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1

Late Quaternary sea-level highstands in the Tasman Sea: evidence from Lord Howe Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lord Howe Island, situated 600 km east of Australia, provides a unique opportunity to evaluate Late Quaternary highstands of sea level in the Tasman Sea. The mid-ocean island, which is the site of the southernmost coral reef, is composed of basalts of late Tertiary age, and calcarenites derived from bioclastic reefal carbonates. Both erosional and depositional evidence of Late Quaternary

C. D. Woodroffe; C. V. Murray-Wallace; E. A. Bryant; B. Brooke; H. Heijnis; D. M. Price

1995-01-01

2

Observed and simulated Lagrangian and eddy characteristics of the East Australian Current and the Tasman Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New insights into the Lagrangian and eddy dynamical processes within the East Australian Current (EAC) and the Tasman Sea are presented. We briefly discuss the past campaigns undertaken to observe the EAC and the Tasman Sea eddies as well as the motivation to renew the deployment of drifting buoys into the EAC and the Tasman Sea. The specific features discussed are motivated by the recent observing campaigns using drifting buoys and the availability of high spatial- and temporal-resolution estimates of the ocean state and circulation from eddy resolving models. The interpretation of these features is also aided by other components of the ocean observing system. The dynamics presented includes: (a) transient EAC separation through a vortex dipole, (b) stratified vortex mergers and secondary circulation of EAC eddies, (c) eddy networks in the Tasman Sea and (d) formation and propagation of the EAC separation point. The importance of these dynamical features to the EAC and the Tasman Sea and their implications for the observing system and modelling are discussed.

Brassington, Gary B.; Summons, Nicholas; Lumpkin, Rick

2011-03-01

3

The tectonic history of the Tasman Sea: A puzzle with 13 pieces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new model for the tectonic evolution of the Tasman Sea based on dense satellite altimetry data and a new shipboard data set. We utilized a combined set of revised magnetic anomaly and fracture zone interpretations to calculate relative motions and their uncertainties between the Australian and the Lord Howe Rise plates from 73.6 Ma to 52 Ma

Carmen Gaina; Dietmar R. Müller; Jean-Yves Royer; Joann Stock; Jeanne Hardebeck; Phil Symonds

1998-01-01

4

The late Quaternary calcareous nannoplankton assemblages from three cores from the Tasman Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the late Quaternary calcareous nannoplankton in three deep-sea cores RC12-113, Z-2108 and GC-3, located along a N-S transect at three different latitudes (25°, 33°, 44°S) in the Tasman Sea, has been investigated. The shift in floral dominance from small Gephyrocapsa to small placoliths (labelled here “Small Placolith”), and then to Emiliania huxleyi is recognized at stage 5

Chikara Hiramatsu; Patrick De Deckker

1997-01-01

5

Orbital forced sea level fluctuations during the Middle Eocene (ODP site 1172, East Tasman Plateau)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean Drilling Program leg 189 was undertaken to test and refine the hypothesis (by Kennett et al., 1975), that the reconfiguration of continents around Antarctica (e.g.: the opening of the Tasmanian Gateway and Drake passage) led to the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that, in turn, would cause thermal isolation and hence cooling of Antarctica. This would possibly even cause global cooling, as suggested by the 33.3 Ma Oi1 event. The cores of leg 189, site 1172 on the eastern side of the Tasmanian Gateway provided a nearly complete succession of Eocene and Oligocene sediments. Cyclostratigraphic analysis based on XRF derived Ca and Fe records indicates distinct Milankovitch cyclicity between 40 and 36 Ma. (Röhl et al, in press). In the core-section representing magnetochron 18n-1n, the Ca record shows precession cycles in combination with obliquity, suggested to reflect sea level fluctuations (Röhl et al, in press). New datasets include microfossil data (organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts, pollen/spores and diatoms), loss-on-ignition measurements, magnetic data (environmental magnetics - ARM). Here, we aim to further investigate the proposed relationship between astronomical forcing and sea-level fluctuations. Additionally, we aim to obtain insight in the palaeoecology of the distinct endemic circum-Antarctic late Middle to Late Eocene dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. Results corroborate the concept that the cyclicity recorded by Ca and Fe measurements is the result of sea-level fluctuations. This implies that during late Middle Eocene times, astronomical forcing has modulated sea level - most likely through Antarctic ice buildup and meltdown. In turn, this would indicate the presence of significant, though probably modest, ice masses already ~40 Ma ago, well before the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Kennett, J. P., R. E. Houtz, et al. (1975). Development of the circum-Antarctic current. Science 186: 144-147. Röhl, U.; H. Brinkhuis, C.E. Stickley, M. Fuller, S.A. Schellenberg, G. Wefer, G. Williams, Cyclostratigraphy of Middle and Late Eocene sediments from the East Tasman Plateau (site 1172), in press.

Warnaar, J.; Stickley, C.; Jovane, L.; Roehl, U.; Brinkhuis, H.; Visscher, H.

2004-12-01

6

Sea level and astronomically induced environmental changes in Middle and Late Eocene sediments from the East Tasman Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eocene sediments drilled at the East Tasman Plateau (ETP) exhibit well-defined cycles, high-resolution magnetic stratigraphy, and environmentally-controlled dinoflagellate and diatom distribution patterns. We derive a cyclostratigraphy from the spectral analysis of high-resolution elemental concentration records (Ca, Fe) for this shallow marine time series spanning the middle to early late Eocene (C16n.2n-C21). Changes in carbonate content, the ratio between Gonyaulacoid and Peridinioid dinocysts, and relative abundance of "oligotrophic" diatoms serve as proxies for a high-resolution climatic and sea-level history with high values representing high sea-level stands and decreased eutrophy of surface waters. Changing ratios between high latitude dinocysts versus cosmopolitan species provide clues on sea surface temperature trends and water mass exchange. Our results show that the relatively shallow-water middle Eocene environments of the ETP are influenced by orbitally-forced climatic cycles superimposed on third order relative sea-level changes. Changes in the dominance of Milankovitch frequency at ˜38.6 Ma (late Eocene) is related to an initial deepening-step within the Tasmanian Gateway prior to the major deepening during the middle late Eocene (˜35.5 Ma). Decreasing sedimentation rates at 38 Ma and 37.2 Ma reflect winnowing associated with sea-level fall. This episode is followed by renewed transgression. Dinocyst distribution patterns indicate high latitude, probably cool temperate surface water conditions throughout, with the exception of a sudden surge in cosmopolitan species near the base of subchron C18.2r, at ˜41 Ma; this event is tentatively correlated to the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum.

Röhl, Ursula; Brinkhuis, Henk; Stickley, Catherine E.; Fuller, Mike; Schellenberg, Stephen A.; Wefer, Gerold; Williams, Graham L.

7

Deep upper-mantle melting beneath the Tasman and Coral Seas detected with multiple ScS reverberations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple ScS reverberations are used to search for mantle reflectors beneath the Tasman and Coral Seas with a hierarchical waveform-inversion/migration method. In addition to the major transition zone discontinuities, a low-velocity layer above the 410-km discontinuity is detected. The top of the low-velocity layer lies at an average depth of 352 km, indicating that the layer could be more than 70-km thick if it persists to the 410-km discontinuity, which occurs at an average depth of 420 km along paths containing the low-velocity layer. We attribute the low velocities to partial melt resulting from volatile-induced melting. The considerable thickness of the partial melt layer may require thin films of a hydrous melt with a zero-degree dihedral angle surrounding grains or the combined effect on melting of the addition of both water and carbon to the deep upper mantle via subduction. Although the depths of the transition zone discontinuities do not indicate that the transition zone itself is rich in water, the impedance contrasts do contain a subtle signature that could be related to transition zone water, namely a decrease in the impedance contrast across the 410-km discontinuity and a relatively strong 520-km discontinuity.

Courtier, Anna M.; Revenaugh, Justin

2007-07-01

8

High resolution satellite observations of mesoscale oceanography in the Tasman Sea, 1978 - 1979  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Of the Nearly 1000 standard infrared photographic images received, 273 images were on computer compatible tape. It proved necessary to digitally enhance the scene contrast to cover only a select few degrees K over the photographic grey scale appropriate to the scene-specific range of sea surface temperature (SST). Some 178 images were so enhanced. Comparison with sea truth show that SST, as seen by satellite, provides a good guide to the ocean currents and eddies off East Australia, both in summer and winter. This is in contrast, particularly in summer, to SST mapped by surface survey, which usually lacks the necessary spatial resolution.

Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Hornibrook, M.; Latham, A. R.; Speechley, G. C.; Scully-Power, P. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

9

Centennial - Scale Shoreface, Shoreline And Sand Transport Change In Response To Tasman Sea Wave Climate Variability During The Late Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant variability in the modality of mean and storm wave climates along the south-eastern Australian coast, has been observed on annual to decadal time scales. On longer timescales of interest to marine geologists, wave climate shifts result in switching of sand transport paths on the lower shoreface and alongshore via headland bypassing. Using a novel approach we use wave climate hindcasting and marine geoscience investigations to illuminate sand supply and transport processes for sections of the eastern Australian coast, over two time periods: (i) the past 120 years; and (ii) the past 2,000 years. Over the past 120 year period, the problem is approached through the combined analysis of shoreface bathymetric change and related nearshore, shoreline and spit behaviour, together with wave climate variability associated with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). A rotation in the seabed bathymetry and shoreline is interpreted as a response to multidecadal processes, including: a rotation in the dominant deepwater south-easterly wave power from 120-140° to 140-160° and changes in modality between La Nina-like to El Nino-like phases of the IPO; and, associated changes in across-shoreface and headland bypassing longshore sand transport paths. The shift from unimodal mean and storm wave climate in the 1800's to bimodalilty in the 1900's is associated with large scale changes in the windfield over the Tasman Sea. The modal wave climate change causes switching in headland sand bypassing modes on interannual to decadal timescales and has important implications for understanding shoreline rotation on open compartments. Over the past 2,000 year period, progradational strandplain sequences of relic shoreline planform geometry is investigated to hindcast nearshore wave climate change. The relic shorelines were mapped from LIDAR terrain models and chronologically constrained by Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating methods. The progradational sedimentary stratigraphy was obtained by Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) methods. Centennial to multi-centennial shifts in nearshore wave climate are interpreted from the relic shoreline rotation and planform geometry. Sub-aerial progradational sand volumes indicate that the sand supply rate to the shoreline varies from 0.5 to 4 m3/m/a. The higher sand supply rates occur during periods of anticlockwise shoreline rotation when wave direction is more shore-normal. Lower supply rates occur during oblique wave climate under longshore sand transport. The higher sand supply is considered to be transported from the lower shoreface since the shelf profile is overfit and in disequilibrium with Holocene sea-level. The centennial scale evolution of the shoreline and shoreface provides an insight into the sensitivity of the east Australian coast to changes in wave climate and sand supply.

Goodwin, I. D.; Freeman, R.; Blackmore, K.

2012-12-01

10

Holocene lagoonal sedimentation at the latitudinal limits of reef growth, Lord Howe Island, Tasman Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southernmost limit to coral reef growth occurs on Lord Howe Island (33°30?S, 159°05?E) where a discontinuous fringing reef flanks the western side of the island. Coring and radiocarbon dating indicate that carbonate sediments were first deposited within the lagoon around 6500 radiocarbon years BP coincident with sea level reaching close to its modern level. High-energy conditions dominated the reef

D. M Kennedy; C. D Woodroffe

2000-01-01

11

Design and operation of a deep seismic survey in the Tasman Sea Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep crustal reflections, appearing at two-way times of 6-20 s, are characterised by a low signal-to-noise ratio and a low-frequency content (~ 5-30 Hz). Optimising the visibility of these reflections requires that: (1) the source energy be concentrated in this band; (2) the receiver be as long as practically possible; (3) the shot spacing be as snail as possible. An airgun array simulation program was used to investigate the effect of operating a 10-gun array at different depths. It predicted that the source energy could be enhanced at low frequencies by running the gun array at depths of up to 25 m, which would improve the signal-to-noise ratio for deep reflectors by a factor of 2 relative to the same array at 7.5 m depth at the expense of some loss of temporal resolution. The receiver length was limited to 4.4 km by the number of cable sections available and the maximum tension allowable in the cable. It was configured as 88 channels of 50 m length. To reduce the shot spacing, minimise the tow noise and reduce tension in the cable, the ship speed was reduced to 4 knots. A cable depth of 20 m was chosen to reduce sea state noise and keep the receiver ghost notch frequency outside the frequency band of interest. A variety of operational problems was encountered. Fish bites holed 50% of the total cable inventory and cable sections were damaged when they sank below their maximum rated depth after being holed. Shot-generated noise was the limiting factor in deep water. Despite these problems, useful data were obtained over the Lord Howe Rise, Dampier Ridge, Gippsland Basin margin and the deep abyssal plain and the survey demonstrated the use of an airgun array tuned for maximum energy.

Kravis, S. P.; Coffin, M. F.; Whitworth, R.

1990-02-01

12

Application of the BEM approach for a determination of the regional marine geoid model and the mean dynamic topography in the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a novel approach for the gravimetric marine geoid modelling which utilise the boundary element method (BEM). The direct BEM formulation for the Laplace equation is applied to obtain a numerical solution to the linearised fixed gravimetric boundary-value problem in points at the Earth's surface. The numerical scheme uses the collocation method with linear basis functions. It involves a discretisation of the Earth's surface which is considered as a fixed boundary. The surface gravity disturbances represent the oblique derivative boundary condition. The BEM approach is applied to determine the marine geoid model over the study area of the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea using DNSC08 marine gravity data. The comparison of the BEM-derived and EGM2008 geoid models reveals that the geoid height differences vary within -25 and 18 cm with the standard deviation of 6 cm. The DNSC08 sea surface topography data and the new marine geoid are then used for modelling of the mean dynamic topography (MDT) over the study area. The local vertical datum (LVD) offsets estimated at 15 tide-gauge stations in New Zealand are finally used for testing the coastal MDT. The average value of differences between the MDT and LVD offsets is 1 cm.

Tenzer, R.; ?underlík, R.; Dayoub, N.; Abdalla, A.

2012-01-01

13

The early Eocene in the Southern Ocean; an integrated dinocyst and geochemical analysis of ODP Leg 189 sites 1171 and 1172, Tasman Sea.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early Eocene is known as the warmest and most extreme long-term greenhouse interval of the Cenozoic. Superimposed on these conditions, short-lived 'hyperthermal' events, apparently caused by the fast input of carbon in the ocean-atmosphere system, are associated with dramatic changes in ocean chemistry, the global hydrological cycle and bio-provincialism and evolution. The `Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum' or PETM event (55 Ma) is the most extreme hyperthermal event, but recently similar events within this time period have been identified. Many relatively complete late Paleocene through early Eocene sequences have by now been reported from around the world, but most are from ancient low- to mid-latitude sites. ODP Leg 189 in the Tasman Sea recovered the southernmost successions ever encountered from this critical phase in Earth's history at the marginal marine Sites 1171 and 1172 (at 70\\deg to 65\\deg S paleolatitude). On the basis of more detailed investigations of downhole and core logging data, in combination with bio- (dinocysts) magnetostratigraphy and organic stable isotope geochemistry, we have identified the PETM, and possibly also the younger Elmo event (see Sluijs et al., AGU fall meeting abstract volume 2004) and provide correlation and analysis of the late Paleocene through early Eocene in terms of completeness and paleoenvironment.

Deltrap, R.; Roehl, U.; Brinkhuis, H.; Sluijs, A.

2004-12-01

14

Cross-basin heterogeneity in lanternfish (family Myctophidae) assemblages and isotopic niches (?13C and ?15N) in the southern Tasman Sea abyssal basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cross-basin (longitudinal) study of lanternfishes in the southern Tasman Sea abyssal basin during the austral winter of 2008 and 2009 found that mean biomass in the Western sector was higher than that in the Eastern sector, corresponding with cross-basin patterns in oceanographic heterogeneity and productivity. Dominant species over the abyssal basin differed from those previously recorded over the neighbouring continental slope. Vertical biomass profiles indicated diffuse night-time distributions in the Central sector and extensive diel vertical migrations in the Eastern sector. In the Western sector, macrocrustacean ?13C values were significantly higher, and ?15N significantly lower, than those in the Eastern sector. The results indicate a cross-basin difference in the primary productivity environment and 15N enrichment at the base of the foodweb. The cross-basin pattern in lanternfish ?15N values mirrored that for macrocrustaceans and was not correlated with standard length. Lanternfish ?13C values did not differ between sectors, but there were depth-wise differences, with values in the shallowest stratum (0-200 m) significantly higher than those in the deepest stratum (800-1000 m). Calculated trophic levels (TLs) of lanternfishes spanned the third trophic level and marked niche segregation was evident in the Eastern (mean TL 3.0-3.9) and Central (mean TL 2.5-3.6) sectors. Together, the results suggest that the Eastern and Western sectors are distinct sub-basin scale pelagic habitats, with implications for ecosystem modelling and future monitoring.

Flynn, A. J.; Kloser, R. J.

2012-11-01

15

Flows in the Tasman Front south of Norfolk Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tasman Front is a narrow band of eastward flowing subtropical water crossing the Tasman Sea from Australia to North Cape, New Zealand. It is the link between the two subtropical western boundary currents of the South Pacific, the East Australian Current (EAC) off eastern Australia, and the East Auckland Current (EAUC) off northeastern New Zealand. Here we report the first direct measurements of flow in the Tasman Front from a moored array deployed across gaps in the submarine ridges south of Norfolk Island and hydrographic and ADCP measurements during the deployment and recovery voyages. The mean flow through the array over July 2003 to August 2004 was found to be eastward only in the upper 800 m with a transport of ˜6 Sv. Below 800 m a weak westward mean flow (˜1.5 Sv) was measured, associated with Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Using sea surface height to account for additional transport south of the moored array results in a total mean eastward transport between Norfolk Island and North Cape, New Zealand of ˜8 Sv, varying between -4 and 18 Sv. The measurements show that the Tasman Front is much shallower than either the EAC or EAUC, both of which extend below 2000 m depth, has less transport than either the EAC or EAUC and has instances of flow reversal. Thus, the Tasman Front is a weaker connection between the EAC and EAUC than the paradigm of a contiguous South Pacific western boundary current system would suggest.

Sutton, Philip J. H.; Bowen, Melissa

2014-05-01

16

Bottle-green microtektites from the South Tasman Rise: Deep-sea evidence for an impact event near the Miocene/Pliocene boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty-eight bottle-green microtektites (BGMTs) were found in a core sample recovered from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1169, located along the western flank of the South Tasman Rise in the southeastern Indian Ocean. Biostratigraphic evidence loosely constrains the age of the Site 1169 BGMTs to an interval spanning the late-middle Miocene to earliest Pliocene (12.1-4.6 Ma); an incomplete core recovery and a major stratigraphic hiatus prevented a more precise age determination. This broad range of biostratigraphic ages indicates that these microtektites predate the Australasian strewn layer by at least 3.83 Ma, and perhaps by as much as 11.33 Ma. Furthermore, the REE signatures of the Site 1169 BGMTs are incongruent with those of typical Australasian ejecta, indicating that the Site 1169 BGMTs are not part of the larger Australasian strewn field. Among the various australite subgroups, the Site 1169 BGMTs are most similar in age to the HNa/K australites. However, numerous compositional discrepancies indicate that these two ejecta populations are also unrelated; the great distances separating Site 1169 from HNa/K australite-bearing localities also makes a shared provenance unlikely. Therefore, we conclude that the Site 1169 BGMTs were formed by a late Miocene impact that is distinctly separate from the Australasian and HNa/K australite events, though the location of this impact is unknown.

Kelly, D. Clay; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

2004-12-01

17

Tasman Leakage of intermediate waters as inferred from Argo floats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

use Argo float trajectories to infer ocean current velocity at the sea surface and 1000 dbar near Australia. The East Australian Current flows southward along the east coast of Australia at both surface and intermediate levels, but only the intermediate waters leak round the southern tip of Tasmania and cross the Great Australian Bight. We calculate the transport of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) between the southern Australian coast and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) as the velocity at 1000 dbar times the layer thickness. Between March 2006 and December 2012, the Eulerian AAIW transport through 147°E ranges between 0 and 12.0 sverdrup (Sv). The mean Tasman Leakage of intermediate waters from the Pacific Ocean into the Indian Ocean, obtained using all Argo data until March 2013, is 3.8 ± 1.3 Sv. The mean intermediate water transport into the Indian Ocean through 115°E increases to 5.2 ± 1.8 Sv due to contributions from the westward recirculation of ACC waters.

Rosell-Fieschi, Miquel; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Gourrion, Jeröme; Pelegrí, Josep L.

2013-10-01

18

Paleoceanographic constraints on glacial-interglacial carbon cycling on the subantarctic South Tasman Rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured paleoceanographic variables that allow us to estimate changes in carbonate chemistry and pCO2 over the last glacial-interglacial transition south of the Subtropical Front at South Tasman Rise south of Australia. Gravity core RS147-GC7 (45.2 S, 146.3 E, 3300 m) preserves a record of the last deglaciation at a sedimentation rate of about 4 cm\\/kyr, with chronology controlled

W. Howard; A. Moy; C. Samson; E. Sikes

2003-01-01

19

Motueka River plume facilitates transport of ruminant faecal contaminants into shellfish growing waters, Tasman Bay, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrographic and water quality surveys of the Motueka River and its river plume were conducted during a moderate flood event (peak flow of 420 m\\/s) to assess the source and fate of faecal contaminants transported into Tasman Bay. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococci concentrations in the river were up to 10000 and 7300 Most Probable Number (MPN)\\/100 ml during

CD Cornelisen; PA Gillespie; M Kirs; RG Young; RW Forrest; PJ Barter; BR Knight; VJ Harwood

2011-01-01

20

Working towards a Group A Streptococcal vaccine: Report of a collaborative Trans-Tasman workshop.  

PubMed

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections represent a major public health burden in both developing and developed countries. In Australia and New Zealand GAS associated diseases are serious problems in Indigenous populations and a major cause of health inequality. Political recognition of these inequalities is providing impetus for strategies that reduce GAS disease and the development of a GAS vaccine now has governmental support in both Australia and New Zealand. Accordingly, an expert workshop was convened in March 2013 to consider available data on GAS vaccines. M-protein based vaccines constructed from the hyper-variable N-terminal region (30-valent vaccine) or the conserved C-repeat domain (J8 vaccine) were reviewed together with vaccine candidates identified using multi high-throughput approaches. Performing a comprehensive assessment of regional GAS strain epidemiology, defining the immune correlates of protection, and the establishment of clinical trial sites were identified as critical activities for a Trans-Tasman vaccine development programme. PMID:24837510

Moreland, Nicole J; Waddington, Claire S; Williamson, Deborah A; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Smeesters, Pierre R; Proft, Thomas; Steer, Andrew C; Walker, Mark J; Baker, Edward N; Baker, Michael G; Lennon, Diana; Dunbar, Rod; Carapetis, Jonathan; Fraser, John D

2014-06-24

21

Tasman Spirit Oil Spill in Pakistan - Research Response and Lessons Learned  

PubMed Central

Background This paper presents lessons learned from an investigation of the acute human health effects of the “Tasman Spirit' oil spill from a perspective of conducting rapid response investigations in developing countries. Methods We reviewed various steps in our investigation, other studies on oil spills in Pakistan and around the world, and reflected upon our discussions and interactions with various stakeholders. Results The paper highlights the importance of applying a public health, legal, and ethical framework for conducting rapid response investigations, developing a pre-established funding mechanism, and addressing study design issues, exposure and outcome measurements, political issues, community engagement, and communication of results. Conclusion There is need to develop ethical and legal framework and funding mechanism for conducting rapid response research in developing countries. A repository of study protocols, validated tools, and laboratory methods for exposure and outcome assessment would be greatly beneficial.

Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Lutfi, Shahid; Tipre, Meghan; Sathiakumar, Nalini

2012-01-01

22

The Tasman Spirit oil spill: implications for regulatory change in Pakistan.  

PubMed

An oil spill in July 2003 from the tanker Tasman Spirit attracted considerable public and media attention in Pakistan. This paper focuses on the experience of a developing country such as Pakistan in dealing with a major oil spill and its impact on bringing about change in the national regulatory framework. A major outcome has been the ratification of the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage 1992, which came into force in March 2006 in Pakistan. The convention provides a compensation mechanism for victims incurring oil pollution damages from maritime casualties involving oil laden ships. Several additional changes are still required to improve the country's ability to cope with marine oil spills. These include the development of a comprehensive domestic regulatory framework, implementation of an effective contingency plan, and capacity building of all relevant agencies. PMID:19178550

Mian, Saima; Bennett, Suzan

2009-07-01

23

Southern high-latitude terrestrial climate change during the Paleocene-Eocene derived from a marine pollen record (ODP Site 1172, East Tasman Plateau)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructing the early Paleogene climate dynamics of terrestrial settings in the high southern latitudes is important to assess the role of high-latitude physical and biogeochemical processes in the global climate system. However, whereas a number of high-quality Paleogene climate records has become available for the marine realm of the high southern latitudes over the recent past, the long-term evolution of coeval terrestrial climates and ecosystems is yet poorly known. We here explore the climate and vegetation dynamics on Tasmania from the middle Paleocene to the early Eocene (60.7-54.2 Ma) based on a sporomorph record from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1172 on the East Tasman Plateau. Our results show that three distinctly different vegetation types thrived on Tasmania under a high-precipitation regime during the middle Paleocene to early Eocene, with each type representing different temperature conditions: (i) warm-temperate forests dominated by gymnosperms that were dominant during the middle and late Paleocene; (ii) cool-temperate forests dominated by southern beech (Nothofagus) and araucarians across the middle/late Paleocene transition interval (~59.5 to ~59.0 Ma); and (iii) paratropical forests rich in ferns that were established during and in the wake of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The transient establishment of cool-temperate forests lacking any frost-sensitive elements (i.e., palms and cycads) across the middle/late Paleocene transition interval indicates markedly cooler conditions, with the occurrence of frosts in winter, on Tasmania during that time. The integration of our sporomorph data with previously published TEX86-based sea-surface temperatures from ODP Site 1172 documents that the vegetation dynamics on Tasmania were closely linked with the temperature evolution in the Tasman sector of the Southwest Pacific region. Moreover, the comparison of our season-specific climate estimates for the sporomorph assemblages from ODP Site 1172 with the TEX86L- and TEX86H-based temperature data suggests a warm-season bias of both calibrations for the early Paleogene of the high southern latitudes.

Contreras, L.; Pross, J.; Bijl, P. K.; O'Hara, R. B.; Raine, J. I.; Sluijs, A.; Brinkhuis, H.

2014-01-01

24

Trace element and ?DDT concentrations in horticultural soils from the Tasman, Waikato and Auckland regions of New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term routine use of agrichemicals can result in elevated levels of trace elements and persistent organic pollutants in soils. Trace element concentrations and ?DDT levels were measured in soil (0–7.5 cm) samples collected from horticultural and grazing properties in 3 regions of New Zealand (Auckland, Tasman and Waikato). Elevated levels of arsenic (<2 to 58 mg kg?1), cadmium (<0.1

S. K. Gaw; A. L. Wilkins; N. D. Kim; G. T. Palmer; P. Robinson

2006-01-01

25

The Cretaceous/Paleogene Transition on the East Tasman Plateau, Southwestern Pacific  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ocean Drilling Program Leg 189 recovered a potentially complete shallow marine record of the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (KPB) at Site 1172 on the East Tasman Plateau. Here we present high-resolution (cm-scale) data from micropaleontology, geochemistry, sedimentology, and paleomagnetism that provide no evidence for a complete KPB, but instead suggest a boundary-spanning hiatus of at least 0.8 Ma. We interpret this hiatus to represent the sequence boundary between the uppermost Maastrichtian Tal.1 and lowermost Danian Ta1.2/ Da- 1 3rd-order sequence stratigraphic cycles. Microfloral assemblages indicate generally shallow paleodepths, restricted circulation, and eutrophic conditions through the section. Paleodepths progressively shallow through the late Maastrichtian, while more oceanic and warmer conditions dominate the early Danian. The Site 1172 KPB section is broadly comparable to other southern highlatitude sections in Antarctica and New Zealand, but appears to record a shallower and more restricted environment that permitted a eustatically-driven hiatus across the KPB mass extinction event.

Schellenberg, Stephen A.; Brinkhuis, Henk; Stickley, Catherine E.; Fuller, Michael; Kyte, Frank T.; Williams, Graham L.

2004-01-01

26

Late Quaternary palaeoceanography of the Circumpolar Deep Water from the South Tasman Rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use sediment cores from the South Tasman Rise (STR) to reconstruct deep- water circulation in the southwest Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. Sediment cores MD972106 (45° 09 S, 146° 17 E, 3310 m water depth) and GC34 (45° 06 S, 147° 45 E, 4002 m water depth) preserve records covering the last 160 k yr, with chronology controlled by calibrated accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates and benthic foraminiferal 18O tied to SPECMAP. The STR benthic foraminiferal 13C records provide new 13C values for Southern Ocean deep water spanning the last 160 k yr at sites unlikely to be affected by variations in productivity. The records establish that glacial benthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides spp.) ?13C values are lower relative to interglacial values and are comparable to previous glacial benthic ?13C records in the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean. Comparisons of the benthic foraminiferal ?13C time series at the STR are made with the equatorial Pacific (V19-30 and Site 846) and the equatorial Atlantic (GeoB1115). The similarity of benthic ?13C records at the STR to the equatorial Pacific suggest the Southern Ocean deep-water mass closely tracked those of the deep Pacific, and the presence of a ?13C gradient between the STR and the equatorial Atlantic suggests there was continual production of northern source deep water over the past 160 k yr. Copyright

Moy, Andrew D.; Howard, William R.; Gagan, Michael K.

2006-10-01

27

Late Cretaceous to Oligocene Geological History of the East Tasman Plateau, a Key Piece of the Tasmanian Gateway Story  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fairly complete Maastrichtian to Holocene marine sequence 776 m thick was drilled at ODP Site 1172 on the East Tasman Plateau. The ETP is a continental fragment that rifted from the adjacent parts of Gondwana (Tasmania, South Tasman Rise and Lord Howe Rise) in the Late Cretaceous and became part of the southwest margin of the proto-Pacific. However, rapid subsidence started only in the late Eocene. The ETP lies just east of the Tasmanian Gateway that formed as Australia and Antarctica separated in the Paleogene, so Site 1172 was ideally located to monitor the effects of its opening. Slow detrital sedimentation (averaging 1.3 cm/ka) persisted until the latest Eocene in this area east of the subsiding `land bridge' (Tasmania and the South Tasman Rise) connecting Australia and Antarctica. When the South Tasman Rise separated from Antarctica at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (33.5 Ma), the Tasmanian Gateway opened, currents first connected the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and pelagic carbonate sedimentation commenced. At Site 1172, dinocysts, spores and pollen dominate the Maastrichtian through middle Eocene microfossil assemblages, diatoms become abundant in the middle Eocene, and calcareous nannofossils and planktonic foraminifers dominate the Oligocene. The sequences provide evidence of a complex interplay of tectonics, paleoceanography including the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and Antarctic cooling and glaciation. The ETP moved northward with Australia, from 65§S in the Late Cretaceous to 60§S in the early Oligocene. At Site 1172, during the Maastrichtian and Paleocene (70-55 Ma) shallow marine mudstone was deposited in reducing conditions, while the onshore climate was humid and seasonally cool and supported a conifer forest. Much of the Paleocene is missing. Cool oceanic conditions characterised the Eocene (dinocysts represent the `Transantarctic Flora'). The early and middle Eocene (55-37 Ma) was marked by slow subsidence, a thick sequence of shallow marine mudstone deposited in increasingly open shelf conditions, and a uniformly wet and cool onshore climate with angiosperms. There was faster subsidence in the late Eocene (37-33.5 Ma), marine shelf mudstone gave way to glauconitic bathyal siltstone as the land bridge between the Indian and Pacific Oceans subsided and strong currents caused condensed sedimentation, and the climate cooled. When the Tasmanian Gateway finally opened at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, strong currents led to a brief hiatus. Rapid Oligocene subsidence allowed deposition of bathyal chalk and the onset of Antarctic glaciation led to cooling.

Exon, N. F.

2003-12-01

28

Trans-Tasman Sea climate variability since ad 1740 inferred from middle to high latitude tree-ring data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limited length and spatial coverage of instrumental climate data for many areas of the Southern Hemisphere impedes the\\u000a study of atmosphere-ocean dynamics prior to the past century. Such analyses are important for understanding interannual to\\u000a decadal variation of the Southern Hemisphere circulation and whether recent changes are related to anthropogenic effects rather\\u000a than natural variability. We use a middle-

R. D'Arrigo; E. Cook; R. Villalba; B. Buckley; J. Salinger; J. Palmer; K. Allen

2000-01-01

29

ENSO to multi-decadal time scale changes in East Australian Current transports and Fort Denison sea level: Oceanic Rossby waves as the connecting mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The connection between East Australian Current (EAC) transport variability and Australia's east coast sea level has received little treatment in the literature. This is due in part to the complex interacting physical processes operating in the coastal zone combined with the sparsity of observations available to improve our understanding of these possible connections. This study demonstrates a statistically significant (at the >90% level) relationship between interannual to decadal time scale variations in observed estimates of the EAC transport changes and east coast sea level measured at the high-quality, long record Fort Denison tide-gauge in Sydney Harbour, Australia (33°51'18?S, 151°13'32?E). We further demonstrate, using a linear reduced-gravity ocean model, that ENSO to decadal time-scale variations and the ocean-adjusted multi-decadal trend (approx. 1 cm/decade) in observed sea level at Fort Denison are strongly connected to modulations of EAC transports by incoming westward propagating oceanic Rossby waves. We show that EAC transport and Fort Denison sea level vary in a manner expected from both Tasman Sea generated Rossby waves, which account for the interannual and multi-annual variability, and remotely forced (from east of New Zealand) Rossby wave connections through the mid-latitudes, accounting for the ocean-adjusted multi-decadal trend observed at the New South Wales coast - with the regional-Tasman Sea forcing explaining the greatest overall proportion of EAC transport and sea-level variances.

Holbrook, Neil J.; Goodwin, Ian D.; McGregor, Shayne; Molina, Ernesto; Power, Scott B.

2011-03-01

30

Mean circulation of the Coral Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mean absolute geostrophic circulation of the Coral Sea is constructed from climatological hydrographic data referenced to a 1000 m velocity field derived from Argo float drift. Two branches of the South Equatorial Current (SEC) enter the Coral Sea between New Caledonia and the Solomon Islands: the broad, upper thermocline North Vanuatu Jet (NVJ), and the narrow North Caledonian Jet (NCJ) extending to at least 1500 m. Most of this incoming flow leaves to the Solomon Sea. Four distinct pathways through the Coral Sea are traced by their water properties: (1) The NCJ crosses the Sea to the coast of Australia and turns north at densities sigma 25-27.4 as the main source of the Gulf of Papua (GPC) western boundary current, eventually feeding the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent; (2) part of the shallow NVJ turns into the Solomon Sea in midbasin, carrying high-salinity water above sigma 25.5; (3) another part of the NVJ continues to Australia, then turns north to join the GPC, extending it to the surface; (4) a shallow finger of NVJ water, traced by low oxygen above sigma 25, turns south along the coast, beginning the East Australian Current (EAC) at 15°S. Total transport from the Coral to the Tasman Sea is small and shallow; instead, most of the EAC is fed from south of New Caledonia, consistent with the Island Rule. However, large transport fractions occur in narrow jets close to coastlines and reefs and are not well sampled, precluding a quantitative estimate of meridional redistribution of the incoming SEC.

Kessler, William S.; Cravatte, Sophie

2013-12-01

31

Measuring the Climate Pulse of the Late Early Eocene and Middle Eocene Hothouse World (51-42 Ma): New Results From ODP Leg 189 Hole 1171D, South Tasman Rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution grain size record coupled with spectral analysis of down hole data developed for the interval between 690 and 410 mbsf (51 - 42 Ma) from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1171 show that pervasive cyclicity occurs at both the million-year timescale, which correlates well with sequence boundaries, and at the 104 to 105 year timescale, for sedimentary cycles that occur within the sequences. Site 1171 contains an exceptional archive of Early to Middle Eocene strata that include excellent recovery (91.4%) and a high-resolution chronostratigraphic framework using bio- and magneto-stratigraphy. Site 1171 was drilled on the southern side of the South Tasman Rise (STR) at 48° 30? S latitude. However, during the Early to Middle Eocene, the STR was located near the coast of Antarctica, with Site 1171 located at 70° to 66° S paleo-latitude, making it the most southerly site with excellent core recovery and good preservation of foraminifers for this time. Previous work developed a sequence stratigraphic framework based on an integrated approach using lithofacies and biofacies to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and water depths. Sequence boundaries were interpreted to represent water-depth decreases, which were correlated to other stratigraphic records and to deep-sea ?18O records. Excellent agreement between sequence boundary ages from different sites as well as to ?18O increases indicate that these sea-level lowerings were global in nature and were interpreted to represent growth of small ephemeral ice sheets on the Antarctic continent. Grain size analysis shows that muds dominated the lithology, typically representing over 90% of the sediments. This suggests that water depths were typically near or below storm wave base. This is consistent with an inner to outer neritic environment based on the foraminiferal biofacies. Taken together, these two data sets suggest a shallow wave base at Site 1171 during the Eocene. Sequence boundaries dated at 49.3, 47.1, and 44.5 Ma correlate to times when both low-amplitude variance in obliquity (nodes) and ~2.4 Myr eccentricity minimum occurred. Two other sequences boundaries contain significant hiatuses (48.5-47.8 Ma and 50.8-50.0 Ma) and therefore cannot be precisely correlated to Milankovitch cycles. Sequence boundaries did not form when obliquity nodes occurred in the absence of eccentricity minimum or when the variance was relatively large for these nodes. Additionally, a sequence boundary at 42.8 Ma occurred during a 2.4 Myr eccentricity minimum. Taken together ice sheet growth in Antarctica occurred during extended periods (~200 kyr) of low variance in summer insolation at 65°S owing to 2.4 Myr eccentricity minima and in most cases also to 1.2 Myr obliquity cycle. At shorter timescales, the lithologic patterns appear to be closely linked with the precessional and eccentricity Milankovitch cycles, with obliquity cycles being subdominant. This suggests paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic changes on the STR and the adjacent Antarctic coast were controlled by changes at the lower-latitudes.

Ferrantelli-McDonald, N. L.; Pekar, S. F.

2012-12-01

32

Tracking surface water mass movements in the Southwest Pacific for the last 5,000 years: Perspectives from deep-sea corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current understanding of present-day natural climate variability can be improved by obtaining a good baseline through investigating past variability during the Holocene (11,500 cal yr B.P. to the present). In particular, changes in marine reservoir radiocarbon ages through the Holocene can provide information on regional ocean circulation. In the southwest Pacific, little is known about the variability of reservoir ages during this period. This limits efforts to reconstruct Southern Hemisphere Ocean and atmospheric circulation over this period. Here we present mid- to late-Holocene reservoir ages for the southwest Pacific. Reservoir ages were calculated using coupled uranium series (MC ICPMS) and radiocarbon (AMS) measurements on deep-sea (200 - 1000m) black coral (Anthozoa, Antipatharia) collected live from the Tasman Sea. Black corals have enormous potential as environmental archives to provide valuable long-term, high-resolution records. We confirm that black corals are slow growing (typical radial growth rate is 0.005 mm/yr) and extremely long-lived (maximum age 5,823 × 41 years), making them excellent candidates for proxies to extend environmental records into the Holocene. Our results also indicate comparatively lower reservoir ages for the mid-Holocene than present day for the south Tasman Sea. The lower reservoir ages in the mid-Holocene reflect a greater influx of well-equilibrated warm water of sub-tropical origin into this region, as well as increased stratification. During the late Holocene in the north Tasman, the average reservoir age between 1790 and 1900 was ˜330 years, followed by a steep decrease over time of about 70 years to 1950 AD (our most modern value). This indicates an increase in surface ocean ventilation of water masses in this region. These results are consistent with observational and modeling studies for the last century, which show significant changes in regional circulation and suggest these changes started as early as the 17th century.

Komugabe, A. F.; Fallon, S.; Thresher, R.; Eggins, S. M.

2013-12-01

33

The early Eocene in the Southern Ocean; an integrated dinocyst and geochemical analysis of ODP Leg 189 sites 1171 and 1172, Tasman Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early Eocene is known as the warmest and most extreme long-term greenhouse interval of the Cenozoic. Superimposed on these conditions, short-lived 'hyperthermal' events, apparently caused by the fast input of carbon in the ocean-atmosphere system, are associated with dramatic changes in ocean chemistry, the global hydrological cycle and bio-provincialism and evolution. The `Paleocene\\/Eocene Thermal Maximum' or PETM event (55

R. Deltrap; U. Roehl; H. Brinkhuis; A. Sluijs

2004-01-01

34

Introduction of online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer through a multicentre clinical trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 10.01): Lessons learned.  

PubMed

Online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer is a novel radiotherapy technique that was found feasible in a pilot study at a single academic institution. In September 2010 this technique was opened as a multicenter study through the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 10.01 bladder online adaptive radiotherapy treatment). Twelve centers across Australia and New-Zealand registered interest into the trial. A multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, radiation therapists and medical physicists represented the trial credentialing and technical support team. To provide timely activation and proper implementation of the adaptive technique the following key areas were addressed at each site: Staff education/training; Practical image guided radiotherapy assessment; provision of help desk and feedback. The trial credentialing process involved face-to-face training and technical problem solving via full day site visits. A dedicated "help-desk" team was developed to provide support for the clinical trial. 26% of the workload occurred at the credentialing period while the remaining 74% came post-center activation. The workload was made up of the following key areas; protocol clarification (36%), technical problems (46%) while staff training was less than 10%. Clinical trial credentialing is important to minimizing trial deviations. It should not only focus on site activation quality assurance but also provide ongoing education and technical support. PMID:23776308

Pham, Daniel; Roxby, Paul; Kron, Tomas; Rolfo, Aldo; Foroudi, Farshad

2013-04-01

35

Introduction of online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer through a multicentre clinical trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 10.01): Lessons learned  

PubMed Central

Online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer is a novel radiotherapy technique that was found feasible in a pilot study at a single academic institution. In September 2010 this technique was opened as a multicenter study through the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 10.01 bladder online adaptive radiotherapy treatment). Twelve centers across Australia and New-Zealand registered interest into the trial. A multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, radiation therapists and medical physicists represented the trial credentialing and technical support team. To provide timely activation and proper implementation of the adaptive technique the following key areas were addressed at each site: Staff education/training; Practical image guided radiotherapy assessment; provision of help desk and feedback. The trial credentialing process involved face-to-face training and technical problem solving via full day site visits. A dedicated “help-desk” team was developed to provide support for the clinical trial. 26% of the workload occurred at the credentialing period while the remaining 74% came post-center activation. The workload was made up of the following key areas; protocol clarification (36%), technical problems (46%) while staff training was less than 10%. Clinical trial credentialing is important to minimizing trial deviations. It should not only focus on site activation quality assurance but also provide ongoing education and technical support.

Pham, Daniel; Roxby, Paul; Kron, Tomas; Rolfo, Aldo; Foroudi, Farshad

2013-01-01

36

Sea Education Association (SEA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sea Education Association (SEA) in Woods Hole, MA provides undergraduates with an opportunity to participate in an academic study-abroad program called the SEA Semester. The program combines intensive research in the areas of oceanography, maritime studies, and nautical science with hands-on experience aboard a traditional sailing ship. Piloting, celestial navigation, and practical seamanship are learned together with oceanographic sampling techniques and marine laboratory procedures. Critical thinking, problem-solving, team-building and leadership skills are emphasized throughout the program. SEA Semester is appropriate for students in marine biology, geology and physical science, environmental studies, American studies, and most other areas within the liberal arts and sciences. Academic credit for SEA Semester is obtained through Boston University.

37

Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea World informational resource on all eight species of sea turtles. Excellent introduction to sea turtles including information on their classification, habitat, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout. Features two teaching activities for grades K-2.

38

Sea urchin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sea urchin is a type of echinoderm. It is a consumer because it cannot make its own food and must eat other organisms to get energy. Sea urchins are omnivores, meaning they eat both plants and other animals to gain energy. Sea urchins have been known to eat algae, mussels, and sponges.

N/A N/A (NOAA;Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary)

2004-12-23

39

Red Sea  

article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

2013-04-16

40

Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Malaysia there is an island known for more sea turtles than virtually anywhere on Earth. In this video, Jonathan visits this amazing ecosystem to learn about the life cycle of sea turtles. He is surprised to discover an amazingly complex and competitive environment. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-03-29

41

Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem provides an opportunity to increase familiarity with negative and positive numbers on a number line. The vertical number line is presented as black markings every one meter all the way up a lighthouse and on the underwater support going down to the sea bed, with sea level being "0". In answering the nine questions, children begin to calculate with negative numbers in the context of the distances between the sea creatures. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and a link to a related resource, Swimming Pool (cataloged separately).

2008-01-01

42

A Paired, Double-Blind, Randomized Comparison of a Moisturizing Durable Barrier Cream to 10% Glycerine Cream in the Prophylactic Management of Postmastectomy Irradiation Skin Care: Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 04.01  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A previous, unblinded study demonstrated that an alcohol-free barrier film containing an acrylate terpolymer (ATP) was effective in reducing skin reactions compared with a 10% glycerine cream (sorbolene). The different appearances of these products precluded a blinded comparison. To test the acrylate terpolymer principle in a double-blinded manner required the use of an alternative cream formulation, a moisturizing durable barrier cream (MDBC); the study was conducted by the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) as protocol 04.01. Methods and Materials: A total of 333 patients were randomized; 1 patient was ineligible and 14 patients withdrew or had less than 7 weeks' observations, leaving 318 for analysis. The chest wall was divided into medial and lateral compartments, and patients were randomized to have MDBC applied daily to the medial or lateral compartment and sorbolene to the other compartment. Weekly observations, photographs, and symptom scores (pain and pruritus) were collected to week 12 or resolution of skin reactions if earlier. Skin dose was confirmed by centrally calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters. Results: Rates of medial and lateral compartment Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), version 3, greater than or equal to grade 3 skin reactions were 23% and 41%, but rates by skin care product were identical at 32%. There was no significant difference between MDBC and sorbolene in the primary endpoint of peak skin reactions or secondary endpoints of area-under-the-curve skin reaction scores. Conclusions: The MDBC did not reduce the peak skin reaction compared to sorbolene. It is possible that this is related to the difference in the formulation of the cream compared with the film formulation. Skin dosimetry verification and double blinding are essential for radiation skin care comparative studies.

Graham, Peter H., E-mail: peter.graham@sesiahs.health.nsw.gov.au [Cancer Care Centre, St. George Hospital, Kogarah, New South Wales (Australia); Plant, Natalie; Graham, Jennifer L.; Browne, Lois [Cancer Care Centre, St. George Hospital, Kogarah, New South Wales (Australia)] [Cancer Care Centre, St. George Hospital, Kogarah, New South Wales (Australia); Borg, Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia); Capp, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mater Hospital, Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mater Hospital, Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia); Delaney, Geoff P. [Cancer Care Centre, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia)] [Cancer Care Centre, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Harvey, Jennifer [Mater Hospital, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)] [Mater Hospital, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Kenny, Lisbeth [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia)] [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Francis, Michael [Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Geelong (Australia)] [Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Geelong (Australia); Zissiadis, Yvonne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth (Australia)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth (Australia)

2013-05-01

43

Savage Seas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion site to the new PBS series offers a collection of informative pieces and activities centered around the world's oceans. The site is divided into four principal sections, each of which features an article, brief sidebars, video clips, and in some cases, animations. The first, The Captain's Bridge, explores shipwrecks, stormy seas, and ocean rescues. The second, The Crow's Nest, dives into the power of waves. The Deep Sea section takes users to the nether regions of the ocean, while The Weather Factory touches on cyclones, ice and icebergs, and El Nino. Additional features at the site include Ask the Expert, Facts from the Sea, an annotated collection of related sites, and information about the series.

44

Black Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.

2002-01-01

45

Sea Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

2013-01-01

46

Acute toxicity and cost analysis of a phase III randomized trial of accelerated and conventional radiotherapy for squamous carcinoma of the head and neck: a Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group study.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of the present analysis was to assess the feasibility and acute toxicity of a pure accelerated fractionation regimen in a cooperative group setting. This analysis included the first 320 patients entered on to the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) randomized controlled trial which compared accelerated radiotherapy (ART) with conventional radiotherapy (CRT) in stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck. Patients were randomized to either 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions over 24 days (ART) or to 70 Gy 35 fractions over 49 days (CRT) after being stratified for site and stage. Accrual began in 1991 and the trial was closed on 3 April 1998 with the targeted 350 patients. The 3-year survival for the whole group was 54%, and the 3-year disease-free survival was 41%. Toxicity data were available on 303 patients (148 ART; 155 CRT). Mucosal toxicity was worse in the accelerated arm, and it peaked approximately 3 weeks earlier than the conventional arm. Skin toxicity was equivalent but occurred approximately 7 days earlier in the accelerated arm. Acute effects in both arms healed completely. Hospitalization was more common in the ART arm (71 vs 52 patients; P = 0.01) but the total bed days in hospital was not greatly different (1707 bed days for ART and 1607 bed days for CRT). Patients were more likely to require nasogastric (NG) feeding in the ART arm (49 vs 33 patients; P = 0.02). There were 1157 NG feeding days for ART and 1154 NG feeding days for CRT. The average cost of radiation treatment per patient including hospitalization, NG feeding and accommodation was $11,750 in the ART arm and $11,587 in the CRT arm. The accelerated arm has been shown to be a tolerable, practical and cost-equivalent regimen. The assessment of the therapeutic ratio of this accelerated protocol (ART) will be determined when the analysis of late effects and loco-regional control is made when the data are more mature. PMID:10901965

Poulsen, M; Denham, J; Spry, N; Lamb, D; Peters, L; Krawitz, H; Penniment, M; Williamson, S; Tripcony, L

1999-11-01

47

Ancient divergence in the trans-oceanic deep-sea shark Centroscymnus crepidater.  

PubMed

Unravelling the genetic structure and phylogeographic patterns of deep-sea sharks is particularly challenging given the inherent difficulty in obtaining samples. The deep-sea shark Centroscymnus crepidater is a medium-sized benthopelagic species that exhibits a circumglobal distribution occurring both in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. Contrary to the wealth of phylogeographic studies focused on coastal sharks, the genetic structure of bathyal species remains largely unexplored. We used a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region, and microsatellite data, to examine genetic structure in C. crepidater collected from the Atlantic Ocean, Tasman Sea, and southern Pacific Ocean (Chatham Rise). Two deeply divergent (3.1%) mtDNA clades were recovered, with one clade including both Atlantic and Pacific specimens, and the other composed of Atlantic samples with a single specimen from the Pacific (Chatham Rise). Bayesian analyses estimated this splitting in the Miocene at about 15 million years ago. The ancestral C. crepidater lineage was probably widely distributed in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. The oceanic cooling observed during the Miocene due to an Antarctic glaciation and the Tethys closure caused changes in environmental conditions that presumably restricted gene flow between basins. Fluctuations in food resources in the Southern Ocean might have promoted the dispersal of C. crepidater throughout the northern Atlantic where habitat conditions were more suitable during the Miocene. The significant genetic structure revealed by microsatellite data suggests the existence of present-day barriers to gene flow between the Atlantic and Pacific populations most likely due to the influence of the Agulhas Current retroflection on prey movements. PMID:23145122

Cunha, Regina L; Coscia, Ilaria; Madeira, Celine; Mariani, Stefano; Stefanni, Sergio; Castilho, Rita

2012-01-01

48

Sea World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an excellent resource for information and teaching activities on marine life, designed primarily for elementary level. Teachers can sign up for a monthly e-newsletter (or access archived newsletters) filled with classroom activities, current information, and special links. Also features a searchable database of Sea World education materials and information on camps, marine science careers, and Shamu TV, an award-winning series broadcast around the country via satellite and cable.

2012-09-07

49

A Critical Evaluation of High TEX86-derived Sea Surface Temperatures from the Early Eocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) based sea surface temperature proxies (eg TEX-86) has brought about major advances in our understanding of Cenozoic climate. However, TEX-86 approaches yield high temperatures at high latitudes during the EECO, and the resulting low latitudinal temperature gradients challenge our understanding of the physical climate system. We examine existing Paleogene TEX-86 data using three approaches. First, we have compared TEX-86 SST estimates to those derived from oxygen isotopes or Mg/Ca ratios of co-occurring well-preserved planktonic foraminifera. This reveals a strong correlation between foraminiferal SSTs and those obtained from linear TEX-86 calibrations, but the latter are systematically 4-6°C warmer. SSTs derived from non-linear TEX-86 calibrations are similar to inorganic SST estimates at high temperatures, but an offset still persists at lower temperatures. We have also compared TEX-86 SST estimates from marginal settings to associated continental mean air temperatures (MAT) derived from soil bacterial GDGTs (the MBT/CBT index). Again, the two approaches exhibit a strong correlation but with the former yielding 4-6°C warmer temperatures. Second, we have developed SST records from New Zealand, in order to place the EECO SSTs into a longer-term Paleogene context. Our temperature estimates indicate that sea floor and sea surface temperatures increased by ~10°C from late Paleocene to early Eocene times. Late Paleocene TEX-86-derived SSTs for the Canterbury Basin range from 18 to 23°C, consistent with coeval TEX-86 records from the Campbell Plateau and south Tasman Sea. During the EECO, TEX-86 derived SSTs from the Canterbury Basin and south Tasman Sea indicate tropical conditions, with temperatures peaking at 30-32°C at 50 Ma and then declining to 24-26°C into the Middle Eocene. MBT/CBT-derived MATs broadly parallel the SST trends, albeit with slightly lower values. These records suggest that elevated high southern latitude SSTs are reproducible at multiple sites and do document the relative long-term Paleogene climate evolution recorded by benthic foraminifera and inferred from faunal and floral assemblages. Combined, these two lines of evidence indicate that high latitude EECO temperatures were indeed significantly higher than those of today, but they also suggest that the specific estimates could be as much as 4-6°C too warm. There are multiple explanations for this, but one possibility is an oceanographic and/or ecological control on the GDGT assemblages exported to sediments. To explore this, we have directly examined the entirety of the NZ GDGT distributions. This approach indicates that high southern latitude GDGT distributions from the EECO are similar to those from the tropics today, providing further evidence for elevated temperatures. However, Paleocene sediments with markedly different GDGT distributions yield similar TEX-86 SSTs, due to the multi-component nature of the proxy. Thus, interpretations derived from GDGT distributions should be done cautiously and take into account the oceanographic context of the study site.

Pancost, R. D.; Taylor, K. W.; Handley, L.; Huber, M.; Hollis, C. J.

2011-12-01

50

Sea Cucumbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What reef animal comes in a rainbow of crazy colors, can throw out its innards to immobilize predators, then creep away and regrow a brand-new stomach? Itâs the sea cucumber, prized as a gastronomic delight by some cultures and beginning to yield some of its secrets to scientists. Follow host Ari Daniel Shapiro from a Chinatown market to the reefs of Fiji to learn more about this amazing creature. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

51

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS sea otter researcher Tim Tinker drives the boat on an expedition to track and observe sea otters in Monterey Bay, California. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

52

Mammals of the Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

53

Studying Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Sea otter researcher Michelle Staedler, of the Monterey Bay Aquarium, records sea otter behavior in her logbook as part of a study with the USGS and the University of California at Santa Cruz on sea otter behavior. ...

54

Sea Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

2005-01-01

55

Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures.  

PubMed

Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10-17 °C (1? SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ?7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands. PMID:24753570

Douglas, Peter M J; Affek, Hagit P; Ivany, Linda C; Houben, Alexander J P; Sijp, Willem P; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

2014-05-01

56

Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…

McCutcheon, Heather

2011-01-01

57

The Baltic Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Baltic Sea is one of the largest internal seas in Europe. The Baltic's significance in the history of our Motherland is great. The following questions are presented in the brochure: A political map of the Baltic Sea, NATO and the Baltic Sea; the strug...

L. P. Altman

1971-01-01

58

Beaufort Sea: information update  

SciTech Connect

The report is based on a multi-disciplinary meeting held March 6-7, 1985, as part of preparations for the Beaufort Sea Sale 97. The chapters are based on presentations given: The causeway effect: Modification of nearshore thermal regime resulting from causeways; Summertime sea ice intrusions in the Chukchi Sea; The deepwater limit of ice gouging on the Beaufort Sea shelf; Distribution, abundance, migration, harvest, and stock identity of Belukha Whales in the Beaufort Sea; Ringed seals in the Beaufort Sea; Beaufort Sea socioeconomics; The Baffin Island Oil Spill, (BIOS) Project.

Becker, P.R.

1988-04-01

59

Plate-tectonic setting of the Tasmanian region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Tasman Rise is a large submarine plateau of continental origin, located south of Tasmania. In the light of satellite?derived gravity data and shipboard swath?bathymetry and magnetic data collected in 1994 in the South Tasman Rise region, this paper re?examines the sea?floor spreading history of the surrounding ocean basins (northeastern Australian?Antarctic Basin and southwestern Tasman Sea). This information is

N. Rollet

1997-01-01

60

Sea Turtle Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Caribbean Conservation Corporation (CCC) was founded in 1959 by sea turtle champions such as ecologist Dr. Archie Carr, who served as the CCC's Scientific Director for nearly three decades. As the oldest sea turtle organization on the globe, the CCC "works to enact protective laws and establish refuges for the preservation of sea turtle habitats and coastal environments." The CCC created the Sea Turtle Survival League (STSL) in 1993 "as a public education and advocacy program to begin addressing the threats that face U.S. sea turtle populations." The CCC & STSL website contains information about a number of sea turtle programs and projects, tracking sea turtles, different sea turtle species, and ways to become a sea turtle conservationist. CCC also offers a public discussion board, a variety of downloadable publications (including activities for kids), and a collection of related links.

61

Sea Surface Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can search for and view sea surface temperature imagery. They may choose from the latest image, or browse archived imagery that dates back approximately two weeks. Links to other sea surface temperature datasets are included.

1999-10-30

62

Sea Turtle Populations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will model how a sea turtle population changes over time, from eggs to adults, using puffed rice. Learners create a chart, calculate population fluctuation for each transitional stage of sea turtles' lives, and graph the population at each stage. Learners investigate different factors including migration and human fishing that affect the size of the sea turtle population. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Sea Turtles.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

63

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Sea otter researchers Michelle Staedler, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and Tim Tinker, USGS, work together to locate sea otters in their study project. USGS scientists and their partners study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

64

Deep-Sea Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will learn about special vehicles used in recent Black Sea research and the theory that the Black Sea during the Ice Age was an isolated freshwater lake surrounded by farmland that was eventually flooded. Students will describe the purpose of the research vehicles by writing newspaper articles pretending they have just returned from the Black Sea expedition.

65

All That Unplowed Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hunting and gathering at sea may fast be approaching their productive limits. Aquaculture - farming at sea - linked to conservation represents the sea's promise. If the system works, it might prove to be the key to supplying large amounts of food and fresh water at no cost in nonrenewable energy resources. (BT)

MOSAIC, 1975

1975-01-01

66

Sea Education Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Headquartered in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, SEA offers a variety of science programs at sea for high school and college students. Site features information on the vessels, the crew, current voyages, admissions information, and a wealth of photographs from past expeditions. Also includes a section where you can track the progress of the SEA boats and hear daily, and archived, audio reports.

67

NOAA Sea Level Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NOAA Sea Level Trends map illustrates U.S. regional and some international trends in sea level, with arrows representing the direction and magnitude of change. Students can investigate sea level changes around the U.S. and some worldwide using an interactive map interface with supporting data plots and tables.

Center For Operational Oceanographic Products And Services, Noaa

68

Aerial dispersal of biological material from Australia to New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Zealand lies 2000 km across the Tasman Sea, southeast of Australia, in the path of prevailing westerly winds and thus is well sited for studies of long distance dispersal. The aerial transfer of biological material across the Tasman Sea from Australia to New Zealand is not well documented and evidence for this is reviewed. Plant Pathogens: Regular surveys have

R. C. Close; N. T. Moar; A. I. Tomlinson; A. D. Lowe

1978-01-01

69

Sea level changes  

SciTech Connect

The paper develops an approach to the issues relating to sea level change that will assist the non-scientist and the applied scientist in making the most effective use of our existing and developing knowledge. The human perception of ''sea level'' and how that changes as societies change and develop are discussed. After some practical perspectives on the relationships between societies and sea levels are developed, an approach to developing the best available local prediction of sea level changes is outlined, and finally present knowledge and uncertainties about the future course of events that will influence ''sea level'' as defined in the practical sense is discussed.

Buddemeier, R.W.

1987-08-21

70

Dust Storm, Aral Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

2002-01-01

71

Preliminary results of the cruise dedicated to the bifurcation of the North Caledonian Jet onto the Queensland Plateau in the Coral Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, we intend to detail preliminary results and observations collected during the BIRFURCATION cruise, staged on board the R/V Alis of the IRD and operated under the auspices of SPICE (Southwest PacIfic Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment). A specific effort during SPICE was made to establish an observational program to survey air-sea fluxes and currents in the Coral, Solomon, and Tasman Seas, and their inflows and outflows, with special attention to the strong boundary currents. During its transit into the Coral Sea, the southern branch of the Southern Equatorial Current is affected by the presence of many reefs and small islands of a coral archipelago that cause it to form intense fine-scale oceanic jets downstream of these topographic obstacles. The North Caledonian Jet formed at its entry into the Coral Sea is further separated into flows towards the South (feeding the East Australian Current) and towards the equator (through the Solomon Sea). The obstacle responsible for this separation is the plateau of Queensland, near 17°S-152°E, which is composed of a group of small islands and coral reefs that are distinct from the Great Barrier Reef. The precise pathways and the relative contributions of the various water masses that arrive at the base of this plateau are still unknown and represent the focus of BIFURCATION. This cruise should thus supplement our vision of the circulation of the North Caledonian Jet within the Coral Sea, and make it possible to test to what extent this water contributes to the composition of the current at the western edge of the New Guinea UnderCurrent which feeds the equatorial band and whose climatological mass transport is estimated in the literature to vary by a factor of 2. By determining the characteristics of these water masses before their final arrival at the Australian coast it will also be possible to estimate to what extent they undergo further mixing with yet other water masses within the Coral and Solomon Seas before their arrival at the equator. Complementing the physical description, biogeochemical and biological samples would be collected in order to study the N2-fixing organisms that play a central role in providing nitrogen in support of primary productivity and the subsequent downward flux of organic matter to the deep ocean that serves to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Finally, all these results will become part of the description of climatic conditions prevailing in the Pacific Ocean.Rosette and ADCP instruments used in physical oceanography

Maes, C.; Marin, F.; Bonnet, S.; Desnues, A.; Finot, L.; Varillon, D.

2012-12-01

72

Variability of Sea Surface Circulation in the Japan Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite sea surface dynamic heights (CSSDH) are calculated from both sea surface dynamic heights that are derived from altimetric data of ERS-2 and mean sea surface that is calculated by a numerical model. The CSSDH are consistent with sea surface temperature obtained by satellite and observed water temperature. Assuming the geostrophic balance, sea surface current velocities are calculated. It is

Akihiko Morimoto; Tetsuo Yanagi

2001-01-01

73

Sea Ice Variability in the Bering Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bering Sea consists of a shallow continental shelf in the northeast and a deep basin in the southwest. Sea ice in the Bering Sea concentrating in the shelf region exhibits large seasonal and interannual variations, which significantly impact the local marine ecosystem. Understanding of the physical mechanisms governing this sea-ice variability, however, remains incomplete. To better understand regional sea-ice variability we use a fine resolution (1/10-degree) global ocean and sea-ice model and available observations. The simulation consists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and CICE models, and was run with Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiment (CORE2) interannually varying atmospheric forcing for 1970-1989. Here we analyze 1980-1989; the first 10 years are treated as the spin-up period. We examine the partitioning of the ice volume tendencies into thermodynamic and dynamic components, as well as corresponding surface atmospheric and oceanic variables, in order to understand the relationship between sea ice variability and varying atmospheric and oceanic conditions. Focusing on the seasonal cycle first, we find that sea ice is mainly formed in the northern Bering Sea with the maximum ice growth rate occurring along the coast. Winds cause sea ice to drift southwestward from the north to the western ice edge. Along the ice edge, ice is melted by warm waters carried by the Bering Slope Current, especially in the west in winter; while in fall and spring, basal melting of sea ice spreads into the interior of ice pack. The ice growth rate is larger in winter than in fall and spring. Ice transport from the north to the southwest becomes weaker in fall and spring than in winter. The Bering Sea is ice free in summer. Surface melting is insignificant in all seasons. The interannual variability of sea ice in the Bering Sea can be largely explained by thermodynamics on the large scale. The dynamic ice transport, however, is often important locally, especially around the ice margins with ocean and land. Local dynamic and thermodynamic ice volume changes usually have opposite signs with similar magnitudes, implying a negative feedback between them. Through the surface heat flux budget, we find that sensible heat flux dominates the surface heat exchange with the atmosphere, which controls the ice growth in the north. Ocean-ice heat flux largely determines the basal melting along the ice edge in the south. Through the force balance analysis, we find that the ice motion is in steady state on the monthly timescale. Ice velocity correlates well with the wind stress, which is nearly balanced by the opposite ocean stress. Internal ice stress is not substantial except near the land boundaries in the north.

Li, L.; Miller, A. J.; McClean, J.; Eisenman, I.; Hendershott, M.

2013-12-01

74

SeaWIFS Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWIFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor), a NASA project using satellites to collect ocean color data to quantify phytoplankton abundance. Provides background information on SeaWIFS project, technology and data. Teacher Resource section has: online presentation on how and why scientists study ocean color; Living Ocean Teacher's Guide with brief information on ocean color, carbon cycle and greenhouse gas effect; and, links to other websites with ocean color activities.

75

National Sea Grant Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Sea Grant Library (NSGL) is the digital library and official archive for NOAA Sea Grant documents. It is the only comprehensive collection of Sea Grant Âfunded documents from over 30 programs and projects across the country. This collection encompasses a wide variety of subjects, including oceanography, marine education, aquaculture, fisheries, aquatic nuisance species, coastal hazards, seafood safety, limnology, coastal zone management, marine recreation, and law.

76

Sea Turtle Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This packet includes background information, quick facts, links to additional sea turtle resources, and a classroom modeling activity that demonstrates population estimation, life history, and hatching success rates.

77

Red sea drillings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present - and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

Ross, D. A.; Whitmarsh, R. B.; Ali, S. A.; Boudreaux, J. E.; Coleman, R.; Fleisher, R. L.; Girdler, R.; Manheim, F.; Matter, A.; Nigrini, C.; Stoffers, P.; Supko, P. R.

1973-01-01

78

Getting Your Sea Legs  

PubMed Central

Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning.

Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoit G.

2013-01-01

79

Kara Sea radioactivity assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea

Iolanda Osvath; Pavel P Povinec; Murdoch S Baxter

1999-01-01

80

Tracking Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom activity introduces the biology of sea turtles, population status, human impacts. Focuses on Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), smallest and more endangered of sea turtle species. This teacher's guide provides NOAA tracking data and instructions for students to follow the migration routes of six turtles in the Gulf of Mexico. Links to related activities using satellite data.

81

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS wildlife biologist Alisha Kage holds out a VHF receiver, hoping to hear the tell-tale beep that helps her locate sea otters that are part of study to monitor and learn more about the species. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from nea...

82

Sea Level Changes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper develops an approach to the issues relating to sea level change that will assist the non-scientist and the applied scientist in making the most effective use of our existing and developing knowledge. The human perception of ''sea level'' and how...

R. W. Buddemeier

1987-01-01

83

Sea Anemone: Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several investigations can be undertaken with live sea anemones. A sea anemone's feeding response, fighting power, color, and symbiotic relationships to other invertebrates (such as a marine hermit crab) can be investigated in the high school classroom. Background information and laboratory procedures are provided. (Author/JN)

Hunt, John D.

1982-01-01

84

Spotting Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS wildlife biologist Alisha Kage looks through a telescope to help her locate and identify tagged sea otters, then records the otter's location for a study aimed at learning more about the species. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from...

85

Sea Level Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video and animations of sea level from NASA's Climate website. Since 1992, NASA and CNES have studied sea surface topography as a proxy for ocean temperatures. NASA Missions TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason 1 and Jason 2 have been useful in predicting major climate, weather, and geologic events including El Nino, La Nina, Hurricane Katrina, and the Indian Ocean Tsunami.

Jackson, Randall; Nasa, For

86

White Sea - Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

2002-01-01

87

Bering Sea Expedition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this investigation learners research the effects of melting sea ice in the Bering Sea Ecosystem. They create research proposals to earn a place on the scientific research vessel Healy and present their findings and proposals to a Research Board committee.

Curriculum, Alaska S.; Grant, Alaska S.

88

The deep sea oxygen isotopic record: Significance for tertiary global ice volume history, with emphasis on the latest Miocene/early Pliocene  

SciTech Connect

Planktonic and benthic isotopic records as well as carbonate sedimentation records extending from 6.1 to 4.1 Ma for eastern South Atlantic Holes 526A and 525B are presented. These data suggest ice volume variations about a constant mean sufficient to drive sea level between 10 m and 75 m below present. Isotopic records at the deeper (2500 m) site have been enriched by up to 0.5% by dissolution. Carbonate accumulation rates at both sites quadrupled at 4.6 Ma primarily because of increased production and, secondarily, decreased dissolution. The second part presents a Cenozoic-long composite {delta}{sup 18}O curve for tropical shallow-dwelling planktonic foraminifers and the benthic foraminifer Cibicides at 2-4 km depths. Surface {delta}{sup 18}O gradients between various low-and-mid latitude sites reflect: (1) widespread SST stability through the Cenozoic and (2) significant change in Tasman Sea SST through the Tertiary. Assuming average SST for tropical non-upwelling areas was constant, the planktonic composite suggest that global ice volume for the last 40 my has not been significantly less than today. Residual benthic {delta}{sup 18}O reflect relatively warm and saline deep water until the early Miocene after which time deep water progressively cooled. The third part presents {delta}{sup 18}O for Recent Orbulina universa from 44 core-tops distributed through the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The purpose was to test the hypothesis that Orbulina calcifies at constant temperature and so records only ice volume changes. Orbulina commonly calcifies at intermediate depths over a wide range of temperatures salinities, and densities. These physical factors are not the primary controls on the spatial and vertical distribution of Orbulina.

Prentice, M.L.

1988-01-01

89

Global sea level rise  

SciTech Connect

Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise appear to be in large part due to authors' using data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries, where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to postglacial rebound (PGR) from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling PGR by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1991) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. The value for mean sea level rise obtained from a global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 is 1.8 mm/yr {plus minus} 0.1. This result provides confidence that carefully selected long tide gauge records measure the same underlying trend of sea level and that many old tide gauge records are of very high quality.

Douglas, B.C. (NOAA, Rockville, MD (USA))

1991-04-15

90

Distribution of coccolithophores in marginal seas along the western Pacific Ocean and in the Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of coccolithophores was studied in the neritic environment along the western margin of the Pacific Ocean: the Inland Sea of Seto, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Java Sea, Timor Sea, Arafura Sea and Gulf of Carpentaria. The coccolithophore community in the Red Sea was also studied for comparison with the Pacific marginal seas. With minor

H. Okada; S. Honjo

1975-01-01

91

Is the Sea Level?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video-based activity, students learn that sea level is an average measurement of the height of the ocean, and sea level changes with the seasons and over time. El Niño and La Ninña events are compared, demonstrating that sea height is a function of temperature.Summary background information, data and images supporting the activity are available on the Earth Update data site. To complete the activity, students will need to access the Space Update multimedia collection, which is available for download and purchase for use in the classroom.

92

Is The Sea Level?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will observe that the sea level changes and will hypothesize what causes this change. They will then check their hypothesis with a data set. Many students are surprised to learn that sea level is not the same everywhere on earth and that it changes with the seasons. The main cause of this change is the temperature change in the ocean - warmer waters are higher than colder waters. Students will discover this information as they complete the activity and then see if the temperature effect holds true on another data set showing temperature and sea height changes caused by the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

2007-12-12

93

Dead sea water intoxication.  

PubMed

Near drowning in the Dead Sea is associated with both respiratory manifestations and severe electrolyte abnormalities. It is often difficult to distinguish between the contributions of sea water aspiration or ingestion to clinical manifestations. We present a unique case of accidental ingestion of a large amount of Dead Sea water through a gastrostomy tube in which a patient with familial dysautonomia presented with severe electrolyte disturbances. Forced diuresis with large amounts of intravenous fluids resulted in clinical and biochemical improvement. Full recovery was achieved after 2 days of treatment. PMID:22863826

Levy-Khademi, Floris; Brooks, Rebecca; Maayan, Channa; Tenenbaum, Ariel; Wexler, Isaiah D

2012-08-01

94

Arctic Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how the area of Arctic sea ice has changed over recent years. First, learners graph the area of Arctic sea ice over time from 1979 to 2007. Then, learners use this information to extrapolate what the area will be in 2018 and graph their predictions. In part two of the activity, learners make a flip book to simulate the sea changes they just graphed. This resource includes background information related to the Northwest Passage and questions for learners to answer after completing this activity.

Meier, Beverly L.

2012-06-26

95

Sea level variation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records range from about one to three mm per year. The scatter of the estimates appears to arise largely from the use of data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends, and the effects of large interdecadal and longer sea level variations on short (less than 50+ years) or sappy records. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to isostatic rebound from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling rebound by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1990) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. A global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 yields the global sea level rise value 1.8 mm/year +/- 0.1. Greenhouse warming scenarios commonly forecast an additional acceleration of global sea level in the next 5 or 6+ decades in the range 0.1-0.2 mm/yr2. Because of the large power at low frequencies in the sea level spectrum, very long tide gauge records (75 years minimum) have been examined for past apparent sea level acceleration. For the 80-year period 1905-1985, 23 essentially complete tide gauge records in 10 geographic groups are available for analysis. These yielded the apparent global acceleration -0.011 (+/- 0.012) mm/yr2. A larger, less uniform set of 37 records in the same 10 groups with 92 years average length covering the 141 years from 1850-1991 gave 0.001 (+/- 0.008) mm/yr2. Thus there is no evidence for an apparent acceleration in the past 100+ years that is significant either statistically, or in comparison to values associated with global warming. Unfortunately, the large interdecadal fluctuations of sea level severely affect estimates of global sea level acceleration for time spans of less than about 50 years. This means that tide gauges alone cannot serve as a reliable leading indicator of climate change in less than many decades. This time required can be significantly reduced if the interdecadal fluctuations of sea level can be understood in terms of their forcing mechanisms, and then removed from the tide gauge records.

Douglas, Bruce C.

1992-01-01

96

The north Sulu Sea productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sulu Sea is a part of the western North Pacific. It is a closed sea for its deep water and a semi-closed sea for its upper layer. The Sulu Sea exchanges mainly surface waters with the South China Sea and the Celebes Sea. The Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea (Jones, 2002). On the basis of MERIS satellite observations from 2002 to 2008, we focus on the high-chlorophyll area as an indicator of the abundance of primary productivity in the Sulu Sea. Strong chlorophyll concentration in the north Sulu Sea close to the Mindoro Strait mainly occurs from December to March and low chlorophyll concentration happens in April to November. The adjacent South China Sea on the other side of Mindoro Strait has shown persistent signs of low chlorophyll concentration. Based on 1/8° Global Navy Coastal Ocean Model, the intrusion of the South China Sea waters through the Mindoro Strait to the Sulu Sea from April to November is the main reason for the low chlorophyll concentration observed in the north Sulu Sea. During April to November, the South China Sea waters flow through the Mindoro Strait and stay on the surface of the north Sulu Sea because of their low density. The north Sulu Sea waters mix with fresher waters coming from the South China Sea without new nutrients supply. When the inflow from South China Sea to Sulu Sea ceases in December to March, the upwelling due to the summer monsoon wind becomes an important mechanism supplying deep nutrients to the surface water which lead to high chlorophyll concentration. Jones, I.S.F., 2002. Primary production in the Sulu Sea. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Earth and Planetary Sciences 111, 209-213.

Xiao, Z.

2009-12-01

97

The rotifer fauna of arctic sea ice from the Barents Sea, Laptev Sea [2pt] and Greenland Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples from arctic sea ice were studied for their rotifer fauna. Ice core samples were collected in the northern Barents Sea and the Laptev Sea from August to October 1993 and in the Greenland Sea from July to August 1994. Eight rotifer taxa, Encentrum graingeri, Proales reinhardti, Synchaeta bacillifera, S. cecilia, S. glacialis, S. hyperborea, S. tamara and S. sp.,

Christine Friedrich; Willem H. De Smet

2000-01-01

98

Drag of the sea surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown how the drag of the sea surface can be computed from the wind speed and the sea state. The approach, applicable both for fully developed and for developing seas, is based on conservation of momentum in the boundary layer above the sea, which allows one to relate the drag to the properties of the momentum exchange between

V. K. Makin; V. N. Kudryavtsev; C. Mastenbroek

1995-01-01

99

USACE Extreme Sea levels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

HR Wallingford and Southampton University are supporting the USACE in the development of an Engineering Technical Letter (ETL), in relation to extreme sea levels and climate impact adaptation. Lead personnel responsible for the USACE are Dr Kathleen White...

2014-01-01

100

Dead Sea Scrolls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

1994-01-01

101

Purple sea urchin swarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea urchins live in low tide regions and eat seaweed. Urchins have no arms but have five rows of tube feet for movement. They are found in holes and use their spines for protection and to burrow into the rocks.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-04

102

Science at Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-week inservice teacher education program that involves two sessions of preparatory classes ashore in nautical science and oceanography, and concludes with a nine-day sea voyage. (ASK)

Phillips, Mary Nied

2001-01-01

103

Teacher at Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the experiences of a teacher in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Teacher At Sea Program in which teachers are placed on NOAA vessels to work with professional scientists doing critical, real world research. (DDR)

Beighley, Karl

1998-01-01

104

Sea Ice Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

Arrigo, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

105

Sea ice ecosystems.  

PubMed

Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters. PMID:24015900

Arrigo, Kevin R

2014-01-01

106

The Dead Sea monster  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a very large part of human history, the Dead Sea has been considered a prime example of an environment completely devoid\\u000a of life, a condition which during the Greco-Roman period was ascribed to natural causes—the bitterness of the water and the\\u000a hydrogen sulphide stench associated with the area. In the Middle Ages, however, attitudes towards the Dead Sea changed

Arie Nissenbaum

1992-01-01

107

Green Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Detailed information on the biology, natural history, factors influencing the population, and protection measures of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Included are three in-class activities and one field activity all designed to raise awareness of the green sea turtle and what humans are doing to affect the population. The site is geared towards the Hawaiian sub-species, however, most of the facts and activities are applicable elsewhere.

108

All About Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive site is an introduction to sea ice: what it is, how it forms, how it is studied, how it affected historical expedition in the polar regions, and what role it plays in the global climate. The site contains a glossary of sea ice terms and references to additional information, which all serve as an excellent introduction. Data are also available from various collection methods for student interpretation.

2011-07-15

109

All About Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive site is an introduction to sea ice: what it is, how it forms, how it is studied, how it affected historical expedition in the polar regions, and what role it plays in the global climate. The site contains a glossary of sea ice terms and references to additional information, which all serve as an excellent introduction. Data are also available from various collection methods for student interpretation.

110

Sea Level rise contributors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page from the National Snow and Ice Data Center contains two related visualizations. The first visualization gives an estimate of the percent contribution to sea level change since the 1990s from three contributors - small glaciers and ice caps, the Greenland Ice Sheet and the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The second visualization shows the cumulative contribution to sea level from small glaciers and ice caps plotted with the annual global surface air temperature anomaly.

Meier, M. F.; Dyurgerov, Mark; Center, National S.

111

Sea Level Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents ocean topography as measured by sea surface heights taken from space by NASA and CNES. Ocean heat circulation impacts weather and causes events such as Large El Nino, Hurricane Katrina, Indian Ocean Tsunami and La Nina. These events and the latest view of sea surface height are depicted with this 3D interactive viewer. Objectives of NASA missions TOPEX/Poseiden, Jason 1, and Jason 2/OSTM are charted. Closed Captioning is available.

112

The genesis of sea level variability in the Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional variability of sea level is an integral indicator of changing oceanographic conditions due to different processes of oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial origin. The present study explores the nature of sea level variability in the Barents Sea—a marginal shelf sea of the Arctic Ocean. A characteristic feature that distinguishes this sea from other Arctic shelf seas is that it is largely ice free throughout the year. This allows continuous monitoring of sea level by space-borne altimeters. In this work we combine satellite altimetry, ocean gravity measurements by GRACE satellites, available hydrography data, and a high-resolution ocean data synthesis product to estimate the steric and mass-related components of sea level in the Barents Sea. We present one of the first observational evidence of the local importance of the mass-related sea level changes. The observed 1-3 month phase lag between the annual cycles of sea level in the Barents Sea and in the Nordic seas (Norwegian, Iceland, Greenland seas) is explained by the annual mass-related changes. The analysis of the barotropic vorticity budget shows that the mass-related sea level variability in the central part of the Barents Sea is determined by the combined effect of wind stress, flow over the varying bottom topography, and dissipation, while the impact of vorticity fluxes is negligible. Overall, the steric sea level has smaller amplitudes and mainly varies on the seasonal time scale. The thermosteric sea level is the main contributor to the steric sea level along the pathways of the Atlantic inflow into the Barents Sea. The relative contribution of the halosteric sea level is dominant in the southeastern, eastern, and northern parts of the Barents Sea, modulated by the seasonal sea ice formation/melt as well as by continental runoff. The variability of the thermosteric sea level in the Barents Sea is mostly driven by variations in the net surface heat flux, whereas the contribution of heat advection becomes as important as the ocean-atmosphere heat exchange at interannual time scales.

Volkov, Denis L.; Landerer, Felix W.; Kirillov, Sergey A.

2013-09-01

113

The White Sea, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the Barents Sea.

2002-01-01

114

The Dead Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea.

With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

Size: 18.5 by 48.1 kilometers (11.5 by 29.8 miles) Location: 31.4 degrees North latitude, 35.4 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: May 3, 2005

2006-01-01

115

Bioprospecting / Deep Sea Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first portion of the radio broadcast discusses the relatively new field of bioprospecting, the exploration of the sea floor for novel compounds and processes that may have industrial or medical applications. Bioprospectors are trying to collect samples of deep-sea organisms which may yield new pharmaceutical compounds, as in the case of Conus magnus, a sea snail whose venom has yielded a painkiller 1000 times more potent than morphine. There is also discussion of who owns these resources and what can be done to protect them. This segment is 12 minutes in length. The second segment of the broadcast traces the history of undersea exploration, including methods of measuring ocean depth, the bathysphere used by William Beebe and Otis Barton, the modern Alvin submersible, and remotely operated vehicles. There is also discussion of the motives and inspiration for ocean exploration; the deep sea knowledge of whalers; and comparisons of deep sea research with space exploration. This segment is 34 minutes and 40 seconds in length.

116

Geology of Barents Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Barents Sea is situated on the continental shelf between Norway, the Spitsbergen Islands, and Novaya Zemlya. The main structural framework of the area was formed during the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies, whereas the western parts were reactivated by the Kimmerian and Alpine orogenies. Because of the complex opening of the Greenland Norwegian Sea, important tertiary reactivation of Mesozoic normal faults occurred along southwest-northeast-trending systems of wrench faults. Owing to substantial erosion in the late Tertiary, the subsidence history and thermal development are more difficult to unravel in this area than in other places along the Norwegian Shelf. The erosion products were deposited in a huge sedimentary wedge extending onto the oceanic crust. The hydrocarbon discoveries in the Troms area in the southern part of the Barents Sea are encouraging for further exploration. However, the petroleum potential for large areas is not well known at this stage.

Riis, F.; Vollset, J.

1984-09-01

117

SeaWeb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWeb is a nonprofit organization aimed at raising awareness of the ocean and marine life that play "a critical role in our everyday life and in the future of our planet." SeaWeb employs a team of professionals from biology, exploration, and various communication disciplines. The current campaigns include an effort to protect the declining Caspian Sea Sturgeon ("the source of most of the world's caviar"), an attempt to reduce overfishing of swordfish, and a report about the changes occurring in the world's oceans. This Web site is a robust source of information about many threats that are facing marine ecosystems, and an attempt to reduce the dangers by educating the public about the impacts of their behavior.

1996-01-01

118

New York Sea Grant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Sea Grant program was established in 1966, and a few years later, the state of New York sponsored the program's first outpost. Currently, the New York Sea Grant (NYSG) is a cooperative program of the State University of New York (SUNY) and Cornell University. On the homepage, visitors can look over sections that include "Extension", "Research", "Education", "Publications", and "Theme Areas". The "Theme Areas" is a good place to start, as it features topical material on coastal processes and hazards, fisheries, and aquatic invasive species. Their helpful publication "Currents" is also worth a look, and it contains materials on grant opportunities, research materials, fact sheets, and public awareness programs. Moving on, the "Related Sites" area contains links to "Hot Topics" (topical news items related to the sea and such) and affiliated organizations.

119

Mountains in the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 6-7 day investigation, learners begin with an introduction to seamounts that are present in the Gulf of Alaska. They learn how seamounts were formed and look at a bathymetric map of a seamount. In Activity 3A, learners explore sea floor mapping techniques as they participate in an activity to create a map of a sea feature they have molded out of clay. In Activity 3B, learners watch a short animated presentation, "Who cares about Sea Floor Mapping?" and create a model of a seamount found in Alaska. They use pre-sonar techniques to collect data and create a graph of their seamount using Excel. This detailed lesson plan includes learner hand-outs, evaluation questions, curricular connections, and tips.

Grant, Alaska S.

2011-01-01

120

RADIOCARBON RESERVOIR AGES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA AND BLACK SEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured apparent marine radiocarbon ages for the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Red Sea by accel- erator mass spectrometry radiocarbon analyses of 26 modern, pre-bomb mollusk shells collected living between AD 1837 and 1950. The marine reservoir (R(t)) ages were estimated at some 390 ± 85 yr BP, 415 ± 90 yr BP and 440 ± 40 yr BP,

Nadine Tisnerat; Franck Bassinot

121

National Sea Grant Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the website for the only facility housing a complete collection of Sea Grant funded work. An archive and lending library for reprints, books, reports, maps, newsletters, handbooks, videos, CD-roms and computer programs regarding: oceanography; marine education; aquaculture; fisheries; limnology; coastal zone management; marine recreation and law. Lends documents worldwide, aiding scientists, teachers, students, fishermen and others in research and study. Bibliographic database is searchable from the website, where users may obtain citations, abstracts and access to over 20,000 downloadable texts of Sea Grant publications.

2011-05-05

122

Melting Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity uses a mix of multimedia resources and hands-on activities to support a storyline of investigation into melting sea ice. The lesson begins with a group viewing of a video designed to get students to consider both the local and global effects of climate change. The class then divides into small groups for inquiry activities on related topics followed by a presentation of the findings to the entire class. A final class discussion reveals a more complex understanding of both the local and global impacts of melting sea ice.

Domain, Wgbh E.

123

Lighting Up the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic lesson plan explores bioluminescent organisms in the sea. In this activity, students explore the benefits of bioluminescence by conducting a simulation and viewing pictures of bioluminescent marine animals on the Web. The conclusion of the activity entails students pretending to be deep-sea divers and writing journal entries about their impressions of a bioluminescent animal they have encountered. In addition to a detailed procedure, the lesson plan includes suggestions for assessment, ideas for extending the lesson, and links to related websites.

2009-07-09

124

Electromagnetic Phenomena in the Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Gyrocompass for magnetometric operations in the sea; Measuring the magnetic field in the sea by towed magnetometers; Errors of the ferrosonde component of a magnetometer; Tidal variation of the geomagnetic field on Franz Josef Land; Shock waves ...

V. V. Shuleikin

1970-01-01

125

Sea Gravimetry and Eotvos Correction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A physical model for sea gravimetry, which includes the Eotvos effect, is derived. An error model for sea gravimetry, which includes Eotvos correction errors, cross coupling errors and off level errors is shown. The possibilities of obtaining ship velocit...

J. H. M. Smit

1988-01-01

126

Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011  

NASA Video Gallery

AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

127

Seafloor Control on Sea Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The seafloor has a profound role in Arctic sea ice formation and seasonal evolution. Ocean bathymetry controls the distribution and mixing of warm and cold waters, which may originate from different sources, thereby dictating the pattern of sea ice on the ocean surface. Sea ice dynamics, forced by surface winds, are also guided by seafloor features in preferential directions. Here, satellite mapping of sea ice together with buoy measurements are used to reveal the bathymetric control on sea ice growth and dynamics. Bathymetric effects on sea ice formation are clearly observed in the conformation between sea ice patterns and bathymetric characteristics in the peripheral seas. Beyond local features, bathymetric control appears over extensive ice-prone regions across the Arctic Ocean. The large-scale conformation between bathymetry and patterns of different synoptic sea ice classes, including seasonal and perennial sea ice, is identified. An implication of the bathymetric influence is that the maximum extent of the total sea ice cover is relatively stable, as observed by scatterometer data in the decade of the 2000s, while the minimum ice extent has decreased drastically. Because of the geologic control, the sea ice cover can expand only as far as it reaches the seashore, the continental shelf break, or other pronounced bathymetric features in the peripheral seas. Since the seafloor does not change significantly for decades or centuries, sea ice patterns can be recurrent around certain bathymetric features, which, once identified, may help improve short-term forecast and seasonal outlook of the sea ice cover. Moreover, the seafloor can indirectly influence cloud cover by its control on sea ice distribution, which differentially modulates the latent heat flux through ice covered and open water areas.

Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Rigor, I. G.; Hall, D. K.; Neumann, G.

2011-01-01

128

National Sea Grant Educators Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compilation of Sea Grant marine education resources. Site includes the latest news, a pdf file discussing Sea Grant education initiatives, links to all Sea Grant Education websites, several teaching and learning resources, and several interactive classroom activities. An excellent site to begin preparations for a marine science or oceanography course.

129

Sea Level : Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can find answers to frequently asked questions regarding sea level and sea level changes. Topics addressed include how mean sea level is defined, how much sea level would rise if all the worlds ice were to melt, differences in sea level between oceans and at different latitudes, the meaning of altitude above sea level, and others.

2007-12-12

130

Under the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity integrates art and science as students use books and other sources to learn more about the creatures that live in the ocean. Once they have learned about various sea creatures and their habitats, they will construct an undersea environment in their classroom.

131

Sea Fighter Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Coast Guard (CG) Research & Development Center (R&DC) evaluated the U.S. Navy's Sea Fighter vessel (FSF-1) for potential applicability for CG missions. For this evaluation, the project team used a combination of engagement modeling and simulation...

M. Hammond

2007-01-01

132

Open sea skimmer barge  

SciTech Connect

An open sea skimmer barge for use as a dredge comprising a hull having a bow, bottom, side walls, stern having a substantially horizontal elongate slot extending across a portion thereof and a deck, a spill suction tunnel, a collection tank, secondary oil separation means and tertiary oil separation means.

Ayers, W.M.

1983-04-05

133

Open sea skimmer barge  

SciTech Connect

An open sea skimmer barge comprising a hull having a bow, bottom, side walls, stern having a substantially horizontal elongate slot extending across a portion thereof and a deck, a spill suction tunnel, a collection tank, secondary oil separation means and tertiary oil separation means.

Ayers, W.M.; Maheshwary, A.K.; Young, P.J.

1984-10-16

134

Open sea skimmer barge  

SciTech Connect

An open sea skimmer barge is disclosed comprising a hull having a bow, bottom, side walls, stern having a substantially horizontal elongate slot extending across a portion thereof and a deck, a suction tunnel, a collection tank, secondary oil separation means and tertiary oil separation means.

Ayers, W.M.

1983-08-16

135

Black Sea Battle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Story of the invasion of jellyfish into the Black Sea and the resulting affects on the native fish population. An excellent introduction into introduced species and their effects on an ecosystem. Site features an abundance of information on alien species and the delicacy that goes into eradicating them. Also links to additional non-traditional science-related news events.

136

Classroom of the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most students do not have the opportunity to conduct in situ research projects until college, the Classroom of the Sea program at the American School for the Deaf (ASD) provides an unusual opportunity for students to work directly with scientists

Monte, Denise; Hupper, Mary L.; Scheifele, Peter

2000-03-01

137

Sea Surface Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and Earth's climate system, and consider the effects that changes in SST are having in the Arctic and beyond in this interactive activity produced for Teachers' Domain featuring data and visualization from NOAA.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-08-28

138

Rising Sea Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past century, as the climate has warmed, sea level rise has accelerated. Scientists predict it will only increase, and they're studying changes in the ocean and land to better understand how and why the water is rising. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

139

Alboran Sea Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of circulation in the Alboran Sea begins by using simplest model capable of simulating major features of the circulation. This is a reduced gravity model in a semi-enclosed rectangular domain. It is essentially a model of the first baroclinic mode...

R. H. Preller

1983-01-01

140

Classroom of the Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Sea Program in which participant students were deaf and collaborated with a bioacoustician. Studies the underwater noise levels of the Gulf of Maine and the possible impacts on marine life. Explains implementing this project in the science curriculum. (YDS)

Hupper, Mary Laporta; Monte, Denise; Scheifele, Peter

2000-01-01

141

SeaWeb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A multimedia public education project designed to raise awareness of the world ocean and the life within it. Find articles on the latest ocean issues, links to resources and audio clips of the radio show Ocean Report. Also features information on SeaWeb programs, such as aquaculture initiatives for both fish and their eggs (caviar), and publications.

142

Solar Sea Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

Zener, Clarence

1976-01-01

143

Space Invaders at Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast discusses the recent issue of the increase and spread of tunicates (or 'sea squirts'), who have suddenly proliferated off the Atlantic Coast of the United States and Canada. The creatures, an invasive species likely from Asia or Europe, have carpeted the ocean floor and are smothering valuable shellfish.

Hoops, Richard

2010-10-13

144

Ships to the Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson contains materials for the U.S. Navy Museum's "Ships to the Sea" program. The program is appropriate for students in grades 2-4 and was designed in accordance with local and national social studies standards. The materials introduce students to the world of ship technology and naval terminology. The lesson is presented in five…

Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

145

Farming the Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

Morgan, William

1971-01-01

146

Sea Level Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive program focuses on the role of sea level in climate change. Sections include an overview and a list of relevant NASA satellite missions and their objectives. A third section, entitled Global View, covers the following 5 topics: Latest View, Large El Niño, Hurricane Katrina, Indian Ocean Tsunami, and La Niña.

147

Autophagy at sea.  

PubMed

The 3rd EMBO Conference on, "Autophagy: Molecular mechanism, physiology and pathology" organized by Anne Simonsen and Sharon Tooze, was held in May 2013 on a sea cruise along the Norwegian coastline from Bergen to Tromsø. Researchers from all corners of the world presented work covering autophagosome biogenesis, physiological regulation of autophagy, selective autophagy and disease. PMID:23917436

Martens, Sascha; Rusten, Tor Erik; Kraft, Claudine

2013-09-01

148

Yellow Sea Thermal Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There exists a need in the oceanography community to be able to produce climatologies of remote or poorly sampled shallow water areas through remote sensing techniques. Our goal was to construct a three-dimensional thermal structure of the Yellow Sea base...

C. R. Fralick

1994-01-01

149

Sea floor magnetic observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagnetic precursors of seismic hazards are widely accepted as strong evidence of the approaching earthquake or volcano eruption. The monitoring of these precursors are of main interest in densely populated areas, what creates serious problems to extract them at the strong industrial noise background. An interesting possibility to improve signal-to-noise ratio gives the installation of the observation points in the shelf zones near the possible earthquake places, what is fairly possible in most seismically active areas in Europe, e. g. in Greece and Italy. The serious restriction for this is the cost of the underwater instrumentation. To realize such experiments it requires the unification of efforts of several countries (e. g., GEOSTAR) or of the funds of some great companies (e. g., SIO magnetotelluric instrument). The progress in electronic components development as well as the appearance of inexpensive watertight glass spheres made it possible to decrease drastically the price of recently developed sea floor magnetic stations. The autonomous vector magnetometer LEMI-301 for sea bed application is described in the report. It is produced on the base of three-component flux-gate sensor. Non-magnetic housing and minimal magnetism of electronic components enable the instrument to be implemented as a monoblock construction where the electronic unit is placed close to the sensor. Automatic circuit provides convenient compensation of the initial field offset and readings of full value (6 digits) of the measured field. Timing by internal clock provides high accuracy synchronization of data. The internal flash memory assures long-term autonomous data storage. The system also has two-axes tilt measurement system. The methodological questions of magnetometer operation at sea bed were studied in order to avoid two types of errors appearing at such experimental cases. First is sea waving influence and second one magnetometer orientation at its random positioning on the sea floor in order to get experimental data in geomagnetic coordinates frames. The analysis executed showed that first error source can not be avoided at shallow water experiments but can be easily taken into account. The special methodology and the developed software allowed to solve the second problem. It was shown that it is possible to reduce the magnetometer data collected in randomly oriented coordinate system at arbitrary position on the sea floor to the data in the frame system connected with geomagnetic coordinates. The parameters of LEMI-302 sea bed magnetometer are discussed and the experimental results of its application are presented. The research work in Ukraine was partly supported by INTAS grant 99-1102.

Korepanov, V.; Prystai, A.; Vallianatos, F.; Makris, J.

2003-04-01

150

Sea-Level Projections from the SeaRISE Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SeaRISE (Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution) is a community organized modeling effort, whose goal is to inform the fifth IPCC of the potential sea-level contribution from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets in the 21st and 22nd century. SeaRISE seeks to determine the most likely ice sheet response to imposed climatic forcing by initializing an ensemble of models with common datasets and applying the same forcing to each model. Sensitivity experiments were designed to quantify the sea-level rise associated with a change in: 1) surface mass balance, 2) basal lubrication, and 3) ocean induced basal melt. The range of responses, resulting from the multi-model approach, is interpreted as a proxy of uncertainty in our sea-level projections. http://websrv.cs .umt.edu/isis/index.php/SeaRISE_Assessment.

Nowicki, Sophie; Bindschadler, Robert

2011-01-01

151

Northern Sand Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

152

Sea ice radiative forcing, sea ice area, and climate sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in sea ice cover affect climate sensitivity by modifying albedo and surface heat flux exchange, which in turn affect the absorbed solar radiation at the surface as well as cloud cover, atmospheric water content and poleward atmospheric heat transport. Here, we use a configuration of the Community Earth System Model 1.0.4 with a slab ocean model and a thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice model to investigate the overall net effect of feedbacks associated with the sea ice loss. We analyze the strength of the overall sea ice feedback in terms of two factors: the sensitivity of sea ice area to changes in temperature, and the sensitivity of sea ice radiative forcing to changes in sea ice area. In this model configuration, sea ice area decreases by ~3 × 1012 m2 per K of global warming, while the effective global radiative forcing per square meter of sea ice loss is ~0.1 × 10-12 W m-2. The product of these two terms (~0.3 W m-2 K-1) approximately equals the difference in climate feedback parameter found in simulations with sea ice response (1.05 W m-2 K-1) and simulations without sea ice response (1.31 W m-2 K-1 or 1.35 W m-2 K-1, depending on the method used to disable changes in sea ice cover). Thus, we find that in our model simulations, sea ice response accounts for about 20% to 22% of the climate sensitivity to an imposed change in radiative forcing. In our model, the additional radiative forcing resulting from a loss of all sea ice in the 'pre-industrial' state is comparable to but somewhat less than the radiative forcing from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content.

Caldeira, Ken; Cvijanovic, Ivana

2014-05-01

153

North Sea Sediment Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Sea is a semi-enclosed shelf sea attached to the North-east Atlantic and in its south-eastern part receives significant matter from river discharge and atmospheric deposition: Anthropogenic nutrients, dissolved carbon and organic compounds have elevated pristine background concentrations in the coastal strip of the North Sea since about 250 years as a consequence of intensified agriculture and industrialisation since then, In such a marine environment the legacy of old inputs and the influence of processes in the sediment on the biogeochemistry of the overlying water column increases with decreasing water depth. On the other hand the flux of particulate organic matter into the surface sediment (~15 cm depth) also increases with decreasing water depth or distance from the coast. Both effects are also described by results of ECOHAM-M simulations, the coupled pelagic-benthic ecosystem model that includes a prognostic multi-layer sediment module adopted from the global biogeochemical model HAMOCC as part of the MPI-earth-system model (MPI-ESM).The transfer from deep sea to coastal applications required different adaptations, such as changes in porosity values, in dissolution and organic matter remineralisation rates, and stoichiometries. In the model, two pelagic detritus pools, one slowly sinking with semi-labile organic matter, and one fast sinking with labile organic matter are collected in one sediment pool. After a spin-up of several hundred years the 3d-coupled model for the southern and central North Sea attains equilibrium, where the local inputs and outputs of the pelagic and benthic module are balanced. From this equilibrium state we initialised a realistic decadal run (2000-2009). Analysing the seasonal and interannual model results we found that the variability of sediment efflux in the model is low compared to the more dynamic pelagic system components, but simulated (and observed) sediment pore water profiles clearly show concentration gradients from the coast into the central North Sea. Data on organic matter concentration and quality in surface sediments along a comparable transect suggest that not only the loading with POM decreases with distance to land, but also the reactivity of organic matter, indicated by amino acid composition as a measure of the degree of protein degradation. This ageing or degradation effect can also be seen in a near-shore surface sediment core where the C/N ratio increases with depth, while the relative concentration of labile material in sedimentary organic matter decreases. We discuss how the quality of organic particulate matter could be integrated into the sediment model equations.

Paetsch, Johannes; Kuehn, Wilfried; Serna, Alexandra; Lahajnar, Niko; Emeis, Kay

2014-05-01

154

Sea Ice 1987 - 2012  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a video that illustrates both seasonal patterns and long-term changes in sea ice distribution across the Arctic Ocean. It draws data from two satellite instruments that measure emitted microwave radiation, which helps distinguish open ocean from ice. It shows that during the winter months, a layer of ice forms across vast expanses of the Arctic Ocean and each summer, more than half of that ice vanishes. Students discover that this natural cycle of freezing and thawing is influenced both by seasonal temperature variations and long-term climate change and that scientists are using satellite images to measure the distribution of Arctic sea ice in order to gain a better understanding of how it is linked to Earth's climate system.

155

Dauphin Island Sea Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dauphin Island Sea Lab is Alabama's marine education and research center. Lab also provides a public aquarium that focuses solely on the native eco-systems of the Mobile Bay estuary. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, faculty, facilities, and news and events. Explore the Education and Aquarium sections for teacher resources and information on workshops, student summer camps, and academic-year programs.

156

Salish Sea Expeditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At-sea education program combines classroom study with shipboard science studies in Puget Sound, Washington. Offers spring programs for schools and home schoolers, summer programs for families and youngsters; expeditions of 1 to 5 days involve oceanographic sampling activities, navigation and sailing responsibilities aboard a 61-foot sailing vessel. Teachers can join a preview sail to evaluate; site provides details on water quality, plankton and other studies and equipment used.

157

A Silurian sea spider  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pycnogonids (sea spiders) are marine arthropods numbering some 1,160 extant species. They are globally distributed in depths of up to 6,000metres, and locally abundant; however, their typically delicate form and non-biomineralized cuticle has resulted in an extremely sparse fossil record that is not accepted universally. There are two opposing views of their phylogenetic position: either within Chelicerata as sister group

Derek J. Siveter; Mark D. Sutton; Derek E. G. Briggs; David J. Siveter

2004-01-01

158

Dead Sea rhodopsins revisited.  

PubMed

The Dead Sea is a unique hypersaline ecosystem with near toxic magnesium levels (?2?M), dominance of divalent cations and a slightly acidic pH. Previously, we reported a haloarchaeon related to Halobacterium salinarum to dominate in a microbial bloom that developed in 1992 in the upper water layers of the lake following massive freshwater runoff. Whether this clade also dominated an earlier bloom in 1980-1982 cannot be ascertained as no samples for cultivation-independent analysis were preserved. The presence of the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin was reported in the 1980-1982 bloom of prokaryotes that had developed in the Dead Sea. To test the hypothesis that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping may play a major role in determining what type of haloarchaea may dominate in specific bloom conditions, we compared rhodopsin genes recovered from Dead Sea biomass collected in different periods with genes coding for retinal proteins in isolated haloarchaea. Novel bacteriorhodopsin and sensory rhodopsin genes were found in samples collected in 2007 and 2010. The fact that no rhodopsin genes were recovered from samples collected during the 1992 bloom, which was dominated by a single species, suggests that different clades were present in the 1980-1982 and 1992 blooms, and that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping did not necessarily play a determinative role in the dominance of specific halophiles in the blooms. PMID:23760932

Bodaker, Idan; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Oren, Aharon; Béjà, Oded

2012-12-01

159

Curonian Spit, Baltic Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On July 25, 2006, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying on NASA's Terra satellite, captured this image of the Curonian (or Courland)spit, the Curonian Lagoon (also known as the Courland Lagoon) it encloses, and part of the Baltic Sea. Just 3,800 meters (about 12,460 feet) at its widest point, the spit encloses a lagoon of some 1,620 square kilometers (625 square miles). In this image, dark blue indicates deep water, and lighter blue indicates shallow and/or sediment-laden water. Different shades of blue distinguish the deeper Baltic Sea and the shallower Curonian Lagoon. Vegetation appears in varying shades of green, paved surfaces and bare ground appear in shades of beige and gray, and sandy areas appear off-white. Obvious sandy areas appear along the length of the spit. On the Baltic Sea side, a thin off-white band of beach runs the length of the spit; on the Curonian Lagoon side, intermittent beaches carve their way into the narrow strip of land.

2006-01-01

160

Kara Sea radioactivity assessment.  

PubMed

Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya bays as well as soil from the shore of Abrosimov bay have shown that radionuclide contamination of the open Kara Sea is mainly due to global fallout, with smaller contributions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant, the Chernobyl accident run-off from the Ob and Yenisey rivers and local fallout. Computer modelling results have shown that maximum annual doses of approximately 1 mSv are expected for a hypothetical critical group subsisting on fish caught in the Novaya Zemlya bays whereas populations living on the mainland can be expected to receive doses at least three orders of magnitude lower. PMID:10568274

Osvath, I; Povinec, P P; Baxter, M S

1999-09-30

161

Aral Sea Evaporation (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Aral Sea is actually not a sea at all, but an immense fresh water lake. In the last thirty years, more than sixty percent of the lake has disappeared because much of the river flow feeding the lake was diverted to irrigate cotton fields and rice paddies. Concentrations of salts and minerals began to rise in the shrinking body of water, leading to staggering alterations in the lakes ecology and precipitous drops in the Arals fish population. Powerful winds that blow across this part of Asia routinely pick up and deposit the now exposed lake bed soil. This has contributed to a significant reduction in breathable air quality, and crop yields have been appreciably affected due to heavily salt laden particles falling on arable land. This series of Landsat images taken in 1973, 1987 and 2000 show the profound reduction in overall area at the north end of the Aral, and a commensurate increase in land area as the floor of the sea now lies exposed.

Thomson, Joycelyn; Mitchell, Horace; Williams, Darrel

2005-02-15

162

Bering Sea in Bloom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface waters of the Bering Sea around the Pribilof Islands, off Alaska's west coast, exhibited a dark green color on May 15, 2002, in this SeaWiFS true-color image. The green color of the currents there suggests the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Careful inspection reveals some a reddish tinges of light reflected by this bloom, particularly in a long east to west band just south of the Pribilof Islands, and just north of the Aleutian Island chain (disappearing toward the lower righthand corner of this scene beneath the cloud bank). Some scientists speculate this could be another Phaeocystis bloom, similar to the bloom of this species that was observed in these waters roughly this time last year. Such blooms are typically accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor in the immediate vicinity. The light brown color of the surface waters along the Alaskan shoreline are probably due to suspended sediments washed off from the land. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

163

Sea & Ships: Explore Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Maritime Museum (NMM) in England notes that its goal is "working to illustrate for everyone the importance of the sea, ships, time and the stars and their relationship with people." There is so much to explore in the "Sea and Ships" portion of the NMM website, but a great way to see everything it has to offer is by using the "Sea and Ships Directory" at the bottom of the homepage. It divides the material up by "Subjects", "People", "Collections", "Online Galleries", and "Games and Interactives". Visitors interested in lessons about the ocean that come in the form of games, quizzes and stories, should definitely check out the "Your Ocean" link from the "Games and Interactives". The "Your Waste" lesson gives visitors the opportunity to test their skills at "managing an oil spill clean-up operation", in the game "Oil Crisis!" Keeping waste to a minimum is what the quiz "Pollution Solutions" addresses, and is also on the "Your Waste" page. Other lessons include "Your Energy", "Your Stuff" and "Your Climate".

2010-05-04

164

Supervising Doctorates at a Distance: Three Trans-Tasman Stories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges of post-traditional, distance PhD supervision and suggest pedagogical interventions to bridge the distance. The paper investigates the skills and understandings necessary for mediating the supervisor-supervisee dyad within faceless encounters. Design/methodology/approach: Grounded in…

Andrew, Martin

2012-01-01

165

AuScope Project and Trans-Tasman VLBI.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three 12-meter radio telescopes are being built in Australia (the AuScope project) and one in New Zealand. These facilities will be fully-equipped for undertaking S and X-band geodetic VLBI observations and correlation will take place on a software correl...

J. Dickey J. Lovell O. Titov S. Gulyaev S. Tingay T. Natusch

2010-01-01

166

Long Term Variability of Sea Surface Temperature in Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long term variability of the sea surface temperature (SST) of the Mediterranean basin and its sub-basins for the period 1869-2006 (138 years) is investigated using the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (I-COADS). Analysis of the SST time-series revealed a positive trend in both basin and sub-basin scale. During the last century, the highest positive SST trend is found in the Adriatic Sea (0.0141° C/y) and the lowest one in the Aegean sea (0.0011° C/y). This difference in the SST evolution in the two sub-basins can be related to the shift of the Eastern Mediterranean deep water formation site during the 90s, known as Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT). The SST variations of the Eastern Mediterranean sub-basins (Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Levantine Sea) are highly correlated to each other, in contrast to the poor correlation of the SST variations between the Eastern and Western Mediterranean Sea. Harmonic analysis has shown that a dominant period of the Mediterranean variability is similar to the deep water turnover time of the basin. Comparison with climatic indices points out a high correlation of the Western Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea SST with the NAO index, while the Eastern Mediterranean SST variations are highly correlated to the Indian Summer Monsoon Index.

Axaopoulos, P.; Sofianos, S.

2010-01-01

167

Isotope studies in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanographic and isotopic investigations in the Caspian Sea and the analyses of the available data on the discharge to the sea and the observed sea level changes suggest that climatically caused changes of river inflow are the major cause of the sea level fluctuations over the last century. Hydrogen-3 and 3H–3He data indicate that the deep basins of the sea

K. Froehlich; K. Rozanski; P. Povinec; B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud

1999-01-01

168

The USGS Salton Sea Science Office  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Salton Sea Science Office (SSSO) provides scientific information and evaluations to decisionmakers who are engaged in restoration planning and actions associated with the Salton Sea. The primary focus is the natural resources of the Salton Sea, including the sea?s ability to sustain biological resources and associated social and economic values.

Case, Harvey Lee, III; Barnum, Douglas A.

2007-01-01

169

Sea Otter, River Otter. The Wonder Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is all about otters and provides information on both sea and river otters. Included are activities related to the diet of sea otters, the adaptations sea otters have made to live in the sea, their tool-using abilities, where they live and how to spot them, comparative anatomy of sea and river otters, and otter movement. The…

Robinson, Sandra Chisholm

170

The Baltic Sea Basin: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Baltic Sea Basin serves as an example of a region where the use of natural resources and the need of environmental protection\\u000a require a comprehensive and holistic approach in terms of geosciences, environmental sciences, and socio-economics. In this\\u000a book, authors from countries around the Baltic Sea and overseas shed light on the Baltic Sea Basin with respect to (1)

Jan Harff; Svante Björck; Peer Hoth

171

Sea Scallop Shell Lab Handout  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Used in combination with the Sea Scallop Shell Lab teacher's guide, students will examine sea scallop shells to figure out as much as possible about the scallops living on the sea floor in one three important fishery grounds, Hudson Canyon, off New Bedford, MA, and George's Bank. The activity emphasizes observation, measurements, and basic calculations. The teacher's guide is available from the COSEE-NE OSEI resource site.

172

Aerosols Over Yellow Sea Sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This SeaWiFS image shows complex phytoplankton distribution patterns in the Bohai and Yellow seas. A wide band of brownish water along the coast north and south of the mouth of the Yangtze River indicates a heavy load of suspended sediment. The air over eastern central China and the Yellow Sea is thick with aerosols. Farther north over the Manchurian Plain and Greater Khingan Range, the air is much clearer.

2002-01-01

173

Sea Salt Source Function over the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of production and transport of aerosol over the sea are very important for many areas of knowledge. Marine aerosol emitted from the sea surface helps to clean the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. The emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore, marine aerosol has many features of rain i.e. the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. While many cruises conducted on board S/Y Oceania, we collected many data which were used to calculate sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. Our cruises held between 2009 and 2012. Measurements were carried out using gradient method. For this method we used Laser Particle Counter (PMS model CSASP-100_HV) placed on one oft the mast of S/Y Oceania. Measurements were performed on five different levels around sea level: 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 meters. Based on the averaged vertical concentration, profiles were calculated, using Monin-Obuchow theory, vertical sea spray fluxes in the near water layer. Based on fluxes calculated from vertical concentration profiles was calculated sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. This function gives emission for different particle size, depending on environmental parameters. Emission of sea spray depends of the size of energy lost by the wind waves in process of collapse. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBa?tyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Markuszewski, Piotr; Jankowski, Andrzej; Zieli?ski, Tymon

2013-04-01

174

Regime shifts in North Sea and Baltic Sea: A comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ICES subdivisions in the North Sea (SD IIIa, SD IVa, and SD IVb) and the subdivisions in the Baltic Sea (SD 29, SD 27/28-2, and SD 25/26) are selected to compare the response in long term monitoring data (1970-2000) with respect to climate regime shifts. A modified AMOEBA model is applied to the data sets to identify the status and development of the North Sea and Baltic Sea system during two recent regime shifts. Biological regime shifts can be identified 1989/1990 in SD IIIa in the North Sea and in SD 25/26 in the Baltic Sea. A synchronous appearance of regime shifts could only be identified in the central and southern Baltic Sea for both regime shifts 1975/76 and 1989/90 where the AMOEBA model indicated a high similarity in ecosystem response. A clear difference was identified in the response of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Inter-annual and inter-decadal variability as well as regime shifts are driven in the Baltic Sea by direct atmospheric forcing only. In contrast, the changes in the North Sea are influenced by both the direct atmospheric forcing and the indirect forcing from the changes in North Atlantic. The fact that regime shifts as well as their synchronous appearance can be identified with the AMOEBA model might be of major interest for the management of sustainable use of ecosystem goods and services, the development of ecosystem approach to management and the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of the European Union (EU).

Dippner, Joachim W.; Möller, Caroline; Hänninen, Jari

2012-12-01

175

Arctic Sea Level Since 1950  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate sea level change and variability in the Arctic region over the 1950-2009 time span. Analysis of >60 long tide gauge records available since 1950 along the Norwegian and Russian sectors shows that coastal mean sea level was almost stable until about 1980 but since then displayed a clear increasing trend. In fact until the mid-1990s, the mean sea level closely followed the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index variations. However, since about 1995, the mea sea level curve departs from the AO influence and presents a large increasing trend of ~ 4 mm/yr. Using in situ ocean temperature data down to 700 m (from the WOD09 and JAMSTEC data bases), we estimated the thermosteric sea level at the tide gauge sites of the Norwegian sector and found that the recent increase in sea level has a dominant thermal origin. This suggests that inflow of warm North Atlantic waters may be responsible for the recent sea level changes observed along the Norwegian and Russian coasts. Comparison, over the altimetry era (since 1993), of altimetry-based and steric spatial trend patterns in sea level in the North Atlantic (>50°N) and Nordic Seas shows on the other hand that observed (altimetry-based) patterns essentially result from a combination of temperature and salinity effects, themselves driven by natural climate modes (AO and NAO).

Cazenave, A. A.; Henry, O.; Prandi, P.; Llovel, W.; Jevrejeva, S.

2011-12-01

176

Clues from the Black Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students apply scientific theory and hypothesis to studies being conducted in the Black Sea. They will discuss the purpose of and theory behind the Black Sea study and use maps to explain the flood theory. Students will also write hypotheses suggesting what certain pieces of evidence might reveal about the Black Sea and the flood. Next, they will read about the researchers' discoveries and list the items they found. Students will conclude by writing plans, pretending they are going to lead the next Black Sea expedition, and hypothesizing what they might find and what those findings might signify.

177

NOVA: Deep Sea Invasion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the companion Web site to "Deep Sea Invasion," a PBS NOVA documentary broadcast April 1, 2003. The program follows marine biologist Alexandre Meinesz and his scientific detective work to explain the rampant spread of the tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia through the Mediterranean and his struggle to instigate control efforts. The features of this Web site include a timeline chronicling the invasion, an article by Meinesz on the impact of invasive species, another article addressing strategies for controlling invasives, and an interactive quiz in which users match up species with their invasive characteristics. With interesting material covering a range of ecological topics, this Web site should be of interest to any reader.

2003-01-01

178

Sea and Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive site contains information about both astronomy and the oceans. The Sky section contains astronomical resources, news links, an image gallery, games and general links for more information. The Cosmos contains details about stars, planets, moons, pulsars, galaxies, black holes, quasars, star clusters, nebulas, dark matter and constellations. There is also a section about astronomers and a timeline of space exploration. The Sea section contains news links, aquarium resources, an image gallery, games and links for more information about the oceans. The Ocean Realm highlights the many creatures that live in the oceans. There are also details about ocean exploration and an exploration timeline.

Knight, J.

179

The Sea Around Us  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published in 1951, The Sea Around Us is one of the most remarkably successful books ever written about the natural world. Rachel Carson's rare ability to combine scientific insight with moving, poetic prose catapulted her book to first place on The New York Times best-seller list, where it enjoyed wide attention for thirty-one consecutive weeks. It remained on the list for more than a year and a half and ultimately sold well over a million copies, has been translated into 28 languages, inspired an Academy Award-winning documentary, and won both the 1952 National Book Award and the John Burroughs Medal. This classic work remains as fresh today as when it first appeared. Carson's writing teems with stunning, memorable images--the newly formed Earth cooling beneath an endlessly overcast sky; the centuries of nonstop rain that created the oceans; giant squids battling sperm whales hundreds of fathoms below the surface; and incredibly powerful tides moving 100 billion tons of water daily in the Bay of Fundy. Quite simply, she captures the mystery and allure of the ocean with a compelling blend of imagination and expertise. Reintroducing a classic work to a whole new generation of readers, this Special Edition features a new chapter written by Jeffrey Levinton, a leading expert in marine ecology, that brings the scientific side of The Sea Around Us completely up to date. Levinton incorporates the most recent thinking on continental drift, coral reefs, the spread of the ocean floor, the deterioration of the oceans, mass extinction of sea life, and many other topics. In addition, acclaimed nature writer Ann Zwinger has contributed a brief foreword. Today, with the oceans endangered by the dumping of medical waste and ecological disasters such as the Exxon oil spill in Alaska, this illuminating volume provides a timely reminder of both the fragility and the importance of the ocean and the life that abounds within it. Anyone who loves the sea, or who is concerned about our natural environment, will want to read this classic work.

Carson, Rachel L.

1991-12-01

180

SeaWeb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWeb is a project designed to raise awareness of the world's oceans and the lifeforms within them, and to encourage conservation efforts. Information provided here includes the latest news about ocean-related issues, audio files of the Ocean Report which provides a tour of the world's oceans, email updates, a bookstore, and an on-line book about issues facing our oceans. This includes habitats, fisheries and other issues. This site is searchable and provides links and resources for further information.

181

Science Nation: Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers at the University of North Carolina are studying how loggerhead and other sea turtles use the Earth's magnetic field for a journey of thousands of miles around the Atlantic Ocean. The turtles react to the Earth's magnetic field as they navigate a five-to-10-year journey that takes them from the east coast of the United States to the coast of Portugal, south toward the west coast of Africa, then back toward the beach where they were born. A better understanding of this turtle ability could help in research of both animal and human navigation.

182

Black Sea and Caspian Sea, Symposium II, Constanta, Romania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These proceedings are from the Second Symposium on Black Sea and Caspian Sea Security Issues conducted 18-23 May 2007 in Constanta, Romania. This continued the plan of having a forum for military intelligence chiefs with an interest in the region. The res...

2007-01-01

183

Sea MARC II Investigation of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

More than 80,000 sq km of SeaMARC II imagery was obtained in the northern Norwegian-Greenland Sea during October and November, 1989. Regions insonified included the Bjorneya Fan, a transect at 73 deg N from the continental margin to the Mohns Ridge, an al...

C. De Moustier

1991-01-01

184

Albedo of summer snow on sea ice, Ross Sea, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface all-wave albedo and physical parameters (grain radius, mass density, surface temperature, and stratification) of an austral summer snow cover on sea ice were measured in the Ross Sea during January-February 1999. It was observed that (1) from north to south the snow surface temperature decreases, albedo increases, snow mass density decreases, snow composite grain radius decreases, and number density

Xiaobing Zhou; Shusun Li; Kim Morris; Martin O. Jeffries

2007-01-01

185

Structural Framework of East China Sea and Yellow Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A geophysical survey of the East China Sea, Yellow Sea, and Ryukyu Island arc and trench was conducted during Oct.-Nov. 1968 by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office. More than 12,000 km of continuous seismic reflection profiling, magnetic, and bathymetric ...

J. M. Wageman T. W. C. Hilde K. O. Emery

1970-01-01

186

59 FR- Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...080593A] RIN 0648-AC99 Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...Management Plan (FMP) for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery. Amendment 4 substantially revises the management of the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery, especially regarding...

1994-01-19

187

Intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability in Indonesian seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an average SST standard deviation (STD) between 0.4-0.5°C, with strongest signature during boreal winter. What physical processes force the SST ISV variability within the Indonesian seas? Ocean process, sea-air interaction, or both? To help identify the main forcing, the satellite derived outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and wind stress data in the region are examined. The OLR shows robust intraseasonal variations and is significantly correlated with the SST, particularly for variability with periods of 30-60 days, with OLR accounting for ~60-70% of the SST variance. The OLR is also maximum during boreal winter. Conversely, the surface wind may play insignificant role in perturbing the SST at intraseasonal timescales as shown by weak correlation between wind stress and SST. We thus suspect that the surface solar flux (suggested by the OLR) is likely more dominant than the surface turbulent heat flux (indicated by the surface wind) as the main source for the ISV in the SST in Indonesian seas. Furthermore the maximum OLR phase, coupled with a period of minimum mixed layer depth, may explain the strong SST variation during boreal winter in Indonesian seas. The influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the OLR and SST variability is currently being evaluated.

Napitu, A. M.; Gordon, A. L.; Yuan, X.

2012-12-01

188

Sea-salt aerosol forecasts: evaluation in the open sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine aerosols produced by sea-waves and associated winds are a potentially important climate forcing factor. Acting as efficient cloud condensation nuclei, marine sea-salt aerosols (SSA) could affect cloud formation and precipitation processes. In spite of the importance of impact of SSA variations on climate change, there are no regular sea-salt aerosol measurements in the open sea, where SSA are mainly produced and where their effects on climate are maximal. In order to partly fill the gap in our understanding of the SSA processes, model-based daily forecasts of three-dimensional distribution of SSA could be helpful, providing valuable information about space and time distribution of these types of aerosol. Model performance over the open sea has been verified in this study by comparing modeled SSA concentrations with observed wave height. Two sea-wave monitoring buoys, located in the Eastern Mediterranean near Haifa and Ashdod, provided us with information about wave height during the three-year period, from 2006 - 2008. In the winter months, when local sea-breezes were insignificant, the two buoys measured sea-waves created by synoptic-scale westerlies associated with the transit of cyclones across the Mediterranean: these conditions were similar to the conditions in the open sea. Numerical simulations of SSA were compared with observed wave height on a daily basis. The comparison showed that a high correlation between observed wind speed and wave height was accompanied by a high correlation between wave height and modeled SSA concentrations. This indicates that the model is capable of producing realistic variations of SSA concentrations over the open sea, in line with observed wind speed and wave height.

Kishcha, Pavel; Nickovic, Slobodan; Agnon, Yehuda; Alpert, Pinhas

2010-05-01

189

Sea modeling and rendering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

2010-10-01

190

Probability of Sea Level Rise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those m...

J. G. Titus V. K. Narayanan

1995-01-01

191

Probability of sea level rise  

SciTech Connect

The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those models are based on subjective probability distributions supplied by a cross-section of climatologists, oceanographers, and glaciologists.

Titus, J.G.; Narayanan, V.K.

1995-10-01

192

Palaeoclimate: The sea ice thickens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the presence of high-latitude sea ice before 2.6 million years ago. A reanalysis of marine sediments from the Arctic Ocean indicates an intermittent presence of perennial sea ice as early as 44 million years ago.

Stickley, Catherine E.

2014-03-01

193

Arctic Sea ice model sensitivities.  

SciTech Connect

Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and, due to feedback effects, the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice state to internal model parameters. A new sea ice model that holds some promise for improving sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of this MPM sea ice code and compare it with the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness,and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana Stefanova

2010-12-01

194

Remote Sensing of Sea Ice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are studying fully polarimetric scattering of electromagnetic waves from snow and sea ice with a three-layer random medium model which can account for snow covered sea ice. The snow layer is modeled as an isotropic random medium characterized by a scal...

J. A. Kong, R. T. Shin, M. Borgeaud, S. V. Nghiem

1989-01-01

195

Country Analysis Briefs: Caspian Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Caspian Sea region has become a central focal point for untapped oil and natural gas resources from the southern portion of the former Soviet Union. Beginning in May 2005, oil from the southern sections of the Caspian Sea began pumping through a new p...

2007-01-01

196

Glass Munchers Under the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA Astrobiology Institute article documents recent findings of bacterial life beneath the sea floor. These newly discovered bacteria are thought to live as far down as 500 meters beneath the sea floor and eat through volcanic rock, leaving behind burrows. The article contains hyperlinks to websites explaining some key vocabulary, related websites, and color photos and maps.

Mullen, Leslie; Institute, Nasa A.

197

Anatomy of Sea Turtles (Manual).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for an up-to-date guide to the anatomy of sea turtles became clear toward the end of the 1900s. Increasing numbers of individuals developed the interest, talents, and techniques to study the biology of sea turtles, contend with their illnesses an...

J. Wyneken

2001-01-01

198

Salton: A Sea of Controversy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea is an accidental lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the area's ecosystems. The sea is important for wildlife and recreation but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be sav

Vessey, Kristin B.

2000-09-01

199

Seafloor Control on Sea Ice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The seafloor has a profound role in Arctic sea ice formation and seasonal evolution. Ocean bathymetry controls the distribution and mixing of warm and cold waters, which may originate from different sources, thereby dictating the pattern of sea ice on the...

D. K. Hall G. Neumann I. G. Rigor P. Clemente-Colon S. V. Nghiem

2011-01-01

200

Geophysics of sea ice in the Baltic Sea: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With improved observation methods, increased winter navigation, and increased awareness of the climate and environmental changes, research on the Baltic Sea ice conditions has become increasingly active. Sea ice has been recognized as a sensitive indicator for changes in climate. Although the inter-annual variability in the ice conditions is large, a change towards milder ice winters has been detected from the time series of the maximum annual extent of sea ice and the length of the ice season. On the basis of the ice extent, the shift towards a warmer climate took place in the latter half of the 19th century. On the other hand, data on the ice thickness, which are mostly limited to the land-fast ice zone, basically do not show clear trends during the 20th century, except that during the last 20 years the thickness of land-fast ice has decreased. Due to difficulties in measuring the pack-ice thickness, the total mass of sea ice in the Baltic Sea is, however, still poorly known. The ice extent and length of the ice season depend on the indices of the Arctic Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation. Sea ice dynamics, thermodynamics, structure, and properties strongly interact with each other, as well as with the atmosphere and the sea. The surface conditions over the ice-covered Baltic Sea show high spatial variability, which cannot be described by two surface types (such as ice and open water) only. The variability is strongly reflected to the radiative and turbulent surface fluxes. The Baltic Sea has served as a testbed for several developments in the theory of sea ice dynamics. Experiences with advanced models have increased our understanding on sea ice dynamics, which depends on the ice thickness distribution, and in turn redistributes the ice thickness. During the latest decade, advance has been made in studies on sea ice structure, surface albedo, penetration of solar radiation, sub-surface melting, and formation of superimposed ice and snow ice. A high vertical resolution has been found as a prerequisite to successfully model thermodynamic processes during the spring melt period. A few observations have demonstrated how the river discharge and ice melt affect the stratification of the oceanic boundary layer below the ice and the oceanic heat flux to the ice bottom. In general, process studies on ice-ocean interaction have been rare. In the future, increasingly multidisciplinary studies are needed with close links between sea ice physics, geochemistry and biology.

Vihma, Timo; Haapala, Jari

2009-03-01

201

The Aral Sea: Then and Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan asks students to consider what happens when a sea shrinks and to compare pictures of the Aral Sea at different times. They will conclude by pretending to be residents of the Aral Sea region, drawing before and after pictures of how changes to the sea have affected their lives. Students will conduct an experiment to see whether salt evaporates with water; hypothesize what might happen to people, animals, and plants living near a shrinking sea; compare satellite images of the Aral Sea from 1973 and 1999; match problems in the Aral Sea region with statements about these problems in the Aral Sea family activity; discuss changes that are occurring in the Aral Sea region; and create drawings depicting the lives of people in the Aral Sea region before and after the sea began to shrink.

202

Beneath the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains videos from the "Beneath the Sea" television episode, related website articles and student activities, and an interactive ocean game that tests knowledge of what creatures live at what depth. The videos feature technologies that have opened up the farthest reaches of the ocean and a remote submarine as it dives to the unexplored middle depths of the ocean off Monterey, California, revealing a spectacular variety of new life forms. The videos total approximately one hour in length. The articles explore how life survives in dark hot ocean vents and how this may shed light on the origin of life on Earth; evidence in support of the flood in the biblical story of Noah; and what deep-ocean research has revealed about continental drift, plate tectonics, and the formation of the Earth.

203

Deep Sea Duel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app for the Illuminations online card game Deep Sea Duel (cataloged separately) helps users develop mental computation skills by finding sums of 3 or 4 numbers. A student and the opponent, Okta the octopus take turns selecting cards. The first one to reach the target sum with 3 cards (in the 9-card game) or 4 cards (in the 16-card game) wins the game. You can choose how many cards are presented (9 or 16), what types of numbers they display (small integers through tricky decimals), and Okta's level of strategy. The game is not timed but depends on strategic planning in order to defend against Okta's moves while trying to collect a winning group of cards.

2012-08-02

204

Deep Sea Duel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Android app for the Illuminations online game Deep Sea Duel card game helps users develop mental computation skills by finding sums of 3 or 4 numbers. A student and the opponent, Okta the octopus take turns selecting cards. The first one to reach the target sum with 3 cards (in the 9-card game) or 4 cards (in the 16-card game) wins the game. You can choose how many cards are presented (9 or 16), what types of numbers they display (small integers through tricky decimals), and Okta's level of strategy. The game is not timed but depends on strategic planning in order to defend against Okta's moves while trying to collect a winning group of cards.

2012-08-29

205

Polarimetric backscattering from sea ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polarimetric backscattering from sea ice is presented. Theoretical models for backscattering are first presented for various ice types. Then, theoretical results are compared with experimental data for new thin ice, first-year ice, and multi-year ice. Sea ice is modeled as a layer medium containing random scatterers and rough interfaces. For multi-year sea ice with snow cover, the sea ice layer is modeled as an ice background with embedded spheroidal air bubbles and the snow layer as air with ice grains. The hummocky topography on multi-year ice is characterized by a Gaussian distribution which has an averaging effect on backscattering coefficients. First-year sea ice is described by an ice medium hosting ellipsoidal brine inclusions. These inclusions are oriented preferentially in the vertical direction due to the columnar structure of first-year sea ice. Azimuthally, the orientation of the brine pockets are random corresponding to the random c-axes in sea ice, unless the axes are oriented by sea currents. For thin ice in newly opened leads, it has been observed that there exists a thin brine layer with very high salinity on the top surface of the new ice. This brine layer is depicted as a medium with high permittivity which can significantly affect electromagnetic scattering signatures from the lower thin ice layer, with a higher fractional volume of brine inclusions due to higher salinity as compared to thick first-year sea ice. The rough medium interfaces are described as Gaussian rough surfaces characterized by root-mean-square heights and surface correlation lengths. The contribution from rough surface, calculated under the Kirchhoff approximation or small perturbation method, is assumed to be independent from volume scattering. The total loss including absorption and scattering losses in the scattering media is represented by the imaginary part of effective permittivity obtained from the strong fluctuation theory. The polarimetric scattering coefficients for different ice types are then derived under the distorted Born approximation.

Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.

1993-01-01

206

Salton, A Sea of Controversy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea is an “accidental” lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the area’s ecosystems. The Salton Sea is important for wildlife and recreation, but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be saved? This case examines the Salton Sea’s problems and uncertain future. The case would be suitable for introductory environmental, biology, geography and geology classes, and courses dealing with land use, water resources, agriculture, birds or fish, ecosystems, and government policy.

Vessey, Kristin B.

1999-01-01

207

Iodine emissions from the sea ice of the Weddell Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine compounds were measured above, below and within the sea ice of the Weddell Sea during a cruise in 2009, to elucidate the mechanism of local enhancement and volatilisation of iodine. I2 mixing ratios of up to 12.4 pptv were measured 10 m above the sea ice, and up to 31 pptv was observed above surface snow on the nearby Brunt Ice Shelf - large amounts. Atmospheric IO of up to 7 pptv was measured from the ship, and the average sum of HOI and ICl was 1.9 pptv. These measurements confirm the Weddell Sea as an iodine hotspot. Average atmospheric concentrations of CH3I, C2H5I, CH2ICl, 2-C3H7I, CH2IBr and 1-C3H7I were each 0.2 pptv or less. On the Brunt Ice Shelf, enhanced concentrations of CH3I and C2H5I (up to 0.5 and 1 pptv, respectively) were observed in firn air, with a diurnal profile that suggests the snow may be a source. In the sea ice brine, iodocarbons concentrations were over 10 times those of the sea water below. The sum of iodide + iodate was depleted in sea ice samples, suggesting some missing iodine chemistry. Flux calculations suggest I2 dominates the iodine atom flux to the atmosphere, but models cannot reconcile the observations and suggest either a missing iodine source or other deficiencies in our understanding of iodine chemistry. The observation of new particle formation, consistent with the model predictions, strongly suggests an iodine source. This combined study of iodine compounds is the first of its kind in this unique region of sea ice rich in biology and rich in iodine chemistry.

Atkinson, H. M.; Huang, R.-J.; Chance, R.; Roscoe, H. K.; Hughes, C.; Davison, B.; Schönhardt, A.; Mahajan, A. S.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Hoffmann, T.; Liss, P. S.

2012-05-01

208

Iodine emissions from the sea ice of the Weddell Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine compounds were measured above, below and within the sea ice of the Weddell Sea during a cruise in 2009, to make progress in elucidating the mechanism of local enhancement and volatilisation of iodine. I2 mixing ratios of up to 12.4 pptv were measured 10 m above the sea ice, and up to 31 pptv was observed above surface snow on the nearby Brunt Ice Shelf - large amounts. Atmospheric IO of up to 7 pptv was measured from the ship, and the average sum of HOI and ICl was 1.9 pptv. These measurements confirm the Weddell Sea as an iodine hotspot. Average atmospheric concentrations of CH3I, C2H5I, CH2ICl, 2-C3H7I, CH2IBr and 1-C3H7I were each 0.2 pptv or less. On the Brunt Ice Shelf, enhanced concentrations of CH3I and C2H5I (up to 0.5 and 1 pptv respectively) were observed in firn air, with a diurnal profile that suggests the snow may be a source. In the sea ice brine, iodocarbons concentrations were over 10 times those of the sea water below. The sum of iodide + iodate was depleted in sea ice samples, suggesting some missing iodine chemistry. Flux calculations suggest I2 dominates the iodine atom flux to the atmosphere, but models cannot reconcile the observations and suggest either a missing iodine source or other deficiencies in our understanding of iodine chemistry. The observation of new particle formation, consistent with the model predictions, strongly suggests an iodine source. This combined study of iodine compounds is the first of its kind in this unique region of sea ice rich in biology and rich in iodine chemistry.

Atkinson, H. M.; Huang, R.-J.; Chance, R.; Roscoe, H. K.; Hughes, C.; Davison, B.; Schönhardt, A.; Mahajan, A. S.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Hoffmann, T.; Liss, P. S.

2012-11-01

209

Regional variability of sea level trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite altimetry has allowed precise mapping of the geographical variability of the rates of sea level change and showed that sea level is far from rising uniformely. In some regions, rates are up several times the global mean rise, while in other regions sea level is falling. Like observed sea level trends, observed and model-based ocean thermal expansion trends are

A. Cazenave; A. Lombard; W. Llovel; R. Abarca Del Rio

2007-01-01

210

Current Aspects of Sea Law.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following introductory remarks by S. W. Wurfel are the following studies: The United States Draft Seabed Convention--background, interests represented, and prospects for agreement; The Stockholm Conference--some implications for the law of the sea; Develo...

S. W. Wurfel

1974-01-01

211

Find the Deep Sea Vent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tool helps students grasp the difficult task of locating deep sea vents. By allowing them to virtually survey a portion of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean, they get to experience the process firsthand.

212

Deep Sea Vents Web List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This student-friendly list has eight web sites that relate to deep sea vents. A short description follows each site, listing the reference materials, interactive tools, videos, sound recordings, photo archives, or other resources that can be found there.

213

2013 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum  

NASA Video Gallery

After an unusually cold summer in the northernmost latitudes, Arctic sea ice appears to have reached its annual minimum summer extent for 2013 on Sept. 13, the NASA-supported National Snow and Ice ...

214

Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.  

SciTech Connect

Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

2010-06-01

215

By Land, Sea or Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn that navigational techniques change when people travel to different places â land, sea, air and space. For example, an explorer traveling by land uses different navigation methods and tools than a sailor or an astronaut.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

216

The Kemps Ridley Sea Turtle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video adapted from Texas Parks and Wildlife Department describes how humans are helping restore safe nesting grounds for the critically endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtle to ensure its successful repopulation.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

217

Arctic Sea Ice Satellite Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity produced for Teachers' Domain, learn how Arctic sea ice has changed over the past 25 years in terms of maximum winter extent, concentration, and the timing of breakup each spring.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2008-01-17

218

Introduction to Sea Island Folklife.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the economic activity, language, world view, kinship patterns, and religion of contemporary Sea Islanders in order to illustrate the Islands' cultural conservatism and, thus, their appropriateness for the study of Africanism in the United States. (GC)

Twining, Mary A.; Baird, Keith E.

1980-01-01

219

Salton sea project, phase 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

Peelgren, M. L.

1982-01-01

220

A Can of Sea Worms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

Zinn, Donald J.

1977-01-01

221

Yellow Sea Shallow Water Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this grant is to support the acquisition of both oceanographic and acoustic measurements to assesss reverberation and the backscatter from the sea bottom and surface, propagation loss, and the effects of internal wave soutons on acoustic mo...

G. W. Caille P. H. Rogers

1997-01-01

222

Mapping Deep-sea Habitats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate bathymetric mapping of deep-sea habitats to see how deep-sea areas of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands can be mapped to facilitate their exploration with a manned submersible. Students will create a two-dimensional topographic map from bathymetric survey data, a three-dimensional model of landforms from a two-dimensional topographic map, and will interpret two- and three-dimensional topographic data.

Goodwin, Mel

223

Earthwatch Radio: Sea Lamprey Resurgence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast describes efforts to control the population of sea lampreys in the Great Lakes. Sea lampreys, an invasive species from the Atlantic Ocean, have populated the lakes for years, but have recently increased in numbers despite efforts to control them. A hole in a dam on the Manistique River on the northern edge of Lake Michigan is thought to have caused the problem. The clip is 2 minutes in length and may be downloaded in MP3 format.

Kalinowski, Laura

2012-09-17

224

SeaWIFS: Teacher Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The SeaWIFS project uses space technology to study phytoplankton. Site contains: The Living Ocean Teacher's Guide, a guide for grades 9-10 that discusses satellites, ocean color, phytoplankton, the carbon cycle, and greenhouse effect; Classic CZCS Scenes, a tutorial about ocean color using some of the more interesting CZCS images; and Monitoring the Earth from Space with SeaWiFS, an presentation about ocean color; and several other remote sensing resources.

225

Sea Turtle First Aid Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 4 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into testing a repair material. Groups of learners perform âfirst aidâ on a cut orange, which represents propeller damage on the back of a leatherback sea turtle. Learners use a variety of repair materials and predict how well various treatments will work, then observe treated, untreated, and uncut control oranges for 4 days. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Sea Turtles.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

226

DESERVE - Dead Sea Research Venue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DESERVE 'Dead Sea Research Venue' focuses on the Dead Sea region as it is a unique environment and may be considered as one of the most inspiring natural laboratories on Earth. The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. DESERVE addresses three grand challenges: Environmental Risks, Water Availability, Climate Change and comprises long term monitoring of geophysical parameters, studies of coupled processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as well as modeling of prediction and remediation strategies of geogenic risks. The Dead Sea has been selected for this integrated approach because it constitutes an outstanding 'natural laboratory' to study these phenomena, as - all 3 challenges are critical in this region. - the region is especially sensitive to climate change and human influences such as ground and surface water over-exploitation for agriculture and industrial purposes. - environmental processes are subject to boundary conditions that cannot be found elsewhere on Earth - understanding their interactions and the future evolution of the whole Dead Sea region are of key importance for economic development in peaceful cooperation. Results obtained in the Dead Sea region are also of prototype relevance for other (semi)-arid terminal basins of the world.

Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.

2013-12-01

227

Intermittent sea-level acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

2013-10-01

228

North Sea platforms revamped  

SciTech Connect

Many of the early North Sea platforms are reaching their end-of-field life. Most are still equipped with their original drilling package. In a few cases the package has either been removed or decommissioned. The early installations were designed for much simpler and less demanding wells than the horizontal, extended-reach or designer wells common today. Extended-reach wells now can be drilled realistically from ageing platforms, without incurring massive capital expenditure. This can be achieved using the existing drilling package to the limit of its capabilities and supplementing where necessary with relatively minor upgrades or the use of temporary equipment. Drilling even a few more wells from existing platforms not only prolongs field life, it enables any surplus processing capacity to be made available to develop near-field potential with extended-reach drilling (ERD) or by tying back subsea satellite wells, or for processing third-party fluids. The paper describes well design, surface equipment, mud pumps, shakers and solids control equipment, drill cuttings disposal systems, derrick and hoisting system, top drive and drillstring, downhole equipment, well planning, casing wear, logistics, rig preparations, and ERD vs. subsea tie-backs.

O'Hare, J.

1999-12-01

229

Applied Sea Ice Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1960s oil and gas development became an issue in the northern coastal areas of Alaska and Canada. More lately this has also become an issue in the Euroasian Arctic with the Barents and Kara Seas as example on where offshore hydrocarbon production now is being planned. In such waters the key questions prior to a development are related to water depths at the site and in case of ice, how frequent and what type of ice features will be met. Especially the ice conditions and knowledge about them are very decisive for the field development solutions to be chosen. The paper will highlight examples on development solutions where the ice conditions have played a paramount role in the field development plans. An example is the consequences of iceberg threaten in an area and the effect sudden changes in ice drift directions may have on the exploration and drilling solutions chosen. The paper will also discuss how to derive design ice actions values for such waters including scaling from nature to model ice basins.

Løset, S.

2009-04-01

230

50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...mackerel, squid, butterfish, scup, black sea bass, bluefish, spiny dogfish...permit, a scup moratorium permit, a black sea bass moratorium permit, a bluefish...mammals, summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, bluefish, spiny...

2013-10-01

231

Influence of oceanic heat variability on sea ice anomalies in the Nordic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strong control of sea ice area (SIA) in the Nordic Seas in the period 1982-2006 by oceanic heat variability is reported. In particular, variability of summer Atlantic water temperature in the Barents Sea Opening explains about 75% of the variance of the following winter SIA anomalies which opens prospects for seasonal predictability of regional sea ice cover. A strong link of winter SIA anomalies to variability in the previous spring sea surface temperature on the western (Greenland Sea) and eastern (Barents Sea) sides of the Nordic Seas indicates that the oceanic control of sea ice cover in these areas mainly results from postsummer surface reemergence of oceanic heat anomalies generated by earlier atmospheric forcing. In particular, late winter North Atlantic Oscillation and anomalous winds across the Barents Sea ice edge significantly influence next winter sea ice cover on the western and eastern sides of the Nordic Seas, respectively.

Schlichtholz, P.

2011-03-01

232

Deep-sea Hexactinellida (Porifera) of the Weddell Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Hexactinellida from the deep Weddel Sea are described. This moderately diverse hexactinellid fauna includes 14 species belonging to 12 genera, of which five species and one subgenus are new to science: Periphragella antarctica n. sp., Holascus pseudostellatus n. sp., Caulophacus (Caulophacus) discohexactinus n. sp., C. ( Caulodiscus) brandti n. sp., C. ( Oxydiscus) weddelli n. sp., and C. ( Oxydiscus) n. subgen. So far, 20 hexactinellid species have been reported from the deep Weddell Sea, 15 are known from the northern part and 10 only from here, while 10 came from the southern area, and five of these only from there. However, this apparent high "endemism" of Antarctic hexactinellid sponges is most likely the result of severe undersampling of the deep-sea fauna. We find no reason to believe that a division between an oceanic and a more continental group of species exists. The current poor database indicates that a substantial part of the deep hexactinellid fauna of the Weddell Sea is shared with other deep-sea regions, but it does not indicate a special biogeographic relationship with any other ocean.

Janussen, Dorte; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Tendal, Ole S.

2004-07-01

233

Sea ice drift tracking in the Bohai Sea based on optical flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Bohai Sea, sea ice drifting is hardly tracked due to the highly sea motion. The long satellite repeat cycles in the polar region are not suitable to the ice drift tracking in the Bohai Sea. The unique characteristics of the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) allow the tracking of sea ice drift on a daily basis with the use of 1-hour time intervals images (eight images per day). The optical flow method is applied to track the sea ice drift in the Bohai Sea. Experiments have shown that the sea ice vectors from the optical flow method are agreement well with the manually selected reference data.

Wu, Qing; Lang, Wenhui; Zhang, Xi; Yang, Xuezhi

2014-04-01

234

Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion  

SciTech Connect

An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

1991-12-31

235

Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion  

SciTech Connect

An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

1991-01-01

236

SeaWinds - Greenland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The frequent coverage provided by NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite provides unprecedented capability to monitor daily and seasonal changes in the key melt zones of Greenland, which is covered with a thick ice sheet that resulted from snow accumulating over tens of thousands of years. The thickness of the snow layers reveals details about the past global climate, and comparing snow accumulation and snow melting can provide insight into climate change and global warming. In particular, the extent of summer melting of snow in Greenland is considered a sensitive indicator of global change.

Earlier scatterometer data has suggested that Greenland has experienced significantly more melting in recent years. This figure compares the melting observed over 15 days during July 1999 in Greenland. The red areas around the central blue and white areas are the main melt zones and have lower radar back scatter because of water on the surface that saturates the surface snow. As the days warm up, the melt extent dramatically increases. Comparing this data with computer models and past scatterometer data will help scientists evaluate the inter-annual variability of the melting as a step toward understanding potential climate change.

The world's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica act as vast storehouses of freshwater. Summer season melting releases large quantities of freshwater into the ocean, and year-to-year variations can have a significant impact on global sea level. Furthermore, long-term changes in the patterns and extent of melting on the large ice sheets reflect the effects of climate variability; thus Greenland is considered a sensitive indicator of global warming.

Satellite microwave radars are extremely sensitive to melting and can provide the only effective means of accurately measuring the year-round picture of the extent and variability in ice sheet melting. Daily mean images were produced from QuikScat data collected over the Greenland ice sheet at the height of the present summer melt period. In the top row, four images are shown at intervals of 5 days, for (a) day 203, (b) 208,(c) 213, and (d) 218 in 1999. Blue and white colors indicate surfaces which are cold and dry, while read and black indicate wet snow surfaces experiencing melting. The coastal regions are lower in elevation and begin to melt first. As summer progresses, the area of melting expands inland and northwards along the western coast of Greenland as air temperatures warm. A large pale and dark blue region in the central, high-elevation part of the ice sheet survives each summer without experiencing any melting. This is known as the dry snow region, and its area is a measure of the stability of the central part of the ice sheet. The line dividing the melt area and the dry snow is very sensitive to climate conditions and monitoring this line will help scientists determine whether the Earth's climate is changing.

The lower series of four images shows the daily variability in the radar data within each image. White patches in these images identify regions where the most rapid changes are taking place. Air temperature and precipitation variations are responsible for the patterns, with the greatest impact over the southern tip of Greenland occurring from storms originating over the Atlantic. Note that the red areas of central and northern Greenland experience much smaller or slower changes, with the central ice sheet showing little change during this summer period.

With its frequent coverage, the SeaWinds instrument is a power and unique tool for monitoring the health of the large ice sheets. The continuing time-series of data is a valuable contribution to assessments of the effects and impact of global change in the polar regions.

NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

1999-01-01

237

Satellite observations of sea surface temperature and sea surface wind coupling in the Japan Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate ocean-atmosphere coupling in the Japan Sea by using microwave satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface wind from 1 June 2002 to 31 December 2004. First, it is observed that instantaneous wind speeds are modified by SST front meanders in widespread areas in the Japan Sea. Increased/reduced wind speeds are found over warmer/colder water. Then, we compute SST and wind speed anomalies by spatial high-pass filtering in order to present their time evolution along 132°E. SST and wind speed anomalies are negatively correlated off Vladivostok (>41°N) in winter. This is consistent with the interpretation that there is large turbulent heat flux loss due to the wind speed maximum off Vladivostok or the gap exit region of the northwesterly wind jet. However, except for this region in winter, we find strong positive correlation between SST and wind speed anomalies throughout the year at any latitudes. Wind speed anomalies are linearly related to SST anomalies. Meanwhile, we identify two pairs of positive and negative SST anomaly bands in the time-space structure of the Japan Sea and compare the band locations with meridional SST gradient magnitude. As a result, the two boundaries of the SST anomaly bands are associated with the Polar Front and the Tsushima Warm Current front. Additionally, it is found that discontinuous SST anomaly patches correspond to oceanic eddies. These results lead to the conclusion that sea surface winds over the Japan Sea come under the influence of those SST frontal systems.

Shimada, Teruhisa; Kawamura, Hiroshi

2006-08-01

238

Effects of sea spray geoengineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic climate warming is leading to consideration of options for geoengineering to offset rising carbon dioxide levels. One potential technique involves injecting artificial sea spray into the atmosphere. The sea salt particles would affect Earth's radiation budget directly, by scattering incoming solar radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei, which could lead to whiter clouds that reflect more radiation. However, the potential effects of this method, especially the direct effects, are not fully known. Partanen et al. studied the effects of artificial sea spray using climate model simulations. They found that outside of the most heavily clouded regions the direct effect of scattering of radiation was an important part of the total effect. They also examined the effect of particle size and found that decreasing the size of injected particles could improve the efficiency of the geoengineering technique.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-03-01

239

ConcepTest: Effect of Rain on Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A majority of Earth's water is in the oceans. Predict what would happen to sea level if rain fell continuously all over the world's oceans. a. Sea level would rise b. Sea level would fall c. Sea level ...

240

Factors controlling ebro deep-sea fan growth, Mediterranean Sea  

SciTech Connect

Tectonic, sediment-source and sea-level factors control depositional patterns of the Ebro deep-sea fan system. In unstable, steep continental slope terrain, mass movement of material results in wide gullied canyons and formation of non-channelized debris aprons. These fan channels develop low sinuosity and generally traverse the continental rise without feeding into depositional lobes because of steep gradients (1:50 to 1:100) and sediment draining into the subsiding Valencia Valley graben. An abundance of sediment input points from mass failure and many river-fed canyons contributes to a depositional pattern of side-by-side debris aprons and separate channel-levee complexes. When a large sediment supply feeds a channel for a relatively long period 1) fan valley sinuosity increases: 2) channel walls are modified through undercutting, slumping, and crevasse splays: 3) channel bifurcation occurs: 4) incipient depositional lobe formation begins. Lowering of sea levels in Late Pleistocene time permitted the access of coarse river sediment to slope valleys and promoted deposition of numerous turbidites and active growth of the fan. During the Holocene, when sea levels have been high, a regime of hemipelagic sedimentation, mass movement, and debris apron sedimentation has dominated.

Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Alonso, B.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, W.B.F.; Kastens, K.; O'Connel, S.

1985-01-01

241

Teleconnections and Sea Ice Variability in the Greenland Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to examine and test the hypothesis that the multiyear sea ice variability in the East Greenland Current is related to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation phenomenon and/or the North Atlantic Oscillation via atmospheric teleconnec...

W. A. Wilson

1986-01-01

242

SeaWorld Snack Shop - SeaWorld Classroom Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-solving activity, challenges students to take on the role of a Food Services Manager placing orders for a snack shop at Sea World. To solve the problem they will use data and proportional reasoning to make predictions and communicate findings.

Teachers, Sea W.

2012-05-06

243

Future sea-level rise in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secular sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea are the result of a number of processes characterized by distinct time scales and spatial patterns. Here we predict the future sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea to year 2050 combining the contributions from terrestrial ice melt (TIM), glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), and the ocean response (OR) that includes the thermal expansion and the ocean circulation contributions. The three contributions are characterized by comparable magnitudes but distinctly different sea-level fingerprints across the Mediterranean basin. The TIM component of future sea-level rise is taken from Spada et al. (2013) and it is mainly driven by the melt of small glaciers and ice caps and by the dynamic ice loss from Antarctica. The sea-level fingerprint associated with GIA is studied using two distinct models available from the literature: ICE-5G(VM2) (Peltier, 2004) and the ice model progressively developed at the Research School of Earth Sciences (RSES) of the National Australian University (KL05) (see Fleming and Lambeck, 2004 and references therein). Both the GIA and the TIM sea-level predictions have been obtained with the aid of the SELEN program (Spada and Stocchi, 2007). The spatially-averaged OR component, which includes thermosteric and halosteric sea-level variations, recently obtained using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model (Carillo et al., 2012), vary between 2 and 7 cm according to scenarios adopted (EA1B and EA1B2, see Meehl at al., 2007). Since the sea-level variations associated with TIM mainly result from the gravitational interactions between the cryosphere components, the oceans and the solid Earth, and long-wavelength rotational variations, they are characterized by a very smooth global pattern and by a marked zonal symmetry reflecting the dipole geometry of the ice sources. Since the Mediterranean Sea is located in the intermediate far-field of major ice sources, TIM sea-level changes have sub-eustatic values (i.e. they do not exceed the global average) and show little (but still significant) variations across the basin associated with the subsidence driven by the meltwater load. For year 2050, TIM calculations predict a sea-level rise of ~10 and ~30 cm for the mid range and the high end scenarios, respectively. Mainly because of the distinct mantle viscosity profiles adopted in ICE-5G(VM2) and KL05, the GIA patterns differ significantly and, in contrast with the TIM fingerprint, are both characterized by strong variations across the Mediterranean Sea, showing maximum values in the bulk of the basin. For the OR component, a significant geographical variation is observed across the Mediterranean sub-basins, corresponding to different Atlantic boundary conditionsAccording to this study, the total future sea-level rise for year 2050 will reach maximum values for the extreme scenario (hig-hend prediction for TIM, KL05 for GIA and EA1B2 for OR) of ˜ 27 cm in average with peak of ˜ 30 cm in the central sub-basins. Our results show that when these three components of future sea-level rise are simultaneously considered, the spatial variability is enhanced because of the neatly distinct geometry of the three fingerprints. References: Carillo, A., Sannino, G., Artale, V., Ruti, P., Calmanti, S., DellAquila, A., 2012, Clim. Dyn. 39 (9-10), 2167-2184; Fleming, K. and Lambeck, K., 2004, Quat. Sci. Rev. 23 (9-10), 1053-1077; Meehl, G.A., and 11 others, 2007, in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Cambridge University Press; Peltier W.R., 2004, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 32, 111-149; Spada, G. and Stocchi, P., 2007, Comput. and Geosci., 33(4), 538-562; Spada G., Bamber J. L., Hurkmans R. T. W. L., 2013, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1-5, 40.

Galassi, Gaia; Spada, Giorgio

2014-05-01

244

Sea Otter Pup Wants the Worm  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sea otter pup watches eagerly as its mother eats a fat innkeeper worm in Monterey Bay, California. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

245

Origin of the Crimea and Black Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is generally assumed that the Crimean mountains represent the remnants of a large mountain structure-anticlinorium, similar to the Caucasus Mountains, destroyed during the formation of the Black Sea basin. Many geologists considered the Black Sea to be...

S. A. Kovalevskii

1967-01-01

246

Measuring the Composition of a Cryogenic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titan seas are prime science targets, but compositional measurements require robust sampling techniques. We will discuss the challenges and successful developments towards cryogenic fluid sampling and mass spectrometric measurement of Titan seas.

Trainer, M. G.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Stofan, E. R.; Lunine, J. I.; Lorenz, R. D.

2012-10-01

247

Lysosomes and Intracellular Digestion in Sea Stars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of lysosomes and intracellular digestion in sea stars seemed ideal. Echinoderms occupy an intermediate position in the phylogenetic progression from protozoan to mammal. A single sea star can cleanly provide a large amount of relatively homogeno...

G. S. Araki

1969-01-01

248

Antarctic sea ice mapping using the AVHRR  

SciTech Connect

A sea ice mapping scheme based on Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar orbiting satellites has been developed and applied to daylight images taken between November 1989 to January 1990 and November 1990 to January 1991 over the Weddell and the Ross Seas. After masking the continent and ice shelves, sea ice is discriminated from clouds and open sea using thresholds applied to the multidimensional space formed by AVHRR Channel 2, 3, and 4 radiances. Sea ice concentrations in cloud-free regions are then computed using the tie-point method. Results based on the analysis of more than 70 images show that the proposed scheme is capable of properly discriminating between sea ice, open sea, and clouds, under most conditions, thus allowing high resolution sea ice maps to be produced during the austral summer season.

Zibordi, G. (Inst. for the Study of Geophysical and Environmental Methodologies, Modena (Italy)); Van Woert, M.L. (San Diego State Univ., CA (United States). SeaSpace, Inc.)

1993-08-01

249

Day Pass Down the Red Sea  

NASA Video Gallery

This video over the southeastern Mediterranean Sea and down the coastline of the Red Sea was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was ta...

250

Isotopic Composition and Origin of the Red Sea and Salton Sea Geothermal Brines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements show that the Red Sea and Salton Sea brines are the results of a single process, the leaching of sediments by surface water circulating downward to a geothermal reservoir. The Salton Sea brine is derived from local precipitation but the Red Sea brine originates 1000 kilometers south of its basin, on the shallow sill which controls

H. Craig

1966-01-01

251

Research highlights from the Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment in the South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment (ASIAEX) included two major field programs, one in the South China Sea (SCS) and the other in the East China Sea (ECS). This paper summarizes results from the work conducted during April and May 2000 and 2001 over the continental shelf and slope in the northeastern South China Sea, just east of Dongsha Island

James F. Lynch; Steven R. Ramp; Ching-Sang Chiu; Tswen Yung Tang; Y.-J. Yang; J. A. Simmen

2004-01-01

252

Development and properties of sea ice in the coastal regime of the southeastern Weddell Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

From October to December 1986 a program consisting of sea ice core analysis in combination with sea ice observations was carried out from the icebreaker R\\/V Polarstern as part of the Winter Weddel Sea Project. The ship operated in the central and southeastern Weddell Sea with interests focusing on the ice shelf front between 70°S and 77°S where a system

Hajo Eicken; Manfred A. Lange

1989-01-01

253

Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route: Studies and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the rapid changes that are under way in Arctic sea ice extent, Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route is a timely work. The Northern Sea Route (NSR), along the Arctic coast of Russia, has a long history, dating back to 1932, when the Soviet Union established the NSR administration to develop hydrometeorological services. Shipping along

Roger G. Barry

2008-01-01

254

Ice core records as sea ice proxies: An evaluation from the Weddell Sea region of Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice core records of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) from three sites around the Weddell Sea are investigated for their potential as sea ice proxies. It is found that the amount of MSA reaching the ice core sites decreases following years of increased winter sea ice in the Weddell Sea; opposite to the expected relationship if MSA is to be used as

Nerilie J. Abram; Robert Mulvaney; Eric W. Wolff; Manfred Mudelsee

2007-01-01

255

Ice core records as sea ice proxies: An evaluation from the Weddell Sea region of Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Ice core records of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) from three sites around the Weddell Sea are investigated for their potential as sea ice proxies. It is found that the amount of MSA reaching the ice core sites decreases following years of increased winter sea ice in the Weddell Sea; opposite to the expected relationship if MSA is to be used

Nerilie J. Abram; Robert Mulvaney; Eric W. Wolff; Manfred Mudelsee

2007-01-01

256

Coastal Consequences of Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ocean's surface is not level, and sea levels change in response to changes in chemistry and temperature. Sophisticated satellite measurements are required for scientists to document current sea level rise. This module explores the evidence for sea level rise related to global climate change and the consequences for humanity, especially coastal-dwelling populations. Students will have the opportunity to analyze interactive data to understand the potential consequences of climate change on sea level in different parts of the world.

2010-01-01

257

Sea level rise in the Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 60 tide-gauge stations in the Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi Seas have recorded the sea level change from the 1950s through 1990s. Over this 40-year period, most of these stations show a significant sea level rise (SLR). In light of global change, this SLR could be a manifestation of warming in the Arctic coupled with a decrease of sea

Andrey Proshutinsky; Vladimir Pavlov; Robert H. Bourke

2001-01-01

258

Minimal Antarctic sea ice during the Pliocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antarctic sea-ice concentration at Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1165 (64.380°S, 67.219°E) and 1166 (67.696°S, 74.787°E) was lower than today through much of the Pliocene. The low sea-ice concentration is evident from the proportion of the diatom Eucampia antarctica with intercalary valves (Eucampia index). This sea-ice proxy was calibrated by using modern diatom data obtained from core-top samples and winter sea-ice

J. M. Whitehead; S. Wotherspoon; S. M. Bohaty

2005-01-01

259

Ground Wave Propagation over Arctic Sea Ice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radio ground wave propagation in the Arctic Ocean occurs over mixed paths. The mixed paths include layered or homogeneous sea ice and sea water. Amplitude and phase variations occurring as 'dropoff' or 'recovery' effects at the ice-sea water boundaries pr...

A. W. Biggs

1970-01-01

260

Sea Grant: Enhancing K-12 Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sea Grant is a major contributor to marine and aquatic education in K-12 classrooms through curriculum development, teacher education, school programs at field sites, and educational research. Describes Sea Grant's efforts in these areas. Specific programs outlined include Operation Pathfinder, Ohio Sea Grant Partnerships for Great Lakes…

Fortner, Rosanne W.

1998-01-01

261

59 FR- Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...061094A] RIN 0648-AG83 Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...Framework Adjustment 1 to the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This...redesignates the fishing year for sea scallops to begin on March 1 each year, and...

1994-07-19

262

59 FR- Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...940368-4068; I.D. 030294C] Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...ring size required for Atlantic sea scallop dredges by amendment 4 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery (FMP) and its...

1994-03-09

263

Recent State of Arctic Sea Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the recent state of Arctic sea ice including observations from 2008 in a context of a multi-decadal perspective. A new record has been set in the reduction of Arctic perennial sea ice extent this winter. As of 1 March 2008, the extent of perennial sea ice was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same

S. V. Nghiem; I. G. Rigor; P. Clemente-Colón; D. K. Perovich; J. A. Richter-Menge; Y. Chao; G. Neumann; M. Ortmeyer

2008-01-01

264

Chaotic radar signal processing over the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is demonstrated that the random nature of sea clutter may be explained as a chaotic phenomenon. For different sets of real sea clutter data, a correlation dimension analysis is used to show that sea clutter can be embedded in a finite-dimensional space. The result of correlation dimension analysis is used to construct a neural network predictor for reconstructing the

Henry Leung; Titus Lo

1993-01-01

265

Divide and Conquer (Fertilization of Sea Urchins)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity engages students in direct observation and inquiry-based experiments using sea urchins. First, they observe normal fertilization and division/cleavage in the sea urchin zygote. Next, they develop hypotheses and design and carry out experiments to test factors that can affect the fertilization of sea urchin eggs.

Ms. Mary Elizabeth Kelley (Bethel High School)

1998-07-01

266

Arctic Sea Ice Extent Plummets in 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic sea ice declined rapidly to unprecedented low extents in the summer of 2007, raising concern that the Arctic may be on the verge of a fundamental transition toward a seasonal ice cover. Arctic sea ice extent typically attains a seasonal maximum in March and minimum in September. Over the course of the modern satellite record (1979 to present), sea

Julienne Stroeve; Mark Serreze; Sheldon Drobot; Shari Gearheard; Marika Holland; James Maslanik; Walt Meier; Ted Scambos

2008-01-01

267

DUNE VEGETATION FERTILIZATION BY NESTING SEA TURTLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea turtle nesting presents a potential pathway to subsidize nutrient-poor dune ecosystems, which provide the nesting habitat for sea turtles. To assess whether this positive feedback between dune plants and turtle nests exists, we measured N concentration and d15N values in dune soils, leaves from a common dune plant (sea oats (Uniola paniculata)), and addled eggs of loggerhead (Caretta caretta)

Laura B. Hannan; James D. Roth; Llewellyn M. Ehrhart; John F. Weishampel

2007-01-01

268

[Comparative analysis of sea-ice diatom species composition in the seas of Russian Arctic].  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of species composition of ice diatom algae (IDA) of the White, Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi Seas and the Basin of the Arctic Ocean was conducted on the basis of both original and published data. Species composition of IDA counts 567 taxa including 122 centric and 446 pennate diatoms. The freshwater algae composed about 18% of the total species number. In the White Sea, IDA were the most numerous (272 taxa), in the Kara Sea they are the least numerous (57 taxa). The species compositions in different seas differ significantly from each other. Similarity of IDA was consistent with the Arctic Ocean circulation and ice drift. IDA of Chukchi, East Siberian and Laptev Seas are the most similar, as are IDA of White and Kara Seas. Similarity of IDA of Chukchi Sea to those of other seas decrease in the west direction. IDA species differences between regions within one sea could be greater than those between different seas. PMID:19425351

Il'iash, L V; Zhitina, L S

2009-01-01

269

The Impact of Sea Surface Temperature Front on Stratus-Sea Fog over the Yellow and East China Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stratus-sea fog event occurred on 3 June 2011 over the Yellow and East China Seas (as shown in figure) is investigated observationally and numerically. Emphasis is put on the influences of the sea surface temperature front (SSTF) and of the synoptic circulations on the transition of stratus to sea fog. The southerly winds from a synoptic high pressure transport water vapor from the East China Sea to the Yellow Sea, while the subsidence induced by the high contributes to the formation of the temperature inversion on the top of the stratus or stratocumulus that appears mainly over the warm flank of a sea surface temperature front in the East China Sea. Forced by the SSTF, there is a secondary cell within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), with a sinking branch on the cold flank and a rising one on the warm flank of the SSTF. This sinking branch, in phase with the synoptic subsidence, forces the stratus or stratocumulus to lower in the elevation getting close to the sea surface as these clouds move northward driven by the southerly winds. The cloud droplets can either reach to the sea surface directly or evaporate into water vapor that may condense again when coming close to the cold sea surface to form fog. In this later case, the stratus and fog may separate. The cooling effect of cold sea surface counteracts the adiabatic heating induced by the subsidence and thus helps the transition of stratus to sea fog in the southern Yellow Sea. By smoothing the SSTF in the numerical experiment, the secondary cell weakens and the sea fog patches shrink obviously over the cold flank of the SSTF though the synoptic subsidence and moist advection still exist. A conceptual model is suggested for the transition of stratus to sea fog in the Yellow and East China Seas, which is helpful for the forecast of sea fog over these areas. The satellite visible image of the stratus-fog event. The fog appears in the Yellow Sea and the stratocumulus in the East China Sea.

Zhang, S.; Li, M.; Liu, F.

2013-12-01

270

Ploughing the deep sea floor.  

PubMed

Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land. PMID:22951970

Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

2012-09-13

271

Internal Waves, South China Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subsurface ocean currents, frequently referred to as internal waves, are frequently seen from space under the right lighting conditions when depth penetration can be achieved. These internal waves observed in the South China Sea off the SE coast of the island of Hainan (18.5N, 110.5E) visibly demonstrate turbidity in the ocean's depths at the confluence of conflicting currents.

1983-01-01

272

Solar sea power plants \\/SSPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current state of knowledge about the design and construction of demonstration solar sea power plants (SSPP) is reviewed. Open-cycle and closed-cycle SSPP design concepts are discussed. Consideration of structural strength, corrosion resistance, manufacturing and assembly difficulties, initial cost and maintenance suggests that concrete is the best choice for SSPP construction at any ocean depth above the thermocline. The characteristics

A. M. Strauss

1975-01-01

273

Great Lakes Region Sea Grant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. It provides information on the GLSG's priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and wildlife.

2010-12-30

274

Great Lakes Region Sea Grant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. Information on GLSG priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and seiches and wildlife.

275

Salton Sea Project, Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe p...

M. L. Peelgren

1982-01-01

276

Past and present Aral Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tragedy of disappearing of Aral Sea is well known to the World. Before and after collapse of Soviet Union, a huge quantity of scientific and popular editions described with grief the situation around the Aral Sea. After the NIS states became independent, World Bank, UNDP, UNEP in proper competition with each other had provided some assessment of the situation through presentation of some small and medium grants, but after 2000, the local population remained alone with own problems. Although on the eyes of the present generation a unique transformation of great water body into deserts took place, the global scientific community did not find forces and financing for real and detail investigation of the processes accompanying the Sea shrinking and land formation. We should acknowledge and give big respect to NATO, later to German Government that through GTZ (now GIZ) - German International Collaboration Agency - and GFZ (Potzdam) paid attention to this area of environment crisis and organized scientific and protective design in the so-called Priaralie - the territory around the drying Sea and delta of the two rivers - Amudarya and Syrdarya. Thank to this assistance, the local specialists in collaboration with limited a number of foreign scientists (N.Aladin, P.Zavialov, Joop de Schutter, Hans Wilps, Hedi Oberhansli) organized significant works for detail socioeconomic, ecological and hydrological assessment situation in Priaralie and on the Aral sea coast. On this base, Ministry of Agriculture and Water resources of Uzbekistan and State Committee of Water resources of Kazakhstan developed a plan of rehabilitation of Amudarya and Syrdarya deltas and started implementation of these projects. If Kazakh water authority moved ahead in wetland restoration faster, a forestation of delta and drying bed of Aral Sea got big success in Uzbek territory. 244 thousands hectares of saxsaul and tamarix were planted for protection of the Priaralie. By request of GTZ SIC, ICWC organized in 2005-2009 sixth expeditions for complex remote sensing and ground investigations Aral Sea former bottom that were complemented in 2010 -2011 by two expeditions with GFZ. As a result, the landscape, soils and environment mapping was done with determination of ecologically unstable zones and assessment total change of lands situation compared with the pre-independence time. Moreover - methodic of monitoring water, environment and hydro geological indicators on the all deltas area was elaborated, organized its testing and combined with remote sensing data on Amudarya delta for 2009-2012. It permits to SIC ICWC to organize systematic permanent (decadal) monitoring and recording of size, volume and level of water in Aral Sea. Since the beginning of regular observations over the Aral Sea level, 2 periods can be emphasized: 1. Conditionally natural period - 1911-1960 - characterized by a relatively stable hydrological regime, with fluctuations in the level around 53 m and the range of inter-annual fluctuations at no more than 1 m., when the sea received annually about a half of the run-off in the Syrdarya and Amudarya Rivers, i.e. 50-60 km3/yr. 2. Intensive anthropogenic impact period - since the 1960s, a vast extension of irrigable land was carried out in Central Asia that resulted in intensive diversion of river run-off. Since then, the sea level has been falling steadily, causing a dramatic reduction in the water surface area, a decrease in water volume and depths, great changes in shoreline configuration and an expansion of the desert areas adjacent to the Aral Sea. From 1960-1985, when the sea was an integral water body, slight lowering in the sea level took place until the 1970s, when the sea-level decreased with the mean level lowering 1 m. The desiccation process accelerated visibly from the mid 1970s. In 1975-1980, the level decreased by 0.65 m a year on average. Moreover, the level dropped greatly, when the run-off of the Amudarya did not reach the Aral Sea any more (1980-1990). Kokaral was the first of the large islands becoming a peninsula, separa

Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

2013-04-01

277

Sea Surface Height 1993 - 2011  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation depicts year-to-year variability in sea surface height, and chronicles two decades of El Niño and La Niña events. It was created using NASA ocean altimetry data from 1993 to 2011, ...

278

Deep Sea Moorings Fishbite Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two types of mooring lines are used in deep sea moorings. One is an unjacketed rope of synthetic fiber. When used for towing and mooring, this type has many favorable properties, but it is highly susceptible to cutting. A second type is a line made of syn...

B. Prindle D. May H. O. Berteaux

1987-01-01

279

Global Sea SurfaceTemperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This illustration of Earth's sea surface temperature was obtained from two weeks of infrared observations by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), an instrument on board NOAA-7, during July 1984. Temperatures are color coded with red being warmest and decreasing through oranges, yellows, greens, and blues. The caption provides a brief description of the features seen in the image.

280

A Deep-Sea Simulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity that simulates exploration techniques used in deep-sea explorations and teaches students how this technology can be used to take a closer look inside volcanoes, inspect hazardous waste sites such as nuclear reactors, and explore other environments dangerous to humans. (DDR)

Montes, Georgia E.

1997-01-01

281

Sea Buckthorn: New Crop Opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae) is a winter hardy, deciduous shrub with yel-low or orange berries (Bailey and Bailey 1978). It develops an extensive root system rapidly and is therefore an ideal plant for preventing soil erosion and land reclamation. It can withstand temperatures from-43? to 40?C (Lu 1992). It is considered to be drought resistant (Heinze and Fiedler

Thomas S. C. Li

1999-01-01

282

SEA modelling of ship structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) has been used to get analytical estimates, as an alternative method to the empirical one, of the the transmission losses of structure-borne noise along the ship hull, which is one of the most important procedures in predicting cabin noise. Major members such as decks, shell plates, and bulkheads were modeled as subsystems representing flexural and/or in-plane wave groups. The modeling process was relatively simple because only structural members of a cross section were considered. However, when one wishes to obtain more theroetical predictions by using SEA, modeling must include a much larger number of subsystems including air spaces, which is no longer simple, even for the aft-part of a ship. The ship structures are so complicated that it is a difficult job to define subsystems themselves. And the number of subsystems in general is so large that preparing the input data will require enormous efforts. More importantly, numerous empirical factors accumulated in past experience and on-board measurements should be appropriately considered in the SEA modeling. Moreover, taking every detail of the multi-connected structures as subsystems does not necessarily yield more accurate results. In this paper, we discuss various aspects of the SEA modeling of the ship. In particular, we are concerned with the simplifying of complex structures and inclusion of the empirical factors. We suggest some practical techniques, which might be useful in noise analysis of commercial ships.

Kang, Hyun J.; Kim, Hyun S.; Kim, Jae S.; Lee, Young C.

283

SEA K-12 Lesson Plans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Award-winning ideas from SEA Semester's educators. This collection of over 25 lesson plans covers topics in marine biology, coastal ecology, chemical and physical oceanography, seafloor geology and nautical science. Each plan includes target grades, keywords, introduction and background, advice on how to best integrate the activities into classroom curriculum, instructions and tips, materials list, procedures, suggestions for evaluation, extensions.

284

Sea Grant Nonindigenous Species (SGNIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea Grant's award winning, comprehensive exotic species resource center with everything from educational materials to research findings on a variety of exotic species. Site features peer-reviewed literature, unreviewed publications, and the outreach section includes a searchable database of reference material covering all aspects of nonindigenous species, including individual exotic species. Also features an outstanding kid's section containing games and information on exotics.

285

Tides of the British Seas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the gravitational effects and the way that local conditions interact with these effects to produce the tides characteristic of the British seas. Presents some effects of tides including the possibility of harnessing tidal energy and the effect of tidal friction on the use of the earth as a clock. (GS)

Sandon, Frank

1975-01-01

286

[Medical emergencies and sea rescue].  

PubMed

Military nurses and doctors are on permanent standby to respond to any medical emergency which may arise at sea. This atypical form of practice is part of a specific organisation, in order to provide optimal, high-quality care in the most remote places of the oceans. PMID:23951619

Lefebvre, Fabien; Albert, Christophe; Gunepin, David; Pondaven, Eric; Querellou, Emgan

2013-01-01

287

The Sea Level Rise Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research on sea level rise suggests that sea level rise by the end of this century may well be significantly larger than those identified in the IPCC AR4 (2007). Whereas in the past, sea level rise was ascribed equally to thermal expansion of a warming ocean and the melting of land-based ice sheets and glaciers, the recent acceleration in rise rate is largely due to increased loss of land-based ice. Increased Greenland melt has raised important questions about the role moulins, which lubricate the base of the ice sheet and increase its flow to the sea, will play in ice sheet evolution. However, new data indicate that rising ocean temperatures have contributed most significantly to the rapid wastage of glaciers in deep fjords, as calving fronts and grounding lines retreat. Our limited observations, and the fact that models are still catching up to incorporate some of these substantial and fast-acting processes, result in large uncertainties in sea level rise projections. Despite these limitations, we do expect continued sea level rise to be inevitable with progressively increasing temperatures. While it is not clear whether the rate of rise will increase, decrease or remain the same, the current behavior of land-ice, and the fact that sea level rise since 2003 has been nearly twice that of the preceding half century, which itself was significantly larger than that of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, suggests that rates equal to or greater than those of today are a real possibility. Moreover, sea level rise will not be uniform around the globe as mass is redistributed from the polar ice sheets and ocean circulation changes. Some portions of the coasts of the US may see rises 20% larger than the global average, while others may see lower than average rates. This renders some areas of the U.S. much more vulnerable to storm surges than others, with the consequences for coastal states potentially being quite severe. Given the large uncertainty in projections, the magnitude of the potential impacts, and the costs and planning challenges associated with different mitigation and adaptation strategies, improvements of sea level predictions are of great importance. In particular, there is a tremendous need for improvements in models of ice/ocean interactions and ice dynamic and thermodynamic processes. Additionally, sustained observations are needed of ice changes and the ocean and atmospheric processes that control them, as well as the global and regional rates of sea level rise and the associated geodetic and oceanographic processes. Such model advances and sustained observations will enable more credible predictions. In addition, significant progress is needed in interdisciplinary vulnerability assessments of coupled coastal human-environment systems and in efforts to turn scientific results into decision-relevant variables (e.g. erosion rates, changes in flood elevation and frequency, saltwater intrusion rates into coastal aquifers) that can help decision-makers develop cost-effective and socially feasible adaptation strategies.

Abdalati, W.; Moser, S. C.; Schmitt, R. W.

2010-12-01

288

Interannual variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air-sea interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional primitive equation model including sea ice and air-sea interaction is used to study climatic circulation and water mass variability in the Caspian Sea under the influence of realistic mass, momentum and heat fluxes. The water budget of the landlocked Caspian Sea is extremely sensitive to climatic variability in the surrounding areas, its surface level dynamics is characterized by strong seasonal and decadal variations, which reflect processes occurring in regional climate system. In order to explore these links as well as the climate of the Caspian Sea we develop a numerical model of enclosed sea dynamics, capable to simulate large, up to 10 meters, interannual sea level variations. One of the specific features of the model is that it allows for flooding and drying of coastal area. It is the coastline movement that determines the response of the Caspian Sea level to nonzero water budget. Due to the shallowness and flatness of the Caspian Sea bottom this response is nontrivial and its prediction requires as accurate description of coastal dynamics as possible. Using this model we reconstruct the evolution of the Caspian Sea level and other physical characteristics in the second half of the 20th century. The results of this study suggest that it is crucial for the model to adequately describe processes occurring in the surface and bottom boundary layers, as well as in the coastal region of the sea, in order to predict its level change.

Dyakonov, Gleb; Ibrayev, Rashit

2013-04-01

289

Jet Formation at the Sea Ice Edge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sea ice edge presents a region of many feedback processes between the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, which are inadequately represented in current climate models. Here we focus on on-ice atmospheric and oceanic flows at the sea ice edge. Mesoscale jet formation due to the Coriolis effect is well understood over sharp changes in surface roughness such as coastlines. This sharp change in surface roughness is experienced by the atmosphere flowing over, and ocean flowing under, a compacted sea ice edge. We have studied a dynamic sea ice edge responding to atmospheric and oceanic jet formation. The shape and strength of atmospheric and oceanic jets during on-ice flows is calculated from existing studies of the sea ice edge and prescribed to idealised models of the sea ice edge. An idealised analytical model of sea ice drift is developed and compared to a sea ice climate model (the CICE model) run on an idealised domain. The response of the CICE model to jet formation is tested at various resolutions. We find that the formation of atmospheric jets during on-ice winds at the sea ice edge increases the wind speed parallel to the sea ice edge and results in the formation of a sea ice edge jet. The modelled sea ice edge jet is in agreement with an observed jet although more observations are needed for validation. The increase in ice drift speed is dependent upon the angle between the ice edge and wind and can result in a 40% increase in ice transport along the sea ice edge. The possibility of oceanic jet formation during on-ice currents and the resultant effect upon the sea ice edge is less conclusive. Observations and climate model data of the polar oceans has been analysed to show areas of likely atmospheric jet formation, with the Fram Strait being of particular interest.

Heorton, Harry; Feltham, Daniel

2014-05-01

290

Thermal biology of sea snakes and sea kraits.  

PubMed

Temperature probably had no direct effect on the evolution of sea kraits within their center of origin, a geologically stable thermal zone straddling the equator, but may have indirectly affected expansions and contractions in distributions beyond that zone through global fluctuations that caused alternation of higher and lower sea levels. The northern limit of the Laticauda colubrina complex seems to be the 20°C isotherm; in the south, the range does not reach that isotherm because there is no land (also a habitat requirement of sea kraits) within the zone of suitable temperature. The relationship of temperature to the pattern of geographic variation in morphology supports either the hypothesis of peripheral convergence or the developmental hypothesis but does not distinguish between them. Quadratic surfaces relating cumulative scores for coloration and morphological characters to global position showed a strong latitudinal component and an even stronger longitudinal one in which the direction of the latitudinal effect was reversed between east and west. A multivariate analysis revealed that while morphological characters vary significantly by location and climate when tested separately, when the influence of location on morphology is taken into account, no residual relationship between climate and morphology remains. Most marine snakes have mean upper temperature tolerances between 39°C and 40°C and operate at temperatures much nearer their upper thermal limits than their lower limits but still avoid deleterious extremes by diving from excessively hot water to deeper, cooler strata, and by surfacing when water is cold. At the surface in still water in sunlight, Pelamis can maintain its body temperature slightly above that of the water, but whether this is significant in nature is questionable. As temperature falls below 18-20°C, survival time is progressively reduced, accompanied by the successive occurrence of cessation of feeding, cessation of swimming, and failure to orient. Acclimation does not seem to be in this species' repertoire. In the water column, marine snakes track water temperature; on land, sea kraits can thermoregulate by basking, selecting favorable locations, and by kleptothermy. Laticauda colubrina adjusts its reproductive cycle geographically in ways that avoid breeding in the coldest months. Mean voluntary diving time is not temperature-dependent within the normal range of temperatures experienced by marine snakes in the field, but is reduced in water colder than 20°C. On land, much as while diving in the sea, sea kraits maintain long periods of apnea; intervals between breaths are inversely related to temperature. PMID:22669175

Heatwole, Harold; Grech, Alana; Monahan, John F; King, Susan; Marsh, Helene

2012-08-01

291

Interannual Extremes in New Zealand Precipitation Linked to Modes of Southern Hemisphere Climate Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interannual extremes in New Zealand rainfall and their modulation by modes of Southern Hemisphere climate variability are examined in observations and a coupled climate model. North Island extreme dry (wet) years are characterized by locally increased (reduced) sea level pressure (SLP), cold (warm) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the southern Tasman Sea and to the north of the island,

Caroline C. Ummenhofer; Matthew H. England

2007-01-01

292

Diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea.  

PubMed

A differential equation of a Riccati type for the diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea is proposed. For a homogeneous sea with arbitrary inherent optical properties this equation is solved analytically. For an inhomogeneous sea it is solved approximately for any arbitrary stratification. The resulting equation expresses the diffuse reflection coefficient of the sea through vertical profiles of absorption and backscattering coefficients, bottom albedo, and sea depth. The results of calculations with this equation are compared with Monte Carlo computations. It was found that the precision of this approach is in the range of 15%. PMID:18305694

Haltrin, V I

1999-02-20

293

Ecological consequences of sea-ice decline.  

PubMed

After a decade with nine of the lowest arctic sea-ice minima on record, including the historically low minimum in 2012, we synthesize recent developments in the study of ecological responses to sea-ice decline. Sea-ice loss emerges as an important driver of marine and terrestrial ecological dynamics, influencing productivity, species interactions, population mixing, gene flow, and pathogen and disease transmission. Major challenges in the near future include assigning clearer attribution to sea ice as a primary driver of such dynamics, especially in terrestrial systems, and addressing pressures arising from human use of arctic coastal and near-shore areas as sea ice diminishes. PMID:23908231

Post, Eric; Bhatt, Uma S; Bitz, Cecilia M; Brodie, Jedediah F; Fulton, Tara L; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kerby, Jeffrey; Kutz, Susan J; Stirling, Ian; Walker, Donald A

2013-08-01

294

Sea ice as a source of sea salt aerosol: A trajectory study of 25 years of year-round sea salt aerosol record at Neumayer, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently it was recognized that sea ice is a source of sea salt aerosols in coastal Antarctica, playing a more important role than open ocean during winter time. Frost flowers which grow on the surface of newly-formed sea ice are considered to contribute to the generation of sea salt aerosols. The exact mechanism of the release of sea salt aerosols

X. Tian-Kunze; L. Kaleschke; R. Weller; G. König-Langlo; D. Wagenbach; S. Rast; G. Santos; A. Richter; M. Begoin

2009-01-01

295

The distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on the distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea was carried out in July 2009. The survey was done using wandering transect underwater with SCUBA. Twelve species of sea cucumber were found from four different families and nine genera. The most dominant family was Holothuriidae (five species), followed by Stichopodidae (three species), Synaptidae (three species) and Cucumariidae with only one species. The most dominant species found around the island was Pearsonothuria graffei, which can be found abundantly on substrate of dead corals in a wide range of depth (6-15 m). The Sulawesi Sea showed a higher diversity of sea cucumber with seven different species compared to the South China Sea with only six different species and Sulu Sea with only two species. Ordination by multidimensional scaling of Bray-Curtis similarities clustered the sampling locations to three main clusters with two outgroups. Previous studies done indicated a higher diversity of sea cucumber as compared to this study. This can be indication that the population and diversity of sea cucumbers in the reef is under threat.

Woo, Sau Pinn; Yasin, Zulfigar; Ismail, Siti Hasmah; Tan, Shau Hwai

2013-11-01

296

A North Sea and Baltic Sea model ensemble eutrophication assessment.  

PubMed

A method to combine observations and an ensemble of ecological models is suggested to produce a eutrophication assessment. Using threshold values and methodology from the Oslo and Paris Commissions (OSPAR) and the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM), four models are combined to assess eutrophication for the Baltic and North Seas for the year 2006. The assessment indicates that the entire southeastern part of the North Sea, the Kattegat, the Danish Straits, the Gulf of Finland, and the Gulf of Riga as well as parts of the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, and the Baltic proper may be classified as problem areas. The Bothnian Bay and parts of the Baltic proper, the Bornholm Basin, and the Arkona Basin are classified as potential problem areas. This method is a useful tool for the classification of eutrophication; however, the results depend on the threshold values, and further work is needed within both OSPAR and HELCOM to harmonize these values. PMID:20496653

Almroth, Elin; Skogen, Morten D

2010-02-01

297

Changes in extreme sea-levels in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a climate change context changes in extreme levels rather than changes in the mean are of particular interest in view of its importance for coastal protection. In this work extreme sea-levels in the Baltic sea are investigated from daily tide gauge records for the period 1916-2005 using the block maxima approach on annual means. Extreme events are analyzed based on the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution considering both stationary and time-varying models. The likelihood ratio test is applied to select between stationary and non-stationary models for the maxima and return values are estimated from the final model. As an independent and complementary approach quantile regression is applied for comparison with the results from extreme value theory. The rates of change in the uppermost quantiles are in general consistent and more pronounced for the northernmost stations.

Ribeiro, Andreia; Barbosa, Susana

2013-04-01

298

Inter-annual and decadal sea level variations in the north-western Pacific marginal seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long term sea level changes in the Okhotsk, Japan/East, East China and Yellow Seas have been explored based on mean monthly values of sea level from tide gauge and altimetry measurements. The analysis of low frequency sea level variability reveals clearly differentiated areas: the Okhotsk Sea and the northern sector of the Japan/East Sea display lower sea level variances and no sea level rise. The southern Japan/East Sea presents larger sea level variability associated with the circulation regime of the warm current entering through the Tsushima Strait and inter-annual sea level variations that are driven by steric and atmospheric changes. The largest sea level variances are found in the Yellow Sea due to the effect of atmospheric forcing over the continental shelf. Inter-annual variability is spatially varying within the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea and is mainly related to the steric sea level changes. Regional mean sea level indices have been synthesized for each area using the longest tide gauge records and have revealed correlations between the southern Japan/East and Yellow Seas with PDO and NP climatic indices. Linear trends at coastal sites in the Japan/East, East China and Yellow Seas show a rather heterogeneous pattern, with values between -1.5 and 5.5 mm/yr for the period 1960-2000. During the period 1993-2008 linear trends derived from coastal tide gauges and from altimetry observations are coherent and reveal a southwards increasing pattern with maximum averaged values reached at the Yellow Sea (4.9 ± 1.9 mm/yr) followed by the Japan/East Sea (3.8 ± 0.9 mm/yr). Decadal rates of sea level change show distinct behaviour among basins as well as with the global average. The southern Japan/East Sea, the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea display decadal variability which is out of phase with respect to the global values.

Marcos, Marta; Tsimplis, Michael N.; Calafat, Francesc M.

2012-10-01

299

Eemian sea-level highstand in the eastern Baltic Sea linked to long-duration White Sea connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Revised diatom and new dinoflagellate cyst and benthic foraminiferal data from the eastern Baltic Sea have refined our understanding of Eemian (Last Interglacial; 131-119.5 ka) sea-level change on the Russian Karelia, a former seaway linking the Baltic to the White Sea. Results from Peski, eastern Baltic show the initiation of marine conditions just before 131 ka in the latest Saalian, after the opening of a connection to the North Sea. Following the onset of the Eemian marine highstand and the opening of the White Sea connection at around 130.25 ka, near-fully marine conditions persisted in the eastern Baltic area for ca 6 kyr, until ca 124 ka. For most of the Eemian, a strong thermal stratification in the eastern Baltic resulted from an Arctic and possible North Atlantic water component from the White Sea merging with warmer waters from the North Sea. From ca 124 ka, decreasing salinity indicates the end of the marine highstand and a simultaneous closure of the Baltic Sea-White Sea connection, i.e. a duration of ca 6 kyr for this seaway. The main influence of White Sea inflow appears to be restricted to the eastern Baltic area, although a large submerged area in the Russian Karelia associated with temperate Atlantic waters could have assisted in creating a more oceanic climate for Central Europe.

Miettinen, Arto; Head, Martin J.; Knudsen, Karen Luise

2014-02-01

300

Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

2011-01-01

301

Journey to Deep Sea Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they learn about deep sea vents. Kids are introduced to these underwater geysers and to the Alvin submersible by Ro Kinzler, an Earth scientist at the Museum. They then have the opportunity to travel to the bottom of the ocean aboard a virtual submersible, learning about the zones they pass through and their inhabitants. A game allows kids to explore and collect specimens from one of the mineral chimneys found at a deep sea vent. When they have collected all nine living things at the vent, they are rewarded with a desktop image.

302

Open Ocean Bilging, Arabian Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These dual oil slicks on the ocean surface are the result of tanker ships flushing their tanks (bilging) in the Arabian Sea (18.5N, 62.5E). These two ships flushed out their bilges, apparently contaminated with bunker oil, leaving oily residues on the ocean's surface. One wake, believed to have been done earlier than the other, has been broadened by the effects of surface winds and current.

1989-01-01

303

Swimming with Sea Cows: Manatees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When manatees were first seen by Columbus, he thought they were mermaids..but he had been at sea for a long time! Today these gentle marine mammals are threatened by loss of habitat and collisions with boats. This video segment explores the endangered manatees of Florida and their struggle to survive, as well as some of the people who are working to save them. Please see the accompanying lesson plan for educational objectives, discussion points and classroom activities.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2007-03-01

304

Analysis of Yellow Sea circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some features of the circulation in the Yellow Sea (hereafter referred to as YS) in the cold season (mid-November through\\u000a mid-April) are analyzed emphatically by using the observations of several large-scale surveys in recent years together with\\u000a historical data. Compared with the previous studies, a wealth of observed data have firstly been used in this study to further\\u000a discuss the

Jiayie Zang; Yuxiang Tang; Emei Zou; Heung-Jae Lie

2003-01-01

305

Modelling past sea ice changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dominant characteristic of the available simulations of past sea ice changes is the strong link between the model results for modern and past climates. Nearly all the models have similar extent for pre-industrial conditions and for the mid-Holocene. The models with the largest extent at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are also characterized by large pre-industrial values. As a consequence, the causes of model biases and of the spread of model responses identified for present-day conditions appear relevant when simulating the past sea ice changes. Nevertheless, the models that display a relatively realistic sea-ice cover for present-day conditions often display contrasted response for some past periods. The difference appears particularly large for the LGM in the Southern Ocean and for the summer ice extent in the Arctic for the early Holocene (and to a smaller extent for the mid-Holocene). Those periods are thus key ones to evaluate model behaviour and model physics in conditions different from those of the last decades. Paleoclimate modelling is also an invaluable tool to test hypotheses that could explain the signal recorded by proxies and thus to improve our understanding of climate dynamics. Model analyses have been focused on specific processes, such as the role of atmospheric and ocean heat transport in sea ice changes or the relative magnitude of the model response to different forcings. The studies devoted to the early Holocene provide an interesting example in this framework as both radiative forcing and freshwater discharge from the ice sheets were very different compared to now. This is thus a good target to identify the dominant processes ruling the system behaviour and to evaluate the way models represent them.

Goosse, H.; Roche, D. M.; Mairesse, A.; Berger, M.

2013-11-01

306

Rationale of the SEAS study  

PubMed Central

The SEAS study is a prospective national, multicentre, multidisciplinary, cohort study in which the cardiac abnormalities following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage are studied. Incidence, clinical implications and predictive variables of cardiac abnormalities following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage will be studied. Cardiac abnormalities are defined as ECG changes, echocardiographic function abnormalities, and biochemical changes. A total of 350 patients will be included over a period of three years including follow-up. ImagesFigure 1

van der Bilt, I.A.C.; Hasan, D.; Rinkel, G.J.E.; Wilde, A.A.M.; Visser, F.C.

2006-01-01

307

Chemistry in Titan's Hydrocarbon Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple lines of evidence from the Cassini-Huygens mission demonstrate that Titan's large lakes and seas are composed of liquid ethane and methane. In addition to the aforementioned constituents, recent work on solubility indicates that propane, dissolved acetylene and nitriles will be significant components (Cordier, D. et al., ApJ v. 707, 128, 2009). Here we make a preliminary examination of the kinds of chemistry that might occur in such a multicomponent organic solution at temperatures of 90 K subject to various energy sources including modulations of solar heating on seasonal and longer timescales (Aharonson et al., Nature Geoscience v. 2 851, 2009), cosmic rays, and (more speculatively) regional cryovolcanism. It is known that carbon cations (C+) can form in methane, and thus these cations might be found in the liquid methane and ethane comprising the polar seas of Titan. As a result, the methane would become a weak protic solvent, which opens the possibility of methane and its sister alkanes participating in more vigorous organic reactions and erosional processes with the surrounding bedrock than previously thought. We apply these considerations to several problems: (a) We calculate rates of chemical erosion of geological features surrounding the large seas, assuming the surrounding country rock to be (i) water, (ii) water-ammonia, (iii) solid organics. (b) We recompute the solubility of minor polar constituents in the seas, which should be enhanced thanks to the protic behavior of the methane. (c) Non-aqueous biochemistries in hydrocarbon liquids such as those proposed by Benner et al. (Current Opinions in Chem. Bio. v. 8, 672-689) will be aided by the potential for enhanced polarity of the liquid. This work was supported by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, and the program "Incentivazione alla mobilita' di studiosi straineri e italiani residenti all'estero."

Lunine, Jonathan I.; Jacobs, Norman; Cordier, Daniel; Mousis, Olivier

2010-05-01

308

NOAA Teacher At Sea Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you a teacher who is interested in oceanographic research? Does the idea of living aboard an ocean-going research vessel intrigue you? Would you like to work as a crew member on a one to three week scientific cruise? NOAA is looking for motivated teachers (K-16) with a desire to do scientific research at sea and share that experience with students and colleagues.

309

Frontier basins of Bering Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Bering Sea contains three hydrocarbon provinces: shelf, slope, and abyssal basin. The shelf province, which is underlain by three exceptionally large sedimentary basins, has been extensively covered by geophysical surveys. Exploration in this province has not discovered economic hydrocarbon deposits. Frontier basins, with future economic prospects, lie beneath the mostly unexplored slope and abyssal provinces of the Aleutian and Bowers basins of the Bering Sea. These expansive deep-water basins cover an area nearly two-thirds the size of Alaska. Sedimentary rocks of late Mesozoic(.) and Tertiary age make up the 3 to 11-km thick section that covers the entire area. These pelagic and fine-grained terrigenous rocks overlie slowly subsiding oceanic crust, which was trapped in the Bering Sea after the Aleutian Ridge formed during the Eocene. Thick (6-11 km) sedimentary sections and high basement relief (0.5-1.0 km) underlie parts of the 1700-km long Beringian-Koryak slope and rise. At the base of the margin, nearly flat strata of the Aleutian basin drape and onlap faulted acoustic-basement rock. Sparse information from the Deep Sea Drilling Project and US Geological Survey dredging indicates that source and reservoir rocks may exist within the upper and, possibly, lower parts of the sedimentary section. Beneath the central part of the abyssal basin, the sedimentary sequence is only 2-4 km thick, and buried basement relief is greater than 1.0 km. Near-surface temperature gradients are high (average = 58/sup 0/C/km), and acoustic anomalies that may be indicative of hydrocarbons are present. The slope and abyssal basins of the Beringian-Koryak margin have received minimal exploratory attention because water depths that cover the area are typically 2000-3700 m. Advances in deep-water production technology will eventually make these frontier basins attractive for hydrocarbon exploration.

Cooper, A.K.; Marlow, M.S.; Scholl, D.W.

1986-07-01

310

About deep-sea volcanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusmmenfassung  Die Hyaloclastiten entstehen hauptsächlich durch submarines Zerspratzen von Lava, die bei vulkanischen Explosionen im Meer ausgeworfen wurde.Zahlreiche sea-monts waren wahrscheinlich niemals vulkanische Inseln, die später abgestumpft und überschwemmt wurden, wie es allgemein angenommen wird. Wir sind überzeugt, daß ein großer Teil der Vulkane sich unter Wasser gebildet hat aus Laven, die aus einem langlebigen Zufuhrkanal gefördert wurden und die allmählich

Haroun Tazieff

1972-01-01

311

Arctic sea ice minimum extent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent of Arctic sea ice dropped to 3.41 million square kilometers on 16 September, 760,000 square kilometers below the minimum ice extent in 2007, which had been the low mark since the satellite record began in 1979, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) announced. Overall ice extent is 50% below where it was in the 1970s, NSIDC research scientist Walt Meier said during a 19 September briefing. He added that there is also a decrease in ice thickness. Meier said that sea ice varies from year to year with lots of ups and downs. “We wouldn't expect it to keep going down, straight off the map so to speak,” he said. “Typically after a record low, we've seen it rebound.” Meier added that the general long-term trend is for the Arctic to continue to become generally ice free. He said it is difficult to know how long it will take for that condition to be reached; because of strong variations, Arctic sea ice extent could plateau for some time.

Showstack, Randy

2012-10-01

312

MODIS Global Sea Surface Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every day the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measures sea surface temperature over the entire globe with high accuracy. This false-color image shows a one-month composite for May 2001. Red and yellow indicates warmer temperatures, green is an intermediate value, while blues and then purples are progressively colder values. The new MODIS sea surface temperature product will be particularly useful in studies of temperature anomalies, such as El Nino, as well as research into how air-sea interactions drive changes in weather and climate patterns. In the high resolution image, notice the amazing detail in some of the regional current patterns. For instance, notice the cold water currents that move from Antarctica northward along South America's west coast. These cold, deep waters upwell along an equatorial swath around and to the west of the Galapagos Islands. Note the warm, wide currents of the Gulf Stream moving up the United States' east coast, carrying Caribbean warmth toward Newfoundland and across the Atlantic toward Western Europe. Note the warm tongue of water extending from Africa's east coast to well south of the Cape of Good Hope. MODIS was launched in December 1999 aboard NASA's Terra satellite. For more details on this and other MODIS data products, please see NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Ocean Group, NASA GSFC, and the University of Miami

2002-01-01

313

Respiration in neonate sea turtles.  

PubMed

The pattern and control of respiration is virtually unknown in hatchling sea turtles. Using incubator-raised turtles, we measured oxygen consumption, frequency, tidal volume, and minute volume for leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) turtle hatchlings for the first six days after pipping. In addition, we tested the hatchlings' response to hypercapnic, hyperoxic, and hypoxic challenges over this time period. Hatchling sea turtles generally showed resting ventilation characteristics that are similar to those of adults: a single breath followed by a long respiratory pause, slow frequency, and high metabolic rate. With hypercapnic challenge, both species responded primarily by elevating respiratory frequency via a decrease in the non-ventilatory period. Leatherback resting tidal volume increased with age but otherwise, neither species' resting respiratory pattern nor response to gas challenge changed significantly over the first few days after hatching. At the time of nest emergence, sea turtles have achieved a respiratory pattern that is similar to that of actively diving adults. PMID:17258487

Price, Edwin R; Paladino, Frank V; Strohl, Kingman P; Santidrián T, Pilar; Klann, Kenneth; Spotila, James R

2007-03-01

314

Biogeochemistry in Sea Ice: CICE model developments  

SciTech Connect

Polar primary production unfolds in a dynamic sea ice environment, and the interactions of sea ice with ocean support and mediate this production. In spring, for example, fresh melt water contributes to the shoaling of the mixed layer enhancing ice edge blooms. In contrast, sea ice formation in the fall reduces light penetration to the upper ocean slowing primary production in marine waters. Polar biogeochemical modeling studies typically consider these types of ice-ocean interactions. However, sea ice itself is a biogeochemically active medium, contributing a significant and, possibly, essential source of primary production to polar regions in early spring and fall. Here we present numerical simulations using the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) with prognostic salinity and sea ice biogeochemistry. This study investigates the relationship between sea ice multiphase physics and sea ice productivity. Of particular emphasis are the processes of gravity drainage, melt water flushing, and snow loading. During sea ice formation, desalination by gravity drainage facilitates nutrient exchange between ocean and ice maintaining ice algal blooms in early spring. Melt water flushing releases ice algae and nutrients to underlying waters limiting ice production. Finally, snow loading, particularly in the Southern Ocean, forces sea ice below the ocean surface driving an upward flow of nutrient rich water into the ice to the benefit of interior and freeboard communities. Incorporating ice microphysics in CICE has given us an important tool for assessing the importance of these processes for polar algal production at global scales.

Jeffery, Nicole [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hunke, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turner, Adrian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18

315

Sources of Sea Salts to Coastal Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal Antarctic sea salt aerosols are partitioned into two main sources, namely ocean sea spray and surface sea ice. The sea spray source is related to windiness over the surface ocean and the action of bubbles bursting. The sea ice source is due to frost flowers which form on the surface of sea ice, which are concentrated in sea salts and are lofted by wind action over the sea ice zone. At high accumulation coastal sites, with seasonal resolution, it is possible to estimate the sources of both using deviations of the sodium to sulphate ratio from that found in seawater. To date, from ice core records in east Antarctica (including iceberg B09B near the Mertz Glacier, Law Dome, Wilkes Land and Wilhelm II land), we have found that the source strength from surface sea ice to the Antarctic ice sheet diminishes with elevation and distance inland. We present new data from coastal ice core sites including Mill Island off the coast of east Antarctica and the upper and lower Totten glacier to the east of Law Dome. Using this combined dataset we estimate the source strengths of sea salt aerosols, their partitioning and quantify the relationship with elevation and distance inland.

Curran, M. A.; van Ommen, T. D.; Moy, A. D.; Vance, T.; Wong, G. J.; Goodwin, I. D.; Domensino, B.

2010-12-01

316

Dual overflows into the deep Sulu Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sulu Sea, isolated from the neighboring ocean below 570 m, is nearly isothermal below 1250 m but with a marked salinity increase with depth. The source of the deep Sulu Sea water has been attributed to South China Sea water overflowing the 570 m topographic sill of Panay Strait. However, the Panay overflow (estimated as 0.32 × 106 m3/sec) is an unlikely source for the saltier water Sulu Sea deep water. We propose that deep Sulu Sea ventilation is derived from the south, from the Sulawesi Sea through Sibutu Passage. Sulawesi Sea water between 245 to 527 m, is mixed and heaved over the Sibutu Passage 234 m sill by the energetic tidal environment. Oxygen concentrations within the deep Sulu Sea suggest that the Sulawesi overflow is 0.15 × 106 m3/sec, with a residence time of Sulu Sea deep water of 60 years. The deep tropical Sulu Sea has the unique distinction of being ventilated from two separate sources, whose ratio may fluctuate across a range of temporal scales, associated with regional thermocline depth changes.

Gordon, Arnold L.; Tessler, Zachary D.; Villanoy, Cesar

2011-09-01

317

Creating Arctic Sea Ice Protected Areas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Arctic sea ice retreats and the Northwest Passage and Northern Sea Route open, the Arctic will experience more extensive human activity than it has ever encountered before. New development will put pressure on a system already struggling to adapt to a changing environment. In this analysis, locations are identified within the Arctic that could be protected from resource extraction, transportation and other development in order to create refuges and protect remnants of sea ice habitat, as the Arctic transitions to ice-free summer conditions. Arctic sea ice forms largely along the Siberian and Alaskan coasts and is advected across the North Pole towards Fram Strait, the Canadian Archipelago and the Barents Sea. In addition to the future loss of ice itself, contaminants entrained in sea ice in one part of the ocean can affect other regions as the ice drifts. Using observations and models of sea ice origins, trajectories and ages, we track sea ice from its origins towards marginal ice zones, mapping pathways and termination locations. Critical sea ice source areas and collection regions are identified with the goal of aiding in the protection of the remaining Arctic sea ice habitat for as long as possible.

Pfirman, S.; Hoff, K.; Temblay, B.; Fowler, C.

2008-12-01

318

Multidecadal Signals in the Sea Level Budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection and attribution of climate signals in sea level requires multi-decadal records of total sea level and its components with sufficient accuracy and coverage to distinguish climate change signals relative to natural variability. The current ocean observing system is capable of monitoring the components of the sea level rise budget for climatic signals. However, the detection times and constraints for climate signals in the sea level budget are not well understood. The sea level budget is closed when the sum of these independently measured components agrees with measurements of total sea level, indicating that the observations can be used to meaningfully explain the causes of sea level change. With cross-spectral analysis between total sea level and its components during 2005-2012, the relative contributions of each component can be assessed at different frequencies. Using an admittance analysis on Jason, GRACE, and Argo data, we demonstrate that the budget closes at all significant frequencies, including those in the intra-annual, annual, and interannual. The presence of interannual signals (e.g. PDO, ENSO) in sea level suggests that identifying and monitoring sea level variations associated with climate change will require very long records. The three nascent climate data records that are available with global coverage -- sea level (satellite altimetry 1993-), ocean mass (GRACE gravity mission 2002-), and steric height (the Argo array of hydrographic profiles 2005-) -- are too short for detection studies. We investigate climate signal detection times and constraints using a simulated sea level budget using reconstructed total sea level and multidecadal simple ocean data assimilations.

Leuliette, E. W.; Tamisiea, M. E.; Velicogna, I.; Rignot, E. J.; Carton, J.; Smith, W. H.

2012-12-01

319

The expected impact of the “Peace Conduit” project (the Red Sea - Dead Sea pipeline) on the Dead Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dead Sea is a severely disturbed ecosystem, greatly damaged by anthropogenic intervention in its water balance. During\\u000a the 20th century, the Dead Sea level dropped by more than 25 meters, and presently (2003) it is at about 416 meters below\\u000a mean sea level. This negative water balance is mainly due to the diversion of water from the catchment area

Ittai Gavrieli; Amos Bein; Aharon Oren

2005-01-01

320

Holocene sea level change along the coasts of China and South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research reconstructed the Holocene sea-level history in China and South China Sea (between the equator and 40°N) by reviewing published relative sea-level and sediment records. The collected 14C dates of sea-level indicators were calibrated to calendar years before present. Details of the lithostratigraphy, micro-fossil evidence and sedimentary characteristics of the sediment records were used for quantifying the vertical relationship to local reference tidal level for each of the sea-level indicators. The corrected data were plotted to produce sea-level curves. The reconstructed sea-level curves uniformly confirm a phase of rapid sea-level rise before 8000 cal. yr BP and show marked spatial differences between latitudes. In the southern sector (southern South China Sea), relative sea level reached a highstand of c. 2 m around 5800 cal. yr BP. In the northern sector (Bohai Bay and the Yellow Sea), however, relative sea level continued to rise over the past 6000 years at a slow rate. This series of sea-level curves provide an opportunity to evaluate the effects of hydro-isostatic processes along this coast. In addition, localized tectonic movements can also be identified.

Sun, Yiying; Zong, Yongqiang

2014-05-01

321

The suspended sediment concentration distribution in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea (BYECS) is studied based on the observed turbidity data and model simulation results. The observed turbidity results show that (i) the highest SSC is found in the coastal areas while in the outer shelf sea areas turbid water is much more difficult to observe, (ii) the surface layer SSC is much lower than the bottom layer SSC and (iii) the winter SSC is higher than the summer SSC. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is used to simulate the SSC distribution in the BYECS. A comparison between the modeled SSC and the observed SSC in the BYECS shows that the modeled SSC can reproduce the principal features of the SSC distribution in the BYECS. The dynamic mechanisms of the sediment erosion and transport processes are studied based on the modeled results. The horizontal distribution of the SSC in the BYECS is mainly determined by the current-wave induced bottom stress and the fine-grain sediment distribution. The current-induced bottom stress is much higher than the wave-induced bottom stress, which means the tidal currents play a more significant role in the sediment resuspension than the wind waves. The vertical mixing strength is studied based on the mixed layer depth and the turbulent kinetic energy distribution in the BYECS. The strong winter time vertical mixing, which is mainly caused by the strong wind stress and surface cooling, leads to high surface layer SSC in winter. High surface layer SSC in summer is restricted in the coastal areas.

Bian, Changwei; Jiang, Wensheng; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Ding, Hui

2013-09-01

322

Methane in coastal sea water, sea ice, and bottom sediments, Beaufort Sea, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes data acquired from 1990 to 1994 for the gas-hydrate portion of the USGS project 'Permafrost and gas hydrate as possible sources of methane' of the USGS Global Change and Climate History program. The objective of this project has been to test the hypothesis that gas hydrate deposits of the Beaufort Sea continental shelf are destabilized by the ~10?C temperature increase that has resulted from the Holocene transgression of the Arctic Ocean. To test this idea we have selected an area off the north coast of Alaska centered on Harrison Bay. We have measured the concentration of methane in surficial sediments, in the water column when ice is present and absent, and in seasonal sea ice. Our results show that more methane is present in the water when ice is present than when ice is absent, and that methane is also present within the ice itself, often at higher concentrations than in the water. Thus the Beaufort Sea shelf of Alaska is a seasonal source of methane. The primary source of this methane has not yet been defined, but gas hydrate is a reasonable candidate.

Lorenson, Thomas D.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.

1995-01-01

323

Physics of the nucleon sea quark distributions  

SciTech Connect

Sea quark distributions in the nucleon have naively been expected to be generated perturbatively by gluon splitting. In this case, there is no reason for the light quark and anti-quark sea distributions to be different. No asymmetries in the strange or heavy quark sea distributions are predicted in the improved parton model. However,recent experiments have called these naive expectations into question. A violation of the Gottfried sum rule has been measured in several experiments, suggesting that (bar u) < (bar d) in the proton. Additionally, other measurements, while not definitive, show that there may be an asymmetry in the strange and anti-strange quark sea distributions. These effects may require nonperturbative explanations. In this review we first discuss the perturbative aspects of the sea quark distributions. We then describe the experiments that could point to nonperturbative contributions to the nucleon sea. Current phenomenological models that could explain some of these effects are reviewed.

Vogt, R.

2000-03-10

324

Tropical Atlantic influence on Amundsen Sea Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctic climate in winter is known to be influenced, among other factors, by changes in radiative forcing and remote Pacific climate variability, but none explain the observed sea ice trend or Peninsula warming. Looking to the North/Tropical Atlantic, a leading mode of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) variability, the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), has been overlooked. We show that AMO related SST anomalies, particularly in the Tropical Atlantic, induce a positive phase response in the Southern Annular Mode, strengthen the Amundsen Sea Low, project onto the observed dipole-like sea-ice distribution between the Ross and Amundsen Seas, and contribute to Antarctic Peninsula warming. Support for these findings comes from analysis of observational and reanalysis data, and is independently verified by atmospheric model simulations forced by specified SSTs. This study implies that the North/Tropical Atlantic is relevant for understanding changes in ocean circulation in the Amundsen Sea and hence ice shelf melt in that region.

Holland, D. M.; Li, X.; Gerber, E. P.

2013-12-01

325

First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea  

PubMed Central

It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with ‘deep-sea’ and ‘cold-water’ corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

Roder, C.; Berumen, M. L.; Bouwmeester, J.; Papathanassiou, E.; Al-Suwailem, A.; Voolstra, C. R.

2013-01-01

326

Infrared image synthesis for the wind-ruffled sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sea surface as an important form of background usually plays a decisive role in sea applications. Real backgrounds are expensive while sea simulation can generate realistic images under various conditions. In this paper, a physics based model of infrared image synthesis for wind-ruffled sea is proposed. It consists of an integrated process based on oceanographic models of sea waves

Xun Wang; Zhaoyi Jiang; Yun Ling; Jianqiu Jin

2005-01-01

327

The role of sea ice dynamics in global climate change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics covered include the following: general characteristics of sea ice drift; sea ice rheology; ice thickness distribution; sea ice thermodynamic models; equilibrium thermodynamic models; effect of internal brine pockets and snow cover; model simulations of Arctic Sea ice; and sensitivity of sea ice models to climate change.

Hibler, William D., III

1992-01-01

328

Recent state of the Aral sea from regular satellite observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aral Sea disaster is one of the most significant examples of ecological catastrophe caused by mismanagement of water resources. Aral sea level dropped on 22 meters for the last 35 years. The sea separated in to two independent parts , the Large Sea(Southern) and the Small Sea (Northern), loosing more than 90% of its original water masses. After the

S. Stanichny; A. Davidov; S. Djenidi; U. Horstmann; R. Stanichnaya; D. Soloviev

2004-01-01

329

Sea water desalination system, McMurdo  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Sea water desalination system, McMurdo Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : May 18, 1993 File : opp93104 INITIAL ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION REPLACEMENT OF THE SEA WATER DESALINATION SYSTEM, MCMURDO STATION, ANTARCTICA National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs Washington, DC May 18, 1993 1. INTRODUCTION The U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP) is proposing to replace the Sea Water Desalination System at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during the 1993-1994 season.

330

Oscillating Quaternary water levels of the Marmara Sea and vigorous outflow into the Aegean Sea from the Marmara Sea–Black Sea drainage corridor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed interpretation of single-channel air-gun and deep-tow boomer profiles demonstrates that the Marmara Sea, Turkey, experienced small-amplitude (?70 m) fluctuations in sea level during the later Quaternary, limited in magnitude by the sill depth of the Strait of Dardanelles. Moderate subsidence along the southern shelf and Quaternary glacio-eustatic sea-level variations created several stacked deltaic successions, separated by major shelf-crossing unconformities,

A. E Aksu; R. N Hiscott; D Ya?ar

1999-01-01

331

CATASTROPHIC FLOODING OF THE BLACK SEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Decades of seabed mapping, reflection profiling, and seabed sampling reveal that throughout,the past two million years the Black Sea was predominantly,a freshwater lake interrupted only briefly by saltwater invasions coincident with global sea level highstand. When,the exterior ocean lay below,the relatively shallow sill of the Bosporus outlet, the Black Sea operated in two modes. As in the neighboring

William B. F. Ryan; Candace O. Major; Gilles Lericolais; Steven L. Goldstein

2003-01-01

332

Aplanktonic zones in the Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use micropalaeontological and stable isotope results for a series of cores from north to south through the Red Sea, to assess temporal and spatial patterns of change in planktonic foraminiferal faunas leading up to the remarkable full-glacial Red Sea aplanktonic zones. Aplanktonic zones reflect salinities in the Red Sea in excess of the lethal 49p.s.u. limit, caused by reduced

M. Fenton; S. Geiselhart; E. J. Rohling; Ch. Hemleben

2000-01-01

333

Scientific reticence and sea level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I suggest that a 'scientific reticence' is inhibiting the communication of a threat of a potentially large sea level rise. Delay is dangerous because of system inertias that could create a situation with future sea level changes out of our control. I argue for calling together a panel of scientific leaders to hear evidence and issue a prompt plain-written report on current understanding of the sea level change issue.

Hansen, J. E.

2007-04-01

334

Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the Research Institute's use of science in developing solutions for conservation challenges facing marine ecosystems and species. Overviews of research projects in ecology, physiology, bioacoustics and aquaculture. Species studied include: marine mammals, sea turtles, whale shark, white sea bass and others. Explains how satellite tracking technology is used to study survival needs of endangered species (leatherback sea turtle, Hawaiian monk seal). Outlines educational objectives and contributions, news and events. Appropriate for grades 8 and up.

335

Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature,

J. L. Schramm; J. A. Curry; Elizabeth E. Ebert

1995-01-01

336

Correlating the shallow and the deep 3D-structure of the Barents Sea/ Kara Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barents Sea and Kara Sea continental shelf region is located in the northern European Arctic. The crustal configuration of the Barents Sea/Kara Sea region exhibits a complex architecture of the sedimentary cover which implies the influence of diverse causative geological processes. The narrow and deep basins of the southwestern Barents Sea characterise rift basins which have been filled with thick sediments predominantly Mesozoic in age. In contrast, the eastern Barents Sea and the southern Kara Sea are marked by a wide and deep basin architecture which indicates basin formation mechanisms apart from rifting. There, the sedimentary succession yields Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Cenozoic deposits are restricted to the southwesternmost parts of the Barents Sea and the oceanic domain. The lack of sediments on the shelf is attributed to strong Pleistocene uplift, subsequent erosion and recurring ice sheet coverage of the Barents Sea/Kara Sea region. The modelled area covers about 5 million km² with a maximum longitudinal and latitudinal extent of 2180 and 2400 km, respectively, and comprises regions beyond the Barents Sea and Kara Sea such as parts of Greenland, Fennoscandia and western Siberia. This study presents the lithospheric density configuration below the greater Barents Sea/ Kara Sea region. Thereby, five sedimentary megasequences are differentiated across the entire study area. Each unit is modelled with matrix densities and depth dependent porosities to calculate the bulk densities. The respective compaction curves reflect that strong late Cenozoic erosion and ice sheet coverage removed particularly less dense sediments on Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya, while in the eastern Barents Sea and the southern Kara Sea erosion was less effective. Thus, the obtained sedimentary bulk densities vary laterally distinctively. The density setup of the subsedimentary lithosphere beneath the Barents shelf is defined by a high-resolution, velocity-converted density grid. This dataset is tested the first time against gravity to further constrain the 3D density model. Interestingly, region that experienced weaker Cenozoic erosion are underlain by a heavier mantle density composition.

Klitzke, Peter; Faleide, Jan Inge; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

2013-04-01

337

Global sea level linked to global temperature  

PubMed Central

We propose a simple relationship linking global sea-level variations on time scales of decades to centuries to global mean temperature. This relationship is tested on synthetic data from a global climate model for the past millennium and the next century. When applied to observed data of sea level and temperature for 1880–2000, and taking into account known anthropogenic hydrologic contributions to sea level, the correlation is >0.99, explaining 98% of the variance. For future global temperature scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report, the relationship projects a sea-level rise ranging from 75 to 190 cm for the period 1990–2100.

Vermeer, Martin; Rahmstorf, Stefan

2009-01-01

338

Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), hosted by the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL), is the global data bank for long term sea level change information from tide gauges. The PSMSL data set is the main source of information on long term changes in global sea level during the last two centuries. This site contains data sets, and information on other services such as vertical land movements and air pressure. There are answers to frequently asked questions about sea level changes, packets on data use available, annual reports, and other contacts for more information.

339

EAM-Weddell Sea Ice Camp  

NSF Publications Database

... Sea Ice Camp) To: Polar Ocean Sciences Program Manager, DPP Ocean Projects Manager, DPP Field ... 17, 1991. National Science Foundation. 1991. Ocean Projects Manager, DPP, Memorandum: Environmental ...

340

A Multi-Disciplinary Sea Ice Ontology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea ice is a central element of the Arctic system and a strong indicator of high-latitude climate change. In addition to the many scientific disciplines in which sea ice is of importance, the domains of transportation, defense, natural resources and human settlements all have interests in and contribute to the body of knowledge regarding sea ice. To help advance the interdisciplinary understanding and usability of sea ice data we have developed a preliminary sea ice ontology. This effort began with a workshop in which sea ice modelers, field researchers, remote sensing scientists and operational forecasters described the facets of sea ice from the perspective of their respective disciplines. We will describe the features of this ontology and highlight some of the challenges we encountered in building it. We will also describe our plans to incorporate indigenous sea ice knowledge, map some existing sea ice data sets using the ontology, and to link the ontology to relevant marine, polar, atmospheric, and global ontologies and semantic services.

Khalsa, S. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Duerr, R. E.; Pulsifer, P. L.; McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P. A.; McCusker, J.

2011-12-01

341

Traditional chinese medicine--sea urchin.  

PubMed

The sea urchin is an ancient, common, seafloor-dwelling marine invertebrate that belongs to the phylum Echinodermata. There are multiple species of sea urchin with resources that are widely distributed in China, where they were used in ancient times as Traditional Chinese Medicine for treating a variety of diseases. At present, it is known that the shell, spine and gonad of the sea urchin have many medicinal values determined through modern research. In this paper, we summarized the major chemical constituents and medicinal value of the sea urchin. PMID:24873818

Shang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Jian-Peng; Gao, Yun; Jiao, Bing-Hua; Zheng, Heng; Lu, Xiao-Ling

2014-01-01

342

Extreme 2008: A Deep Sea Adventure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, designed for K-12 teachers and students, offers materials and activities based on the "Extreme 2008: A Deep Sea Adventure" mission to explore deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Students can step into the shoes of deep-sea scientists as they follow the expedition and listen to recordings of student communications with the researchers via e-mail and telephone calls placed directly to Alvin, a research submersible, as it made its way deep into the Pacific. Topics include sea creatures, geology, plate tectonics, and chemistry of the deep ocean. Video clips are also provided to help students visualize the underwater experience.

2004-08-08

343

A biomarker-based reconstruction of sea ice conditions for the Barents Sea in recent centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in sea ice occurrence for the Barents Sea since c. AD 1700 have been determined by analysis of the abundance of the sea ice biomarker IP25 in three marine sediment box cores obtained from locations in the north, southeast and southwest parts of the region. Depth\\/age models for each core were established using excess 210Pb activity profiles. Comparisons between

Lindsay L. Vare; Guillaume Massé; Simon T. Belt

2010-01-01

344

Late and Postglacial Sea-Level Change and Paleoenvironments in the Oder Estuary, Southern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of sea-level change in the southern Baltic Sea region is important for understanding the variations in late Pleistocene and Holocene sea-level change across northern Europe. These variations are a consequence of the response of the Earth's crust to the deglaciation of Fennoscandia and of the water added to the oceans from the melting of all Pleistocene ice sheets. The

Anne Müller

2001-01-01

345

SEAS Classroom to Sea Labs: New Directions for Ridge 2000 Communitywide Education Outreach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lessons learned from the two year SEAS pilot program emphasize that student participation in deep-sea research is an important motivator in student learning. Further, SEAS students experience a paradigm shift in understanding evidence-based reasoning and the process of scientific discovery. At the same time, we have learned that fostering authentic student investigations within the confines of the academic year is

L. Goehring

2005-01-01

346

Polar Seas Oceanography: An Integrated Case Study of the Kara Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

What strikes first when browsing through this book is that the main title is misleading. Polar Seas Oceanography is, first of all, a book on ``an integrated case study of the Kara Sea,'' as the subtitle says. For readers who are interested more generally in polar oceanography, the book is probably the wrong choice. The Kara Sea is a rather

Ingo Harms

2004-01-01

347

A numerical experiment on the sedimentation processes in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentation processes of suspended matter supplied from the Huanghe (Yellow River) and the Changjiang are investigated with the use of a three-dimensional numerical model of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea which includes the tidal current, residual flow and wind waves. Suspended matter supplied from the Huanghe mainly deposits in the Bohai Sea and that from the old

Tetsuo Yanagi; Koh-ichi Inoue

1995-01-01

348

Temporal and spatial variations of sea surface temperature in the East China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface temperature of the East China Sea (ECS) were analyzed using the NOAA\\/AVHRR SST images. These satellite images reveal surface features of ECS including mainly the Kuroshio Current, Kuroshio Branch Current, Taiwan Warm Current, China coastal water, Changjiang diluted water and Yellow Sea mixed cold water. The SST of ECS ranges from 27 to 29°C in summer; some cold

Chente Tseng; Chiyuan Lin; Shihchin Chen; Chungzen Shyu

2000-01-01

349

Diseases in North Sea fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior to the studies reviewed here, only lymphocystis and skeletal deformities of a variety of fish species and certain diseases of eel were known to occur in the German Bight (North Sea). From 1977 until now, 9 externally visible lesions on North Sea fishes were observed; in addition to those mentioned before, they comprise: fin rot, ulcerations, epidermal papilloma, hyperplasia, pseudobranchial tumour, eye diseases and gill swellings. With the exception of information on changes in frequencies of vertebral deformities of herring from the 1950's to the 1970's, there are no long-term data characterizing changes in frequencies of the diseases under study. For pseudobranchial tumours of cod and epidermal papilloma of dab, information is provided on occurrence and abundance. The distribution pattern of cod afflicted with pseudobranchial tumours is strongly influenced by the migratory behaviour of the fish. Epidermal papillomas of dab were more frequently found at stations within the inner German Bight than in neighbouring areas. The Bight is used for dumping of wastes from titaniumdioxide production. Further disease hot spots are areas off the Humber estuary and the British coast. Analysis of chromium in dab from the German Bight revealed elevated concentrations in epidermal tissues of specimens from the dumping area compared with that found in dab from neighbouring localities. Particulate iron was demonstrated to occur in mucous cells of dab from the dumping area. From increased levels of heavy metals with cancerogenic potential in sensitive target tissues and from increased prevalences of diseased fish in the dumping area it is concluded that these phenomena are possibly causally linked. In the vicinity of the Humber estuary high disease rates were encountered and areas with high prevalences of dab afflicted with epidermal papilloma extended over regions shown to be transport routes for persistent pollutants such as radioactive materials. It is therefore suggested that the long-range distribution of fish diseases in the southern North Sea might reflect the long-range transport of persistent pollutants.

Dethlefsen, V.

1984-03-01

350

Advanced deep sea diving equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design requirements are generated for a deep sea heavy duty diving system to equip salvage divers with equipment and tools that permit work of the same quality and in times approaching that done on the surface. The system consists of a helmet, a recirculator for removing carbon dioxide, and the diver's dress. The diver controls the inlet flow by the recirculatory control valve and is able to change closed cycle operation to open cycle if malfunction occurs. Proper function of the scrubber in the recirculator minimizes temperature and humidity effects as it filters the returning air.

Danesi, W. A.

1972-01-01

351

Unlocking a Sea Ice Secret  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Rachel Obbard and her research group from Dartmouth College traveled to the Antarctic to collect samples of sea ice. Next stop: the GeoSoilEnviroCARS x-ray beamline at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois. This U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science synchrotron x-ray research facility gave the Obbard team the frontier scientific tools they needed to study the path bromide takes as it travels from the ocean to the atmosphere.

Dr. Rachel Obbard

2013-04-22

352

Noble Gases in Sea Water.  

PubMed

Concentrations of noble gases in samples of sea water obtained at depths to 3437 meters from a Pacific Ocean station were measured by mass spectrometry. An excess of helium, in relation to concentrations of the other noble gases, is attributed to influx of atoms of this gas from the sediments where it is produced by the natural radioactive decay of members of the uranium and thorium series. On the basis of a steady-state model, the escape of helium from the earth is calculated at 6.4 x 10(13) atoms per square centimeter per year. PMID:17832398

Bieri, R; Koide, M; Goldberg, E D

1964-11-20

353

Solar distillation of sea water  

SciTech Connect

Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

Subramanyam, S. (Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Science, Warangal (India))

1989-01-01

354

Climate and sea ice variability in the SW Labrador Sea during the late Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover has increased the need to improve the accuracy of the sea ice components in climate models and to provide detailed long-term sea ice records based on proxy data. Recently, the highly branched isoprenoid IP25 has emerged as a potential sea ice specific proxy for past sea ice cover, found in marine sediments underlying seasonal sea ice. We tested the reliability of this biomarker against observational sea ice data off Newfoundland (SW Labrador Sea), where box cores covering the last ca. 100-150 years were collected. Based on the results, IP25 proved to be a robust and reliable proxy for reconstructing variability in past sea ice concentrations in the area. After having successfully validated the proxy in the SW Labrador Sea, we further analysed IP25 from a sediment core NE of Newfoundland covering the last ca. 5000 years, providing the southernmost multi-millennial record of this proxy to date. Based on this record and on diatom and dinoflagellate cyst data and alkenone-based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the same core, we reconstructed climatic conditions in and Arctic sea ice export to the SW Labrador Sea area: Alkenone-based SSTs show a clear albeit variable decline after the Holocene Climate Optimum, while at the same time diatom and dinoflagellate cyst data suggest decreased melt water export from the Arctic. The IP25 record reveals increased sea ice export from the Baffin and Hudson Bays starting ca 1500 yr cal. BP, accelerating ca. 800 yr cal. BP and culminating at the height of the Little Ice Age. Sea ice export during the last century is comparable to the export during the Medieval Climate Anomaly.

Weckström, Kaarina; Massé, Guillaume; Collins, Lewis; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Olsen, Jesper; Kuijpers, Antoon

2014-05-01

355

Indian Ocean Rossby Waves Deteced in HYCOM Sea Surface Salinity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rossby waves have been well identified in satellite derived sea surface height (SSH), sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean color observations. Studies of Rossby waves have yet to include sea surface salinity (SSS) as a parameter, largely because presen...

B. Subrahmanyam D. Heffner J. Shriver

2008-01-01

356

50 CFR 648.143 - Black sea bass Accountability Measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass Accountability Measures. 648.143 ...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.143 Black sea bass Accountability Measures. (a)...

2013-10-01

357

50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142 Section 648...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial...

2013-10-01

358

50 CFR 648.57 - Sea scallop area rotation program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Sea scallop area rotation program. 648.57 Section...STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.57 Sea scallop area rotation program. An area rotation...

2009-10-01

359

50 CFR 648.57 - Sea scallop area rotation program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sea scallop area rotation program. 648.57 Section...STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.57 Sea scallop area rotation program. An area rotation...

2010-10-01

360

Observations of Mediterranean Flow into the Black Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mediterranean Sea water inflow into the Black Sea is investigated using acoustic and oceanographic data obtained in the Black Sea exit region. The path of Mediterranean water and the resulting spreading on the continental shelf is observed with SWATH bott...

D. DiIorio H. Yuce

1997-01-01

361

Biogeochemistry of the Kem' River estuary, White Sea (Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeochemistry of the river-sea interface was studied in the Kem' River (the largest river flowing to the White Sea from Karelian coast) estuary and adjacent area of the White Sea onboard the RV \\

V. R. Shevchenko; Y. S. Dolotov; N. N. Filatov; T. N. Alexeeva; A. S. Filippov; E.-M. Nöthig; A. N. Novigatsky; L. A. Pautova; A. V. Platonov; N. V. Politova; T. N. Rat'kova; R. Stein

2005-01-01

362

Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route: Studies and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the rapid changes that are under way in Arctic sea ice extent, Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route is a timely work. The Northern Sea Route (NSR), along the Arctic coast of Russia, has a long history, dating back to 1932, when the Soviet Union established the NSR administration to develop hydrometeorological services. Shipping along the sea route peaked in the 1980s, but there is renewed interest associated with a lengthening ice-free season and mineral exploitation. Since July 1991, the NSR has been open to all merchant vessels.

Barry, Roger G.

2008-07-01

363

Studies on sea snake venom.  

PubMed

Erabutoxins a and b are neurotoxins isolated from venom of a sea snake Laticauda semifasciata (erabu-umihebi). Amino acid sequences of the toxins indicated that the toxins are members of a superfamily consisting of short and long neurotoxins and cytotoxins found in sea snakes and terrestrial snakes. The short neurotoxins to which erabutoxins belong act by blocking the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the post synaptic membrane in a manner similar to that of curare. X-ray crystallography and NMR analyses showed that the toxins have a three-finger structure, in which three fingers made of three loops emerging from a dense core make a gently concave surface of the protein. The sequence comparison and the location of essential residues on the protein suggested the mechanism of binding of the toxin to the acetylcholine receptor. Classification of snakes by means of sequence comparison and that based on different morphological features were inconsistent, which led the authors to propose a hypothesis "Evolution without divergence." PMID:21422738

Tamiya, Nobuo; Yagi, Tatsuhiko

2011-01-01

364

Studies on sea snake venom  

PubMed Central

Erabutoxins a and b are neurotoxins isolated from venom of a sea snake Laticauda semifasciata (erabu-umihebi). Amino acid sequences of the toxins indicated that the toxins are members of a superfamily consisting of short and long neurotoxins and cytotoxins found in sea snakes and terrestrial snakes. The short neurotoxins to which erabutoxins belong act by blocking the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the post synaptic membrane in a manner similar to that of curare. X-ray crystallography and NMR analyses showed that the toxins have a three-finger structure, in which three fingers made of three loops emerging from a dense core make a gently concave surface of the protein. The sequence comparison and the location of essential residues on the protein suggested the mechanism of binding of the toxin to the acetylcholine receptor. Classification of snakes by means of sequence comparison and that based on different morphological features were inconsistent, which led the authors to propose a hypothesis “Evolution without divergence.”

TAMIYA, Nobuo; YAGI, Tatsuhiko

2011-01-01

365

Sea Change Part 2: In the Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is the second of a three-video series in the Sea Change project, which follows the work of Dr. Maureen Raymo, paleogeologist at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, who travels with fellow researchers to Australia in search of evidence of sea level that was once higher than it is today.

Grossman, Daniel; Change, Sea

366

Sea Change Part 1: In the Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is the first of a three-video series from the Sea Change project. It features the field work of scientists from the US and Australia looking for evidence of sea level rise during the Pliocene era when Earth was (on average) about 2 to 3 degrees Celsius hotter than it is today.

Grossman, Daniel; Pliomax, Sea C.

367

Sea Change Part III: Interpreting the Results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is the third in a three-part series by the Sea Change project, about scientists' search for Pleiocene beaches in Australia and elsewhere to establish sea level height during Earth's most recent previous warm period. This segment features the research of Jerry Mitrovica, Harvard geophysicist.

Grossman, Daniel

368

Searching the Ocean for Deep Sea Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web-based slide show walks students through the painstaking and difficult search for deep sea vents. In pictures and text, it provides an overview of the subject explaining the process whereby the location of deep sea vents can be discovered from the surface using indirect methods.

369

Wind Speed Variability over the Marmara Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between 2000 and 2006, wind speed measurements were collected over the Marmara Sea by the SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite at a spatial resolution of 0.25 x 0.25 degrees. Relatively small interannual variability was noted in monthly mean w...

A. B. Kara A. J. Wallcraft E. Jarosz M. Bourassa

2007-01-01

370

Mesoscale Eddies in the Solomon Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water mass transformation in the strong equatorward flows through the Solomon Sea influences the properties of the Equatorial Undercurrent and subsequent cold tongue upwelling. High eddy activity in the interior Solomon Sea seen in altimetric sea surface height (SSH) and in several models may provide a mechanism for these transformations. We investigate these effects using a mesoscale (4-km resolution) sigma-coordinate (ROMS) model of the Solomon Sea nested in a basin solution, forced by a repeating seasonal cycle, and evaluated against observational data. The model generates a vigorous upper layer eddy field; some of these are apparently shed as the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent threads through the complex topography of the region, others are independent of the strong western boundary current. We diagnose the scales and vertical structure of the eddies in different parts of the Solomon Sea to illuminate their generation processes and propagation characteristics, and compare these to observed eddy statistics. Hypotheses tested are that the Solomon Sea mesoscale eddies are generated locally by baroclinic instability, that the eddies are shed as the South Equatorial Current passes around and through the Solomon Island chain, that eddies are generated by the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, or that eddies occurring outside of the Solomon Sea propagate into the Solomon Sea. These different mechanisms have different implications for the resulting mixing and property fluxes. They also provide different interpretations for SSH signals observed from satellites (e.g., that will be observed by the upcoming SWOT satellite).

Hristova, H. G.; Kessler, W. S.; McWilliams, J. C.; Molemaker, M. J.

2011-12-01

371

Scientific reticence and sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

I suggest that a ‘scientific reticence’ is inhibiting the communication of a threat of a potentially large sea level rise. Delay is dangerous because of system inertias that could create a situation with future sea level changes out of our control. I argue for calling together a panel of scientific leaders to hear evidence and issue a prompt plain-written report

J. E. Hansen

2007-01-01

372

Monitoring and Control of Sea Water Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the work carried out in the study and preliminary design of a Sea Water Simulator. The purpose of the device is to approximate for various locales and depths, the sea water chemistry represented by eight chemical parameters: salinity...

H. C. Edgington

1967-01-01

373

POLSSS: policy making for sea shipping safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

After The Netherlands Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management published the progress report “Vessel Traffic Management on the North Sea” (1997), a need remained for policy refinement and extension of scope: (1) determination of the most appropriate mix of traffic management instruments; (2) inclusion of inland waters for sea-going ships; (3) specific attention for risk analysis of maritime

W van Urk; W. A de Vries

2000-01-01

374

More on Sea Turtles and Seaweed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Sea turtle" and "seaweed"--otherwise known as "returnee from abroad" and "unemployed from abroad," respectively-- are a pair of popular new terms that are innately connected. In this article, the author discusses the common plight faced by "sea turtles" and "seaweeds" who returned from abroad to work in China. The author describes the experiences…

Xin, Tian

2005-01-01

375

The application of ERTS imagery to monitoring Arctic sea ice. [mapping ice in Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS-1 imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft. The results of the investigation demonstrate that ERTS-1 imagery has substantial practical application for monitoring arctic sea ice. Ice features as small as 80-100 m in width can be detected, and the combined use of the visible and near-IR imagery is a powerful tool for identifying ice types. Sequential ERTS-1 observations at high latitudes enable ice deformations and movements to be mapped. Ice conditions in the Bering Sea during early March depicted in ERTS-1 images are in close agreement with aerial ice observations and photographs.

Barnes, J. C. (principal investigator); Bowley, C. J.

1974-01-01

376

Optical properties of the Kara Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was motivated by the need to understand dispersion processes which affect the redistribution of nuclear wastes in the Arctic from dump sites in the Kara Sea and in the rivers which flow into the Kara Sea. We focus on vertical profiles of light beam transmission and fluorometry made over the delta region fronting the Ob and Yenisey Rivers

Donald R. Johnson; Vernon Asper; Thomas McClimans; Alan Weidemann

2000-01-01

377

Naval UAV Programs: Sea Based UAV's.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this document is to state the importance of having an evolving sea based UAV program to aid in the development of successive sea based UAV systems. The Pioneer use on hoard LPDs and changing requirements helped shape the VTUAV development. ...

L. D. Whitmer

2002-01-01

378

Seismogeodynamics of the Caspian Sea Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of studies of fluctuations in seismic regime of the Caspian Sea and adjacent area are ana- lyzed in order to reveal the correlation of anomalous variations in the sea level with seismicity of the region. The inferred regularities indicate that these phenomena have a common origin. A seismogeodynamic model of the region under consideration is discussed.

1999-01-01

379

Sea Energy Conversion: Problems and Possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, policies are being developed in many countries in order to decrease their greenhouse gases emissions. While in this area some technologies are widely installed (wind and solar energy), other ones, like the sea energy, could get an important role in the medium and long term. That is why the most relevant technologies associated to the sea energy conversion are

G. Buigues; I. Zamora; A. J. Mazón; V. Valverde; F. J. Pérez

380

SeaWiFS: Mt. Etna Erupting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On July 22, 2001, SeaWiFS imaged a yellowish-brown plume emanating from the Mt. Etna volcano and stretching over 600 kilometers southeastward across the Mediterranean towards Libya. Credit: Credit line for all images: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

381

Strategic Science Plan: Salton Sea Restoration Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Salton Sea is an ecosystem in peril. Its prehistory consists of a series of intermittent lakes dependent on infrequent flooding of the Colorado River, while the modern Salton Sea originated from the desire to harness the flow of the Colorado River for...

2000-01-01

382

Geothermal Development and the Salton Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of the Salton Sea, a key element of the Imperial Valley water system, to potential geothermal development. The most damaging effect would be the direct flow of geothermal brines into the Sea in larg...

M. Goldsmith

1976-01-01

383

Metagenomic sequencing of two salton sea microbiomes.  

PubMed

The Salton Sea is the largest inland body of water in California, with salinities ranging from brackish freshwater to hypersaline. The lake experiences high nutrient input, and its surface water is exposed to temperatures up to 40°C. Here, we report the community profiles associated with surface water from the Salton Sea. PMID:24459270

Hawley, Erik R; Schackwitz, Wendy; Hess, Matthias

2014-01-01

384

Oceanography: Detecting sea-level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over short periods of time, it can be difficult to isolate sea-level increase in observations as it is hidden by natural shifts in rainfall quantities over ocean and land, which cause temporary drops in the global sea-level curve. Now research shows how to detect the signal, even in short records, by estimating these variations.

Boening, Carmen

2014-05-01

385

Sea Surface Height 1993-2011  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation of the Pacific Ocean sea surface height from 1993-2011. Data gathered by multiple NASA satellite missions (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason 2). Animation shows view of Pacific Ocean and simultaneously graphs global average sea surface height data.

386

The changing Mediterranean Sea — a sensitive ecosystem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I was asked to present a keynote paper on the socio-economic aspects of oceanographic research in the Mediterranean Sea in the Session on From Oceanographic Science to Policy at the International Conference on Progress in Oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea, Rome November 1997. The session was unique in that it included papers from oceanographers, social scientists and economists. For this

Carol M Turley

1999-01-01

387

Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast  

SciTech Connect

Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I. [National Inst. for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, PO Box 10, Rm. Valcea, 24050 (Romania)

2008-07-15

388

22 Years of Sea Surface Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA visualization video on YouTube shows the seasonal variations in sea surface temperatures and ice cover for the 22 years prior to 2007 based on data collected by NOAA polar-orbiting satellites (POES). El Niño and La Niña are easily identified, as are the trends in decreasing polar sea ice.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Visualizations

389

Direct solar energy conversion at sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production and delivery from direct solar energy conversion facilities located at sea is treated, assuming the use of a heat engine\\/electricity generation\\/water electrolysis system. The concept of ocean energy is discussed, noting the distinction between direct and indirect solar energy conversion at sea, and direct solar energy conversion is considered within the framework of the seaward advancement of industrial

W. J. D. Escher; T. Ohta

1979-01-01

390

Sea Level: On the Rise Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Sea Level: On the Rise" is designed to teach middle-school students about the relationship between climate change and sea-level rise. It is a lesson plan created for the Environmental Protection Agency's Student's Guide to Global Climate Change.

Agency, Environmental P.

391

Twentieth-century sea surface temperature trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of historical sea surface temperatures provides evidence for global warming since 1900, in line with land-based analyses of global temperature trends, and also shows that over the same period, the eastern equatorial Pacific cooled and the zonal sea surface temperature gradient strengthened. Recent theoretical studies have predicted such a pattern as a response of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

M. A. Cane; A. C. Clement; A. Kaplan

1997-01-01

392

Sea surface temperature measurements with AIRS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The comparison of global sea surface skin temperature derived from cloud-free AIRS super window channel at 2616 cm-1 (sst2616) with the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature for September 2002 shows surprisingly small standard deviation of 0.44K.

Aumann, H.

2003-01-01

393

Ocean Currents and Sea Surface Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, students access sea surface temperature and wind speed data from a NASA site, plot and compare data, draw conclusions about surface current and sea surface temperature, and link their gained understanding to concerns about global climate change.

Carter, Joan; Collection, Nasa -.

394

Inverse electromagnetic scattering models for sea ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inverse scattering algorithms for reconstructing the physical properties of sea ice from scattered electromagnetic field data are presented. The development of these algorithms has advanced the theory of remote sensing, particularly in the microwave region, and has the potential to form the basis for a new generation of techniques for recovering sea ice properties, such as ice thickness, a parameter

K. M. Goldenl; D. Borup; M. Cheney; E. Cherkaeva; M. S. Dawson; Kung-Hau Ding; A. K. Fung; D. Isaacson; S. A. Johnson; Arthur K. Jordan; Jin Au Kong; Ronald Kwok; Son V. Nghiem; Robert G. Onstott; J. Sylvester; D. P. Winebrenner; I. H. H. Zabel

1998-01-01

395

Forward electromagnetic scattering models for sea ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in forward modeling of the electromagnetic scattering properties of sea ice are presented. In particular, the principal results include the following: (1) approximate calculations of electromagnetic scattering from multilayer random media with rough interfaces, based on the distorted Born approximation and radiative transfer (RT) theory; (2) comprehensive theory of the effective complex permittivity of sea ice based on

K. M. Golden; M. Cheney; Kung-Hau Ding; A. K. Fung; Thomas C. Grenfell; D. Isaacson; Jin Au Kong; S. V. Nghiem; J. Sylvester; P. Winebrenner

1998-01-01

396

Sea Scallop Shell Lab Teacher's Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Used in combination with the Sea Scallop Lab handout, students will examine sea scallop shells to determine their size, approximate age, and meat yield. This lab activity is complete with objectives, math and science standards, materials list, procedure, and extensions. The handout is available from the COSEE-NE OSEI resource site.

397

The South Pole and the Ross Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

398

Antarctic Sea Ice in the IPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antarctic Sea Ice covers an area of 20 million km2 at maximum extent and therefore represents an areal coverage larger than either the Arctic ice cover or the Antarctic continent. Studies of Antarctic sea ice in the modern era were only initiated well after the IGY, with the advent of passive microwave satellite coverage in 1973, followed by the use

S. F. Ackley; D. K. Perovich; C. A. Geiger

2003-01-01

399

Light at deep sea hydrothermal vents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We usually think of the bottom of the sea as a dark environment, lit only by flashes of bioluminescent light. Discovery of light associated with geothermal processes at deep sea hydrothermal vents forces us to qualify our textbook descriptions of the seafloor as a uniformly dark environment. While a very dim glow emitted from high temperature (350°) vents (black smokers)

Cindy Lee Van Dover; J. R. Cann; Colleen Cavanaugh; Steven Chamberlain; John R. Delaney; David Janecky; Johannes Imhoff; J. Anthony Tyson

1994-01-01

400

Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online in 2009, the Aquarius instrument will measure sea surface salinity. Site provides background information about salinity, salinity lesson plans, and salinity data and tools. Activities include relating salt to density, conductivity, buoyancy, and understanding the effect of the water cycle on salinity. View figures of sea surface salinity and temperature as they change from month to month and more.

401

Chilean Sea Bass: Off the Menu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this data analysis activity, learners use data collected by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) to study Chilean sea bass populations. Learners formulate catch and catch per unit effort (CPUE) of Dissostichus eleginoides and analyze the trends in these values. Learners also assess the Chilean sea bass population and determine if the population is being overfished.

Lawrence, Lisa A.

2012-08-01

402

Overview of Radioactive Waste Disposal at Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

For hundreds of years, the seas have been used as a place to dispose of wastes from human activities. Although no high level radioactive waste has been disposed of into the sea, variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive wastes have been dumped at 47 sites in the northern part of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. in 1946 the first

Dominique Calmet

1992-01-01

403

Sea Grant--A Report on the Oregon State University Sea Grant Program for 1973-1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The annual report summarizes various projects undertaken by the Oregon State University Sea Grant Program during the period 1973-1974. Areas under consideration include: Food from the sea (with specific studies in salmon marketing and sea urchin gonads); ...

R. Lovell

1974-01-01

404

75 FR 38935 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule Extension...extending the emergency action to increase the 2010 black sea bass specifications (i.e., commercial...

2010-07-07

405

75 FR 59154 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XT99 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule Extension...extend the emergency action to increase the 2010 black sea bass specifications. The preamble text of...

2010-09-27

406

75 FR 6586 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...100120036-0038-01] Fisheries of the Northeastern United; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule AGENCY: National...rule NMFS is implementing increases to the 2010 black sea bass specifications (i.e., commercial...

2010-02-10

407

Caspian Sea surface circulation variability inferred from satellite altimeter and sea surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(1993-2007) satellite-derived Sea Level Anomaly (SLA), Sea Surface Temperature (SST), and model-derived mean dynamic topography were used together to analyze climatological and interannual variations of the Caspian Sea surface circulation. Constructed geostrophic currents are in good agreement with the known circulation features of the Caspian Sea, obtained from models and verified by some drifter observations. It is shown that the climatological surface circulation of the Middle Caspian Sea (MCS) is dominated by a basin-wide cyclonic circulation in winter, switching to an anticyclonic circulation in summer. A dipole pattern (an anticyclonic eddy near 39.5°N and a cyclonic one near 38°N) exist in the Southern Caspian Sea (SCS) (stronger from September to January). Evaluation of the multiyear geostrophic velocities shows that the Caspian Sea surface circulation exhibits strong interannual variations, with the location and intensity of the circulation patterns changing from one year to another.

Gunduz, Murat

2014-02-01

408

Quantifying the influence of sea ice on ocean microseism using observations from the Bering Sea, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Microseism is potentially affected by all processes that alter ocean wave heights. Because strong sea ice prevents large ocean waves from forming, sea ice can therefore significantly affect microseism amplitudes. Here we show that this link between sea ice and microseism is not only a robust one but can be quantified. In particular, we show that 75–90% of the variability in microseism power in the Bering Sea can be predicted using a fairly crude model of microseism damping by sea ice. The success of this simple parameterization suggests that an even stronger link can be established between the mechanical strength of sea ice and microseism power, and that microseism can eventually be used to monitor the strength of sea ice, a quantity that is not as easily observed through other means.

Tsai, Victor C.; McNamara, Daniel E.

2011-01-01

409

Potential for rapid transport of contaminants from the Kara Sea.  

PubMed

Export of sea ice from the Kara Sea may redistribute contaminants entrained from atmospheric, marine and riverine sources. Ice exiting the Kara Sea ice to the north, will influence the Fram Strait, Svalbard and Barents Sea regions. Kara Sea ice may also be exported to the Barents Sea through straits north and south of Novaya Zemlya. Some ice from the Kara Sea makes its way into the Laptev Sea to the north and south of Severnaya Zemlya. Data on ice exchange and contaminant levels are not adequate to assess contaminant flux. PMID:9241881

Pfirman, S L; Kögeler, J W; Rigor, I

1997-08-25

410

Liquid hydrocarbons probable under Ross Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thick glacial strata, which have no source-rock potential, cover the Ross Sea. If these strata persist to great depths, then hydrocarbon-generation prospects will be poor. Deeply buried strata within Ross Sea rift-grabens, if like other Gondwana rift-deposits, could have good potential for hydrocarbon generation. Current hydrocarbon assessments of the Ross Sea and adjacent areas must be considered highly speculative because the deeply buried rift(?) strata have not been sampled in situ. The assessment of the Ross Sea relies on geophysical/geologic data, two-stage rift models, and data from formerly nearby Gondwana rift-basins. We conclude that conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation and entrapment are likely throughout the Ross Sea, and especially in the Victoria Land basin, if adequate source beds exist. -Authors

Cooper, A. K.; Davey, F. J.; Hinz, K.

1988-01-01

411

Parametric approaches for uncertainty propagation in SEA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A limit of statistical energy analysis (SEA) is that of providing only the mean values of the mechanical energy of a vibrating system. In this paper, the variability of SEA solution under uncertain SEA parameters (coupling loss factors, internal loss factors and injected powers) is investigated by comparing a sensitivity approach and a design of experiment (DoE) approach. Uncertainties of the SEA parameters depend on uncertainties in the physical properties of the considered mechanical system. Numerical results are derived using a benchmark structure made by three aluminum plates with a common junction and a launcher fairing. The analysis of the effect of uncertainties of SEA parameters can be used for design purposes, i.e. to identify which are the most effective areas to modify in order to control the energy level of a given subsystem.

Culla, Antonio; D'Ambrogio, Walter; Fregolent, Annalisa

2011-01-01

412

Volga River Delta and Caspian Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color MODIS image from May 10, 2002, captures Russia's Volga River (running south through the center) emptying into the northern portion of the Caspian Sea. The waters of the Caspian Sea are quite murky in this image, highlighting the water quality problems plaguing the sea. The sea is inundated with sewage and industrial and agricultural waste, which is having measurable impact on human health and wildlife. According reports from the Department of Energy, in less than a decade the sturgeon catch dropped from 30,000 tons to just over 2,000 tons. National and international groups are currently joining together to find strategies of dealing with the environmental problems of the Caspian Sea. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

413

In calm seas, precipitation drives air-sea gas exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a series of experiments run in what resembles a heavily instrumented fish tank, Harrison et al. investigated the interwoven roles of wind and rain on air-sea gas exchange rates. Working with a 42-meterlong, 1-meter-wide, and 1.25-meter-tall experimental pool, the authors were able to control the wind speed, rainfall rate, water circulation speed, and other parameters, which they used to assess the effect of 24 different wind speed-rainfall rate combinations on the gas exchange rate of sulfur hexafuoride, a greenhouse gas. In trials that lasted up to 3 hours, the authors collected water samples from the tank at regular intervals, tracking the concentration of the dissolved gas.

Schultz, Colin

2012-05-01

414

Is sea salt in ice cores a proxy of past sea ice extent?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of marine, coastal and ice core proxies have been used to try to assess the past extent of sea ice. Sea salt has been proposed as a proxy for past ice extent, at least in the Southern Ocean. The idea is that the sea ice surface itself holds a source of sea salt, that is stronger than the source from the open ocean it replaces. That a sea ice source exists is apparent from observations of the ratio of sulphate to sodium in coastal aerosol and snow samples. While the idea behind using sea salt as a proxy is attractive, and leads to sensible inferences, many doubts remain. Firstly the exact nature of the source remains uncertain, and secondly it is not clear if ice extent, as opposed to changes in atmospheric transport and lifetime, would dominate variability in the ice core record of sea salt. Here we use a model of atmospheric transport and chemistry (p-TOMCAT) to assess the consequences of a sea ice source, focussing particularly on a source that has been proposed to arise from the sublimation of salty blowing snow. We will briefly report some new observations from a winter cruise, that will allow us to comment on the likelihood that blowing snow does pose a significant source. We will then present results from the model (implemented using existing parameters). The model has been run with seasonally and interannually varying sea ice extent and meteorology for the Antarctic, tracking, at different ice core sites, the concentration that arises from the open ocean and sea ice sources. We have already shown that the model, after tuning, is able to reproduce the magnitude and seasonal cycle of sea salt at a range of sites globally. By varying each component separately we explore which factors (sea ice presence, wind speed at source, transporting winds) and which source regions control the delivery of sea salt to sites in Antarctica. Such work suggests that sea salt cannot be used as a sea ice proxy on interannual timescales, but may be suitable on longer timescales. By employing much larger sea ice extents, such as at the last glacial maximum (LGM), we find a strong increase in concentration at ice core sites when ice extent increases. The increase in modelled sea salt concentration tails off sharply as ice approaches the LGM extent, so that the sensitivity of the proxy is greater at lower ice extents, for example in interglacials. We will discuss the implications of this work for the proposed use of sea salt as a sea ice proxy.

Levine, James; Wolff, Eric; Frey, Markus; Jenkins, Hazel; Jones, Anna; Yang, Xin

2014-05-01

415

SEAS Classroom to Sea Labs: New Directions for Ridge 2000 Communitywide Education Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lessons learned from the two year SEAS pilot program emphasize that student participation in deep-sea research is an important motivator in student learning. Further, SEAS students experience a paradigm shift in understanding evidence-based reasoning and the process of scientific discovery. At the same time, we have learned that fostering authentic student investigations within the confines of the academic year is challenging and only fits classrooms with some academic flexibility. As a result, this year, SEAS will focus on the new Classroom to Sea Lab as a means to help foster student inquiry in the secondary school science classroom. The Classroom to Sea Lab invites student participation in deep-sea research but does so without requiring students to identify and propose suitable sea-going experiments. Classroom to Sea labs are designed to feature current deep-sea research, and emphasize critical skills in laboratory techniques, data collection and analysis, and scientific reporting. Labs are conducted in the classroom (by students) and at sea (by scientists for the students), resulting in parallel datasets for comparison. Labs also feature the work of practicing scientists. An annual Classroom to Sea Report Fair invites students to summarize their findings and submit written analyses for scientist feedback and prizes, emphasizing the importance of communications skills in science. This year, the SEAS program will feature the Shallow-water vs. Deep-sea Vent Mussel Classroom to Sea lab. In this lab, students explore differences in mussel anatomy and feeding strategies, and understand how chemosynthetic symbionts function in this animal. The lab instructs students to dissect shallow-water mussels and measure the proportion of gill tissue to total body tissue. Students are also instructed to download a dataset of vent mussel measurements and compare average proportions. Finally, students are invited to submit their analyses of the lab to the on-line Report Fair sponsored by the Ridge 2000 research community. A primary goal of SEAS is to excite and engage student learners by involving them in actual research in the extreme environments of the deep-sea. The program depends on the contributions of multiple scientists within the Ridge 2000 community. Scientists field student questions during the Ask-a-Scientist email forum, serve as Report Reviewers, are featured in ``Scientist Spotlights,'' host educators during cruises to conduct at-sea portions of a lab, and help develop new labs. It is community involvement that makes the SEAS program possible and so exciting and motivating for students.

Goehring, L.

2005-12-01

416

Sea Ice Biogeochemistry: A Guide for Modellers  

PubMed Central

Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1) introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2) extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes.

Tedesco, Letizia; Vichi, Marcello

2014-01-01

417

The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (< 1.2 mm yr-1) due the water loading following the deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet. We construct two catalogues: one of published Holocene sea-level indicators and the other of published, modern growth rates, abundance and coverage of mangrove and coral species for different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

2014-05-01

418

Sea ice biogeochemistry: a guide for modellers.  

PubMed

Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1) introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2) extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes. PMID:24586604

Tedesco, Letizia; Vichi, Marcello

2014-01-01

419

Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism  

SciTech Connect

The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature, further decreasing the area cover of snow and ice. It is shown that the sea ice-albedo feedback can operate even in multiyear pack ice, without the disappearance of this ice, associated with internal processes occurring within the multiyear ice pack (e.g., duration of the snow cover, ice thickness, ice distribution, lead fraction, and melt pond characteristics). The strength of the ice-albedo feedback mechanism is compared for several different thermodynamic sea ice models: a new model that includes ice thickness distribution., the Ebert and Curry model, the Mayjut and Untersteiner model, and the Semtner level-3 and level-0 models. The climate forcing is chosen to be a perturbation of the surface heat flux, and cloud and water vapor feedbacks are inoperative so that the effects of the sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism can be isolated. The inclusion of melt ponds significantly strengthens the ice-albedo feedback, while the ice thickness distribution decreases the strength of the modeled sea ice-albedo feedback. It is emphasized that accurately modeling present-day sea ice thickness is not adequate for a sea ice parameterization; the correct physical processes must be included so that the sea ice parameterization yields correct sensitivities to external forcing. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Schramm, J.L.; Curry, J.A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Ebert, E.E. [Bureau of Meterology Research Center, Melbourne (Australia)

1995-02-01

420

Sea-Salt Aerosol Forecasts Compared with Wave and Sea-Salt Measurements in the Open Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) could influence the Earth's climate acting as cloud condensation nuclei. However, there were no regular measurements of SSA in the open sea. At Tel-Aviv University, the DREAM-Salt prediction system has been producing daily forecasts of 3-D distribution of sea-salt aerosol concentrations over the Mediterranean Sea (http://wind.tau.ac.il/salt ina/salt.html). In order to evaluate the model performance in the open sea, daily modeled concentrations were compared directly with SSA measurements taken at the tiny island of Lampedusa, in the Central Mediterranean. In order to further test the robustness of the model, the model performance over the open sea was indirectly verified by comparing modeled SSA concentrations with wave height measurements collected by the ODAS Italia 1 buoy and the Llobregat buoy. Model-vs.-measurement comparisons show that the model is capable of producing realistic SSA concentrations and their day-to- day variations over the open sea, in accordance with observed wave height and wind speed.

Kishcha, P.; Starobinets, B.; Bozzano, R.; Pensieri, S.; Canepa, E.; Nicovic, S.; di Sarra, A.; Udisti, R.; Becagli, S.; Alpert, P.

2012-03-01

421

An exploratory model study of sediment transport sources and deposits in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional ocean circulation model (ROMS) is used to simulate the Chinese land-derived sediment transport in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea (BYECS). The model includes the effect of currents, tides, and waves on the sediment transport and is used to study the pathway and dynamic mechanisms of the fine-grain sediment transport from the Huanghe River (Yellow River), the Old Huanghe Delta, and the Changjiang River (Yangtze River) in the BYECS. The seasonal variability of the sediment transport in the BYECS and the sources of the Yellow Sea Trough mud patch, the mud patch southwest of Cheju Island, the mud patch offshore from the Zhejiang and Fujian provinces and the Okinawa Trough mud patch are discussed. The results show that the Huanghe River sediment can be transported to the Yellow Sea Trough, but little makes it to the outer shelf while the Old Huanghe Delta sediment is mainly transported to the Yellow Sea Trough. Most of the sediment from the Changjiang River mouth is carried to the mud patch off the coast of the Zhejiang and Fujian provinces but with part of this sediment also transported to the Yellow Sea Trough. The model shows that it is difficult to transport land-derived sediment to the Okinawa Trough mud patch under normal conditions. The model also has difficulty accounting for the deposition of sediment in the region to the southwest of Cheju Island and offshore from the Zhejiang and Fujian provinces, an issue requiring further study.

Bian, Changwei; Jiang, Wensheng; Greatbatch, Richard J.

2013-11-01

422

Origin of the shelf break off Southeast Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from seismic reflection profiles across the southeast Australian continental margin indicates that in some areas eustatism has not influenced the shelf?break zone. Where this is the case, insufficient sediment has accumulated along the rifted continental margin since the opening of the Tasman Sea to compensate for subsidence and to raise the sea floor to within reach of wave?base erosive

H. A. Jones; P. J. Davies; J. F. Marshall

1975-01-01

423

Sea level change: a philosophical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present Cenozoic era is an ‘icehouse’ episode characterized by a low sea level. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the human race has been emitting greenhouse gases, increasing the global atmospheric temperature, and causing a rise in sea level. If emissions continue to increase at the present rate, average global temperatures may rise by 1.5°C by the year 2050, accompanied by a rise of about 30 cm in sea level. However, the prediction of future climatic conditions and sea level is hampered by the difficulty in modelling the interactions between the lithosphere, kryosphere, biosphere and atmosphere; in addition, the buffering capacity of our planet is still poorly understood. As scientists cannot offer unambiguous answers to simple questions, sorcerer's apprentices fill in the gaps, presenting plans to save planet without inconveniencing us. The geological record can help us to learn about the regulation mechanisms of our planet, many of which are connected with or expressed as sea level changes. Global changes in sea level are either tectono-eustatic or glacioeustatic. Plate tectonic processes strongly control sea levels and climate in the long term. There is a strong feed-back mechanism between sea level and climate; both can influence and determine each other. Although high sea levels are a powerful climatic buffer, falling sea levels accelerate climatic accentuation, the growth of the polar ice caps and will hence amplify the drop in sea level. Important sources of fossil greenhouse gases are botanic CO2 production, CO2 released by volcanic activity, and water vapour. The latter is particularly important when the surface area of the sea increases during a rise in sea level (‘maritime greenhouse effect’). A ‘volcanogenic greenhouse effect’ (release of volcanogenic CO2) is possibly not equally important, as intense volcanic activity may take place both during icehouse episodes as well as during greenhouse episodes. The hydrosphere, land vegetation and carbonate platforms are major CO2 buffers which may both take up and release CO2. CO2 can be released from the ocean due to changes in the pCO2 caused by growth of coral reefs and by uptake of CO2-rich freshwater from karst provinces. Efficient sinks of CO2 are the weathering products of silicate rocks; long-term sinks are organic deposits caused by regional anoxic events which preferrably develop during sea level rises and highstands; and coal-bearing strata. Deposition of limestone also removes CO2 from the atmospheric-hydrospheric cycle at a long term. Biotic crises are often related to either sea-level lows or sea-level highs. Long-term sea-level lows, characteristic of glacial periods, indicate cooling as major cause of extinction. During verly long-lasting greenhouse episodes the sea level is very high, climate and circulation systems are stable and biotic crises often develop as a consequence of oxygen depletion. On land, niche-splitting, complex food web structures and general overspecialization of biota will occur. Whether the crisis is caused by a single anoxic event (e.g. in the Late Devonian) or a disturbance by an asteroid impact (e.g. the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary), it will only trigger total collapse of an ecosystem if a large part of it was already in decline. The regulatory mechanisms and buffers are thermodynamically extremely efficient if they are given sufficient time in which to deploy their power. However, after major catastrophes the re-establishment of successful ecosystems will take millions of years. The present rate of sea level and associated temperature rise is much too fast to be compensated and buffered by the network of natural controls. It is likely that the transitional time towards a new steady state will be an extremely variable and chaotic episode of unpredictable duration.

Leinfelder, R.; Seyfried, H.

1993-07-01

424

76 FR 53381 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...sea urchin, crab, lobster, and sea cucumber), recreational fisheries (lobster...sea urchin, crab, lobster, and sea cucumber) and recreational (lobster), would...southern California. Commercial sea cucumber landings averaging 155,714 to...

2011-08-26

425

Tides of the Caribbean Sea  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of tidal characteristics from 45 gauge locations indicates that the Caribbean Sea has a microtidal range, for the most part between 10 and 20 cm. The tide is primarily either mixed semidiurnal or mixed diurnal but a substantial section from Puerto Rico to Venezuela experiences diurnal tides. Empirical charts of six component tides (M/sub 2/, S/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, K/sub 1/, O/sub 1/, and P/sub 1/) show local detail of phase and amplitude. Each of the semidiurnal component tides is characterized by anticlockwise rotating amphidromes centered in the eastern Caribbean. There is evidence of strong radiational forcing of the S/sub 2/ tide in the south-western Caribbean. The diurnal component tides are largely uniform in both phase and amplitude for most of the western and central Caribbean. However, the diurnal phases increase rapidly towards the northwest and the Yucatan Channel.

Kjerfve, B.

1981-05-20

426

Current Tropical Sea Surface Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the most recent Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data available for the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Coast region. Users can see the progression of warm waters (shown in yellow, orange, and red) slowly filling the Gulf of Mexico. This natural annual warming contributes to the possible formation of hurricanes in the Gulf. The animation updates every 24 hours, and still images of the data are also available. There is also imagery of the most recent 10-day average of SST anomalies in the Pacific Ocean, which is used by scientists for studying El Nino and La Nina. Warmer colors (yellow, red, orange) indicate positive anomalies (temperatures above normal). The imagery is from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aqua satellite.

427

Polar Seas Oceanography: An Integrated Case Study of the Kara Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What strikes first when browsing through this book is that the main title is misleading. Polar Seas Oceanography is, first of all, a book on ``an integrated case study of the Kara Sea,'' as the subtitle says. For readers who are interested more generally in polar oceanography, the book is probably the wrong choice. The Kara Sea is a rather shallow shelf sea within the Arctic Ocean, located between the Barents Sea to the west and the Laptev Sea to the east. The importance of the Kara Sea is manifold: climate change issues like ice formation and freshwater runoff, environmental problems from dumping of radioactive waste or oil exploitation, and finally, the Northern Sea route, which crosses large parts of the Kara Sea, underline the economical and ecological relevance of that region. In spite of severe climate conditions, the Kara Sea is relatively well investigated. This was achieved through intense oceanographic expeditions, aircraft surveys, and polar drift stations. Russian scientists from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) carried out a major part of this outstanding work during the second half of the last century.

Harms, Ingo

2004-02-01

428

Regional Long-Term Sea Level and Sea Surface Temperature Characteristics from Satellite Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a the large portion of the world's population liv ing in coastal zones forecasts of long- term sea lev el change is importan t for a var iety of environmen tal and socio- economic r easons. Satellite altimetry offers a unique opportunity for improving our knowledge about glob al and r egional sea level change on bo th global and reg ional scale. Joint TOPEX/PO SEIDON(T/P) +JASON-1 sea level observations and Reyno lds AVH RR sea surface temperature observ ations over th e most recen t 12 years hav e qualitativ ely been used to study regional correlations between long-term changes in sea level and sea surface temper ature. Long-term is here tak en to be lin ear signals in the 12-year time per iod Consistent in creases in both sea level and sea surface temp eratures ar e found in large parts of the world's oceans over this per iod. In the Indian Ocean and particularly th e Pacif ic Ocean , the trends in both sea level and temper ature are domin ated by the larg e changes associated w ith th e El N iño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) . Co mparison with similar trend estimates u sing only 8 years of satellite data shows the incr eased decoupling with ENSO and th e imp act of inter-annual variability on sea lev el tr end estimates.

Andersen, O. B.; Knudsen, P.; Beckley, B.

2006-07-01

429

Sea Level Variability in the Central Region of the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of three bottom pressure/temperature/conductivity (PTC) instruments was deployed along the Saudi Arabian coast of the eastern Red Sea since 2008. These locations, represent the central region of the Red Sea; Al-Lieth (100km south of Jeddah), Thuwal (KAUST) and Arriyas (100km north of Rabigh). Surface sea level/height was calculated from the bottom pressure measurements using the hydrostatic equation. The data analysis displayed the sea level variability into three different scales: 1) On daily time scales: the data showed the most energetic component of sea level variability was the diurnal and semidiurnal tides dominated by the M2, N2, K1 and O1 tidal constituents. 2) On weekly time scales (~10 days): the sea level variability was wind driven with setup and set down up to 40 cm due to the local wind stress. 3) On yearly time scales: the sea level varied approximately 50 cm and was highest in winter (January-February) and lowest in summer (July-August). Barometric pressure also had an annual cycle of approximately 10mb and was highest in January, thus attenuating the amplitude of the annual sea level variability. The data analysis postulate that the only mechanism behind the higher sea level in the central Red Sea during winter months was due to a response to the convergent in the large-scale Red Sea wind stress associated with the Indian Monsoon, which is consisting of NNW winds in the northern part of the Red Sea and SSE winds in the southern part. The amplitude of the principal tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability was coherent at the three sites, but the direction of phase propagation could not be resolved with confidence.

Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Limeburner, Richard; Farrar, J. Thomas; Beardsley, Robert

2013-04-01

430

Recent State of Arctic Sea Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the recent state of Arctic sea ice including observations from 2008 in a context of a multi-decadal perspective. A new record has been set in the reduction of Arctic perennial sea ice extent this winter. As of 1 March 2008, the extent of perennial sea ice was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same time last year as observed by the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite (QSCAT). This decrease of perennial ice continues the precipitous declining trend observed in this decade. Furthermore, the perennial sea ice pattern change was deduced by buoy-based estimates with 50 years of data from drifting buoys and measurement camps to track sea ice movement around the Arctic Ocean. The combination of the satellite and surface data records confirms that the reduction of winter perennial ice extent broke the record in 2008 compared to data over the last half century. In the winter, the loss of perennial ice extent was driven by winds that compressed the ice and transported it out of the Fram Strait and Nares Strait to warmer ocean waters at lower latitudes, where the ice melted very effectively. Another historical fact is that the boundary of perennial sea ice already crossed the North Pole (NP) in February 2008, leaving the area around the NP occupied by seasonal sea ice. This is the first time, not only from the satellite data record but also in the history of sea ice charting at the National Ice Center since the 1970's, that observations indicate the seasonal ice migration into the NP area so early in winter. In the Bering Sea by 12 March 2008, the sea ice edge reached to an extent that coincided with the continental shelf break, indicating bathymetric effects on the distribution of water masses along the Aleutian North Slope, Bering Slope, Anadyr, and Kamchatka Currents that governed the pattern of sea ice formation in this region. Moreover, QSCAT observations showed that, in the 2008 winter, seasonal ice occupied the Northern Sea Route, and most of two routes of the Northwest Passage, north and south of Victoria Island, which facilitated ice retreat and the opening of waterways this summer. Most importantly, the shift from a perennial to a seasonal ice covered Arctic Ocean significantly decreases the overall surface albedo resulting in enhanced solar heat absorption in spring and summer, which further decreases the Arctic ice pack through the ice albedo feedback mechanism. In early September 2008, a major melt event occurred over a large region extending from the Beaufort Sea across the Kara Sea toward the Laptev Sea, with active melt areas encroaching in the NP vicinity. This melt event was caused by an advection of warm air from the south, which melted and pushed sea ice away at the same time. At that time, the total extent of Arctic sea ice was about 0.5 million km2 (size of Spain) larger than that at the same time last year.

Nghiem, S. V.; Rigor, I. G.; Clemente-Colón, P.; Perovich, D. K.; Richter-Menge, J. A.; Chao, Y.; Neumann, G.; Ortmeyer, M.

2008-12-01

431

Severe Storm in the Sea of Azov  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fierce storm struck both the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on November 11, 2007. According to news reports, as many as 10 ships either sank or ran aground, one of them an oil tanker. The Russian tanker Volganeft-139 was anchored to the sea floor in the Kerch Strait linking the Black and Azov Seas when 108-kilometer- (67-mile-) per-hour winds tore the ship apart. As of November 12, up to 2,000 metric tons of fuel oil had leaked from the ship. On November 11, 2007, the day the storm struck, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image of the region. Thick clouds obscure the view of much of the land area, including Ukraine, Belarus, western Russia, and Georgia. Clouds also obscure the Sea of Azov, although skies over the Black Sea are somewhat clearer. Over the Sea of Azov and immediately to the north, the clouds form a vague swirling pattern, suggestive of a low-pressure cyclonic system.

2007-01-01

432

Galapagos Islands: Sea Cucumbers at Risk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past weeks, heightened tensions have again placed the future of marine life of the Galapagos Islands into question. Beloved to students of evolution the world around, the Galapagos Islands -- and its unique wildlife -- are threatened by human population growth, invader species, and commercial fishing. Recently, the fishing of a rare variety of sea cucumber, Ischitopus fuscus, has gained international attention. The demand for sea cucumbers, which are used in cuisine in France and China, has risen over the past decade, resulting in the export of millions of sea cucumbers. In 1992, the Ecuadorian government imposed a ban on the fishing of sea cucumbers, but poaching continued at an alarming rate. In 1995, armed sea cucumber fishermen took over the ecologically famous Charles Darwin Research Station, forcing the return of the sea cucumber harvest. In 1998, the Ecuadorian government passed a series of sweeping protective measures (The Galapagos Conservation Law) for the Galapagos Islands. Despite enthusiasm from the international community, the new laws again seem uncertain in their effectiveness. This week's In The News chronicles recent events in the Galapagos, and the eight resources listed provide background information on the Galapagos and sea cucumbers.

Payne, Laura X.

433

Probabilistic Forecasting of Arctic Sea Ice Extent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea ice in the Arctic is changing rapidly. Most noticeable has been the series of record, or near-record, annual minimums in sea ice extent in the past six years. The changing regime of sea ice has prompted much interest in seasonal prediction of sea ice extent, particularly as opportunities for Arctic shipping and resource exploration or extraction increase. This study presents a daily sea ice extent probabilistic forecast method with a 50-day lead time. A base projection is made from historical data and near-real-time sea ice concentration is assimilated on the issue date of the forecast. When considering the September mean ice extent for the period 1995-2012, the performance of the 50-day lead time forecast is very good: correlation=0.94, Bias = 0.14 ×106 km^2 and RMSE = 0.36 ×106 km^2. Forecasts for the daily minimum contains equal skill levels. The system is highly competitive with any of the SEARCH Sea Ice Outlook estimates. The primary finding of this study is that large amounts of forecast skill can be gained from knowledge of the initial conditions of concentration (perhaps more than previously thought). Given the simplicity of the forecast model, improved skill should be available from system refinement and with suitable proxies for large scale atmosphere and ocean circulation.

Slater, A. G.

2013-12-01

434

How fast is sea level rising?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day sea level rise is a major indicator of climate change. Since the early 1990s, sea level rose at a mean rate of ~3.1mm/yr. However since about a decade, a slowdown of this rate -by about 30%, is recorded. It coincides with a plateau in Earth's mean surface temperature evolution, the latter referred to as 'recent pause in warming'. Here we present an analysis based on sea level data from the altimetry record of the last ~20 years that separates interannual natural variability in sea level from the longer-term change likely related to anthropogenic global warming. The most prominent signature of the interannual variability in the global mean sea level is caused by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), through its impact on the global water cycle. We find that when correcting for the interannual variability, the last decade slowdown of the global mean sea level disappears, leading to similar rate of sea level rise (of 3.3 +/- 0.4 mm/yr) during the first and second decade of the altimetry era. Our results confirm the need for quantifying and further removing from the climate records the short-term natural climate variability if one wants to extract the global warming signal.

Cazenave, Anny; Dieng, Habib; Meyssignac, Benoit; von Schuckmann, Karina; Decharme, Bertrand; Berthier, Etienne

2014-05-01

435

The rate of sea-level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day sea-level rise is a major indicator of climate change. Since the early 1990s, sea level rose at a mean rate of ~3.1 mm yr-1 (refs , ). However, over the last decade a slowdown of this rate, of about 30%, has been recorded. It coincides with a plateau in Earth's mean surface temperature evolution, known as the recent pause in warming. Here we present an analysis based on sea-level data from the altimetry record of the past ~20 years that separates interannual natural variability in sea level from the longer-term change probably related to anthropogenic global warming. The most prominent signature in the global mean sea level interannual variability is caused by El Niño-Southern Oscillation, through its impact on the global water cycle. We find that when correcting for interannual variability, the past decade's slowdown of the global mean sea level disappears, leading to a similar rate of sea-level rise (of 3.3 +/- 0.4 mm yr-1) during the first and second decade of the altimetry era. Our results confirm the need for quantifying and further removing from the climate records the short-term natural climate variability if one wants to extract the global warming signal.

Cazenave, Anny; Dieng, Habib-Boubacar; Meyssignac, Benoit; von Schuckmann, Karina; Decharme, Bertrand; Berthier, Etienne

2014-05-01

436

Climate, Ocean, and Sea Ice Modeling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of the Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling Project (COSIM) and its mission to develop sea ice and ocean models which can be applied to coupled climate models. Research areas include polar processes, thermohaline circulation, ocean biogeochemistry, and eddy resolving ocean simulations. Available models include the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model, and eventually the hybrid vertical coordinate version of POP. In addition, COSIM researchers have provided substantial input and development to the Miami Isopycnal Coordinate Ocean Model and its hybrid vertical coordinate equivalent Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model. Links to these model pages contain model downloads, documentation and data.

Laboratory, Los A.

437

Elemental composition of commercial sea cucumbers (holothurians)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic and essential elements in 11 different sea cucumber species were determined and compared with daily intake recommendations and maximum allowed levels. The contents of macro-elements contents in dried sea cucumber samples were found to be 25,000–152,000?mg?kg for Na, 4000–8600?mg?kg for Mg, 1100–5200?mg?kg for K, 15,000–68,000?mg?kg and 36,300–251,000?mg?kg for Cl. Trace element concentrations in dried sea cucumber samples were found

J. Wen; C. Hu

2010-01-01

438

Sea ice, climate and Fram Strait  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When sea ice is formed the albedo of the ocean surface increases from its open water value of about 0.1 to a value as high as 0.8. This albedo change effects the radiation balance and thus has the potential to alter climate. Sea ice also partially seals off the ocean from the atmosphere, reducing the exchange of gases such as carbon dioxide. This is another possible mechanism by which climate might be affected. The Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX 83 to 84) is an international, multidisciplinary study of processes controlling the edge of the ice pack in that area including the interactions between sea, air and ice.

Hunkins, K.

1984-01-01

439

Shelf Sea Oceanography and Meteorology Research Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Shelf Sea Oceanography and Meteorology Research Group, located at the University of Plymouth, furnishes summaries and reports of its current and recent research projects dealing with mesoscale physical processes, sediment transport, and other shelf and coastal oceanographic and meteorological challenges. Along with discovering the objectives of the endeavors, users can download the final report of the Black Sea Ecosystem Recovery Project, which quantified "shelf-deep transport of water masses and exchanges of nutrients by mesoscale activity at the North West Black Sea shelf break." Researchers can learn about past and upcoming seminars, conferences, and other events. The website offers links to abstracts of many of the group's publications as well.

440

Prokaryotic lifestyles in deep sea habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gradients of physicochemical factors influence the growth and survival of life in deep-sea environments. Insights into the\\u000a characteristics of deep marine prokaryotes has greatly benefited from recent progress in whole genome and metagenome sequence\\u000a analyses. Here we review the current state-of-the-art of deep-sea microbial genomics. Ongoing and future genome-enabled studies\\u000a will allow for a better understanding of deep-sea evolution, physiology,

Federico M. Lauro; Douglas H. Bartlett

2008-01-01

441

The eastern Massachusetts sea breeze study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates many different aspects of the sea breeze at Logan Airport in Boston, Massachusetts (KBOS) and along the Massachusetts coastline. Part of the study adapts the method of predicting sea breeze events developed by Miller and Keim (2003) for Portsmouth, New Hampshire (KPSM) to KBOS. A nearly ten-year dataset of hourly KBOS surface observations (1998-2007) was used to identify 879 days when the sea breeze occurred or was likely to occur at the airport. These days were classified as sea breeze, marginal, or non-sea breeze events. Sea breeze events were further classified into fast and slow transitions, with a fast transition identified by a wind shift taking one hour or less to develop, and a slow transition identified by a wind shift taking two hours or more to develop. Marginal events were events that had a duration of 1 hour or less, no clear start or finish, or were interrupted by periods of "calm" or "light and variable" winds. Non-events were events in which the background conditions for a sea breeze to occur existed, but a sea breeze did not develop. Times of onset and event durations for the sea breeze events (fast, slow, and marginal) were calculated and used to create seasonal statistics by event type. It was found that seasonal variation did occur with both characteristics, but was more evident in the time of onset. Slow events occurred earliest in the day overall, while marginal events occurred a bit later, and fast events occurred the latest. Slow events had the longest duration overall, while marginal events, by definition, had the shortest duration. Seasonally, similar results were found for both characteristics with a few variations. United States surface analyses for each event at the time of onset (or average time of onset, 1500 UTC, for non-events) were classified using the seven synoptic classes developed by Miller and Keim (2003), and statistics were developed to evaluate the distribution of synoptic classes amongst the different types of events and various seasons. Composite surface analyses of the different synoptic classes and types of events were then developed. There were significant differences between the composites of each event type within a synoptic class. Wind vector plots, created from surface observations using Barnes analysis, were used to identify the position of the sea breeze front as the sea breeze airmass penetrated inland. The depth and shape of this front was examined by synoptic class. The prevailing synoptic scale flow was found to limit penetration in expected areas along the coastline. Mesoscale calculations were used to determine the critical balance of the cross-shore temperature gradient (dT/dx) versus the cross-shore geostrophic wind component (uG) at the surface necessary for the occurrence and non-occurrence of the sea breeze. It was found that by stratifying the events by synoptic classes, a smaller transition area (containing both sea breeze and non-sea breeze events) could be created. The method was taken further by adding a third variable, the 850 hPa geostrophic wind component. The three dimensional plot showed a large transition area and future research may be able to reduce this area by breaking it down by synoptic class. Finally, the effect of the sea breeze on convection was analyzed using radar reflectivity data from the Taunton, Massachusetts WSR-88D (KBOX) for 2002 through 2007 (562 events). Convection was present inland along the Massachusetts coastline for only 24 of the total 562 events (4%). This small occurrence results from a bias from the methodology used to develop the data set. However, when the sea breeze did occur convection developed or was affected by the sea breeze front.

Thorp, Jennifer E.

442

Effects of Mackenzie River discharge and bathymetry on sea ice in the Beaufort Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River discharge and bathymetry effects on sea ice in the Beaufort Sea are examined in 2012 when Arctic sea ice extent hit a record low. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature revealed warmer waters closer to river mouths. By 5 July 2012, Mackenzie warm waters occupied most of an open water area about 316,000 km2. Surface temperature in a common open water area increased by 6.5°C between 14 June and 5 July 2012, before and after the river waters broke through a recurrent landfast ice barrier formed over the shallow seafloor offshore the Mackenzie Delta. In 2012, melting by warm river waters was especially effective when the strong Beaufort Gyre fragmented sea ice into unconsolidated floes. The Mackenzie and other large rivers can transport an enormous amount of heat across immense continental watersheds into the Arctic Ocean, constituting a stark contrast to the Antarctic that has no such rivers to affect sea ice.

Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Rigor, I. G.; Li, P.; Neumann, G.

2014-02-01

443

Phylogenetic Relationships among Deep-Sea and Chemosynthetic Sea Anemones: Actinoscyphiidae and Actinostolidae (Actiniaria: Mesomyaria)  

PubMed Central

Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria) are present in all marine ecosystems, including chemosynthetic environments. The high level of endemicity of sea anemones in chemosynthetic environments and the taxonomic confusion in many of the groups to which these animals belong makes their systematic relationships obscure. We use five molecular markers to explore the phylogenetic relationships of the superfamily Mesomyaria, which includes most of the species that live in chemosynthetic, deep-sea, and polar sea habitats and to test the monophyly of the recently defined clades Actinostolina and Chemosynthina. We found that sea anemones of chemosynthetic environments derive from at least two different lineages: one lineage including acontiate deep-sea taxa and the other primarily encompassing shallow-water taxa.

Rodriguez, Estefania; Daly, Marymegan

2010-01-01

444

A model for the consolidation of rafted sea ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rafting is one of the important deformation mechanisms of sea ice. This process is widespread in the north Caspian Sea, where multiple rafting produces thick sea ice features, which are a hazard to offshore operations. Here we present a one-dimensional, thermal consolidation model for rafted sea ice. We consider the consolidation between the layers of both a two-layer and a

E. Bailey; D. L. Feltham; P. R. Sammonds

2010-01-01

445

Movement of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are a nuisance aquatic species in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain that have devastated native fish populations and hampered the restoration of sport fisheries. This study examined inter-basin movement of sea lamprey in Lake Champlain to identify tributaries that contribute parasitic-phase sea lamprey and provide information for prioritizing those tributaries for sea lamprey control. A

Eric A. Howe; J. Ellen Marsden; Wayne Bouffard

2006-01-01

446

Dynamic sea level changes following changes in the thermohaline circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the coupled climate model CLIMBER-3a, we investigate changes in sea surface elevation due to a weakening of the thermohaline circulation (THC). In addition to a global sea level rise due to a warming of the deep sea, this leads to a regional dynamic sea level change which follows quasi-instantaneously any change in the ocean circulation. We show that the

Anders Levermann; Alexa Griesel; Matthias Hofmann; Marisa Montoya; Stefan Rahmstorf

2005-01-01

447

Undergraduate Research From Start to Finish in a SEA Semester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undergraduates in the 12-week SEA Semester program at the Sea Education Association (SEA) carry out the entire scientific research process, from conception of a testable scientific question to final presentation of results from data they collect on a six-week research cruise. SEA is uniquely positioned to direct undergraduates in oceanography research projects as diverse as the students that propose them,

K. Lavender; P. Joyce; L. Graziano; S. Harris; G. Jaroslow; C. Lea; J. Schell; J. Witting

2005-01-01

448

ConcepTest: Effect of Ice Sheet on Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the last ice age there was a large ice sheet over much of Canada and the northern U.S. What was the effect on global sea levels? a. Sea level was higher b. Sea level was lower c. Sea level was the same as ...

449

Monthly variations of the Caspian sea level and solar activity.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The connection between 11-year cycle of solar activity and the Caspian sea level is investigated. Seasonal changes of the Caspian sea level and annual variations of the sea level with variations of solar activity are studied. The results of the verifications of the sea level forecasts obtained with application of the rules discovered by the authors are given.

Romanchuk, P. R.; Pasechnik, M. N.

450

50 CFR 648.59 - Sea Scallop Access Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sea Scallop Access Areas. 648.59 Section 648.59...STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.59 Sea Scallop Access Areas. (a) Delmarva Sea Scallop...

2010-10-01

451

50 CFR 648.59 - Sea Scallop Access Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Sea Scallop Access Areas. 648.59 Section 648.59...STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.59 Sea Scallop Access Areas. (a) Delmarva Sea Scallop...

2009-10-01

452

Western Pacific Sea Surface Salinity, Air-Sea Interaction, Surface Advection and the Morphology of ENSO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface salinity (SSS) obtained from the Aquarius satellite simulation data is used with zonal currents from Ocean Surface Current Analyses Real-Time product (OSCAR) to analyze the ocean-atmosphere coupling processes related to the ENSO activities. We show that SSS can often be a better indicator for the regional air-sea interactions than sea surface temperature (SST) for two reasons. First, SSS

H. Kao; G. S. Lagerloef

2010-01-01

453

The crust and mantle lithosphere in the Barents Sea/Kara Sea region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this study is the nature of a prominent, high-velocity (S-wave) anomaly in the upper mantle below the Barents Sea-Kara Sea region and its relation to the evolution of the sedimentary basins, in particular the Permo-Triassic East Barents Sea Basin. The high-velocity anomaly exhibits a thickness of 75-100 km below the central Barents Sea and thickens considerably below the East Barents Sea Basin (150 km). The thickest part of the high-velocity anomaly follows the outline of the East Barents Sea Basin which is bended around Pai-Khoi-Novaya Zemlya Fold Belt. Density modeling of the lithosphere along a 3200 km long transect from the Barents Sea to the West Siberian Basin was used to evaluate different models for the upper mantle structure. The best fit gravity model was achieved when either assuming a 1D, horizontally- layered mantle structure, or, a forward-modeled density structure using an average Proterozoic mantle composition. The first model requires a further, compensating excess mass below the (seismic) Moho in the East Barents Sea Basin region. The latter model exhibits a higher-density dome structure below the basin. Both models indicate probable old, continental lithosphere below the central part of the transect in eastern Barents Sea/Kara Sea region. Calculated temperatures of 400-1000 °C (60-200 km depth) further support this concept. Hence, the East Barents Sea Basin developed probably as an intra-continental basin within a non-extensional setting. Such basins exhibit generally crustal inhomogeneities which contributed considerably to their subsidence history. Likely structures below the East Barents Sea Basin are Pre-Permian rifts, accumulated melts derived by the Siberian mantle plume, and/or the Late Neoproterozoic Timanide Orogen.

Ritzmann, Oliver; Faleide, Jan Inge

2009-05-01

454

Neogene History of Antarctic Sea-ice and Development of the Sea-ice Diatom Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea-ice plays an important role in the modern Antarctic climate system and in this region's linkage to lower latitude regions. Today, the seasonal sea-ice cover decouples oceanic heat transfer to the atmosphere, which amplifies winter's low temperatures and shifts sources of moisture far to the north. The sea-ice zone is an important site for biological productivity and bottom water formation,

D. M. Harwood; S. M. Bohaty; J. M. Whitehead

2002-01-01

455

Three-dimensional structure of tidal current in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional tidal current model is developed and applied to the East China Sea (ECS), the Yellow Sea and the Bohai\\u000a Sea. The model well reproduces the major four tides, namely M2, S2, K1 and O1 tides, and their currents. The horizontal distributions of the major four tidal currents are the same as those calculated\\u000a by the horizontal two-dimensional models.

Xinyu Guo; Tetsuo Yanagi

1998-01-01

456

Arctic sea ice decline: Projected changes in timing and extent of sea ice in the Bering and Chukchi Seas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Arctic region is warming faster than most regions of the world due in part to increasing greenhouse gases and positive feedbacks associated with the loss of snow and ice cover. One consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades?a decline that is projected to continue by state-of-the-art models. Many stakeholders are therefore interested in how global warming may change the timing and extent of sea ice Arctic-wide, and for specific regions. To inform the public and decision makers of anticipated environmental changes, scientists are striving to better understand how sea ice influences ecosystem structure, local weather, and global climate. Here, projected changes in the Bering and Chukchi Seas are examined because sea ice influences the presence of, or accessibility to, a variety of local resources of commercial and cultural value. In this study, 21st century sea ice conditions in the Bering and Chukchi Seas are based on projections by 18 general circulation models (GCMs) prepared for the fourth reporting period by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007. Sea ice projections are analyzed for each of two IPCC greenhouse gas forcing scenarios: the A1B `business as usual? scenario and the A2 scenario that is somewhat more aggressive in its CO2 emissions during the second half of the century. A large spread of uncertainty among projections by all 18 models was constrained by creating model subsets that excluded GCMs that poorly simulated the 1979-2008 satellite record of ice extent and seasonality. At the end of the 21st century (2090-2099), median sea ice projections among all combinations of model ensemble and forcing scenario were qualitatively similar. June is projected to experience the least amount of sea ice loss among all months. For the Chukchi Sea, projections show extensive ice melt during July and ice-free conditions during August, September, and October by the end of the century, with high agreement among models. High agreement also accompanies projections that the Chukchi Sea will be completely ice covered during February, March, and April at the end of the century. Large uncertainties, however, are associated with the timing and amount of partial ice cover during the intervening periods of melt and freeze. For the Bering Sea, median March ice extent is projected to be about 25 percent less than the 1979-1988 average by mid-century and 60 percent less by the end of the century. The ice-free season in the Bering Sea is projected to increase from its contemporary average of 5.5 months to a median of about 8.5 months by the end of the century. A 3-month longer ice- free season in the Bering Sea is attained by a 1-month advance in melt and a 2-month delay in freeze, meaning the ice edge typically will pass through the Bering Strait in May and January at the end of the century rather than June and November as presently observed.

Douglas, D. C.

2010-01-01

457

Connections of Yenisei River discharge to sea surface temperatures, sea ice, and atmospheric circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the connections of Yenisei River discharge to sea surface temperatures (SSTs), atmospheric circulation, and Arctic sea ice coverage using historical records for the time period of 1936-1995. We found that Yenisei River discharge is negatively associated with SSTs over the northern North Atlantic and is positively correlated with SSTs over the tropical South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. This connection is bridged by atmospheric circulation anomalies over the North Atlantic (a pattern similar to the North Atlantic Oscillation) and central Siberia. Sea ice coverage over the eastern Arctic Ocean, specifically over the eastern Siberian Sea, the Kara Sea, and the Greenland Sea, is negatively associated with Yenisei River discharge one season after the annual discharge; the abnormal ice coverage extent persists throughout the year until the next winter season. The persistent negative relationships between discharge and regional sea ice may be a result of the combined effects of the thermal and dynamic contribution of fresh water to sea ice and persistent atmospheric circulation anomalies coupled with sea ice cover over the Arctic Ocean.

Ye, Hengchun; Yang, Daqing; Zhang, Xuebin; Zhang, Tingjun

2003-12-01

458

Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

Rosenberg, D. E.

2010-12-01

459

Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr-1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

Rosenberg, D. E.

2011-04-01

460

Intercomparisons of sea ice concentration from SSM/I and AVHRR data of the Ross Sea  

SciTech Connect

SSM/I and AVHRR sea ice mapping capabilities are analyzed using Antarctic data acquired during November 1990 over the Ross Sea. Quantitative comparisons between sea ice concentrations obtained from SSM/I and AVHRR data show differences of {minus}10% to + 50% with average differences between 9% and 17%. These differences are mainly attributed to: (a) sea ice reflectance and emissivity spatial variations occurring during the melting season, which reduce the accuracy of concentrations obtained with global tie points, and (b) colocation inaccuracy between SSM/I and AVHRR grids.

Zibordi, G. [JRC, Ispra (Italy). Inst. for Remote Sensing Applications] [JRC, Ispra (Italy). Inst. for Remote Sensing Applications; Woert, M. van [Universities Space Research Association, Washington, DC (United States)] [Universities Space Research Association, Washington, DC (United States); Meloni, G.P.; Canossi, I. [CNR, Modena (Italy). Inst. for the Study of Geophysical and Environmental Methodologies] [CNR, Modena (Italy). Inst. for the Study of Geophysical and Environmental Methodologies

1995-09-01

461

Verification of simulated sea-ice concentrations from sea-ice/ocean models using satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea-ice concentrations in the Laptev Sea simulated by the coupled North Atlantic - Arctic Ocean - Sea-Ice Model (NAOSIM) and Finite Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model (FESOM) are verified using sea-ice concentrations from AMSR-E satellite data and a polynya classification method for winter 2007/08. Simulated sea-ice fields from different model runs are compared with emphasis on the impact of an integrated fast-ice mask. Sea-ice models are not able to simulate polynyas realistically when used in their operational versions. Without fast ice, our investigations indicate that the simulation of large leads and smoothed sea-ice concentration fields compensates the absence of the polynyas. After implementation of a fast-ice mask the polynya location is realistically simulated, but the total open water area is largely overestimated. The study shows that further model improvements are necessary in order to achieve the important step from the simulation of large-scale features in the Arctic towards a more detailed simulation of smaller-scaled features (here polynyas) in an Arctic shelf sea.

Adams, Susanne; Willmes, Sascha; Heinemann, Günther; Rozman, Polona; Timmermann, Ralph; Schröder, David

2010-05-01

462

Sea Turtles: Ancient Creatures with Modern Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The long history of people exploiting sea turtles laid the foundation for the decline in their numbers. Today, the primary threats to their survival include: indirect fisheries, direct harvesting, coastal development, and global warming.

Kate L. Mansfield (Florida Atlantic University;)

2010-08-05