceanic basin formation and a shift in the locus of extension focused from a central mid-ocean ridge spreading center to the continental-transitional crust zone. Uplift along the Arabian Escarpment caused erosion and Middle to Late Miocene sedimentation of the Farasan Bank onto existing oceanic crust, suggesting that the extensive sedimentary banks of the southern Red Sea are not passive margins. Re-initiation of spreading occurred at ca 5 Ma. Pliocene to Pleistocene Shelf reef systems (Farasan Islands), developed on the flanks of the spreading ridge, are extensively overprinted by normal faults, suggesting that not all crustal extension is accommodated by active spreading.

Almalki, Khalid A.; Betts, Peter G.; Ailleres, Laurent

2014-03-01

276

Cabled ocean observatories in Sea of Oman and Arabian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ocean observatory—consisting of a real-time, cabled array in the Sea of Oman and an internally recording, autonomous mooring array recently upgraded to a cabled array in the northern Arabian Sea—celebrated more than 2500 days of continuous operation in July 2012. The observatory, which measures a range of properties, such as water current velocities, temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity, is part of the Lighthouse Ocean Research Initiative (LORI) project [du Vall et al., 2011], which was designed as a pilot project and installed in 2005 in the region off Abu Bakara (Figures 1a and 1b). The initial goal of the project was to prove that an in situ, cabled ocean observatory can return high-quality scientific data on a real-time basis over longer time periods than conventional moored systems. That same year, an autonomous array was deployed off Ras al Hadd and on Murray Ridge in the Arabian Sea (Figure 1a).

DiMarco, Steven F.; Wang, Zhankun; Jochens, Ann; Stoessel, Marion; Howard, Matthew K.; Belabbassi, Leila; Ingle, Stephanie; du Vall, Ken

2012-07-01

277

Eemian sea-level highstand in the eastern Baltic Sea linked to long-duration White Sea connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Revised diatom and new dinoflagellate cyst and benthic foraminiferal data from the eastern Baltic Sea have refined our understanding of Eemian (Last Interglacial; 131-119.5 ka) sea-level change on the Russian Karelia, a former seaway linking the Baltic to the White Sea. Results from Peski, eastern Baltic show the initiation of marine conditions just before 131 ka in the latest Saalian, after the opening of a connection to the North Sea. Following the onset of the Eemian marine highstand and the opening of the White Sea connection at around 130.25 ka, near-fully marine conditions persisted in the eastern Baltic area for ca 6 kyr, until ca 124 ka. For most of the Eemian, a strong thermal stratification in the eastern Baltic resulted from an Arctic and possible North Atlantic water component from the White Sea merging with warmer waters from the North Sea. From ca 124 ka, decreasing salinity indicates the end of the marine highstand and a simultaneous closure of the Baltic Sea-White Sea connection, i.e. a duration of ca 6 kyr for this seaway. The main influence of White Sea inflow appears to be restricted to the eastern Baltic area, although a large submerged area in the Russian Karelia associated with temperate Atlantic waters could have assisted in creating a more oceanic climate for Central Europe.

Miettinen, Arto; Head, Martin J.; Knudsen, Karen Luise

2014-02-01

278

Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

2011-01-01

279

Micromechanics of Sea Urchin Spines  

PubMed Central

The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model of the spine’s unique porous structure, based on micro-computed tomography (microCT) and incorporating anisotropic material properties, was developed to study its response to mechanical loading. Simulations show that high stress concentrations occur at certain points in the spine’s architecture; brittle cracking would likely initiate in these regions. These analyses demonstrate that the organization of single-crystal calcite in the unique, intricate morphology of the sea urchin spine results in a strong, stiff and lightweight structure that enhances its strength despite the brittleness of its constituent material. PMID:22984468

Tsafnat, Naomi; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Le, Hai N.; Stachurski, Zbigniew H.

2012-01-01

280

Journey to Deep Sea Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they learn about deep sea vents. Kids are introduced to these underwater geysers and to the Alvin submersible by Ro Kinzler, an Earth scientist at the Museum. They then have the opportunity to travel to the bottom of the ocean aboard a virtual submersible, learning about the zones they pass through and their inhabitants. A game allows kids to explore and collect specimens from one of the mineral chimneys found at a deep sea vent. When they have collected all nine living things at the vent, they are rewarded with a desktop image.

281

Salton Sea Geothermal Reservoir Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) is a high-salinity, high-temperature resource. The San Diego Gas & Electric Company has constructed a nominal 10 MWe Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility (GLEF) which will use brine produced from Magma Power Companyâs Woolsey No. 1 (W1) and Magmamax No. 1 (M1) wells; the Magmamax No. 2 (M2) and No. 3 (M3) wells will be

T. D. Riney; J. W. Pritchett; S. K. Garg

1977-01-01

282

Swimming with Sea Cows: Manatees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When manatees were first seen by Columbus, he thought they were mermaids..but he had been at sea for a long time! Today these gentle marine mammals are threatened by loss of habitat and collisions with boats. This video segment explores the endangered manatees of Florida and their struggle to survive, as well as some of the people who are working to save them. Please see the accompanying lesson plan for educational objectives, discussion points and classroom activities.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2007-03-01

283

Tides of the Caribbean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of tidal characteristics from 45 gauge locations indicates that the Caribbean Sea has a microtidal range, for the most part between 10 and 20 cm. The tide is primarily either mixed semidiurnal or mixed diurnal but a substantial section from Puerto Rico to Venezuela experiences diurnal tides. Empirical charts of six component tides (M2, S2, N2, K1, O1, and

Björn Kjerfve

1981-01-01

284

NOAA Teacher At Sea Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you a teacher who is interested in oceanographic research? Does the idea of living aboard an ocean-going research vessel intrigue you? Would you like to work as a crew member on a one to three week scientific cruise? NOAA is looking for motivated teachers (K-16) with a desire to do scientific research at sea and share that experience with students and colleagues.

285

Salton Sea solar pond project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of constructing salt gradient solar ponds within the Salton Sea is being studied. These ponds would serve a dual purpose: (1) become a depository for unwanted salt and (2) supply thermal energy for driving turbine electric power systems. Under present circumstances, the rise in salinity is expected to eliminate fish life and create other unfavorable conditions. The proposed concept would have a power generation potential of 600 MWe.

French, R. L.; Meitlis, I.

1980-01-01

286

MODIS Global Sea Surface Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every day the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measures sea surface temperature over the entire globe with high accuracy. This false-color image shows a one-month composite for May 2001. Red and yellow indicates warmer temperatures, green is an intermediate value, while blues and then purples are progressively colder values. The new MODIS sea surface temperature product will be particularly useful in studies of temperature anomalies, such as El Nino, as well as research into how air-sea interactions drive changes in weather and climate patterns. In the high resolution image, notice the amazing detail in some of the regional current patterns. For instance, notice the cold water currents that move from Antarctica northward along South America's west coast. These cold, deep waters upwell along an equatorial swath around and to the west of the Galapagos Islands. Note the warm, wide currents of the Gulf Stream moving up the United States' east coast, carrying Caribbean warmth toward Newfoundland and across the Atlantic toward Western Europe. Note the warm tongue of water extending from Africa's east coast to well south of the Cape of Good Hope. MODIS was launched in December 1999 aboard NASA's Terra satellite. For more details on this and other MODIS data products, please see NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Ocean Group, NASA GSFC, and the University of Miami

2002-01-01

287

Respiration in neonate sea turtles.  

PubMed

The pattern and control of respiration is virtually unknown in hatchling sea turtles. Using incubator-raised turtles, we measured oxygen consumption, frequency, tidal volume, and minute volume for leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) turtle hatchlings for the first six days after pipping. In addition, we tested the hatchlings' response to hypercapnic, hyperoxic, and hypoxic challenges over this time period. Hatchling sea turtles generally showed resting ventilation characteristics that are similar to those of adults: a single breath followed by a long respiratory pause, slow frequency, and high metabolic rate. With hypercapnic challenge, both species responded primarily by elevating respiratory frequency via a decrease in the non-ventilatory period. Leatherback resting tidal volume increased with age but otherwise, neither species' resting respiratory pattern nor response to gas challenge changed significantly over the first few days after hatching. At the time of nest emergence, sea turtles have achieved a respiratory pattern that is similar to that of actively diving adults. PMID:17258487

Price, Edwin R; Paladino, Frank V; Strohl, Kingman P; Santidrián T, Pilar; Klann, Kenneth; Spotila, James R

2007-03-01

288

Dual overflows into the deep Sulu Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sulu Sea, isolated from the neighboring ocean below 570 m, is nearly isothermal below 1250 m but with a marked salinity increase with depth. The source of the deep Sulu Sea water has been attributed to South China Sea water overflowing the 570 m topographic sill of Panay Strait. However, the Panay overflow (estimated as 0.32 × 106 m3/sec) is an unlikely source for the saltier water Sulu Sea deep water. We propose that deep Sulu Sea ventilation is derived from the south, from the Sulawesi Sea through Sibutu Passage. Sulawesi Sea water between 245 to 527 m, is mixed and heaved over the Sibutu Passage 234 m sill by the energetic tidal environment. Oxygen concentrations within the deep Sulu Sea suggest that the Sulawesi overflow is 0.15 × 106 m3/sec, with a residence time of Sulu Sea deep water of 60 years. The deep tropical Sulu Sea has the unique distinction of being ventilated from two separate sources, whose ratio may fluctuate across a range of temporal scales, associated with regional thermocline depth changes.

Gordon, Arnold L.; Tessler, Zachary D.; Villanoy, Cesar

2011-09-01

289

Creating Arctic Sea Ice Protected Areas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Arctic sea ice retreats and the Northwest Passage and Northern Sea Route open, the Arctic will experience more extensive human activity than it has ever encountered before. New development will put pressure on a system already struggling to adapt to a changing environment. In this analysis, locations are identified within the Arctic that could be protected from resource extraction, transportation and other development in order to create refuges and protect remnants of sea ice habitat, as the Arctic transitions to ice-free summer conditions. Arctic sea ice forms largely along the Siberian and Alaskan coasts and is advected across the North Pole towards Fram Strait, the Canadian Archipelago and the Barents Sea. In addition to the future loss of ice itself, contaminants entrained in sea ice in one part of the ocean can affect other regions as the ice drifts. Using observations and models of sea ice origins, trajectories and ages, we track sea ice from its origins towards marginal ice zones, mapping pathways and termination locations. Critical sea ice source areas and collection regions are identified with the goal of aiding in the protection of the remaining Arctic sea ice habitat for as long as possible.

Pfirman, S.; Hoff, K.; Temblay, B.; Fowler, C.

2008-12-01

290

A multivariate Baltic Sea environmental index.  

PubMed

Since 2001/2002, the correlation between North Atlantic Oscillation index and biological variables in the North Sea and Baltic Sea fails, which might be addressed to a global climate regime shift. To understand inter-annual and inter-decadal variability in environmental variables, a new multivariate index for the Baltic Sea is developed and presented here. The multivariate Baltic Sea Environmental (BSE) index is defined as the 1st principal component score of four z-transformed time series: the Arctic Oscillation index, the salinity between 120 and 200 m in the Gotland Sea, the integrated river runoff of all rivers draining into the Baltic Sea, and the relative vorticity of geostrophic wind over the Baltic Sea area. A statistical downscaling technique has been applied to project different climate indices to the sea surface temperature in the Gotland, to the Landsort gauge, and the sea ice extent. The new BSE index shows a better performance than all other climate indices and is equivalent to the Chen index for physical properties. An application of the new index to zooplankton time series from the central Baltic Sea (Latvian EEZ) shows an excellent skill in potential predictability of environmental time series. PMID:22430308

Dippner, Joachim W; Kornilovs, Georgs; Junker, Karin

2012-11-01

291

Sea level reconstructions: Validation and value  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to see how sea level has changed from past states or to accurately project how it will change in the future is limited by historical sea level data. Tide gauge measurements have a long temporal record but limited spatial coverage and satellite altimetry provides global measurements but has only been available for 20 years. Reconstructions extend spatially dense datasets, such as those from satellite altimetry, by decomposing the dataset into basis functions and fitting those functions to in-situ tide gauge measurements with a longer temporal record. A longer temporal record allows one to separate signals that cannot be found in the relatively short altimeter record. However, the fidelity and utility of sea level reconstructions is still a topic of discussion. I compare and evaluate two methods for reconstructing sea level and show how reconstructions can be beneficial where other sea level datasets are limited. The compared sea level reconstruction methods differ in the technique for calculating basis functions, i.e. empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) versus cyclostationary EOFs (CSEOFs). Additionally, I use published sea level reconstruction datasets to analyze changes in the North Equatorial Current bifurcation point, in regional trends in the Southeast Asian Seas, and in the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to global sea level over the last 60 years. These results give direction for making high quality sea level reconstructions and identify significant scientific findings made possible through reconstructing sea level. Sea level reconstructions provide the ability to separate natural recurring signals from those that are historically unprecedented, such as the rise in global mean sea level, which is an unparalleled virtue given the current state of the climate.

Strassburg, Mathew David West

292

The expected impact of the “Peace Conduit” project (the Red Sea - Dead Sea pipeline) on the Dead Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dead Sea is a severely disturbed ecosystem, greatly damaged by anthropogenic intervention in its water balance. During\\u000a the 20th century, the Dead Sea level dropped by more than 25 meters, and presently (2003) it is at about 416 meters below\\u000a mean sea level. This negative water balance is mainly due to the diversion of water from the catchment area

Ittai Gavrieli; Amos Bein; Aharon Oren

2005-01-01

293

The Expected Impact of the Peace Conduit Project (The Red Sea – Dead Sea Pipeline) on the Dead Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dead Sea of Israel, Jordan and Syria is a severely disturbed ecosystem, greatly damaged by anthropogenic intervention\\u000a in its water balance. During the 20 th century, the Dead Sea level dropped by more than 25 meters, and presently (2003) it\\u000a is at about 416 meters below mean sea level. This negative water balance is mainly due to the diversion

Ittai Gavrieli; Amos Bein; Aharon Oren

2005-01-01

294

Holocene sea level change along the coasts of China and South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research reconstructed the Holocene sea-level history in China and South China Sea (between the equator and 40°N) by reviewing published relative sea-level and sediment records. The collected 14C dates of sea-level indicators were calibrated to calendar years before present. Details of the lithostratigraphy, micro-fossil evidence and sedimentary characteristics of the sediment records were used for quantifying the vertical relationship to local reference tidal level for each of the sea-level indicators. The corrected data were plotted to produce sea-level curves. The reconstructed sea-level curves uniformly confirm a phase of rapid sea-level rise before 8000 cal. yr BP and show marked spatial differences between latitudes. In the southern sector (southern South China Sea), relative sea level reached a highstand of c. 2 m around 5800 cal. yr BP. In the northern sector (Bohai Bay and the Yellow Sea), however, relative sea level continued to rise over the past 6000 years at a slow rate. This series of sea-level curves provide an opportunity to evaluate the effects of hydro-isostatic processes along this coast. In addition, localized tectonic movements can also be identified.

Sun, Yiying; Zong, Yongqiang

2014-05-01

295

Coupled Sea Ice–Ocean-State Estimation in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay  

E-print Network

Sea ice variability in the Labrador Sea is of climatic interest because of its relationship to deep convection, mode-water formation, and the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation. Historically, quantifying the relationship ...

Fenty, Ian

296

First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.  

PubMed

It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with 'deep-sea' and 'cold-water' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited. PMID:24091830

Roder, C; Berumen, M L; Bouwmeester, J; Papathanassiou, E; Al-Suwailem, A; Voolstra, C R

2013-01-01

297

First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea  

PubMed Central

It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with ‘deep-sea’ and ‘cold-water’ corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited. PMID:24091830

Roder, C.; Berumen, M. L.; Bouwmeester, J.; Papathanassiou, E.; Al-Suwailem, A.; Voolstra, C. R.

2013-01-01

298

A study of mobile trough genesis over the Yellow Sea - East China Sea region  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanisms responsible for the formation of mobile troughs over a prolific source region in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Two mobile troughs which intensified significantly after formation were...

Komar, Keith Nickolas

2012-06-07

299

Activities of the balkan, black sea and caspian sea regional network on space weather studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information is given about activities, including the Annual Meeting of the Balkan, Black Sea and Caspian Sea Regional Network on Space Weather Studies held in 2006, Antalya, Turkey, and publication of papers presented in this Meeting.

A. Ozguc

2007-01-01

300

50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...equipment and personnel upon request to determine the vessel's position. (4) Notify the sea sampler/observer in a timely fashion of when fishing operations are to begin and end. (5) Allow for the embarking and debarking of the sea...

2010-10-01

301

Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature,

J. L. Schramm; J. A. Curry; Elizabeth E. Ebert

1995-01-01

302

4, 107128, 2007 Sea-ice-drift  

E-print Network

OSD 4, 107­128, 2007 Sea-ice-drift dynamics and pack fracture A. Chmel et al. Title Page Abstract aspects of the sea-ice-drift dynamics and pack fracture A. Chmel 1 , V. N. Smirnov 2 , and L. V. Panov 2 1 to: A. Chmel (chmel@mail.ioffe.ru) 107 #12;OSD 4, 107­128, 2007 Sea-ice-drift dynamics and pack

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

CATASTROPHIC FLOODING OF THE BLACK SEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Decades of seabed mapping, reflection profiling, and seabed sampling reveal that throughout,the past two million years the Black Sea was predominantly,a freshwater lake interrupted only briefly by saltwater invasions coincident with global sea level highstand. When,the exterior ocean lay below,the relatively shallow sill of the Bosporus outlet, the Black Sea operated in two modes. As in the neighboring

William B. F. Ryan; Candace O. Major; Gilles Lericolais; Steven L. Goldstein

2003-01-01

304

Oscillating Quaternary water levels of the Marmara Sea and vigorous outflow into the Aegean Sea from the Marmara Sea–Black Sea drainage corridor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed interpretation of single-channel air-gun and deep-tow boomer profiles demonstrates that the Marmara Sea, Turkey, experienced small-amplitude (?70 m) fluctuations in sea level during the later Quaternary, limited in magnitude by the sill depth of the Strait of Dardanelles. Moderate subsidence along the southern shelf and Quaternary glacio-eustatic sea-level variations created several stacked deltaic successions, separated by major shelf-crossing unconformities,

A. E Aksu; R. N Hiscott; D Ya?ar

1999-01-01

305

The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project  

SciTech Connect

The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) was initiated in 1993 to address widespread concern over the possible health and environmental impacts associated with the radioactive waste dumped into the shallow waters of the Arctic Seas. This article discusses the project with these general topics: A brief history of dumping activities; the international control system; perspectives on arctic Seas dumping; the IASAP aims and implementation; the IASAP work plan and progress. 2 figs.

Linsley, G.S.; Sjoeblom, K.L.

1994-07-01

306

Climate Change and Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module looks at how increasing temperatures due to climate change have affected sea level rise and what effects scientist expect in the future, given rising greenhouse gas emissions. The various mechanisms of sea level rise are discussed, as well as the tools and research used to study this topic. The module also discusses how countries and communities are preparing for future increases in sea levels.

Comet

2012-08-14

307

Anomalous sea surface reverberation scale model experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low frequency sea surface sound backscattering from ?100Hz to a few kHz observed from the 1960s broadband measurements using explosive charges to the Critical Sea Test measurements conducted in the 1990s is substantially higher than explained by rough sea surface scattering theory. Alternative theories for explaining this difference range from scattering by bubble plumes\\/clouds formed by breaking waves to stochastic

T. H. Neighbors; L. Bjørnø

2006-01-01

308

Focus Issue: Spiky Signalers from the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week’s issue of Science’s STKE complements the special issue of Science featuring the Sea Urchin Genome. With new insights gleaned from the 814-Mb genome of the California purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and its estimated 23,000 genes, this organism holds many secrets to help us understand cell signaling and the evolution of regulatory systems in biology. Two STKE Perspectives discuss signal transduction during early development in the sea urchin.

L. Bryan Ray (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Science's STKE and Science REV)

2006-11-14

309

South China Sea WWW Virtual Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The South China Sea WWW Virtual Library is a new subsection of the Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library edited by David Rosenberg, professor of political science at Middlebury College (Vermont). This site will serve as a centralized resource for students, researchers, and policymakers interested in South China Sea regional development, environment, and security issues. The South China Sea WWW VL links to online publications, databases, maps, images, related institutions, and a print bibliography.

Rosenburg, David

310

Recent state of the Aral sea from regular satellite observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aral Sea disaster is one of the most significant examples of ecological catastrophe caused by mismanagement of water resources. Aral sea level dropped on 22 meters for the last 35 years. The sea separated in to two independent parts , the Large Sea(Southern) and the Small Sea (Northern), loosing more than 90% of its original water masses. After the

S. Stanichny; A. Davidov; S. Djenidi; U. Horstmann; R. Stanichnaya; D. Soloviev

2004-01-01

311

A r c t i c Barents Sea  

E-print Network

extent of sea ice (as of 1975) Lena Yukon Lena River Yenisey Lake Onega Volga North Sea East Siberian N o t h A t l a n t i c O c e a n Labrador Sea Norwegian Sea Kama Dnieper Sea Amur Alaska Gulf of Peace er

Martin, Jeff

312

Ecological Role of Sea Lions as Predators, Competitors, and Prey  

E-print Network

Ecological Role of Sea Lions as Predators, Competitors, and Prey · Sea Lion Species · California Sea Lions (not listed) - increasing · Steller Sea Lions eDPS (threatened) ­ increasing (delisting review under way, June 2010) · Steller Sea Lions wDPS (endangered) - decreasing · Predators ­ varied diet

313

Case Study 1 Monitoring Green Tides in Chinese Marginal Seas  

E-print Network

are delivered to the ocean. In Chinese coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and Bohai Sea as Enteromorpha prolifera, see Hayden et al., 2003) occurred in coastal and offshore waters in the Yellow Sea (YS of macroalgae Ulva prolifera in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea near Qingdao, China. (a) and (b) Macroalgae

Meyers, Steven D.

314

Relative sea level rise in China and its socioeconomic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global sea level rise over the past 100 years is 1 to 2 mm\\/yr, and the best estimate of sea level rise is 18 cm in 2030. In Chinese major deltas, owing to large land subsidence, relative sea level rise reaches 10 to 20 mm\\/yr. Therefore, potential coastal risks from further sea level rise is great. Impact of sea level

1994-01-01

315

Coastal Consequences of Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-paced tutorial explores the evidence for sea level rise related to global climate change and the consequences for humanity, especially for coastal-dwelling populations. Learners explore how a warming climate contributes to sea level rise, examine how satellites collect sea level data, and analyze interactive data to understand the potential consequences of climate change on sea level in different parts of the world. Multimedia educational resources including video clips and glossary links to vocabulary are included. This is the seventh of ten self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.

316

Bottom Pressure Variability in the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We deployed an array of three bottom pressure/temperature/conductivity (PTC) instruments at Jeddah, Thuwal and Rabigh along the Saudi Arabian coast of the eastern Red Sea for a period of 3 years. This PTC array accurately measured the regional tidal variability of the bottom pressure field and characterized the low frequency along-shore pressure, temperature and salinity gradients and their variability. Surface sea level/height was calculated from the bottom pressure measurements using the hydrostatic equation. On time scales of order 1 day the most energetic component of sea level variability was the semidiurnal and diurnal tides dominated by the M2, N2, K1 and O1 tidal constituents. On time scales of order 10 days the sea level variability was wind driven with setup and set down up to 40 cm due to the local wind stress. On yearly time scales the sea level varied approximately 50 cm and was highest in winter (January-February) and lowest in summer (July-August). Barometric pressure also had an annual cycle of approximately 10 mb and was highest in January thus attenuating the amplitude of the annual sea level variability. Higher sea level in winter months may be due to a convergence in the large-scale Red Sea wind stress. The amplitude of the principal tidal and subtidal sea level variability was coherent at the three sites, but the direction of phase propagation could not be resolved with confidence.

Limeburner, R.; Abualnaja, Y.; Beardsley, R.

2012-04-01

317

Population status of California sea otters  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the study was to develop a simulation model to facilitate analysis of the risk of oil spills to the threatened California sea otter population. Existing data on the dynamics and demography of the population were synthesized. The additional data needed for model development were collected through radiotelemetry studies of sea otters in Alaska and California. The simulation model contains four interrelated stochastic submodels: a short-term population model, a long-term population model, a sea otter distribution model, and a sea otter movement model. The report includes a detailed description of the model, the data on which it is based, and an operating manual.

Not Available

1988-11-30

318

Extreme 2008: A Deep Sea Adventure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, designed for K-12 teachers and students, offers materials and activities based on the "Extreme 2008: A Deep Sea Adventure" mission to explore deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Students can step into the shoes of deep-sea scientists as they follow the expedition and listen to recordings of student communications with the researchers via e-mail and telephone calls placed directly to Alvin, a research submersible, as it made its way deep into the Pacific. Topics include sea creatures, geology, plate tectonics, and chemistry of the deep ocean. Video clips are also provided to help students visualize the underwater experience.

2004-08-08

319

Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator-prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator-prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

2013-09-01

320

Changes in Sea Ice: Antarctic vs. Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the dramatic retreat of Arctic sea ice in summer 2007, the summer extent of the Arctic sea ice cover has been at the lowest levels on record, with a new record minimum seen in 2012. The steep decline occurred after years of shrinking and thinning of the ice cover not only in summer but also in other seasons. Meanwhile, satellite passive microwave images show that there has been a modest net increase in the Antarctic sea ice extent since 1979. This upward trend is caused by a significant increase in ice concentration in most of the Indian sector and parts of the Atlantic and Pacific sectors including areas in the Weddell and Ross seas, as shown by satellite ice concentration data. However, satellite data also show that ice concentration has decreased considerably in some areas in the Atlantic and Pacific sectors, particularly around the Antarctic Peninsula. This highlights the complex variability and trend patterns of the Antarctic sea ice cover. In an effort to shed light on the behavior of the Antarctic sea ice cover, a comparative model study is conducted to examine its variability and trends relative to the behavior of the Arctic sea ice cover over 1979-2012, using the Global Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (GIOMAS). We compare changes in sea ice extent, volume, motion, deformation, internal interaction, ridging, growth, and melt in both polar regions. We also explore the differences in sea ice response to changes in atmospheric and oceanic forcing in the polar regions.

Zhang, J.

2013-12-01

321

Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), hosted by the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL), is the global data bank for long term sea level change information from tide gauges. The PSMSL data set is the main source of information on long term changes in global sea level during the last two centuries. This site contains data sets, and information on other services such as vertical land movements and air pressure. There are answers to frequently asked questions about sea level changes, packets on data use available, annual reports, and other contacts for more information.

322

La Niña caused global sea level drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 La Niña was so strong that it caused global mean sea level to drop by 5 millimeters, a new study shows. Since the early 1990s, sea level has been rising by about 3 millimeters per year, satellite data show. But between the beginning of 2010 and the middle of 2011, sea level fell by 5 millimeters. This occurred concurrently with the La Niña phase of the El Niño- Southern Oscillation (ENSO). ENSO involves a shift in ocean surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific and changes in precipitation patterns around the world. Previous studies have shown that strong El Niño events can increase sea level temporarily.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-12-01

323

Sea level rise and its coastal impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming in response to accumulation of human-induced greenhouse gases inside the atmosphere has already caused several visible consequences, among them increase of the Earth's mean temperature and ocean heat content, melting of glaciers, and loss of ice from the Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets. Ocean warming and land ice melt in turn are causing sea level to rise. Sea level rise and its impacts on coastal zones have become a question of growing interest in the scientific community, as well as in the media and public. In this review paper, we summarize the most up-to-date knowledge about sea level rise and its causes, highlighting the regional variability that superimposes the global mean rise. We also present sea level projections for the 21st century under different warming scenarios. We next address the issue of the sea level rise impacts. We question whether there is already observational evidence of coastal impacts of sea level rise and highlight the fact that results differ from one location to another. This suggests that the response of coastal systems to sea level rise is highly dependent on local natural and human settings. We finally show that in spite of remaining uncertainties about future sea levels and related impacts, it becomes possible to provide preliminary assessment of regional impacts of sea level rise.

Cazenave, Anny; Cozannet, Gonéri Le

2014-02-01

324

Correlating the shallow and the deep 3D-structure of the Barents Sea/ Kara Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barents Sea and Kara Sea continental shelf region is located in the northern European Arctic. The crustal configuration of the Barents Sea/Kara Sea region exhibits a complex architecture of the sedimentary cover which implies the influence of diverse causative geological processes. The narrow and deep basins of the southwestern Barents Sea characterise rift basins which have been filled with thick sediments predominantly Mesozoic in age. In contrast, the eastern Barents Sea and the southern Kara Sea are marked by a wide and deep basin architecture which indicates basin formation mechanisms apart from rifting. There, the sedimentary succession yields Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Cenozoic deposits are restricted to the southwesternmost parts of the Barents Sea and the oceanic domain. The lack of sediments on the shelf is attributed to strong Pleistocene uplift, subsequent erosion and recurring ice sheet coverage of the Barents Sea/Kara Sea region. The modelled area covers about 5 million km² with a maximum longitudinal and latitudinal extent of 2180 and 2400 km, respectively, and comprises regions beyond the Barents Sea and Kara Sea such as parts of Greenland, Fennoscandia and western Siberia. This study presents the lithospheric density configuration below the greater Barents Sea/ Kara Sea region. Thereby, five sedimentary megasequences are differentiated across the entire study area. Each unit is modelled with matrix densities and depth dependent porosities to calculate the bulk densities. The respective compaction curves reflect that strong late Cenozoic erosion and ice sheet coverage removed particularly less dense sediments on Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya, while in the eastern Barents Sea and the southern Kara Sea erosion was less effective. Thus, the obtained sedimentary bulk densities vary laterally distinctively. The density setup of the subsedimentary lithosphere beneath the Barents shelf is defined by a high-resolution, velocity-converted density grid. This dataset is tested the first time against gravity to further constrain the 3D density model. Interestingly, region that experienced weaker Cenozoic erosion are underlain by a heavier mantle density composition.

Klitzke, Peter; Faleide, Jan Inge; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

2013-04-01

325

Sea Level Trend in the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea : A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea level change is an index of global change especially the global warming. Global sea level is rising at 1.8 mm\\/yr (IPCC,2007), but few studies have been conducted regarding local sea level change and there is virtually no systematic study in the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea. The objective of this research is to determine the rate of

Sommart Niemnil; Marc Naeije; Itthi Trisirisatayawong

2010-01-01

326

Unlocking a Sea Ice Secret  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Rachel Obbard and her research group from Dartmouth College traveled to the Antarctic to collect samples of sea ice. Next stop: the GeoSoilEnviroCARS x-ray beamline at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois. This U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science synchrotron x-ray research facility gave the Obbard team the frontier scientific tools they needed to study the path bromide takes as it travels from the ocean to the atmosphere.

Dr. Rachel Obbard

2013-04-22

327

Sea Level: Ice Volume Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students observe simulations of melting sea ice and a melting continental ice sheet in order to investigate the relationship between the melting of the ice and the water level in the tank. The water tanks simulate the world oceans. In the first example, the ice is floating in water. This would be an example of icebergs or Arctic ice floating on the ocean. In the second example the ice lies on a wood structure. The structure simulates a continent. The block of ice on top of the structure simulates ice grounded on top of a continent. This would be an example of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica.

328

Rulers of the Jurassic Seas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available free from Scientific American's Website, this article takes a thorough and fascinating look at the marine reptiles known as Ichthyosaurs that lived during the Mesozoic Era. The text covers recent discoveries about the evolution of Ichthyosaurs from land dwelling reptiles, including limb adaptations. Highlights of the article are special sections about ichthyosaur eyes and diet, and color illustrations and diagrams. The text contains hyperlinks to related pages (Britannica.com, Tree of Life, American Cetacean Society, etc.). "Rulers of the Jurassic Seas" is a good read for students of paleontology or marine science.

Motani, Ryosuke.

2000-01-01

329

Long term sea level change and water mass balance in the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level anomalies observed by altimeter during the 1993-2006 period, thermosteric sea level anomalies estimated by using subsurface temperature data produced by Ishii and SODA reanalysis data, tide gauge records and HOAPS freshwater flux data were analyzed to investigate the long term sea level change and the water mass balance in the South China Sea. The altimeter-observed sea level showed a rising rate of (3.5±0.9) mm yr-1 during the period 1993-2006, but this figure was considered to have been highly distorted by the relatively short time interval and the large inter-decadal variability, which apparently exists in both the thermosteric sea level and the observed sea level. Long term thermosteric sea level from 1945 to 2004 gave a rising rate of 0.15±0.06 mm yr-1. Tide gauge data revealed this discrepancy and the regional distributions of the sea-level trends. Both the ‘real’ and the thermosteric sea level showed a good correspondence to ENSO: decreasing during El Niño years and increasing during La Niña years. Amplitude and phase differences between the ‘real’ sea level and the thermosteic sea level were substantially revealed on both seasonal and interannual time scales. As one of the possible factors, the freshwater flux might play an important role in balancing the water mass.

Rong, Zengrui; Liu, Yuguang; Zong, Haibo; Xiu, Peng

2009-12-01

330

Deep sea records from the southeast Labrador Sea: Ocean circulation changes and ice-rafting events  

E-print Network

Deep sea records from the southeast Labrador Sea: Ocean circulation changes and ice-rafting events, respectively, indicate that during the time period from 160,000 to 10,000 years BP, ice rafting events in the Labrador Sea were accompanied by rapid variations in deep and surface water circulation. Twelve ice-rafting

Born, Andreas

331

SEAS STUDENT GROUP HANDBOOK Administrative and Funding support for SEAS related Student Organizations  

E-print Network

SEAS STUDENT GROUP HANDBOOK Included: Administrative and Funding support for SEAS related Student with the office. Administrative and Funding Support for SEAS related Student Organizations The Student Affairs and programming must be potentially open to the entire school to receive school funding. In addition, we recommend

332

National Sea Grant College What Does the National Sea Grant College Program Do for the Nation?  

E-print Network

of Southern California Sea Grant worked with the former Public Works Commissioner and the Bureau of Sanitation bolster "buy-local" food production and created a market throughout much of the country. A Wisconsin Sea, salt- tolerant crop with biofuel potential Safe and Sustainable Seafood Supply: Sea Grant scientist

333

Polar Seas Oceanography: An Integrated Case Study of the Kara Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

What strikes first when browsing through this book is that the main title is misleading. Polar Seas Oceanography is, first of all, a book on ``an integrated case study of the Kara Sea,'' as the subtitle says. For readers who are interested more generally in polar oceanography, the book is probably the wrong choice. The Kara Sea is a rather

Ingo Harms

2004-01-01

334

Fall Persistence Barrier of Sea Surface Temperature in the South China Sea Associated with ENSO*  

E-print Network

Fall Persistence Barrier of Sea Surface Temperature in the South China Sea Associated with ENSO temperature (SST) in the South China Sea (SCS) in association with El Niño­Southern Oscillation (ENSO types of coupled ocean­atmosphere model simulations (e.g., Zebiak and Cane 1987; Goswami and Shukla 1991

Li, Tim

335

NOAA's Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystems  

E-print Network

. Architects of the Deep Some deep-sea coral species form reefs that, over mil- lennia, can grow more than 300 conservation in National Marine Sanctuaries. · Guided by the NOAA Strategic Plan for Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge studies to inform conservation actions. The mission of the Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program

336

Deep-Sea Research II 48 (2001) 41274153 Nitrogen uptake kinetics in the Ross Sea, Antarctica  

E-print Network

Deep-Sea Research II 48 (2001) 4127­4153 Nitrogen uptake kinetics in the Ross Sea, Antarctica , and urea in the Ross Sea, Antarctica were measured on three cruises during austral late winter­early spring bacterial abundance and biomass were highest. Finally, dramatic changes in NH4 + uptake capacity were

Cochlan, William P.

337

A numerical experiment on the sedimentation processes in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentation processes of suspended matter supplied from the Huanghe (Yellow River) and the Changjiang are investigated with the use of a three-dimensional numerical model of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea which includes the tidal current, residual flow and wind waves. Suspended matter supplied from the Huanghe mainly deposits in the Bohai Sea and that from the old

Tetsuo Yanagi; Koh-ichi Inoue

1995-01-01

338

Temporal and spatial variations of sea surface temperature in the East China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface temperature of the East China Sea (ECS) were analyzed using the NOAA\\/AVHRR SST images. These satellite images reveal surface features of ECS including mainly the Kuroshio Current, Kuroshio Branch Current, Taiwan Warm Current, China coastal water, Changjiang diluted water and Yellow Sea mixed cold water. The SST of ECS ranges from 27 to 29°C in summer; some cold

Chente Tseng; Chiyuan Lin; Shihchin Chen; Chungzen Shyu

2000-01-01

339

Sea ice drift tracking in the Bohai Sea using geostationary ocean color imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bohai Sea is located in the middle latitude region, which is an important economic development zone in China. However, sea ice drift causes significant economic losses in the winter. Sea ice drifting is difficult to track due to the long satellite repeat cycles in the polar region and the rapid changes in the Bohai Sea ice. The unique characteristics of the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) allow tracking of sea ice drift on a daily basis with the use of 1-h time interval images (eight images per day). This study employed the GOCI data for daily 1-h sea ice drift tracking in the Bohai Sea using a maximum cross-correlation method. Sea ice drift monitoring is accomplished by tracking the distinct characteristics of sea ice samples. The sea ice drift tracking derived from the GOCI images are validated by the in-situ data and historical data in Liaodong Bay. In addition, sea ice drift in the Bohai Sea is controlled by the surface current and wind, and the current-ice drag coefficient and wind-ice drag coefficient are 0.91 and 0.03, respectively, roughly corresponding to 2.55% of the surface wind speed.

Lang, Wenhui; Wu, Qing; Zhang, Xi; Meng, Junmin; Wang, Ning; Cao, Yajing

2014-01-01

340

Sea surface height variations in the South China Sea from satellite altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface elevation in the South China Sea is examined in the Topex\\/Poseidon altimeter data from 1992 to 1995. Sea level anomalies are smoothed along satellite tracks and in time with tidal errors reduced by harmonic analysis. The smoothed data are sampled every ten days with an along-track separation of about 40 km. The data reveal significant annual variations in

Ping-Tung Shaw; Shenn-Yu Chao; Lee-Lueng Fu

1999-01-01

341

Variability and trends in sea ice extent and ice production in the Ross Sea  

E-print Network

Variability and trends in sea ice extent and ice production in the Ross Sea Josefino C. Comiso,1 Ronald Kwok,2 Seelye Martin,3 and Arnold L. Gordon4 Received 7 May 2010; revised 6 December 2010; accepted 24 January 2011; published 21 April 2011. [1] Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross

Gordon, Arnold L.

342

The flow system in the Japan Sea caused by a sea level difference through shallow straits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate how the current system through the Japan Sea is driven and what determines the volume transport. We suppose that a part of the difference in geopotential anomaly between the subtropical and subpolar gyre is converted into a barotropic sea level difference across the three shallow straits which connect the Japan Sea with the Pacific and that this difference

Kay I. Ohshima

1994-01-01

343

Artificial Radionuclides in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) Proper and Peter the Great Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade there has been growing concern over dumping of radioactive waste in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) proper and adjacent coastal waters. Here we show that the evolution of activity concentrations of 137Cs and 239+240Pu in the East Sea, and existing levels of radioactive contamination in waters, sediments and biota from Peter the Great Bay (Russia)

Gi-Hoon Hong; Suk-Hyun Kim; Sang-Han Lee; Chang-Soo Chung; Alexander V. Tkalin; Emilia L. Chaykovskay; Terry F. Hamilton

1999-01-01

344

Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century  

E-print Network

Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since and sea surface temperature (SST) data set, HadISST1, and the nighttime marine air temperature (NMAT) data set, HadMAT1. HadISST1 replaces the global sea ice and sea surface temperature (GISST) data sets

345

ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 22, NO. 1, 2005, 120 Seasonal Variability of the Yellow Sea/East China Sea  

E-print Network

ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 22, NO. 1, 2005, 1­20 Seasonal Variability of the Yellow Sea Oceanographic Observation Data Set (MOODS) for the Yellow Sea/East China Sea (YES) to investigate and water mass properties, we divide YES into five regions: East China Sea (ECS) shelf, Yellow Sea (YS

Chu, Peter C.

346

Trends in high sea levels of German North Sea gauges compared to regional mean sea level changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of rising mean sea levels will be felt most acutely during periods of extreme high sea levels which are caused by the combination of mean sea level, tides and storm surges. In this paper, we examine sea level records from six tide gauges along the German North Sea coastline to determine if changes in high sea levels observed throughout the 20th century and early 21st century were primarily driven by increases in mean sea level (i.e. like what has been observed by other authors in most parts of the world) or whether other factors, such as changes in ocean tides or storm surges also contributed significantly to observed changes in high water in this region. Time-series of annual 80th, 85th, 90th, 95th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles are derived from the sea level records and trends are assessed using linear regression for the entire time periods for which datasets are available at each site and for the common period from 1953 to 2008. The percentile time-series are subsequently reduced relative to mean sea level and a second set of trends are estimated. At all sites and percentile levels, significant positive trends are evident for the observed sea level data. Once the percentile time-series are reduced relative to mean sea level the remaining trends are still significant at the 1?-confidence level, with the exception of the 99.9th percentiles since the standard errors are large. Using a non-linear trend analysis, on the long Cuxhaven record, we find that prior to the mid-1950s and from about 1990 onwards, changes in high sea levels were not different from mean sea level changes. However, from the mid-1950s to 1990 changes were significantly different from those observed in mean sea level. Possible reasons for this appear to be due to changes in the amplitudes of several main tidal constituents, which are apparent since the mid-1950s and decadal variability in the storm activity (with strong westerly winds in the North Atlantic region from 1960 to the 1990s).

Mudersbach, Christoph; Wahl, Thomas; Haigh, Ivan D.; Jensen, Jürgen

2013-08-01

347

Temperature inversion in China seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature inversion was reported as a common phenomenon in the areas near the southeastern Chinese coast (region A), west and south of the Korean Peninsula (region B), and north and east of the Shandong Peninsula (region C) during October-May in the present study, based on hydrographic data archived from 1930 through 2001 (319,029 profiles). The inversion was found to be remarkable with obvious temporal and spatial variabilities in both magnitude and coverage, with higher probabilities in region A (up to about 60%) and region C (40%-50%) than in region B (15%-20%). The analysis shows that seasonal variation of the net air-sea heat flux is closely related to the occurrence time of the inversion in the three areas, while the Yangtze and Yellow river freshwater plumes in the surface layer and ocean origin saline water in the subsurface layer maintain stable stratification. It seems that the evaporation/excessive precipitation flux makes little contribution to maintaining the stable inversion. Advection of surface fresh water by the wind-driven coastal currents results in the expansion of inversion in regions A and C. The inversion lasts for the longest period in region A (October-May) sustained by the Taiwan Warm Current carrying the subsurface saline water, while evolution of the inversion in region B is mainly controlled by the Yellow Sea Warm Current.

Hao, Jiajia; Chen, Yongli; Wang, Fan

2010-12-01

348

RNA viruses in the sea.  

PubMed

Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms. PMID:19243445

Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

2009-03-01

349

Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) was the first large-scale drilling project undertaken by the U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The objectives of the SSSDP were (1) to drill a deep well into the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the Imperial Valley of California, (2) to retrieve a high percentage of core and cuttings along the entire depth of the well, (3) to obtain a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs, (4) to conduct flow tests at two depths (and to take fluid samples therefrom), and (5) to carry out several downhole experiments. These activities enabled the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active hydrothermal system driven by a molten-rock heat source. The SSSDP exceeded its target depth of 10,000 feet, and a comprehensive set of cuttings, cores, and downhole logs was obtained. Two flow tests at different depths were successfully completed. Hydrologic connection between the different producing horizons, however, made the data from the deeper test difficult to interpret. Temperature logging by the Geological Survey and Sandia National Laboratories to establish the equilibrium profile continued until August of 1987. The SSSDP provides a model for scientific cooperation among government agencies, universities, and private industry.

Sass, J.H.

1988-01-01

350

Biogeochemistry of the Kem' River estuary, White Sea (Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeochemistry of the river-sea interface was studied in the Kem' River (the largest river flowing to the White Sea from Karelian coast) estuary and adjacent area of the White Sea onboard the RV \\

V. R. Shevchenko; Y. S. Dolotov; N. N. Filatov; T. N. Alexeeva; A. S. Filippov; E.-M. Nöthig; A. N. Novigatsky; L. A. Pautova; A. V. Platonov; N. V. Politova; T. N. Rat'kova; R. Stein

2005-01-01

351

50 CFR 648.143 - Black sea bass Accountability Measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass Accountability Measures. 648.143 ...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.143 Black sea bass Accountability Measures. (a)...

2013-10-01

352

50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142 Section 648...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial...

2013-10-01

353

50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142 Section 648...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial...

2012-10-01

354

50 CFR 648.143 - Black sea bass Accountability Measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass Accountability Measures. 648.143 ...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.143 Black sea bass Accountability Measures. (a)...

2012-10-01

355

ARKTOS: An intelligent system for SAR sea ice image classification  

E-print Network

We present an intelligent system for satellite sea ice image analysis named Advanced Reasoning using Knowledge for T ping Of Sea ice (ARKTOS). ARKTOS performs fully automated analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sea ...

Soh, L. K.; Tsatsoulis, Costas; Gineris, D.; Bertoia, C.

2004-01-01

356

50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. ...to the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of...

2011-10-01

357

50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. ...to the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of...

2013-10-01

358

50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. ...to the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of...

2010-10-01

359

50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. ...to the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of...

2012-10-01

360

BEPERS-88: Sea Ice Remote Sensing With Synthetic Aperture Radar in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is a shallow, semi-enclosed brackish water basin located in North Europe. Sea ice occurs there every winter, with the annual cover varying from 12 to 100%. There is a strong need for operational sea ice mapping due to intensive ship traffic assisted by 20-30 powerful icebreakers. Sea ice reports and charts are provided daily by ice services in all countries in the Baltic Sea area. In Finland and in Sweden, much effort is put into ice research in support of winter navigation [e.g., Leppdranta, 1986; Thompson, 1986].

Leppäranta, M.; Thompson, T.

361

Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route: Studies and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the rapid changes that are under way in Arctic sea ice extent, Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route is a timely work. The Northern Sea Route (NSR), along the Arctic coast of Russia, has a long history, dating back to 1932, when the Soviet Union established the NSR administration to develop hydrometeorological services. Shipping along the sea route peaked in the 1980s, but there is renewed interest associated with a lengthening ice-free season and mineral exploitation. Since July 1991, the NSR has been open to all merchant vessels.

Barry, Roger G.

2008-07-01

362

Sea Level Variaton in the Java Sea Derived from Topex/Poseidon and Tide Gauge Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding and coastal erosion in the big cities like Jakarta, Semarang and Surabaya are easily affected by the sea level changes of the Java Sea. Past sea level changes in the Java Sea are investigated using satellite altimetry and tide gauges. Monthly mean sea level anomalies from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) and tide gauges between January 1993 and December 1999 are used. Trend analysis is applied to define the changing rate of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level of the Java Sea. Monthly mean sea level anomalies from tide gauges show sea level rise rate 0.19 mm/month, 0.86 mm/month, and 1.58 mm/month at Jakarta and Jepara (near Semarang), and Surabaya respectively, whereas T/P indicate 0.91 mm/month to 1.08 mm/month at three locations. Trend analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) in the Java Sea during the same period indicates that SST has high correlated trend with the T/P and tide gauge trends. The high correlation between SST trends and T/P or tide gauge trends suggest that sea level changes of the Java Sea from 1993 to 1999 are due to heating of the Java Sea which has average depth from 40 m to 50 m. In addition the wavelet analysis was also used to SST and monthly mean sea level anomalies for evaluating ENSO impact on SST and monthly mean sea level anomalies. The results of wavelet analysis of SST show SST near Jakarta was highly affected by the 1994 to 1995 ENSO years than the 1997 to 1998 ENSO years. The period of the maximum power spectrum of SST anomalies at Jakarta was shorter than Jepara and Surabaya. Power spectrum of tide gauge sea level anomalies show the impacts of ENSO were different based on the geographical locations. Tide gauge mean sea level anomalies at Surabaya had the highest power spectrum during the 1997 to 1998 ENSO years and had the smallest power at Jakarta during the same period. Comparison of the maximum power spectrum at each location shows the period of maximum power spectrum at Jakarta was shorter than the others. But the results from T/P show power spectrum from 1997 to 1998 ENSO years was the highest at Jakarta, and was the smallest at Jepara. The differences of period and the magnitude of the maximum power spectrum of tide gauge sea level anomalies at Surabaya may be explained by the closeness to the Makasar Strait where the Indonesian Trough Flow is dominant.

Sofian, Ibnu; Kozai, Kozai

363

6, 1105111066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers  

E-print Network

ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation W. R. Simpson et al. Title than potential frost flower contact W. R. Simpson 1 , D. Carlson 1 , G. Hoenninger 1,2, , T. A. Douglas. Simpson (ffwrs@uaf.edu) 11051 #12;ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

364

Sea level change: a philosophical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present Cenozoic era is an icehouse episode characterized by a low sea level. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the human race has been emitting greenhouse gases, increasing the global atmospheric temperature, and causing a rise in sea level. If emissions continue to increase at the present rate, average global temperatures may rise by 1.5°C by the year

R. Leinfelder; H. Seyfried

1993-01-01

365

Mesoscale Eddies in the Solomon Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water mass transformation in the strong equatorward flows through the Solomon Sea influences the properties of the Equatorial Undercurrent and subsequent cold tongue upwelling. High eddy activity in the interior Solomon Sea seen in altimetric sea surface height (SSH) and in several models may provide a mechanism for these transformations. We investigate these effects using a mesoscale (4-km resolution) sigma-coordinate (ROMS) model of the Solomon Sea nested in a basin solution, forced by a repeating seasonal cycle, and evaluated against observational data. The model generates a vigorous upper layer eddy field; some of these are apparently shed as the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent threads through the complex topography of the region, others are independent of the strong western boundary current. We diagnose the scales and vertical structure of the eddies in different parts of the Solomon Sea to illuminate their generation processes and propagation characteristics, and compare these to observed eddy statistics. Hypotheses tested are that the Solomon Sea mesoscale eddies are generated locally by baroclinic instability, that the eddies are shed as the South Equatorial Current passes around and through the Solomon Island chain, that eddies are generated by the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, or that eddies occurring outside of the Solomon Sea propagate into the Solomon Sea. These different mechanisms have different implications for the resulting mixing and property fluxes. They also provide different interpretations for SSH signals observed from satellites (e.g., that will be observed by the upcoming SWOT satellite).

Hristova, H. G.; Kessler, W. S.; McWilliams, J. C.; Molemaker, M. J.

2011-12-01

366

Climate Kids: Planet Health Report: Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The consequences of both sea ice melting and increases in ocean water temperature are presented in this examination of sea level- another of Earth's vital signs. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

367

Climate Kids: Planet Health Report: Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of Earth's vital signs, the extent of sea ice cover in the Arctic, is examined. An image and accompanying text describe the extent and consequences of the reduction in that sea ice. This article is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

368

Fatty acid compositions in local sea cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid profile from crude extracts of local sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus was determined using gas chromatography (GC) technique. The extracts were prepared separately in methanol, ethanol, phosphate buffer saline (PBS), and distilled water as part of our study to look at the affinity of these solvents in extracting the lipid from sea cucumber. The PBS and distilled water extractions

B. D. Fredalina; B. H. Ridzwan; A. A. Zainal Abidin; M. A. Kaswandi; H. Zaiton; I. Zali; P. Kittakoop; A. M. Mat Jais

1999-01-01

369

Antarctic Sea Ice in the IPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antarctic Sea Ice covers an area of 20 million km2 at maximum extent and therefore represents an areal coverage larger than either the Arctic ice cover or the Antarctic continent. Studies of Antarctic sea ice in the modern era were only initiated well after the IGY, with the advent of passive microwave satellite coverage in 1973, followed by the use

S. F. Ackley; D. K. Perovich; C. A. Geiger

2003-01-01

370

Recreational water quality in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health-based monitoring of the Caspian Sea in Turkmenistan and Iran suggests that bathers are intermittently subject to increased levels of faecal pollution which may lead to gastrointestinal illness. This is the first co-ordinated monitoring programme of recreational waters in the Caspian region and highlights the need to extend such a programme to all countries bordering the Caspian Sea. The novel

Katherine R. Pond; Aidan A. Cronin; Steve Pedley

371

The strength anisotropia of sea ice  

SciTech Connect

The hydraulic-engineering structure calculations of sea ice formation force require the sea ice strength data. The strength characteristics values and the types of sea ice formations in view of water depth define the type and the design of future structures in each particular region of supposed construction. The most objective information on the sea ice physical and technical properties can be obtained by field investigations ad the existing methods of their calculations refer to a great number of errors. The accumulated bank of data on studying the sea ice formation strength properties show one that ice as a natural material is of great crystalline structure variety. The level ice fields have a number of particularities. The crystal sizes increase in ice thickness. The crystals consist of fresh-water thin plates 0.5--0.6 mm in thickness oriented by pickle-water interlayers. Difference in thickness of the sea ice cover structure is one of the main causes of the changes strength characteristics layer. Besides that the sea ice strength depends upon the destroying force direction in reference to crystal orientation which characterizes the sea ice anisotropia as a material.

Evdokimov, G.N.; Rogachko, S.I. [Moscow State Univ. of Civil Engineering (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

372

More on Sea Turtles and Seaweed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Sea turtle" and "seaweed"--otherwise known as "returnee from abroad" and "unemployed from abroad," respectively-- are a pair of popular new terms that are innately connected. In this article, the author discusses the common plight faced by "sea turtles" and "seaweeds" who returned from abroad to work in China. The author describes the experiences…

Xin, Tian

2005-01-01

373

Sea Scallop Shell Lab Teacher's Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Used in combination with the Sea Scallop Lab handout, students will examine sea scallop shells to determine their size, approximate age, and meat yield. This lab activity is complete with objectives, math and science standards, materials list, procedure, and extensions. The handout is available from the COSEE-NE OSEI resource site.

374

The changing Mediterranean Sea — a sensitive ecosystem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I was asked to present a keynote paper on the socio-economic aspects of oceanographic research in the Mediterranean Sea in the Session on From Oceanographic Science to Policy at the International Conference on Progress in Oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea, Rome November 1997. The session was unique in that it included papers from oceanographers, social scientists and economists. For this

Carol M Turley

1999-01-01

375

Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast  

SciTech Connect

Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I. [National Inst. for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, PO Box 10, Rm. Valcea, 24050 (Romania)

2008-07-15

376

Petroleum geology of the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black Sea comprises two extensional basins formed in a back-arc setting above the northward subducting Tethys Ocean, close to the southern margin of Eurasia. The two basins coalesced late in their post-rift phases in the Pliocene, forming the present single depocentre. The Western Black Sea was initiated in the Aptian, when a part of the Moesian Platform (now the

A. G. Robinson; J. H. Rudat; C. J. Banks; R. L. F. Wiles

1996-01-01

377

Forward electromagnetic scattering models for sea ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in forward modeling of the electromagnetic scattering properties of sea ice are presented. In particular, the principal results include the following: (1) approximate calculations of electromagnetic scattering from multilayer random media with rough interfaces, based on the distorted Born approximation and radiative transfer (RT) theory; (2) comprehensive theory of the effective complex permittivity of sea ice based on

K. M. Golden; M. Cheney; Kung-Hau Ding; A. K. Fung; Thomas C. Grenfell; D. Isaacson; Jin Au Kong; S. V. Nghiem; J. Sylvester; P. Winebrenner

1998-01-01

378

Chilean Sea Bass: Off the Menu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this data analysis activity, learners use data collected by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) to study Chilean sea bass populations. Learners formulate catch and catch per unit effort (CPUE) of Dissostichus eleginoides and analyze the trends in these values. Learners also assess the Chilean sea bass population and determine if the population is being overfished.

Lawrence, Lisa A.

2012-08-01

379

Ocean Currents and Sea Surface Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, students access sea surface temperature and wind speed data from a NASA site, plot and compare data, draw conclusions about surface current and sea surface temperature, and link their gained understanding to concerns about global climate change.

Carter, Joan; Collection, Nasa -.

380

Optical properties of the Kara Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was motivated by the need to understand dispersion processes which affect the redistribution of nuclear wastes in the Arctic from dump sites in the Kara Sea and in the rivers which flow into the Kara Sea. We focus on vertical profiles of light beam transmission and fluorometry made over the delta region fronting the Ob and Yenisey Rivers

Donald R. Johnson; Vernon Asper; Thomas McClimans; Alan Weidemann

2000-01-01

381

Estimating Diet Composition in Sea Lions  

E-print Network

Estimating Diet Composition in Sea Lions: Which Technique to Choose? Dominic Tollit and Susan Columbia, Canada Abstract Reliable estimates of diets are vital to monitor impacts of sea lion popu lion scats have shown significant variability in diges- tion between and within prey species, which

382

Sea surface temperature measurements with AIRS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The comparison of global sea surface skin temperature derived from cloud-free AIRS super window channel at 2616 cm-1 (sst2616) with the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature for September 2002 shows surprisingly small standard deviation of 0.44K.

Aumann, H.

2003-01-01

383

Twentieth-century sea surface temperature trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of historical sea surface temperatures provides evidence for global warming since 1900, in line with land-based analyses of global temperature trends, and also shows that over the same period, the eastern equatorial Pacific cooled and the zonal sea surface temperature gradient strengthened. Recent theoretical studies have predicted such a pattern as a response of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

M. A. Cane; A. C. Clement; A. Kaplan

1997-01-01

384

Monsters of the Deep: Deep Sea Bioluminescence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This award-winning Sea and Sky website uses creative graphics to explore deep sea bioluminescence. It defines the phenomenon of bioluminescence, explains the chemical reactions involved, describes organisms with this adaptation, and investigates possible reasons for this dazzling light show. Links direct users to similar pages about hydrothermal vents, ocean layers, and more.

Knight, J. D.; Sky, Sea A.

385

NASA's sea ice program: present and future  

E-print Network

, and the rising trend, 200508, is associated with a cyclonic advance of salty Atlanticderived water. Declining, and L. Stock (2008), Accelerated decline in the Arctic sea ice cover, Geophy. Res. Lett. 35, L01703, doi 2003 2005 2007 2009 Year Area(103km2) Kwok (2008) Jan -1 fields MY fraction Decline in multiyear sea

Kuligowski, Bob

386

Biological Impacts of Translocated Sea Otters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sea otters are one of the wildlife species most sensitive to oil spills. If an oil spill occurred in the southern part of the sea otter range in California, otters would probably be captured and released in an uncontaminated area to the north. However, if...

K. Ralls, D. B. Siniff, A. Doroff, A. Mercure

1990-01-01

387

Human Performance Sea Trial QUEST Q-303  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-national sea trial on the effects of ship motions on human performance was performed on Canadian Forces Auxiliary Vessel QUEST, off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada, in February and March of 2007. The primary goal of this experiment was to obtain both subjective and objective measures of task performance in calm water and in higher sea states, to

J. L. Colwell; N. Allen; J. Bos; R. Bridger; C. Duncan; P. Elischer; M. Grech; A. Green; M. A. Hogervorst; S. N. MacKinnon; K. Munnoch; D. Perrault; W. Roger; R. Schwartz; P. Valk; D. Wright

388

Metagenomic sequencing of two salton sea microbiomes.  

PubMed

The Salton Sea is the largest inland body of water in California, with salinities ranging from brackish freshwater to hypersaline. The lake experiences high nutrient input, and its surface water is exposed to temperatures up to 40°C. Here, we report the community profiles associated with surface water from the Salton Sea. PMID:24459270

Hawley, Erik R; Schackwitz, Wendy; Hess, Matthias

2014-01-01

389

Latitudinal Diversity of Sea Anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria)  

E-print Network

Latitudinal Diversity of Sea Anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) DAPHNE GAIL FAUTIN*, LACEY MALARKY anemones (cnidarian order Actiniaria) conforms to the classic pattern of biogeography--taxon richness of that inventory. We found the greatest spe- cies richness of sea anemones at 30­40° N and S, with lower numbers

Fautin, Daphne

390

Sea Level: On the Rise Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Sea Level: On the Rise" is designed to teach middle-school students about the relationship between climate change and sea-level rise. It is a lesson plan created for the Environmental Protection Agency's Student's Guide to Global Climate Change.

Agency, Environmental P.

391

22 Years of Sea Surface Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA visualization video on YouTube shows the seasonal variations in sea surface temperatures and ice cover for the 22 years prior to 2007 based on data collected by NOAA polar-orbiting satellites (POES). El NiÃo and La NiÃa are easily identified, as are the trends in decreasing polar sea ice.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Visualizations

392

Modelling The Adriatic Sea Ecosystem Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coastal Modular Ecosystem Model (MEM-CO) has been implemented in the Adriatic Sea in the framework of the EU funded project MFSTEP (Mediterranean Forecasting System - Toward Environmental Predictions). The hydrodynamical component of MEM-CO is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), While the description of the biogeochemical and biological processes is based on the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model

M. Zavatarelli; M. Vichi; N. Pinardi

2003-01-01

393

Sea Surface Height 1993-2011  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation of the Pacific Ocean sea surface height from 1993-2011. Data gathered by multiple NASA satellite missions (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason 2). Animation shows view of Pacific Ocean and simultaneously graphs global average sea surface height data.

394

Patchiness in satellite derived sea surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patchiness, indicated by ship measurements from the International Indian Ocean Expedition, was checked against the most advanced sea surface temperature program based on satellite observations. The statistical analysis of structures observed with sea surface temperature measurements showed that they are highly correlated with the time span of observations; i. e., structures or patches in the temperature field can be artificially

Karl-Heinz Szekielda; Amnon Ptashek

1991-01-01

395

Searching the Ocean for Deep Sea Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web-based slide show walks students through the painstaking and difficult search for deep sea vents. In pictures and text, it provides an overview of the subject explaining the process whereby the location of deep sea vents can be discovered from the surface using indirect methods.

396

The application of ERTS imagery to monitoring Arctic sea ice. [mapping ice in Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS-1 imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft. The results of the investigation demonstrate that ERTS-1 imagery has substantial practical application for monitoring arctic sea ice. Ice features as small as 80-100 m in width can be detected, and the combined use of the visible and near-IR imagery is a powerful tool for identifying ice types. Sequential ERTS-1 observations at high latitudes enable ice deformations and movements to be mapped. Ice conditions in the Bering Sea during early March depicted in ERTS-1 images are in close agreement with aerial ice observations and photographs.

Barnes, J. C. (principal investigator); Bowley, C. J.

1974-01-01

397

Structural elements of the Sulu Sea, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and tectonic history of the Sulu Sea are described on the basis of seismic reflection data combined with the findings of onshore and offshore geological studies, and the results of ODP Leg 124 drilling. Closing of a hypothetical Mesozoic proto-South China Sea associated with the formation of oceanic crustal splinters in the late Eocene followed by southward subduction

K. Hinz; M. Block; H. R. Kudrass; H. Meyer

1994-01-01

398

Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online in 2009, the Aquarius instrument will measure sea surface salinity. Site provides background information about salinity, salinity lesson plans, and salinity data and tools. Activities include relating salt to density, conductivity, buoyancy, and understanding the effect of the water cycle on salinity. View figures of sea surface salinity and temperature as they change from month to month and more.

399

Seismogeodynamics of the Caspian Sea Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of studies of fluctuations in seismic regime of the Caspian Sea and adjacent area are ana- lyzed in order to reveal the correlation of anomalous variations in the sea level with seismicity of the region. The inferred regularities indicate that these phenomena have a common origin. A seismogeodynamic model of the region under consideration is discussed.

1999-01-01

400

Sea Change Part III: Interpreting the Results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is the third in a three-part series by the Sea Change project, about scientists' search for Pleiocene beaches in Australia and elsewhere to establish sea level height during Earth's most recent previous warm period. This segment features the research of Jerry Mitrovica, Harvard geophysicist.

Grossman, Daniel

401

Sea Change Part 1: In the Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is the first of a three-video series from the Sea Change project. It features the field work of scientists from the US and Australia looking for evidence of sea level rise during the Pliocene era when Earth was (on average) about 2 to 3 degrees Celsius hotter than it is today.

Grossman, Daniel; Pliomax, Sea C.

402

Sea Change Part 2: In the Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is the second of a three-video series in the Sea Change project, which follows the work of Dr. Maureen Raymo, paleogeologist at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, who travels with fellow researchers to Australia in search of evidence of sea level that was once higher than it is today.

Grossman, Daniel; Change, Sea

403

Sediments in the East China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes measurements of sediments during the 2000-2001 Asian Seas International Acoustic Experiment in the East China Sea. A number of techniques were used to infer properties of these sediments, including gravity and piston cores, subbottom profiling using a water gun, long-range sediment tomography, and in situ measurement of conductivity. Historical data from echosounder records and cores showed two

James H. Miller; Louis R. Bartek; Gopu R. Potty; Dajun Tang; Jungyul Na; Yiquan Qi

2004-01-01

404

Managing Sea Level Rise and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

That the sea level is currently slowly rising is now beyond doubt. However, it is not sea level rise alone that is likely to impact the future management of coastal regions. The possibility of increased intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones and\\/or other severe low pressure systems could additionally add to the marine based threats from anthropogenic climate change through

Bruce Harper

405

Phage-associated differences in staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene (sea) expression correlate with sea allele class.  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus strains which produced either high or low levels of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) with a minimal eightfold difference between the two groups were identified. For FRI100 and FRI281A (prototypes for each group), strain differences in the expression of the SEA-encoding gene (sea) were found to occur at the level of sea mRNA concentration, and part of the difference in expression was associated with the sea-containing phages. Southern blot analysis revealed that this phage-associated difference was not due to differences in the copy number of sea. Nucleotide sequence analysis of sea from FRI281A revealed a new allele of sea, with the majority of the sequence differences occurring in the upstream promoter region. Although a strict correlation was observed between the level of SEA production and sea allele class for several strains, the sequence differences observed in the upstream region were not sufficient in themselves to alter the expression level of sea. Images PMID:8262616

Borst, D W; Betley, M J

1994-01-01

406

Sea Level Rise in Tampa Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding relative sea level (RSL) rise during periods of rapid climatic change is critical for evaluating modern sea level rise given the vulnerability of Antarctic ice shelves to collapse, the retreat of the world's glaciers, and mass balance trends of the Greenland ice sheet. The first-order pattern of global sea level rise following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~21,000 years ago) is well established from coral, continental shelf, and other records and has been integrated into a global ICE-5G model of glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA). However, uncertainty introduced by paleo water depth of sea level indicators, radiocarbon chronology (i.e., reservoir corrections for marine shell dates), postglacial isostatic adjustment, and other processes affecting vertical position of former shorelines produces scatter in RSL curves, limiting our knowledge of sea level rise during periods of rapid glacial decay.

Cronin, Thomas; Edgar, N. Terence; Brooks, Gregg; Hastings, David; Larson, Rebekka; Hine, Albert; Locker, Stanley; Suthard, Beau; Flower, Benjamin; Hollander, David; Wehmiller, John; Willard, Debra; Smith, Shannon

2007-03-01

407

Global Ups and Downs, Changing Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unitfocuses on the concept that changes in sea level have occurred in the past, are occurring now, and will continue to occur. The unit provides an inquiry-based exploration of the lines of evidence for periodic melting of ice and resulting sea level rise: glacial evidence, geologic evidence, fossil evidence, and isotopic evidence. Students learn about the worldwide effects of sea level changes in the past and then use a study on topography and sea level to demonstrate their understanding of impact of sea level change on flora, fauna, and human society. Details about the supported concepts and standards, lessons with activities organized into teachable units, and a section describing the online resources used in the unit are provided for ready reference.

2005-01-01

408

Volga River Delta and Caspian Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color MODIS image from May 10, 2002, captures Russia's Volga River (running south through the center) emptying into the northern portion of the Caspian Sea. The waters of the Caspian Sea are quite murky in this image, highlighting the water quality problems plaguing the sea. The sea is inundated with sewage and industrial and agricultural waste, which is having measurable impact on human health and wildlife. According reports from the Department of Energy, in less than a decade the sturgeon catch dropped from 30,000 tons to just over 2,000 tons. National and international groups are currently joining together to find strategies of dealing with the environmental problems of the Caspian Sea. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

409

Flavor Structure of the Nucleon Sea  

E-print Network

We review the current status and future prospects on the subject of flavor structure of the nucleon sea. The flavor structure of the nucleon sea provides unique information on the non-perturbative aspects of strong interactions allowing stringent tests of various models on the partonic structures of the nucleons as well as lattice QCD calculations. The scope of this review covers the unpolarized, polarized, and the transverse-momentum dependent sea-quark distributions of the nucleons. While the main focus of this review is on the physics motivation and recent progress on the subject of the nucleon sea, we also discuss future prospects of addressing some outstanding issues on the flavor structure of the nucleon sea.

Wen-Chen Chang; Jen-Chieh Peng

2014-06-05

410

Liquid hydrocarbons probable under Ross Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thick glacial strata, which have no source-rock potential, cover the Ross Sea. If these strata persist to great depths, then hydrocarbon-generation prospects will be poor. Deeply buried strata within Ross Sea rift-grabens, if like other Gondwana rift-deposits, could have good potential for hydrocarbon generation. Current hydrocarbon assessments of the Ross Sea and adjacent areas must be considered highly speculative because the deeply buried rift(?) strata have not been sampled in situ. The assessment of the Ross Sea relies on geophysical/geologic data, two-stage rift models, and data from formerly nearby Gondwana rift-basins. We conclude that conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation and entrapment are likely throughout the Ross Sea, and especially in the Victoria Land basin, if adequate source beds exist. -Authors

Cooper, A.K.; Davey, F.J.; Hinz, K.

1988-01-01

411

Early Spring Dust over the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) observed this large cloud of dust (brownish pixels) blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea on March 4, 2002. The dust can be seen clearly blowing across Southern Italy, Albania, Greece, and Turkey-all along the Mediterranean's northeastern shoreline. Notice that there also appears to be human-made aerosol pollution (greyish pixels) pooling in the air just south of the Italian Alps and blowing southeastward over the Adriatic Sea. The Alps can be easily identified as the crescent-shaped, snow-capped mountain range in the top center of this true-color scene. There also appears to be a similar haze over Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia to the north and east of Italy. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

412

Flavor structure of the nucleon sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the current status and future prospects on the subject of flavor structure of the nucleon sea. The flavor structure of the nucleon sea provides unique information on the non-perturbative aspects of strong interactions allowing stringent tests of various models on the partonic structures of the nucleons as well as lattice QCD calculations. The scope of this review covers the unpolarized, polarized, and the transverse-momentum dependent sea-quark distributions of the nucleons. While the main focus of this review is on the physics motivation and recent progress on the subject of the nucleon sea, we also discuss future prospects of addressing some outstanding issues on the flavor structure of the nucleon sea.

Chang, Wen-Chen; Peng, Jen-Chieh

2014-11-01

413

Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

2014-07-01

414

75 FR 6586 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...100120036-0038-01] Fisheries of the Northeastern United; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule AGENCY: National...rule NMFS is implementing increases to the 2010 black sea bass specifications (i.e., commercial...

2010-02-10

415

75 FR 38935 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule Extension...extending the emergency action to increase the 2010 black sea bass specifications (i.e., commercial...

2010-07-07

416

75 FR 55600 - Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...80230-1265-0000-S3] Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge and Coachella...Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge (NWR)...

2010-09-13

417

Last glacial^Holocene paleoceanography of the Black Sea and Marmara Sea: stable isotopic, foraminiferal and coccolith  

E-print Network

basin, the Black Sea, and the northeastern extension of the eastern Mediterranean basin, the Aegean Sea of fauna and flora with Black Sea affinities and the absence of Mediterranean fauna and flora in sapropels

Kaminski, Michael A.

418

An interpretation of Australian rainfall projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of climate models project a winter rainfall reduction over south-eastern Australia (SEA), while some show a tendency for a summer rainfall increase. The dynamics for these rainfall changes are not clear. Using outputs from a climate model, we show that a summer rainfall increase is consistent with a large Tasman Sea warming promoting convection, and an upward trend

G. Shi; J. Ribbe; W. Cai; T. Cowan

2008-01-01

419

Potential for rapid transport of contaminants from the Kara Sea.  

PubMed

Export of sea ice from the Kara Sea may redistribute contaminants entrained from atmospheric, marine and riverine sources. Ice exiting the Kara Sea ice to the north, will influence the Fram Strait, Svalbard and Barents Sea regions. Kara Sea ice may also be exported to the Barents Sea through straits north and south of Novaya Zemlya. Some ice from the Kara Sea makes its way into the Laptev Sea to the north and south of Severnaya Zemlya. Data on ice exchange and contaminant levels are not adequate to assess contaminant flux. PMID:9241881

Pfirman, S L; Kögeler, J W; Rigor, I

1997-08-25

420

Ice core records as sea ice proxies: An evaluation from the Weddell Sea region of Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice core records of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) from three sites around the Weddell Sea are investigated for their potential as sea ice proxies. It is found that the amount of MSA reaching the ice core sites decreases following years of increased winter sea ice in the Weddell Sea; opposite to the expected relationship if MSA is to be used as a sea ice proxy. It is also shown that this negative MSA-sea ice relationship cannot be explained by the influence that the extensive summer ice pack in the Weddell Sea has on MSA production area and transport distance. A historical record of sea ice from the northern Weddell Sea shows that the negative relationship between MSA and winter sea ice exists over interannual (˜7-year period) and multidecadal (˜20-year period) timescales. National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data suggest that this negative relationship is most likely due to variations in the strength of cold offshore wind anomalies traveling across the Weddell Sea, which act to synergistically increase sea ice extent (SIE) while decreasing MSA delivery to the ice core sites. Hence our findings show that in some locations atmospheric transport strength, rather than sea ice conditions, is the dominant factor that determines the MSA signal preserved in near-coastal ice cores. A cautious approach is thus required in using ice core MSA for reconstructing past sea ice conditions, including the need for networks of ice core records and multiproxy studies to assess the significance of past MSA changes at different locations around Antarctica.

Abram, Nerilie J.; Mulvaney, Robert; Wolff, Eric W.; Mudelsee, Manfred

2007-08-01

421

Geodetic observation of sea-level change and crustal deformation in the Baltic Sea region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on tide gauge observations spanning almost 200 years, homogeneous time series of the mean relative sea level were derived for nine sites at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Our regionally concentrated data were complemented by long-term relative sea-level records retrieved from the data base of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). From these records relative sea-level change rates were derived at 51 tide gauge stations for the period between 1908 and 2007. A minimum observation time of 60 years is required for the determination of reliable sea-level rates. At present, no anthropogenic acceleration in sea-level rise is detected in the tide gauge observations in the southern Baltic. The spatial variation of the relative sea-level rates reflects the fingerprint of GIA-induced crustal uplift. Time series of extreme sea levels were also inferred from the tide gauge records. They were complemented by water level information from historic storm surge marks preserved along the German Baltic coast. Based on this combined dataset the incidence and spatial variation of extreme sea levels induced by storm surges were analysed yielding important information for hazard assessments. Permanent GPS observations were used to determine recent crustal deformation rates for 44 stations in the Baltic Sea region. The GPS derived height change rates were applied to reduce the relative sea-level changes observed by tide gauges yielding an estimate for the eustatic sea-level change. For 13 tide gauge-GPS colocation sites a mean eustatic sea-level trend of 1.3 mm/a was derived for the last 100 years.

Richter, A.; Groh, A.; Dietrich, R.

422

Consolidation experiments on rafted sea ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rafting is an important process in the deformation of sea ice that occurs when two ice sheets collide. This process is particularly common in the North Caspian Sea, where ice floes override one another multiple times to produce thick sea ice features. To date, rafting has received little attention in the literature perhaps because in most regions pressure ridges produce the greatest loads on offshore structures. In the North Caspian Sea the shallow waters constrain the size to which pressure ridges can grow and the low salinity seems to favour rafting over ridging. Therefore it is likely that multiply-rafted sea ice may be the governing design feature for ice loads in the Caspian Sea. In this paper we present a series of experiments that were carried out in the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory at the University College London to investigate the consolidation of rafted sea ice. During an experiment, layers of laboratory grown sea ice were stacked on top of one another, with a thin layer of saline water between adjacent sheets, to simulate a section of rafted sea ice. The rate of consolidation was then monitored using a combination of temperature readings recorded in the ice and liquid layer, salinity measurements of the liquid layer, and cores taken using a manual core auger. Experiments were repeated several times whilst varying the ice thickness, liquid layer thickness, the number of ice layers in the stack, the salinity of the sea ice and liquid layer, and the ambient air temperature. These were then compared to larger scale experiments that were carried out in the Arctic Environmental Test Basin at the Hamburgische Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt (HSVA) in Germany.

Bailey, E.; Sammonds, P.; Feltham, D.

2009-12-01

423

Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism  

SciTech Connect

The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature, further decreasing the area cover of snow and ice. It is shown that the sea ice-albedo feedback can operate even in multiyear pack ice, without the disappearance of this ice, associated with internal processes occurring within the multiyear ice pack (e.g., duration of the snow cover, ice thickness, ice distribution, lead fraction, and melt pond characteristics). The strength of the ice-albedo feedback mechanism is compared for several different thermodynamic sea ice models: a new model that includes ice thickness distribution., the Ebert and Curry model, the Mayjut and Untersteiner model, and the Semtner level-3 and level-0 models. The climate forcing is chosen to be a perturbation of the surface heat flux, and cloud and water vapor feedbacks are inoperative so that the effects of the sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism can be isolated. The inclusion of melt ponds significantly strengthens the ice-albedo feedback, while the ice thickness distribution decreases the strength of the modeled sea ice-albedo feedback. It is emphasized that accurately modeling present-day sea ice thickness is not adequate for a sea ice parameterization; the correct physical processes must be included so that the sea ice parameterization yields correct sensitivities to external forcing. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Schramm, J.L.; Curry, J.A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Ebert, E.E. [Bureau of Meterology Research Center, Melbourne (Australia)

1995-02-01

424

Sea ice biogeochemistry: a guide for modellers.  

PubMed

Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1) introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2) extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes. PMID:24586604

Tedesco, Letizia; Vichi, Marcello

2014-01-01

425

The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (< 1.2 mm yr-1) due the water loading following the deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet. We construct two catalogues: one of published Holocene sea-level indicators and the other of published, modern growth rates, abundance and coverage of mangrove and coral species for different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

2014-05-01

426

SEAS Classroom to Sea Labs: New Directions for Ridge 2000 Communitywide Education Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lessons learned from the two year SEAS pilot program emphasize that student participation in deep-sea research is an important motivator in student learning. Further, SEAS students experience a paradigm shift in understanding evidence-based reasoning and the process of scientific discovery. At the same time, we have learned that fostering authentic student investigations within the confines of the academic year is challenging and only fits classrooms with some academic flexibility. As a result, this year, SEAS will focus on the new Classroom to Sea Lab as a means to help foster student inquiry in the secondary school science classroom. The Classroom to Sea Lab invites student participation in deep-sea research but does so without requiring students to identify and propose suitable sea-going experiments. Classroom to Sea labs are designed to feature current deep-sea research, and emphasize critical skills in laboratory techniques, data collection and analysis, and scientific reporting. Labs are conducted in the classroom (by students) and at sea (by scientists for the students), resulting in parallel datasets for comparison. Labs also feature the work of practicing scientists. An annual Classroom to Sea Report Fair invites students to summarize their findings and submit written analyses for scientist feedback and prizes, emphasizing the importance of communications skills in science. This year, the SEAS program will feature the Shallow-water vs. Deep-sea Vent Mussel Classroom to Sea lab. In this lab, students explore differences in mussel anatomy and feeding strategies, and understand how chemosynthetic symbionts function in this animal. The lab instructs students to dissect shallow-water mussels and measure the proportion of gill tissue to total body tissue. Students are also instructed to download a dataset of vent mussel measurements and compare average proportions. Finally, students are invited to submit their analyses of the lab to the on-line Report Fair sponsored by the Ridge 2000 research community. A primary goal of SEAS is to excite and engage student learners by involving them in actual research in the extreme environments of the deep-sea. The program depends on the contributions of multiple scientists within the Ridge 2000 community. Scientists field student questions during the Ask-a-Scientist email forum, serve as Report Reviewers, are featured in ``Scientist Spotlights,'' host educators during cruises to conduct at-sea portions of a lab, and help develop new labs. It is community involvement that makes the SEAS program possible and so exciting and motivating for students.

Goehring, L.

2005-12-01

427

Is sea salt in ice cores a proxy of past sea ice extent?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of marine, coastal and ice core proxies have been used to try to assess the past extent of sea ice. Sea salt has been proposed as a proxy for past ice extent, at least in the Southern Ocean. The idea is that the sea ice surface itself holds a source of sea salt, that is stronger than the source from the open ocean it replaces. That a sea ice source exists is apparent from observations of the ratio of sulphate to sodium in coastal aerosol and snow samples. While the idea behind using sea salt as a proxy is attractive, and leads to sensible inferences, many doubts remain. Firstly the exact nature of the source remains uncertain, and secondly it is not clear if ice extent, as opposed to changes in atmospheric transport and lifetime, would dominate variability in the ice core record of sea salt. Here we use a model of atmospheric transport and chemistry (p-TOMCAT) to assess the consequences of a sea ice source, focussing particularly on a source that has been proposed to arise from the sublimation of salty blowing snow. We will briefly report some new observations from a winter cruise, that will allow us to comment on the likelihood that blowing snow does pose a significant source. We will then present results from the model (implemented using existing parameters). The model has been run with seasonally and interannually varying sea ice extent and meteorology for the Antarctic, tracking, at different ice core sites, the concentration that arises from the open ocean and sea ice sources. We have already shown that the model, after tuning, is able to reproduce the magnitude and seasonal cycle of sea salt at a range of sites globally. By varying each component separately we explore which factors (sea ice presence, wind speed at source, transporting winds) and which source regions control the delivery of sea salt to sites in Antarctica. Such work suggests that sea salt cannot be used as a sea ice proxy on interannual timescales, but may be suitable on longer timescales. By employing much larger sea ice extents, such as at the last glacial maximum (LGM), we find a strong increase in concentration at ice core sites when ice extent increases. The increase in modelled sea salt concentration tails off sharply as ice approaches the LGM extent, so that the sensitivity of the proxy is greater at lower ice extents, for example in interglacials. We will discuss the implications of this work for the proposed use of sea salt as a sea ice proxy.

Levine, James; Wolff, Eric; Frey, Markus; Jenkins, Hazel; Jones, Anna; Yang, Xin

2014-05-01

428

Sea-Salt Aerosol Forecasts Compared with Wave and Sea-Salt Measurements in the Open Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) could influence the Earth's climate acting as cloud condensation nuclei. However, there were no regular measurements of SSA in the open sea. At Tel-Aviv University, the DREAM-Salt prediction system has been producing daily forecasts of 3-D distribution of sea-salt aerosol concentrations over the Mediterranean Sea (http://wind.tau.ac.il/salt ina/salt.html). In order to evaluate the model performance in the open sea, daily modeled concentrations were compared directly with SSA measurements taken at the tiny island of Lampedusa, in the Central Mediterranean. In order to further test the robustness of the model, the model performance over the open sea was indirectly verified by comparing modeled SSA concentrations with wave height measurements collected by the ODAS Italia 1 buoy and the Llobregat buoy. Model-vs.-measurement comparisons show that the model is capable of producing realistic SSA concentrations and their day-to- day variations over the open sea, in accordance with observed wave height and wind speed.

Kishcha, P.; Starobinets, B.; Bozzano, R.; Pensieri, S.; Canepa, E.; Nicovic, S.; di Sarra, A.; Udisti, R.; Becagli, S.; Alpert, P.

2012-03-01

429

Sea level change: a philosophical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present Cenozoic era is an ‘icehouse’ episode characterized by a low sea level. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the human race has been emitting greenhouse gases, increasing the global atmospheric temperature, and causing a rise in sea level. If emissions continue to increase at the present rate, average global temperatures may rise by 1.5°C by the year 2050, accompanied by a rise of about 30 cm in sea level. However, the prediction of future climatic conditions and sea level is hampered by the difficulty in modelling the interactions between the lithosphere, kryosphere, biosphere and atmosphere; in addition, the buffering capacity of our planet is still poorly understood. As scientists cannot offer unambiguous answers to simple questions, sorcerer's apprentices fill in the gaps, presenting plans to save planet without inconveniencing us. The geological record can help us to learn about the regulation mechanisms of our planet, many of which are connected with or expressed as sea level changes. Global changes in sea level are either tectono-eustatic or glacioeustatic. Plate tectonic processes strongly control sea levels and climate in the long term. There is a strong feed-back mechanism between sea level and climate; both can influence and determine each other. Although high sea levels are a powerful climatic buffer, falling sea levels accelerate climatic accentuation, the growth of the polar ice caps and will hence amplify the drop in sea level. Important sources of fossil greenhouse gases are botanic CO2 production, CO2 released by volcanic activity, and water vapour. The latter is particularly important when the surface area of the sea increases during a rise in sea level (‘maritime greenhouse effect’). A ‘volcanogenic greenhouse effect’ (release of volcanogenic CO2) is possibly not equally important, as intense volcanic activity may take place both during icehouse episodes as well as during greenhouse episodes. The hydrosphere, land vegetation and carbonate platforms are major CO2 buffers which may both take up and release CO2. CO2 can be released from the ocean due to changes in the pCO2 caused by growth of coral reefs and by uptake of CO2-rich freshwater from karst provinces. Efficient sinks of CO2 are the weathering products of silicate rocks; long-term sinks are organic deposits caused by regional anoxic events which preferrably develop during sea level rises and highstands; and coal-bearing strata. Deposition of limestone also removes CO2 from the atmospheric-hydrospheric cycle at a long term. Biotic crises are often related to either sea-level lows or sea-level highs. Long-term sea-level lows, characteristic of glacial periods, indicate cooling as major cause of extinction. During verly long-lasting greenhouse episodes the sea level is very high, climate and circulation systems are stable and biotic crises often develop as a consequence of oxygen depletion. On land, niche-splitting, complex food web structures and general overspecialization of biota will occur. Whether the crisis is caused by a single anoxic event (e.g. in the Late Devonian) or a disturbance by an asteroid impact (e.g. the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary), it will only trigger total collapse of an ecosystem if a large part of it was already in decline. The regulatory mechanisms and buffers are thermodynamically extremely efficient if they are given sufficient time in which to deploy their power. However, after major catastrophes the re-establishment of successful ecosystems will take millions of years. The present rate of sea level and associated temperature rise is much too fast to be compensated and buffered by the network of natural controls. It is likely that the transitional time towards a new steady state will be an extremely variable and chaotic episode of unpredictable duration.

Leinfelder, R.; Seyfried, H.

1993-07-01

430

Review of critical factors for SEA implementation  

SciTech Connect

The implementation process involved in translating Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) intention into action is vital to an effective SEA. Many factors influence implementation and thus the effectiveness of an SEA. Empirical studies have identified and documented some factors influencing the implementation of an SEA. This research is fragmented, however, and it is still not clear what are the most critical factors of effective SEA performance, and how these relate to different stages of the implementation process or other contextual circumstances. The paper takes its point of departure in implementation theory. Firstly, we introduce implementation theory, and then use it in practice to establish a more comprehensive model related to the stages in the implementation process. Secondly, we identify the critical factors in order to see how they are related to the different stages of SEA or are more general in character. Finally we map the different critical factors and how they influence the overall results of an SEA. Based on a literature review, we present a comprehensive picture of the critical factors and where they are found in the process. We conclude that most of the critical factors identified are of a more general character influencing the SEA process as such, while only one out of four of these factors relates to the specific stages of the SEA. Based on this mapping we can sketch a picture of the totality of critical factors. In this study 266 notions of critical factors were identified. Seen at the level of notions of critical factors, only 24% of these relate to specific stages while for 76% the critical factors are of a more general nature. These critical factors interact in complex ways and appear in different combinations in different stages of the implementation process so tracing the cause and effect is difficult. The pervasiveness of contextual and general factors also clearly suggests that there is no single way to put SEA into practice. The paper identifies some of the critical factors for effective SEA implementation, but further research is still needed to conclude which factors are more critical than others, just as the contingencies on which they depend are not easy to unravel. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The research on critical factors influencing SEA implementation is fragmented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The critical factors are used to discuss 'hot-spots' in the implementation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical factors are just as broad as the concept of effectiveness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both stage and general factors are relevant in explaining the effectiveness of SEA.

Zhang Jie, E-mail: jasmine@plan.aau.dk; Christensen, Per; Kornov, Lone

2013-01-15

431

Polar Seas Oceanography: An Integrated Case Study of the Kara Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What strikes first when browsing through this book is that the main title is misleading. Polar Seas Oceanography is, first of all, a book on ``an integrated case study of the Kara Sea,'' as the subtitle says. For readers who are interested more generally in polar oceanography, the book is probably the wrong choice. The Kara Sea is a rather shallow shelf sea within the Arctic Ocean, located between the Barents Sea to the west and the Laptev Sea to the east. The importance of the Kara Sea is manifold: climate change issues like ice formation and freshwater runoff, environmental problems from dumping of radioactive waste or oil exploitation, and finally, the Northern Sea route, which crosses large parts of the Kara Sea, underline the economical and ecological relevance of that region. In spite of severe climate conditions, the Kara Sea is relatively well investigated. This was achieved through intense oceanographic expeditions, aircraft surveys, and polar drift stations. Russian scientists from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) carried out a major part of this outstanding work during the second half of the last century.

Harms, Ingo

2004-02-01

432

Putting SEA in context: A discourse perspective on how SEA contributes to decision-making  

SciTech Connect

Over the last couple of years there is an ongoing debate in the environmental assessment literature about the contribution of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to public decision-making and how this can be understood and enhanced by better incorporating insights from policy analysis, planning theory and political sciences. By explicitly framing SEA as an element in a process where stakeholders with diverging interests struggle, acceptability of SEA processes and results by stakeholders has become an important element in SEA evaluation. In addition, the importance of other context variables, such as the institutional organisation, and the need for SEA to adapt to this context, is stressed. Thus far, publications in this area have been dealing with the operationalisation of SEA's 'contribution', typologies of roles that SEA can or should play in different policy settings and on factors that stimulate or impede SEA to play these roles. In this paper an alternative approach is suggested that starts from the deliberative processes around a particular policy issue or decision supported by SEA. Of particular interest are 'discourses': the frames through which groups of actors give meaning to aspects of the policy issues and decisions that are supported by SEA. Discourses do not only reflect conflicts of interests and power play, but also the ways in which actors perceive and understand aspects of the world. Decision-making is conceptualised as a 'system of competing discourse coalitions and their struggles to 'control shared meanings' and to gain acceptance of their framing of a policy issue' [Durning D. A review of Fischer and Forrester (1993) The argumentative turn in policy analysis and planning. Policy Sci 1995;28(1):102-8]. SEA is one of the events in this process that may impact upon dominant discourses. Discourse analysis allows for an understanding of arguments that are considered legitimate for (not) incorporating particular elements of SEA. In addition it opens the door to relatively new strategies for SEA professionals to enhance their contribution to decision-making.

Runhaar, Hens [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: h.runhaar@geo.uu.nl

2009-04-15

433

Sea Level Variability in the Central Region of the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of three bottom pressure/temperature/conductivity (PTC) instruments was deployed along the Saudi Arabian coast of the eastern Red Sea since 2008. These locations, represent the central region of the Red Sea; Al-Lieth (100km south of Jeddah), Thuwal (KAUST) and Arriyas (100km north of Rabigh). Surface sea level/height was calculated from the bottom pressure measurements using the hydrostatic equation. The data analysis displayed the sea level variability into three different scales: 1) On daily time scales: the data showed the most energetic component of sea level variability was the diurnal and semidiurnal tides dominated by the M2, N2, K1 and O1 tidal constituents. 2) On weekly time scales (~10 days): the sea level variability was wind driven with setup and set down up to 40 cm due to the local wind stress. 3) On yearly time scales: the sea level varied approximately 50 cm and was highest in winter (January-February) and lowest in summer (July-August). Barometric pressure also had an annual cycle of approximately 10mb and was highest in January, thus attenuating the amplitude of the annual sea level variability. The data analysis postulate that the only mechanism behind the higher sea level in the central Red Sea during winter months was due to a response to the convergent in the large-scale Red Sea wind stress associated with the Indian Monsoon, which is consisting of NNW winds in the northern part of the Red Sea and SSE winds in the southern part. The amplitude of the principal tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability was coherent at the three sites, but the direction of phase propagation could not be resolved with confidence.

Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Limeburner, Richard; Farrar, J. Thomas; Beardsley, Robert

2013-04-01

434

How fast is sea level rising?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day sea level rise is a major indicator of climate change. Since the early 1990s, sea level rose at a mean rate of ~3.1mm/yr. However since about a decade, a slowdown of this rate -by about 30%, is recorded. It coincides with a plateau in Earth's mean surface temperature evolution, the latter referred to as 'recent pause in warming'. Here we present an analysis based on sea level data from the altimetry record of the last ~20 years that separates interannual natural variability in sea level from the longer-term change likely related to anthropogenic global warming. The most prominent signature of the interannual variability in the global mean sea level is caused by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), through its impact on the global water cycle. We find that when correcting for the interannual variability, the last decade slowdown of the global mean sea level disappears, leading to similar rate of sea level rise (of 3.3 +/- 0.4 mm/yr) during the first and second decade of the altimetry era. Our results confirm the need for quantifying and further removing from the climate records the short-term natural climate variability if one wants to extract the global warming signal.

Cazenave, Anny; Dieng, Habib; Meyssignac, Benoit; von Schuckmann, Karina; Decharme, Bertrand; Berthier, Etienne

2014-05-01

435

North-Australian tropical seas circulation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation is intended to fully address the stated objective of the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1986). Hence, we intend to use TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry data to study the large-scale circulation of the Coral Sea Basin and the Arafura Sea and the mass exchange between these and adjoining basins. We will obtain data from two such cruises in 1993 and 1994 and combine them with TOPEX/POSEIDON radar altimetry data to identify interannual and seasonal changes in: (1) the location of the major ocean currents and the South Equatorial Current bifurcation in the Coral Sea; (2) the source region of the South Tropical Counter Current (STCC); and (3) the water exchange between the Coral Sea and the adjoining seas. We will also estimate seasonal and interannual variations in the horizontal transport of mass and heat associated with near-surface geostrophic and wind-driven currents. In addition, the tidal components of the Coral Sea will be studied to provide a correction for altimetry subtidal sea level changes and to develop a regional numerical model for tidal forcing in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and Papua New Guinea Reef regions.

Burrage, Derek; Coleman, R.; Bode, L.; Inoue, M.

1991-01-01

436

Future regional Arctic sea ice declines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because animals and humans respond to seasonally and regionally varying climates, it is instructive to assess how much confidence we can have in regional projections of sea ice from the 20 models provided through the International Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) process (IPCC 2007). Based on the selection of a subset models that closely simulate observed regional ice concentrations for 1979-1999, we find considerable evidence for loss of sea ice area of greater than 40% by 2050 in summer for the marginal seas of the Arctic basin. This conclusion is supported by consistency in the selection of the same models across different regions, and the importance of thinning ice and increased open water at mid-century to the rate of ice loss. With less confidence, we find that the Bering, Okhotsk and Barents Seas have a similar 40% loss of sea ice area by 2050 in winter. Baffin Bay/Labrador shows little change compared to current conditions. These seasonal ice zones have large interannual/decadal variability in addition to trends. Large model-to-model differences were seen for the Kara/Laptev Seas and East Greenland. With a careful evaluation process, AR4 sea ice projections have some utility for use in assessing potential impacts over large Arctic subregions for a 2020-2050 time horizon.

Overland, James E.; Wang, Muyin

2007-09-01

437

The rate of sea-level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day sea-level rise is a major indicator of climate change. Since the early 1990s, sea level rose at a mean rate of ~3.1 mm yr-1 (refs , ). However, over the last decade a slowdown of this rate, of about 30%, has been recorded. It coincides with a plateau in Earth's mean surface temperature evolution, known as the recent pause in warming. Here we present an analysis based on sea-level data from the altimetry record of the past ~20 years that separates interannual natural variability in sea level from the longer-term change probably related to anthropogenic global warming. The most prominent signature in the global mean sea level interannual variability is caused by El Niño-Southern Oscillation, through its impact on the global water cycle. We find that when correcting for interannual variability, the past decade's slowdown of the global mean sea level disappears, leading to a similar rate of sea-level rise (of 3.3 +/- 0.4 mm yr-1) during the first and second decade of the altimetry era. Our results confirm the need for quantifying and further removing from the climate records the short-term natural climate variability if one wants to extract the global warming signal.

Cazenave, Anny; Dieng, Habib-Boubacar; Meyssignac, Benoit; von Schuckmann, Karina; Decharme, Bertrand; Berthier, Etienne

2014-05-01

438

New Coccolithophore Bloom in Bering Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the fourth year in a row it appears as if there is a bloom of coccolithophores-marine single-celled plants with calcite scales-in the Bering Sea off the coast of Alaska. Similar blooms were rare before 1997, but they have appeared every year since then. Scientists believe the coccolithophore blooms are the result of changing wind patterns in the region. Weaker than normal winds fail to mix the water of the Bering Sea, resulting in the growth of coccolithophores instead of other types of phytoplankton. Seabird populations have also been changing as a result of this climate change. The Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, saw the coccolith-brightened waters of the Bering Sea in 1997, 1998, and 1999. The waters have looked fairly bright again this winter and spring, as seen in this SeaWiFS image acquired April 29, 2000. But scientists are unsure whether this year's phenomenon is caused by living coccolithophorids, re-suspended coccoliths, or something else. Like all phytoplankton, coccolithophores contain chlorophyll and have the tendency to multiply rapidly near the surface. Yet, in large numbers, coccolithophores periodically shed their tiny scales, called 'coccoliths,' by the bucketful into the surrounding waters. The calcium-rich coccoliths turn the normally dark water a bright, milky aquamarine, making coccolithophore blooms easy to spot in satellite imagery. The edge of the whitish cloud in the water seen in this image is roughly 50 kilometers off the West Coast of Alaska. For more information see: SeaWiFS home page Changing Currents Color the Bering Sea a New Shade of Blue Image courtesy SeaWiFS project

2002-01-01

439

Climate, Ocean, and Sea Ice Modeling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of the Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling Project (COSIM) and its mission to develop sea ice and ocean models which can be applied to coupled climate models. Research areas include polar processes, thermohaline circulation, ocean biogeochemistry, and eddy resolving ocean simulations. Available models include the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model, and eventually the hybrid vertical coordinate version of POP. In addition, COSIM researchers have provided substantial input and development to the Miami Isopycnal Coordinate Ocean Model and its hybrid vertical coordinate equivalent Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model. Links to these model pages contain model downloads, documentation and data.

Laboratory, Los A.

440

Shelf Sea Oceanography and Meteorology Research Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Shelf Sea Oceanography and Meteorology Research Group, located at the University of Plymouth, furnishes summaries and reports of its current and recent research projects dealing with mesoscale physical processes, sediment transport, and other shelf and coastal oceanographic and meteorological challenges. Along with discovering the objectives of the endeavors, users can download the final report of the Black Sea Ecosystem Recovery Project, which quantified "shelf-deep transport of water masses and exchanges of nutrients by mesoscale activity at the North West Black Sea shelf break." Researchers can learn about past and upcoming seminars, conferences, and other events. The website offers links to abstracts of many of the group's publications as well.

441

Sea Ice, Climate and Fram Strait  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When sea ice is formed the albedo of the ocean surface increases from its open water value of about 0.1 to a value as high as 0.8. This albedo change effects the radiation balance and thus has the potential to alter climate. Sea ice also partially seals off the ocean from the atmosphere, reducing the exchange of gases such as carbon dioxide. This is another possible mechanism by which climate might be affected. The Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX 83 to 84) is an international, multidisciplinary study of processes controlling the edge of the ice pack in that area including the interactions between sea, air and ice.

Hunkins, K.

1984-01-01

442

Prokaryotic lifestyles in deep sea habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gradients of physicochemical factors influence the growth and survival of life in deep-sea environments. Insights into the\\u000a characteristics of deep marine prokaryotes has greatly benefited from recent progress in whole genome and metagenome sequence\\u000a analyses. Here we review the current state-of-the-art of deep-sea microbial genomics. Ongoing and future genome-enabled studies\\u000a will allow for a better understanding of deep-sea evolution, physiology,

Federico M. Lauro; Douglas H. Bartlett

2008-01-01

443

Microseisms and sea wave height in the Ligurian Sea: a preliminary analysis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the relationship between microseisms and sea wave heights is a fundamental step for understanding the interaction of sea storms with near coastal environment, as well as to gain insights about the possibility of forecasting sea wave heights from microseism. The possibility to predict sea wave heights in the Ligurian Sea is analyzed in this study using about a month of observations from both seismic recordings from a near-coast station (IMI - Imperia Monte Faudo) and significant sea wave heights measured from a buoy (Côte d'Azur buoy, Météo-France network). We focus on the analysis of the vertical component of microseism, which reveals a strong correlation with measured sea wave heights. Looking at the amplitude spectrogram of the vertical component of microseism, we recognize the effects of several meteo-marine events that can be ascribed to Atlantic barometric pressure lows and a series of sea storms in the Ligurian Sea. Moreover, the distinction between primary and secondary microseism is inferred from the spectrogram, even if, because of the superposition of Atlantic and Ligurian effects, it sometimes results difficult. Analysis of microseism polarization reveals a double origin which determines two prevailing orientations, corresponding to Atlantic and Ligurian meteo-marine phenomena. We feature the spectral properties of microseism making a close correlation among (1) the power spectral density spectrum of microseism, (2) the significant sea wave heights measured from the buoy and (3) sea storms occurred in the period under study, showing that there is a good correlation between spectral energy content of microseism and sea wave height. Finally, in order to set up a predictive law, we solve an inverse problem to find the optimal parameters that allow us to estimate the sea wave height given the vertical component of microseism. Specifically, the application of the definition of significant height wave height for the microseism needs the determination of some unknowns that, in our case, are sought employing a Monte Carlo Markov chain method. The resulting predictive law is based on the definition of significant sea wave height modified to account for the characteristics (both amplitude and frequency content) of microseism. Our simple predictive law demonstrates a good ability to reproduce the observed sea wave heights. This work represents a first step aiming at assessing the possibility of predicting significant sea wave height in the Ligurian Sea.

Zunino, A.; Ferretti, G.; Scafidi, D.; Barani, S.; Pasta, M.; Spallarossa, D.

2012-04-01

444

The eastern Massachusetts sea breeze study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates many different aspects of the sea breeze at Logan Airport in Boston, Massachusetts (KBOS) and along the Massachusetts coastline. Part of the study adapts the method of predicting sea breeze events developed by Miller and Keim (2003) for Portsmouth, New Hampshire (KPSM) to KBOS. A nearly ten-year dataset of hourly KBOS surface observations (1998-2007) was used to identify 879 days when the sea breeze occurred or was likely to occur at the airport. These days were classified as sea breeze, marginal, or non-sea breeze events. Sea breeze events were further classified into fast and slow transitions, with a fast transition identified by a wind shift taking one hour or less to develop, and a slow transition identified by a wind shift taking two hours or more to develop. Marginal events were events that had a duration of 1 hour or less, no clear start or finish, or were interrupted by periods of "calm" or "light and variable" winds. Non-events were events in which the background conditions for a sea breeze to occur existed, but a sea breeze did not develop. Times of onset and event durations for the sea breeze events (fast, slow, and marginal) were calculated and used to create seasonal statistics by event type. It was found that seasonal variation did occur with both characteristics, but was more evident in the time of onset. Slow events occurred earliest in the day overall, while marginal events occurred a bit later, and fast events occurred the latest. Slow events had the longest duration overall, while marginal events, by definition, had the shortest duration. Seasonally, similar results were found for both characteristics with a few variations. United States surface analyses for each event at the time of onset (or average time of onset, 1500 UTC, for non-events) were classified using the seven synoptic classes developed by Miller and Keim (2003), and statistics were developed to evaluate the distribution of synoptic classes amongst the different types of events and various seasons. Composite surface analyses of the different synoptic classes and types of events were then developed. There were significant differences between the composites of each event type within a synoptic class. Wind vector plots, created from surface observations using Barnes analysis, were used to identify the position of the sea breeze front as the sea breeze airmass penetrated inland. The depth and shape of this front was examined by synoptic class. The prevailing synoptic scale flow was found to limit penetration in expected areas along the coastline. Mesoscale calculations were used to determine the critical balance of the cross-shore temperature gradient (dT/dx) versus the cross-shore geostrophic wind component (uG) at the surface necessary for the occurrence and non-occurrence of the sea breeze. It was found that by stratifying the events by synoptic classes, a smaller transition area (containing both sea breeze and non-sea breeze events) could be created. The method was taken further by adding a third variable, the 850 hPa geostrophic wind component. The three dimensional plot showed a large transition area and future research may be able to reduce this area by breaking it down by synoptic class. Finally, the effect of the sea breeze on convection was analyzed using radar reflectivity data from the Taunton, Massachusetts WSR-88D (KBOX) for 2002 through 2007 (562 events). Convection was present inland along the Massachusetts coastline for only 24 of the total 562 events (4%). This small occurrence results from a bias from the methodology used to develop the data set. However, when the sea breeze did occur convection developed or was affected by the sea breeze front.

Thorp, Jennifer E.

445

Barents Sea crustal architecture and basin development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barents Sea continental shelf is characterized by a complex tectonic history and thus comprises a wide range of crustal and basin architectures that formed in response to different geological processes. Overlapping Paleozoic orogenies (Timanian, Caledonian, Uralian) preceded multiple rift episodes mainly affecting the western Barents Sea and eventual breakup with Greenland to the west and Lomonosov Ridge to the north. Recent work related to the PETROBAR and BarMod projects has provided new details on basin architecture, tectonic and thermal histories, stratigraphy, paleogeography, paleo-water depths and the role of the basement grain in the structuring of the Barents Sea basins. The eastern Barents Sea comprises a wide and deep sag basin that formed by rapid subsidence in Late Permian-Early Triassic times, most likely in response to basin-forming mechanisms other than rifting. The deep East Barents Sea Basin was filled by thick uppermost Permian and Triassic sediments prograding westwards from uplifted source areas mainly in the SE (Urals). In the western Barents Sea we find more typical rift basins formed in response to at least three major post-Caledonian rift phases: Carboniferous, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous-early Paleogene. The rifting activity migrated westwards through successive tectonic phases. Carboniferous rifting affected the entire western Barents Sea and gave rise to NE-SW to N-S trending horst and graben structures following a Caledonian basement grain. These structures were covered by a regional carbonate platform before renewed faulting affected the SW Barents Sea in Late Permian time. The major prograding system reached the western Barents Sea in earliest Triassic time gradually filling in a regional basin of considerable waterdepths. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous oblique extension and formation of the deep SW Barents Sea basins was linked to the North Atlantic-Arctic plate tectonic evolution. Regional uplift associated with the Early Cretaceous High Arctic Large Igneous Province gave rise to a depositional system characterized by north to south progradation covering most of the Barents Sea. Volcanic extrusives are preserved in the northern Barents Sea, mainly on Franz Josef Land and eastern Svalbard, while intrusives are found widespread, particularly in the deep East Barents Sea Basin. A Late Cretaceous-Early Paleogene mega-shear system along the western Barents Sea-Svalbard margin (De Geer Zone) linked rifting, breakup and initial opening of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Arctic Eurasia Basin. Narrow pull-apart basins formed within this dominantly shear system, in particular at a releasing bend in the margin SW of Bjørnøya. A restraining bend SW of Svalbard gave rise to the transpressional Spitsbergen Fold-and-Thrust Belt. Compressional structures of different styles are found widespread in the Barents Sea region. The nature and timing of these are difficult to constrain in many areas due to later uplift and erosion, but we expect that there are different causes and timing involved. At the western margin we see evidence of compressional deformation as young as Miocene in age. The entire Barents Shelf was uplifted and eroded during Neogene time and thick fans of Plio-Pleistocene glacial sediments were formed in front of bathymetric troughs characteristic of both the western and northern Barents Sea. Most of the uplift is closely linked to the glacial erosion, but tectonic uplift occurred prior to the glaciations.

Faleide, J. I.

2012-04-01

446

Effects of Mackenzie River discharge and bathymetry on sea ice in the Beaufort Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River discharge and bathymetry effects on sea ice in the Beaufort Sea are examined in 2012 when Arctic sea ice extent hit a record low. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature revealed warmer waters closer to river mouths. By 5 July 2012, Mackenzie warm waters occupied most of an open water area about 316,000 km2. Surface temperature in a common open water area increased by 6.5°C between 14 June and 5 July 2012, before and after the river waters broke through a recurrent landfast ice barrier formed over the shallow seafloor offshore the Mackenzie Delta. In 2012, melting by warm river waters was especially effective when the strong Beaufort Gyre fragmented sea ice into unconsolidated floes. The Mackenzie and other large rivers can transport an enormous amount of heat across immense continental watersheds into the Arctic Ocean, constituting a stark contrast to the Antarctic that has no such rivers to affect sea ice.

Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Rigor, I. G.; Li, P.; Neumann, G.

2014-02-01

447

Effects of Mackenzie River Discharge and Bathymetry on Sea Ice in the Beaufort Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mackenzie River discharge and bathymetry effects on sea ice in the Beaufort Sea are examined in 2012 when Arctic sea ice extent hit a record low. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature revealed warmer waters closer to river mouths. By 5 July 2012, Mackenzie warm waters occupied most of an open water area about 316,000 sq km. Surface temperature in a common open water area increased by 6.5 C between 14 June and 5 July 2012, before and after the river waters broke through a recurrent landfast ice barrier formed over the shallow seafloor offshore the Mackenzie Delta. In 2012, melting by warm river waters was especially effective when the strong Beaufort Gyre fragmented sea ice into unconsolidated floes. The Mackenzie and other large rivers can transport an enormous amount of heat across immense continental watersheds into the Arctic Ocean, constituting a stark contrast to the Antarctic that has no such rivers to affect sea ice.

Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Rigor, I. G; Li, P.; Neumann, G.

2014-01-01

448

Controls on Arctic Sea Ice Strength: Constraints from Geophysical Observations.  

E-print Network

Controls on Arctic Sea Ice Strength: Constraints from Geophysical Observations. Sea ice exhibits and the ocean, the "sea ice system" exhibits a dynamical behavior that has both fluid and solid properties. Interestingly, some features of sea ice are similar to those observed for the Earth's crust. Fractures spanning

Heaton, Thomas H.

449

Sea Ice Response to Wind Forcing from AMIP Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic surface circulation simulated by atmospheric general circulation models is assessed in the context of driving sea ice motion. A sea ice model is forced by geostrophic winds from eight models participating in the first Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP1), and the results are compared to simulations with the sea ice model forced by observed winds. The mean sea

C. M. Bitz; John C. Fyfe; Gregory M. Flato

2002-01-01

450

The Secret of the Svalbard Sea Ice Barrier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An elongated sea ice feature called the Svalbard sea ice barrier rapidly formed over an area in the Barents Sea to the east of Svalbard posing navigation hazards. The secret of its formation lies in the bottom bathymetry that governs the distribution of cold Arctic waters masses, which impacts sea ice growth on the water surface.

Nghiem, Son V.; Van Woert, Michael L.; Neumann, Gregory

2004-01-01

451

Genetic isolation and morphological divergence of Black Sea bottlenose dolphins  

E-print Network

Genetic isolation and morphological divergence of Black Sea bottlenose dolphins Karine A. Viaud Keywords: Conservation genetics Gene flow Mediterranean Sea Skull shape Tursiops truncatus Black Sea A B S T R A C T The Black Sea is a semi-enclosed body of water that differs from the adjacent Mediterra

Bohonak, Andrew J.

452

Seasonal Variability of the Black Sea Chlorophyll-a  

E-print Network

Seasonal Variability of the Black Sea Chlorophyll-a Concentration Peter Chu Naval Postgraduate Sea Geography and Topography #12;Black Sea Winter (1) T, (2) S, and (3) and Vertical Gradients #12;Black Sea Summer (1) T, (2) S, and (3) and Vertical Gradients #12;Horizontal distribution

Chu, Peter C.

453

Food Consumption by Sea Lions: Existing Data and Techniques  

E-print Network

Food Consumption by Sea Lions: Existing Data and Techniques Arliss J. Winship, Andrea M.J. Hunter the quantity of prey that sea lions consume is a prerequisite for assessing the role of sea lions in aquatic that have been used to estimate the food requirements for the six spe- cies of sea lions. We reviewed data

454

EXPERIMENTAL HARVEST OF THE STELLER SEA LION IN ALASKAN WATERS  

E-print Network

371 EXPERIMENTAL HARVEST OF THE STELLER SEA LION IN ALASKAN WATERS Marine Biological LaboratoryKernan, Director EXPERIMENTAL HARVEST OF THE STELLER SEA LION IN ALASKAN WATERS by Fredrik V. Thorsteinson, Richard lions to hunting 5 Processing · 6 Proximate composition of ground sea lion meat 10 Disposition of sea

455

ConcepTest: Effect of Ice Sheet on Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the last ice age there was a large ice sheet over much of Canada and the northern U.S. What was the effect on global sea levels? a. Sea level was higher b. Sea level was lower c. Sea level was the same as ...

456

Undergraduate Research From Start to Finish in a SEA Semester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undergraduates in the 12-week SEA Semester program at the Sea Education Association (SEA) carry out the entire scientific research process, from conception of a testable scientific question to final presentation of results from data they collect on a six-week research cruise. SEA is uniquely positioned to direct undergraduates in oceanography research projects as diverse as the students that propose them,

K. Lavender; P. Joyce; L. Graziano; S. Harris; G. Jaroslow; C. Lea; J. Schell; J. Witting

2005-01-01

457

Present status of the sea cucumber fishery in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides preliminary results on the present status of the sea cucumber fishery in Sri Lanka. At present, the fishery is restricted to the northwestern and eastern parts of the country. Sea cucumber fish- ing activities are greatly influenced by the monsoon. About 4,000-5,000 families are dependant on sea cucumber fishing activities. The major sea cucumber processing procedures include

D. C. T. Dissanayake; Sujeewa Athukorala; C. Amarasiri

2010-01-01

458

Sea and Land Breezes METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology  

E-print Network

in this section came from ZMAG) Definitions: The sea breeze is a local, thermally direct circulation arising from of water (ocean, large lakes) toward land and is caused by hydrostatic pressure gradient forces related. The leading edge of the sea breeze is called the sea breeze front. The basic structure of the sea breeze

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

459

Dynamic sea level changes following changes in the thermohaline circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the coupled climate model CLIMBER-3a, we investigate changes in sea surface elevation due to a weakening of the thermohaline circulation (THC). In addition to a global sea level rise due to a warming of the deep sea, this leads to a regional dynamic sea level change which follows quasi-instantaneously any change in the ocean circulation. We show that the

Anders Levermann; Alexa Griesel; Matthias Hofmann; Marisa Montoya; Stefan Rahmstorf

2005-01-01

460

Coccoliths in the Celtic Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the basis of the marine food chain, phytoplankton are important indicators of change in the oceans. These marine flora also extract carbon dioxide from the atmosphere for use in photosynthesis, and play an important role in global climate. Phytoplankton blooms that occur near the surface are readily visible from space, enabling a global estimation of the presence of chlorophyll and other pigments. There are more than 5,000 different species of phytoplankton however, and it is not always possible to identify the type of phytoplankton present using space-based remote sensing.

Coccolithophores, however, are a group of phytoplankton that are identifiable from space. These microscopic plants armor themselves with external plates of calcium carbonate. The plates, or coccoliths, give the ocean a milky white or turquoise appearance during intense blooms. The long-term flux of coccoliths to the ocean floor is the main process responsible for the formation of chalk and limestone.

This image is a natural-color view of the Celtic Sea and English Channel regions, and was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera on June 4, 2001 during Terra orbit 7778. It represents an area of 380 kilometers x 445 kilometers, and includes portions of southwestern England and northwestern France. The coccolithophore bloom in the lower left-hand corner usually occurs in the Celtic Sea for several weeks in summer. The coccoliths backscatter light from the water column to create a bright optical effect. Other algal and/or phytoplankton blooms can also be discerned along the coasts near Portsmouth, England and Granville, France.

At full resolution, evidence of human activity is also apparent in this image. White specks associated with ship wakes are present in the open water, and aircraft contrails are visible within the high cirrus clouds over the English Channel.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2002-01-01

461

Sea-ice-thickness variability in the Chukchi Sea, spring and summer 2002–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of sea-ice thickness were obtained from drill holes, an ice-based electromagnetic induction instrument (IEM), and a ship-borne electromagnetic induction instrument (SEM) during the early-melt season in the southern Chukchi Sea in 2002 and 2004, and in late summer 2003 at the time of minimum ice extent in the northern Chukchi Sea. An ice roughness criterion was applied to distinguish

Kunio Shirasawa; Hajo Eicken; Kazutaka Tateyama; Toru Takatsuka; Toshiyuki Kawamura

2009-01-01

462

The crust and mantle lithosphere in the Barents Sea/Kara Sea region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this study is the nature of a prominent, high-velocity (S-wave) anomaly in the upper mantle below the Barents Sea-Kara Sea region and its relation to the evolution of the sedimentary basins, in particular the Permo-Triassic East Barents Sea Basin. The high-velocity anomaly exhibits a thickness of 75-100 km below the central Barents Sea and thickens considerably below the East Barents Sea Basin (150 km). The thickest part of the high-velocity anomaly follows the outline of the East Barents Sea Basin which is bended around Pai-Khoi-Novaya Zemlya Fold Belt. Density modeling of the lithosphere along a 3200 km long transect from the Barents Sea to the West Siberian Basin was used to evaluate different models for the upper mantle structure. The best fit gravity model was achieved when either assuming a 1D, horizontally- layered mantle structure, or, a forward-modeled density structure using an average Proterozoic mantle composition. The first model requires a further, compensating excess mass below the (seismic) Moho in the East Barents Sea Basin region. The latter model exhibits a higher-density dome structure below the basin. Both models indicate probable old, continental lithosphere below the central part of the transect in eastern Barents Sea/Kara Sea region. Calculated temperatures of 400-1000 °C (60-200 km depth) further support this concept. Hence, the East Barents Sea Basin developed probably as an intra-continental basin within a non-extensional setting. Such basins exhibit generally crustal inhomogeneities which contributed considerably to their subsidence history. Likely structures below the East Barents Sea Basin are Pre-Permian rifts, accumulated melts derived by the Siberian mantle plume, and/or the Late Neoproterozoic Timanide Orogen.

Ritzmann, Oliver; Faleide, Jan Inge

2009-05-01

463

A mid-depth front separating the South China Sea water and the Philippine sea water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the influence of the South China Sea (SCS) water on the Kuroshio, and to study the dissolved carbonate system, we participated in six WOCE cruises aboard R\\/V Ocean Researcher 1. The areas studied were the northeast South China Sea and the West Philippine Sea near the Luzon Strait. Temperature, salinity, pH, alkalinity and total CO2 were

Chen-Tung Arthur Chen; Ming-Hsiung Huang

1996-01-01

464

Three-dimensional structure of tidal current in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional tidal current model is developed and applied to the East China Sea (ECS), the Yellow Sea and the Bohai\\u000a Sea. The model well reproduces the major four tides, namely M2, S2, K1 and O1 tides, and their currents. The horizontal distributions of the major four tidal currents are the same as those calculated\\u000a by the horizontal two-dimensional models.

Xinyu Guo; Tetsuo Yanagi

1998-01-01

465

The coral record of last interglacial sea levels and sea surface temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise and fall of the Last Interglacial (LI) sea levels and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are evaluated using U-series dating combined with Sr\\/Ca ratios in corals from both stable and tectonically uplifted sites. Along the stable coastal margin of Western Australia, an extensive series of LI coral reefs occur at heights of 2–3 m above present-day sea level. These

Malcolm T. McCulloch; Tezer Esat

2000-01-01

466

Global Warming and Changes in Sea Ice in the Greenland Sea: 1979-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper presents a statistical analysis of sea ice in the Greenland Sea (70-80N and 10W-10E) from January 1979 to December 2007. We define four variables from satellite images: ice extent, ice area, eastward ice extent at 75N, and the shape of the ice edge. We establish relationships between these ice variables and five climate variables: sea surface temperature

Maxine von Eye

467

Morphology of gametes in sea urchins from Peter The Great Bay, Sea of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine structure of the gametes in six sea urchin species of the Sea of Japan was studied. The sperm in Strongylocentrotus nudus, S. intermedius, Echinocardium cordatum, Scaphechinus mirabilis, Sc. griseus and Echinarachnius parma are species-specific. The conical head and symmetrically disposed ring-shape mitochondrion are common to regular sea urchin\\u000a sperm cells. S. nudus is characterized by the bulb-shaped head

A. L. Drozdov; V. V. Vinnikova

2010-01-01

468

Regional long-term sea level and sea surface temperature characteristics from satellite observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a the large portion of the world's population living in coastal zones forecasts of long- term sea level change is important for a variety of environmental and socio-economic reasons. Satellite altimetry offers a unique opportunity for improving our knowledge about global and regional sea level change on both global and regional scale. Joint TOPEX\\/POSEIDON(T\\/P)+JASON-1 sea level observations and Reynolds

Ole B. Andersen; Juliane Maries Vej; Brian Beckley

469

Sea anemone exposed at low tide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea anemones are sensitive to drying out. To avoid drying out during low tide and periods of intense sunlight, the anemones roll up to keep their tentacles moist. The outer body of the anemone is thick and tolerant of heat.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-05

470

Comparison Graph of Sea Ice Minimum - 2010  

NASA Video Gallery

This animated graph tracks the retreat of sea ice, measured in millions of square kilometers, averaged from the start of the satellite record in 1979 through 2000 (white). Next, the graph follows t...

471

Arctic Sea Ice Changes 2011-2012  

NASA Video Gallery

Animation showing changes in monthly Arctic sea ice volume using data from ESA's CryoSat-2 (red dots) and estimates from the Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) (solid li...

472

Circulation and convection in the Irminger Sea  

E-print Network

Aspects of the circulation and convection in the Irminger Sea are investigated using a variety of in-situ, satellite, and atmospheric reanalysis products. Westerly Greenland tip jet events are intense, small-scale wind ...

Våge, Kjetil

2010-01-01

473

Modeling convection in the Greenland Sea  

E-print Network

A detailed examination of the development of a deep convection event observed in the Greenland Sea in 1988-89 is carried out through a combination of modeling, scale estimates, and data analysis. We develop a prognostic ...

Bhushan, Vikas

1998-01-01

474

MODIS Snow and Sea Ice Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this chapter, we describe the suite of Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua snow and sea ice products. Global, daily products, developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, are archived and distributed through the National Snow and Ice Data Center at various resolutions and on different grids useful for different communities Snow products include binary snow cover, snow albedo, and in the near future, fraction of snow in a 5OO-m pixel. Sea ice products include ice extent determined with two different algorithms, and sea ice surface temperature. The algorithms used to develop these products are described. Both the snow and sea ice products, available since February 24,2000, are useful for modelers. Validation of the products is also discussed.

Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.

2004-01-01

475

Global sea level linked to global temperature  

PubMed Central

We propose a simple relationship linking global sea-level variations on time scales of decades to centuries to global mean temperature. This relationship is tested on synthetic data from a global climate model for the past millennium and the next century. When applied to observed data of sea level and temperature for 1880–2000, and taking into account known anthropogenic hydrologic contributions to sea level, the correlation is >0.99, explaining 98% of the variance. For future global temperature scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report, the relationship projects a sea-level rise ranging from 75 to 190 cm for the period 1990–2100. PMID:19995972

Vermeer, Martin; Rahmstorf, Stefan

2009-01-01

476

Sea Turtles: Ancient Creatures with Modern Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The long history of people exploiting sea turtles laid the foundation for the decline in their numbers. Today, the primary threats to their survival include: indirect fisheries, direct harvesting, coastal development, and global warming.

Kate L. Mansfield (Florida Atlantic University;)

2010-08-05

477

Internal Waves in the Black Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The archival data of internal wave observations in the Black Sea during 27th cruise of RV "Professor Kolesnikov" are used to estimate their characteristics (speed of propagation, dispersive and nonlinear parameters, soliton polarity and amplitude, occurrence frequency). The polarity of internal solitons is negative everywhere, their heights do not exceed 2 m. Also the variation of surfactant concentration on the sea surface induced by the internal waves in the Black Sea is computed; this is necessary to determine the "visibility" of internal waves. Generation of internal waves in the Black Sea is studied numerically within 2D full-nonlinear Euler equations using two types of source: wind stress and tsunami waves. Preliminary results of this study are presented.

Talipova, Tatiana; Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Kurkin, Andrey; Kurkina, Oxana

2014-05-01

478

annals of science The darkening sea  

E-print Network

going out on just about any research ship that would have her. Fabry developed a simple, if brutal as a waste product. In the open sea, the CO2 they produce has no effect. Seal them in a small container

Zachos, James

479

Sea Ice Thickness Comparison: 1979 vs 2013  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation compares the difference in the area, volume and depth of the average September Arctic sea ice between 1979, shown in blue, and 2013, shown in orange. The data from these two years ha...

480

The Baltic?a sea of invaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are about 100 nonindigenous species recorded in the Baltic Sea. Invasive species have resulted in major changes in nearshore ecosystems, especially in coastal lagoons and inlets that can be identified as \\

Erkki Leppäkoski; Stephan Gollasch; Piotr Gruszka; Henn Ojaveer; Sergej Olenin; Vadim Panov

2002-01-01