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1

TBC-Domain GAPs for Rab GTPases Accelerate GTP Hydrolysis by a Dual-Finger Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

Rab GTPases regulate membrane trafficking by cycling between inactive (GDP-bound) and active (GTP-bound) conformations. The duration of the active state is limited by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which accelerate the slow intrinsic rate of GTP hydrolysis. Proteins containing TBC (Tre-2, Bub2 and Cdc16) domains are broadly conserved in eukaryotic organisms and function as GAPs for Rab GTPases as well as GTPases that control cytokinesis. An exposed arginine residue is a critical determinant of GAP activity in vitro and in vivo. It has been expected that the catalytic mechanism of TBC domains would parallel that of Ras and Rho family GAPs. Here we report crystallographic, mutational and functional analyses of complexes between Rab GTPases and the TBC domain of Gyp1p. In the crystal structure of a TBC-domain-Rab-GTPase-aluminium fluoride complex, which approximates the transition-state intermediate for GTP hydrolysis, the TBC domain supplies two catalytic residues in trans, an arginine finger analogous to Ras/Rho family GAPs and a glutamine finger that substitutes for the glutamine in the DxxGQ motif of the GTPase. The glutamine from the Rab GTPase does not stabilize the transition state as expected but instead interacts with the TBC domain. Strong conservation of both catalytic fingers indicates that most TBC-domain GAPs may accelerate GTP hydrolysis by a similar dual-finger mechanism.

Pan,X.; Eathiraj, S.; Lambright, D.

2006-01-01

2

Degradation Mechanisms of an Advanced Jet Engine Service-Retired TBC Component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current use of TBCs is subjected to premature spallation failure mainly due to the formation of thermally grown oxides (TGOs). Although extensive research has been carried out to gain better understanding of the thermo - mechanical and -chemical characteristics of TBCs, laboratory-scale studies and simulation tests are often carried out in conditions significantly differed from the complex and extreme environment typically of a modern gas-turbine engine, thus, failed to truly model service conditions. In particular, the difference in oxygen partial pressure and the effects of contaminants present in the engine compartment have often been neglected. In this respect, an investigation is carried out to study the in-service degradation of an EB-PVD TBC coated nozzle-guide vane. Several modes of degradation were observed due to three factors: 1) presence of residual stresses induced by the thermal-expansion mismatches, 2) evolution of bond coat microstructure and subsequent formation of oxide spinels, 3) deposition of CMAS on the surface of TBC.

Wu, Rudder T.; Osawa, Makoto; Yokokawa, Tadaharu; Kawagishi, Kyoko; Harada, Hiroshi

3

Scale Adhesion, Sulfur Content, and TBC Failure on Single Crystal Superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the main effects of sulfur impurity content on the cyclic oxidation resistance of single crystal superalloys, with emphasis on scale and TBC adhesion. Eleven hundred degrees C cyclic oxidation of PWA 1480 produces scale spallation leading to a weight loss of more than 30 Mg/sq cm after 500 one-hr cycles for a sulfur content of 6 ppmw. The sulfur content was reduced to levels below 0.1 ppmw by hydrogen annealing, resulting in weight gains of only 0.5 to 1.0 Mg/sq cm after 1000 one-hr cycles. Samples were produced with various sulfur contents by adjusting the annealing temperature, time, and sample thickness (i.e., diffusion product Dt/L(exp 2)). The subsequent cyclic oxidation behavior, mapped over a sulfur content/thickness diagram, shows a transition to adherent behavior at sulfur levels equivalent to 1 monolayer of total segregation. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Smialek, James L.

2002-01-01

4

Fatigue Testing of TBC on Structural Steel by Cyclic Bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For applications with variable loading, fatigue performance of coated parts is of utmost importance. In this study, fatigue performance of conventional structural steel coated with thermal barrier coating (TBC) was evaluated in cyclic bending mode by "SF-Test" device. Testing was carried out at each stage of the TBC preparation process, i.e., for as-received and grit-blasted substrates, as well as for samples with Ni-based bond-coat and complete TBC: bond-coat with YSZ-based top-coat. Comparison of results obtained for different loading amplitudes supplemented by fractographic analysis enabled identification of dominating failure mechanisms and demonstrated applicability of the high-frequency resonant bending test for evaluation of fatigue resistance alteration at each stage of the TBC deposition process.

Musalek, Radek; Kovarik, Ondrej; Medricky, Jan; Curry, Nicholas; Bjorklund, Stefan; Nylen, Per

2014-11-01

5

Oxidation-induced failure of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation-induced failure of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings (TBC) deposited on a single-crystal superalloy with a platinum aluminide bond coat has been studied in order to determine the specific mechanisms leading to TBC spallation. Cyclic oxidation tests performed at 1150°C show that failure of the TBC occurs when the alumina scale, growing at the bond coat–TBC interface, attains its critical thickness.

V. K Tolpygo; D. R Clarke; K. S Murphy

2001-01-01

6

Effect of Coating Process Condition on High-Temperature Oxidation and Mechanical Failure Behavior for Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to clarify the thermal and\\/or mechanical failure behavior of the plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) system in connection with their coating characteristics depending on the coating process condition, two kinds of the failure analytical tests were conducted for TBC systems processed under different conditions. One was the high-temperature oxidation test, which was conducted at 1100°C under both

Satoru Takahashi; Masayuki Yoshiba; Yoshio Harada

2008-01-01

7

Failure mechanisms of thermal barrier systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are widely used in turbines for propulsion and power generation. The benefit results from their ability to sustain high thermal gradients in the presence of adequate backside cooling. Lowering the temperature of the metal substrate prolongs the life of the component: whether from environmental attack, creep rupture, or fatigue. Thermal barrier systems exhibit multiple failure mechanisms, depends on the deposition methods of the TBCs, chemical composition of the bond coats, and their working environments. Some of the most prevalent are studied in this thesis. There are two types of thermal barrier systems based on the chemical composition of the bond coats: Pt-aluminide and NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting happens the most in the systems with Pt-aluminide bond coats; while edge delamination is considered a possible failure mechanism for the systems with NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting is motivated by displacement instability in the thermally grown oxide (TGO). Interactions between cracks induced in TBCs upon thermal cycling have been calculated. Cracks that converge from neighboring imperfections exhibit a minimum energy release rate prior to coalescence. Equating this minimum to the toughness of the TBC provides a criterion for coalescence and failure. Imposing this criterion allows the change in crack length upon cycling and the number of cycles to failure to be ascertained. This simulation capability is used to explore various influences on durability. Samples with NiCoCrAlY bond coat are studied after subjected to thermal cycling in a burner rig. In each case, a dominant delamination has been identified, that extends primarily along the interface between the TGO and the bond coat. Calculations of the delamination energy release rate, upon comparison with the interface toughness, reveals a critical TGO thickness, (h tgo)c ? 3mum, comparable to that found experimentally.

Xu, Tao

8

Non-destructive evaluation of TBC by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this work focus on studying the feasibility of developing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as an NDE methodology for quality assurance and post exposure inspection of TBC. Principally air plasma sprayed TBC was investigated while APS dense vertically cracked TBC and electron beam physical vapor deposition sprayed TBC were also studied using EIS. It has been found that EIS has a great promise in TBC quality assurance and post-exposure assessment. In the quality evaluation, EIS can detect TBC topcoat thickness, porosity, and kinds of defects (pore shape, cracks, or delamination). The TBC topcoat thickness shows a linear relationship with ceramic resistance. The TBC porosity has a linear relationship with ceramic capacitance. The kinds of defects in TBC topcoat can be assessed by the value of pore resistance. In the post-exposure inspection, EIS can monitor the evolution of defects in the topcoat, porosity, the growth of TGO and thermal conductivity of TBC. There is an exponential relationship between thermal conductivity and electrochemical impedance or a logarithmic relationship between thermal conductivity and electrochemical conductance. Investigation on thermal conductivity of TBC showed the specific heat or thermal conductivity of TBC has a logarithmic relationship with temperature, respectively. Exposure temperature and time are two important factors for an increase in thermal conductivity. The higher temperature and longer the exposure, the greater increase the thermal conductivity. High temperature exposure of TBC results in phase transformations, t-ZrO2 ? m-ZrO2 and t-ZrO2 ? c-ZrO2 and evolution of defect (ceramic sintering). Both the phase transformations and the sintering cause an increase in thermal conductivity. However, it has been found the phase transformations are only a conservative factor while the sintering is a substantial reason for an increase in thermal conductivity. A failure mode of TBC due to sintering was suggested. An alternative electrolyte (trifluoroacetic acid) was investigated using EIS in order to be used as compatible or friendly solution to TBC. A similar characteristic EIS result was found using the alternative electrolyte compared with the commonly used electrolyte [Fe(CN)6]-3/[Fe(CN) 6]-4 in this work. It has indicated that a friendly electrolyte be viable for EIS technique to be used for non-destructive evaluation of TBC. Visualization of a flexible probe for EIS field detection has also been designed. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Zhang, Jianqi

9

Stress state and failure mechanisms of thermal barrier coatings: role of creep in thermally grown oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical loading of the thermal barrier coating (TBC)\\/thermally grown oxide (TGO)\\/bond coat interface region is calculated for a TBC coated superalloy specimen using a finite element model. It is shown that the evolving stress state depends crucially on the ratio of the loading rate caused by growth and swelling of the oxide layer and the unloading rate by creep

J. Rösler; M. Bäker; M. Volgmann

2001-01-01

10

Failure mechanism models for cyclic fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work illustrates design situations where mechanical fatigue under cyclic loading, of one or more components, can compromise system performance. In this failure mechanism, damage accumulates with each load cycle, thereby causing a physical wearout failure mechanism. Phenomenological continuum length-scale models, based on micromechanical considerations, are presented to predict the onset (or initiation) of fatigue cracking in ductile materials. Fatigue

Abhijit Dasgupta; Reader Aids

1993-01-01

11

MEMS reliability from a failure mechanisms perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, considerable effort has gone into the study of the failure mechanisms and reliability of micro- electromechanical systems (MEMS). Although still very incomplete, our knowledge of the reliability issues relevant to MEMS is growing. This paper provides an overview of MEMS failure mechanisms that are commonly encountered. It focuses on the reliability issues of micro-scale devices,

W. Merlijn Van Spengen

2003-01-01

12

The lustering of TBC-2  

SciTech Connect

Two test bed concentrators (TBCs) were designed to provide high-performance test beds for advanced solar receivers and converters. However, the second-surface silvered-glass mirror facets on the TBCs, which were originally manufactured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, have experienced severe silver corrosion. To restore reflectance, TBC-2 was refurbished with a lustering technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories. In the lustering technique, second-surface silvered thin-glass mirrors were applied over the corroded facets, thereby increasing the dish reflectivity and raising the available power of TBC-2 from approximately 70 to 78 kW{sub t}. Degradation of the original optical accuracy of the TBC facets was determined to be minimal. Lustering was chosen over facet replacement because of the lower cost, the anticipated improvement in corrosion resistance, and the shorter project duration. This report includes background information, details of the lustering process, and test results from TBC-2 characterization, both before and after lustering.

Diver, R.B.; Jones, S.; Robb, S.; Mahoney, A.R.

1995-05-01

13

Mechanisms of failure in nanoscale metallic glass.  

PubMed

The emergence of size-dependent mechanical strength in nanosized materials is now well-established, but no fundamental understanding of fracture toughness or flaw sensitivity in nanostructures exists. We report the fabrication and in situ fracture testing of ?70 nm diameter Ni-P metallic glass samples with a structural flaw. Failure occurs at the structural flaw in all cases, and the failure strength of flawed samples was reduced by 40% compared to unflawed samples. We explore deformation and failure mechanisms in a similar nanometallic glass via molecular dynamics simulations, which corroborate sensitivity to flaws and reveal that the structural flaw shifts the failure mechanism from shear banding to cavitation. We find that failure strength and deformation in amorphous nanosolids depend critically on the presence of flaws. PMID:25198652

Gu, X Wendy; Jafary-Zadeh, Mehdi; Chen, David Z; Wu, Zhaoxuan; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Srolovitz, David J; Greer, Julia R

2014-10-01

14

Basic failure mechanisms in advanced composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Failure mechanisms in carbon-epoxy composites are identified as a basis for more reliable prediction of the performance of these materials. The approach involves both the study of local fracture events in model specimens containing small groups of filaments and fractographic examination of high fiber content engineering composites. Emphasis is placed on the correlation of model specimen observations with gross fracture modes. The effects of fiber surface treatment, resin modification and fiber content are studied and acoustic emission methods are applied. Some effort is devoted to analysis of the failure process in composite/metal specimens.

Mullin, J. V.; Mazzio, V. F.; Mehan, R. L.

1972-01-01

15

Basic failure mechanisms in advanced composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fundamental failure mechanisms in carbon-epoxy composites were studied for more reliable prediction of the performance of these materials. Single and multiple fiber specimens were tested under tensile loads, and the sequence of failure events was observed. Parameters such as resin crack sensitivity, fiber surface treatment and variations in fibers from batch to batch are being evaluated. The analysis of bulk composite fracture processes using acoustic emission techniques is being studied in order to correlate microscopic observations with bulk composite behavior. Control of the fracture process through matrix and interface modification is being attempted, and study of failure processes in composite/metal specimens is being conducted. Most of the studies involved DEN 438 epoxy novolac as the matrix, but some experiments are now underway using the higher temperature resin ERLA 4617.

Mullin, J. V.; Mazzio, V. F.; Mehan, R. L.

1971-01-01

16

Sulfur and Moisture Effects on Alumina Scale and TBC Spallation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been well established that a few ppmw sulfur impurity may segregate to the interface of thermally grown alumina scales and the underlying substrate, resulting in bond degradation and premature spallation. This has been shown for NiAl and NiCrAl-based alloys, bare single crystal superalloys, or coated superalloys. The role of reactive elements (especially Y) has been to getter the sulfur in the bulk and preclude interfacial segregation. Pt additions are also very beneficial, however a similar thermodynamic explanation does not apply. The purpose of the present discussion is to highlight some observations of these effects on Rene'142, Rene'N5, PWA1480, and PWA1484. For PWA1480, we have mapped cyclic oxidation and spallation in terms of potential sulfur interfacial layers and found that a cumulative amount of about one monolayer is sufficient to degrade long term adhesion. Depending on substrate thickness, optimum performance occurs if sulfur is reduced below about 0.2-0.5 ppmw. This is accomplished in the laboratory by hydrogen annealing or commercially by melt-fluxing. Excellent 1150 C cyclic oxidation is thus demonstrated for desulfurized Rene'142, Rene'N5, and PWA1484. Alternatively, a series of N5 alloys provided by GE-AE have shown that as little as 15 ppmw of Y dopant was effective in providing remarkable scale adhesion. In support of a Y-S gettering mechanism, hydrogen annealing was unable to desulfurize these alloys from their initial level of 5 ppmw S. This impurity and critical doping level corresponds closely to YS or Y2S3 stoichiometry. In many cases, Y-doped alloys or alloys with marginal sulfur levels exhibit an oxidative sensitivity to the ambient humidity called Moisture-Induced Delayed Spallation (MIDS). After substantial scale growth, coupled with damage from repeated cycling, cold samples may spall after a period of time, breathing on them, or immersing them in water. While stress corrosion arguments may apply, we propose that the underlying cause is related to a hydrogen embrittlement reaction: Al alloy + 3 H2O = Al(OH)3 + 3H(+) + 3e(-). This mechanism is derived from an analogous moisture-induced hydrogen embrittlement mechanism originally shown for Ni3Al and FeAl intermetallics. Consequently, a cathodic hydrogen charging technique was used to demonstrate that electrolytic de-scaling occurs for these otherwise adherent alumina scales formed on Y-doped Rene'N5, in support of hydrogen effects. Finally, some TBC observations are discussed in light of all of the above. Plasma sprayed 8YSZ coatings, produced on PWA1484 without a bond coat, were found to survive more than 1000 1-hr cycles at 1100 C when desulfurized to below 0.1 ppmw. At higher sulfur (1.2 ppmw) levels, moisture sensitivity and delayed TBC failure, referred to as Desk Top Spallation, occurred at just 200 hr. Despite a large degree of scatter, a factor of 5 in life improvement is indicated for desulfurized samples in cyclic furnace tests, confirming the beneficial effect of low sulfur alloys on model TBC systems. (DTS and moisture effects are also observed on commercially applied PVD 7YSZ coatings on Rene'N5+Y with Pt-aluminide bond coats). These types of catastrophic failure were subverted on the model system by segmenting the substrate into a network of 0.010 high ribs, spaced in. apart, prior to plasma spraying. No failures occurred after 1000 cycles at 1150 C or after 2000 cycles at 1100 C, even after water immersion. The benefit is described in terms of elasticity models and a critical buckling stress.

Smialek, James L.

2007-01-01

17

Failure of thermal barrier coating systems under cyclic thermomechanical loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure mechanisms of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems applied on gas turbine blades and vanes are investigated using thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests and finite element (FE) modeling. TMF tests were performed at two levels of applied mechanical strain, namely five times and three times the critical in-service mechanical strain of an industrial gas turbine. TMF testing under the higher

E Tzimas; H Müllejans; S. D Peteves; J Bressers; W Stamm

2000-01-01

18

Role of failure-mechanism identification in accelerated testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accelerated life testing techniques provide a short-cut method to investigate the reliability of electronic devices with respect to certain dominant failure mechanisms that occur under normal operating conditions. However, accelerated tests have often been conducted without knowledge of the failure mechanisms and without ensuring that the test accelerated the same mechanism as that observed under normal operating conditions. This paper summarizes common failure mechanisms in electronic devices and packages and investigates possible failure mechanism shifting during accelerated testing.

Hu, J. M.; Barker, D.; Dasgupta, A.; Arora, A.

1993-01-01

19

Assessment of Cyclic Lifetime of NiCoCrAlY/ZrO2-Based EB-PVD TBC Systems via Reactive Element Enrichment in the Mixed Zone of the TGO Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of the alumina-zirconia mixed zone (MZ) of an electron beam physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coating (EB-PVD TBC) system is affected by service conditions and by the interdiffusion of elements from the substrate alloy below and the zirconia top coat. Three NiCoCrAlY bond-coated Ni-base substrates with YPSZ or CeSZ EB-PVD TBCs were subjected to a cyclic furnace oxidation test (FCT) at 1373 K (1100 °C) in order to provide experimental evidence of a link between chemistry of the MZ, the substrate alloy, the ceramic top coat, and the time in the FCT. Energy dispersive spectroscopy of the MZ revealed preferred accumulation of Cr, Zr, Y, and Ce. The concentration of the reactive elements (RE = Ce + Y + Zr) was related to the respective average lifetimes of the TBC systems at 1373 K (1100 °C). The RE content in the MZ turned out to be a life-limiting parameter for YPSZ and CeSZ TBC systems which can be utilized to predict their relative lifetimes on the individual substrates. Conversely, the TBC failure mechanisms of YPSZ and CeSZ TBC systems are dissimilar.

Fritscher, Klaus; Braue, Wolfgang; Schulz, Uwe

2013-05-01

20

TBC1D1 reduces palmitate oxidation by inhibiting ?-HAD activity in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

In skeletal muscle the Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has been implicated in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation by an unknown mechanism. We determined whether TBC1D1 altered fatty acid utilization via changes in protein-mediated fatty acid transport and/or selected enzymes regulating mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We also determined the effects of TBC1D1 on glucose transport and oxidation. Electrotransfection of mouse soleus muscles with TBC1D1 cDNA increased TBC1D1 protein after 2 wk (P < 0.05), without altering its paralog AS160. TBC1D1 overexpression decreased basal palmitate oxidation (-22%) while blunting 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR)-stimulated palmitate oxidation (-18%). There was a tendency to increase fatty acid esterification (+10 nmol·g(-1)·60 min(-1), P = 0.07), which reflected the reduction in fatty acid oxidation (-12 nmol·g(-1)·60 min(-1)). Concomitantly, basal (+21%) and AICAR-stimulated glucose oxidation (+8%) were increased in TBC1D1-transfected muscles relative to their respective controls (P < 0.05), independent of changes in GLUT4 and glucose transport. The reductions in TBC1D1-mediated fatty acid oxidation could not be attributed to changes in the transporter FAT/CD36, muscle mitochondrial content, CPT1 expression or the expression and phosphorylation of AS160, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, or AMPK. However, TBC1D1 overexpression reduced ?-HAD enzyme activity (-18%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, TBC1D1-mediated reduction of muscle fatty acid oxidation appears to occur via inhibition of ?-HAD activity. PMID:25163918

Maher, A C; McFarlan, J; Lally, J; Snook, L A; Bonen, A

2014-11-01

21

Mechanics of failure of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite materials are both inhomogeneous and anisotropic. Both of these characteristics affect the internal stress distributions since inhomogeneity involves variations in both strength and stiffness. The fracture mechanics of nonuniform materials are considered, taking into account the effect of nonuniformity on stress distributions near the crack tip, predicted yield zones in nonuniform and uniform materials, and the fracture of a center-notched unidirectional specimen. The mechanics of failure of laminated materials is discussed. It is found that the development of damage in a laminate with increasing load and, possibly, increasing numbers of cycles of loading is peculiar to the laminate in question, i.e., the material system, the stacking sequence, and the geometry. Approaches for monitoring damage development are also described.

Reifsnider, K. L.

1978-01-01

22

Cyclic Failure Mechanisms of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems Under Thermal Gradient Test Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite+BSAS/Si multilayer thermal and environmental barrier coating (TBC-EBC) systems on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) substrates were thermally cyclic tested under high thermal gradients using a laser high-heat-flux rig in conjunction with furnace exposure in water-vapor environments. Coating sintering and interface damage were assessed by monitoring the real-time thermal conductivity changes during the laser heat-flux tests and by examining the microstructural changes after exposure. Sintering kinetics of the coating systems were also independently characterized using a dilatometer. It was found that the coating failure involved both the time-temperature dependent sintering and the cycle frequency dependent cyclic fatigue processes. The water vapor environments not only facilitated the initial coating conductivity increases due to enhanced sintering and interface reaction, but also promoted later conductivity reductions due to the accelerated coating cracking and delamination. The failure mechanisms of the coating systems are also discussed based on the cyclic test results and are correlated to the sintering and thermal stress behavior under the thermal gradient test conditions.

Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

2002-01-01

23

Failure mechanisms of legacy aircraft wiring and interconnects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive list of the causes and modes of failure and ageing in legacy aircraft wiring and interconnects. Taxonomies of the electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal stresses that contribute to the various stages of ageing and\\/or failure are presented. A failure modes effects and analysis (FMEA) is conducted to categorize the most serious failures. The order of

Brian G. Moffat; Eitan Abraham; Marc Desmulliez; Dennis Koltsov; Andrew Richardson

2008-01-01

24

Adhesion-related failure mechanisms in micromechanical devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesion-related failures occur in microelectromechanical systems(MEMS) when suspended elastic members unexpectedly stick totheir substrates. This type of device failure is one of thedominant sources of yield loss in MEMS. This paper reviews thephysical mechanisms responsible for the failure from both the theoretical and practical stand point. In general, the failurerequires two different phenomena. First (a) the device must besubject to

C. H. Mastrangelo

1997-01-01

25

Failure mechanism of solder interconnections under thermal cycling conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing miniaturization, power densities and internal heat dissipation of novel electronic packages have made their solder interconnections more vulnerable to failures. To improve the reliability of electronic devices the underlying physical failure mechanisms of solder interconnections must be clarified in detail in order to find means to control, or even prevent, the development of failures. Therefore, the evolution of microstructures

T. T. Mattila; M. Mueller; M. Paulasto-Kro?ckel; K.-J. Wolter

2010-01-01

26

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TBC SPALLATION DETECTION BY A MICRO-INDENTATION METHOD  

SciTech Connect

In this research, a load-based depth-sensing micro-indentation method for spallation detection and damage assessment of thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials is presented. A non-destructive multiple loading/partial unloading testing methodology was developed where in stiffness responses of TBC coupons subjected to various thermal cyclic loading conditions were analyzed to predict the spallation site and assess TBC degradation state. The measured stiffness responses at various thermal loading cycles were used to generate time-series color maps for correlation with accumulation of TBC residual stress states. The regions with higher stiffness responses can be linked to a rise in out-of-plane residual stress located near or at the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/thermally grown oxide (TGO) interface, which is ultimately responsible for initiating TBC spallation failure. A TBC thermal exposure testing plan was carried out where time-series cross-sectional microstructural analyses of damage accumulation and spallation failure associated with the evolution of bond coat/TGO/top coat composite (e.g. thickness, ratcheting, localized oxidations, etc.) of air plasma sprayed (APS) TBCs were evaluated and correlated to the measured stiffness responses at various thermal cycles. The results show that the load-based micro-indentation test methodology is capable of identifying the spallation site(s) before actual occurrence. This micro-indentation technique can be viewed as a viable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for determining as-manufactured and process-exposed TBCs. This technique also shows promise for the development of a portable instrument for on-line, in-situ spallation detection/prediction of industrial-size TBC turbine components.

J. M. Tannenbaum; B.S.-J. Kang; M.A. Alvin

2010-06-18

27

In Vitro Analysis of Mechanisms Underlying Age-Dependent Failure  

E-print Network

In Vitro Analysis of Mechanisms Underlying Age-Dependent Failure of Axon Regeneration AZIZ HAFIDI,1 regenerate across a lesion in organotypic cultures from postnatal day (P) 6 gerbils, but this regenerative:267­280). In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying this age-dependent failure of axons to regenerate

28

Heart failure and anemia: mechanisms and pathophysiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia is a common comorbidity in patients with heart failure and affects up to 50% of patients, depending on the definition\\u000a of anemia used and on the population studied. Presence of anemia and lower hemoglobin (Hgb) concentrations are powerful independent\\u000a predictors of adverse outcomes in heart failure. Even small reductions in Hgb are associated with worse outcomes. Correction\\u000a of anemia

Inder S. Anand

2008-01-01

29

Moisture-Induced TBC Spallation on Turbine Blade Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delayed failure of TBCs is a widely observed laboratory phenomenon, although many of the early observations went unreported. "The weekend effect" or "DeskTop Spallation" (DTS) is characterized by initial survival of a TBC after accelerated laboratory thermal cycling, then failure by exposure to ambient humidity or water. Once initiated, failure can occur quite dramatically in less than a second. To this end, the water drop test and digital video recordings have become useful techniques in studies at NASA (Smialek, Zhu, Cuy), DECHMA (Rudolphi, Renusch, Schuetze), and CNRS Toulouse/SNECMA (Deneux, Cadoret, Hervier, Monceau). In the present study the results for a commercial turbine blade, with a standard EB-PVD 7YSZ TBC top coat and Pt-aluminide diffusion bond monitored by weight change and visual appearance. Failures were distributed widely over a 5-100 hr time range, depending on temperature. At some opportune times, failure was captured by video recording, documenting the appearance and speed of the moisture-induced spallation process. Failure interfaces exhibited alumina scale grains, decorated with Ta-rich oxide particles, and alumina inclusions as islands and streamers. The phenomenon is thus rooted in moisture-induced delayed spallation (MIDS) of the alumina scale formed on the bond coat. In that regard, many studies show the susceptibility of alumina scales to moisture, as long as high strain energy and a partially exposed interface exist. The latter conditions result from severe cyclic oxidation conditions, which produce a highly stressed and partially damaged scale. In one model, it has been proposed that moisture reacts with aluminum in the bond coat to release hydrogen atoms that 'embrittle' the interface. A negative synergistic effect with interfacial sulfur is also invoked.

Smialek, James L.

2011-01-01

30

Moisture-Induced TBC Spallation on Turbine Blade Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delayed failure of TBCs is a widely observed laboratory phenomenon, although many of the early observations went unreported. The weekend effect or DeskTop Spallation (DTS) is characterized by initial survival of a TBC after accelerated laboratory thermal cycling, then failure by exposure to ambient humidity or water. Once initiated, failure can occur quite dramatically in less than a second. To this end, the water drop test and digital video recordings have become useful techniques in studies at NASA (Smialek, Zhu, Cuy), DECHMA (Rudolphi, Renusch, Schuetze), and CNRS Toulouse/SNECMA (Deneux, Cadoret, Hervier, Monceau). In the present study the results for a commercial turbine blade, with a standard EB-PVD 7YSZ TBC top coat and Pt-aluminide diffusion bond coat are reported. Cut sections were intermittently oxidized at 1100, 1150, and 1200 C and monitored by weight change and visual appearance. Failures were distributed widely over a 5-100 hr time range, depending on temperature. At some opportune times, failure was captured by video recording, documenting the appearance and speed of the moisture-induced spallation process. Failure interfaces exhibited alumina scale grains, decorated with Ta-rich oxide particles, and alumina inclusions as islands and streamers. The phenomenon is thus rooted in moisture-induced delayed spallation (MIDS) of the alumina scale formed on the bond coat. In that regard, many studies show the susceptibility of alumina scales to moisture, as long as high strain energy and a partially exposed interface exist. The latter conditions result from severe cyclic oxidation conditions, which produce a highly stressed and partially damaged scale. In one model, it has been proposed that moisture reacts with aluminum in the bond coat to release hydrogen atoms that embrittle the interface. A negative synergistic effect with interfacial sulfur is also invoked.

Smialek, James

2011-01-01

31

Survey on Failure Modes and Failure Mechanisms in Digital Components and Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the preliminary results of a survey on the operating experience of a broad range of digital components and systems deployed in various industries. The primary objective of this survey is to identify principal modes and mechanisms of failure in field-deployed digital systems. Earlier works have sought to determine the failure rates of various classes of digital devices

Kofi Korsah; Michael David Muhlheim

2009-01-01

32

Failure mechanisms in lithium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium-ion batteries have become one of the leading candidates for energy storage in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles due to their high energy and power densities. However, the life of this class of rechargeable cells is limited, and is usually considerably shorter than the requirement for an economically feasible alternative to the internal combustion engine. The goal of this research is to explore specific mechanisms for cell failure via mathematical modeling of phenomena that occur in a broad assortment of lithium-ion cells. The theoretical framework of the models presented here is general enough to be applicable to most lithium-ion cells and even electrochemical cells that fall outside the realm of lithium-ion technology, but the properties and parameters that are used are specific enough that quantitative predictions can be made. Specifically, models for passive-film growth at the electrode/electrolyte interface and for particle fracture are presented. In addition, we discuss a framework for describing and understanding various types of capacity fade. Finally, we optimize the design of a lithium-titanate based cell using an existing full-cell model and compare its performance to that of a graphite based cell. The passive-film model indicates that the extent of film growth and impedance rise in a cell should depend strongly upon the state of charge (SOC) at which a battery is stored. We further show that current efficiency increases with the rate at which a cell is charged, although the cycling range of the cell decreases as the current is raised due to the impedance of the film. The particle-fracture model elucidates the conditions under which both graphitic and lithium-manganese-oxide particles surpass their yield strength, at which point cracking is initiated and particle fragmentation may occur. Higher rates of charge and larger particle size generally lead to a higher likelihood of fracture, although this dependence is absent in materials that undergo a two-phase transition. Pressure diffusion and nonidealities embodied in solid-state diffusion and the kinetics of lithium insertion are included in the model, and are shown to have significant impact on the results. Variations in the thermodynamic factor with lithium content result in local SOCs at which the stress in the material is much higher than would be predicted for an ideal solution. The implications of these variations, including the possibility of selecting SOC windows for battery operation that minimize stress, are examined in detail. The high-rate performance of cells with lithium-titanate negative electrodes can be enhanced, relative to cells with graphitic negative electrodes, through the selection of active material of small particle size. The high potential of the lithium-titanate electrode prevents many of the undesirable side reactions that occur in graphitic electrodes, including passive-film formation and lithium deposition. We conclude that the lithium-titanate electrode is probably the more attractive candidate for hybrid-electric-vehicle and other high-power applications.

Christensen, John Francis

33

Finite fracture mechanics: A coupled stress and energy failure criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present paper is to introduce a new failure criterion in the framework of Finite Fracture Mechanics. Criteria assuming that failure of quasi-brittle materials is affected by stress or energy flux acting on a finite distance in front of the crack tip are widely used inside the scientific community. Generally, this distance is assumed to be small

Pietro Cornetti; Nicola Pugno; Alberto Carpinteri; David Taylor

2006-01-01

34

Hypertriglyceridemia in patients with chronic renal failure: Possible mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertriglyceridemia in patients with chronic renal failure: Possible mechanisms. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) caused by numerous factors defined as traditional and uremia-related risk factors. One of these risk factors, dyslipidemia, is often observed in patients with CRF, resulting in abnormal concentrations and composition of plasma lipoproteins. The prominent

Monique G. M. De Sain-Van Der Velden; Eelco J. P. De Koning; Hein A. Koomans; Ruud Berger; Ton J. Rabelink

2003-01-01

35

PBFA-2 vacuum insulator stack failure mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BPFA-II accelerator includes a large-radius, vertical-axis vacuum insulator stack. The possible failure of the acrylic rings in the stack from electron- or gamma-induced charge buildup is being evaluated. The induced static charges could remain for many hours, and either type of irradiation might cause dendrites to form. Aluminum grading rings sandwiched between the acrylic affect charge accumulation; the acrylic

M. A. Sweeney

1985-01-01

36

Mechanical failure and glass transition in metallic glasses  

SciTech Connect

The current majority view on the phenomenon of mechanical failure in metallic glasses appears to be that it is caused by the activity of some structural defects, such as free-volumes or shear transformation zones, and the concentration of such defects is small, only of the order of 1%. However, the recent results compel us to revise this view. Through molecular dynamics simulation it has been shown that mechanical failure is the stress-induced glass transition. According to our theory the concentration of the liquid-like sites (defects) is well over 20% at the glass transition. We suggest that the defect concentration in metallic glasses is actually very high, and percolation of such defects causes atomic avalanche and mechanical failure. In this article we discuss the glass transition, mechanical failure and viscosity from such a point of view.

Egami, Takeshi [ORNL

2011-01-01

37

Failure mechanisms of platinum aluminide bond coat/electron beam-physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) allow operation of structural components, such as turbine blades and vanes in industrial and aircraft gas engines, at temperatures close to the substrate melting temperatures. They consist of four different layers; a high strength creep-resistant nickel-based superalloy substrate, an oxidation resistant bond coat (BC), a low thermal conductivity ceramic topcoat and a thermally grown oxide (TGO), that is predominantly alpha-Al 2O3, that forms between the BC and the TBC. Compressive stresses (3--5 GPa) that are generated in the thin TGO (0.25--8 mum) due to the mismatch in thermal coefficient of expansion between the TGO and BC play a critical role in the failure of these coatings. In this study, the failure mechanisms of a commercial yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) coating on platinum aluminide (beta-(Ni,Pt)Al) bond coat have been identified. Two distinct mechanisms have been found responsible for the observed damage initiation and progression at the TGO/bond coat interface. The first mechanism leads to localized debonding at TGO/bond coat interface due to increased out-of-plane tensile stress, along bond coat features that manifest themselves as ridges. The second mechanism causes cavity formation at the TGO/bond coat interface, driven by cyclic plasticity of the bond coat. It has been found that the debonding at the TGO/bond coat interface due to the first mechanism is solely life determining. The final failure occurs by crack extension along either the TGO/bond coat interface or the TGO/YSZ interface or a combination of both, leading to large scale buckling. Based on these mechanisms, it is demonstrated that the bond coat grain size and the aspect ratio of the ridges have a profound influence on spallation lives of the coating. The removal of these ridges by fine polishing prior to TBC deposition led to a four-fold improvement in life. The failure mechanism identified for the improved coatings indicates absence of both the mechanisms that were responsible for damage initiation and progression and hence the final spallation was very different, accounting for the life improvement. The change in compressive residual stress in the TGO layer reflects the damage progression in the TGO layer. To this end, the TGO stresses were measured non-destructively as function of thermal cycles using the novel photoluminescence piezospectroscopy (PLPS) technique. The compressive stresses were found to increase in the first few cycles, (up to 10 cycles) and gradually decrease with increasing number of cycles, up to failure. The standard deviation of the measured stress, indicative of the damage evolution, is found to significantly increase just before the failure of the coating. The sensitivity of the TGO stress to the peak temperature amplitude is also established. Application of the PLPS technique was demonstrated for the first time, both on plasma-sprayed and EB-PVD thermal barrier coated turbine-blades.

Vaidyanathan, Krishnakumar

38

Prevent boiler tube failures -- Part 2: Waterside mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boiler tubes can fail due to problems on either the fire-side or the water-side of the tube. Part 1 of this article discussed fire-side failure mechanisms and measures for preventing failures. Here the author focuses on the tubes' water-side. The term water-side mechanisms'' refers to damage on the water side of the boiler tube (as opposed to the fire side).

Colannino

1993-01-01

39

49 CFR 191.12 - Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports 191.12 Section...REPORTS § 191.12 Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports Each mechanical fitting failure, as required by §...

2013-10-01

40

49 CFR 191.12 - Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports 191.12 Section...REPORTS § 191.12 Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports Each mechanical fitting failure, as required by §...

2012-10-01

41

49 CFR 191.12 - Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports 191.12 Section...REPORTS § 191.12 Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports Each mechanical fitting failure, as required by §...

2011-10-01

42

Renal dysfunction in acute heart failure: epidemiology, mechanisms and assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal dysfunction is often present and\\/or worsens in patients with heart failure and this is associated with increased costs\\u000a of care, complications and mortality. The cardiorenal syndrome can be defined as the presence or development of renal dysfunction\\u000a in patients with heart failure. Its mechanisms are likely related to low cardiac output, increased venous congestion and renal\\u000a venous pressure, neurohormonal

Valentina Carubelli; Marco Metra; Carlo Lombardi; Luca Bettari; Silvia Bugatti; Valentina Lazzarini; Livio Dei Cas

43

Plasma spray processing of TBC`s  

SciTech Connect

Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effectively apply TBC`s for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by vacuum plasma spray or HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Therefore, although the plasma spray of TBCs has been largely successful, it is clear that a major step forward in terms of reliability and performance can be gained by a fundamental understanding of the TBC microstructure with respect to the processing technology and operating environment.

Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C.

1995-10-01

44

Survey on Failure Modes and Failure Mechanisms in Digital Components and Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the preliminary results of a survey on the operating experience of a broad range of digital components and systems deployed in various industries. The primary objective of this survey is to identify principal modes and mechanisms of failure in field-deployed digital systems. Earlier works have sought to determine the failure rates of various classes of digital devices with the intent to integrate this information into the risk analysis calculations though still immature for such systems. Failure rates of individual components or systems are not taken into account in this evaluation; only failure modes and their respective probabilistic distribution are considered. Preliminary results from two data sources, SPIDR and FARADIP, are presented.

Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL

2009-01-01

45

Rockfall failure mechanisms in Yosemite Valley, California (USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rockfall hazard is especially high in Yosemite Valley, with tens of rockfalls inventoried every year. A rockfall on 5 October 2013 from Ahwiyah Point consisted of a volume of 740 cubic meters and occurred within the perimeter of a larger event on 28 March 2009 that released 25'400 cubic meters of rock (Zimmer et al., 2012). In both events (2009 and 2013), the initial rockfall volumes dislodged a second one approximately equivalent in size by impacting the cliff below the source area during the fall. Rock fragments of up to several cubic meters were deposited on the talus slope, damaging a heavily used and recently reconstructed hiking path. We performed extensive mapping of structural features for several cliffs of Yosemite Valley to improve the assessment of the most susceptible rockfall areas. In particular we mapped and characterized the main brittle structures, the exfoliation joints and the failure mechanisms of the past rockfalls. Several failure mechanisms exist in Yosemite including the propagation of brittle structures that may lead to tensile, planar sliding, wedge sliding or toppling failures. Frequently, topographically-parallel exfoliation joints and topographically-oblique discontinuities coexist, resulting in complex failures. We also developed a methodology to examine how the distribution of joints within the cliff faces of Yosemite Valley affects overall stability with respect to the identified failure mechanisms. For these analyses, we used terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to collect high resolution point clouds of the vertical and overhanging rock faces throughout the Valley. This provided the necessary 3D data to identify the main joint sets, perform spacing and trace length measurements, and calculate volumes of previous and potential rockfalls. We integrated this information with stability calculations to identify the likely failure mechanisms for each area of cliff and to obtain the number of potential failures per square meter of cliff face. The areas of a cliff with the highest number of potential failures per cliff surface are considered to be the most susceptible to rockfalls. We then compared these areas to field observations displaying the most visually unstable compartments by considering the following factors: 1) the compartment's degree of isolation due to bounding fractures, 2) the existence of basal steep, sliding prone discontinuities, 3) the opening of cracks, 4) the persistence of cracks, 5) the existence of overhangs, 6) the surrounding rockfall activity, 7) the water seepage along the limiting cracks, 8) the proximity to very fractured layers, 9) the proximity to geologic limits. Our preliminary results show a link between the type of failure mechanism, the persistence of discontinuities and the volume of analyzed rockfalls. Generally, planar or wedge sliding isolate larger unstable compartments compared to tensile failures along exfoliation joints.

Matasci, Battista; Guerin, Antoine; Carrea, Dario; Stock, Greg M.; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Collins, Brian

2014-05-01

46

Mechanical failure probability of glasses in Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of five years of earth-orbital exposure on mechanical properties of glasses indicate that radiation effects on mechanical properties of glasses, for the glasses examined, are less than the probable error of measurement. During the 5 year exposure, seven micrometeorite or space debris impacts occurred on the samples examined. These impacts were located in locations which were not subjected to effective mechanical testing, hence limited information on their influence upon mechanical strength was obtained. Combination of these results with micrometeorite and space debris impact frequency obtained by other experiments permits estimates of the failure probability of glasses exposed to mechanical loading under earth-orbit conditions. This probabilistic failure prediction is described and illustrated with examples.

Kinser, Donald L.; Wiedlocher, David E.

1992-01-01

47

Popcorning: a failure mechanism in plastic-encapsulated microcircuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popcorning is a failure mechanism in plastic-encapsulated microcircuits. It occurs when the inherently hygroscopic encapsulant is rapidly exposed to high temperatures during reflow solder assembly of the component to a printed circuit card. At these temperatures the moisture absorbed by the molding compound vaporizes and rapidly expands leading to the development of high stresses. When these stresses exceed both the

Anthony A. Gallo; Ramesh Munamarty

1995-01-01

48

Mechanisms of Development of Heart Failure in the Hypertensive Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure. Mechanisms which maintain normal function in the short term in the pressure overloaded heart have longer term deleterious effects. These include left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and chronic activation of the adrenergic and renin-angiotensin systems. ?-Blocking agents are capable of blocking the adrenergic system and, to some extent, the

Michael R. Bristow

1999-01-01

49

IMPERMEABLE THIN Al2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES  

SciTech Connect

In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system (YSZ/CoNiCrAlY/Inconel 601), an overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was sprayed on the surface of TBC samples by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray techniques. The TBC preparation in Japan was based on our technical requirement by plasma spray. Bond coat CoNiCrAlY and the YSZ was produced by low-pressure plasma spray and air plasma spray respectively. Hot corrosion tests were carried out on the TBC with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in molten salts mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C for 10h. The microstructures of TBC and overlay before and after exposure were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It has been found that TBC reacted with V{sub 2}O{sub 5} to form YVO{sub 4}. A substantial amount of M-phase was formed due to the leaching of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} from YSZ. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating sprayed by HVOF was dense, continues and adherent to the TBC even after exposure to the molten salts. As a result, overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can prevent the YSZ from the attack by molten salts containing vanadium and arrest the penetration of salts into the YSZ along porous and cracks in the YSZ TBC. Accordingly, the amount of M-phase formed in TBC with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay was significantly lower than that in conventional YSZ TBC system. In the next period, the hot corrosion tests of TBC with EB-PVD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating under Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5%V{sub 2}O{sub 5} will be again performed at 950 C. However before hot corrosion tests, the post-annealing will be carried at 1273K for 1h in order to transform the as-sputtered {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay to crystalline {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. In addition, the effect of coating thickness on corrosion resistance and the mechanisms of cracking of EB-PVD alumina layer during hot corrosion will be also investigated.

Scott X. Mao

2002-06-30

50

Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature  

SciTech Connect

OAK B188 Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature. This summary refers to work done in approximately the twelve months to the present in our contract ''Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature,'' which commenced in August, 1997. Our activities have consisted mainly of measurements of creep-controlled crack growth in ceramic matrix composites (CMCS) at high temperature; imaging of deformation fields in textile CMCS; the assessment of mechanisms of damage in textile composites, especially those with through-thickness reinforcement; the formulation of models of delamination crack growth under fatigue in textile composites; analytical models of the bridging traction law for creeping fibers in a CMC at high temperature; and an analytical model of a bridging fiber tow in a textile composite.

Cox, Brian

1999-03-01

51

Failure mechanisms in coal: Dependence on strain rate and microstructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

brittle coal failure behavior under various axial strain rates from 10-3 to 10-2 s-1 is experimentally and numerically studied. The numerical microscale finite difference model is built on the accurate X-ray microcomputed tomography images, which provides a ground-breaking and bottom-up approach to investigate the effects of microstructure on coal failure under various strain rates. Experimentally, prior to loading, the coal sample is scanned, and the three-dimensional coal structure model is constructed. The microheterogeneous structures are incorporated in the model, which facilitates the deformation and failure mechanism analysis under different loading conditions. The results reveal that the microheterogeneous structures significantly affect the evolution of stress concentrations and deformation behaviors in the sample. The coal tends to fail in the shear mode before the peak strength, since the shear zone is created with high displacements. However, tensile failure ultimately controls the failure process after the peak strength. Notably, the strain rate dependence of coal strength is observed, and an empirical relationship is proposed to describe the dynamic strength of the coal under various loading strain rates. Importantly, the coal strengthens with an increase in strain rate. For brittle material, such as coal, the strength and failure mechanism are strain rate and microstructure dependent. The strain rate-dependent coal strength index (n) is found to be a dynamic parameter in the range of strain rate from 10-3 to 10-2 s-1, and this finding may extend the concept of strain rate dependence over a broader range of loading conditions.

Zhao, Yixin; Liu, Shimin; Zhao, Gao-Feng; Elsworth, Derek; Jiang, Yaodong; Han, Jingli

2014-09-01

52

Assessing mechanical vulnerability in water distribution networks under multiple failures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

mechanical vulnerability of water distribution networks (WDN) is of direct relevance for water utilities since it entails two different purposes. On the one hand, it might support the identification of severe failure scenarios due to external causes (e.g., natural or intentional events) which result into the most critical consequences on WDN supply capacity. On the other hand, it aims at figure out the WDN portions which are more prone to be affected by asset disruptions. The complexity of such analysis stems from the number of possible scenarios with single and multiple simultaneous shutdowns of asset elements leading to modifications of network topology and insufficient water supply to customers. In this work, the search for the most disruptive combinations of multiple asset failure events is formulated and solved as a multiobjective optimization problem. The higher vulnerability failure scenarios are detected as those causing the lower supplied demand due to the lower number of simultaneous failures. The automatic detection of WDN topology, subsequent to the detachments of failed elements, is combined with pressure-driven analysis. The methodology is demonstrated on a real water distribution network. Results show that, besides the failures causing the detachment of reservoirs, tanks, or pumps, there are other different topological modifications which may cause severe WDN service disruptions. Such information is of direct relevance to support planning asset enhancement works and improve the preparedness to extreme events.

Berardi, Luigi; Ugarelli, Rita; Røstum, Jon; Giustolisi, Orazio

2014-03-01

53

Acoustic emission spectral analysis of fiber composite failure mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acoustic emission of graphite fiber polyimide composite failure mechanisms was investigated with emphasis on frequency spectrum analysis. Although visual examination of spectral densities could not distinguish among fracture sources, a paired-sample t statistical analysis of mean normalized spectral densities did provide quantitative discrimination among acoustic emissions from 10 deg, 90 deg, and plus or minus 45 deg, plus or minus 45 deg sub s specimens. Comparable discrimination was not obtained for 0 deg specimens.

Egan, D. M.; Williams, J. H., Jr.

1978-01-01

54

Emerging therapies for heart failure: renal mechanisms and effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of salt and water homeostasis has provided a foundation for explaining the renal\\u000a mechanisms of emerging therapies for heart failure, as well as why renal function might potentially be improved or harmed.\\u000a These aspects are reviewed in this article for a number of newer therapies including adenosine, endothelin, and vasopressin\\u000a receptor antagonists, as well as

Amir KazoryEdward; Edward A. Ross

55

Failure analysis for micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS)  

SciTech Connect

Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is an emerging technology with demonstrated potential for a wide range of applications including sensors and actuators for medical, industrial, consumer, military, automotive and instrumentation products. Failure analysis (FA) of MEMS is critically needed for the successful design, fabrication, performance analysis and reliability assurance of this new technology. Many devices have been examined using techniques developed for integrated circuit analysis, including optical inspection, scanning laser microscopy (SLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared (IR) microscopy, light emission (LE) microscopy, acoustic microscopy and acoustic emission analysis. For example, the FIB was used to microsection microengines that developed poor performance characteristics. Subsequent SEM analysis clearly demonstrated the absence of wear on gear, hub, and pin joint bearing surfaces, contrary to expectations. Another example involved the use of infrared microscopy for thermal analysis of operating microengines. Hot spots were located, which did not involve the gear or hub, but indicated contact between comb structures which drive microengines. Voltage contrast imaging proved useful on static and operating MEMS in both the SEM and the FIB and identified electrostatic clamping as a potentially significant contributor to failure mechanisms in microengines. This work describes MEMS devices, FA techniques, failure modes, and examples of FA of MEMS.

Peterson, K.A.; Tangyunyong, P.; Barton, D.L.

1997-10-01

56

Failure mechanism of epoxy polymer: transition from ductile to brittle failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure processes of an epoxy polymer (Epicote 21506) were studied by using a high speed camera evolving over a range of strain rates from 0.0001s-1 to 668s-1. The front surface of the specimen was monitored by the high speed camera to capture the deformation and cracking processes. A split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was utilized to examine the dynamic response of the material, and the uniaxial compression test was applied for its quasi-static behavior. The microstructure of the specimen fracture surface after quasi-static and dynamic compression was also investigated by using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to look insight into the failure mechanism of the material. With the coupled analysis of stress-strain curves and captured images, the behaviors of the specimen under static and dynamic loading can be determined precisely with sufficient details. The specimen under static loading displayed ductile failure, while that under dynamic loading revealed different brittle damage behaviors.

Wu, Wei; Ma, Guowei

2009-12-01

57

Failure mechanism of epoxy polymer: transition from ductile to brittle failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure processes of an epoxy polymer (Epicote 21506) were studied by using a high speed camera evolving over a range of strain rates from 0.0001s-1 to 668s-1. The front surface of the specimen was monitored by the high speed camera to capture the deformation and cracking processes. A split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was utilized to examine the dynamic response of the material, and the uniaxial compression test was applied for its quasi-static behavior. The microstructure of the specimen fracture surface after quasi-static and dynamic compression was also investigated by using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to look insight into the failure mechanism of the material. With the coupled analysis of stress-strain curves and captured images, the behaviors of the specimen under static and dynamic loading can be determined precisely with sufficient details. The specimen under static loading displayed ductile failure, while that under dynamic loading revealed different brittle damage behaviors.

Wu, Wei; Ma, Guowei

2010-03-01

58

Failure analysis and seal life prediction for contacting mechanical seals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault tree analysis method was applied to quantitatively investigate the causes of the leakage failure of mechanical seals. It is pointed out that the change of the surface topography is the main reasons causing the leakage of mechanical seals under the condition of constant preloads. Based on the fractal geometry theory, the relationship between the surface topography and working time were investigated by experiments, and the effects of unit load acting on seal face on leakage path in a mechanical seal were analyzed. The model of predicting seal life of mechanical seals was established on the basis of the relationship between the surface topography and working time and allowable leakage. The seal life of 108 mechanical seal operating at the system of diesel fuel storage and transportation was predicted and the problem of the condition monitoring for the long-period operation of mechanical seal was discussed by this method. The research results indicate that the method of predicting seal life of mechanical seals is feasible, and also is foundation to make scheduled maintenance time and to achieve safe-reliability and low-cost operation for industrial devices.

Sun, J. J.; He, X. Y.; Wei, L.; Feng, X.

2008-11-01

59

Effect of Increased Water Vapor Levels on TBC Lifetime  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the effect of increased water vapor levels on thermal barrier coating (TBC) lifetime, furnace cycle tests were performed at 1150 C in air with 10 vol.% water vapor (similar to natural gas combustion) and 90 vol.%. Either Pt diffusion or Pt-modified aluminide bond coatings were applied to specimens from the same batch of a commercial second-generation single-crystal superalloy and commercial vapor-deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats were applied. Three coatings of each type were furnace cycled to failure to compare the average lifetimes obtained in dry O{sub 2}, using the same superalloy batch and coating types. Average lifetimes with Pt diffusion coatings were unaffected by the addition of water vapor. In contrast, the average lifetime of Pt-modified aluminide coatings was reduced by more than 50% with 10% water vapor but only slightly reduced by 90% water vapor. Based on roughness measurements from similar specimens without a YSZ coating, the addition of 10% water vapor increased the rate of coating roughening more than 90% water vapor. Qualitatively, the amount of {beta}-phase depletion in the coatings exposed in 10% water vapor did not appear to be accelerated.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Garner, George Walter [ORNL; Lowe, Tracie M [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL; Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University

2011-01-01

60

Mechanisms and pathways of growth failure in primordial dwarfism  

PubMed Central

The greatest difference between species is size; however, the developmental mechanisms determining organism growth remain poorly understood. Primordial dwarfism is a group of human single-gene disorders with extreme global growth failure (which includes Seckel syndrome, microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism I [MOPD] types I and II, and Meier-Gorlin syndrome). Ten genes have now been identified for microcephalic primordial dwarfism, encoding proteins involved in fundamental cellular processes including genome replication (ORC1 [origin recognition complex 1], ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6), DNA damage response (ATR [ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related]), mRNA splicing (U4atac), and centrosome function (CEP152, PCNT, and CPAP). Here, we review the cellular and developmental mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions and address whether further study of these genes could provide novel insight into the physiological regulation of organism growth. PMID:21979914

Klingseisen, Anna; Jackson, Andrew P.

2011-01-01

61

Experimental Investigations Of Failure Mechanisms Associated With Slow Slip Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slow slip events such as very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) are detected in the Nankai accretionary prism [Ito and Obara, 2006]. It is proposed that high pore fluid pressure weakens the out-of-sequence-thrusts and mega-splay faults by reducing effective normal stress on the fault plane and consequently generates slip instability producing low stress drop VLFEs. However, the frictional behaviors and failure mechanisms associated with reduction of effective normal stress are not well understood. In this study, we conducted frictional experiments on porous sedimentary rocks with a saw-cut. Sediments with different clay content from NantroSEIZE drilling project ODP Legs 315, 316, and 322 are used as fault gouge. A new triaxial loading configuration was designed to investigate the effect of high pore pressure on frictional instability and failure modes. During the deformation experiments, samples were subjected to constant axial stress and decreasing radial stresses. Distinguishing from the conventional loading configuration in which mean stress increases during deformation, with the alternative loading path, mean stress decreases during deformation. Under fully drained conditions where pore pressure remains constant, the effective stress decreases in these experiments, analoguous to increasing pore pressure. Our preliminary results indicate that: 1) frictional strength is comparable to that observed under conventional loading; 2) the rate of fracture energy release is considerably slower, which bears similar characteristics with observed slow slip events. Microstructural analyses on the deformed samples provide experimental constraints on deformation mechanisms associated with slow slip events.

Zhu, W.; Tamarkin, T.

2010-12-01

62

Quantitative Evaluation of TBC Systems of Gas Turbine Blades Using TFEC  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mechanical engineering and aerospace, gas turbine blades are taken as the crucial components, and need special treatment for protection and long-turn service. Therefore, ceramic Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC), acting as the insulation between gas and the alloying bodies of blades, is utilized to guarantee that the gas turbine blades are able to work in the high-temperature and high-stress environment.

Yong Li; Ying Mao; Zhenmao Chen

2010-01-01

63

IMPERMEABLE THIN AL2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES  

SciTech Connect

In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, the overlay of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating was deposited on the TBC by EB-PVD techniques. Hot corrosion tests were carried out on the TBC with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in molten salts mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C for 10h. The microstructures of TBC and overlay before and after exposure were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It has been found that TBC will react with V{sub 2}O{sub 5} to form YVO{sub 4}. A substantial amount of M-phase was formed due to the leaching of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} from YSZ. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating deposited by EB-PVD was dense, continues and adherent to the TBC. As a result, overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can prevent the YSZ from the attack by molten salts containing vanadium and arrest the penetration of salts into the YSZ along porous and cracks in the YSZ TBC, although there were some cracks in overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating and at the interface between alumina and zirconia formed during hot corrosion tests due to the presence of tensile stress in the alumina coating. In the next reporting period, we will study the mechanisms of cracking of the overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer and finish the hot corrosion tests of TBC with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating deposited by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) technique. The hot corrosion test of TBC with EB-PVD deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating will be again performed. However before hot corrosion tests, a post-annealing will be carried out in vacuum (residual pressure 10{sup -3} Pa) at 1273K for 1h in order to transform the as-sputtered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay to crystalline {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay.

Scott X. Mao

2002-01-31

64

Failure Mechanisms in High Chrome Oxide Gasifier Refractories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gasification is a high-temperature, high-pressure chemical process used to convert a carbon feedstock into CO and H2 (syngas) for use in power generation and the production of chemicals. It is also a leading candidate as a source of hydrogen in a hydrogen economy and is one of several technologies expected to see increased use in advanced fossil fuel power systems in the future. Gasification is being evaluated because of its high efficiency, its ability to capture CO2 for sequestration or reuse in other applications, and its potential for carbon feedstock fuel flexibility. At the heart of the gasification process is a gasifier, a high pressure chemical reaction vessel used to contain the interactions between carbon and water in a shortage of oxygen, producing syngas. The gasifier is lined with high chrome oxide materials to protect the containment vessel. Gasifiers are complex systems, and failure of the refractories used to line them was identified by industry as a limitation to their reliability and availability and to their increased use. NETL researchers have examined spent high-Cr2O3 (over 90 pct Cr2O3) refractories from numerous gasifiers to determine in-service failure mechanisms. This analysis revealed that premature failure of the high chrome oxide refractories was related to ash in the carbon feedstock, which liquefies during gasification and interacts with the refractories, leading to wear by chemical dissolution or spalling (structural and chemical). A discussion of this postmortem wear of spent refractory materials and of thermodynamic modeling used to explain microstructural changes leading to wear are explained in this article. This information will serve the basis to develop improved performance refractory materials.

Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing

2011-04-01

65

An investigation of fatigue failures of turbine blades in a gas turbine engine by mechanical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blade failures in gas turbine engines often lead to loss of all downstream stages and can have a dramatic effect on the availability of the turbine engines. Thorough failure investigation is essential for the effective management of engine airworthiness. In this paper blade fatigue failures are investigated by mechanical analyses and by examination of failed blades. A series of mechanical

Jianfu Hou; Bryon J Wicks; Ross A Antoniou

2002-01-01

66

Mitochondrial Mechanisms of Sepsis-Induced Organ Failure  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is the leading cause of death in medical intensive care units. Though progress has been made in the early treatment of sepsis associated with hemodynamic collapse (septic shock), little is known about the pathogenesis of delayed organ dysfunction during sepsis. A growing body of data indicates that sepsis is associated with acute changes in cell metabolism, and that mitochondria are particularly susceptible. The severity of mitochondrial pathology varies according to host and pathogen factors, and appears to correlate with loss of organ dysfunction. In this regard, low levels of cell apoptosis and mitochondrial turnover are normally observed in all metabolically active tissues; however, these homeostatic mechanisms are frequently overwhelmed during sepsis and contribute to cell and tissue pathology. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms regulating mitochondrial damage and repair during severe sepsis may provide new treatment options and better outcomes for this deadly disease (30-60% mortality). Herein, we present compelling evidence linking mitochondrial apoptosis pathways to sepsis-induced cell and organ failure and discuss the implications in terms of future sepsis research. PMID:18508567

Exline, Matthew C; Crouser, Elliot D

2014-01-01

67

Calcium cycling proteins and heart failure: mechanisms and therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Ca2+-dependent signaling is highly regulated in cardiomyocytes and determines the force of cardiac muscle contraction. Ca2+ cycling refers to the release and reuptake of intracellular Ca2+ that drives muscle contraction and relaxation. In failing hearts, Ca2+ cycling is profoundly altered, resulting in impaired contractility and fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The key defects in Ca2+ cycling occur at the level of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), a Ca2+ storage organelle in muscle. Defects in the regulation of Ca2+ cycling proteins including the ryanodine receptor 2, cardiac (RyR2)/Ca2+ release channel macromolecular complexes and the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2a (SERCA2a)/phospholamban complex contribute to heart failure. RyR2s are oxidized, nitrosylated, and PKA hyperphosphorylated, resulting in “leaky” channels in failing hearts. These leaky RyR2s contribute to depletion of Ca2+ from the SR, and the leaking Ca2+ depolarizes cardiomyocytes and triggers fatal arrhythmias. SERCA2a is downregulated and phospholamban is hypophosphorylated in failing hearts, resulting in impaired SR Ca2+ reuptake that conspires with leaky RyR2 to deplete SR Ca2+. Two new therapeutic strategies for heart failure (HF) are now being tested in clinical trials: (a) fixing the leak in RyR2 channels with a novel class of Ca2+-release channel stabilizers called Rycals and (b) increasing expression of SERCA2a to improve SR Ca2+ reuptake with viral-mediated gene therapy. There are many potential opportunities for additional mechanism-based therapeutics involving the machinery that regulates Ca2+ cycling in the heart. PMID:23281409

Marks, Andrew R.

2013-01-01

68

Coupled 3D Thermo-mechanical Analysis of Nordic BWR Lower Head Failure in case of  

E-print Network

Coupled 3D Thermo-mechanical Analysis of Nordic BWR Lower Head Failure in case of Core Melt Severe loads to the vessel wall and penetrations leading to its failure. The mode and timing of the vessel failure determine melt ejection characteristics and the success of ex-vessel melt retention strategy

Haviland, David

69

The use of fracture mechanics in failure analysis in the offshore diamond mining industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers two major failures of offshore diamond mining equipment, which should not have occurred had both fracture mechanics aspects and materials behaviour been more fully understood. The two case studies include (a) failure of a wire rope swivel, and (b) failure of a load cell (used for monitoring rope load). In case (a) the swivel shank had failed

R. B. Tait; C. Emslie

2005-01-01

70

Failure mechanism of the all-polyethylene glenoid implant  

PubMed Central

Fixation failure of glenoid components is the main cause of unsuccessful total shoulder arthroplasties. The characteristics of these failures are still not well understood, hence, attempts at improving the implant fixation are somewhat blind and the failure rate remains high. This lack of understanding is largely due to the fundamental problem that direct observations of failure are impossible as the fixation is inherently embedded within the bone. Twenty custom made implants, reflecting various common fixation designs, and a specimen set-up was prepared to enable direct observation of failure when the specimens were exposed to cyclic superior loads during laboratory experiments. Finite element analyses of the laboratory tests were also carried out to explain the observed failure scenarios. All implants, irrespective of the particular fixation design, failed at the implant–cement interface and failure initiated at the inferior part of the component fixation. Finite element analyses indicated that this failure scenario was caused by a weak and brittle implant–cement interface and tensile stresses in the inferior region possibly worsened by a stress raiser effect at the inferior rim. The results of this study indicate that glenoid failure can be delayed or prevented by improving the implant/cement interface strength. Also any design features that reduce the geometrical stress raiser and the inferior tensile stresses in general should delay implant loosening. PMID:19939390

Sarah, Junaid; Sanjay, Gupta; Sanjay, Sanghavi; Carolyn, Anglin; Emery, Roger; Andrew, Amis; Ulrich, Hansen

2010-01-01

71

Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

2012-01-01

72

Mechanisms of rock slope failure in conglomerates with variable lithification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In conglomerates with variable lithification very special failure mechanisms my occur. On January 25th, 2010 at the village of Stein at the river Traun, at about 8 p.m. a 432 m3 large and 1,026 t heavy block was released from a conglomerate face obviously without warning, destroying the family home below. Only two of four inhabitants could be saved out of the debris by means of a spectacular rescue operation through the local fire brigade. After this event the question arised, if the rock fall could have been foreseen or if such spontaneous incidents are abrupt and unpredictable. In this paper the conducted studies to reconstruct the processes leading to this event will be presented. These investigations included field mapping, geodetic survey, laserscanning of the rupture face, mineralogical analysis of sinter crust thin sections, inventory of the block dimensions and reconstruction of the collapse kinematics, analysis of the weather data prior to the event and a 2D finite element calculation (Phase2, rocscience) using the geometry of the overhanging conglomerate strata. In this case, it seems like there was no clear triggering event prior to the wall collapse. Instead, it could be proved by engineering geology mapping, mineralogical analysis of the sinter crusts and numerical modelling, that the back scarp connected with a set of discontinuities started to propagate several years ago already. Also supported by early photographs of the cracks in the brick walls of the endangered house in 1993 and 2006 together with eye wittnesses, it could be shown, that the fracture propagation started tens of years beforehand and the rock topple - rock fall took place after the last rock bond bridges finally were sheared through. As a result of all field data and the numerical modeling, the causes of the event can be stated as: • caving in the rock mass of up to 9 m depth at the foot oft he wall; • the low strength values of the conglomerates; and • vertical joint sets caused by the geometrical constraints and the low rock strength properties. As trigger mechanism, the multiple freeze/thaw cycles and therefore the frequent contractions of the separated rock column are also responsible for fracture propagation. In fact, only the "last" freezing event can be identified as trigger, thus meaning that there was no "major" triggering event at all. The results of the numerical modeling also suggest, that shear cracks must have formed, subsequently generating a distinct crack pattern in the walls of the building. The results of the analyses of the thin sections of the sinter crusts derived from the back faces of the blocks suggest an increasing depth of the back joint with time and an age of at least 11 years or more. This means that the crack pattern must have been visible years before the event. Therefore it can be stated, that the rock fall of Stein could have been predicted, if the clear signs of damage would have been interpreted correctly and the failure process would have been fully understood.

Bundschuh, M.; Thuro, K.

2012-04-01

73

IMPERMEABLE THIN AL2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES  

SciTech Connect

The project started on September 1, 2001. During last 4 months, one post-doctor has been hired for this project. We have received TBC samples (YSZ/CoNiCrAlY/ Inconel 601) from Tohoku University, Japan, while processing of the TBC samples was delayed in GE Corp. Research and Development. The TBC preparation in Japan was based on our technical requirement by plasma spray. Bond coat CoNiCrAlY and the YSZ was produced by low-pressure plasma spray and air plasma spray respectively. The morphology of the surface and the microstructure of cross-section of the sample was observed and analyzed by SEM and EDX. XRD was also used to detect the phases in the YSZ. Currently we are processing the overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the TBC samples by EB-PVD and high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray techniques in collaboration with Penn State University and State University of New York at Stony Brook. We will finish comparing the hot corrosion behavior of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/YSZ/CoNiCrAlY/superalloy system with the YSZ/CoNiCrAlY/superalloy system. The mechanism of hot corrosion will be investigated. The processing-structure-properties relationship of the overlays will be determined.

Scott X. Mao

2002-01-31

74

Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic  

E-print Network

Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading and of the attendant ballistic-impact failure mechanisms in prototypical friction stir welding (FSW) joints found-armor weldments, the overall ballistic performance of the armor is controlled by the ballistic limits of its weld

Grujicic, Mica

75

Causes and mechanisms of massive pillar failure in a southern West Virginia coal mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the causes and mechanisms of pillar failure in a southern West Virginia coal mine. Conclusions are based on in-mine observations and analysis of mining methods, eyewitness accounts of the sequence of events, topographic and geologic conditions, and mechanical properties of mine roof, coal, and floor. The study indicated that massive pillar failure was caused by the

A. W. Khair; S. S. Peng

1985-01-01

76

Causes and mechanisms of massive pillar failure in a southwestern West Virginia coal mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the causes and mechanisms of a pillar failure in a W. Virginia coal mine on the basis of topographic and geologic conditions, mechanical properties of mine roof, coal and floor, together with eye-witness accounts. The study indicated that massive pillar failure was caused by the collapse of the mine roof due to the combined effects of high

A. W. Khair; S. S. Peng

1985-01-01

77

Causes and mechanisms of massive pillar failure in a southern West Virginia coal mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the causes and mechanisms of pillar failure in a southern West Virginia coal mine. The conclusions are based on in-mine observations and analysis of mining methods, eyewitness account of the sequence of events, topographic and geologic conditions, and mechanical properties of mine roof, coal, and floor. The study indicated that massive pillar failure was caused by

A. W. Khair; S. S. Peng

1983-01-01

78

Materially & Geometrically Nonlinear Woven Composite Micro-mechanical Model with Failure for Finite Element Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational micro-mechanical material model of woven fabric composite material is developed to simulate failure. The material model is based on repeated unit cell approach. The fiber reorientation is accounted for in the effective stiffness calculation. Material non-linearity due to the shear stresses in the impregnated yarns and the matrix material is included in the model. Micro- mechanical failure criteria

Ala Tabiei; Ivelin Ivanov

79

Premature Circuit Clotting due to Likely Mechanical Failure during Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Failure of extracorporeal circuit (EC) function during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) appears most likely due to progressive circuit clotting or, in some cases, most likely due to mechanical problems that affect flow. We aimed to study the incidence of such likely mechanical circuit failure (MCF). Design and Setting: Retrospective observational study in an adult ICU of a tertiary

In Byung Kim; Nigel Fealy; Ian Baldwin; Rinaldo Bellomo

2010-01-01

80

Newer mechanical devices in the management of acute heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart Failure is the only cardiovascular disease diagnosis increasing in prevalence in the United States. Currently there\\u000a are more than 5 million people diagnosed with heart failure in the United States and that population is increasing exponentially.\\u000a Clinical trials in advanced pharmacological therapies have shown a significant value in reducing the morbidity and mortality\\u000a of the disease process. Nevertheless, many patients

Paul J. Mather; Marvin A. Konstam

2007-01-01

81

Automated failure mode effects and criticality analyses for reliability prediction of multibody mechanical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliability is important to ensure both serviceability and safety of a mechanical system. A method for simulation-based Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) for reliability prediction of mechanical systems is presented. This approach integrates recursive formulation for dynamic analysis, failure criteria for failure determination, graphics techniques for collision detection, and new techniques for modifying dynamics model during the simulation. The automated FMECA method developed consists of three libraries and a graphics collision detection technique. First, a library of mechanical failure modes is created using cause-effect relationships for mechanical failure modes. Second, a library of component failure criteria is constructed by collecting different material test data. Third, a library of simulation algorithms and supporting techniques is built by developing simulation technologies to perform FMECA for mechanical failure modes. In addition, the automated FMECA method uses the developed graphics software VDS for collision detection. Finally, this approach is used to investigate the consequences of four failure modes of a vehicle system. The difficulty in formulating mathematical expressions for a damaged mechanical system is resolved by manipulating the number of cut joint constraints and generalized coordinates to implicitly update the original system topology. Formulations for virtual joints are derived, as well as other new techniques to permit multiple failures during a dynamic simulation. A near-minimum set of generalized coordinates is thus retained throughout the dynamic simulation. Four general-purpose dynamics codes are implemented and effects of four mechanical failure modes of a mechanical system are investigated; suspension failure, joint degradation and breakage, joint stiction, and component yielding and breakage. Failure histories as well as Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) are obtained. The automated FMECA method developed identifies critical components, critical failure modes, and operating limits of a mechanical system. This information can be used to redesign the critical components, thereby improving the reliability of a mechanical system. Automated FMECA also supports a failure reporting and corrective action system (FRACAS), and the test-analyze-and-fix (TAAF) methodology, and minimization of cost for both hard-prototype building and field tests.

Chiang, Alex Chih-Chien

82

Mechanical characterization and failure modes of fiber reinforced angle-ply composites  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and theoretical characterization of material properties were conducted for unidirectional and angle-ply laminates and comparisons made. The materials used were T300 Graphite/Rigidite 5209, Kevlar 49C/Rigidite 5216, and E-Glass/Rigidite 5216. Analysis of pertinent stresses, particularly the interlaminar shear stress was performed and their relation to laminate failure observed. Failure criteria formulated for anisotropic materials are discussed and scrutinized for their use in failure predictions of angle-ply laminates. The Tsai-Hill theory was applied to experimental data generated in this work. Laminates in all three material systems were pulled to failure in uniaxial tension and their failure mechanisms studied. Each failure mode was related to the stresses present in the laminate at the time of failure. Special emphasis was focused on the interlaminar shear stress throughout this work. Special samples were designed and manufactured to isolate interlaminar failures and show their relation to fiber orientation.

Elkins, M.A.

1984-01-01

83

The Influence of the Laser Energy on the Thermal Diffusivity Evaluation of TBC by Laser Flash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Flash is considered the standard technique for measuring the thermal diffusivity of solids. The interaction between TBC and the laser energy is studied because very low thermal effusivity and thermal diffusivity of TBC can produce very high temperature increase on the surface and temperature gradient within the sample. In such a case, microstructural modifications of TBC can be generated. In this work, such phenomena are studied experimentally on free standing TBC samples.

Cernuschi, Federico; Bison, Paolo

2008-12-01

84

Design and Environmental Factors Contributing to the Failure of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas turbine engines are a staple of 21st century air and sea propulsion systems and are also a critical component in large-scale electricity generation. The hot-section components of these engines are protected by a complex ceramic and metal multi-layer coating called a thermal barrier coating (TBC) system. The failure of TBC systems occurs as a result of both thermo-chemical and thermo-mechanical degradation. This research involves exploring both of these mechanisms for two distinctly different issues. The United States Navy is currently making a push to implement the use of alternative fuels by 2012, but the use of these fuels (syngas, high hydrogen content, and alternatives to JP-8) presents significant materials durability challenges. Initial data suggests that high water vapor levels, high sulfur concentrations, and ash deposits from fuel impurities lead to unique, and severe, degradation modes. This research is aimed at addressing the effects of differing combustion environment characteristics on the corrosion and oxidation of TBC systems. On the industrial front, there is a constant driver to better understand and predict coating failure, particularly in air-plasma sprayed (APS) TBC systems. The morphology of the metal-ceramic interface is known to play a key role in the generation of compressive and tensile stresses that eventually cause coating failure in typical engine environments. Experimental evidence and field experience have shown that a tortuous interface is generally beneficial to coating lifetime. Nevertheless, for the past 40 years engineers have struggled to find a functional correlation between BC topology and coating system lifetime. This document also addresses the progress that has been made toward the establishment of this functional correlation.

Weeks, Matthew David

85

IMPERMEABLE THIN AL2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES  

SciTech Connect

In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, a dense and continues overlay of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating of about 25 {micro}m thick was deposited on the surface of TBC by EB-PVD and high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray techniques. Hot corrosion tests were carried out on the TBC with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in molten salts mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5% V{sub 2}O5) at 950 C for 10h. The microstructures of TBC and overlay before and after exposure were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). It has been found that TBC will react with V{sub 2}O{sub 5} to form YVO{sub 4}. A substantial amount of M-phase of ZrO{sub 2} was formed due to the leaching of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} from YSZ. During hot corrosion test, there were no significant interactions between overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating and molten salts. After exposure, the alumina coating, especially produced by HVOF, was still very dense and cover the surface of YSZ, although they had been translated to {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from original {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. As a result, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating decreased the penetration of salts into the YSZ and prevented the YSZ from the attack by molten salts containing vanadium. Accordingly, only a few M-phase was formed in YSZ TBC, compared with TBC without overlay coating. The penetration of salts into alumina coating was thought to be through microcracks formed in overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating and at the interface between alumina and zirconia due to the presence of tensile stress in the alumina coating. In the next year, we will study the mechanisms of cracking of the overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. The hot corrosion test of TBC with EB-PVD deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating will be again performed. However before hot corrosion tests, the post-annealing will be carried out in vacuum (residual pressure 10{sup -3} Pa) at 1273K for 1h in order to transform the as-sputtered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay to crystalline {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. The effect of thickness of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating on hot corrosion resistance will also be investigated. We will prepare Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating by sol-gel method. The corrosion resistance of TBC with sol-gel Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating will be determined and discussed with the results of TBC with EB-PVD and HVOF Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating.

Scott X. Mao

2002-08-31

86

A study of the failure mechanism of chlorine anodes  

SciTech Connect

Thin coating RuO{sub 2}{minus}TiO{sub 2} electrodes, which mimic the DSA anodes, have been prepared and tested for their activity toward the chlorine evolution reaction and subjected to life time testing. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry has been used concurrently with electrochemical measurements to analyze changes in the ruthenium content of the coating. The decrease in electrode activity is found to be closely related to a decrease in Ru content, and the measured profiles indicate that the loss takes place across the thin coating. Failure is observed for electrodes with a Ru content below a critical concentration, but there is no evidence for the build up of a pure TiO{sub 2} layer. AFM imaging of an anode after failure sustained the hypothesis of loss of material.

Vallet, C.E.; Zuhr, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tilak, B.V.; Chen, C.P. [Occidental Chemical Corp., Grand Island, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

87

A fracture mechanics approach to the failure of graphite in laboratory tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests show that for some graphites the calculated stress at failure exceeds the tensile strength in uniform tension by an amount which depends on the test considered and increases with the severity of the stress gradient. Fracture mechanics has been applied to bend, internal pressure and diametral compression tests to investigate whether it can provide a consistent failure criterion

M. I. Darby

1976-01-01

88

Lock-up failure of a four-bar linkage deployment mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A successful failure investigation of a four-bar linkage deployment mechanism has been performed. Possible failure causes such as the mismatch of material coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), excessive hinge friction, limit switch interference, and thermal gradient induced resistive preload were investigated and are discussed. The final conclusions and corrective actions taken are described. Finally, valuable lessons learned during the investigation are discussed.

Zinn, Michael

1993-01-01

89

Mechanical support in acute and chronic heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of hospital admissions in the United States in people over the age of 65 years. Major\\u000a advancements in the medical therapy of HF, combined with automatic implantable cardioverterdefibrillators and cardiac resynchronization\\u000a therapy, have substantially reduced the mortality and morbidity of chronic HF, but mortality remains high, and the availability\\u000a of donor hearts for

Andreas Brieke; Joseph Cleveland Jr; JoAnn Lindenfeld

2008-01-01

90

Biventricular and novel pacing mechanisms in heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biventricular pacing, often referred to as cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), improves subjective and objective measures\\u000a and promotes reverse ventricular remodeling in patients with chronic New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV heart\\u000a failure despite optimal medical therapy, QRS duration of more than 130 ms, and left ventricular ejection fraction of less\\u000a than 35%. However, there are many nonresponders

Christina Salazar; William T. Abraham

2009-01-01

91

Graft failure IV. Immunologic mechanisms of corneal transplant rejection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corneal transplantation is the oldest and the most common form of solid tissue transplantation in humans. Immunologic graft\\u000a rejection is one of the main causes of short and long-term graft failure. Rejection involves donor tissue recognition and\\u000a destruction by allo-specific immune cells of the recipient. This review outlines (1) the immunobiology of transplantation,\\u000a with reference to ocular immune privilege, (2)

Eva-Marie Chong; M. Reza Dana

2008-01-01

92

Non-destructive microwave evaluation of TBC delamination induced by acute angle laser drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser drilling has been applied to the production of cooling holes of various size and angles in the modern aerospace gas turbine components such as turbine blades, nozzle guide vanes, combustion chambers and afterburner. These parts are usually made of heat resistant nickel superalloys. The superalloy substrate is coated with yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to protect them from reaching excessive temperatures in hot engine environments. Drilling the parts at acute angles to the surface is complicated because (i) multiple layers are being drilled through, (ii) the melt ejection and heat flow patterns around the hole are non-symmetrical and (iii) the drilling distance is greater than when drilling normal to the surface. In a previous investigation by the authors, delamination of TBC was addressed as a main problem of angled drilling and mechanisms involved were discussed. Characterization of delamination cracks was normally performed via metallographic techniques. It involves sectioning the samples using an abrasive cutting machine, grinding with successively finer silicon carbide paper up to the centre of the hole and polishing to allow optical microscopic analysis of the cracks. However, clamping and sectioning process of thermal-spray-coated workpieces can introduce cracks in brittle coatings due to the drag of the cut-off wheels. Hence, it is not possible to decide if the delamination is caused as a result of post-process sectioning or laser drilling. In this paper, a microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) technique is employed to evaluate the integrity of TBC after acute angle laser drilling. An Agilent 8510 XF network analyser operating over the frequency range of 45 MHz to 110 GHz was used to measure the amplitude and phase variations of scattered waves. The results significantly indicated the existence of delamination of 1-1.5 mm long at the TBC/substrate interface on the leading edge part of an acute-angled hole laser drilled using a 400 W Nd:YAG laser.

Sezer, H. K.; Li, Lin; Wu, Z.; Anderson, B.; Williams, P.

2007-01-01

93

Laboratory and 3-D-distinct element analysis of failure mechanism of slope under external surcharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslide is a major disaster resulting in considerable loss of human lives and property damages in hilly terrain in Hong Kong, China and many other countries. The factor of safety and the critical slip surface for slope stabilization are the main considerations for slope stability analysis in the past, while the detailed post-failure conditions of the slopes have not been considered in sufficient details. There are however increasing interest on the consequences after the initiation of failure which includes the development and propagation of the failure surfaces, the amount of failed mass and runoff and the affected region. To assess the development of slope failure in more details and to consider the potential danger of slopes after failure has initiated, the slope stability problem under external surcharge is analyzed by the distinct element method (DEM) and laboratory model test in the present research. A more refined study about the development of failure, microcosmic failure mechanism and the post-failure mechanism of slope will be carried out. The numerical modeling method and the various findings from the present work can provide an alternate method of analysis of slope failure which can give additional information not available from the classical methods of analysis.

Li, N.; Cheng, Y. M.

2014-09-01

94

Ultimate Strength and Failure Mechanism of Resistance Spot Weld Subjected to Tensile, Shear, or Combined Tensile\\/Shear Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strength tests were performed to reveal the failure mechanisms of spot weld in lap-shear and cross tension test samples. It is shown the while the lap-shear (cross tension) sample is subjected to shear (normal) load at the structural level the failure mechanism at the spot weld is tensile (shear) mode at the materials level. Based on the observed failure mechanism,

Yuh J. Chao

2003-01-01

95

Mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminated composites  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical behavior of quasi-isotropic and unidirectional epoxy-matrix carbon-fiber laminated composites subjected compressive loading at strain rates of 10{sup {minus}3} and 2000 s{sup {minus}1} are described. Failure in the studied composites was dominated by delamination which proceeded by brittle fracture of the epoxy-matrix. The matrix-fiber bonding in these composites is very strong and prevented the occurrence of significant fiber-pullout. The mode I delamination strain energy release rate of the unidirectional composites was determined using the double cantilever beam and hole in plate compression method. The DCB method indicated a significant R curve effect attributed to fiber bridging while the presently available hole in plate analytical methods show questionable validity for highly anisotropic materials.

Thissell, W.R.; Zurek, A.K.; Addessio, F.

1995-09-01

96

Mechanical properties, microscopy, and failure mechanisms of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminated composites  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical behavior of quasi-isotropic and unidirectional epoxy- matrix carbon-fiber laminated composites subjected to compressive loading at strain rates of 10{sup {minus}3} and 2000 s{sup {minus}1} are described. Failure in the studied composites was dominated by delamination which proceeded by brittle fracture of the epoxy matrix. The matrix-fiber bonding in these composites is very strong and prevented the occurrence of significant fiber-pullout. The mode I delamination strain energy release rate of the unidirectional composites was determined using the double cantilever beam and hole in plate compression methods. The DCB method indicated a significant R curve effect attributed to fiber bridging while the presently available hole in plate analytical methods show questionable validity for highly anisotropic materials.

Thissell, W.R.; Zurek, A.K.; Addessio, F.

1995-12-31

97

Electrochemical evaluation of a corrosion fatigue failure mechanism in a duplex stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory corrosion fatigue studies on smooth and precracked samples indicated that two duplex stainless steels would have similar service lives in a paper-processing environment; but, in service, one of these alloys has exhibited premature failures. Since corrosion fatigue experiments had proven unable to detect this failure mechanism, electrochemical measurements and slow strain rate tensile tests were used to evaluate four alloy composition-dependent failure mechanism hypotheses. No significant differences were found in the dissolution rates or hydrogen fugacities produced when mechanical processes expose bare surface, and slow strain rate tensile tests found no indication of a difference in cracking susceptibility for the same hydrogen fugacity. Electrochemical experiments found that pits nucleate in one phase of the duplex microstructure at lower potentials in the failure prone alloy, but do not propagate beyond the microscopic dimensions of this phase. These microstructurally limited “micropits” were found to nucleate fracture in slow strain rate tensile tests, and examination of a service failure confirmed the presence of microscopic pits at crack initiation sites. The premature failures are attributed to the lower pitting resistance of the failure prone alloy, and the failure of laboratory experiments to predict this behavior is attributed to the slow kinetics of pit nucleation in these experiments. A laboratory testing methodology is suggested that will ensure detection of similar susceptibilities in future corrosion fatigue testing programs.

Stoudt, M. R.; Ricker, R. E.

2004-08-01

98

Accelerated Thermal Cycling and Failure Mechanisms for BGA and CSP Assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews the accelerated thermal cycling test methods that are currently used by industry to characterize the interconnect reliability of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) ball grid array (BGA) and chip scale package (CSP) assemblies. Acceleration induced failure mechanisms varied from conventional surface mount (SM) failures for CSPs. Examples of unrealistic life projections for other CSPs are also presented. The cumulative cycles to failure for ceramic BGA assemblies performed under different conditions, including plots of their two Weibull parameters, are presented. The results are for cycles in the range of -30 C to 100 C, -55 C to 100 C, and -55 C to 125 C. Failure mechanisms as well as cycles to failure for thermal shock and thermal cycling conditions in the range of -55 C to 125 C were compared. Projection to other temperature cycling ranges using a modified Coffin-Manson relationship is also presented.

Ghaffarian, Reza

2000-01-01

99

Fractographic interpretation of failure mechanisms in titanium matrix composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium matrix composites (TMC) offer a combination of good mechanical properties and high temperature durability that make them attractive candidate materials for advanced engine components and high temperature structural applications. In such applications the material will be subjected to changing mechanical loads and temperature fluctuations, resulting in complex stress states within the constituents of the composite. This study examines how

W. S Johnson; J. L Miller; M Mirdamadi

1995-01-01

100

Wellbore Failure Mechanisms in Shales: Prediction and Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shale stability is still one of the most important problems faced during drilling. Until recently, stability problems were most often attributed to shale swelling; however, recent research shows that several mechanisms are involved and that their relative importance can be estimated. This paper presents a review of these mechanisms, including pore-pressure diffusion, plasticity, anisotropy, capillary effects, osmosis, and physicochemical alteration.

Gazaniol Didier; Forsans Thierry; M. J. F. Boisson; J. M. Piau

1995-01-01

101

Failure mechanics of fiber composite notched charpy specimens. [stress analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite element stress analysis was performed to determine the stress variation in the vicinity of the notch and far field of fiber composites Charpy specimens (ASTM Standard). NASTRAN was used for the finite element analysis assuming linear behavior and equivalent static load. The unidirectional composites investigated ranged from Thornel 75 Epoxy to S-Glass/Epoxy with the fiber direction parallel to the long dimension of the specimen. The results indicate a biaxial stress state exists in (1) the notch vicinity which is dominated by transverse tensile and interlaminar shear and (2) near the load application point which is dominated by transverse compression and interlaminar shear. The results also lead to the postulation of hypotheses for the predominant failure modes, the fracture initiation, and the fracture process. Finally, the results indicate that the notched Charpy test specimen is not suitable for assessing the impact resistance of nonmetallic fiber composites directly.

Chamis, C. C.

1976-01-01

102

Defect induced plasticity and failure mechanism of boron nitride nanotubes under tension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of Stone-Wales (SW) and vacancy defects on the failure behavior of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) under tension are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The Tersoff-Brenner potential is used to model the atomic interaction and the temperature is maintained close to 300 K. The effect of a SW defect is studied by determining the failure strength and failure mechanism of nanotubes with different radii. In the case of a vacancy defect, the effect of an N-vacancy and a B-vacancy is studied separately. Nanotubes with different chiralities but similar diameter is considered first to evaluate the chirality dependence. The variation of failure strength with the radius is then studied by considering nanotubes of different diameters but same chirality. It is observed that the armchair BNNTs are extremely sensitive to defects, whereas the zigzag configurations are the least sensitive. In the case of pristine BNNTs, both armchair and zigzag nanotubes undergo brittle failure, whereas in the case of defective BNNTs, only the zigzag ones undergo brittle failure. An interesting defect induced plastic behavior is observed in defective armchair BNNTs. For this nanotube, the presence of a defect triggers mechanical relaxation by bond breaking along the closest zigzag helical path, with the defect as the nucleus. This mechanism results in a plastic failure.

Anoop Krishnan, N. M.; Ghosh, Debraj

2014-07-01

103

Mechanical Performance and Failure Mechanism of Thick-walled Composite Connecting Rods Fabricated by Resin Transfer Molding Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A resin transfer molding technique was used to fabricate thick-walled composite connecting rods, and then the mechanical performance of the connecting rod was studied experimentally, at the same time the stress and failure index distributions were simulated numerically. The experimental results show that under a tensile load, the connecting rod first cracks near the vertex of the triangle areas at the two ends, and then the damage propagates along the interface between the main bearing beam and the triangle area as well as along the round angle of the triangle area. Whereas under a compressive load, the delamination primarily occurs at the corner of the U-shaped flange, and the final destruction is caused by the fracture of fibers in the main bearing beam. The simulated results reveal that the tensile failure is originated from the delamination at the round angle transition areas of the T-joints, and the failure strength is determined by the interlaminar strength. Whereas the compressive failure is caused by the fracture of fibers in the main bearing beam, and the failure strength of the structure is determined by the longitudinal compressive strength of the composite material. The simulated results are basically consistent with the experimental results. Hence the mechanical performance and failure mechanism of the complicated composite structure are revealed in great detail through the coupling of the two kinds of research methods, which is helpful for the optimal design of composite structures.

Liu, Gang; Luo, Chuyang; Zhang, Daijun; Li, Xueqin; Qu, Peng; Sun, Xiaochen; Jia, Yuxi; Yi, Xiaosu

2014-08-01

104

Investigation of failure mechanisms in integrated vacuum circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fabrication techniques of integrated vacuum circuits are described in detail. Data obtained from a specially designed test circuit are presented. The data show that the emission observed in reverse biased devices is due to cross-talk between the devices and can be eliminated by electrostatic shielding. The lifetime of the cathodes has been improved by proper activation techniques. None of the cathodes on life test has shown any sign of failure after more than 3500 hours. Life tests of triodes show a decline of anode current by a factor of two to three after a few days. The current recovers when the large positive anode voltage (100 V) has been removed for a few hours. It is suggested that this is due to trapped charges in the sapphire substrate. Evidence of the presence of such charges is given, and a model of the charge distribution is presented consistent with the measurements. Solution of the problem associated with the decay of triode current may require proper treatment of the sapphire surface and/or changes in the deposition technique of the thin metal films.

Rosengreen, A.

1972-01-01

105

Delayed mechanical failure of the under-bump interconnects by bump shearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Packaging-induced stresses can cause mechanical failures of various forms in the Cu/low-k interconnects. Here we report a time-dependent failure mode of the interconnects underneath the copper pillar bump. Delayed catastrophic fracture is observed in the interconnect dielectrics when a sustained shear load is applied on the bump using a single bump shear setup. The time to failure is found to be highly sensitive to the load level and temperature, but not to the environmental humidity. However, moisture diffusion through intentionally broken moisture seal can accelerate the failure process. Quantitative analysis suggests the delayed failure can be well captured over a wide range of testing conditions by a model based on subcritical crack growth in the interconnect dielectrics.

Li, Han; Shaw, Thomas M.; Liu, Xiao-Hu; Bonilla, Griselda

2012-04-01

106

MICRO-MECHANISMS OF COMPRESSION FAILURE Sia Nemat Nasser  

E-print Network

for Advanced Materials Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of California, San Diego of recent advances in novel experimental techniques to study the dynamic behavior of brittle materials a confined sample impact-penetrated by W (X21- alloy) at high velocity shows extensive twinning with sub

Nemat-Nasser, Sia

107

Stress analysis of slope failure using the Discrete Element Method: Mechanical controls on landslide sizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carry out numerical simulations using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) to understand the controls and mechanisms of slope failure and resulting landslide size distribution. Our modeled 2D slopes are constructed of numerous spheres simulating mechanically homogeneous material with friction and cohesion. This approach enables us to simulate earth-like materials and behaviors, as discontinuities and heterogeneities can develop and propagate as the material undergoes yield and failure. Appealingly, the material properties and rheologies can evolve over time, and can be tracked in detail throughout the simulated process. Our initial results demonstrate that landslide size and failure mode are strongly dependent upon the Factor of Safety (FS), defined as the ratio of resisting stresses to driving stresses. When material strength is low (FS<< 1), landslides encompass the entire slope height. With increasing material strength, the landslides encompass decreasing proportions of the lower slopes, until they vanish close to stabilization of the slope at FS=1. As natural landslides commonly encompass large portions of failing slopes, we argue that they occur under conditions of FS< 1, at least by the completion of the failure process. Therefore in reality, slope failure occurs as a dynamic process in which failure initiates at FS~1, but FS decreases as a fracture surface propagates with loss of cohesion, resulting in larger landslides than would be predicted for FS=1. To examine the mechanical causes of slope failure in more detail, we probed the stress field in a modeled slope throughout the initial failure process, within the framework of critical state soil mechanics. We are able to constrain the yield surface and failure conditions (i.e., critical state line) of the slope material in the 3D differential stress - mean stress - porosity space, and to map stress paths of individual material elements within this domain. Failure initiates at the slope-foot, where slope material loses cohesion and disintegrates. The failure surface propagates upwards at about 100 m/sec, forming a discrete sliding plane that separates the disintegrated and intact materials. The propagation of the failure surface is detected as a reduction in mean stress as the landslide undergoes tensile failure and disintegration. This stress evolution is well-resolved in plots of progressive changes in the normalized strength ratio (i.e., differential stress/mean stress) for the failing slope. Initial failure occurs at a high normalized strength ratios, consistent with brittle failure (along the Hvorslev surface), whereupon the strength ratio decreases toward the critical state line, consistent with post-failure weakening to reach residual strength of the rock. Significant downward slope movement occurs only after the failure surface and associated drop in the normalized strength ratio has reached the top of the slope. Our approach demonstrates the utility of mapping out the evolving stress conditions in the critical state mechanics framework to better predict the complex evolution of deforming slopes, thereby obtaining clearer insights into the mechanisms that constrain landslide failure modes, geometries, and resulting size distributions.

Katz, O.; Morgan, J. K.; Dugan, B.

2009-12-01

108

Characterization of Alumina Interfaces in TBC Systems  

SciTech Connect

Interfacial segregants in thermally grown {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales formed during high temperature exposure of thermal barrier coating systems reflect the oxygen-active dopants present in the bond coating and substrate, such as Y and Hf. These dopants diffuse outward and segregate to the substrate-alumina interface and the alumina grain boundaries. Related studies suggest that these segregants affect the growth and mechanical properties of the alumina-scale; however, the characterization of segregation in alumina formed on coated superalloy systems has been limited. Segregation examples evaluated using analytical transmission electron microscopy are given from traditional Pt-modified aluminide coatings and newer Pt diffusion coatings. Model systems are used to illustrate that grain boundary segregants on the columnar alumina boundaries are not because of the reverse diffusion of cations from the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} top coating, and that interstitial elements in the substrate likely affect the outward flux of cation dopants. The dynamic nature of this segregation and oxygen-potential gradient-driven diffusion is discussed in light of observations of substrate dopant and interstitial contents affecting coating performance.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL

2009-01-01

109

Failure mechanisms associated with the thermally grown oxide in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure and durability of a thermal barrier coating (TBC) produced by the thermal spray method have been characterized. Upon exposure, the bond coat chemistry and microstructure change by inter-diffusion with the substrate and upon thickening of the thermally grown oxide (TGO). A wedge impression test, in conjunction with observations by scanning electron microscopy, has been used to probe the

A Rabiei; A. G Evans

2000-01-01

110

Failure Preventive Mechanism for IPsec Gateways Daniel Palomares, Daniel Migault, Maryline Laurent  

E-print Network

Failure Preventive Mechanism for IPsec Gateways Daniel Palomares, Daniel Migault, Maryline Laurent 5157, maryline.laurent@telecom-sudparis.eu Abstract--Operators are mainly using IPsec Virtual Private to transfer a given IPsec traffic from one SG to another. We also propose an additional mechanism for solving

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

Failure of latch mechanism for motion control of safety rods  

SciTech Connect

During safety rod tests in K-reactor prior to startup, one safety rod could not be lifted because the button'' broke off and became lodged in the mechanism. Examination of the failed latch assembly along with other assemblies from both K-Area and L-Area revealed several missing buttons as well as severely deformed jaw hanger extensions.'' We participated in the investigation of the damage by request of the Reactor Restart Section. Based on our study of the latch mechanism, the modifications to the safety rod extension,'' and the operating history of the machine, this memorandum describes the causes of the observed damage with experimental evidence and calculations to support the findings. 3 refs.

Yau, W.W.F.; Leader, D.R.

1992-01-16

112

Failure of latch mechanism for motion control of safety rods  

SciTech Connect

During safety rod tests in K-reactor prior to startup, one safety rod could not be lifted because the ``button`` broke off and became lodged in the mechanism. Examination of the failed latch assembly along with other assemblies from both K-Area and L-Area revealed several missing buttons as well as severely deformed ``jaw hanger extensions.`` We participated in the investigation of the damage by request of the Reactor Restart Section. Based on our study of the latch mechanism, the modifications to the ``safety rod extension,`` and the operating history of the machine, this memorandum describes the causes of the observed damage with experimental evidence and calculations to support the findings. 3 refs.

Yau, W.W.F.; Leader, D.R.

1992-01-16

113

Development Testing and Subsequent Failure Investigation of a Spring Strut Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) and Lockheed Martin (LM) performed random vibration testing on a single spring strut development unit to assess its ability to withstand qualification level random vibration environments. Failure of the strut while exposed to random vibration resulted in a follow-on failure investigation, design changes, and additional development tests. This paper focuses on the results of the failure investigations referenced in detail in the NESC final report including identified lessons learned to aid in future design iterations of the spring strut and to help other mechanism developers avoid similar pitfalls.

Dervan, Jared; Robertson, Brandon; Staab, Lucas; Culberson, Michael; Pellicciotti, Joseph

2014-01-01

114

Role of Cytokines in the Mechanism of Action of Amlodipine: The PRAISE Heart Failure Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We sought to determine whether the beneficial effects of amlodipine in heart failure may be mediated by a reduction in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. We postulated that TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels may also have predictive value in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF).Background. The molecular mechanism for progression of CHF may involve cytokine overexpression. The

Emile R Mohler; Leif C Sorensen; Jalal K Ghali; Douglas D Schocken; Park W Willis; John A Bowers; Anne B Cropp; Milton L Pressler

1997-01-01

115

Mechanical circulatory support devices for acute heart failure syndromes: considerations for clinical trial design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices are a guideline-recommended treatment option for a small subset of advanced heart\\u000a failure patients. MCS has the potential to become more prominent in the management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes (AHFS)\\u000a as device technology advances and as clinical trials consistently discover neutral or harmful effects with pharmacologic therapies\\u000a hypothesized to be beneficial in this population.

John B. O’Connell; Patrick M. McCarthy; George Sopko; Gerasimos S. Filippatos; Ileana L. Piña; Marvin A. Konstam; James B. Young; Leslie W. Miller; Mandeep R. Mehra; Edmond Roland; John E. A. Blair; David J. Farrar; Mihai Gheorghiade

2009-01-01

116

Failure mechanisms of a zirconia-8 wt% yttria thermal barrier coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isothermal and cyclic heat treatments of a plasma-sprayed zirconia-8 wt% yttria thermal barrier coating on a nickel superalloy substrate highlighted coating failure mechanisms. A reaction layer formed at the bond coat\\/ceramic interface, and failure of the coating initiated in the reaction layer due to opening thermal expansion mismatch stresses associated with a nonplanar interface. Crack propagation occurred in the ceramic

Andrew H. Bartlett; Roberto Dal Maschio

1995-01-01

117

Respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation: Pathophysiology and methods of promoting weaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory failure may be manifested either by impaired gas exchange or by impaired ventilatory function. The latter results\\u000a in more severe problems in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Ventilatory failure may result from inadequate respiratory\\u000a drive, excessive respiratory workload, inadequate respiratory muscle endurance, or a combination of these factors.\\u000a \\u000a Simple bedside tests of ventilatory function are useful for evaluating the

Jill P. Karpel; Thomas K. Aldrich

1986-01-01

118

An autonomous recovery mechanism against optical distribution network failures in EPON  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) is chosen for servicing diverse applications with higher bandwidth and Quality-of-Service (QoS), starting from Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH), FTTB (business/building) and FTTO (office). Typically, a single OLT can provide services to both residential and business customers on the same Optical Line Terminal (OLT) port; thus, any failures in the system will cause a great loss for both network operators and customers. Network operators are looking for low-cost and high service availability mechanisms that focus on the failures that occur within the drop fiber section because the majority of faults are in this particular section. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an autonomous recovery mechanism that provides protection and recovery against Drop Distribution Fiber (DDF) link faults or transceiver failure at the ONU(s) in EPON systems. In the proposed mechanism, the ONU can automatically detect any signal anomalies in the physical layer or transceiver failure, switching the working line to the protection line and sending the critical event alarm to OLT via its neighbor. Each ONU has a protection line, which is connected to the nearest neighbor ONU, and therefore, when failure occurs, the ONU can still transmit and receive data via the neighbor ONU. Lastly, the Fault Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation for recovery mechanism is presented. Simulation results show that our proposed autonomous recovery mechanism is able to maintain the overall QoS performance in terms of mean packet delay, system throughput, packet loss and EF jitter.

Liem, Andrew Tanny; Hwang, I.-Shyan; Nikoukar, AliAkbar

2014-10-01

119

Observation of Joule Heating-Assisted Electromigration Failure Mechanisms for Dual Damascene Cu/SiO? Interconnects  

E-print Network

Failure mechanisms observed in electromigration (EM) stressed dual damascene Cu/SiO? interconnects trees were studied and simulated. Failure sites with â??melt patch’ or â??crater’ are common for test structures in the top ...

Chang, Choon Wai

120

Mechanisms of Diagonal-Shear Failure in Reinforced Concrete Beams analyzed by AE-SiGMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serious shear failures in reinforced concrete (RC) structures were reported in the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. In particular, it was demonstrated that a diagonal-shear failure could lead to disastrous damage. However, mechanisms of the diagonal-shear failure in RC beams have not been completely clarified yet. In this study, the diagonal-shear failure in RC beams is investigated, applying acoustic emission (AE) method. To identify source mechanisms of AE signals, SiGMA (Simplified Green's functions for Moment tensor Analysis) procedure was applied. Prior to four-point bending tests of RC beams, theoretical waveforms were calculated to determine the optimal arrangement of AE sensors. Then, cracking mechanisms in experiments were investigated by applying the SiGMA procedure to AE waveforms. From results of the SiGMA analysis, dominant motions of micro-cracks are found to be of shear crack in all the loading stages. As the load increased, the number of tensile cracks increased and eventually the diagonal-shear failure occurred in the shear span. Prior to final failure, AE cluster of micro-cracks was intensely observed in the shear span. To classify AE sources into tensile and shear cracks, AE parameter analysis was also applied. As a result, most of AE hits are classified into tensile cracks. The difference between results obtained by the AE parameter analysis and by the SiGMA analysis is investigated and discussed.

Ohno, Kentaro; Shimozono, Shinichiro; Sawada, Yosuke; Ohtsu, Masayasu

121

Tbc1d15-17 regulates synaptic development at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.  

PubMed

Members of the Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC) family of proteins are believed to function as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for Rab GTPases, which play pivotal roles in intracellular membrane trafficking. Although membrane trafficking is fundamental to neuronal morphogenesis and function, the roles of TBC-family Rab GAPs have been poorly characterized in the nervous system. In this paper, we provide genetic evidence that Tbc1d15-17, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Rab7-GAP TBC1d15, is required for normal presynaptic growth and postsynaptic organization at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). A loss-of-function mutation in Tbc1d15-17 or its presynaptic knockdown leads to an increase in synaptic bouton number and NMJ length. Tbc1d15-17 mutants are also defective in the distribution of the postsynaptic scaffold Discs-large (Dlg) and in the level of the postsynaptic glutamate subunit GluRIIA. These postsynaptic phenotypes are recapitulated by postsynaptic knockdown of Tbc1d15-17. We also show that presynaptic overexpression of a constitutively active Rab7 mutant in a wild-type background causes a synaptic overgrowth phenotype resembling that of Tbc1d15-17 mutants, while a dominant-negative form of Rab7 has the opposite effect. Together, our findings establish a novel role for Tbc1d15-17 and its potential substrate Rab7 in regulating synaptic development. PMID:23812537

Lee, Min-Jung; Jang, Sooyeon; Nahm, Minyeop; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Lee, Seungbok

2013-08-01

122

Identification of fundamental deformation and failure mechanisms in armor ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indentation of a surface with a hard sphere can be used to examine micromechanical response of a wide range of materials and has been shown to generate loading conditions resembling early stages of ballistic impact events. Cracking morphologies also show similarities, particularly with formation of cone cracks at the contact site. The approach in this thesis is to use this indentation technique to characterize contact damage and deformation processes in armor ceramics, as well as identify the role of cone cracking and inelastic behavior. To accomplish these objectives, an instrumented indentation system was designed and fabricated, extending depth-sensing capabilities originally developed for nano-indentation to higher forces. This system is also equipped with an acoustic emission system to detect onset of cone cracking and subsequent failure. Once calibrated and verified the system was used to evaluate elastic modulus and cone crack initiation forces of two commercial float glasses. As-received air and tin surfaces of soda-lime-silica and borosilicate float glass were tested to determine differences in elastic and fracture behavior. Information obtained from load--displacement curves and visual inspection of indentation sites were used to determine elastic modulus, and conditions for onset of cone cracking as a function of surface roughness. No difference in reduced modulus or cone cracking loads on as-received air and tin surfaces were observed. Abraded surfaces showed the tin surface to be slightly more resistant to cone cracking. A study focusing on the transition from elastic to inelastic deformation in two transparent fine-grained polycrystalline spinels with different grain sizes was then conducted. Congruent experiments included observations on evolution of damage, examinations of sub-surface damage and inspection of remnant surface profiles. Indentation stress--strain behavior obtained from load--displacement curves revealed a small difference in yielding and strain-hardening behavior given the significant grain size difference. Directly below the indentation sites, regions of grain boundary cracking, associated with the inelastic zone, were identified in both spinels. Comparison of Meyer hardness and in-situ hardness showed a discrepancy at low loads, a result of elastic recovery. Elastic-plastic indentation behavior of the two spinels was then compared to behavior of a transparent large-grained aluminum oxinitirde (AlON) and a small-grained sintered aluminum nitride (AlN). Subsurface indentation damage revealed transitions from intergranular to transgranular fracture in the two spinels, AlON showed a transition from multiple cleavage microcracks to transgranular fracture while AlN exhibited only intergranular fracture. Analysis of indentation stress-strain results showed a slight difference in yielding behaviors of the two spinels and AlON whereas AlN showed a much lower yield value comparatively. Slight differences in strain-hardening behavior were observed. When comparing indentation stress--strain energy density and work of indentation a linear correlation was observed and a clear distinction could be made between materials. Therefore, it is suggested by the work in this thesis that instrumented spherical indentation could serve as a useful method of evaluating armor materials, particularly when behavior is described using indentation stress and strain, as this is a useful way to evaluate onset and development of inelastic deformation under high contact pressures and self-confining stresses. Additionally, it proposes that comparison of the work of indentation and indentation strain energy density approaches provide a good foundation for evaluating and comparing a materials penetration resistance.

Muller, Andrea Marie

123

Potential Mechanisms of Failure in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Current evidence suggests that multiple neural mechanisms contribute to the fatal lethal event in SIDS. The processes may develop from a range of otherwise seemingly-innocuous circumstances, such as unintended external airway obstruction or accidental extreme flexion of the head of an already-compromised structure of the infant upper airway. The fatal event may occur in a sleep state which can suppress muscle tone essential to restore airway patency or exert muscle action to overcome a profound loss of blood pressure. Neural processes that could overcome those transient events with reflexive compensation appear to be impaired in SIDS infants. The evidence ranges from subtle physiological signs that appear very early in life, to autopsy findings of altered neurotransmitter, including serotonergic, systems that have extensive roles in breathing, cardiovascular regulation, and thermal control. Determination of the fundamental basis of SIDS is critical to provide biologic plausibility to SIDS risk reduction messages and to develop specific prevention strategies. PMID:22792083

Harper, Ronald M.; Kinney, Hannah C.

2011-01-01

124

Failure mechanisms of concrete slab-soil double-layer structure subjected to underground explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure mechanism of a concrete slab-soil double-layer structure subjected to an underground explosion was investigated by experimental and numerical methods in this paper. Two underground explosion depths of 150 and 350 mm were tested. The typical failure modes such as the conoid spall of concrete, the bulge of the concrete slab and the cavity in the soil were obtained experimentally. Numerical simulations of the experiments were performed using a hydrodynamic code to analyze the effects of both the stress wave and the expansion of the blast products. Based on the experimental and numerical results, the effects of explosive depth, blast wave front and expansion of the blast products on the failure modes and failure mechanisms were discussed. The underground explosion process at different explosion depths was also analyzed. The results show that attenuation of the stress wave in the soil is significant. The blast wave front and the expansion of the blast products play different roles at different explosion depths. At the explosion depth of 150 mm, the failure mode is mainly caused by a point load induced by the blast wave front, whereas at the depth of 350 mm a sphere-shaped load resulting from the expansion of the blast products is a key factor for failure.

Tan, Z.; Zhang, W.; Cho, C.; Han, X.

2014-09-01

125

Deformation and failure mechanism of secondary cell wall in Spruce late wood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deformation and failure of the secondary cell wall of Spruce wood was studied by in-situ SEM compression of micropillars machined by the focused ion beam technique. The cell wall exhibited yield strength values of approximately 160 MPa and large scale plasticity. High resolution SEM imaging post compression revealed bulging of the pillars followed by shear failure. With additional aid of cross-sectional analysis of the micropillars post compression, a model for deformation and failure mechanism of the cell wall has been proposed. The cell wall consists of oriented cellulose microfibrils with high aspect ratio embedded in a hemicellulose-lignin matrix. The deformation of the secondary wall occurs by asymmetric out of plane bulging because of buckling of the microfibrils. Failure of the cell wall following the deformation occurs by the formation of a shear or kink band.

Adusumalli, Ramesh-Babu; Raghavan, Rejin; Ghisleni, Rudy; Zimmermann, Tanja; Michler, Johann

2010-08-01

126

The microstructural mechanism of electromigration failure in narrow interconnects of Al alloys  

SciTech Connect

This thesis reports a study of the mechanism of electromigration failure in Al-2Cu-1Si thin-film conducting lines on Si. Samples were patterned from 0.5 {mu}m thick vapor-deposited films with various mean grain sizes (G), and had lines widths (W) of 1.3, 2, 4 and 6 {mu}m. The lines were aged at various conditions to change the Cu-precipitate distribution and were tested to failure at T = 225{degrees}C and j = 2.5 {times} 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. Some samples were tested over a range of substrate temperatures, current densities and current reversal times. Aging produces an initially dense distribution of metastable {Theta}{prime} (Al{sub 2}Cu; coherent) in the grain interiors, with stable {Theta} (Al{sub 2}Cu; incoherent) at the grain boundaries. The intragranular {theta}{prime} is gradually absorbed into the grain boundary precipitates. In the wide lines the mean time to failure increases slowly and monotonically with pre-aging time and current reversal time. The failure mode is the formation and coalescence of voids that form on grain boundaries with an apparent activation energy of 0.65 eV. In the narrow lines, the lines failed by a transgranular-slit mechanism with an activation energy near 0.93 eV. The distribution of the polygranular segments and the kinetics of failure varies with the linewidths. Failure occurs after Cu has been swept from the grains that fail. Pre-aging the line to create a more stable distribution of Cu significantly increases the time to failure. When the density of intragranular {Theta}-phase precipitates is maximized, the transgranular-slit failure mechanism is suppressed, and the bamboo grain fails by diffuse thinning to rupture. The results from the current reversal test indicate that the time to sweep Cu in the polygranular segments is longer for longer polygranular segments. Thus the time to first failure in an array of lines is much longer than predicted by a log-normal fit to the distribution of failure times.

Kim, Choongun

1993-04-01

127

Competing failure mechanisms in thin films: Application to layer transfer L. Ponson,a  

E-print Network

,3 Layer transfer is accomplished by implanting hydrogen or helium ions into a bulk crystal of the filmCompeting failure mechanisms in thin films: Application to layer transfer L. Ponson,a K. Diest, H other containing a weak plane produced by ion implantation are heated to let a thin layer of one

Bhattacharya, Kaushik

128

Some Aspects of the Failure Mechanisms in BaTiO3-Based Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this presentation is to gain insight into possible failure mechanisms in BaTiO3-based ceramic capacitors that may be associated with the reliability degradation that accompanies a reduction in dielectric thickness, as reported by Intel Co...

D. D. Liu, M. J. Sampson

2012-01-01

129

Mechanisms of bioprosthetic heart valve failure: Fatigue causes collagen denaturation and glycosaminoglycan loss  

E-print Network

IR spectroscopy (FTIR). The cyclic fatigue caused a progressive loss of helicity of the bioprostheticMechanisms of bioprosthetic heart valve failure: Fatigue causes collagen denaturation region. Furthermore, car- diac valve fatigue in these studies also led to loss of gly- cosaminoglycans

Zand, Robert

130

ME 354, MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY TIME-DEPENDENT FAILURE: FATIGUE  

E-print Network

ME 354, MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY TIME-DEPENDENT FAILURE: FATIGUE February 2004 / PEL PURPOSE The purposes of this exercise are to determine the effect of cyclic forces on the long-term behaviour of structures and to determine the fatigue lives (Nf) as functions of uniaxial tensile stress

Sniadecki, Nathan J.

131

[The effect of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in postoperative respiratory failure].  

PubMed

Postoperative respiratory failure is related with the highest mortality and morbidity among all perioperative complications. The most common underlying mechanism of postoperative respiratory failure is the development of atelectasis. Anaesthesia, medications which cause respiratory depression, high FiO2 use, postoperative pain and disruption of muscle forces due to surgery leads to decrease in functional residual capacity and results in atelectasis formation. Atelectasis causes severe hypoxemia due to ventilation, perfusion mismatch, shunt and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Intrathoracic positive pressure is an effective therapeutic option in both prevention and treatment of atelectasis. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation is related with a lower mortality and morbidity rate due to lack of any potential complication risks of endotracheal intubation. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation can be applied as prophylactic or curative. Both of these techniques are related with lower reintubation rates, nosocomial infections, duration of hospitalization and mortality in patients with postoperative respiratory failure. The differences of this therapy from standard application and potential complications should be well known in order to improve prognosis in these group of patients. The primary aim of this review is to underline the pathogenesis of postoperative respiratory failure. The secondary aim is to clarify the optimum method, effect and complications of non-invasive mechanical ventilation therapy under the light of the studies which was performed in specific patient groups. PMID:22779943

Ozy?lmaz, Ezgi; Kaya, Ak?n

2012-01-01

132

Effect of Substrate Surface Finish on the Lubrication and Failure Mechanisms of Molybdenum Disulfide Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical microscope was used to study the lubrication and failure mechanisms of rubbed (burnished) MoS2 films applied to three substrate surface finishes - polished, sanded, and sandblasted - as a function of sliding distance. The lubrication mechanism was the plastic flow of thin films of MoS2 between flat plateaus on the rider and on the metallic substrate. If the substrates were rough, flat plateaus were created during 'run in' and the MoS2 flowed across them. Wear life was extended by increasing surface roughness since valleys in the roughened substrate served as reservoirs for MoS2 and a deposit site for wear debris. In moist air, the failure mechanism was the transformation of metallic colored MoS2 films to a black, powdery material that was found by X ray diffraction to consist primarily of alpha iron and MoO3 powders. In dry argon, the failure mechanism was the gradual depletion of the MoS2 film from the contact region by transverse flow. Analysis of the wear debris on the wear track at failure showed it consisted mainly of alpha iron and some residual MoS2. No molybdenum oxides were found.

Fusaro, R. L.

1980-01-01

133

Effect of substrate surface finish on the lubrication and failure mechanisms of molybdenum disulfide films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical microscope was used to study the lubrication and failure mechanisms of rubbed (burnished) MoS2 films applied to three substrate surface finishes - polished, sanded, and sandblasted - as a function of sliding distance. The lubrication mechanism was the plastic flow of thin films of MoS2 between flat plateaus on the rider and on the metallic substrate. If the substrate was rough, flat plateaus were created during 'run-in' and the MoS2 flowed across them. Wear life was extended by increasing surface roughness since valleys in the roughened substrate served as reservoirs for MoS2 and a deposit site for wear debris. In moist air, the failure mechanism was the transformation of metallic-colored MoS2 films to a black, powdery material that was found by X-ray diffraction to consist primarily of alpha-iron and MoO3 powders. In dry argon, the failure mechanism was the gradual depletion of the MoS2 film from the contact region by transverse flow. Analysis of the wear debris on the wear track at failure showed it consisted mainly of alpha-iron and some residual MoS2. No molybdenum oxides were found.

Fusaro, R. L.

1981-01-01

134

Lubrication and failure mechanisms of molybdenum disulfide films. 2: Effect of substrate roughness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical microscope was used to study the lubrication and failure mechanisms of rubbed MoS2 films applied to three substrate surface finishes; polished, sanded, and sandblasted as a function of sliding distance. The lubrication mechanism was the plastic flow of thin films of MoS2 between flat plateaus on the rider and on the metallic substrate. If the substrate was rough, flat plateaus were created during run-in and the MoS2 flowed across them. Wear life was extended by increasing surface roughness since valleys in the roughened substrate served as reservoirs for MoS2 and as deposit sites for wear debris. In moist air the failure mechanism was the transformation of metallic colored MoS2 films to a black, powdery material that was found by X-ray diffraction to be alpha iron, MoO3, and possibly FeMoO3. In dry argon the failure mechanism was the gradual depletion of MoS2 from the contact region by transverse flow, and the wear debris on the track at failure was alpha iron, residual MoS2, and possibly FeS.

Fusaro, R. L.

1978-01-01

135

Failure of Mineralized Collagen Microfibrils Using Finite Element Simulation Coupled to Mechanical Quasi-brittle Damage  

E-print Network

Failure of Mineralized Collagen Microfibrils Using Finite Element Simulation Coupled to Mechanical law isotropic elasticity to investigate the fracture behaviour of composite materiel collagen- mineral (mineralized collagen microfibril). Fracture stress-number of cross-links and damping capacity-number of cross

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

136

Some Aspects of the Failure Mechanisms in BaTiO3-Based Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this presentation is to gain insight into possible failure mechanisms in BaTiO3-based ceramic capacitors that may be associated with the reliability degradation that accompanies a reduction in dielectric thickness, as reported by Intel Corporation in 2010. The volumetric efficiency (microF/cm3) of a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) has been shown to not increase limitlessly due to the grain size effect on the dielectric constant of ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 material. The reliability of an MLCC has been discussed with respect to its structure. The MLCCs with higher numbers of dielectric layers will pose more challenges for the reliability of dielectric material, which is the case for most base-metal-electrode (BME) capacitors. A number of MLCCs manufactured using both precious-metal-electrode (PME) and BME technology, with 25 V rating and various chip sizes and capacitances, were tested at accelerated stress levels. Most of these MLCCs had a failure behavior with two mixed failure modes: the well-known rapid dielectric wearout, and so-called 'early failures." The two failure modes can be distinguished when the testing data were presented and normalized at use-level using a 2-parameter Weibull plot. The early failures had a slope parameter of Beta >1, indicating that the early failures are not infant mortalities. Early failures are triggered due to external electrical overstress and become dominant as dielectric layer thickness decreases, accompanied by a dramatic reduction in reliability. This indicates that early failures are the main cause of the reliability degradation in MLCCs as dielectric layer thickness decreases. All of the early failures are characterized by an avalanche-like breakdown leakage current. The failures have been attributed to the extrinsic minor construction defects introduced during fabrication of the capacitors. A reliability model including dielectric thickness and extrinsic defect feature size is proposed in this presentation. The model can be used to explain the Intel-reported reliability degradation in MLCCs with respect to the reduction of dielectric thickness. It can also be used to estimate the reliability of a MLCC based on its construction and microstructure parameters such as dielectric thickness, average grain size, and number of dielectric layers. Measures for preventing early failures are also discussed in this document.

Liu, David Donhang; Sampson, Michael J.

2012-01-01

137

Materials Science and Engineering A, 2011, 528(1-2): p. 7596 7605 High strain rate compressive response ofsyntactic foams: trends in mechanical properties and failure mechanisms  

E-print Network

compressive response ofsyntactic foams: trends in mechanical properties and failure mechanisms Nikhil Gupta and particles are also covered in the study. Polymer matrix syntactic foams demonstrate strain rate sensitivity also show similar trends. Compared to the quasi- static compressive failure mechanism of shear cracking

Gupta, Nikhil

138

Dynamic tensile failure mechanics of the musculoskeletal neck using a cadaver model.  

PubMed

Although the catapult phase of pilot ejections has been well characterized in terms of human response to compressive forces, the effect of the forces on the human body during the ensuing ejection phases (including windblast and parachute opening shock) has not been thoroughly investigated. Both windblast and parachute opening shock have been shown to induce dynamic tensile forces in the human cervical spine. However, the human tolerance to such loading is not well known. Therefore, the main objective of this research project was to measure human tensile neck failure mechanics to provide data for computational modeling, anthropometric test device development, and improved tensile injury criteria. Twelve human cadaver specimens, including four females and eight males with a mean age of 50.1+/-9 years, were subjected to dynamic tensile loading through the musculoskeletal neck until failure occurred. Failure load, failure strain, and tensile stiffness were measured and correlated with injury type and location. The mean failure load for the 12 specimens was 3100+/-645 N, mean failure strain was 16.7+/-5.4%, and mean tensile stiffness was 172+/-54.5 N/mm. The majority of injuries (8) occurred in the upper cervical spine (Oc-C3), and none took place in the midcervical region (C3-C5). The results of this study assist in filling the existing void in dynamic tensile injury data and will aid in developing improved neck injury prevention strategies. PMID:19388771

Yliniemi, Eno M; Pellettiere, Joseph A; Doczy, Erica J; Nuckley, David J; Perry, Chris E; Ching, Randal P

2009-05-01

139

IMPERMEABLE THIN AL2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, the overlay of AlâOâ coating was deposited on the TBC by EB-PVD techniques. Hot corrosion tests were carried out on the TBC with and without AlâOâ coating in molten salts mixtures (NaâSOâ + 5%VâOâ) at 950 C for 10h. The microstructures of TBC and overlay before and

Scott X. Mao

2002-01-01

140

The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 regulates skeletal muscle glucose metabolism.  

PubMed

The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has emerged as a novel candidate involved in metabolic regulation. Our aim was to determine whether TBC1D1 is involved in insulin as well as energy-sensing signals controlling skeletal muscle metabolism. TBC1D1-deficient congenic B6.SJL-Nob1.10 (Nob1.10(SJL)) and wild-type littermates were studied. Glucose and insulin tolerance, glucose utilization, hepatic glucose production, and tissue-specific insulin-mediated glucose uptake were determined. The effect of insulin, AICAR, or contraction on glucose transport was studied in isolated skeletal muscle. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were normal in TBC1D1-deficient Nob1.10(SJL) mice, yet the 4-h-fasted insulin concentration was increased. Insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose utilization during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was similar between genotypes, whereas the suppression of hepatic glucose production was increased in TBC1D1-deficient mice. In isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) but not soleus muscle, glucose transport in response to insulin, AICAR, or contraction was impaired by TBC1D1 deficiency. The reduction in glucose transport in EDL muscle from TBC1D1-deficient Nob1.10(SJL) mice may be explained partly by a 50% reduction in GLUT4 protein, since proximal signaling at the level of Akt, AMPK, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was unaltered. Paradoxically, in vivo insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake was increased in EDL and tibialis anterior muscle from TBC1D1-deficient mice. In conclusion, TBC1D1 plays a role in regulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Moreover, functional TBC1D1 is required for AICAR- or contraction-induced metabolic responses, implicating a role in energy-sensing signals. PMID:22693207

Szekeres, Ferenc; Chadt, Alexandra; Tom, Robby Z; Deshmukh, Atul S; Chibalin, Alexander V; Björnholm, Marie; Al-Hasani, Hadi; Zierath, Juleen R

2012-08-15

141

Investigation of static and cyclic bearing failure mechanisms for GR/EP laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static, cyclic load (fatigue), and residual strength testing of graphite-epoxy (GR/EP) and aluminum pin bearing joints was completed to study bearing failure mechanisms. Parameters investigated included static strength, failure mode, fatigue life, hole growth, joint stiffness, and residual strength. Comparative evaluation of these results show that the MIL-HDBK-5 convention for the definition of bearing strength can be used for GR/EP materials while maintaining the same, or improved, level of structural integrity shown for metal joints.

Walter, R. W.; Tuttle, M. M.

1992-01-01

142

Characterization of failure mechanism in composite materials through fractal analysis of acoustic emission signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper it is presented a detailed numerical investigation of acoustic emission signals obtained from test samples of fibreglass reinforced polymeric matrix composites, when subjected to tensile and flexural tests. Various fractal indices, characteristic of the signals emitted at the different structural failures of the test samples and which satisfy non-stationary distributions, have been determined. From the results obtained for these indices, related to the Hurst analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, minimal cover analysis and to the boxcounting dimension analysis, it has been shown they can discriminate the different failure mechanisms and, therefore, they constitute their signature.

Silva, F. E.; Gonçalves, L. L.; Fereira, D. B. B.; Rebello, J. M. A.

2005-10-01

143

Investigation of accelerated stress factors and failure/degradation mechanisms in terrestrial solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of an ongoing research program into the reliability of terrestrial solar cells are presented. Laboratory accelerated testing procedures are used to identify failure/degradation modes which are then related to basic physical, chemical, and metallurgical phenomena. In the most recent tests, ten different types of production cells, both with and without encapsulation, from eight different manufacturers were subjected to a variety of accelerated tests. Results indicated the presence of a number of hitherto undetected failure mechanisms, including Schottky barrier formation at back contacts and loss of adhesion of grid metallization. The mechanism of Schottky barrier formation is explained by hydrogen, formed by the dissociation of water molecules at the contact surface, diffusing to the metal semiconductor interface. This same mechanism accounts for the surprising increase in sensitivity to accelerated stress conditions that was observed in some cells when encapsulated.

Lathrop, J. W.

1983-01-01

144

Toward Optimum Scale and TBC Adhesion on Single Crystal Superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single crystal superalloys exhibit excellent cyclic oxidation resistance if their sulfur content is reduced from typical impurity levels of approximately 5 ppmw to below 0.5 ppmw. Excellent alumina scale adhesion was documented for PWA 1480 and PWA 1484 without yttrium additions. Hydrogen annealing produced effective desulfurization of PWA 1480 to less than 0.2 ppmw and was also used to achieve controlled intermediate levels. The direct relationship between cyclic oxidation behavior and sulfur content was shown. An adhesion criterion was proposed based on the total amount of sulfur available for interfacial segregation, e.g., less than or equal to 0.2 ppmw S will maximize adhesion for a 1 mm thick sample. PWA 1484, melt desulfurized to 0.3 ppmw S, also exhibited excellent cyclic oxidation resistance and encouraging TBC lives (10 mils of 8YSZ, plasma sprayed without a bond coat) in 1100 C cyclic oxidation tests.

Smialek, James L.

1998-01-01

145

Charpy impact properties and failure mechanism of 3D MWK composites at room and cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charpy impact experiments on the 3D MWK (Multi-axial warp knitted) composites with four different fiber architectures are performed at room (20 °C) and liquid nitrogen temperatures (as low as -196 °C). Macro-Fracture morphology and SEM micrographs are examined to understand the impact deformation and failure mechanism. The results show that the impact properties decrease significantly with the increase of the fiber ply angle at both room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. Meanwhile, the impact energy at liquid nitrogen temperature has been improved significantly than that at room temperature. Moreover, the fiber architecture has remarkable effect on the impact damage and failure patterns of composites at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. At liquid nitrogen temperature, the matrix solidification and the interfacial adhesion capacity increase greatly, which effectively hinders the stress wave propagation. However, more micro-cracks appear and the brittle failure feature becomes more obvious.

Li, Dian-sen; Jiang, Nan; Zhao, Chuang-qi; Jiang, Lei; Tan, Yi

2014-07-01

146

Failure of PVD/plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings during thermal cycling  

SciTech Connect

ZrO{sub 2}7Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} plasma sprayed coatings (PS top coating) were applied on high temperature Ni-based alloys precoated by Physical Vapor Deposition with a thin, dense, stabilized zirconia coating (PVD bond coat). The PS coatings were applied by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying (APS) and Inert gas Plasma Spraying (IPS at 2 bar) for different substrate temperatures. The thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were tested by furnace isothermal cycling and flame thermal cycling at maximum temperatures between 1,000 C and 1,150 C. The temperature gradients within the duplex PVD/PS thermal barrier coatings during the thermal cycling process were modeled using an unsteady heat transfer program. This modeling enables the authors to calculate the transient thermal strains and stresses which contribute to a better understanding of the failure mechanisms of the TBC during thermal cycling. They have also studied experimentally the adherence and failure modes of these coating systems during this high temperature testing. The TBC failure mechanism during thermal cycling is discussed in the light of coating transient stresses and substrate oxidation.

Teixeria, V.; Andritschky, M. [Univ. of Minho, Braga (Portugal); Gruhn, H.; Mallener, W.; Buchkremer, H.; Stoever, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

1995-12-31

147

Serendipitous discovery of a novel protein signaling mechanism in heart failure.  

PubMed

A number of protein signaling mechanisms are known to be involved in the progression of heart failure, yet the mechanism(s) by which the heart fails remains poorly understood. Therefore, we undertook a global approach to this question and used an antibody microarray to identify proteins differentially expressed in dysfunctional right ventricles in a bovine model of heart failure and the results were validated using cardiac tissue from both bovine and human heart failure. We found that protein disulfide isomerase 3, PDIA3, a protein that resides in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, is significantly upregulated in both animal and human models of right and left heart failure. Altered expression of this protein has not previously been described in models of heart failure. In our initial microarray analysis, we found that CSK (c-Src kinase) was among the proteins upregulated in failing bovine ventricle. To further elucidate the role of CSK in heart failure, we studied the expression of its downstream target, Src, and found that Src expression and phosphorylation were markedly upregulated in failing ventricles. However, we also noted a smaller immunologically reactive protein that was only seen in experimental animals. In order to positively identify the smaller, Src-reactive protein, we used 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrophotometry. Surprisingly, we identified this protein as PDIA3, a protein that did not belong to the Src family of proteins. Upon sequence examination we found that PDIA3 contains a short C-terminal sequence with strong homology to Src and that it was this short sequence to which the antibody was generated. PDIA3 participates in MHC class I presentation and is implicated in the progression of valvular dysfunction in rheumatic heart disease, as well as calcium modulation in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The molecule resides in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and participates in disulfide bond formation during protein folding by interacting with calnexin and calreticulin. This interaction may indirectly effect SERCA (sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-transport ATPase) activity and by extension contribute to the calcium dysregulation that characterizes progressive heart failure. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role that PDIA3 may play in the progression of heart failure. PMID:22503978

Vitello, Andrea M; Du, Yanmei; Buttrick, Peter M; Walker, Lori A

2012-05-11

148

Incidence and causes of non-invasive mechanical ventilation failure after initial success  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The rate of failure of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with acute respiratory insufficiency ranges from 5% to 40%. Most of the studies report an incidence of "late failure" (after >48 hours of NIMV) of about 10-20%. The recognition of this subset of patients is critical because prolonged application of NIMV may unduly delay the time of intubation.?METHODS—In this multicentre study the primary aims were to assess the rate of "late NIMV failure" and possible associated predictive factors; secondary aims of the study were evaluation of the best ventilatory strategy in this subset of patients and their outcomes in and out of hospital. The study was performed in two respiratory intensive care units (ICUs) on patients with COPD admitted with an episode of hypercapnic respiratory failure (mean (SD) pH 7.23(0.07), PaCO2 85.3 (15.8) mm Hg).?RESULTS—One hundred and thirty seven patients initially responded to NIMV in terms of objective (arterial blood gas tensions) and subjective improvement. After 8.4 (2.8) days of NIMV 31 patients (23%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 18 to 33) experienced a new episode of acute respiratory failure while still ventilated. The occurrence of "late NIMV failure" was significantly associated with functional limitations (ADL scale) before admission to the respiratory ICU, the presence of medical complications (particularly hyperglycaemia), and a lower pH on admission. Depending on their willingness or not to be intubated, the patients received invasive ventilation (n=19) or "more aggressive" (more hours/day) NIMV (n=12). Eleven (92%) of those in this latter subgroup died while in the respiratory ICU compared with 10 (53%) of the patients receiving invasive ventilation. The overall 90 day mortality was 21% and, after discharge from hospital, was similar in the "late NIMV failure" group and in patients who did not experience a second episode of acute respiratory failure.?CONCLUSIONS—The chance of COPD patients with acute respiratory failure having a second episode of acute respiratory failure after an initial (first 48 hours) successful response to NIMV is about 20%. This event is more likely to occur in patients with more severe functional and clinical disease who have more complications at the time of admission to the ICU. These patients have a very poor in-hospital prognosis, especially if NIMV is continued rather than prompt initiation of invasive ventilation.?? PMID:10992532

Moretti, M.; Cilione, C.; Tampieri, A.; Fracchia, C.; Marchioni, A.; Nava, S.

2000-01-01

149

Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical assessment is carried out of the microstructural changes in respect of the associated reductions in material mechanical properties and of the attendant ballistic-impact failure mechanisms in prototypical friction stir welding (FSW) joints found in armor structures made of high-performance aluminum alloys (including solution-strengthened and age-hardenable aluminum alloy grades). It is argued that due to the large width of FSW joints found in thick aluminum-armor weldments, the overall ballistic performance of the armor is controlled by the ballistic limits of its weld zones (e.g., heat-affected zone, the thermomechanically affected zone, the nugget, etc.). Thus, in order to assess the overall ballistic survivability of an armor weldment, one must predict/identify welding-induced changes in the material microstructure and properties, and the operative failure mechanisms in different regions of the weld. Toward this end, a procedure is proposed in the present study which combines the results of the FSW process modeling, basic physical-metallurgy principles concerning microstructure/property relations, and the fracture mechanics concepts related to the key blast/ballistic-impact failure modes. The utility of this procedure is demonstrated using the case of a solid-solution strengthened and cold-worked aluminum alloy armor FSW-weld test structure.

Grujicic, M.; Pandurangan, B.; Arakere, A.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.

2013-01-01

150

Examination of cadmium safety rod thermal test specimens and failure mechanism evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental cadmium safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. Companion reports describe the experiments and a structural evaluation (finite element analysis) of the safety rod. This report deals primarily with the examination of the test specimens, evaluation of possible failure mechanisms, and confirmatory separate effects experiments. It is concluded that the failures observed in the cadmium safety rod thermal tests which occurred at low temperature (T < 600{degrees}C) with slow thermal ramp rates (slow cladding strain rates) resulted from localized dissolution of the stainless steel cladding by the cadmium/aluminum solution and subsequent ductility exhaustion and rupture. The slow thermal ramp rate is believed to be the root cause for the failures; specifically, the slow ramp rate led to localized cladding shear deformation which ruptured the protective oxide film on the cladding inner surface and allowed dissolution to initiate. The test results and proposed failure mechanism support the conclusion that the rods would not fail below 500{degrees}C even at slow ramp rates. The safety rod thermal test specimen failures which occurred at high temperature (T > 800{degrees}C) with fast thermal ramp rates are concluded to be mechanical in nature without significant environmental degradation. Based on these tests, tasks were initiated to design and manufacture B{sub 4}C safety rods to replace the cadmium safety rods. The B{sub 4}C safety rods have been manufactured at this time and it is currently planned to charge them to the reactor in the near future. 60 refs.

Thomas, J.K.; Peacock, H.B.; Iyer, N.C.

1992-01-01

151

Fatigue of the Resin-Enamel Bonded Interface and the Mechanisms of Failure  

PubMed Central

The durability of adhesive bonds to enamel and dentin and the mechanisms of degradation caused by cyclic loading are important to the survival of composite restorations. In this study a novel method of evaluation was used to determine the strength of resin-enamel bonded interfaces under both static and cyclic loading, and to identify the mechanisms of failure. Specimens with twin interfaces of enamel bonded to commercial resin composite were loaded in monotonic and cyclic 4-point flexure to failure within a hydrated environment. Results for the resin-enamel interface were compared with those for the resin composite (control) and values reported for resin-dentin adhesive bonds. Under both modes of loading the strength of the resin-enamel interface was significantly (p?0.0001) lower than that of the resin composite and the resin-dentin bonded interface. Fatigue failure of the interface occurred predominately by fracture of enamel, adjacent to the interface, and not due to adhesive failures. In the absence of water aging or acid production of biofilms, the durability of adhesive bonds to enamel is lower than that achieved in dentin bonding. PMID:23571321

Yahyazadehfar, Mobin; Mutluay, Mustafa Murat; Majd, Hessam; Ryou, Heonjune; Arola, Dwayne

2013-01-01

152

TBC1D7 mutations are associated with intellectual disability, macrocrania, patellar dislocation, and celiac disease.  

PubMed

TBC1D7 forms a complex with TSC1 and TSC2 that inhibits mTORC1 signaling and limits cell growth. Mutations in TBC1D7 were reported in a family with intellectual disability (ID) and macrocrania. Using exome sequencing, we identified two sisters homozygote for the novel c.17_20delAGAG, p.R7TfsX21 TBC1D7 truncating mutation. In addition to the already described macrocephaly and mild ID, they share osteoarticular defects, patella dislocation, behavioral abnormalities, psychosis, learning difficulties, celiac disease, prognathism, myopia, and astigmatism. Consistent with a loss-of-function of TBC1D7, the patient's cell lines show an increase in the phosphorylation of 4EBP1, a direct downstream target of mTORC1 and a delay in the initiation of the autophagy process. This second family allows enlarging the phenotypic spectrum associated with TBC1D7 mutations and defining a TBC1D7 syndrome. Our work reinforces the involvement of TBC1D7 in the regulation of mTORC1 pathways and suggests an altered control of autophagy as possible cause of this disease. PMID:24515783

Alfaiz, Ali Abdullah; Micale, Lucia; Mandriani, Barbara; Augello, Bartolomeo; Pellico, Maria Teresa; Chrast, Jacqueline; Xenarios, Ioannis; Zelante, Leopoldo; Merla, Giuseppe; Reymond, Alexandre

2014-04-01

153

Stress and failure analysis of mechanically fastened joints in composite laminates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature published on single mechanically fastened joints in fiber-reinforced plastics is reviewed. A finite-element model is developed to predict the response of pin-loaded composite plates. The model takes into account contact at the pin–hole interface, progressive damage, large deformation theory, and a non-linear shear stress–strain relationship. To predict the progressive ply failure, the analysis combines Hashin and the maximum

Marie-Laure Dano; Guy Gendron; André Picard

2000-01-01

154

Investigation of failure mechanism and modification for film-lubricated precise angular-contact ball bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experimental investigation into the performance and lubrication failure mechanism of precise angular-contact ball bearings treated with MoS2-sputtered film, etc. As an important executive component of various spacecrafts, there are some strict requirements on the lubrication performance of angular-contact ball bearing, but the related experimental data are rare to see in literatures. In this experiment, the lubrication

Wang Chengbiao; Yu Xiang; Weng Lijun; Yu Deyang

2005-01-01

155

Failure mechanisms in wood joints bonded with urea-formaldehyde adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood joints bonded with urea-formaldehyde (UF) are weakened by cyclic swelling and shrinking. To study the failure mechanisms\\u000a in UF-bonded joints, specimens were bonded with unmodified, modified (amine), or phenol formaldehyde adhesive and subjected\\u000a to accelerated aging. Modification of the adhesive properties increased the cleavage fracture toughness and shear strength\\u000a of bonded joints and improved the resistance of joints to

B. H. River; R. O. Ebewele; G. E. Myers

1994-01-01

156

Bibliography of information on mechanics of structural failure (hydrogen embrittlement, protective coatings, composite materials, NDE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This bibliography is comprised of approximately 1,600 reference citations related to four problem areas in the mechanics of failure in aerospace structures. The bibliography represents a search of the literature published in the period 1962-1976, the effort being largely limited to documents published in the United States. Listings are subdivided into the four problem areas: Hydrogen Embrittlement; Protective Coatings; Composite Materials; and Nondestructive Evaluation. An author index is included.

Carpenter, J. L., Jr.

1976-01-01

157

Bearing Failure Prognostic Model Based on Damage Mechanics and Vibration Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bearing failure is one of the foremost causes of breakdown in rotating machinery. In this paper, a stiffness-based life-signal prognostic model of a bearing system based on vibration response analysis and damage mechanics is proposed. When a bearing system is simplified as a Single-DOF vibration system, the natural frequency of the system is proportional to the system stiffness, and the

Cheng Zhang; Steven Y. Liang; Jing Qiu

2001-01-01

158

Failure Mechanisms Associated with Die-to-Header Bonds of Planar Transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of failure mechanisms associated with die-to-header bonds in planar transistors was centered on five thermally induced physical processes that occur in these bonds. The five processes include solid-state diffusion of intermediate materials into the bonding layer and outgassing of materials on the header, both resulting in void formation; nickel-silicon intermetallic formation leading to cracking; thermal reordering of gold-silicon

J. D. Guttenplan; F. H. Stuckenberg

1965-01-01

159

A molecular-dynamics study of defects and failure mechanisms in strained heteroepitaxial interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and growth of pits and pit-like structures through a delamination-driven mechanism have been observed in the analysis of comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations of a laterally strained Si(111)/Si3N4(0001) interfacial system. These phenomena contribute to the ultimate mechanical failure of the simulated samples. Several factors play a key role the nucleation and growth of the pits including temperature and strain rate. Here we present an overview of the dependence of pit nucleation and morphology on both global and local conditions for a representative range of temperatures and applied strain rates.

Schiffbauer, Jarrod E.; Bachlechner, Martina E.

2006-03-01

160

Presence of intervertebral discs alters observed stiffness and failure mechanisms in the vertebra.  

PubMed

Ex vivo mechanical testing is an essential tool for study of vertebral mechanics. However, the common method of testing vertebral bodies in the absence of adjacent intervertebral discs (IVDs) may limit the physiological relevance of the results. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of IVDs on vertebral mechanical properties and failure mechanisms. Rabbit thoracic vertebral bodies were tested with and without IVDs in a stepwise fashion that incorporated a micro-computed tomography scan at each loading step. The image sequences were analyzed using digital volume correlation to quantify deformations throughout the vertebral body. The observed deformation patterns differed substantially between the groups. Specimens tested with IVDs exhibited a slow increase in strain in the inferior and posterior regions, followed by a sudden increase in strain in the anterior cortex right at the yield point. In contrast, the highest strains in the isolated vertebral bodies were in the posterior regions throughout the test. Specimens tested with IVDs had lower stiffness (507.49±184.73N/mm vs. 845.61±296.09N/mm; p=0.044), higher ultimate displacement (2.00±0.68mm vs. 1.17±0.54mm; p=0.043), and higher maximum shear strains (e.g. top 25th percentile: 0.19±0.11 vs. 0.06±0.07mm/mm; p<0.0458), and tended to have lower ultimate force (690.28±160.25N vs. 873.81±131.48N; p=0.056). Similar work to failure (648.15±317.86N-mm vs. 603.49±437.95 N-mm; p=0.844) was observed between the two groups. These results indicate that testing vertebral bodies in the absence of IVDs can elicit artifactual failure mechanisms. These artifacts may be more prominent than the effects on vertebral strength and toughness. PMID:23683319

Hussein, Amira I; Mason, Zachary D; Morgan, Elise F

2013-06-21

161

Study of thin biocovers (TBC) for oxidizing uncaptured methane emissions in bioreactor landfills.  

PubMed

Bioreactor landfills are designed to accelerate municipal solid waste biodegradation and stabilization; however, the uncaptured methane gas escapes to the atmosphere during their filling. This research investigates the implementation of a novel methane emission control technique that involves thin biocovers (TBC) placed as intermediate waste covers to oxidize methane without affecting the operation of bioreactor landfills. Batch incubation experiments were conducted for selecting the optimum TBC materials, capable of oxidizing methane to carbon dioxide by methanotrophic bacteria. Column experiments were performed to investigate the TBC performance under varying moisture content, compost-to-sawdust ratio, methane flow rate, and biocover thickness. Overall, the optimum TBC is comprised of a 30-cm thick bed of 0-10mass% sawdust mixed with compost, having a moisture content of 52% ww, which showed 100% CH4 oxidation efficiency over an extended period of time even at a relatively high methane inlet load of 9.4gm(-3)h(-1). PMID:17851063

Perdikea, Konstantina; Mehrotra, Anil K; Hettiaratchi, J Patrick A

2008-01-01

162

Failure mechanism of shear-wall dominant multi-story buildings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The recent trend in the building industry of Turkey as well as in many European countries is towards utilizing the tunnel form (shear-wall dominant) construction system for development of multi-story residential units. The tunnel form buildings diverge from other conventional reinforced concrete (RC) buildings due to the lack of beams and columns in their structural integrity. The vertical load-carrying members of these buildings are the structural-walls only, and the floor system is a flat plate. Besides the constructive advantages, tunnel form buildings provide superior seismic performance compared to conventional RC frame and dual systems as observed during the recent devastating earthquakes in Turkey (1999 Mw 7.4 Kocaeli, Mw 7.2 Duzce, and 2004 Mw 6.5 Bingol). With its proven earthquake performance, the tunnel form system is becoming the primary construction technique in many seismically active regions. In this study, a series of nonlinear analyses were conducted using finite element (FE) models to augment our understanding on their failure mechanism under lateral forces. In order to represent the nonlinear behavior adequately, The FE models were verified with the results of experimental studies performed on three dimensional (3D) scaled tunnel form building specimens. The results of this study indicate that the structural walls of tunnel form buildings may exhibit brittle flexural failure under lateral loading, if they are not properly reinforced. The global tension/compression couple triggers this failure mechanism by creating pure axial tension in the outermost shear-walls.

Yuksel, S.B.; Kalkan, E.

2008-01-01

163

Tension Strength, Failure Prediction and Damage Mechanisms in 2D Triaxial Braided Composites with Notch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unnotched and notched (open hole) tensile strength and failure mechanisms of two-dimensional (2D) triaxial braided composites were examined. The effect of notch size and notch position were investigated. Damage initiation and propagation in notched and unnotched coupons were also examined. Theory developed to predict the normal stress distribution near an open hole and failure for tape laminated composites was evaluated for its applicability to 2D triaxial braided textile composite materials. Four different fiber architectures were considered; braid angle, yarn and braider size, percentage of longitudinal yarns and braider angle varied. Tape laminates equivalent to textile composites were also constructed for comparison. Unnotched tape equivalents were stronger than braided textiles but exhibited greater notch sensitivity. Notched textiles and tape equivalents have roughly the same strength at large notch sizes. Two common damage mechanisms were found: braider yarn cracking and near notch longitudinal yarn splitting. Cracking was found to initiate in braider yarns in unnotched and notched coupons, and propagate in the direction of the braider yarns until failure. Damage initiation stress decreased with increasing braid angle. No significant differences in prediction of near notch strain between textile and tape equivalents could be detected for small braid angle, but the correlations were weak for textiles with large braid angle. Notch strength could not be predicted using existing anisotropic theory for braided textiles due to their insensitivity to notch.

Norman, Timothy L.; Anglin, Colin

1995-01-01

164

Cardiac function after acute support with direct mechanical ventricular actuation in chronic heart failure.  

PubMed

Direct mechanical ventricular actuation (DMVA) exerts direct cardiac compression/decompression and does not require blood contact. The safety and effects of DMVA support in chronically dysfunctional beating hearts in vivo have not been established. This study evaluated hemodynamics and load-independent systolic/diastolic cardiac function before/after acute support (2 hours) using DMVA in small hearts with induced chronic failure. Chronic heart failure was created in seven small dogs (15 ± 2 kg) via either serial coronary microembolizations or right-ventricular overdrive pacing. Dogs were instrumented to measure cardiac output, hemodynamic pressures, left ventricular volumes for pressure-volume analysis via preload reduction. Temporary cardiac support using a DMVA device was instituted for 2 hours. Hemodynamic and mechanical assessments, including dobutamine dose-responses, were compared both before and after support. Hemodynamic indices were preserved with support. Both left-ventricular systolic and diastolic function were improved postsupport, as the slopes of the preload-recruitable stroke work (+29 ± 7%, p < 0.05) and the end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship (EDPVR: -28 ± 9%, p < 0.05) improved post-DMVA support. Diastolic/systolic myocardial reserve, as assessed by responsiveness to dobutamine challenges, was preserved after DMVA support. Short-term DMVA support can safely and effectively sustain hemodynamics, whereas triggering favorable effects on cardiac function in the setting of chronic heart failure. In particular, DMVA support preserved load-independent diastolic function and reserve. PMID:25238499

McConnell, Patrick I; Anstadt, Mark P; Del Rio, Carlos L; Preston, Thomas J; Ueyama, Yukie; Youngblood, Brad L

2014-01-01

165

Failure Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure assessment encompasses the identification and characterization both of potential failure mechanisms in systems under development and of actual failure occurrences in operational systems. This paper presents several of the most widely used and useful techniques for failure assessment across the system lifecycle with an emphasis on the role of softwar e. For each technique the paper describes its purpose

Robyn Lutz

166

Lubrication and failure mechanisms of molybdenum disulfide films. 1: Effect of atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Friction, wear, and wear lives of rubbed molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 films applied to sanded 440C HT steel surfaces were evaluated in moist air, dry air, and dry argon. Optical microscope observations were made as a function of sliding distance to determine the effect of moisture and oxygen on the lubricating and failure mechanisms of MoS2 films. In general, the lubrication process consisted of the formation of a thin, metallic colored, coalesced film of MoS2 that flowed between the surfaces in relative motion. In air, failure was due to the transformation of the metallic colored, coalesced films to a black, powdery material. Water in the air appeared to accelerate the transformation rate. In argon, no transformation of MoS2 was observed with the microscope, but cracking and spalling of the coalesced film occurred and resulted in the gradual depletion of the film.

Fusaro, R. L.

1978-01-01

167

Bench-to-bedside review: Weaning failure – should we rest the respiratory muscles with controlled mechanical ventilation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) in patients who experience weaning failure after a spontaneous breathing trial or after extubation is a strategy based on the premise that respiratory muscle fatigue (requiring rest to recover) is the cause of weaning failure. Recent evidence, however, does not support the existence of low frequency fatigue (the type of fatigue that is

Theodoros Vassilakopoulos; Spyros Zakynthinos; Charis Roussos

2005-01-01

168

Frequency-dependent failure mechanisms of nanocrystalline gold interconnect lines under general alternating current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal fatigue failure of metallization interconnect lines subjected to alternating currents (AC) is becoming a severe threat to the long-term reliability of micro/nanodevices with increasing electrical current density/power. Here, thermal fatigue failure behaviors and damage mechanisms of nanocrystalline Au interconnect lines on the silicon glass substrate have been investigated by applying general alternating currents (the pure alternating current coupled with a direct current (DC) component) with different frequencies ranging from 0.05 Hz to 5 kHz. We observed both thermal fatigue damages caused by Joule heating-induced cyclic strain/stress and electromigration (EM) damages caused by the DC component. Besides, the damage formation showed a strong electrically-thermally-mechanically coupled effect and frequency dependence. At lower frequencies, thermal fatigue damages were dominant and the main damage forms were grain coarsening with grain boundary (GB) cracking/voiding and grain thinning. At higher frequencies, EM damages took over and the main damage forms were GB cracking/voiding of smaller grains and hillocks. Furthermore, the healing effect of the reversing current was considered to elucidate damage mechanisms of the nanocrystalline Au lines generated by the general AC. Lastly, a modified model was proposed to predict the lifetime of the nanocrystalline metal interconnect lines, i.e., that was a competing drift velocity-based approach based on the threshold time required for reverse diffusion/healing to occur.

Luo, X. M.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, G. P.

2014-09-01

169

Failure Predictions for VHTR Core Components using a Probabilistic Contiuum Damage Mechanics Model  

SciTech Connect

The proposed work addresses the key research need for the development of constitutive models and overall failure models for graphite and high temperature structural materials, with the long-term goal being to maximize the design life of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). To this end, the capability of a Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) model, which has been used successfully for modeling fracture of virgin graphite, will be extended as a predictive and design tool for the core components of the very high- temperature reactor (VHTR). Specifically, irradiation and environmental effects pertinent to the VHTR will be incorporated into the model to allow fracture of graphite and ceramic components under in-reactor conditions to be modeled explicitly using the finite element method. The model uses a combined stress-based and fracture mechanics-based failure criterion, so it can simulate both the initiation and propagation of cracks. Modern imaging techniques, such as x-ray computed tomography and digital image correlation, will be used during material testing to help define the baseline material damage parameters. Monte Carlo analysis will be performed to address inherent variations in material properties, the aim being to reduce the arbitrariness and uncertainties associated with the current statistical approach. The results can potentially contribute to the current development of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes for the design and construction of VHTR core components.

Fok, Alex

2013-10-30

170

User-defined Material Model for Thermo-mechanical Progressive Failure Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previously a user-defined material model for orthotropic bimodulus materials was developed for linear and nonlinear stress analysis of composite structures using either shell or solid finite elements within a nonlinear finite element analysis tool. Extensions of this user-defined material model to thermo-mechanical progressive failure analysis are described, and the required input data are documented. The extensions include providing for temperature-dependent material properties, archival of the elastic strains, and a thermal strain calculation for materials exhibiting a stress-free temperature.

Knight, Norman F., Jr.

2008-01-01

171

Development Testing and Subsequent Failure Investigation of a Spring Strut Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commodities are transferred between the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) crew module (CM) and service module (SM) via an external umbilical that is driven apart with spring-loaded struts after the structural connection is severed. The spring struts must operate correctly for the modules to separate safely. There was no vibration testing of strut development units scoped in the MPCV Program Plan; therefore, any design problems discovered as a result of vibration testing would not have been found until the component qualification. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) and Lockheed Martin (LM) performed random vibration testing on a single spring strut development unit to assess its ability to withstand qualification level random vibration environments. Failure of the strut while exposed to random vibration resulted in a follow-on failure investigation, design changes, and additional development tests. This paper focuses on the results of the failure investigations including identified lessons learned and best practices to aid in future design iterations of the spring strut and to help other mechanism developers avoid similar pitfalls.

Dervan, Jared; Robertson, Brandon; Staab, Lucas; Culberson, Michael

2014-01-01

172

Doxofylline and respiratory mechanics. Short-term effects in mechanically ventilated patients with airflow obstruction and respiratory failure.  

PubMed

To assess the short-term effects of a methylxanthine (doxofylline) on respiratory mechanics in mechanically ventilated patients with airway obstruction and respiratory failure, nine consecutive patients were examined within three days from the onset of mechanical ventilation. Flow, changes in pulmonary volume, and Paw were measured using a ventilator (Servo 900C). End-expiratory and end-inspiratory airway occlusion was performed to measure PEEPi, Cstrs, Rrsmax, and Rrsmin. Measurements were performed before and at 5, 15, and 30 minutes after an intravenous loading dose of doxofylline (5 to 6 mg/kg). We found that doxofylline determined, on the average, a marked decrease in respiratory resistance (Rrsmax and Rrsmin, -27.2 percent and -36.5 percent, respectively) without significant changes in Cstrs and Pmax. The PEEPi, reflecting pulmonary dynamic hyperinflation, was also significantly decreased by doxofylline (-41 percent, on the average). The Pmax was not reliable for evaluation of a single patient, since changes in the elastic pressure can offset changes in the resistive one. No patient experienced significant side effects due to doxofylline. We conclude that (1) the effects of therapy can be assessed noninvasively at bedside in critically ill patients; (2) doxofylline is a rapid and efficient bronchodilator in mechanically ventilated patients with ARF and airflow obstruction; and (3) the decrease in the respiratory resistance and PEEPi, associated with an improved mechanical efficiency of the respiratory muscles at a lower pulmonary volume, can provide better conditions for the patient-ventilator interaction and for weaning. PMID:2791671

Poggi, R; Brandolese, R; Bernasconi, M; Manzin, E; Rossi, A

1989-10-01

173

Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: correlates for success  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--Non-invasive mechanical ventilation is increasingly used in the treatment of acute respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to identify simple parameters to predict the success of this technique. METHODS--Fifty nine episodes of acute respiratory failure in 47 patients with COPD treated with non-invasive mechanical ventilation were analysed, considering each one

N Ambrosino; K Foglio; F Rubini; E Clini; S Nava; M Vitacca

1995-01-01

174

Materially and geometrically non-linear woven composite micro-mechanical model with failure for finite element simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational micro-mechanical material model of woven fabric composite material is developed to simulate failure. The material model is based on repeated unit cell approach. The fiber reorientation is accounted for in the effective stiffness calculation. Material non-linearity due to the shear stresses in the impregnated yarns and the matrix material is included in the model. Micro-mechanical failure criteria determine

Ala Tabiei; Ivelin Ivanov

2004-01-01

175

Reproduction of FRP Blade Failure for Wind Power Generators by Lightning and its Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, lightning damage to FRP blades for wind power generators is increasing, together with the increase in wind power generator installation in recent years. Lightning damage is a big issue in Japan since lightning in Japan seems to be severer than in Europe and the US. In Kochi, Shikoku, Japan, six 600-750kW grade generators have been installed, and some of them have been damaged by lightning several times. In order to solve this issue, the Kochi University of Technology received a research request of lightning protection, sponsored by the Kochi prefecture in 2002. After surveying the literature and questioning related organizations such as NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratories) and Toray USA, experiments to reproduce lightning damage to FRP specimens were planned. The specimens prepared for this research are 1/2 size models and a 2/4 part of the full size blade. In the previous experiment, flat plate specimens of 450mm width × 2.5m length × 4mm thickness were used, and the experiments produced the damage by lightning. However, the damages were not exactly the same as the ones in the actual field. Therefore, this experiment aims to reproduce the blade failure in the actual field and to clarify the failure mechanism, using the 1/2 size blade model and full size blade specimens. The experiments were conducted mainly in the Toshiba Hamakawasaki High Voltage High Power Testing Laboratory as was made in the previous experiments. This Testing Laboratory is one of the biggest test laboratory for experiments involving high electric voltage and large current. The results showed the reproduction of the failed blades in fields, and clarified the failure mechanism.

Sakamoto, Haruo; Hanai, Masahiro

176

To Err is Human Case Reports of Two Military Aircraft Accidents: Possible mechanisms of human failure.  

PubMed

It has been postulated that pilot error or in-flight incapacitation may be the main contributory factors to 70-80% of aircraft accidents. Two fatal aircraft accidents are presented in which either of the above possibilities may have played a role. The first case report describes an erroneous decision by a fighter pilot to use a seat position adjustment of the ejection seat leading to fatal injuries when he had to eject from his aircraft. Injuries to the body of the pilot, and observations on the state of his flying clothing and the ejection seat were used to postulate the mechanism of fatal injury and establish the cause of the accident. The second case report describes the sequence of events which culminated in the incapacitation of a fighter pilot while executing a routine manouevre. This resulted in a fatal air crash. Possible contributions of environmental factors which may have resulted in failure of his physiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:21509093

Dikshit, Mohan B

2010-04-01

177

Testing and Failure Mechanisms of Ice Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phase change materials (PCM) may be useful for thermal control systems that involve cyclical heat loads or cyclical thermal environments such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Thermal energy can be stored in the PCM during peak heat loads or in adverse thermal environments. The stored thermal energy can then be released later during minimum heat loads or in more favorable thermal environments. One advantage that PCM s have over evaporators in this scenario is that they do not use a consumable. The use of water as a PCM rather than the more traditional paraffin wax has the potential for significant mass reduction since the latent heat of formation of water is approximately 70% greater than that of wax. One of the potential drawbacks of using ice as a PCM is its potential to rupture its container as water expands upon freezing. In order to develop a space qualified ice PCM heat exchanger, failure mechanisms must first be understood. Therefore, a methodical experimental investigation has been undertaken to demonstrate and document specific failure mechanisms due to ice expansion in the PCM. A number of ice PCM heat exchangers were fabricated and tested. Additionally, methods for controlling void location in order to reduce the risk of damage due to ice expansion were investigated. This paper presents the results of testing that occurred from March through September of 2010 and builds on testing that occurred during the previous year.

Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Hawkins-Reynolds, Ebony

2010-01-01

178

Development, Testing, and Failure Mechanisms of a Replicative Ice Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phase change materials (PCM) may be useful for thermal control systems that involve cyclical heat loads or cyclical thermal environments such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Thermal energy can be stored in the PCM during peak heat loads or in adverse thermal environments. The stored thermal energy can then be released later during minimum heat loads or in more favorable thermal environments. One advantage that PCM's have over evaporators in this scenario is that they do not use a consumable. Wax PCM units have been baselined for the Orion thermal control system and also provide risk mitigation for the Altair Lander. However, the use of water as a PCM has the potential for significant mass reduction since the latent heat of formation of water is approximately 70% greater than that of wax. One of the potential drawbacks of using ice as a PCM is its potential to rupture its container as water expands upon freezing. In order to develop a space qualified ice PCM heat exchanger, failure mechanisms must first be understood. Therefore, a methodical experimental investigation has been undertaken to demonstrate and document specific failure mechanisms due to ice expansion in the PCM. An ice PCM heat exchanger that replicates the thermal energy storage capacity of an existing wax PCM unit was fabricated and tested. Additionally, methods for controlling void location in order to reduce the risk of damage due to ice expansion are investigated. This paper presents the results to date of this investigation. Nomenclature

Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Hansen, Scott; Stephan, Ryan A.

2010-01-01

179

Development, Testing, and Failure Mechanisms of a Replicative Ice Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phase change materials (PCM) may be useful for thermal control systems that involve cyclical heat loads or cyclical thermal environments such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Thermal energy can be stored in the PCM during peak heat loads or in adverse thermal environments. The stored thermal energy can then be released later during minimum heat loads or in more favorable thermal environments. One advantage that PCM s have over evaporators in this scenario is that they do not use a consumable. Wax PCM units have been baselined for the Orion thermal control system and also provide risk mitigation for the Altair Lander. However, the use of water as a PCM has the potential for significant mass reduction since the latent heat of formation of water is approximately 70% greater than that of wax. One of the potential drawbacks of using ice as a PCM is its potential to rupture its container as water expands upon freezing. In order to develop a space qualified ice PCM heat exchanger, failure mechanisms must first be understood. Therefore, a methodical experimental investigation has been undertaken to demonstrate and document specific failure mechanisms due to ice expansion in the PCM. An ice PCM heat exchanger that replicates the thermal energy storage capacity of an existing wax PCM unit was fabricated and tested. Additionally, methods for controlling void location in order to reduce the risk of damage due to ice expansion are investigated. This paper presents the results to date of this investigation.

Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Hansen, Scott; Stephan, Ryan A.

2009-01-01

180

IMPERMEABLE THIN AL2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, a dense and continues overlay of AlâOâ coating of about 25 μm thick was deposited on the surface of TBC by EB-PVD and high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray techniques. Hot corrosion tests were carried out on the TBC with and without AlâOâ coating in molten salts mixtures

Scott X. Mao

2002-01-01

181

Impermeable thin AI2O3 overlay for TBC protection from sulfate and vanadate attack in gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, a dense and continues overlay of AlâOâ coating of about 0.1-25 μm thick was deposited on the surface of TBC by EB-PVD, high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray and composite-sol-gel (CSG) techniques. Hot corrosion tests were carried out on the TBC with and without AlâOâ coating in molten

Scott X. Mao

2005-01-01

182

Impact performance characteristics and modeling failure mechanisms of pultruded glass-graphite/epoxy hybrid composite beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, investigation was performed to comprehend the influence of hybridization on the impact performance in terms of the energy absorption characteristics and delamination fracture toughness of pultruded uni-directional composite materials. In order to evaluate the improvements/changes in the impact performance as a result of hybridization, apart from considering mono-fiber reinforced all-graphite and all-glass composites, several types of sandwich hybrid composites comprising of both graphite as well as glass fibers were included in the investigation. By keeping a constant overall fiber content, the lay-up sequence and the volume fraction of each type of fiber are altered in these pultruded composites to determine the trend in the mechanical behavior as a result of hybridization. The response of pultruded all-graphite, all-glass and glass-graphite hybrid composites is evaluated under two different incident impact energy conditions. A high incident energy (HIE) and a low incident energy (LIE) of impact are chosen to cause either complete fracture or induce delamination, respectively, for assessing the energy absorption characteristics (crashworthiness) and delamination fracture toughness of these composites. Finite element modeling is performed under static as well as dynamic loading conditions to simulate the stress distribution and to predict the energy absorption behavior of composites. Progressive damage due to sequential ply failure was modeled by utilizing the failure strain data obtained from static and HTE impact tests for analyzing the post-initial ply failure characteristics of pultruded composites. Finite element modeling was also performed to simulate delamination crack propagation at various levels through the thickness. The strain energy release rate computed using the virtual crack closure technique was monitored to determine the likelihood of delamination crack propagation with increment in crack growth for the pultruded composites under consideration. Experimental results indicate that the strain to failure of glass fibers is comparatively higher than graphite fibers and a significant influence of this effect has been observed on the energy absorption characteristics. The ductility and failure index have shown marked improvement for the graphite outside hybrids. On the other hand, the incipient and initiation energies are higher for glass-outside hybrids. An increase in the fiber content of high stain to failure glass fibers has shown a corresponding increase in the total energy absorption capability. A significant reduction in the failure strain of glass fibers is observed under static loading conditions when compared with the results obtained from HIE impact tests. As a result, the energy absorption characteristics and associated parameters under static and low-velocity HIE impact loading conditions indicated different trends in the mechanical behavior. Results from LIE impact tests, ultrasonic C-scan tests indicated that the graphite-outside hybrids have shown a greater tendency to delaminate. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Kowsika, Murthy V. S. L. N.

183

Cortical and Spinal Mechanisms of Task Failure of Sustained Submaximal Fatiguing Contractions  

PubMed Central

In this and the subsequent companion paper, results are presented that collectively seek to delineate the contribution that supraspinal circuits have in determining the time to task failure (TTF) of sustained submaximal contractions. The purpose of this study was to compare adjustments in supraspinal and spinal excitability taken concurrently throughout the performance of two different fatigue tasks with identical mechanical demands but different TTF (i.e., force-matching and position-matching tasks). On separate visits, ten healthy volunteers performed the force-matching or position-matching task at 15% of maximum strength with the elbow flexors to task failure. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), paired-pulse TMS, paired cortico-cervicomedullary stimulation, and brachial plexus electrical stimulation were delivered in a 6-stimuli sequence at baseline and every 2–3 minutes throughout fatigue-task performance. Contrary to expectations, the force-matching task TTF was 42% shorter (17.5±7.9 min) than the position-matching task (26.9±15.11 min; p<0.01); however, both tasks caused the same amount of muscle fatigue (p?=?0.59). There were no task-specific differences for the total amount or rate of change in the neurophysiologic outcome variables over time (p>0.05). Therefore, failure occurred after a similar mean decline in motorneuron excitability developed (p<0.02, ES?=?0.35–0.52) coupled with a similar mean increase in measures of corticospinal excitability (p<0.03, ES?=?0.30–0.41). Additionally, the amount of intracortical inhibition decreased (p<0.03, ES?=?0.32) and the amount of intracortical facilitation (p>0.10) and an index of upstream excitation of the motor cortex remained constant (p>0.40). Together, these results suggest that as fatigue develops prior to task failure, the increase in corticospinal excitability observed in relationship to the decrease in spinal excitability results from a combination of decreasing intracortical inhibition with constant levels of intracortical facilitation and upstream excitability that together eventually fail to provide the input to the motor cortex necessary for descending drive to overcome the spinal cord resistance, thereby contributing to task failure. PMID:24667484

Williams, Petra S.; Hoffman, Richard L.; Clark, Brian C.

2014-01-01

184

Tensile strength and abutment relaxation as failure control mechanisms in underground excavations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical assessment of instability potential in underground excavations are normally based on yield and rupture criteria for stress driven failure and on limit equilibrium analysis of structurally controlled failure. While it is true that ultimate failure and falls of ground can be an eventual consequence of stress fracturing and unfavourable structure within the rock mass, the timing of such failure

M. S. Diederichs; P. K. Kaiser

1999-01-01

185

Microstructural studies on failure mechanisms in thermo-mechanical fatigue of repaired DS R80 and IN 738 Superalloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directionally solidified Rene 80 (DS R80) and polycrystalline Inconel 738(IN 738) Superalloys were tested in thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) over the temperature range of 500-900°C and plastic strain range from 0.1 to 0.8% using a DSI Gleeble thermal simulator. Thermo-mechanical testing was carried out on the parent material (baseline) in the conventional solution treated and aged condition (STA), as well as gas tungsten arc welded (GTAW) with an IN-738 filler, followed by solution treatment and ageing. Comparison of the baseline alloy microstructure with that of the welded and heat treated alloy showed that varying crack initiation mechanisms, notably oxidation by stress assisted grain boundary oxidation, grain boundary MC carbides fatigue crack initiation, fatigue crack initiation from sample surfaces, crack initiation from weld defects and creep deformation were operating, leading to different “weakest link” and failure initiation points. The observations from this study show that the repaired samples had extra crack initiation sites not present in the baseline, which accounted for their occasional poor fatigue life. These defects include lack of fusion between the weld and the base metal, fusion zone cracking, and heat affected zone microfissures.

Abrokwah, Emmanuel Otchere

186

Failure of fluid-saturated granular materials: a unified approach to capture diffuse and localized instability mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Granular materials are susceptible to a wide variety of failure and deformation mechanisms, especially because of their interaction with the pore fluids and the surrounding environment. An adequate modeling of their mechanical response is therefore essential for understanding a number of geological processes, such as the onset of rapid landslides, hillslope denudation and sediment transport, or even the mechanics of fault gauges. Depending on the type of material, the groundwater conditions and the surrounding kinematic constraints, both diffuse and localized mechanisms are possible, and these may occur under either drained or undrained conditions. In the geomechanics literature, failure modes are usually explained and modeled with the tools of continuum mechanics, such as the mathematical theory of plasticity. Due to the complexity of granular material behavior, however, most classical models for frictional strength are unable to capture the variety of instability mechanisms observed for such class of geomaterials (e.g., liquefaction, shear banding, etc.). Sophisticated strain-hardening plasticity models are therefore required for numerical modeling purposes, thus making the evaluation of critical failure conditions less straightforward than in perfect plasticity theories. Here we propose a mathematical strategy that can be adapted to any elastoplastic model and allows the onset of failure in elastoplastic geomaterials to be expressed in a more general manner. More specifically, our theory expresses the failure conditions as a function of local kinematics and solid-fluid interactions. The stability criterion used in this study is based on the so-called stability modulus, a scalar index of failure that was formulated by linking the physical concept controllability to the mathematical notion of plastic admissibility upon an incremental loading path [Buscarnera et al, 2011]. In this contribution, different loading constraints are considered, accounting for the possible occurrence of diffuse and localized failure mechanisms. While the mathematical strategy to calculate the failure indices is discussed in a general manner, a particular application is presented, focused on the simulation of the mechanical response of loose, saturated sands. Failure mechanisms are simulated under axisymmetric, plane-strain and simple shear conditions. For each of these cases, the indices are used to infer whether a failure mode is more likely to occur in a localized or homogeneous manner. At this reference, the role of drainage conditions is specifically explored. The results of numerical analyses are compared to data from classical experiments available in the literature. Finally, the theory is used to explain the mechanisms of failure that may have provoked a series of underwater flow failures in the shallow sand veneers located along the banks of the Jamuna River, in Bangladesh [Hight et al, 1998] The analyses conducted in this work elucidate the remarkable dependence of geomaterial stability on both kinematic conditions and pore-fluid constraints. In particular, the links between generalized failure mechanisms and the onset of landslides has been elucidated through numerical simulations. The results obtained by our analyses therefore provide a simple and consistent strategy to unify the mathematical description of the material instabilities that are involved in a variety of failure mechanisms of geological settings. Buscarnera G., Dattola G., Di Prisco C. (2011) " Controllability, uniqueness and existence of the incremental response: A mathematical criterion for elastoplastic constitutive laws", International Journal of Solids and Structures, 48 (13), pp. 1867-1878. Hight, D. W., Georgiannou, V. N., Martin, P. L., and Mundegar, A. K. (1998) "Flow slides in micaceous sand." Problematic soils, Yanagisawa, E., Moroto, N., and Mitachi, T., eds., Baklema, Rotterdam, Sendai, Japan, pp. 945-958.

Mihalache, Constance; Buscarnera, Giuseppe

2013-04-01

187

Effects of mechanical insufflation-exsufflation in preventing respiratory failure after extubation: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Weaning protocols that include noninvasive ventilation (NIV) decrease re-intubation rates and ICU length of stay. However, impaired airway clearance is associated with NIV failure. Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) has been proven to be very effective in patients receiving NIV. We aimed to assess the efficacy of MI-E as part of an extubation protocol. Method Patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) for more than 48 hours with specific inclusion criteria, who successfully tolerated a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT), were randomly allocated before extubation, either for (A) a conventional extubation protocol (control group), or (B) the MI-E extubation protocol (study group). During the postextubation period (48 hours), group A patients received standard medical treatment (SMT), including NIV in case of specific indications, whereas group B received the same postextubation approach plus three daily sessions of mechanical in-exsufflation (MI-E). Reintubation rates, ICU length of stay, and NIV failure rates were analyzed. Results Seventy-five patients (26 women) with a mean age of 61.8 ± 17.3 years were randomized to a control group (n = 40; mean SAPS II, 47.8 ± 17.7) and to a study group (n = 35; mean SAPS II, 45.0 ± 15.0). MV time before enrollment was 9.4 ± 4.8 and 10.5 ± 4.1 days for the control and the study group, respectively. In the 48 hours after extubation, 20 control patients (50%) and 14 study patients (40%) used NIV. Study group patients had a significant lower reintubation rate than did controls; six patients (17%) versus 19 patients (48%), P < 0.05; respectively, and a significantly lower time under MV; 17.8 ± 6.4 versus 11.7 ± 3.5 days; P < 0.05; respectively. Considering only the subgroup of patients that used NIV, the reintubation rates related to NIV failure were significantly lower in the study group when compared with controls; two patients (6%) versus 13 (33%); P < 0.05, respectively. Mean ICU length of stay after extubation was significantly lower in the study group when compared with controls (3.1 ± 2.5 versus 9.8 ± 6.7 days; P < 0.05). No differences were found in the total ICU length of stay. Conclusion Inclusion of MI-E may reduce reintubation rates with consequent reduction in postextubation ICU length of stay. This technique seems to be efficient in improving the efficacy of NIV in this patient population. PMID:22420538

2012-01-01

188

Impact of heart rate on mechanical dyssynchrony and left ventricular contractility in patients with heart failure and normal QRS duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The quantification of mechanical dyssynchrony has important diagnostic value and may help to determine optimal therapy in heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that mechanical dyssynchrony may be augmented at increased heart rates in patients with HF and normal QRS duration. Methods and results: From online segmental conductance catheter signals, we derived indices to quantify temporal and spatial aspects of

Tairo Kurita; Katsuya Onishi; Kaoru Dohi; Masaki Tanabe; Naoki Fujimoto; Takashi Tanigawa; Morimichi Setsuda; Naoki Isaka; Tsutomu Nobori; Masaaki Ito

2007-01-01

189

A mechanics framework for a progressive failure methodology for laminated composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laminate strength and life prediction methodology has been postulated for laminated composites which accounts for the progressive development of microstructural damage to structural failure. A damage dependent constitutive model predicts the stress redistribution in an average sense that accompanies damage development in laminates. Each mode of microstructural damage is represented by a second-order tensor valued internal state variable which is a strain like quantity. The mechanics framework together with the global-local strategy for predicting laminate strength and life is presented in the paper. The kinematic effects of damage are represented by effective engineering moduli in the global analysis and the results of the global analysis provide the boundary conditions for the local ply level stress analysis. Damage evolution laws are based on experimental results.

Harris, Charles E.; Allen, David H.; Lo, David C.

1989-01-01

190

Failure Mechanisms and Life Prediction of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings under Thermal Gradients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) will play an increasingly important role in gas turbine engines because of their ability to further raise engine temperatures. However, the issue of coating durability is of major concern under high-heat-flux conditions. In particular, the accelerated coating delamination crack growth under the engine high heat-flux conditions is not well understood. In this paper, a laser heat flux technique is used to investigate the coating delamination crack propagation under realistic temperature-stress gradients and thermal cyclic conditions. The coating delamination mechanisms are investigated under various thermal loading conditions, and are correlated with coating dynamic fatigue, sintering and interfacial adhesion test results. A coating life prediction framework may be realized by examining the crack initiation and propagation driving forces for coating failure under high-heat-flux test conditions.

Zju, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.

2008-01-01

191

Finite Element Modeling of the Different Failure Mechanisms of a Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new finite element model is used to investigate catastrophic failures of a thermal barrier coatings system due to crack propagation along the interfaces between the ceramic top-coat, thermally grown oxide, and bond-coat layers, as well as between the lamellas structure of the ceramic layer. The thermo-mechanical model is designed to take into account a non-homogenous temperature distribution and the effects of the residual stresses generated during the coating process. Crack propagation is simulated using the contact tool "Debond" present in the ABAQUS finite element code. Simulations are performed with a geometry corresponding to similar or dissimilar amplitudes of asperity, and for different thicknesses of the oxide layer. The numerical results have shown that crack evolution depends crucially on the ratio of the loading rate caused by growth and swelling of the oxide layer and also on the interface roughness obtained during the spraying of coatings.

Ranjbar-Far, M.; Absi, J.; Mariaux, G.

2012-12-01

192

[Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the treatment of acute heart failure].  

PubMed

When acute heart failure progresses and there is acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, routine therapeutic measures should be accompanied by other measures that help to correct oxygenation of the patient. The final and most drastic step is mechanical ventilation. Non-invasive ventilation has been developed in the last few years as a method that attempts to improve oxygenation without the need for intubation, thus, in theory, reducing morbidity and mortality in these patients. The present article describes the controversies surrounding the results of this technique and discusses its indications. The article also discusses how to start non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute pulmonary edema from a practical point of view. PMID:24930085

Megido, Joaquín Alfonso; Franco, Alvaro González

2014-03-01

193

Nontraumatic Fracture of the Femoral Condylar Prosthesis in a Total Knee Arthroplasty Leading to Mechanical Failure  

PubMed Central

This paper reports a case of fatigue fracture of the femoral component in a cruciate-retaining cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A 64-year-old man had undergone a primary TKA for osteoarthritis 10 years previously at another institution using the PFC-Sigma prosthesis. The patient recovered fully and was back to his regular activities. He presented with a history of sudden onset pain and locking of the left knee since the preceding three months. There was no history of trauma, and the patient was mobilizing with difficulty using crutches. Radiographs revealed fracture of the posterior condyle of the femoral prosthesis. Revision surgery was performed as an elective procedure revealing the broken prosthesis. The TC3RP-PFC revision prosthesis was used with a medial parapatellar approach. The patient recovered fully without any squeal. Mechanical failure of the knee arthroplasty prosthesis is rare, and nontraumatic fracture of the femoral metallic component has not been reported before. PMID:24587928

Swamy, Girish N.; Quah, Conal; Bagouri, Elmunzar; Badhe, Nitin P.

2014-01-01

194

Study the mechanical pulmonary changes in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) by impulse oscillometry  

PubMed Central

Background Heart failure is one of the most leading cause of death worldwide, but the mechanical characteristics of the pulmonary system in these patients have not been studied enough. The aim of this study was to measure mechanical pulmonary changes in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) by using impulse oscillometry (IOS), which can obtain data by simpler means and independently from respiratory muscle strength. Materials and methods We assessed 24 CHF patients and 24 controls by spirometry and IOS using the Jaeger IOS system. IOS measures central and peripheral airway resistances (R20, R5) and central and peripheral reactances (X20, X5) using sound waves with different frequencies, which superimposed on the patients respiratory tidal volume and then records reflects. P value < 0.05 was taken to be significant. Results The mean age of patients and controls was 61 ± 10 and 57 ± 7 years, respectively. The mean ejection fraction (EF) was 37 ± 17% for patients and 55 ± 7% for controls. Patients had a lower X5 (?0.20 ± 0.13 vs ?0.13 ± 0.07; P < 0.05), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; 2.26 ± 0.68 vs 3.09 ± 0.82: P < 0.01 L/min), and forced vital capacity (FVC; 2.55 ± 0.86 vs 3.32 ± 0.87; P < 0.05) compared to the controls. They also had elevated R5: 0.37 ± 0.21 vs 0.27 ± 0.09; P < 0.06). X5 was correlated with spirometric abnormalities (P < 0.05) and was lower in patients than in controls. Conclusion X5 was lower and R5 was higher in patients than in controls. CHF patients can be assessed by IOS more comfortable than by spirometry. IOS can reliably measure peripheral airway resistance in this group of patients. PMID:24027371

Nourizadeh, Mohammad; Ghelich, Yunose; Amin, Ahmad; Eidani, Esmaeel; Gholampoor, Yousef; Asadmoghadam, Mahsa; Asadinia, Najme

2013-01-01

195

Stress failure of pulmonary capillaries as a mechanism for exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage in the horse.  

PubMed

Exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) is a serious problem in the Thoroughbred industry. The condition apparently occurs essentially in all Thoroughbreds in training but the mechanism has proved elusive. There is now strong evidence that the condition is caused by mechanical failure of the walls of the pulmonary capillaries when the pressure inside them rises to very high levels. It is well known that pulmonary capillaries have extremely thin walls to allow rapid exchange of respiratory gases across them. Recently we have shown that the wall stresses are very large when the capillary transmural pressure is raised, and in anesthetised rabbits, ultrastructural damage to the walls is seen at pressures of 40 mmHg and above. The incidence of stress failure is greatly increased at high lung volumes; and many of the ultrastructural changes are rapidly reversible when the capillary pressure is reduced. The principal forces acting on the capillary have been analysed. The strength of the thin part of the capillary wall can be attributed to the Type IV collagen in the extracellular matrix. The pulmonary vascular pressures of galloping Thoroughbreds reach very high levels. Mean pulmonary artery and left atrial pressures of up to 120 and 70 mmHg respectively have been directly measured with indwelling catheters. The reason for the high pulmonary vascular pressures is that these animals have been selectively bred over hundreds of years to run at great speeds over short distances and their maximal oxygen consumptions are very high. As a consequence, cardiac outputs are substantial, and the left ventricle needs very high filling pressures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889916

West, J B; Mathieu-Costello, O

1994-11-01

196

The unsteady nature of sea cliff retreat due to mechanical abrasion, failure and comminution feedbacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea cliff retreat is often linked to large waves, heavy precipitation and seismic events, but the specific operative mechanics have not been well constrained. In particular, what is the role of mechanical abrasion by beach sediments in cliff/platform evolution and how does it relate to the episodic nature of cliff retreat observed at certain locations? Here we present a simple, numerical model of sea cliff retreat that incorporates mechanical abrasion of a basal notch, threshold-controlled failure of the cantilevered block, and a feedback mechanism wherein retreat is dependent on the rate of sediment comminution within the surf zone. Using shore platform and cliff characteristics found in two coastal settings (the central California coast and the English North Sea coast), the model produces retreat rates comparable to those observed via field measurements. The highest retreat rates coincide with the steepest shore platforms and increasing wave height. Steeper platforms promote wave access to the cliff toe and, correspondingly, the receding cliff face produces additional accommodation space for the platform beach, preserving the erosive efficacy of the beach sediments. When exposed to energetic wave forcing, the slope of the inner platform segment controls retreat rates for concave platforms, whereas the slope of the outer platform segment exerts greater control for convex platforms. Platform beaches approached a long-term dynamic equilibrium on the concave profiles, leading to more consistent and steady retreat. Platform beaches were ephemeral on convex profiles, mirroring observed sand wave (Ord) migration on the Holderness coast, UK. These findings agree with previous field observations and support mechanical abrasion as a viable cause of temporal heterogeneity in cliff retreat rate for both coastlines.

Kline, Shaun W.; Adams, Peter N.; Limber, Patrick W.

2014-08-01

197

The Mechanisms and Countermeasures of Failure in Low-Voltage Electronic Watt-Hour-Meters Caused by Lightning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental study was carried out for classified a mechanism of failure of low-voltage electronic Watt-Hour Meters. As the results, the mechanism of failure of electronic meters is clarified into two patterns. One is due to the magnetic field generated by lightning current passing through the inside of an electronic meter. The other is due to the blow out of electric wire caused by lightning current flowing into the power supply circuit for processing unit. For these failure mechanisms, following counter measures were clarified. One is that a magnetic shielding measure using a metallic plate covering the processing unit was effective for reducing the magnetic field. The other measure is that a relocation of the ZnO device in the electronic meter was effective for reducing the lightning current flowing into the power supply circuit.

Asakawa, Akira; Hurukawa, Seiji; Takahashi, Akihisa; Ishimoto, Kazuyuki

198

Structural integrity and failure mechanisms of a smart piezoelectric actuator under a cyclic bending mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on the onset and evolution of damage within materials is essential for guaranteeing the integrity of actuator systems. The authors have evaluated the structural integrity and the failure mechanisms of smart composite actuators with a PZT ceramic plate under electric cyclic loading. For this, two kinds of actuators, actuator 1 and actuator 2, were manufactured. Prior to the main testing, performance testing was performed on the actuators to determine their resonant frequencies. Electric cyclic tests were conducted up to twenty million cycles. An acoustic emission technique was used for monitoring the damage evolution in real time. We observed the extent of the damage after testing using scanning electron microscopy and reflected optical microscopy to support characteristics in the acoustic emission behavior that corresponded to specific types of damage mechanisms. It was shown that the initial damage mechanism of the smart composite actuator under electric cyclic loading originated from the transgranular micro-fatigue damage in the PZT ceramic layer. With increasing cycles, a local intergranular crack initiated and developed onto the surface of the PZT ceramic layer or propagated into the internal layer. Finally, short-circuiting led to the electric breakdown of the actuator. These results were different depending on the drive frequencies and the configuration of the actuators. Moreover, we differentiated between the aforementioned damage mechanisms via AE signal pattern analyses based on the primary frequency and the waveform. From our results, we conclude that the drive frequency and the existence of a protecting layer are dominant factors in the structural integrity of the smart composite actuator.

Woo, Sung-Choong; Goo, Nam Seo

2008-08-01

199

Mechanism-based Failure Laws for Biaxially Compressed IM7\\/8551-7 Graphite–Epoxy Laminates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure mechanisms and stress–strain behaviors have been investi- gated for [15]6s,[30]12s, and [45]12s graphite–epoxy (IM7\\/8551-7) laminates under in-plane biaxial compression using a cruciform biaxial test frame and microscopic examination of the load-interrupted samples. The loading confinement ratio R is varied from 0 to nearly 1.0 to measure the sensitivity of sample failure mechanisms and stress–strain behaviors to different stress states.

Xu Chen; Vijay Gupta; Jun Tian

2006-01-01

200

Analysis of failure properties and strength of structural adhesive joints with damage mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper deals with the strength and failure properties of adhesive joints weakened by initial imperfections such as flaws or debonding of the interface. The problem is analyzed by applying the principles of the newly developed damage mechanics with suitable modifications made to accommodate the inherent physical and mechanical properties of structural adhesives. The reduction in effective load-carrying area due to damage accumulation is represented by a symmetric damage tensor of second rank that is related to the decrease of elastic modulus via a hypothesis of energy equivalence. Damage evolution is assumed to be controlled by the dilatational part of total energy. The model is then implemented onto a finite element program by using updated Lagrangian formulation. A butt adhesive joint weakened by a central crack in the adhesive is subsequently analyzed to demonstrate the potential capability of the damage model. Detailed stress and damage distributions in the near and far fields are given as functions of adherend/adhesive modulus ratio. The issue of fracture initiation angle and fracture load is also studied by applying two novel damage fracture criteria.

Chow, C. L.; Lu, T. J.

1992-10-01

201

Numerical modeling of the failure mechanisms in silicon thin film anode for lithium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent times, the demand for the storage of electrical energy has grown rapidly for both static applications and the portable electronics enforcing the substantial improvement in battery systems, and Li-ion batteries have been proven to have maximum energy storage density in all rechargeable batteries. However, major breakthroughs are required to consummate the requirement of higher energy density with lower cost to penetrate new markets. Graphite anode having limited capacity has become a bottle neck in the process of developing next generation batteries and can be replaced by higher capacity metals such as Silicon. In the present study we are focusing on the mechanical behavior of the Si-thin film anode under various operating conditions. A numerical model is developed to simulate the intercalation induced stress and the failure mechanism of the complex anode structure. Effect of the various physical phenomena such as diffusion induced stress, plasticity and the crack propagation are investigated to predict better performance parameters for improved design.

Patel, Siddharth H.

202

Failure of Mineralized Collagen Microfibrils Using Finite Element Simulation Coupled to Mechanical Quasi-brittle Damage  

E-print Network

Bone is a multiscale heterogeneous materiel of which principal function is to support the body structure and to resist mechanical loading and fractures. Bone strength does not depend only on the quantity and quality of bone which is characterized by the geometry and the shape of bones but also on the mechanical proprieties of its compounds, which have a significant influence on its deformation and failure. This work aim to use a 3D nano-scale finite element model coupled to the concept of quasi-brittle damage with the behaviour law isotropic elasticity to investigate the fracture behaviour of composite materiel collagen-mineral (mineralized collagen microfibril). Fracture stress-number of cross-links and damping capacity-number of cross-links curves were obtained under tensile loading conditions at different densities of the mineral phase. The obtained results show that number of cross-links as well as the density of mineral has an important influence on the strength of microfibrils which in turn clarify the ...

Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Hambli, Ridha; 10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.526

2011-01-01

203

Three Potential Mechanisms for Failure of HIFU Ablation in Cardiac Tissue  

PubMed Central

Background High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has been introduced for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, because it offers the ability to create rapid tissue modification in confined volumes without directly contacting the myocardium. In spite of the benefits of HIFU, a number of limitations have been reported, which hindered its clinical adoption. Methods and Results In this study, we used a multimodal approach to evaluate thermal and non-thermal effects of HIFU in cardiac ablation. We designed a computer-controlled system capable of simultaneous fluorescence mapping and HIFU ablation. Using this system, linear lesions were created in isolated rabbit atria (n = 6) and point lesions were created in the ventricles of whole-heart (n = 6) preparations by applying HIFU at clinical doses (4–16W). Additionally, we evaluate the gap size in ablation lines necessary for conduction in atrial preparations (n = 4). The voltage sensitive dye di-4-ANEPPS was used to assess functional damage produced by HIFU. Optical coherence tomography and general histology were used to evaluate lesion extent. Conduction block was achieved in 1 (17%) of 6 atrial preparations with a single ablation line. Following 10 minutes of rest, 0 (0%) of 6 atrial preparations demonstrated sustained conduction block from a single ablation line. Tissue displacement of 1–3mm was observed during HIFU application due to acoustic radiation force along the lesion line. Additionally, excessive acoustic pressure and high temperature from HIFU generated cavitation causing macroscopic tissue damage. A minimum gap size of 1.5mm was found to conduct electrical activity. Conclusions This study identified three potential mechanisms responsible for the failure of HIFU ablation in cardiac tissues. Both acoustic radiation force and acoustic cavitation in conjunction with inconsistent thermal deposition can increase the risk of lesion discontinuity and result in gap sizes that promote ablation failure. PMID:22322367

Laughner, Jacob I.; Sulkin, Matthew S.; Wu, Ziqi; Deng, Cheri X.; Efimov, Igor R.

2012-01-01

204

Insulin stimulation regulates AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylation sites in human skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are typically insulin resistant, exhibiting impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Animal and cell culture experiments have shown that site-specific phosphorylation of the Rab-GTPase-activating proteins AS160 and TBC1D1 is critical for GLUT4 translocation facilitating glucose uptake, but their regulation in human skeletal muscle is not well understood. METHODS: Here, lean, obese and T2D subjects underwent a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before, and at 30 and 180?min post insulin infusion. RESULTS: Obese and T2D subjects had higher body mass indexes and fasting insulin concentrations, and T2D subjects showed insulin resistance. Consistent with the clamp findings, T2D subjects had impaired insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AS160 Thr642, a site previously shown to be important in glucose uptake in rodents. Interestingly, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of TBC1D1 Thr590, a site shown to be regulated by insulin in rodents, was only increased in T2D subjects, although the functional significance of this difference is unknown. CONCLUSION: These data show that insulin differentially regulates AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. Impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in T2D subjects is accompanied by dysregulation of AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, suggesting that these proteins may regulate glucose uptake in humans. PMID:23752133

Middelbeek, R J W; Chambers, M A; Tantiwong, P; Treebak, J T; An, D; Hirshman, M F; Musi, N; Goodyear, L J

2013-01-01

205

Impermeable Thin Al2O3 Overlay for TBC Protection from Sulfate and Vanadate Attack in Gas Turbines  

SciTech Connect

Current advanced turbine system (ATS) requires thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on turbine blades and vanes. The TBCs being specified, based on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), have the limited durability for advanced industrial gas turbine applications that have longer durability requirements (30,000 hours versus <10,000 hours), particularly when dirty fuels are burned. Surface deposits (including molten sulfate and vanadate salts) can penetrate into porous TBCs and result in hot corrosion, leading to premature spalling. In the present project, it is planed to deposit a dense overlay Al2O3 on the surface of the YSZ coating to prevent YSZ coating from hot corrosion of deposits derived from combustion of low-grade fuel and air impurities. The dense overlay Al2O3 acts as a barrier to protect TBC and bond coat. The overlay Al2O3 will be deposited on the surface of the thermal barrier coating using physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique and solgel method, respectively. The hot corrosion resistance of the composite Al2O3/YSZ coating will be evaluated. The hot corrosion behavior of the Al2O3/YSZ/NiCrAlY/superalloy system will be compared with the YSZ/NiCrAlY/superalloy system. The corrosion behavior of the sol-gel-modified Al2O3/YSZ system will also be compared with that of the PVD-treated system. The mechanism of hot corrosion will be investigated. The processing-structure-properties relationship of the overlays will be determined. The implementation of the TBC technology is to improve the durability of turbine components and allow the service of turbines in fuels with impurity, which will contribute to the missions and goals of the DOE ''Vision 21'' R&D program in advanced materials, energy efficiency, environment stewardship and energy production.

Mao, Scott X.

2001-11-06

206

Failure mechanism of the interturn insulation of low voltage electric machines fed by pulse-controlled inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial discharges (PDs) occur in the air-filled gaps of enameled wires that are touching. They erode the insulation and consequently lead to an interturn breakdown. This paper describes the failure mechanism of low voltage interturn insulation as a consequence of PDs and shows why and how it is influenced by the insulation design, temperature, and the applied voltage. Understanding the

M. Kaufhold; G. Borner; M. Eberhardt; J. Speck

1996-01-01

207

Life tests and failure mechanisms of GaN-AlGaN-InGaN light emitting diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our studies of device lifetime and the main degradation mechanisms in Nichia blue LEDs date back to Spring 1994. Following the initial studies of rapid failures under high current electrical pulses, where metal migration was identified as the cause of degradation, we have placed a number of Nichia NLPB-500 LEDs on a series of cw life tests. This work reviews

D. L. Barton; Marek Osinski; Piotr Perlin; Christopher J. Helms; Niel H. Berg

1998-01-01

208

Life tests and failure mechanisms of GaN\\/AlGaN\\/InGaN light emitting diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our studies of device lifetime and the main degradation mechanisms in Nichia blue LEDs date back to Spring 1994. Following the initial studies of rapid failures under high current electrical pulses, where metal migration was identified as the cause of degradation, we have placed a number of Nichia NLPB-500 LEDs on a series of life tests. The first test ran

Daniel L. Barton; M. Osinski; P. Perlin; C. J. Helms; N. H. Berg

1997-01-01

209

Crystal Structures of Human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 (AS160) RabGTPase-activating Protein (RabGAP) Domains Reveal Critical Elements for GLUT4 Translocation  

SciTech Connect

We have solved the x-ray crystal structures of the RabGAP domains of human TBC1D1 and human TBC1D4 (AS160), at 2.2 and 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Like the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP domain, whose structure was solved previously in complex with mouse Rab33B, the human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 domains both have 16 {alpha}-helices and no {beta}-sheet elements. We expected the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP/mouse Rab33B structure to predict the corresponding interfaces between cognate mammalian RabGAPs and Rabs, but found that residues were poorly conserved. We further tested the relevance of this model by Ala-scanning mutagenesis, but only one of five substitutions within the inferred binding site of the TBC1D1 RabGAP significantly perturbed catalytic efficiency. In addition, substitution of TBC1D1 residues with corresponding residues from Gyp1p did not enhance catalytic efficiency. We hypothesized that biologically relevant RabGAP/Rab partners utilize additional contacts not described in the yeast Gyp1p/mouse Rab33B structure, which we predicted using our two new human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 structures. Ala substitution of TBC1D1 Met{sup 930}, corresponding to a residue outside of the Gyp1p/Rab33B contact, substantially reduced catalytic activity. GLUT4 translocation assays confirmed the biological relevance of our findings. Substitutions with lowest RabGAP activity, including catalytically dead RK and Met{sup 930} and Leu{sup 1019} predicted to perturb Rab binding, confirmed that biological activity requires contacts between cognate RabGAPs and Rabs beyond those in the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP/mouse Rab33B structure.

S Park; W Jin; S Shoelson

2011-12-31

210

Embryo malposition as a potential mechanism for mercury-induced hatching failure in bird eggs.  

PubMed

We examined the prevalence of embryo malpositions and deformities in relation to total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs in San Francisco Bay (CA, USA) during 2005 to 2007. Overall, 11% of embryos were malpositioned in eggs > or =18 d of age (n = 282) and 2% of embryos were deformed in eggs > or =13 d of age (n = 470). Considering only those eggs that failed to hatch (n = 62), malpositions occurred in 24% of eggs > or =18 d of age and deformities occurred in 7% of eggs > or =13 d of age. The probability of an embryo being malpositioned increased with egg THg concentrations in Forster's terns, but not in avocets or stilts. The probability of embryo deformity was not related to egg THg concentrations in any species. Using a reduced dataset with both Se and THg concentrations measured in eggs (n = 87), we found no interaction between Se and THg on the probability of an embryo being malpositioned or deformed. Results of the present study indicate that embryo malpositions were prevalent in waterbird eggs that failed to hatch and the likelihood of an embryo being malpositioned increased with egg THg concentrations in Forster's terns. We hypothesize that malpositioning of avian embryos may be one reason for mercury-related hatching failure that occurs late in incubation, but further research is needed to elucidate this potential mechanism. PMID:20821633

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

2010-08-01

211

Embryo malposition as a potential mechanism for mercury-induced hatching failure in bird eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the prevalence of embryo malpositions and deformities in relation to total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs in San Francisco Bay (CA, USA) during 2005 to 2007. Overall, 11% of embryos were malpositioned in eggs ???18 d of age (n=282) and 2% of embryos were deformed in eggs ???13 d of age (n=470). Considering only those eggs that failed to hatch (n=62), malpositions occurred in 24% of eggs ???18 d of age and deformities occurred in 7% of eggs ???13 d of age. The probability of an embryo being malpositioned increased with egg THg concentrations in Forster's terns, but not in avocets or stilts. The probability of embryo deformity was not related to egg THg concentrations in any species. Using a reduced dataset with both Se and THg concentrations measured in eggs (n=87), we found no interaction between Se and THg on the probability of an embryo being malpositioned or deformed. Results of the present study indicate that embryo malpositions were prevalent in waterbird eggs that failed to hatch and the likelihood of an embryo being malpositioned increased with egg THg concentrations in Forster's terns. We hypothesize that malpositioning of avian embryos may be one reason for mercury-related hatching failure that occurs late in incubation, but further research is needed to elucidate this potential mechanism. ?? 2010 SETAC.

Herring, G.; Ackerman, J.T.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.

2010-01-01

212

Seismically-Induced Lateral Spreads Analyzed for Liquefaction and Cyclic Failure Mechanisms, Dixie Valley, NV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleo-lateral spreads, dated 2,000 to 2,500 years ago, have been identified by previous researchers in Dixie Valley, Nevada, a seismically active area of central Nevada which is bound to the west by the Stillwater Range and to the east by the Clan-Alpine Range. The study area is located between the Stillwater Range faults and the basin playa, and is composed of alluvial fan material washed down from the westward bounding Stillwater Range and of beach gravel, sands and fines from the eastward bounding pluvial Lake Dixie. Analysis of subsurface samples revealed that among the fines is black low-strength clays identified by XRD as primarily smectites. The clay quickly forms a beige oxidized rind and was identified by total organic carbon analyses to contain less than 1% organic material. While preliminary field work indicated the presence of sand boils and fissures consistent with seismically-induced lateral spreading due to liquefaction, the low-strength clay presents the possibility of seismically-induced lateral spreading due to cyclic failure. On-going lab analyses and modeling will identify the units most likely to fail during earthquake loading, and by which mechanism.

Watts, S. S.; Watters, R. J.; Caskey, S. J.

2007-12-01

213

Probing the Failure Mechanism of SnO2 Nanowires for Sodium-ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Non-lithium metals such as sodium have attracted wide attention as a potential charge carrying ion for rechargeable batteries, performing the same role as lithium in lithium- ion batteries. As sodium and lithium have the same +1 charge, it is assumed that what has been learnt about the operation of lithium ion batteries can be transferred directly to sodium batteries. Using in-situ TEM, in combination with DFT calculations, we probed the structural and chemical evolution of SnO2 nanowire anodes in Na-ion batteries and compared them quantitatively with results from Li-ion batteries [Science 330 (2010) 1515]. Upon Na insertion into SnO2, a displacement reaction occurs, leading to the formation of amorphous NaxSn nanoparticles covered by crystalline Na2O shell. With further Na insertion, the NaxSn core crystallized into Na15Sn4 (x=3.75). Upon extraction of Na (desodiation), the NaxSn core transforms to Sn nanoparticles. Associated with a volume shrinkage, nanopores appear and metallic Sn particles are confined in hollow shells of Na2O, mimicking a peapod structure. These pores greatly increase electrical impedance, therefore naturally accounting for the poor cyclability of SnO2. DFT calculations indicate that Na+ diffuses 30 times slower than Li+ in SnO2, in agreement with in-situ TEM measurement. Insertion of Na can chemo-mechanically soften the reaction product to greater extent than in lithiation. Therefore, in contrast to the lithiation of SnO2, no dislocation plasticity was seen ahead of the sodiation front. This direct comparison of the results from Na and Li highlights the critical role of ionic size and electronic structure of different ionic species on the charge/discharge rate and failure mechanisms in these batteries.

Gu, Meng; Kushima, Akihiro; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D.; Li, Ju; Wang, Chong M.

2013-09-30

214

Mechanism of augmented exercise hyperpnea in chronic heart failure and dead space loading  

PubMed Central

Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) suffer increased alveolar VD/VT (dead-space-to-tidal-volume ratio), yet they demonstrate augmented pulmonary ventilation such that arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) remains remarkably normal from rest to moderate exercise. This paradoxical effect suggests that the control law governing exercise hyperpnea is not merely determined by metabolic CO2 production (V?CO2) per se but is responsive to an apparent (real-feel) metabolic CO2 load (V?CO2o) that also incorporates the adverse effect of physiological VD/VT on pulmonary CO2 elimination. By contrast, healthy individuals subjected to dead space loading also experience augmented ventilation at rest and during exercise as with increased alveolar VD/VT in CHF, but the resultant response is hypercapnic instead of eucapnic, as with CO2 breathing. The ventilatory effects of dead space loading are therefore similar to those of increased alveolar VD/VT and CO2 breathing combined. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the increased series VD/VT in dead space loading adds to V?CO2o as with increased alveolar VD/VT in CHF, but this is through rebreathing of CO2 in dead space gas thus creating a virtual (illusory) airway CO2 load within each inspiration, as opposed to a true airway CO2 load during CO2 breathing that clogs the mechanism for CO2 elimination through pulmonary ventilation. Thus, the chemosensing mechanism at the respiratory controller may be responsive to putative drive signals mediated by within-breath PaCO2 oscillations independent of breath-to-breath fluctuations of the mean PaCO2 level. Skeletal muscle afferents feedback, while important for early-phase exercise cardioventilatory dynamics, appears inconsequential for late-phase exercise hyperpnea. PMID:23274121

Poon, Chi-Sang; Tin, Chung

2013-01-01

215

[Circulatory failures].  

PubMed

To treat circulatory failures and recognize their mechanisms, we need to understand circulatory physiology. What determines systemic venous return? How does the right ventricle feed the pulmonary circulation? Where is the left ventricular preload reserve located? Four types of circulatory failure are conventionally recognized: hypovolemic, obstructive, vasoplegic and cardiogenic. One or more of these mechanisms may account for circulatory failure in septic shock. Treatment of circulatory failure requires admission to a specialized unit and continuous or discontinuous hemodynamic monitoring. Prognosis is highly dependent on rapid treatment and correction of circulatory impairment. PMID:16764243

Charron, Cyril; Belliard, Guillaume; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine

2006-04-30

216

Conventional knockout of Tbc1d1 in mice impairs insulin- and AICAR-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

In the obesity-resistant SJL mouse strain, we previously identified a naturally occurring loss-of-function mutation in the gene for Tbc1d1. Characterization of recombinant inbred mice that carried the Tbc1d1(SJL) allele on a C57BL/6J background indicated that loss of TBC1D1 protects from obesity, presumably by increasing the use of fat as energy source. To provide direct functional evidence for an involvement of TBC1D1 in energy substrate metabolism, we generated and characterized conventional Tbc1d1 knockout mice. TBC1D1-deficient mice showed moderately reduced body weight, decreased respiratory quotient, and an elevated resting metabolic rate. Ex vivo analysis of intact isolated skeletal muscle revealed a severe impairment in insulin- and AICAR-stimulated glucose uptake in glycolytic extensor digitorum longus muscle and a substantially increased rate of fatty acid oxidation in oxidative soleus muscle. Our results provide direct evidence that TBC1D1 plays a major role in glucose and lipid utilization, and energy substrate preference in skeletal muscle. PMID:23892475

Dokas, Janine; Chadt, Alexandra; Nolden, Tobias; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Zierath, Juleen R; Joost, Hans-Georg; Al-Hasani, Hadi

2013-10-01

217

International Journal of Crashworthiness, 2012, 17(3): p. 327-336 Mechanical Properties and Failure Mechanisms of Closed-Cell PVC Foams  

E-print Network

and Failure Mechanisms of Closed-Cell PVC Foams Michele Colloca, Gleb Dorogokupets, Nikhil Gupta1 , Maurizio chloride (PVC) foams with varying densities is conducted under tension, compression, and impact loading. Experimental results on four classes of high performance PVC foams show that the elastic modulus, strength

Gupta, Nikhil

218

PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS AND DRUGS LEADING TO DECREASE IN RENAL FUNCTION IN CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Literature review shows that elevated serum creatinine (or diminished creatinine clearance) is frequent in patients with heart failure (40%) and prognostically bad as it indicates an independently manifold increased mortality. In addition, even renal function worsening during hospitalization (increase in serum creatinine by approximately 30 micromol\\/L or higher) is not a rare finding (every 4 patients with heart failure)

Goran P. Kora?evi?

2005-01-01

219

Immunofluorescent localization of the Rab-GAP protein TBC1D4 (AS160) in mouse kidney.  

PubMed

TBC1D4 (or AS160) was identified as a Rab-GTPase activating protein (Rab-GAP) that controls insulin-dependent trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT4 in skeletal muscle cells and in adipocytes. Recent in vitro cell culture studies suggest that TBC1D4 may also regulate the intracellular trafficking of kidney proteins such as the vasopressin-dependent water channel AQP2, the aldosterone-regulated epithelial sodium channel ENaC, and the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. To study the possible role of TBC1D4 in the kidney in vivo, we raised a rabbit polyclonal antibody against TBC1D4 to be used for immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies. In immunoblots on mouse kidney homogenates, the antibody recognizes specific bands at the expected size of 160 kDa and at lower molecular weights, which are absent in kidneys of TBC1D4 deficient mice. Using a variety of nephron-segment-specific marker proteins, immunohistochemistry reveals TBC1D4 in the cytoplasm of the parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule, the thin and thick limbs of Henle's loop, the distal convoluted tubule, the connecting tubule, and the collecting duct. In the latter, both principal as well as intercalated cells are TBC1D4-positive. Thus, with the exception of the proximal tubule, TBC1D4 is highly expressed along the nephron and the collecting duct, where it may interfere with the intracellular trafficking of many renal transport proteins including AQP2, ENaC and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Hence, TBC1D4 may play an important role for the control of renal ion and water handling and hence for the control of extracellular fluid homeostasis. PMID:22466139

Lier, Natascha; Gresko, Nikolay; Di Chiara, Marianna; Loffing-Cueni, Dominique; Loffing, Johannes

2012-07-01

220

TBC1D9B functions as a GTPase-activating protein for Rab11a in polarized MDCK cells.  

PubMed

Rab11a is a key modulator of vesicular trafficking processes, but there is limited information about the guanine nucleotide-exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) that regulate its GTP-GDP cycle. We observed that in the presence of Mg(2+) (2.5 mM), TBC1D9B interacted via its Tre2-Bub2-Cdc16 (TBC) domain with Rab11a, Rab11b, and Rab4a in a nucleotide-dependent manner. However, only Rab11a was a substrate for TBC1D9B-stimulated GTP hydrolysis. At limiting Mg(2+) concentrations (<0.5 mM), Rab8a was an additional substrate for this GAP. In polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, endogenous TBC1D9B colocalized with Rab11a-positive recycling endosomes but less so with EEA1-positive early endosomes, transferrin-positive recycling endosomes, or late endosomes. Overexpression of TBC1D9B, but not an inactive mutant, decreased the rate of basolateral-to-apical IgA transcytosis-a Rab11a-dependent pathway-and shRNA-mediated depletion of TBC1D9B increased the rate of this process. In contrast, TBC1D9B had no effect on two Rab11a-independent pathways-basolateral recycling of the transferrin receptor or degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Finally, expression of TBC1D9B decreased the amount of active Rab11a in the cell and concomitantly disrupted the interaction between Rab11a and its effector, Sec15A. We conclude that TBC1D9B is a Rab11a GAP that regulates basolateral-to-apical transcytosis in polarized MDCK cells. PMID:25232007

Gallo, Luciana I; Liao, Yong; Ruiz, Wily G; Clayton, Dennis R; Li, Min; Liu, Yong-Jian; Jiang, Yu; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Apodaca, Gerard; Yin, Xiao-Ming

2014-11-15

221

A Relationship Between Fragmentation Energy and Fragmentation Speed: Evidence for two Mechanisms of Magma Failure?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation of volcanic eruptions and magmatic processes is becoming increasingly systematic, quantitative and rigorous. The scientific study of volcanic phenomena cannot rely solely on field data, as direct observations of eruption processes is limited to those parts of an eruption that are accessible. Fragmentation is the process of disintegrating magma into pyroclasts. Various models have been proposed for fragmentation. In this study we solely focus on the fragmentation of vesicular magma due to rapid decompression. In most cases silicic, highly viscous magma will disrupt in a brittle manner, as the process occurs close to the glass transition. During fragmentation the potential energy stored as overpressure in bubbles and melt is used to fracture the magma, creating new surface. The surplus is transformed into kinetic energy of ejected particles. To enhance our quantitative underpinning of mechanisms of magma failure, we performed rapid decompression experiments with a shock tube-like apparatus. Samples from different volcanoes were investigated for this study. The open porosity ranges from 2.5 vol.% to 67 vol.%, resulting in a range of 2.5 - 30.0 MPa for the fragmentation threshold. These threshold values are in good agreement with the threshold curve of Spieler et al. (2004). Experiments were carried out in the pressure range between 2 MPa and 40 MPa resulting in values of fragmentation speed of up to 150 m/s. The energy, which drives the fragmentation process, is largely provided by the expansion of the pressurized gas located in the pore space of the samples. In general, we observed a logarithmic increase of the fragmentation speed with the energy density (fragmentation energy standardized to a unit volume) as soon as a certain ``energy threshold'' is overcome. However, some highly porous samples with high permeability values deviate from the trend towards higher energy values. The densest samples of this study deviate clearly to lower energy values. These observations lead us to the suggestion, that magma fragmentation is driven by two distinct physical mechanisms: (1) At moderate and high porosities gas expansion is the determining process, leading to a vesicle bursting, which is widely accepted as the common process. (2) Whereas at low porosity samples the fracture process due to the unloading wave appear to become increasingly important. We also infer a transition zone, in which both mechanisms occur jointly.

Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.

2005-12-01

222

Modelling river bank erosion processes and mass failure mechanisms using 2-D depth averaged numerical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bank erosion is a key process that may cause a large number of economic and environmental problems (e.g. land loss, damage to structures and aquatic habitat). Stream bank erosion (toe erosion and mass failure) represents an important form of channel morphology changes and a significant source of sediment. With the advances made in computational techniques, two-dimensional (2-D) numerical models have become valuable tools for investigating flow and sediment transport in open channels at large temporal and spatial scales. However, the implementation of mass failure process in 2D numerical models is still a challenging task. In this paper, a simple, innovative algorithm is implemented in the Telemac-Mascaret modeling platform to handle bank failure: failure occurs whether the actual slope of one given bed element is higher than the internal friction angle. The unstable bed elements are rotated around an appropriate axis, ensuring mass conservation. Mass failure of a bank due to slope instability is applied at the end of each sediment transport evolution iteration, once the bed evolution due to bed load (and/or suspended load) has been computed, but before the global sediment mass balance is verified. This bank failure algorithm is successfully tested using two laboratory experimental cases. Then, bank failure in a 1:40 scale physical model of the Rhine River composed of non-uniform material is simulated. The main features of the bank erosion and failure are correctly reproduced in the numerical simulations, namely the mass wasting at the bank toe, followed by failure at the bank head, and subsequent transport of the mobilised material in an aggradation front. Volumes of eroded material obtained are of the same order of magnitude as the volumes measured during the laboratory tests.

Die Moran, Andres; El kadi Abderrezzak, Kamal; Tassi, Pablo; Herouvet, Jean-Michel

2014-05-01

223

Probing the Failure Mechanism of SnO{sub 2} Nanowires for Sodium-Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Nonlithium metals such as sodium have attracted wide attention as a potential charge carrying ion for rechargeable batteries. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy in combination with density functional theory calculations, we probed the structural and chemical evolution of SnO{sub 2} nanowire anodes in Na-ion batteries and compared them quantitatively with results from Li-ion batteries (Huang, J. Y.; et al. Science 2010, 330, 1515-1520). Upon Na insertion into SnO{sub 2}, a displacement reaction occurs, leading to the formation of amorphous Na{sub x}Sn nanoparticles dispersed in Na{sub 2}O matrix. With further Na insertion, the Na{sub x}Sn crystallized into Na{sub 15}Sn{sub 4} (x = 3.75). Upon extraction of Na (desodiation), the Na{sub x}Sn transforms to Sn nanoparticles. Associated with the dealloying, pores are found to form, leading to a structure of Sn particles confined in a hollow matrix of Na{sub 2}O. These pores greatly increase electrical impedance, therefore accounting for the poor cyclability of SnO{sub 2}. DFT calculations indicate that Na{sup +} diffuses 30 times slower than Li{sup +} in SnO{sub 2}, in agreement with in situ TEM measurement. Insertion of Na can chemomechanically soften the reaction product to a greater extent than in lithiation. Therefore, in contrast to the lithiation of SnO{sub 2} significantly less dislocation plasticity was seen ahead of the sodiation front. This direct comparison of the results from Na and Li highlights the critical role of ionic size and electronic structure of different ionic species on the charge/discharge rate and failure mechanisms in these batteries.

Gu, Meng; Kushima, Akihiro; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D; Li, Ju; Wang, Chongmin

2013-09-30

224

Mechanical assessment of local bone quality to predict failure of locked plating in a proximal humerus fracture model.  

PubMed

The importance of osteoporosis in proximal humerus fractures is well recognized. However, the local distribution of bone quality in the humeral head may also have a significant effect because it remains unclear in what quality of bone screws of standard implants purchase. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the failure of proximal humerus locked plating can be predicted by the DensiProbe (ARI, Davos, Switzerland). A 2-part fracture with metaphyseal impaction was simulated in 12 fresh-frozen human cadaveric humeri. Using the DensiProbe, local bone quality was determined in the humeral head in the course of 6 proximal screws of a standard locking plate (Philos; Synthes GmbH, Solothurn, Switzerland). Cyclic mechanical testing with increasing axial loading until failure was performed. Bone mineral density (BMD) significantly correlated with cycles until failure. Head migration significantly increased between 1000 and 2000 loading cycles and significantly correlated with BMD after 3000 cycles. DensiProbe peak torque in all screw positions and their respective mean torque correlated significantly with the BMD values. In 3 positions, the peak torque significantly correlated with cycles to failure; here BMD significantly influenced mechanical stability. The validity of the DensiProbe was proven by the correlation between its peak torque measurements and BMD. The correlation between the peak torque and cycles to failure revealed the potential of the DensiProbe to predict the failure of locked plating in vitro. This method provides information about local bone quality, potentially making it suitable for intraoperative use by allowing the surgeon to take measures to improve stability. PMID:24025003

Röderer, Götz; Brianza, Stefano; Schiuma, Damiano; Schwyn, Ronald; Scola, Alexander; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Gebhard, Florian; Tami, Andrea

2013-09-01

225

Failure Mechanisms in Pipelines Bridging a Void J. G. Zornberg1  

E-print Network

. The mode of failure of flexible pipes involved buckling in the shoulder of the pipe and a reversal of the surrounding soil has a significant effect on the damage experienced by flexible pipes. Introduction This paper

Zornberg, Jorge G.

226

Mechanics of progressive failures leading to rapid shallow landslides using the fiber bundle model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow landslides are often sudden events caused by the rapid failure of a slip surface. Yet, such global failure is the culmination of a series of steps that begin with the initiation and growth of local cracks and failure planes that, with increased load eventually coalesce to form a continuous surface. The dynamics of such failure events is controlled, in part, by the rate of soil weakening during water infiltration and by distribution of tree roots that span across these failure zones. Conventional approaches rely on static limit-equilibrium analysis to compute the ratio of soil resistive strength to gravitational driving forces (factor of safety) to determine slope stability, often ignoring dynamics leading to failure as well as heterogeneities associated with land cover, subsurface material properties, hydrologic pathways, and presence of biological elements such as roots. Casting the problem in terms of stable or unstable slope does not describe the progressive formation of cracks in heterogeneous soils or the failure of roots that stretch across tension cracks or basal shear planes. Here we use the fiber bundle model (FBM) to describe soil and root failure focusing on landslide initiation. The FBM consists of a bundle of parallel, elastic-brittle fibers of identical length and stiffness stretched quasi-statically between two plates. Heterogeneity is introduced by fibers having finite threshold strength drawn randomly from a probability density function. Step-loading of the bundle causes weak fibers to break and load redistribution (either global or local) among surviving fibers can trigger secondary, tertiary, and so on, failures, a process known as an avalanche. We illustrate the potential utility of the FBM for two cases: (1) modeling of lateral root reinforcement where fibers represent roots of different sizes and strengths, and (2) modeling of progressive weakening of soils by water infiltration where fibers are analogs of bonds between soil aggregates whose strength distribution evolves with changes in water content. The main advantages of the fiber bundle model is its ability to account for progressive failure and heterogeneities of soils on slopes, to describe the complex rheological behavior of soils and soil elements such as roots using simple basic blocks (the fibers) whose properties can be directly related to the properties of the materials, and to represent physical processes of failure in soils and roots.

Cohen, Denis; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Or, Dani

2010-05-01

227

Analysis of the mechanisms of slope failures triggered by the 2007 Chuetsu Oki earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2007 Chuetsu Oki earthquake (MJMA = 6.6) triggered more than one hundred slope failures in the northwest part of Niigata prefecture, Japan. A reconnaissance\\u000a survey conducted by the authors revealed that although most of the failures were only a few meters deep, they still caused\\u000a significant damage to roads, railways, and houses. It was also found that a vast number of

Ivan B. Gratchev; Ikuo Towhata

228

Constitutive response and failure mechanisms of off-axis metal matrix composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although, considerable information is available an the deformation and failure characteristics of longitudinal and transverse MMC lamina a clear understanding of the controlling deformation processes and the nature of damage evolution is Inciting far off-axis MMC lamina. In this thesis damage evolution and failure characteristics were investigated for SiC\\/Ti unidirectional metal matrix composite (MMC) lamina subjected to a variety of

Ke Zhang

1999-01-01

229

Translation of the chloroplast psbC mRNA is controlled by interactions between its 5' leader and the nuclear loci TBC1 and TBC3 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed Central

Translation of the chloroplast psbC mRNA in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been shown previously to require interactions between its 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) and the functions encoded by two nuclear loci, which we name here TBC1 and TBC2. We show that a 97-nucleotide (nt) region located in the middle of the psbC 5' UTR is required for translation initiation. Unlike most procaryotic cis-acting translational control elements, this region has a translational activation function and is located 236 nt upstream from the GUG translation initiation codon. In vivo pulse-labeling of chloroplast-encoded proteins and analyses of the expression of chimeric reporter genes in vivo reveal that a mutation of a newly described locus, TBC3, restores translation from the psbC 5' UTR in the absence of either this cis-acting element or the wild-type trans-acting TBC1 function. These data demonstrate that sequences located in the middle of the psbC 5' UTR, TBC1, and TBC3 functionally interact to control the translation of the psbC mRNA. PMID:9154843

Zerges, W; Girard-Bascou, J; Rochaix, J D

1997-01-01

230

Regulatory mode shift of Tbc1d1 is required for acquisition of insulin-responsive GLUT4-trafficking activity.  

PubMed

Tbc1d1 is key to skeletal muscle GLUT4 regulation. By using GLUT4 nanometry combined with a cell-based reconstitution model, we uncover a shift in the regulatory mode of Tbc1d1 by showing that Tbc1d1 temporally acquires insulin responsiveness, which triggers GLUT4 trafficking only after an exercise-mimetic stimulus such as aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) pretreatment. The functional acquisition of insulin responsiveness requires Ser-237 phosphorylation and an intact phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) 1 domain. Mutations in PTB1, including R125W (a natural mutant), thus result in complete loss of insulin-responsiveness acquisition, whereas AICAR-responsive GLUT4-liberation activity remains intact. Thus our data provide novel insights into temporal acquisition/memorization of Tbc1d1 insulin responsiveness, relying on the PTB1 domain, possibly a key factor in the beneficial effects of exercise on muscle insulin potency. PMID:23325788

Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Kanzaki, Makoto

2013-03-01

231

Regulatory mode shift of Tbc1d1 is required for acquisition of insulin-responsive GLUT4-trafficking activity  

PubMed Central

Tbc1d1 is key to skeletal muscle GLUT4 regulation. By using GLUT4 nanometry combined with a cell-based reconstitution model, we uncover a shift in the regulatory mode of Tbc1d1 by showing that Tbc1d1 temporally acquires insulin responsiveness, which triggers GLUT4 trafficking only after an exercise-mimetic stimulus such as aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) pretreatment. The functional acquisition of insulin responsiveness requires Ser-237 phosphorylation and an intact phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) 1 domain. Mutations in PTB1, including R125W (a natural mutant), thus result in complete loss of insulin-responsiveness acquisition, whereas AICAR-responsive GLUT4-liberation activity remains intact. Thus our data provide novel insights into temporal acquisition/memorization of Tbc1d1 insulin responsiveness, relying on the PTB1 domain, possibly a key factor in the beneficial effects of exercise on muscle insulin potency. PMID:23325788

Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Kanzaki, Makoto

2013-01-01

232

The mechanism of early contractile failure of isolated rat ventricular myocytes subjected to complete metabolic inhibition.  

PubMed Central

1. Twitch shortening of isolated rat ventricular myocytes was measured on exposure to complete metabolic blockade (2 mM-cyanide in the presence of 10 mM-2-deoxyglucose). Under these conditions twitch shortening declines to undetectable levels over 1-15 min. This 'early' contractile failure is followed by the development of a maintained contracture. 2. Contractures induced by caffeine (20 mM) were similar in amplitude before and after 'early' contractile failure. This result suggests that 'early' contractile failure is not due to depletion of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. The action potential shortened as the twitch magnitude declined during 'early' contractile failure, raising the possibility of a causal link. Voltage-clamp experiments show that an enormous increase in K+ conductance (greater than 20-fold) occurs during the period of 'early' contractile failure, and presumably underlies the action potential shortening. 4. If the K+ conductance changes are inhibited by replacement of intracellular K+ with N-methyl glucosamine and inclusion of 2 mM-tolbutamide in intra- and extracellular solutions, good voltage control can be achieved. Under these conditions, 'early' contractile failure did not occur on exposure to complete metabolic blockade and neither Ca2+ current nor the twitch were completely abolished until a maintained contracture had begun to occur. 5. Injection of ATP following 'early' contractile failure could partially restore the twitch and prolong the foreshortened action potential. 6. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that 'early' contractile failure occurring under non-voltage-clamped conditions is due principally to failure of activation of the Ca2+ current because of the shortening of the action potential. Although a decline in the availability of Ca2+ current also occurs, action potential shortening results mainly from increased conductance through ATP-sensitive K+ channels which are activated by a fall of intracellular [ATP]. Contractile failure arises not because of a primary alteration, or defect, in the coupling of excitation to contraction, but because the cell membrane is effectively clamped at a potential close to the K+ equilibrium potential. PMID:2600854

Lederer, W J; Nichols, C G; Smith, G L

1989-01-01

233

The effect of grain boundaries on the mechanical properties and failure behavior of hexagonal boron nitride sheets.  

PubMed

In this work, the effect of grain boundaries (GBs) on the mechanical properties and failure behavior of two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) sheets are systematically and comprehensively investigated using density functional theory. Results show that the formation of homoelemental bonds on GBs is an important factor, which could affect the atomic structures and stability of the h-BN sheet. The relationship between the formation energy and the misorientation angles is downward opening parabolic. The intrinsic strength shows an obvious decreasing trend with increasing inflection angles, while it shows a periodic dependence on the increase in misorientation angles. Thus, the mechanical properties of h-BN are significantly influenced by GBs. The h-BN sheets with different types of GBs show varied failure behavior, which are caused by the distinct stress distribution on GBs. The information obtained in this study would be useful for the understanding of GBs on the h-BN surface. PMID:25271794

Ding, Ning; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence; Li, Hui

2014-11-21

234

The TBC/RabGAP Armus Coordinates Rac1 and Rab7 Functions during Autophagy  

PubMed Central

Summary Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that enables catabolic and degradative pathways. These pathways commonly depend on vesicular transport controlled by Rabs, small GTPases inactivated by TBC/RabGAPs. The Rac1 effector TBC/RabGAP Armus (TBC1D2A) is known to inhibit Rab7, a key regulator of lysosomal function. However, the precise coordination of signaling and intracellular trafficking that regulates autophagy is poorly understood. We find that overexpression of Armus induces the accumulation of enlarged autophagosomes, while Armus depletion significantly delays autophagic flux. Upon starvation-induced autophagy, Rab7 is transiently activated. This spatiotemporal regulation of Rab7 guanosine triphosphate/guanosine diphosphate cycling occurs by Armus recruitment to autophagosomes via interaction with LC3, a core autophagy regulator. Interestingly, autophagy potently inactivates Rac1. Active Rac1 competes with LC3 for interaction with Armus and thus prevents its appropriate recruitment to autophagosomes. The precise coordination between Rac1 and Rab7 activities during starvation suggests that Armus integrates autophagy with signaling and endocytic trafficking. PMID:23562278

Carroll, Bernadette; Mohd-Naim, Noor; Maximiano, Filipe; Frasa, Marieke A.; McCormack, Jessica; Finelli, Mattea; Thoresen, Sigrid B.; Perdios, Louis; Daigaku, Reiko; Francis, Richard E.; Futter, Clare; Dikic, Ivan; Braga, Vania M.M.

2013-01-01

235

Effect of Hf Additions to Pt Aluminide Bond Coats on EB-PVD TBC Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small Hf additions were incorporated into a Pt aluminide coating during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on single crystal RENE N5 substrates. Standard yttria-stabilized zirconia top coats were subsequently deposited onto the coated substrates by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The coated substrates underwent accelerated thermal cycle testing in a furnace at a temperature in excess of 1121 C (2050 F) (45 minute hot exposure, 15 minute cool to approximately 121 C (250 F)) until the thermal barrier coating (TBC) failed by spallation. Incorporating Hf in the bond coat increased the TBC life by slightly more than three times that of a baseline coating without added Hf. Scanning electron microscopy of the spalled surfaces indicated that the presence of the Hf increased the adherence of the thermally grown alumina to the Pt aluminide bond coat. The presence of oxide pegs growing into the coating from the thermally grown alumina may also partially account for the improved TBC life by creating a near-surface layer with a graded coefficient of thermal expansion.

Nesbitt, James; Nagaraj, Ben; Williams, Jeffrey

2000-01-01

236

Effects of service condition on rolling contact fatigue failure mechanism and lifetime of thermal spray coatings—A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The service condition determines the Rolling Contact Fatigue(RCF) failure mechanism and lifetime under ascertain material structure integrity parameter of thermal spray coating. The available literature on the RCF testing of thermal spray coatings under various condition services is considerable; it is generally difficult to synthesize all of the result to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the parameters which has a great effect on a thermal spray coating's resistance of RCF. The effects of service conditions(lubrication states, contact stresses, revolve speed, and slip ratio) on the changing of thermal spray coatings' contact fatigue lifetime is introduced systematically. The effects of different service condition on RCF failure mechanism of thermal spray coating from the change of material structure integrity are also summarized. Moreover, In order to enhance the RCF performance, the parameter optimal design formula of service condition and material structure integrity is proposed based on the effect of service condition on thermal spray coatings' contact fatigue lifetime and RCF failure mechanism. The shortage of available literature and the forecast focus in future researches are discussed based on available research. The explicit result of RCF lifetime law and parameter optimal design formula in term of lubrication states, contact stresses, revolve speed, and slip ratio, is significant to improve the RCF performance on the engineering application.

Cui, Huawei; Cui, Xiufang; Wang, Haidou; Xing, Zhiguo; Jin, Guo

2014-10-01

237

Effect of Superalloy Substrate and Bond Coating on TBC Lifetime  

SciTech Connect

Several different single-crystal superalloys were coated with different bond coatings to study the effect of composition on the cyclic oxidation lifetime of an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coating deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition from a commercial source. Three different superalloys were coated with a 7 {micro}m Pt layer that was diffused into the surface prior to YSZ deposition. One of the superalloys, N5, was coated with a low activity, Pt-modified aluminide coating and Pt-diffusion coatings with 3 and 7 {micro}m of Pt. Three coatings of each type were furnace cycled to failure in 1 h cycles at 1150 C to assess average coating lifetime. The 7 {micro}m Pt diffusion coating on N5 had an average YSZ coating lifetime >50% higher than a Pt-modified aluminide coating on N5. Without a YSZ coating, the Pt-modified aluminide coating on N5 showed the typical surface deformation during cycling, however, the deformation was greatly reduced when constrained by the YSZ coating. The 3 {micro}m Pt diffusion coating had a similar average lifetime as the Pt-modified aluminide coating but a much wider scatter. The Pt diffusion bond coating on superalloy X4 containing Ti exhibited the shortest YSZ coating lifetime, this alloy-coating combination also showed the worst alumina scale adhesion without a YSZ coating. The third generation superalloy N6 exhibited the longest coating lifetime with a 7 {micro}m Pt diffusion coating.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL; Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University

2010-01-01

238

Three-Dimensional Numerical Investigations of the Failure Mechanism of a Rock Disc with a Central or Eccentric Hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diametrical compression of a circular disc (Brazilian test) or cylinder with a small eccentric hole is a simple but important test to determine the tensile strength of rocks. This paper studies the failure mechanism of circular disc with an eccentric hole by a 3D numerical model (RFPA3D). A feature of the code RFPA3D is that it can numerically simulate the evolution of cracks in three-dimensional space, as well as the heterogeneity of the rock mass. First, numerically simulated Brazilian tests are compared with experimental results. Special attention is given to the effect of the thickness to radius ratio on the failure modes and the peak stress of specimens. The effects of the compressive strength to tensile strength ratio ( C/T), the loading arc angle (2 ?), and the homogeneity index ( m) are also studied in the numerical simulations. Secondly, the failure process of a rock disc with a central hole is studied. The effects of the ratio of the internal hole radius ( r) to the radius of the rock disc ( R) on the failure mode and the peak stress are investigated. Thirdly, the influence of the vertical and horizontal eccentricity of an internal hole on the initiation and propagation of cracks inside a specimen are simulated. The effect of the radius of the eccentric hole and the homogeneity index ( m) are also investigated.

Wang, S. Y.; Sloan, S. W.; Tang, C. A.

2014-11-01

239

Failure mechanisms in wood joints bonded with urea-formaldehyde adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood joints bonded with urea-formaldehyde (UF) are weakened by cyclic swelling and shrinking. To study the failure mecha- nisms in UF-bonded joints, specimens were bonded with unmod- ified, modified (amine), or phenol formaldehyde adhesive and subjected to accelerated aging. Modification of the adhesive properties increased the cleavage fracture toughness and shear strength of bonded joints and improved the resistance of

B. H. River; R. O. Ebewele; G. E. Myers

1994-01-01

240

Mechanical and numerical modeling of a porous elastic–viscoplastic material with tensile failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to develop simple but comprehensive constitutive equations that model a number of physical phenomena exhibited by dry porous geological materials and metals. For geological materials the equations model: porous compaction; porous dilation due to distortional deformation and tensile failure; shear enhanced compaction; pressure hardening of the yield strength; damage of the yield strength due

M. B. Rubin; O. Yu. Vorobiev; L. A. Glenn

2000-01-01

241

Full-Field Strain Methods for Investigating Failure Mechanisms in Triaxial Braided Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advancements in braiding technology have led to commercially viable manufacturing approaches for making large structures with complex shape out of triaxial braided composite materials. In some cases, the static load capability of structures made using these materials has been higher than expected based on material strength properties measured using standard coupon tests. A more detailed investigation of deformation and failure processes in large-unit-cell-size triaxial braid composites is needed to evaluate the applicability of standard test methods for these materials and to develop alternative testing approaches. This report presents some new techniques that have been developed to investigate local deformation and failure using digital image correlation techniques. The methods were used to measure both local and global strains during standard straight-sided coupon tensile tests on composite materials made with 12- and 24-k yarns and a 0 /+60 /-60 triaxial braid architecture. Local deformation and failure within fiber bundles was observed and correlations were made between these local failures and global composite deformation and strength.

Littell, Justin D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

2008-01-01

242

Trace crack in thin CSP molded package and underlying failure mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace cracks were observed during the qualification of a new thin Plastic Ball Grid Array (PBGA) package. These occurred in the substrate during the component level air-to-air temperature cycle (AATC) stress test. There were three aspects to the ensuing investigation: failure analysis (FA), finite element method (FEM) simulation and additional AATC testing to confirm the findings. The FA consistently revealed

B. J. Carpenter; Yuan Yuan

2004-01-01

243

Anemia and iron deficiency in heart failure: mechanisms and therapeutic approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia and iron deficiency are common in patients with heart failure (HF), and are associated with worse symptoms and adverse outcomes in this population. Although the two can occur together, anemia in HF is often not caused by iron deficiency, and iron deficiency can be present without causing anemia. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents have been investigated extensively in the past few years

Stefan D. Anker; Piotr Ponikowski; Iain C. Macdougall; Dirk J. van Veldhuisen

2011-01-01

244

Mechanisms governing cyclic deformation and failure during elevated temperature fatigue of aluminum alloy 7055  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclic stress response, deformation and damage characteristics of aluminum alloy 7055 was studied at ambient and elevated temperatures. Specimens of the alloy were cyclically deformed using tension-compression loading under total strain-amplitude control. The alloy showed evidence of softening to failure at the ambient and elevated test temperatures. The degree of cyclic softening increased with an increase in test temperature.

T. S Srivatsan

1999-01-01

245

Mechanical torque measurement in the proximal femur correlates to failure load and bone mineral density ex vivo  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of local bone quality is essential for surgeons to determine operation techniques. A device for intraoperative measurement of local bone quality has been developed by the AO-Research Foundation (Densi - Probe®). We used this device to experimentally measure peak breakaway torque of trabecular bone in the proximal femur and correlated this with local bone mineral density (BMD) and failure load. Bone mineral density of 160 cadaver femurs was measured by ex situ dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry. The failure load of all femurs was analyzed by side-impact analysis. Femur fractures were fixed and mechanical peak torque was measured with the DensiProbe® device. Correlation was calculated whereas correlation coefficient and significance was calculated by Fisher’s Ztransformation. Moreover, linear regression analysis was carried out. The unpaired Student’s t-test was used to assess the significance of differences. The Ward triangle region had the lowest BMD with 0.511 g/cm2 (±0.17 g/cm2), followed by the upper neck region with 0.546 g/cm2 (±0.16 g/cm2), trochanteric region with 0.685 g/cm2 (±0.19 g/cm2) and the femoral neck with 0.813 g/cm2 (±0.2 g/cm2). Peak torque of DensiProbe® in the femoral head was 3.48 Nm (±2.34 Nm). Load to failure was 4050.2 N (±1586.7 N). The highest correlation of peak torque measured by Densi Probe® and load to failure was found in the femoral neck (r=0.64, P<0.001). The overall correlation of mechanical peak torque with T-score was r=0.60 (P<0.001). A correlation was found between mechanical peak torque, load to failure of bone and BMD in vitro. Trabecular strength of bone and bone mineral density are different aspects of bone strength, but a correlation was found between them. Mechanical peak torque as measured may contribute additional information about bone strength, especially in the perioperative testing. PMID:23888206

Grote, Stefan; Noeldeke, Tatjana; Blauth, Michael; Mutschler, Wolf; Burklein, Dominik

2013-01-01

246

Mutations in TBC1D24, a Gene Associated With Epilepsy, Also Cause Nonsyndromic Deafness DFNB86  

PubMed Central

Inherited deafness is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. We recently mapped DFNB86, a locus associated with nonsyndromic deafness, to chromosome 16p. In this study, whole-exome sequencing was performed with genomic DNA from affected individuals from three large consanguineous families in which markers linked to DFNB86 segregate with profound deafness. Analyses of these data revealed homozygous mutation c.208G>T (p.Asp70Tyr) or c.878G>C (p.Arg293Pro) in TBC1D24 as the underlying cause of deafness in the three families. Sanger sequence analysis of TBC1D24 in an additional large family in which deafness segregates with DFNB86 identified the c.208G>T (p.Asp70Tyr) substitution. These mutations affect TBC1D24 amino acid residues that are conserved in orthologs ranging from fruit fly to human. Neither variant was observed in databases of single-nucleotide variants or in 634 chromosomes from ethnically matched control subjects. TBC1D24 in the mouse inner ear was immunolocalized predominantly to spiral ganglion neurons, indicating that DFNB86 deafness might be an auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. Previously, six recessive mutations in TBC1D24 were reported to cause seizures (hearing loss was not reported) ranging in severity from epilepsy with otherwise normal development to epileptic encephalopathy resulting in childhood death. Two of our four families in which deafness segregates with mutant alleles of TBC1D24 were available for neurological examination. Cosegregation of epilepsy and deafness was not observed in these two families. Although the causal relationship between genotype and phenotype is not presently understood, our findings, combined with published data, indicate that recessive alleles of TBC1D24 can cause either epilepsy or nonsyndromic deafness. PMID:24387994

Rehman, Atteeq U.; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Morell, Robert J.; Drummond, Meghan C.; Ito, Taku; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Khan, Asma A.; Basra, Muhammad Asim R.; Wasif, Naveed; Ayub, Muhammad; Ali, Rana A.; Raza, Syed I.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael; Riazuddin, Saima; Billington, Neil; Khan, Shaheen N.; Friedman, Penelope L.; Griffith, Andrew J.; Ahmad, Wasim; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Leal, Suzanne M.; Friedman, Thomas B.

2014-01-01

247

Edge-Controlled Mechanical Failure of Si and SiC Semiconductor Chips  

SciTech Connect

Silicon (Si) and silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor chips are subjected to thermal gradients during service, have coefficient of thermal expansion mismatches with the constituents they are attached to, and are therefore subjected to thermomechanical tensile stresses that can initiate their fracture. Because of inherent brittleness, their probabilistic (Weibull) tensile failure strength was examined to understand sustainable tensile stresses and any exhibition of strength-size-scaling. Failure stress testing of entire (10-mm-square) chips was conducted using uniaxial flexure (3-point-bending) and biaxial flexure (anticlastic bending). The advantage of the anticlastic bend test is all eight primary edges are subjected to identical sinusoidal stress distribution so tensile failure stress is concurrently sensitive to edge-state quality, surface-state quality, crystallographic orientation, and any strength anisotropies of any of those. Tensile stress tolerance of both Si and SiC chips was limited by extrinsic strength-limiting flaws located at their edges and on lapped surfaces too in the case of the Si. Both materials exhibited strength-size scaling; namely, a larger chip is likely to fail at a lower tensile stress. The anticlastic bend test method was effective for evaluating edge failure stress provided surface-type strength-limiting flaws were not dominant. Edge-strength anisotropy (i.e., crystallographic orientation dependence) was observed with both the Si and SiC chips. Surface-strength anisotropy also occurred with Si chips because one side was lapped and the other polished. Lastly, the SiC chips failed at much higher tensile stresses than Si chips; however, that strength difference could be a ramification of differences in edge-slicing quality and not necessarily from intrinsic material differences.

Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Jadaan, Osama M. [University of Wisconsin, Platteville; Kirkland, Timothy Philip [ORNL

2010-01-01

248

Ballistic penetration of GRP composites: Identification of failure mechanisms and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of woven glass fiber reinforced plastics (GRP) under ballistic penetration was investigated experimentally as well as numerically. The high strain rate ballistic penetration experiments were conducted with a 3-inch light gas gun at impact velocities of 180 m\\/s and 200 m\\/s. Four well defined failure modes were observed in the post-impact studies. A total Lagrangian explicit finite element

HungCheng Lu

1998-01-01

249

From solids to fluidized soils: diffuse failure mechanisms in geostructures with applications to fast catastrophic landslides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomaterials are mixtures of solids with voids which are filled by fluids such as air and water. Due to the strong coupling\\u000a between phases, pore pressures can be generated if loading is applied fast enough. In the case of loose metastable materials,\\u000a unstable behavior and catastrophic failure can happen. An important case is that of fast catastrophic landslides with large

M. Pastor; D. Manzanal; J. A. Fernández Merodo; P. Mira; T. Blanc; V. Drempetic; B. Haddad; M. Sánchez

2010-01-01

250

Proportional and scale change models to project failures of mechanical components with applications to space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we develop the mathematical theory of proportional and scale change models to perform reliability analysis. The results obtained will be applied for the Reaction Control System (RCS) thruster valves on an orbiter. With the advent of extended EVA's associated with PROX OPS (ISSA & MIR), and docking, the loss of a thruster valve now takes on an expanded safety significance. Previous studies assume a homogeneous population of components with each component having the same failure rate. However, as various components experience different stresses and are exposed to different environments, their failure rates change with time. In this paper we model the reliability of a thruster valves by treating these valves as a censored repairable system. The model for each valve will take the form of a nonhomogeneous process with the intensity function that is either treated as a proportional hazard model, or a scale change random effects hazard model. Each component has an associated z, an independent realization of the random variable Z from a distribution G(z). This unobserved quantity z can be used to describe heterogeneity systematically. For various models methods for estimating the model parameters using censored data will be developed. Available field data (from previously flown flights) is from non-renewable systems. The estimated failure rate using such data will need to be modified for renewable systems such as thruster valve.

Taneja, Vidya S.

1996-01-01

251

Stochastic and systematic patterning failure mechanisms for contact-holes in EUV lithography: Part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterning uncertainty in EUV lithography arises from each lithographic component: the source, the photomask, the optical system, and the photoresist. All contribute to line roughness and contact disuniformity. In extreme cases, feature variability can result in patterning failures such as line microbridging or random missing contact holes. Historically, redundant contact holes (or vias) were placed to overcome the effects of a missing contact. Due to the aggressive CD shrink of feature size, the use of redundant contacts has been progressively decreased. For some types of devices, almost every contact of the billions found on the chip must be electrically active in order for the device to function. In such scenario, lithographic printing failures may cause catastrophic loss of yield, considering that closed contacts can hardly be corrected by smoothing techniques or etching. In this paper, the minimum contact CD which prints without failure - the contact hole printability limit - is studied for 54nm and 44nm pitch dense arrays. We find that the same resist may show dramatically different printability limits depending upon sizing dose and illumination conditions. This analysis will be implemented to estimate, through simulation-assisted experiments, the required exposure dose and aerial image to safely print sub-30nm contact holes.

Vaglio Pret, Alessandro; De Bisschop, Peter; Smith, Mark D.; Biafore, John J.

2014-03-01

252

Failure in glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of state of the art concerning glass failure mechanisms and fatigue theories discusses brittle fracture in glass, fatigue mechanisms, fatigue behavior, environmental effects on failure rate, and aging.

Keeton, S. C.

1972-01-01

253

Full-field Strain Methods for Investigating Failure Mechanisms in Triaxial Braided Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite materials made with triaxial braid architecture and large tow size carbon fibers are beginning to be used in many applications, including composite aircraft and engine structures. Recent advancements in braiding technology have led to commercially viable manufacturing approaches for making large structures with complex shape. Although the large unit cell size of these materials is an advantage for manufacturing efficiency, the fiber architecture presents some challenges for materials characterization, design, and analysis. In some cases, the static load capability of structures made using these materials has been higher than expected based on material strength properties measured using standard coupon tests. A potential problem with using standard tests methods for these materials is that the unit cell size can be an unacceptably large fraction of the specimen dimensions. More detailed investigation of deformation and failure processes in large unit cell size triaxial braid composites is needed to evaluate the applicability of standard test methods for these materials and to develop alternative testing approaches. In recent years, commercial equipment has become available that enables digital image correlation to be used on a more routine basis for investigation of full field 3D deformation in materials and structures. In this paper, some new techniques that have been developed to investigate local deformation and failure using digital image correlation techniques are presented. The methods were used to measure both local and global strains during standard straight-sided coupon tensile tests on composite materials made with 12 and 24 k yarns and a 0/+60/-60 triaxial braid architecture. Local deformation and failure within fiber bundles was observed, and this local failure had a significant effect on global stiffness and strength. The matrix material had a large effect on local damage initiation for the two matrix materials used in this investigation. Premature failure in regions of the unit cell near the edge of the straight-sided specimens was observed for transverse tensile tests in which the braid axial fibers were perpendicular to the specimen axis and the bias fibers terminated on the cut edges in the specimen gage section. This edge effect is one factor that could contribute to a measured strength that is lower than the actual material strength in a structure without edge effects.

Littell, Justin D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

2008-01-01

254

Coaching behaviors associated with changes in fear of failure: changes in self-talk and need satisfaction as potential mechanisms.  

PubMed

Cognitive-interpersonal and motivational mechanisms may regulate relations between youth perceptions of interpersonal aspects of the social ecology and their fear-of-failure (FF) levels. Youth (N=165) registered for a summer swim league rated their fear of failure at the beginning, middle, and end of the season. Extensive model comparisons indicated that youths' end-of-season ratings of coach behaviors could be reduced to three factors (affiliation, control, blame). Perceived control and blame from coaches predicted residualized change in corresponding aspects of youths' self-talk, but only changes in self-blame positively predicted changes in FF levels during the season. Perceived affiliation from coaches predicted autonomy need satisfaction which, in turn, negatively predicted the rate of change in FF levels during the season. These findings indicate that (a) youth perceptions of coaches were directly and indirectly related to acute socialization of FF and (b) both cognitive-interpersonal and motivational mechanisms contributed to this socialization process. Further research is needed to test for developmental differences in these mechanisms to determine whether findings generalize to more heterogeneous and at-risk populations and to investigate other potential social-ecological influences on socialization. PMID:17359243

Conroy, David E; Coatsworth, J Douglas

2007-04-01

255

IMPERMEABLE THIN AL2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES  

SciTech Connect

In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, the overlay of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating was deposited on the TBC by EB-PVD techniques. Hot corrosion tests were carried out on the TBC with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in molten salts mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C for different time up to 100h. The microstructures of TBC and overlay before and after exposure were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It has been found that TBC will react with V{sub 2}O{sub 5} to form YVO{sub 4}. The amount of M-phase, which was formed due to the leaching of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} from YSZ, was increased with corrosion time. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating deposited by EB-PVD was dense, continues and adherent to the TBC. As a result, overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can prevent the YSZ from the attack by molten salts containing vanadium and decrease the penetration of salts into the YSZ along porous and cracks in the YSZ TBC. The amount of M-phase formed in YSZ covered with an overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is substantially lower than that formed in conventional YSZ TBC, even after 100h exposure to the molten salts. In the next reporting period, the hot corrosion test of TBC with EB-PVD deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating will be again performed. However before hot corrosion tests, the post-annealing will be carried out in vacuum (residual pressure 10 -3 Pa) at 1273K for 1h in order to transform the as-sputtered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay to crystalline {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. In addition, the effect of the thickness of overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on corrosion resistance will also be investigated.

Scott X. Mao

2002-08-31

256

Analyses of Failure Mechanisms and Residual Stresses in Graphite/Polyimide Composites Subjected to Shear Dominated Biaxial Loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research contributes to the understanding of macro- and micro-failure mechanisms in woven fabric polyimide matrix composites based on medium and high modulus graphite fibers tested under biaxial, shear dominated stress conditions over a temperature range of -50 C to 315 C. The goal of this research is also to provide a testing methodology for determining residual stress distributions in unidirectional, cross/ply and fabric graphite/polyimide composites using the concept of embedded metallic inclusions and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements.

Kumosa, M.; Predecki, P. K.; Armentrout, D.; Benedikt, B.; Rupnowski, P.; Gentz, M.; Kumosa, L.; Sutter, J. K.

2002-01-01

257

Relationship between Early Inflammatory Response and Clinical Evolution of the Severe Multiorgan Failure in Mechanical Circulatory Support-Treated Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. The mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is an effective treatment in critically ill patients with end-stage heart failure (ESHF) that, however, may cause a severe multiorgan failure syndrome (MOFS) in these subjects. The impact of altered inflammatory response, associated to MOFS, on clinical evolution of MCS postimplantation patients has not been yet clarified. Methods. Circulating cytokines, adhesion molecules, and a marker of monocyte activation (neopterin) were determined in 53?MCS-treated patients, at preimplant and until 2 weeks. MOFS was evaluated by total sequential organ failure assessment score (tSOFA). Results. During MCS treatment, 32 patients experienced moderate MOFS (tSOFA?

Campolo, Jonica; Botta, Luca; Parolini, Marina; Milazzo, Filippo; Nonini, Sandra; Martinelli, Luigi; Paino, Roberto; Marraccini, Paolo

2014-01-01

258

Transition in Failure Mechanism Under Cyclic Creep in 316LN Austenitic Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclic creep behavior of a type 316LN austenitic stainless steel was investigated in the temperature range from 823 K to 923 K (550 °C to 650 °C). A transition from fatigue-dominated to creep-dominated failure mode was observed with an increase in the mean stress. The threshold value of mean stress for the transition was seen to be a strong function of the test temperature. Occurrence of dynamic strain aging proved beneficial owing to a substantial reduction in the strain accumulation during cyclic loading.

Sarkar, Aritra; Nagesha, A.; Parameswaran, P.; Sandhya, R.; Mathew, M. D.

2014-06-01

259

Assessing failure mechanisms during transformation superplasticity of Ti-6Al-4V  

SciTech Connect

During thermal cycling through the {alpha}/{beta} phase transformation under the action of a small external biasing stress, Ti alloys exhibit an average deformation stress exponent of unity and achieve superplastic strains. The authors report tensile experiments on Ti-6Al-4V with an applied stress of 4.5 MPa, aimed at understanding the failure processes during transformation superplasticity. The development of cavities is assessed as a function of superplastic elongation, and macroscopic neck formation is quantified at several levels of elongation by digital imaging techniques. The effects of thermal inhomogeneity on neck initiation and propagation are also elucidated experimentally.

Schuh, C.; Dunand, D.C.

2000-07-01

260

New insights in (inter)cellular mechanisms by heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.  

PubMed

Recently, a new paradigm for the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has been proposed, which identifies a systemic pro-inflammatory state induced by comorbidities as the origin of microvascular endothelial cell inflammation and subsequent concentric cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. This review further discusses the pivotal role of the inflamed endothelium in the pathogenesis of HFpEF-specific cardiac remodeling. The potential importance of reciprocal interactions of the endothelium with cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes and with the cardiac neurohumoral response in this cardiac remodeling process is outlined. PMID:25189801

Tschöpe, Carsten; Van Linthout, Sophie

2014-12-01

261

Structurally Distinct Bacterial TBC-like GAPs Link Arf GTPase to Rab1 Inactivation to Counteract Host Defenses  

SciTech Connect

Rab GTPases are frequent targets of vacuole-living bacterial pathogens for appropriate trafficking of the vacuole. Here we discover that bacterial effectors including VirA from nonvacuole Shigella flexneri and EspG from extracellular Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) harbor TBC-like dual-finger motifs and exhibits potent RabGAP activities. Specific inactivation of Rab1 by VirA/EspG disrupts ER-to-Golgi trafficking. S. flexneri intracellular persistence requires VirA TBC-like GAP activity that mediates bacterial escape from autophagy-mediated host defense. Rab1 inactivation by EspG severely blocks host secretory pathway, resulting in inhibited interleukin-8 secretion from infected cells. Crystal structures of VirA/EspG-Rab1-GDP-aluminum fluoride complexes highlight TBC-like catalytic role for the arginine and glutamine finger residues and reveal a 3D architecture distinct from that of the TBC domain. Structure of Arf6-EspG-Rab1 ternary complex illustrates a pathogenic signaling complex that rewires host Arf signaling to Rab1 inactivation. Structural distinctions of VirA/EspG further predict a possible extensive presence of TBC-like RabGAP effectors in counteracting various host defenses.

Dong, Na; Zhu, Yongqun; Lu, Qiuhe; Hu, Liyan; Zheng, Yuqing; Shao, Feng (NIBS-China); (Zhejiang)

2012-10-10

262

SPALLING FAILURE OF A THERMAL BARRIER COATING ASSOCIATED WITH ALUMINUM DEPLETION  

E-print Network

SPALLING FAILURE OF A THERMAL BARRIER COATING ASSOCIATED WITH ALUMINUM DEPLETION IN THE BOND-COAT EÐA plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating is observed to spall after oxidation at 11218C from a Co thermal barrier coating (TBC). Phase characterization by photostimulated luminescence and X-ray diraction

Clarke, David R.

263

Applicability of failure criteria and empirical relations of mechanical rock properties from outcrop analogue samples for wellbore stability analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of failure criteria, Young's modulus and uniaxial and tensile strengths, are important to avoid borehole instabilities and adapt the drilling plan on rock mechanical conditions. By this means, a considerable reduction of the total drilling costs can be achieved. This is desirable to enlarge the profit margin of geothermal projects which is rather small compared with hydrocarbon projects. Because core material is rare we aim at predicting in situ rock properties from outcrop analogue samples which are easy and cheap to provide. The comparability of properties determined from analogue samples with samples from depths is analysed by performing conventional triaxial tests, uniaxial compressive strength tests and Brazilian tests of both quarry and equivalent core samples. Equivalent means that the quarry sample is of the same stratigraphic age and of comparable sedimentary facies and composition as the associated core sample. We determined the parameters uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Young's modulus, and tensile strength for 35 rock samples from quarries and 14 equivalent core samples from the North German Basin. A subgroup of these samples, consisting of one volcanic rock sample, three sandstone and three carbonate samples, was used for triaxial tests. In all cases, comparability of core samples with quarry samples is evaluated using thin section analyses. For UCS versus Young's modulus and tensile strengths, linear- and non-linear regression analyses were performed. We repeat regression separately for clastic rock samples or carbonate rock samples only as well as for quarry samples or core samples only. Empirical relations have high statistical significance and properties of core samples lie within 90% prediction bands of developed regression functions of quarry samples. With triaxial tests we determined linearized Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria, expressed in both principal stresses and shear and normal stresses, for quarry samples. Comparison with samples from larger depths shows that it is possible to apply the obtained principal stress failure criteria on clastic and volcanic rocks, but less so for carbonates. Carbonate core samples have higher strengths and develop larger angles between fault normal and main principal stress than quarry samples. This considerably reduces the residuals between quarry failure criteria and core test results. Therefore, it is advised to use failure criteria, expressed in shear and normal stresses, for prediction of core sample failure conditions. We conclude that it is possible to apply failure criteria on samples from depth if the comparability, especially textural comparability and similar porosities, of chosen outcrop analogues samples is ensured. Applicability of empirical relations of UCS with Young's modulus and tensile strength to rocks at depths is expected. Presented results may help predict mechanical properties for in situ rocks, and thus develop suitable geomechanical models for the adaptation of the drilling strategy on rock mechanical conditions. The authors appreciate the support of 'Niedersächsisches Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Kultur' and 'Baker Hughes' within the gebo research project (http: www.gebo-nds.de).

Reyer, D.; Philipp, S. L.

2013-12-01

264

Distribution of coastal cliffs in Kerala, India: their mechanisms of failure and related human engineering response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 560-km-long Kerala coast is characterised by long barriers with narrow beaches and steep cliffs. Distribution of cliffs from nine sections measuring a cumulative length of 63.5 km is evaluated in ArcGIS Software using topomaps and field survey data. The cliff sections in the southern coast comprise both permeable and impermeable rocks, whereas those along northern coast are comprised of either Precambrian crystalline and/or Tertiary formations. Notches, caves and even small arches are developed in Cannanore, Dharmadam and Kadalundi cliffs, where only primary laterites are exposed to wave attack. Stacks composed of laterite and Precambrian crystallines found in nearshore of cliffed coast indicate recession of shoreline. Mass wasting, mudslide and mudflow type of cliff failures are common in permeable to semi-permeable rocks, whereas rotational sliding, rockfall and toppling failure are found in hard rock cliffs. Retreat of cliff sections are induced by natural or anthropogenic activities or both. Rate of recession vary from a few centimetres to one metre/year depending upon the nature of lithology, structures and recession agents acting upon the cliffs. Various methods of cliff protection for e.g. hard structures—revetments, groins, seawalls, breakwater and jetties—and soft measures—artificial reefs/marsh creation, floating breakwaters, beach nourishment, beach scraping and vegetation planting—are suggested.

Kumar, Avinash; Seralathan, P.; Jayappa, K. S.

2009-08-01

265

Mechanical failure in COB-technology using glob-top encapsulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several reasons for mechanical stresses in “globbed” assemblies. For example: cure shrinkage; thermal gradients; and moisture diffusion. Thermal mismatch between substrate, silicon die, and encapsulant represent a main reason for thermally induced stresses and is investigated in detail. The filled polymers used have shown temperature, time, and moisture dependent mechanical characteristics. The viscoelastic properties of the encapsulant below

Rainer Dudek; Dietmar Vogel; Bernd Michel

1996-01-01

266

Investigation of accelerated stress factors and failure/degradation mechanisms in terrestrial solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on the reliability of terrestrial solar cells was performed to identify failure/degradation modes affecting solar cells and to relate these to basic physical, chemical, and metallurgical phenomena. Particular concerns addressed were the reliability attributes of individual single crystalline, polycrystalline, and amorphous thin film silicon cells. Results of subjecting different types of crystalline cells to the Clemson accelerated test schedule are given. Preliminary step stress results on one type of thin film amorphous silicon (a:Si) cell indicated that extraneous degradation modes were introduced above 140 C. Also described is development of measurement procedures which are applicable to the reliability testing of a:Si solar cells as well as an approach to achieving the necessary repeatability of fabricating a simulated a:Si reference cell from crystalline silicon photodiodes.

Lathrop, J. W.

1984-01-01

267

A NEW FAILURE MECHANISM BY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE INDUCED ELECTRICAL BREAKDOWN OF TUNGSTEN WINDOWS IN  

E-print Network

.......................................................................18 2.1.3 Mechanics of PVD Metal Stack Deposition................................................21 2...........................................................................................21 2.2. REVIEW OF PROCESS INDUCED CORROSION LITERATURE ...................................25 2.2.1Titanium Corrosion.......................................................................................26

Pearton, Stephen J.

268

Mechanical analysis of congestive heart failure caused by bundle branch block based on an electromechanical canine heart model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asynchronous electrical activation, induced by bundle branch block (BBB), can cause reduced ventricular function. However, the effects of BBB on the mechanical function of heart are difficult to assess experimentally. Many heart models have been developed to investigate cardiac properties during BBB but have mainly focused on the electrophysiological properties. To date, the mechanical function of BBB has not been well investigated. Based on a three-dimensional electromechanical canine heart model, the mechanical properties of complete left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) were simulated. The anatomical model as well as the fiber orientations of a dog heart was reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI). Using the solutions of reaction-diffusion equations and with a strategy of parallel computation, the asynchronous excitation propagation and intraventricular conduction in BBB was simulated. The mechanics of myocardial tissues were computed with time-, sarcomere length-dependent uniaxial active stress initiated at the time of depolarization. The quantification of mechanical intra- and interventricular asynchrony of BBB was then investigated using the finite-element method with an eight-node isoparametric element. The simulation results show that (1) there exists inter- and intraventricular systolic dyssynchrony during BBB; (2) RBBB may have more mechanical synchrony and better systolic function of the left ventricle (LV) than LBBB; (3) the ventricles always move toward the early-activated ventricle; and (4) the septum experiences higher stress than left and right ventricular free walls in BBB. The simulation results validate clinical and experimental recordings of heart deformation and provide regional quantitative estimates of ventricular wall strain and stress. The present work suggests that an electromechanical heart model, incorporating real geometry and fiber orientations, may be helpful for better understanding of the mechanical implications of congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by BBB.

Dou, Jianhong; Xia, Ling; Zhang, Yu; Shou, Guofa; Wei, Qing; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

2009-01-01

269

Failure Morphologies of Cyclically Oxidized ZrO2-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced and baseline thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were thermal cycle tested in air at 1163 C until delamination or spallation of the ceramic top coat. The top coat of the advanced TBC s consisted of ZrO2 with various amounts of Y2O3, Yb2O3, Gd2O3, or Nd2O3 dopants. The composition of the top coat of the baseline TBC was ZrO2-8wt.%Y2O3. All top coats were deposited by air plasma spraying. A NiCrAlY or NiCoCrAlY bond coat was deposited by low pressure plasma spraying onto a single-crystal, Ni-base superalloy. The TBC lifetime for the baseline coatings was approximately 190 cycles (45 minutes at 1163 C per cycle) while the lifetime for the advanced coatings was as high as 425 cycles. The fracture surfaces and sample cross sections were examined after TBC failure by SEM and optical microscopy, and the top coats were further examined by X-ray diffraction. These post-test studies revealed that the fracture path largely followed splat boundaries with some trans-splat fracture. However, there were no obvious distinguishing features which explained the difference in TBC lifetimes between some of the advanced and baseline coatings.

Nesbitt, James A.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Barrett, Charles A.

2002-01-01

270

Therapeutic CDK4/6 inhibition in breast cancer: key mechanisms of response and failure.  

PubMed

A hallmark of cancer is the deregulation of cell-cycle machinery, ultimately facilitating aberrant proliferation that fuels tumorigenesis and disease progression. Particularly, in breast cancers, cyclin D1 has a crucial role in the development of disease. Recently, a highly specific inhibitor of CDK4/6 activity (PD-0332991) has been developed that may have efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer. To interrogate the utility of PD-0332991 in treating breast cancers, therapeutic response was evaluated on a panel of breast cancer cell lines. These analyses showed that the chronic loss of Rb is specifically associated with evolution to a CDK4/6-independent state and, ultimately, resistance to PD-0332991. However, to interrogate the functional consequence of Rb directly, knockdown experiments were performed in models that represent immortalized mammary epithelia and multiple subtypes of breast cancer. These studies showed a highly specific role for Rb in mediating the response to CDK4/6 inhibition that was dependent on transcriptional repression manifest through E2F, and the ability to attenuate CDK2 activity. Acquired resistance to PD-03322991 was specifically associated with attenuation of CDK2 inhibitors, indicating that redundancy in CDK functions represents a determinant of therapeutic failure. Despite these caveats, in specific models, PD-0332991 was a particularly effective therapy, which induced Rb-dependent cytostasis. Combined, these findings indicate the critical importance of fully understanding cell-cycle regulatory pathways in directing the utilization of CDK inhibitors in the clinic. PMID:20473330

Dean, J L; Thangavel, C; McClendon, A K; Reed, C A; Knudsen, E S

2010-07-15

271

When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

2014-01-01

272

Involvement of Rho kinase pathway in the mechanism of renal vasoconstriction and cardiac hypertrophy in rats with experimental heart failure.  

PubMed

Rho-dependent kinases serve as downstream effectors of several vasoconstrictor systems, the activities of which are upregulated in congestive heart failure (CHF). We evaluated renal and cardiac effects of Y-27632, a highly selective Rho kinase inhibitor, in an experimental model of volume-overload CHF. Effects of acute administration of Y-27632 (0.3 mg/kg) on renal hemodynamic and clearance parameters and effects of chronic treatment (10.0 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) for 7 days via osmotic minipumps) on cardiac hypertrophy and cumulative Na+ excretion were studied in male Wistar rats with aortocaval fistula and control rats. The Y-27632-induced decrease in renal vascular resistance (from 40.4 +/- 4.6 to 26.0 +/- 3.1 resistance units, P < 0.01) in CHF rats was associated with a significant increase in total renal blood flow (+34%) and cortical and medullary blood flow (approx +37 and +27%, respectively). These values were significantly higher than those in control rats and occurred despite a decrease in mean arterial pressure (-15 mmHg). Despite the marked renal vasodilatory effect, Y-27632 did not alter glomerular filtration rate and renal Na+ excretion. Chronic administration of Y-27632 did not alter daily or cumulative renal Na+ excretion in CHF rats but was associated with a significant decrease in heart-to-body weight ratio, an index of cardiac hypertrophy: 0.32 +/- 0.007, 0.46 +/- 0.017, and 0.37 +/- 0.006% in control, CHF, and CHF + Y-27632 rats, respectively. The findings suggest that Rho kinase-dependent pathways are involved in the mechanisms of renal vasoconstriction and cardiac hypertrophy in rats with volume-overload heart failure. Selective blockade of these signaling pathways may be considered an additional tool to improve renal perfusion and attenuate cardiac hypertrophy in heart failure. PMID:16361369

Winaver, Joseph; Ovcharenko, Elena; Rubinstein, Irit; Gurbanov, Konstantin; Pollesello, Piero; Bishara, Bishara; Hoffman, Aaron; Abassi, Zaid

2006-05-01

273

Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in the Weaning of Patients with Respiratory Failure Due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease A Randomized, Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mechanical venti­ lation is often needed. The rate of weaning failure is high in these patients, and prolonged mechanical ventilation increases intubation-associated complications. Objective: To determine whether noninvasive ventila­ tion improves the outcome of weaning from invasive me­ chanical ventilation. Design: Multicenter, randomized trial. Setting: Three respiratory intensive care

Stefano Nava; Nicolino Ambrosino; Enrico Clini; Maurizio Prato; Giacomo Orlando; Michele Vitacca; Paolo Brigada; Claudio Fracchia; Fiorenzo Rubini

274

Microstructure and hydrogen induced failure mechanisms in iron-nickel weldments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent series of inexplicable catastrophic failures of specific subsea dissimilar metal Fe-Ni butter welds has illuminated a fundamental lack of understanding of both the microstructure created along the fusion line as well as its impact on the hydrogen susceptibility of these interfaces. In order to remedy this, the present work compares and contrasts the microstructure and hydrogen-induced fracture morphology of AISI 8630-IN 625 and F22-IN 625 dissimilar metal weld interfaces as a function of post-weld heat treatment duration. A variety of techniques were used to study details of both the microstructure and fracture morphology including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. For both systems, the microstructure along the weld interface consisted of a coarse grain heat-affected zone in the Fe-base metal followed by discontinuous martensitic partially-mixed zones and a continuous partially-mixed zone on the Ni-side of the fusion line. Within the partially mixed zone on the Ni-side there exists a 200 nm-wide transition zone within a 20 mum-wide planar solidification region followed by a cellular dendritic region with Nb-Mo rich carbides decorating the dendrite boundaries. The size, area fraction and composition of the discontinuous PMZ were determined to be controlled by uneven mixing in the liquid weld pool influenced by convection currents produced from the welding procedure. The virgin martensitic microstructure produced in these regions is formed as consequence of a both the local composition and the post-weld heat treatment. The local higher Ni content results in these regions being retransformed into austenite during the post-weld heat treatment and then virgin martensite while cooling to room temperature. Although there were differences in the volume of the discontinuous partially mixed-zones, the major difference in the weld metal interfaces was the presence of M 7C3 precipitates in the planar solidification region. The formation of these precipitates, which were found in what was previously referred to as the "featureless-zone," were determined to be dependent on the carbon content of the Fe-base metal and the duration of the post-weld heat treatment. A high density of these ordered 100 nm-long by 10 nm-wide needle-like precipitates were found in the AISI 8630-IN 625 weldment in the 10 hour post-weld heat treatment condition while only the initial stages of their nucleation were evident in the F22-IN 625 15 hour post-weld heat treatment specimen. The study of the fractured specimens revealed that the M7C 3 carbides play a key role in the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of the Fe-Ni butter weldments. The fractures initially nucleate along the isolated Fe-base metal -- discontinuous partially mixed zone interfaces. The M7C3 carbides accumulate hydrogen and then provide a low energy fracture path between the discontinuous partially mixed zones leading to catastrophic failure. The result is a fracture morphology that alternates between flat regions produced by fracture along the discontinuous partially mixed zones and cleavage-like fracture regions produced by fracture along the ordered carbide matrix interfaces.

Fenske, Jamey Alan

275

Eventually consistent failure detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of unreliable failure detecto was introduced by Chandra and Toueg [2] as a mechanism that provides (possibly incorrect) information about process failures. This mechanism has been used to solve different problems in async hronous systems, in particular the Consensus problem.In this paper, we present a new class of unreliable failure detectors, which we call Eventually Consistent and denote

Mikel Larrea; Antonio Fernández; Sergio Arévalo

2001-01-01

276

Microscale experimental investigation of failure mechanisms in off-axis woven laminates at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off-axis woven laminates fabricated from carbon fiber and a high glass transition temperature thermosetting resin were subjected to tensile static and fatigue loading at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to 205°C. The damage mechanism prevalent to these specimens was investigated by post-mortem examination using a scanning electron microscope. During most of their life fatigue specimens had accumulated minimal damage

M. Selezneva; J. Montesano; Z. Fawaz; K. Behdinan; C. Poon

2011-01-01

277

Topical Report ''Corrosion Evaluation of LLW2 Skid-B Weld Failure Mechanisms (44139-92)  

SciTech Connect

An independent investigation of pipe welding leaks from the Low-Level Waste 2 (LLW2) Skid-B System for the possibilities of improper welding (IW), microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), sensitization, chloride pitting corrosion (CPC), and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) was conducted. The results show the prevailing mechanisms that caused the leaks are identified as IW, CPC, and the improper selection of weld filler material for the base metals in an environment of the North Plateau underground water. These is no evidence of MIC, sensitization, or IGSCC. The chloride pitting corrosion mechanism that took place at all the welds are also described. All the pipelines were replaced with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for cost saving and the LLW2 Skid B System has been successfully operating since 1999. This report summarizes the findings and recommendations associated with preventive measures for future operations. The LLW2 Facility is a replacement for an existing waste treatment system. The Facility processes two different waste streams through two different ''skids.'' After seven months of operation, one of the two skids began to leak. Extensive evaluation of the corrosion mechanisms and the contributing factors are documented in this report. This report principally evaluates the physical and chemical configurations that led to the corrosion and leaks. Chloride pitting corrosion, exacerbated by weld defects, is the corrosion mechanism. The report also discusses fabrication and Quality Assurance (QA)/Quality Control (QC) actions that would have prevented their occurrence. It is believed that in the absence of either the defects or the chloride concentrations, corrosion would not have occurred. In developing the specification for processing skids to be used in the Facility, high chloride was not identified as a parameter of concern. As such, piping fabrication and inspection standards for the system did not identify more rigorous welding standards that could have prevented the corrosion and subsequent leaks.

JI Young Chang

2001-05-31

278

Fatigue failure kinetics and structural changes in lead-free interconnects due to mechanical and thermal cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental and human health concerns drove European parliament to mandate the Reduction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) for electronics. This was enacted in July 2006 and has practically eliminated lead in solder interconnects. There is concern in the electronics packaging community because modern lead-free solder is rich in tin. Presently, near-eutectic tin-silver-copper solders are favored by industry. These solders are stiffer than the lead-tin near-eutectic alloys, have a higher melting temperature, fewer slip systems, and form intermetallic compounds (IMC) with Cu, Ni and Ag, each of which tend to have a negative effect on lifetime. In order to design more reliable interconnects, the experimental observation of cracking mechanisms is necessary for the correct application of existing theories. The goal of this research is to observe the failure modes resulting from mode II strain and to determine the damage mechanisms which describe fatigue failures in 95.5 Sn- 4.0 Ag - 0.5 Cu wt% (SAC405) lead-free solder interconnects. In this work the initiation sites and crack paths were characterized for SAC405 ball-grid array (BGA) interconnects with electroless-nickel immersion-gold (ENIG) pad-finish. The interconnects were arranged in a perimeter array and tested in fully assembled packages. Evaluation methods included monotonic and displacement controlled mechanical shear fatigue tests, and temperature cycling. The specimens were characterized using metallogaphy, including optical and electron microscopy as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and precise real-time electrical resistance structural health monitoring (SHM). In mechanical shear fatigue tests, strain was applied by the substrates, simulating dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between the board and chip-carrier. This type of strain caused cracks to initiate in the soft Sn-rich solder and grow near the interface between the solder and intermetallic compounds (IMC). The growth near the interface was found to be caused by dislocation pile-ups at the IMC when the plastic zone ahead of the crack tip reached this interface. In temperature cycling testing, strains arose within the interconnect due to CTE mismatch between the solder and IMC. The substrates had matched CTE for all specimens in this research. Because of this, all the temperature cycling cracks were observed at interfaces, generally between the solder and IMC. Additionally, real-time electrical resistance may be a useful non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tool for the empirical observation of fatigue cracking in ball-grid arrays (BGA) during both mechanical and temperature cycling tests.

Fiedler, Brent Alan

279

Structural and Population-Based Evaluations of TBC1D1 p.Arg125Trp  

PubMed Central

Obesity is now a leading cause of preventable death in the industrialised world. Understanding its genetic influences can enhance insight into molecular pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. A non-synonymous polymorphism (rs35859249, p.Arg125Trp) in the N-terminal TBC1D1 phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain has shown a replicated association with familial obesity in women. We investigated these findings in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large European birth cohort of mothers and offspring, and by generating a predicted model of the structure of this domain. Structural prediction involved the use of three separate algorithms; Robetta, HHpred/MODELLER and I-TASSER. We used the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) to investigate familial association in the ALSPAC study cohort (N?=?2,292 mother-offspring pairs). Linear regression models were used to examine the association of genotype with mean measurements of adiposity (Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference and Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessed fat mass), and logistic regression was used to examine the association with odds of obesity. Modelling showed that the R125W mutation occurs in a location of the TBC1D1 PTB domain that is predicted to have a function in a putative protein:protein interaction. We did not detect an association between R125W and BMI (mean per allele difference 0.27 kg/m2 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.00, 0.53) P?=?0.05) or obesity (odds ratio 1.01 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.77, 1.31, P?=?0.96) in offspring after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that there was familial association between R125W and obesity (?2?=?0.06, P?=?0.80). Our analysis suggests that R125W in TBC1D1 plays a role in the binding of an effector protein, but we find no evidence that the R125W variant is related to mean BMI or odds of obesity in a general population sample. PMID:23667688

Richardson, Tom G.; Thomas, Elaine C.; Sessions, Richard B.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Tavare, Jeremy M.; Day, Ian N. M.

2013-01-01

280

Monitoring of Temperature Fatigue Failure Mechanism for Polyvinyl Alcohol Fiber Concrete Using Acoustic Emission Sensors  

PubMed Central

The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) techniques to monitor the mechanism of evolution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber concrete damage under temperature fatigue loading is investigated. Using the temperature fatigue test, real-time AE monitoring data of PVA fiber concrete is achieved. Based on the AE signal characteristics of the whole test process and comparison of AE signals of PVA fiber concretes with different fiber contents, the damage evolution process of PVA fiber concrete is analyzed. Finally, a qualitative evaluation of the damage degree is obtained using the kurtosis index and b-value of AE characteristic parameters. The results obtained using both methods are discussed. PMID:23012555

Li, Dongsheng; Cao, Hai

2012-01-01

281

On the triggering of shear faults during brittle compressive failure: A new mechanism  

SciTech Connect

Direct observations are presented of the micromechanical events that contribute to the localization of deformation within brittle compressive shear faults. The observations were made on ice and show that faults are composed of both wing cracks and splay cracks. The latter features initiate from one side of inclined parent cracks and create sets of slender microcolumns fixed on one end and free on the other. It is proposed that the fault-triggering mechanism is the breaking of near-surface microcolumns owing to frictional sliding across their free ends. A lower-bound estimate of the compressive strength of ice is found to be in order of magnitude agreement with experiment.

Schulson, E.M.; Iliescu, D.; Renshaw, C.E. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)

1999-08-01

282

Enhanced Characteristics of HVOF-sprayed MCrAlY Bond Coats for TBC Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is focused on the variation of the microstructures of different CoNiCrAlY bond coats sprayed by the high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process for thermal barrier coating (TBC) applications. Three different size fractions of the CoNiCrAlY bond coat powder have been considered for this investigation: AMDRY 9951 (5-37 ?m), AMDRY 9954 (11-62 ?m), and AMDRY 995C (45-75 ?m). The influence of HVOF process parameters and process conditions have been studied in detail to achieve quality bond coats in terms of low porosity level, low oxygen content, and high surface roughness. The results have been promising and have shown that dense bond coats with low porosity can be achieved by HVOF spraying through the appropriate selection of powder size and process parameters. Importantly, HVOF bond coats appear to be competitive to VPS bond coats in terms of its oxygen content and high surface roughness.

Rajasekaran, B.; Mauer, G.; Vaßen, R.

2011-12-01

283

The Oxidation Behavior of TBC with Cold Spray CoNiCrAlY Bond Coat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold gas dynamic spray (CGDS) has been considered a potential technique to produce the metallic bond coat for TBC applications, because of its fast deposition rate and low deposition temperature. This article presents the influence of spray processes for bond coat, including air plasma spray, high velocity oxy-fuel, and in particular CGDS, on the oxidation performance of TBCs with a Co-32Ni-21Cr-8Al-0.5Y (wt.%) bond coat and an air plasma sprayed topcoat. Oxidation behavior of the TBCs was evaluated by examining the coating microstructural evolution, TGO growth behavior, and crack propagation during thermal exposure at 1050 °C. The relationship between the TGO growth and crack propagation will be discussed.

Chen, W. R.; Irissou, E.; Wu, X.; Legoux, J.-G.; Marple, B. R.

2011-01-01

284

Physical Mechanisms of Failure, Ultralow Partial Pressure Lubrication, and the Reservoir Effect in MEMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coatings as long term lubrication coatings in microsystems, to examine the failure regimes of SAM coated devices, to examine the role of mobility in adsorbed lubricating films, and to examine evolution of the coefficient of friction of devices surrounded by ultralow partial pressures of alcohols up to saturation. Finally the role of self assembled monlayers in vapor phase lubrication is examined. Self-assembled monolayers are ubiquitous in fabrication of free-standing microdevices because of their ability to prevent release related and dormancy related stiction. However their ability to lubricate under sliding and normal contact conditions is not well documented. It can be shown that the energy dissipated per unit area in one sliding cycle due to friction is significant under general loading conditions. Therefore from an energy dissipated standpoint the bond energies of the silane molecules should not be enough to withstand even a short number of cycles. An extension of this is the energy imparted to the surface through a normal loading cycle through a loss of kinetic energy. It can also be shown that this is enough to break the silicon oxygen bonds however this is over a longer time scale than in sliding. Also there is an open question on the role of mobile and non-mobile adsorbed species on friction. Is the mobility of a molecule/layer on a surface an indicator of the effectiveness of the lubrication potential of the layer? Do submonolayer coverages of alcohols "lock-up" to contacting surfaces by disrupting non-corrogated potentials? Is there a distinct lowering of frictional forces at the formation of a monolayer? Controlled adsorption of mobile and non-mobile species on rubbing contacts is necessary to elucidate this physical relationship. To accomplish this one must take into account that friction measurements are highly scale dependant. Therefore to ensure the accuracy of measurements relating to microsystem contact conditions experiments must be conducted on actual microdevices. In the work presented here I have used microelectromechanical system (MEMS) tribometers to measure the friction and adhesive forces of SAM coated surfaces over the coarse of many sliding cycles as well as normal contacting cycles. It is shown that robustly adhered monolayer coatings degrade extremely rapidly and there is a direct correlation between the respective energies dissipated both in sliding and normal contacting cycles and the time it takes for the layers to degrade. Also it is shown that devices fail in two main modes: one where wear of the devices in the form of dislocation of polysilicon grains leads to a low/adhesion high wear regime and another where high adhesive forces are developed and the devices fail with little to no wear. In the studies of ultra low partial pressure lubrication of devices a clear correlation between lubricant mobility to device lubrication is observed even in the presence of a vapor, which should in principle be able to replenish removed lubricant in between sliding cycles. We show that ultralow partial pressures nominally corresponding to submonolayer coverages of ethanol and pentanol show a distinct decrease in coefficient of friction and lubricate MEMS microcontacts however this is only loosely correlated to their effectiveness as lubricants. Pentanol was only shown to lubricate at the point at which it becomes mobile on the surface where as ethanol is mobile at all times and lubricates effectively at very low partial pressures. Trifluoroethanol is not mobile at any portion of its isotherm and does not effectively lubricate the contacts. We also show the ability of the surrounding SAM to act as a lubricant reservoir when vapors of ethanol are removed. The correlation of lubricant mobility to lubrication can be used to predict the effectiveness to new lubricants as well as allow for the tailoring of lubricants to specific applications.

Hook, David Adam

285

Multi-physics investigation on the failure mechanism and short-time scale wave motion in flip-chip configuration  

E-print Network

employed to characterize the waves and the various failure modes associated with the moving of these short-lived dynamical disturbances in bulk materials and along interfaces. A qualitative measure for failure was also developed which enables the extent...

Oh, Yoonchan

2005-11-01

286

Post-instability in continuous systems. I - Failure of differentiability of solutions in continuum mechanics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that mathematical models of continua are based on certain assumptions regarding functions which must be at least piece-wise differentiable. The assumption about smoothness of the functions makes it possible to use the mathematical technique of differentiable equations. However, this artificial mathematical limitation follows neither from the principles of mechanics nor from the definition of a continuum. The price paid for such a mathematical convenience is instability (in the class of smooth functions) of the solutions to the corresponding governing equations in some regions of the parameters. A new mathematical technique should, therefore, be developed to describe the solutions which are not necessarily differentiable. The present investigation is concerned with the criteria of applicability of the classical models of continua from the view point of stability of the corresponding solutions, postinstability models derived by reformulation of the original models, and postinstability models in enlarged classes of functions.

Zak, M.

1982-01-01

287

Failure of feedback as a putative common mechanism of spreading depolarizations in migraine and stroke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of cortical function depends critically on proper regulation. Under conditions of migraine and stroke a breakdown of transmembrane chemical gradients can spread through cortical tissue. A concomitant component of this emergent spatio-temporal pattern is a depolarization of cells detected as slow voltage variations. The propagation velocity of ˜3mm/min indicates a contribution of diffusion. We propose a mechanism for spreading depolarizations (SD) that rests upon a nonlocal or noninstantaneous feedback in a reaction-diffusion system. Depending upon the characteristic space and time scales of the feedback, the propagation of cortical SD can be suppressed by shifting the bifurcation line, which separates the parameter regime of pulse propagation from the regime where a local disturbance dies out. The optimization of this feedback is elaborated for different control schemes and ranges of control parameters.

Dahlem, Markus A.; Schneider, Felix M.; Schöll, Eckehard

2008-06-01

288

Failure Mechanisms and Damage Model of Ductile Cast Iron Under Low-Cycle Fatigue Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue (LCF) tests were conducted on ductile cast iron (DCI) at strain rates of 0.02, 0.002, and 0.0002/s in the temperature range from room temperature to 1073 K (800 °C). A constitutive-damage model was developed within the integrated creep-fatigue theory (ICFT) framework on the premise of strain decomposition into rate-independent plasticity and time-dependent creep. Four major damage mechanisms: (i) plasticity-induced fatigue, (ii) intergranular embrittlement (IE), (iii) creep, and (iv) oxidation were considered in a nonlinear creep-fatigue interaction model which represents the overall damage accumulation process consisting of oxidation-assisted fatigue crack nucleation and propagation in coalescence with internally distributed damage ( e.g., IE and creep), leading to final fracture. The model was found to agree with the experimental observations of the complex DCI-LCF phenomena, for which the linear damage summation rule would fail.

Wu, Xijia; Quan, Guangchun; MacNeil, Ryan; Zhang, Zhong; Sloss, Clayton

2014-10-01

289

Early G2/M checkpoint failure as a molecular mechanism underlying etoposide-induced chromosomal aberrations  

PubMed Central

Topoisomerase II (Topo II) inhibitors are cell cycle–specific DNA-damaging agents and often correlate with secondary leukemia with chromosomal translocations involving the mixed-lineage leukemia/myeloid lymphoid leukemia (MLL) gene on chromosome 11 band q23 (11q23). In spite of the clinical importance, the molecular mechanism for this chromosomal translocation has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we employed 2-color FISH and detected intracellular chromosomal translocations induced by etoposide treatment. Cells such as ataxia-telangiectasia mutated–deficient fibroblasts and U2OS cells, in which the early G2/M checkpoint after treatment with low concentrations of etoposide has been lost, executed mitosis with etoposide-induced DNA double-strand breaks, and 2-color FISH signals located on either side of the MLL gene were segregated in the postmitotic G1 phase. Long-term culture of cells that had executed mitosis under etoposide treatment showed frequent structural abnormalities of chromosome 11. These findings provide convincing evidence for Topo II inhibitor–induced 11q23 translocation. Our study also suggests an important role of the early G2/M checkpoint in preventing fixation of chromosomal abnormalities and reveals environmental and genetic risk factors for the development of chromosome 11 translocations, namely, low concentrations of Topo II inhibitors and dysfunctional early G2/M checkpoint control. PMID:16357944

Nakada, Shinichiro; Katsuki, Yoko; Imoto, Issei; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Nagasawa, Masayuki; Inazawa, Johji; Mizutani, Shuki

2006-01-01

290

A preliminary analysis of failure mechanisms in karst and man-made underground caves in Southern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural and anthropogenic caves may represent a potential hazard for the built environment, due to the occurrence of instability within caves, that may propagate upward and eventually reach the ground surface, inducing the occurrence of sinkholes. In particular, when caves are at shallow depth, the effects at the ground surface may be extremely severe. Apulia region (southern Italy) hosts many sites where hazard associated with sinkholes is very serious due to presence of both natural karst caves and anthropogenic cavities, the latter being mostly represented by underground quarries. The Pliocene-Pleistocene calcarenite (a typical soft rock) was extensively quarried underground, by digging long and complex networks of tunnels. With time, these underground activities have progressively been abandoned and their memory lost, so that many Apulian towns are nowadays located just above the caves, due to urban expansion in the last decades. Therefore, a remarkable risk exists for society, which should not be left uninvestigated. The present contribution deals with the analysis of the most representative failure mechanisms observed in the field for such underground instability processes and the factors that seem to influence the processes, as for example those causing weathering of the rock and the consequent degradation of its physical and mechanical properties. Aimed at exploring the progression of instability of the cavities, numerical analyses have been developed by using both the finite element method for geological settings represented by continuous soft rock mass, and the distinct element method for jointed rock mass conditions. Both the effects of local instability processes occurring underground and the effects of the progressive enlargement of the caves on the overall stability of the rock mass have been investigated, along with the consequent failure mechanisms. In particular, degradation processes of the rock mass, as a consequence of wetting and weathering phenomena in the areas surrounding the caves, have been simulated. The results obtained from the numerical simulations have then been compared with what has been observed during field surveys and a satisfactory agreement between the numerical simulations and the instability processes, as detected in situ, has been noticed.

Parise, M.; Lollino, P.

2011-11-01

291

Mechanical properties and failure surfaces of gamma-ray irradiated systems based on thermoplastic 1,2 polybutadiene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of 60Co gamma-radiation on the mechanical properties of clay filled and unfilled 1,2 polybutadiene (1,2 PBD) and 1,2 PBD-natural rubber (NR) blends has been investigated. In the case of blends the effects on blend ratio and filler have been studied with reference to absorbed radiation dose varying from 0.1 to 100 Mrad at room temperature. Radiation was found to transform the flexible samples to brittle and rigid materials especially at high dose levels. The stress-strain behaviour, tensile strength, elongation, tension set and crosslink density were found to be markedly affected at dose levels of 10 Mrad and above. On irradiation 1,2 PBD was found to undergo predominantly crosslinking while the blends exhibited both crosslinking and chain scission due to the presence of NR. The tensile fracture surfaces of the irradiated samples were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to gain insight into the mechanism of failure.

Bhagawan, S. S.; Kuriakose, B.; De, S. K.

292

Mechanical properties and shear failure surfaces of two alumina powders in triaxial compression  

SciTech Connect

In the manufacture of ceramic components, near-net-shape parts are commonly formed by uniaxially pressing granulated powders in rigid dies. Density gradients that are introduced into a powder compact during press-forming often increase the cost of manufacturing, and can degrade the performance and reliability of the finished part. Finite element method (FEM) modeling can be used to predict powder compaction response, and can provide insight into the causes of density gradients in green powder compacts; however, accurate numerical simulations require accurate material properties and realistic constitutive laws. To support an effort to implement an advanced cap plasticity model within the finite element framework to realistically simulate powder compaction, the authors have undertaken a project to directly measure as many of the requisite powder properties for modeling as possible. A soil mechanics approach has been refined and used to measure the pressure dependent properties of ceramic powders up to 68.9 MPa (10,000 psi). Due to the large strains associated with compacting low bulk density ceramic powders, a two-stage process was developed to accurately determine the pressure-density relationship of a ceramic powder in hydrostatic compression, and the properties of that same powder compact under deviatoric loading at the same specific pressures. Using this approach, the seven parameters that are required for application of a modified Drucker-Prager cap plasticity model were determined directly. The details of the experimental techniques used to obtain the modeling parameters and the results for two different granulated alumina powders are presented.

ZEUCH,DAVID H.; GRAZIER,J. MARK; ARGUELLO JR.,JOSE G.; EWSUK,KEVIN G.

2000-04-24

293

Mechanical failure characterization of optical components caused by laser induced damage initiated at contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research is to quantify by numerical techniques the effects of surface and subsurface absorbing defects on damage initiation and growth in high power laser optical components. The defects include laser absorbing spots (e.g., surface particulate contamination) and surface damage regions (e.g., micro-cracks and voids) which are present due to environmental exposure and fabrication processes. This report focuses on three sources of contamination that can cause damage to optical components: (1) Front surface particle contamination, (2) Back surface particle contamination, and (3) Subsurface particle contamination. The DYNA2D (non-linear structural mechanics) code was used to model the growth of damage in the glass substrate. The damage in the nominally transparent glass substrate as a result of front surface particle contamination was found to be dependent on the magnitude of the resultant pressure pulse applied to the particle and the initial area of contact between the particle and glass substrate. The pressures generated from a back surface particle being blown off the surface provided sufficient loading to severely damage (crack) the glass substrate. A subsurface Ceria dioxide particle showed a strong surface interaction that influenced the formation and direction of the damage (cracking) that ultimately resulted in the blow-out of the damaged material leaving a relatively clean crater in the glass. Crater shape and size was determined. Since fused silica is the most transparent, and therefore laser damage resistant, of the optical materials, it is used for the most at-risk optical elements. The present studies are for a fused silica substrate. Some oxides such as Ceria are transparent in the infrared and visible, but absorbing in the UV part of the spectrum. Because ICF lasers like NIF use frequency tripling, effects of such oxides must be included.

Faux, D. R., LLNL

1997-12-01

294

Impact of defects on the electrical transport, optical properties and failure mechanisms of GaN nanowires.  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a three year LDRD project that focused on understanding the impact of defects on the electrical, optical and thermal properties of GaN-based nanowires (NWs). We describe the development and application of a host of experimental techniques to quantify and understand the physics of defects and thermal transport in GaN NWs. We also present the development of analytical models and computational studies of thermal conductivity in GaN NWs. Finally, we present an atomistic model for GaN NW electrical breakdown supported with experimental evidence. GaN-based nanowires are attractive for applications requiring compact, high-current density devices such as ultraviolet laser arrays. Understanding GaN nanowire failure at high-current density is crucial to developing nanowire (NW) devices. Nanowire device failure is likely more complex than thin film due to the prominence of surface effects and enhanced interaction among point defects. Understanding the impact of surfaces and point defects on nanowire thermal and electrical transport is the first step toward rational control and mitigation of device failure mechanisms. However, investigating defects in GaN NWs is extremely challenging because conventional defect spectroscopy techniques are unsuitable for wide-bandgap nanostructures. To understand NW breakdown, the influence of pre-existing and emergent defects during high current stress on NW properties will be investigated. Acute sensitivity of NW thermal conductivity to point-defect density is expected due to the lack of threading dislocation (TD) gettering sites, and enhanced phonon-surface scattering further inhibits thermal transport. Excess defect creation during Joule heating could further degrade thermal conductivity, producing a viscous cycle culminating in catastrophic breakdown. To investigate these issues, a unique combination of electron microscopy, scanning luminescence and photoconductivity implemented at the nanoscale will be used in concert with sophisticated molecular-dynamics calculations of surface and defect-mediated NW thermal transport. This proposal seeks to elucidate long standing material science questions for GaN while addressing issues critical to realizing reliable GaN NW devices.

Armstrong, Andrew M.; Aubry, Sylvie; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Siegal, Michael P.; Li, Qiming; Jones, Reese E.; Westover, Tyler; Wang, George T.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Talin, Albert Alec; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Harris, C. Thomas; Huang, Jian Yu

2010-09-01

295

Blocking NMDA receptors delays death in rats with acute liver failure by dual protective mechanisms in kidney and brain.  

PubMed

Treatment of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) is unsatisfactory and mortality remains unacceptably high. Blocking NMDA receptors delays or prevents death of rats with ALF. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Clarifying these mechanisms will help to design more efficient treatments to increase patient's survival. The aim of this work was to shed light on the mechanisms by which blocking NMDA receptors delays rat's death in ALF. ALF was induced by galactosamine injection. NMDA receptors were blocked by continuous MK-801 administration. Edema and cerebral blood flow were assessed by magnetic resonance. The time course of ammonia levels in brain, muscle, blood, and urine; of glutamine, lactate, and water content in brain; of glomerular filtration rate and kidney damage; and of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and intracranial pressure was assessed. ALF reduces kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as reflected by reduced inulin clearance. GFR reduction is due to both reduced renal perfusion and kidney tubular damage as reflected by increased Kim-1 in urine and histological analysis. Blocking NMDA receptors delays kidney damage, allowing transient increased GFR and ammonia elimination which delays hyperammonemia and associated changes in brain. Blocking NMDA receptors does not prevent cerebral edema or blood-brain barrier permeability but reduces or prevents changes in cerebral blood flow and brain lactate. The data show that dual protective effects of MK-801 in kidney and brain delay cerebral alterations, HE, intracranial pressure increase and death. NMDA receptors antagonists may increase survival of patients with ALF by providing additional time for liver transplantation or regeneration. PMID:24338618

Cauli, Omar; González-Usano, Alba; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Gimenez-Garzó, Carla; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Ruiz-Sauri, Amparo; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Duszczyk, Malgorzata; Malek, Michal; Lazarewicz, Jerzy W; Carratalá, Arturo; Urios, Amparo; Miguel, Alfonso; Torregrosa, Isidro; Carda, Carmen; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

2014-06-01

296

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Power Generation, Inc proposed a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2005-10-01

297

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2005-04-01

298

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2002-04-01

299

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2003-07-01

300

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2003-10-01

301

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land -based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems; a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2004-10-01

302

Impermeable thin AI2O3 overlay for TBC protection from sulfate and vanadate attack in gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, a dense and continues overlay of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating of about 0.1-25 {micro}m thick was deposited on the surface of TBC by EB-PVD, high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray and composite-sol-gel (CSG) techniques. Hot corrosion tests were carried out on the TBC with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in molten salts mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C for 10h. The microstructures of TBC and overlay before and after exposure were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). In order to investigate the effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay on degradation and spalling of the TBC, indentation test has been employed to study spallation behaviors of YSZ coating with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. It has been found that TBC will react with V{sub 2}O5 to form YVO{sub 4} in hot corrosion tests. A substantial amount of M-phase of ZrO{sub 2} was formed due to the leaching of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} from YSZ. During hot corrosion test, there were no significant interactions between overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating and molten salts. After exposure, the alumina coating, especially produced by HVOF, was still very dense and cover the surface of YSZ, although they had been translated to {alpha} - Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from original {gamma} - Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. As a result, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating decreased the penetration of salts into the YSZ and prevented the YSZ from the attack by molten salts containing vanadium. Accordingly, only a few M-phase was formed in YSZ TBC, compared with TBC without overlay coating. The penetration of salts into alumina coating was thought to be through microcracks formed in overlay Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating and at the interface between alumina and zirconia due to the presence of tensile stress in the alumina coating. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay acted as a barrier against the infiltration of the molten salt into the YSZ coating during exposure, thus significantly reduced the amount of M-phase of ZrO{sub 2} in YSZ coating. However, a thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay was harmful for TBC by increasing compressive stress which causes crack and spalling of YSZ coating. As a result, a dense and thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay is critical for simultaneously preventing YSZ from hot corrosion and spalling.

Scott X. Mao

2005-10-30

303

Associations of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes to heart failure: Epidemiology, potential mechanisms, and clinical perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart failure, a common condition in most industrialized nations, is disabling and deadly. Type 2 diabetes, recognized as\\u000a a risk factor for incident heart failure more than three decades ago, consistently has been associated with a twofold to threefold\\u000a increased risk of heart failure and type 2 diabetes often coexist, and several studies have shown that type 2 diabetes in

Erik Ingelsson

2008-01-01

304

Development of a ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Ettringite and Study of its Mechanical Failure Modes from Reactive Dynamics  

E-print Network

Development of a ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Ettringite and Study of its Mechanical Failure developed a first-principles-based ReaxFF reactive force field for Ca/Al/H/O/S. Here, we report on the development of this ReaxFF force field and on its validation and application using reactive molecular dynamics

Goddard III, William A.

305

Preventing Renal Transplant Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Introduction: Allograft failure due to immunological or non-immunological causes or a combination and patient death after transplantation are the 2 major causes of renal transplant loss. This paper reviews the various causes of allograft failure and explores strategies for its prevention. Results: Immune mechanisms of renal allograft failure are those mediated by acute and chronic rejection and are initiated

A Vathsala

2005-01-01

306

Modeling shear failure and permeability enhancement due to coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical processes in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The connectivity and accessible surface area of flowing fractures, whether natural or man-made, is possibly the single most important factor, after temperature, which determines the feasibility of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). Rock deformation and in-situ stress changes induced by injected fluids can lead to shear failure on preexisting fractures which can generate microseismic events, and also enhance the permeability and accessible surface area of the geothermal formation. Hence, the ability to accurately model the coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) processes in fractured geological formations is critical in effective EGS reservoir development and management strategies. The locations of the microseismic events can serve as indicators of the zones of enhanced permeability, thus providing vital information for verification of the coupled THM models. We will describe a general purpose computational code, FEHM, developed for this purpose, that models coupled THM processes during multiphase fluid flow and transport in fractured porous media. The code incorporates several models of fracture aperture and stress behavior combined with permeability relationships. We provide field scale examples of applications to geothermal systems to demonstrate the utility of the method.

Kelkar, Sharad [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

307

Failure in post-transcriptional processing is a possible inactivation mechanism of AP-2 ? in cutaneous melanoma  

PubMed Central

The loss of transcription factor AP-2? expression has been shown to associate with tumourigenicity of melanoma cell lines and poor prognosis in primary cutaneous melanoma. Altogether these findings suggest that the gene encoding AP-2? (TFAP2A) acts as a tumour suppressor in melanoma. To learn more of AP-2?’s down-regulation mechanisms, we compared the immunohistochemical AP-2? protein expression patterns with the corresponding mRNA expression detected by in situ hybridization in 52 primary melanomas. Of the 25 samples with AP-2? protein negative areas, 16 (64%) expressed mRNA throughout the consecutive section. Nine specimens (36%) contained equally mRNA- and protein-negative areas, suggesting that the loss of AP-2? protein associated with lack of the mRNA transcript. The highly AP-2? protein-positive tumours (n = 27) were concordantly mRNA positive in 25 (92.6%) cases. Thirteen primary tumours were further analysed using microsatellite markers D6S470 and D6S263 for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of a locus harbouring TFAP2A. LOHs or chromosome 6 monosomy were found in four out of five (80%) informative AP-2? mRNA- and protein-negative tumour areas, but also within five out of 13 (38%) informative AP-2? mRNA-positive tumour areas. This chromosome region is thus suggestive of harbouring a putative tumour suppressor gene of cutaneous melanoma, but this referring specifically to TFAP2A could not be completely verified in this analysis. We conclude that a failure in post-transcriptional processing of AP-2? is a possible inactivation mechanism of AP-2? in cutaneous melanoma. Copyright 2000 Cancer Research Campaign© 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10864211

Karjalainen, J M; Kellokoski, J K; Mannermaa, A J; Kujala, H E; Moisio, K I; Mitchell, P J; Eskelinen, M J; Alhava, E M; Kosma, V M

2000-01-01

308

Key condenser failure mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

Eight practical lessons highlight many of the factors that can influence condenser tube corrosion at coal-fired utilities and the effects contaminant in-leakage can have on steam generating units. 1 ref., 4 figs.

Buecker, B.

2009-04-15

309

A common Greenlandic TBC1D4 variant confers muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

The Greenlandic population, a small and historically isolated founder population comprising about 57,000 inhabitants, has experienced a dramatic increase in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence during the past 25 years. Motivated by this, we performed association mapping of T2D-related quantitative traits in up to 2,575 Greenlandic individuals without known diabetes. Using array-based genotyping and exome sequencing, we discovered a nonsense p.Arg684Ter variant (in which arginine is replaced by a termination codon) in the gene TBC1D4 with an allele frequency of 17%. Here we show that homozygous carriers of this variant have markedly higher concentrations of plasma glucose (? = 3.8?mmol?l(-1), P = 2.5?×?10(-35)) and serum insulin (? = 165?pmol?l(-1), P = 1.5?×?10(-20)) 2 hours after an oral glucose load compared with individuals with other genotypes (both non-carriers and heterozygous carriers). Furthermore, homozygous carriers have marginally lower concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (? = -0.18 mmol?l(-1), P = 1.1?×?10(-6)) and fasting serum insulin (? = -8.3?pmol?l(-1), P = 0.0014), and their T2D risk is markedly increased (odds ratio (OR) = 10.3, P = 1.6?×?10(-24)). Heterozygous carriers have a moderately higher plasma glucose concentration 2 hours after an oral glucose load than non-carriers (? = 0.43?mmol?l(-1), P = 5.3?×?10(-5)). Analyses of skeletal muscle biopsies showed lower messenger RNA and protein levels of the long isoform of TBC1D4, and lower muscle protein levels of the glucose transporter GLUT4, with increasing number of p.Arg684Ter alleles. These findings are concomitant with a severely decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle, leading to postprandial hyperglycaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and T2D. The observed effect sizes are several times larger than any previous findings in large-scale genome-wide association studies of these traits and constitute further proof of the value of conducting genetic association studies outside the traditional setting of large homogeneous populations. PMID:25043022

Moltke, Ida; Grarup, Niels; Jørgensen, Marit E; Bjerregaard, Peter; Treebak, Jonas T; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Andersen, Marianne A; Nielsen, Thomas S; Krarup, Nikolaj T; Gjesing, Anette P; Zierath, Juleen R; Linneberg, Allan; Wu, Xueli; Sun, Guangqing; Jin, Xin; Al-Aama, Jumana; Wang, Jun; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Pedersen, Oluf; Nielsen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Anders; Hansen, Torben

2014-08-14

310

Identification and Association of SNPs in TBC1D1 Gene with Growth Traits in Two Rabbit Breeds.  

PubMed

The TBC1D1 plays a key role in body energy homeostasis by regulating the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. The present study aimed to identify the association between genetic polymorphisms of TBC1D1 and body weight (BW) in rabbits. Among the total of 12 SNPs detected in all 20 exons, only one SNP was non-synonymous (c.214G>A. p.G72R) located in exon 1. c.214G>A was subsequently genotyped among 491 individuals from two rabbit breeds by the high-resolution melting method. Allele A was the predominant allele with frequencies of 0.7780 and 0.6678 in European white rabbit (EWR, n = 205) and New Zealand White rabbit (NZW, n = 286), respectively. The moderate polymorphism information content (0.250.05). Our results implied that the c.214G>A of TBC1D1 gene might be one of the candidate loci affecting the trait of 35 d BW in the rabbit. PMID:25049738

Yang, Zhi-Juan; Fu, Lu; Zhang, Gong-Wei; Yang, Yu; Chen, Shi-Yi; Wang, Jie; Lai, Song-Jia

2013-11-01

311

The Adaptor Protein APPL2 Inhibits Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Uptake by Interacting With TBC1D1 in Skeletal Muscle.  

PubMed

Insulin stimulates glucose uptake by promoting the trafficking of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in muscle cells, and impairment of this insulin action contributes to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. The adaptor protein APPL1 potentiates insulin-stimulated Akt activation and downstream actions. However, the physiological functions of APPL2, a close homolog of APPL1, in regulating glucose metabolism remain elusive. We show that insulin-evoked plasma membrane recruitment of GLUT4 and glucose uptake are impaired by APPL2 overexpression but enhanced by APPL2 knockdown. Likewise, conditional deletion of APPL2 in skeletal muscles enhances insulin sensitivity, leading to an improvement in glucose tolerance. We identified the Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 as an interacting partner of APPL2. Insulin stimulates TBC1D1 phosphorylation on serine 235, leading to enhanced interaction with the BAR domain of APPL2, which in turn suppresses insulin-evoked TBC1D1 phosphorylation on threonine 596 in cultured myotubes and skeletal muscle. Substitution of serine 235 with alanine diminishes APPL2-mediated inhibition on insulin-dependent TBC1D1 phosphorylation on threonine 596 and the suppressive effects of TBC1D1 on insulin-induced glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in cultured myotubes. Therefore, the APPL2-TBC1D1 interaction is a key step to fine tune insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by regulating the membrane recruitment of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle. PMID:24879834

Cheng, Kenneth K Y; Zhu, Weidong; Chen, Bin; Wang, Yu; Wu, Donghai; Sweeney, Gary; Wang, Baile; Lam, Karen S L; Xu, Aimin

2014-11-01

312

Outcomes of stem cell transplant patients with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in the United States.  

PubMed

SCT indications and procedures are increasing worldwide. We sought to estimate the prevalence of acute respiratory failure (ARF) of any cause in hospitalized SCT patients, and assess the impact of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) on outcomes. We hypothesize that duration of IMV in such patients is an independent predictor of higher mortality. We performed a retrospective analysis of the largest all-payer hospitalization data set in the United States, Nationwide In-patient Sample for years 2004-2010. Of the 101?462 SCT hospitalizations, 6074 (6%) developed ARF and were the final cohort. Type of SCT with ARF included autologous 1987 (32.7%), allogeneic 3467 (57.1%) and cord blood 655 (10.8%). Duration of IMV included <96?h (17.1%) and ?96?h (41.1%). Overall in-hospital mortality (IHM) was 50.6% (3075). Predictors of IHM were IMV <96?h (odds ratio=3.42 (2.44-4.79), P<0.0001) or IMV ?96?h (OR=4.61 (3.17-6.70), P<0.0001). Type of SCT, comorbid burden, gender, hospital-teaching status/bed size or insurance did not influence IHM. IMV ?96?h was associated with higher hospital charges (mean $762?515, 95% estimate 0.3991 (0.3123-0.4859), increase of $304?474, P<0.0001) and higher length of stay (mean 61.5 days, 95% estimate 0.2198 (0.1531-0.2866), increase of 13 days, P<0.0001). In conclusion, ARF in hospitalized SCT patients is not an uncommon occurrence and is associated with 50% mortality. Duration of IMV (?96?h) was an independent predictor of higher mortality rates. Hospital resource utilization was significant. PMID:25111514

Allareddy, V; Roy, A; Rampa, S; Lee, M K; Nalliah, R P; Allareddy, V; Rotta, A T

2014-10-01

313

Cobalt-Alloy Implant Debris Induce HIF-1? Hypoxia Associated Responses: A Mechanism for Metal-Specific Orthopedic Implant Failure  

PubMed Central

The historical success of orthopedic implants has been recently tempered by unexpected pathologies and early failures of some types of Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum alloy containing artificial hip implants. Hypoxia-associated responses to Cobalt-alloy metal debris were suspected as mediating this untoward reactivity at least in part. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1? is a major transcription factor involved in hypoxia, and is a potent coping mechanism for cells to rapidly respond to changing metabolic demands. We measured signature hypoxia associated responses (i.e. HIF-1?, VEGF and TNF-?) to Cobalt-alloy implant debris both in vitro (using a human THP-1 macrophage cell line and primary human monocytes/macrophages) and in vivo. HIF-1? in peri-implant tissues of failed metal-on-metal implants were compared to similar tissues from people with metal-on-polymer hip arthroplasties, immunohistochemically. Increasing concentrations of cobalt ions significantly up-regulated HIF-1? with a maximal response at 0.3 mM. Cobalt-alloy particles (1 um-diameter, 10 particles/cell) induced significantly elevated HIF-1?, VEGF, TNF-? and ROS expression in human primary macrophages whereas Titanium-alloy particles did not. Elevated expression of HIF-1? was found in peri-implant tissues and synovial fluid of people with failing Metal-on-Metal hips (n?=?5) compared to failed Metal-on-Polymer articulating hip arthroplasties (n?=?10). This evidence suggests that Cobalt-alloy, more than other metal implant debris (e.g. Titanium alloy), can elicit hypoxia-like responses that if unchecked can lead to unusual peri-implant pathologies, such as lymphocyte infiltration, necrosis and excessive fibrous tissue growths. PMID:23840602

Samelko, Lauryn; Caicedo, Marco S.; Lim, Seung-Jae; Della-Valle, Craig; Jacobs, Joshua; Hallab, Nadim J.

2013-01-01

314

Metallization failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallization-related failure mechanisms were shown to be a major cause of integrated circuit failures under accelerated stress conditions, as well as in actual use under field operation. The integrated circuit industry is aware of the problem and is attempting to solve it in one of two ways: (1) better understanding of the aluminum system, which is the most widely used metallization material for silicon integrated circuits both as a single level and multilevel metallization, or (2) evaluating alternative metal systems. Aluminum metallization offers many advantages, but also has limitations particularly at elevated temperatures and high current densities. As an alternative, multilayer systems of the general form, silicon device-metal-inorganic insulator-metal, are being considered to produce large scale integrated arrays. The merits and restrictions of metallization systems in current usage and systems under development are defined.

Beatty, R.

1971-01-01

315

TBCs for Gas Turbines under Thermomechanical Loadings: Failure Behaviour and Life Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present contribution gives an overview about recent research on a thermal barrier coating (TBC) system consisted of (i) an intermetallic MCrAlY-alloy Bondcoat (BC) applied by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) and (ii) an Yttria Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) top coat air plasma sprayed (APS) at Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1). The influence of high temperature dwell time, maximum and minimum temperature on crack growth kinetics during thermal cycling of such plasma sprayed TBCs is investigated using infrared pulse thermography (IT), acoustic emission (AE) analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Thermocyclic life in terms of accumulated time at maximum temperature decreases with increasing high temperature dwell time and increases with increasing minimum temperature. AE analysis proves that crack growth mainly occurs during cooling at temperatures below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of the BC. Superimposed mechanical load cycles accelerate delamination crack growth and, in case of sufficiently high mechanical loadings, result in premature fatigue failure of the substrate. A life prediction model based on TGO growth kinetics and a fracture mechanics approach has been developed which accounts for the influence of maximum and minimum temperature as well as of high temperature dwell time with good accuracy in an extremely wide parameter range.

Beck, T.; Trunova, O.; Herzog, R.; Singheiser, L.

2012-10-01

316

Dynamic failure mechanisms in a 6061-T6 Al\\/Al 2O 3 metal—matrix composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic failure of an alumina particle-reinforced 6061-T6 aluminum alloy composite has been studied using a tension Kolsky bar, and the process of fracture has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The failure of a 6061-T6 aluminum alloy was also studied for purposes of comparison. The composite was found to fail in a macroscopically brittle manner in tension, with a

D. R. Chichili; K. T. Ramesh

1995-01-01

317

Thermal-mechanical fatigue of MAR-M 509 with a thermal barrier coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental set-up utilizing indirect induction heating suitable for thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) tests of high-temperature materials with thermal barrier coatings (TBC) is described. This set-up employed for TMF testing of the Co-based superalloy MAR-M 509 with a NiCoCrAlY bond coat and a ZrO2 topcoat was able to generate temperature gradients across the TBC similar to the in-service conditions inside a

B Baufeld; E Tzimas; H Müllejans; S Peteves; J Bressers; W Stamm

2001-01-01

318

Identification of corrosion and damage mechanisms by using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis: contribution to failure analysis case histories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emphasis is placed on the evaluation of corrosion failures of copper and machineable brass alloys during service. Typical corrosion failures of the presented case histories mainly focussed on stress corrosion cracking and dezincification that acted as the major degradation mechanisms in components used in piping and water supply systems. SEM assessment, coupled with EDS spectroscopy, revealed the main cracking modes together with the root-source(s) that are responsible for the damage initiation and evolution. In addition, fracture surface observations contributed to the identification of the incurred fracture mechanisms and potential environmental issues that stimulated crack initiation and propagation. Very frequently, the detection of chlorides among the corrosion products served as a suggestive evidence of the influence of working environment on passive layer destabilisation and metal dissolution.

Pantazopoulos, G.; Vazdirvanidis, A.

2014-03-01

319

Effect of ENIG deposition on the failure mechanisms of thermomechanically loaded lead-free 2nd level interconnections in LTCC\\/PWB assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of electroless NiAu (ENIG) deposition on the failure mechanisms and characteristic lifetimes of three different non-collapsible lead-free 2nd level interconnections in low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC)\\/printed wiring board (PWB) assemblies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Five LTCC module\\/PWB assemblies were fabricated and exposed to a temperature cycling test over a ?40 to

O. Nousiainen; T. Kangasvieri; K. Kautio; R. Rautioaho; J. Vähäkangas

2010-01-01

320

Mechanical Strength and Failure Characteristics of Cast Mg-9 pctAl-1 pctZn Alloys Produced by a Heated-Mold Continuous Casting Process: Tensile Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties and failure characteristics of a cast Mg alloy (AZ91: Mg-Al8.9-Zn0.6-Mn0.2) produced by a heated-mold continuous casting process (HMC) are investigated. In a modification of the original HMC process, the cooling of the liquid alloy by direct water spray is carried out in an atmosphere of high-purity argon gas. The HMC-AZ91 alloy exhibits excellent mechanical properties (high strength and high ductility) that are about twice as high as those for the same alloy produced by conventional gravity casting. The increased material strength and ductility of the HMC sample are attributed to nanoscale and microscale microstructural characteristics. The fine grains and tiny spherical eutectic structures ( e.g., Mg17Al12 and Al6Mn) distributed randomly in the matrix of the HMC alloy result in resistance to dislocation movement, leading to high tensile strength. Basal slip on (0001) planes in the relatively organized crystal orientation of the HMC alloy, as well as grain boundary sliding through tiny spherical eutectic structures, results in high ductility. Details of the failure mechanism under static loading in the HMC alloy are also discussed using failure models.

Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Shuhei; Ohfuji, Hiroaki

2014-11-01

321

Loss-of-Function Mutations in TBC1D20 Cause Cataracts and Male Infertility in blind sterile Mice and Warburg Micro Syndrome in Humans  

PubMed Central

blind sterile (bs) is a spontaneous autosomal-recessive mouse mutation discovered more than 30 years ago. Phenotypically, bs mice exhibit nuclear cataracts and male infertility; genetic analyses assigned the bs locus to mouse chromosome 2. In this study, we first positionally cloned the bs locus and identified a putative causative mutation in the Tbc1d20 gene. Functional analysis established the mouse TBC1D20 protein as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for RAB1 and RAB2, and bs as a TBC1D20 loss-of-function mutation. Evaluation of bs mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mEFs) identified enlarged Golgi morphology and aberrant lipid droplet (LD) formation. Based on the function of TBC1D20 as a RABGAP and the bs cataract and testicular phenotypes, we hypothesized that mutations in TBC1D20 may contribute to Warburg micro syndrome (WARBM); WARBM constitutes a spectrum of disorders characterized by eye, brain, and endocrine abnormalities caused by mutations in RAB3GAP1, RAB3GAP2, and RAB18. Sequence analysis of a cohort of 77 families affected by WARBM identified five distinct TBC1D20 loss-of-function mutations, thereby establishing these mutations as causative of WARBM. Evaluation of human fibroblasts deficient in TBC1D20 function identified aberrant LDs similar to those identified in the bs mEFs. Additionally, our results show that human fibroblasts deficient in RAB18 and RAB3GAP1 function also exhibit aberrant LD formation. These findings collectively indicate that a defect in LD formation/metabolism may be a common cellular abnormality associated with WARBM, although it remains unclear whether abnormalities in LD metabolism are contributing to WARBM disease pathology. PMID:24239381

Liegel, Ryan P.; Handley, Mark T.; Ronchetti, Adam; Brown, Stephen; Langemeyer, Lars; Linford, Andrea; Chang, Bo; Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J.; Carpanini, Sarah; Posmyk, Renata; Harthill, Verity; Sheridan, Eamonn; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M.H.; Terhal, Paulien A.; Faravelli, Francesca; Accorsi, Patrizia; Giordano, Lucio; Pinelli, Lorenzo; Hartmann, Britta; Ebert, Allison D.; Barr, Francis A.; Aligianis, Irene A.; Sidjanin, Duska J.

2013-01-01

322

Material property evaluation of thick thermal barrier coating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coating system optimization is a critical step in the design and development of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) for diesel engines. The author reports on physical and mechanical property measurements and bench screening tests performed to evaluate the candidate TBC systems. Additional understanding of the material behavior and failure mechanisms of thick TBC's gained from the property measurements and bench

R. C. Brink

1989-01-01

323

Failure mechanism of Pb-bearing and Pb-free solder joints under high-speed shear loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure behaviors of ball grid array (BGA) solder ball joints under the various loading speeds of the high-speed shear\\u000a test were investigated both experimentally and with non-linear, 3-dimensional finite element modeling. Conventional Sn-37Pb\\u000a and Pb-free, Sn-3.5Ag solder alloys were used to compare the failure behaviors. Far greater shear forces were measured by\\u000a the high-speed shear test than by the

Jong-Woong Kim; Seung-Boo Jung

2010-01-01

324

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump ... the lungs, where it picks up oxygen. The Heart's Pumping Action In normal hearts, blood vessels called ...

325

Thermal barrier coating life modeling in aircraft gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical models for predicting ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) spalling life in aircraft gas turbine engines are presented. Electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) and plasma sprayed TBC systems are discussed. An overview of the following TBC spalling mechanisms is presented: metal oxidation at the ceramic-metal interface, ceramic-metal interface stress singularities at edges and corners, ceramic-metal interface stresses caused by radius of curvature and interface roughness, material properties and mechanical behavior, temperature gradients, component design features and object impact damage. TBC spalling life analytical models are proposed based on observations of TBC spalling and plausible failure theories. TBC spalling was assumed to occur when the imposed stresses exceed the material strength (at or near the ceramic-metal interface). TBC failure knowledge gaps caused by lack of experimental evidence and analytical understanding are noted. The analytical models are considered initial engineering approaches that capture observed TBC failure trends.

Nissley, David M.

1995-01-01

326

The role of soil processes in determining mechanisms of slope failure and hillslope development in a humid-tropical forest eastern Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Translational failures, with associated downslope earthflow components and shallow slides, appear to be the primary mechanism of hillslope denudation in the humid tropical forests of the mountains of eastern Puerto Rico. In-situ weathering of quartz diorite and marine-deposited volcaniclastics produces residual soil (saprolite; up to 21 m deep) / weathered rock profiles. Discontinuous zones of contrasting density and permeability particularly in quartz-diorite slopes at 0.5 m, and between 3 and 7 m, create both pathways and impedances for water that can result in excess pore pressures and, ultimately, aid in determining the location of failure planes and magnitudes of slope failures. In combination with relict fractures which create planes of weakness within the saprolite, and the potential significance of tensile stresses in the upper zone of saprolite (hypothesized to be caused by subsurface soil creep), shear failure can then occur during or after periods of heavy rainfall. Results of in-situ shear-strength testing show negative y-intercepts on the derived Mohr-Coulomb failure envelopes (approximately 50% of all tests) that are interpreted as apparent tensile stresses. Observation of tension cracks 1-2 m deep support the test data. Subsurface soil creep can cause extension of the soil and the development of tensile stresses along upper-slope segments. Shear-strength data support this hypothesis for both geologic types. Apparent values of maximum and mean tensile stress are greatest along upper slopes (16.5 and 6.29 kPa). Previously documented maximum rates of downslope movement coincided with local minima of shear strength, and the shear-strength minimum for all tests was located near 0.5 m below land surface, the shallow zone of contrasting permeabilities. These results indicate that subsurface soil creep, a slow semi-continuous process, may exert a profound influence on rapid, shallow slope failures in saprolitic soils. Data indicate that cove slopes in quartz diorite tend to be the most unstable when saturation levels reach 75%. Deep failures (7 m deep) appear the most critical but not the most frequent because pore pressure build-up will occur more rapidly in the upper perched zone of translocated clays before reaching the lower zone between 3 and 7 m. Frequent shallow failures could reduce the probability of deeper failures by removing overburden and reducing shear stress at depth. Deep failures are more likely to result from storm events of great duration and intensity. Sixty-six 'naturally occurring' and more than 100 'road-related' landslides were mapped. Forest elevations exceed 1000 m, but the majority of these failures were found between 600 and 800 m in elevation. This appears to be the area where there is sufficient concentration of subsurface water to result in excess pore pressures. The high percentage of slope failures in the 600-800-m range, relative to the percentage at higher elevations, suggests that differences in soil-water processes are responsible for the form of these mountain slopes. Steep linear segments are maintained at higher elevations. Slope angles are reduced in the 600-800-m range by frequent shallow slides, creating a largely concave surface. In combination, slope segments above 800 m, and those between 600 and 800 m, produce the characteristic form of the mountains of eastern Puerto Rico.

Simon, Andrew; Larsen, Matthew C.; Hupp, Cliff R.

1990-09-01

327

Imperatorin prevents cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure via NO-dependent mechanisms in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Augmented endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) signaling has been reported to be associated with improvements in cardiac remodeling, and NO levels have been shown to be related to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Imperatorin, a dietary furanocoumarin, has been shown to prevent cardiac hypertrophy in the spontaneous hypertension rats (SHR). Thus, we aimed to clarify whether imperatorin attenuates both

Yan Zhang; YanJun Cao; HaiJie Duan; Hongying Wang; LangChong He

328

IMPERMEABLE THIN Al2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES  

SciTech Connect

In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating has been successfully produced on the surface of YSZ by the Sol-gel route. The YSZ substrates were coated with boehmite sol by dip coating process, dried to form a gel film and calcined at 1200 C to form {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. The microstructures of TBC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that micro-pores ranged from 3 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and micro-cracks could be clearly seen on the surface of APS YSZ coating. The thickness of alumina overlay increased with increasing the number of dip coating circles. The small microcracks (0.5-1.0 {micro}m width) on the YSZ surface could be filled and blocked by calcined alumina particles, whereas large pores remained empty and the alumina overlay was un-continuous after one time dip coating circle. Alumina overlay thicker than 5 m m obtained by five times dip coating circles largely cracked after calcinations. As a result, multiple dip coatings up to three times were ideal for getting high quality, crack- free and continuous overlay. The optimal thickness of alumina overlay was in the range of 2.5-3.5 {micro}m. In the next reporting period, we will study the hot corrosion behaviors of YSZ TBC with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating produced by sol gel route by exposure the samples to molten salts mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C.

Scott X. Mao

2002-11-30

329

Failure Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three questions to which software developers want accurate, precise answers are "How can the software system fail?", "mat bad things will happen if the software fails?t', and "How many failures will the software experience?". Numerous techniques have been devised to answer these questions; three of the best known are: 1) Software Fault Tree Analysis (SFTA) 2) Software Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (SFMECA 3) Software Fault/Failure Modeling. SFTA and SFMECA have been successfully used to analyze the flight software for a number of robotic planetary exploration missions, including Galileo, Cassini, and Deep Space 1. Given the increasing interest in reusing software components from mission to mission, one of us has developed techniques for reusing the corresponding portions of the SFTA and SFMECA, reducing the effort required to conduct these analyses. SFTA has also been shown to be effective in analyzing the security aspects of software systems; intrusion mechanisms and effects can easily be modeled using these techniques. The Bi- Directional Safety Analysis (BDSA) method combines a forward search (similar to SFMECA) from potential failure modes to their effects, with a backward search (similar to SFTA) from feasible hazards to the contributing causes of each hazard. BDSA offers an efficient way to identify latent failures. Recent work has extended BDSA to product-line applications such as flight-instrumentation displays and developed tool support for the reuse of the failure-analysis artifacts within a product line. BDSA has also been streamlined to support those projects having tight cost and/or schedule constraints for their failure analysis efforts. We discuss lessons learned from practice, describe available tools, and identi@ some future directions for the topic. A substantial amount of research has been devoted to estimating the number of failures that a software system will experience during test and operations, as well as the number of faults that have been inserted into that system during its development. One of us has found that the amount of structural change to a system during its development is strongly related to the number of faults inserted into it. Using techniques requiring no additional effort on the part of the development organization, the required measurements of structural evolution can be easily obtained from a development effort's configuration management system and readily transformed into an estimate of fault content. So far, structure-fault relationships have been identified for source code; current work seeks to examine artifacts available earlier in the lifecycle to determine if similar relationships between structure and fault content can be found. In particular, relationships between requirements change requests and the number of faults inserted into the implemented system would provide a significant improvement in our ability to control software quality during the early development phases.

Lutz, Robyn; Nikora, Allen

2005-01-01

330

Failure Rate - A Unified Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aging, of biological and mechanical systems, is well described as 'deterioration of the power to withstand destruction.' The failure rate concept is the mathematical way of describing aging. Failure rates have been defined for discrete and continuous time...

L. Lee, W. A. Thompson

1975-01-01

331

Myocardial Injury after Surgery Is a Risk Factor for Weaning Failure from Mechanical Ventilation in Critical Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) is a newly proposed concept that is common among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery and associated with substantial mortality. We analyzed whether MINS was a risk factor for weaning failure in critical patients who underwent major abdominal surgery. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Critical Care Medicine of Peking University People's Hospital. The subjects were all critically ill patients who underwent major abdominal surgery between January 2011 and December 2013. Clinical and laboratory parameters during the perioperative period were investigated. Backward stepwise regression analysis was performed to evaluate MINS relative to the rate of weaning failure. Age, hypertension, chronic renal disease, left ventricular ejection fraction before surgery, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, pleural effusion, pneumonia, acute kidney injury, duration of mechanical ventilation before weaning and the level of albumin after surgery were treated as independent variables. Results This study included 381 patients, of whom 274 were successfully weaned. MINS was observed in 42.0% of the patients. The MINS incidence was significantly higher in patients who failed to be weaned compared to patients who were successfully weaned (56.1% versus 36.5%; P<0.001). Independent predictive factors of weaning failure were MINS, age, lower left ventricular ejection fraction before surgery and lower serum albumin level after surgery. The MINS odds ratio was 4.098 (95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 15.6; P?=?0.04). The patients who were successfully weaned had shorter hospital stay lengths and a higher survival rate than those who failed to be weaned. Conclusion MINS is a risk factor for weaning failure from mechanical ventilation in critical patients who have undergone major abdominal surgery, independent of age, lower left ventricular ejection fraction before surgery and lower serum albumin levels after surgery. PMID:25409182

Li, Shu; An, You-zhong; Ren, Jing-yi; Zhu, Feng-xue; Chen, Hong

2014-01-01

332

Assessment of the BD MGIT TBc Identification Test for the Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in a Network of Mycobacteriology Laboratories  

PubMed Central

We evaluate the performance of the TBcID assay in a panel of 100 acid-fast bacilli cultures. Sixty-four isolates were TBcID positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), whereas 36 gave negative results. These included 28 nontuberculous mycobacteria, one nonmycobacterial isolate, one M. tuberculosis, and six M. bovis BCG strains. This corresponds to a sensitivity of 90.14%, specificity of 100%, and positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 80.55%, respectively. The test is rapid, easy to perform and interpret, and does not require sample preparation or instrumentation. However, a negative result does not exclude the presence of a strain belonging to MTBC, especially when mutations in mpb64 gene are present or some M. bovis BCG strains are isolated. The TBcID showed potential to assist in the identification of MTBC when the implementation and usage of molecular methods are often not possible, principally in resource-limited countries. PMID:24587985

Ramos, Jorge; Couto, Isabel; Narciso, Inácio; Coelho, Elizabeth; Viegas, Sofia

2014-01-01

333

Mechanical Properties and Tensile Failure Analysis of Novel Bio-absorbable Mg-Zn-Cu and Mg-Zn-Se Alloys for Endovascular Applications  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the mechanical properties and tensile failure mechanism of two novel bio-absorbable as-cast Mg-Zn-Se and Mg-Zn-Cu alloys for endovascular medical applications are characterized. Alloys were manufactured using an ARC melting process and tested as-cast with compositions of Mg-Zn-Se and Mg-Zn-Cu, being 98/1/1 wt.% respectively. Nanoindentation testing conducted at room temperature was used to characterize the elastic modulus (E) and surface hardness (H) for both the bare alloys and the air formed oxide layer. As compared to currently available shape memory alloys and degradable as-cast alloys, these experimental alloys possess superior as-cast mechanical properties that can increase their biocompatibility, degradation kinetics, and the potential for medical device creation. PMID:23543822

Persaud-Sharma, Dharam; Budiansky, Noah; McGoron, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

334

Imperatorin prevents cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure via NO-dependent mechanisms in mice.  

PubMed

Augmented endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) signaling has been reported to be associated with improvements in cardiac remodeling, and NO levels have been shown to be related to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Imperatorin, a dietary furanocoumarin, has been shown to prevent cardiac hypertrophy in the spontaneous hypertension rats (SHR). Thus, we aimed to clarify whether imperatorin attenuates both cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure via the NO-signaling pathway. In neonatal mouse cardiac myocytes, imperatorin inhibited protein synthesis stimulated by either isoproterenol or phenylephrine, which was unchanged by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Four weeks after transverse aortic constriction (TAC) on Kunming (KM) male mice, the ratio of heart weight to body weight was lower after imperatorin treatment than in controls (6.60 ± 0.35 mg/g in TAC, 4.54 ± 0.29 mg/g with imperatorin 15 mg kg(-1)d(-1), ig, P<0.01); similar changes in the ratio of lung weight to body weight (7.30 ± 0.85 mg/g in TAC, 5.42 ± 0.51 mg/g with imperatorin 15 mg kg(-1)d(-1), ig) and the myocardial fibrosis. All of these improvements were blunted by L-NAME. Imperatorin treatment significantly activated phosphorylation of eNOS. Myocardial mRNA levels of natriuretic peptide precursor type B and protein inhibitor of NO synthase, which were increased in the TAC mice, were decreased in the imperatorin-treated ones. Imperatorin can attenuate cardiac hypertrophy both in vivo and in vitro, and halt the process leading from hypertrophy to heart failure by a NO-mediated pathway. PMID:21983344

Zhang, Yan; Cao, Yanjun; Duan, Haijie; Wang, Hongying; He, LangChong

2012-01-01

335

The use of failure mode and effects analysis to construct an effective disposal and prevention mechanism for infectious hospital waste  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > This study is based on a real case in a regional teaching hospital in Taiwan. > We use Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) as the evaluation method. > We successfully identify the risk factors of infectious waste disposal. > We propose plans for the detection of exceptional cases of infectious waste. - Abstract: In recent times, the quality of medical care has been continuously improving in medical institutions wherein patient-centred care has been emphasized. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has also been promoted as a method of basic risk management and as part of total quality management (TQM) for improving the quality of medical care and preventing mistakes. Therefore, a study was conducted using FMEA to evaluate the potential risk causes in the process of infectious medical waste disposal, devise standard procedures concerning the waste, and propose feasible plans for facilitating the detection of exceptional cases of infectious waste. The analysis revealed the following results regarding medical institutions: (a) FMEA can be used to identify the risk factors of infectious waste disposal. (b) During the infectious waste disposal process, six items were scored over 100 in the assessment of uncontrolled risks: erroneous discarding of infectious waste by patients and their families, erroneous discarding by nursing staff, erroneous discarding by medical staff, cleaning drivers pierced by sharp articles, cleaning staff pierced by sharp articles, and unmarked output units. Therefore, the study concluded that it was necessary to (1) provide education and training about waste classification to the medical staff, patients and their families, nursing staff, and cleaning staff; (2) clarify the signs of caution; and (3) evaluate the failure mode and strengthen the effects.

Ho, Chao Chung, E-mail: ho919@pchome.com.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Liao, Ching-Jong [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2011-12-15

336

Role of the vagus nerves and catecholamines in the production mechanism of the myocardial failure induced by arteriovenous fistulas.  

PubMed

Myocardial adenine nucleotides (nicotinamide adenine nucleotides included), glutathione, catecholamines (DOPA, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline) and some enzymes in correlation were investigated in dogs with cardiac failure induced by bilateral iliac arteriovenous fistulas, and unilateral (left) heart vagotomy was also studied for its influence on the changes in the myocardial amounts of these compounds occuring in this pathological circumstance. The cardiac failure in arteriovenous fistula was characterized by the following myocardial metabolic aspects: (I) no change in the amount of proteins (although an important cardiac hypertrophy was present); (II) decreases in the amounts of adenine nucleotides (especially ADP and ATP), without significant variations in the adenosine concentration, accompanied by increases in the concentrations of nicotinamide adenine nucleotides (in both their oxidized and reduced forms) in the heart mitochondria; (III) no change in the amounts of oxidized and reduced glutathione and in the activity of NADH2-dependent glutathione reductase; (IV) a very significant increase in the activity of MAO without significant influences on the levels of the studied catecholamines. The partial vagal denervation of the heart was found to attenuate substantially the changes in the amounts of adenine nucleotides and nicotinamide adenine nucleotides in the myocardial mitochondria and to facilitate the action of MAO on noradrenaline leading to a significant decrease in its myocardial level. PMID:211743

P?u?escu, E; Proinov, F; Chirbasie, R; Duducgian, M L; F?g?r??anu, D

1978-01-01

337

Mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of plasma-sprayed multilayered Al 2O 3\\/ZrO 2 thermal barrier coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled with functionally graded materials (FGM) concept, Al2O3 was proposed as a potential candidate as an interlayer to improve the oxidation resistance of thermal barrier coating (TBC) system due to its low oxygen diffusivity. Plasma spray process was utilized to produce Al2O3\\/ZrO2 functionally graded thermal barrier coating (FG-TBC). This article discusses physical and mechanical properties, thermal behavior, and high-temperature oxidation

Andi M. Limarga; Sujanto Widjaja; Tick Hon Yip

2005-01-01

338

Could vitamin d supplements be a new therapy for heart failure? Possible pathogenic mechanisms from data of intervention studies.  

PubMed

Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (HF), but whether giving patients supplements to raise vitamin D into the normal range improves their survival is not clear. It has been demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with HF, especially the elderly, in obese and in dark skinned people, and that low vitamin D levels are associated with adverse outcome. The epidemiological data have been confirmed by experimental data, which show that knockout mice for the vitamin D receptor developed myocardial hypertrophy and dysfunction. Data from interventional studies are scarce and discordant, and more research is urgently needed to confirm whether add-on supplementation therapy with vitamin D has a role in the management of patients with chronic HF. PMID:24934697

Dalbeni, Andrea; Delva, Pietro; Minuz, Pietro

2014-10-01

339

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... Tiredness and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

340

An automated dynamic fracture procedure and a continuum damage mechanics based model for finite element simulations of delamination failure in laminated composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An active field of research that has developed due to the increasing use of computational techniques like finite element simulations for analysis of highly complex structural mechanics problems and the increasing use of composite laminates in varied industries such as aerospace, automotive, bio-medical, etc. is the development of numerical models to capture the behavior of composite materials. One of the big challenges not yet overcome convincingly in this field is the modeling of delamination failure which is one of the primary modes of damage in composite laminates. Hence, the primary aim of this work is to develop two numerical models for finite element simulations of delamination failure in composite laminates and implement them in the explicit finite element software DYNA3D/LS-DYNA. Dynamic fracture mechanics is an example of a complex structural analysis problem for which finite element simulations seem to be the only possible way to extract detailed information on sophisticated physical quantities of the crack-tip at any instant of time along a highly transient history of fracture. However, general purpose, commercial finite element software which have capabilities to do fracture analyses are still limited in their use to stationary cracks and crack propagation along trajectories known a priori. Therefore, an automated dynamic fracture procedure capable of simulating dynamic propagation of through-thickness cracks in arbitrary directions in linear, isotropic materials without user-intervention is first developed and implemented in DYNA3D for its default 8-node solid (brick) element. Dynamic energy release rate and stress intensity factors are computed in the model using integral expressions particularly well-suited for the finite element method. Energy approach is used to check for crack propagation and the maximum circumferential stress criterion is used to determine the direction of crack growth. Since the re-meshing strategy used to model crack growth explicitly in the model induces spurious high-frequency oscillations in the finite element results after crack initiation, a "gradual nodal release" procedure is implemented as part of the model to overcome this problem. Also, an in-built contact algorithm of DYNA3D is modified to adapt it to the remeshing strategy to maintain proper contact conditions at newly added elements. Finally, the model is suitably modified for simulating delamination failure in laminated composites and used to predict delamination resistance characteristics which are important considerations for effective use of composite structures. Continuum damage mechanics is a popular approach for modeling the in-plane failure modes in composites. However, its applicability to modeling delamination has not been sufficiently analyzed yet. Hence, as the second part of this dissertation work, a new material model is developed for unidirectional polymer matrix composites in which this approach is used to predict delamination failure and used to perform a qualitative study of the damage mechanics approach to modeling delamination. The new material model is developed using micro-mechanics and accounts for the strain-rate dependent behavior of polymer matrix composites. It is implemented for three different element formulations with different transverse shear strain assumptions and the effect of these assumptions on the delamination prediction using this approach is analyzed.

Aminjikarai Vedagiri, Srinivasa Babu

341

Investigation of deformation and failure mechanisms in woven and nonwoven fabrics under quasi-static loading conditions  

E-print Network

The mechanical responses of high performance ballistic woven and nonwoven fabrics under in- plane quasi-static loading conditions have been investigated. The investigations focused on the responses of fabrics at the ...

Jearanaisilawong, Petch, 1979-

2004-01-01

342

Dynamic failure in brittle solids  

SciTech Connect

Failure of brittle solids within the extremes of the shock loading environment is not well understood. Recent shock-wave data on compression shear failure and tensile spall failure for selected high-strength ceramics are presented and used to examine the mechanisms of dynamic failure. Energy-based theories are used to bound the measured strength properties. A new concept of failure waves in brittle solids is explored in light of the kinetic processes of high-rate fracture. Classical failure criteria are compared with the present base of dynamic strength data on ceramics.

Grady, D.E.

1994-04-01

343

Influence of Thermal Cycle Frequency on the TGO Growth and Cracking Behaviors of an APS-TBC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The durability of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is controlled by fracture near the interface between the ceramic topcoat and the metallic bond coat, where a layer of thermally grown oxide (TGO) forms during service exposure. In the present work, the influence of thermal cycle frequency on the oxidation performance, in terms of TGO growth and cracking behavior, of an air-plasma-sprayed (APS) Co-32Ni-21Cr-8Al-0.5Y (wt.%) bond coat was studied. The results show that while TGO growth exhibited an initial parabolic growth behavior followed by an accelerated growth stage, higher cycle frequency resulted in a faster TGO growth and a higher crack propagation rate. It is found that a power-law relationship exists between the maximum crack length and the TGO thickness, which is independent of the cycle frequency. This relationship may warrant a TBC life prediction methodology based on the maximum crack length criterion.

Chen, W. R.; Wu, X.; Dudzinski, D.

2012-12-01

344

Application of EBSD method for the investigation of microstructure and crystallographic orientation in RE2Zr2O7 TBC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern aero engine turbine blades made of nickel-based superalloys are covered by thermal barrier coatings (TBC) for thermal and oxidation protection. A new generation of TBCs consist of a bond coat (thin layer of MCrAlY, where M may be Ni, Co, Fe) followed by a ceramic top coat of RE2Zr2O7 (RE - rare earth element). In this paper we present the possibility of the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) method for characterisation of the microstructure and crystallographic orientation of a new TBC consisting of a Gd2Zr2O7 top coat and a NiFeCrAlY bond coat after long thermal exposure (1100 °C, 500 h). During thermal exposure, a thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer forms at the bond coat/top coat interface. The TGO is mainly composed of Al2O3. But, there is a possible reaction between Gd2Zr2O7 and Al2O3, leading to Gd-Al-O phases. Phase composition plays an important role in controlling the stress evolution, TGO deformation and crack propagation. Application of SEM-EDS-EBSD techniques allows direct characterisation of the chemical composition, phase composition and crystallographic orientation in the ceramic top coat and TGO layers. This paper presents the possibilities of using the EBSD method for phase identification (Gd2Zr2O7, spinel Ni(Al,Cr)2O4, GdAlO3 and other phases) and orientation analysis of grains in the TGO layer.

Chmiela, B.; Soza?ska, M.; Moskal, G.

2012-03-01

345

Protective Mechanisms of Acacetin against d-Galactosamine and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Fulminant Hepatic Failure in Mice.  

PubMed

This study examined the hepatoprotective effects of acacetin (1), a flavonoid isolated from Agastache rugosa, against d-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), or the vehicle alone (5% dimethyl sulfoxide-saline), 1 h before GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (40 ?g/kg) treatment and sacrificed at 6 h after GalN/LPS injection. GalN/LPS markedly increased mortality and serum aminotransferase activity, and these increases were attenuated by 1. GalN/LPS increased serum tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, while 1 attenuated TNF-? levels and further increased IL-6 levels. GalN/LPS increased protein expression of toll-like receptor 4, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase, and p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and increased nuclear protein expression of nuclear factor ?B; these increases were attenuated by 1. GalN/LPS increased Atg5 and Atg7 protein expressions, and these increases were augmented by 1. GalN/LPS activated autophagic flux as indicated by decreased microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II and sequestosome1/p62 protein expression. This activation was enhanced by 1. These findings suggest that 1 protects against GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by suppressing TLR4 signaling and enhancing autophagic flux. PMID:25382719

Cho, Hong-Ik; Park, Jin-Hyun; Choi, Hyo-Sun; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Lee, Dong-Ung; Lee, Sang Kook; Lee, Sun-Mee

2014-11-26

346

Biomechanical modeling and morphology analysis indicates plaque rupture due to mechanical failure unlikely in atherosclerosis-prone mice.  

PubMed

Spontaneous plaque rupture in mouse models of atherosclerosis is controversial, although numerous studies have discussed so-called "vulnerable plaque" phenotypes in mice. We compared the morphology and biomechanics of two acute and one chronic murine model of atherosclerosis to human coronaries of the thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) phenotype. Our acute models were apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) and LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice, both fed a high-fat diet for 8 wk with simultaneous infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II), and our chronic mouse model was the apolipoprotein E-deficient strain fed a regular chow diet for 1 yr. We found that the mouse plaques from all three models exhibited significant morphological differences from human TCFA plaques, including the plaque burden, plaque thickness, eccentricity, and amount of the vessel wall covered by lesion as well as significant differences in the relative composition of plaques. These morphological differences suggested that the distribution of solid mechanical stresses in the walls may differ as well. Using a finite-element analysis computational solid mechanics model, we computed the relative distribution of stresses in the walls of murine and human plaques and found that although human TCFA plaques have the highest stresses in the thin fibrous cap, murine lesions do not have such stress distributions. Instead, local maxima of stresses were on the media and adventitia, away from the plaque. Our results suggest that if plaque rupture is possible in mice, it may be driven by a different mechanism than mechanics. PMID:23203971

Campbell, Ian C; Weiss, Daiana; Suever, Jonathan D; Virmani, Renu; Veneziani, Alessandro; Vito, Raymond P; Oshinski, John N; Taylor, W Robert

2013-02-01

347

Failure mechanism analysis and process improvement on time-dependent dielectric breakdown of Cu/ultra-low-k dielectric based on complementary Raman and FTIR spectroscopy study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) is one of the most important reliability issues in Cu/low-k technology development. With continuous technology scalings to nanometer scales, TDDB issue is further exacerbated. In this paper, two failure mechanisms were investigated: the Ta ions migration model and the line-edge-roughness (LER) model, which is rendering the observed TDDB failure. Complimentary Raman and FTIR spectroscopy was applied to investigate the dielectric bonding characteristics. Our experimental results revealed the TDDB degradation behavior of Cu/ultra-low-k interconnects, suggesting the intrinsic degradation of the ultra-low-k dielectric. No out-diffusion of Cu ions was observed in Cu/Ta/TaN/SiCOH structures. Extensive TEM analysis further verified the migration of Ta ions from the Ta/TaN barrier bi-layer into the ultra-low-k dielectrics. Based on the LER model analysis, a comparative study in both passing and failing die elaborates that the sloped trench/via profile affected the TDDB performance.

Wang, Dan Dan; Wang, Wei Lin; Huang, Maggie Yamin; Lek, Alan; Lam, Jeffrey; Mai, Zhi Hong

2014-07-01

348

Ballistic-Failure Mechanisms in Gas Metal Arc Welds of Mil A46100 Armor-Grade Steel: A Computational Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our recent work, a multi-physics computational model for the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) joining process was introduced. The model is of a modular type and comprises five modules, each designed to handle a specific aspect of the GMAW process, i.e.: (i) electro-dynamics of the welding-gun; (ii) radiation-/convection-controlled heat transfer from the electric-arc to the workpiece and mass transfer from the filler-metal consumable electrode to the weld; (iii) prediction of the temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of thermal and mechanical fields within the weld region during the GMAW joining process; (iv) the resulting temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the material microstructure throughout the weld region; and (v) spatial distribution of the as-welded material mechanical properties. In the present work, the GMAW process model has been upgraded with respect to its predictive capabilities regarding the spatial distribution of the mechanical properties controlling the ballistic-limit (i.e., penetration-resistance) of the weld. The model is upgraded through the introduction of the sixth module in the present work in recognition of the fact that in thick steel GMAW weldments, the overall ballistic performance of the armor may become controlled by the (often inferior) ballistic limits of its weld (fusion and heat-affected) zones. To demonstrate the utility of the upgraded GMAW process model, it is next applied to the case of butt-welding of a prototypical high-hardness armor-grade martensitic steel, MIL A46100. The model predictions concerning the spatial distribution of the material microstructure and ballistic-limit-controlling mechanical properties within the MIL A46100 butt-weld are found to be consistent with prior observations and general expectations.

Grujicic, M.; Snipes, J. S.; Galgalikar, R.; Ramaswami, S.; Yavari, R.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.

2014-09-01

349

Thermal shock properties and failure mechanism of plasma sprayed Al 2O 3\\/TiO 2 nanocomposite coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal shock properties and strengthening mechanics of Al2O3\\/TiO2 nanocomposite ceramic coatings deposited by plasma spraying technology were studied. The results indicate that the thermal shock properties of plasma sprayed nanocomposite ceramic coatings get ahead of that of conventional Al2O3 and Al2O3\\/TiO2 coatings. Presence of nanophase not only improves matching degrees of thermal propagation coefficient between ceramic coatings and bond-coats or

Chang-sheng Zhai; Jun Wang; Fei Li; Jing-chao Tao; Yi Yang; Bao-de Sun

2005-01-01

350

Mechanisms of Ghrelin Anti-Heart Failure: Inhibition of Ang II-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis by Down-Regulating AT1R Expression  

PubMed Central

Background Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone–releasing peptide administered to treat chronic heart failure (CHF). However, the underlying mechanism of its protective effects against heart failure (HF) remains unclear. Methods and Results A total of 68 patients with CHF and 20 healthy individuals were included. The serum levels of Angiotensin II (Ang II) and ghrelin were measured using ELISA. The results showed that Ang II and ghrelin were both significantly increased in CHF patients and that the ghrelin levels were significantly positively correlated with Ang II. The left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated to establish a rat model of CHF, and cultured cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats were stimulated with Ang II to explore the role of ghrelin in CHF. The results showed that ghrelin inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, caspase-3 expression was examined, and the results revealed that Ang II induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis through the caspase-3 pathway, whereas ghrelin inhibits this action. Lastly, to further elucidate the mechanism by which ghrelin inhibits Ang II action, the expression of the AT1 and AT2 receptors was evaluated; the results showed that Ang II up-regulates the AT1 and AT2 receptors in cardiomyocytes, whereas ghrelin inhibits AT1 receptor up-regulation but does not affect AT2 receptor expression. Conclusions These data suggest that the serum levels of ghrelin are significantly positively correlated with Ang II in CHF patients and that ghrelin can inhibit Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by down-regulating AT1R, thereby playing a role in preventing HF. PMID:24465706

Yang, Chunyan; Liu, Zhonghui; Liu, Kai; Yang, Ping

2014-01-01

351

Thermomechanical Fatigue Damage/Failure Mechanisms in SCS-6/Timetal 21S [0/90](Sub S) Composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) deformation, damage, and life behaviors of SCS6/Timetal 21S (0/90)s were investigated under zero-tension conditions. In-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) loadings were investigated with a temperature cycle from 150 to 650 deg C. An advanced TMF test technique was used to quantify mechanically damage progression. The technique incorporated explicit measurements of the macroscopic (1) isothermal static moduli at the temperature extremes of the TMF cycle and (2) coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) as functions of the TMF cycles. The importance of thermal property degradation and its relevance to accurate post-test data analysis and interpretation is briefly addressed. Extensive fractography and metallography were conducted on specimens from failed and interrupted tests to characterize the extent of damage at the microstructure level. Fatigue life results indicated trends analogous to those established for similar unidirectional(0) reinforced titanium matrix composite systems. High stress IP and mid to low stress OP loading conditions were life-limiting in comparison to maximum temperature isothermal conditions. Dominant damage mechanisms changed with cycle type. Damage resulting from IP TMF conditions produced measurable decreases in static moduli but only minimal changes in the CTE. Metallography on interrupted and failed specimens revealed extensive (0) fiber cracking with sparse matrix damage. No surface initiated matrix cracks were present. Comparable OP TMF conditions initiated environment enhanced surface cracking and matrix cracking initiated at (90) fiber/matrix (F/M) interfaces. Notable static moduli and CTE degradations were measured. Fractography and metallography revealed that the transverse cracks originating from the surface and (90) F/M interfaces tended to converge and coalesce at the (0) fibers.

Castelli, Michael G.

1994-01-01

352

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... failure" simply means that your heart isn't pumping blood as well as it should. Heart failure does not mean ... your heart. The pictures show your doctor how well your heart is pumping. Radionuclide ventriculography involves injecting a very small amount ...

353

Productive Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study demonstrates an existence proof for "productive failure": engaging students in solving complex, ill-structured problems without the provision of support structures can be a productive exercise in failure. In a computer-supported collaborative learning setting, eleventh-grade science students were randomly assigned to one of two…

Kapur, Manu

2008-01-01

354

[Heart failure].  

PubMed

It seems that the causes of the insomnia are dyspnea and an orthopnea in the heart failure patient. But, only such a fit is not the cause of the insomnia because it complains about the insomnia even if heart failure is slight. An obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the risk of the heart failure. A heart failure patient often complicates a central sleep apnea (CSA) and a Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR), and has much sleep fragmentation and difficulty maintaining sleep. And sleep disorders are sometimes started by the medications such as the cardiovascular system agent thing; beta blocker and the statins. Sleep disorders represent a major challenge in terms of differential diagnosis in heart failure patients. This is particularly relevant to insomnia and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) such as OSA, CSA and CSR. Thus, expending the knowledge on both insomnia and SDB may contribute to improve medical quality among physician. PMID:19768933

Sasanabe, Ryujiro; Shiomi, Toshiaki

2009-08-01

355

Total Liquid Ventilation Provides Superior Respiratory Support to Conventional Mechanical Ventilation in a Large Animal Model of Severe Respiratory Failure  

PubMed Central

Total liquid ventilation (TLV) has the potential to provide respiratory support superior to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, laboratory studies are limited to trials in small animals for no longer than 4 hours. The objective of this study was to compare TLV and CMV in a large animal model of ARDS for 24 hours. Ten sheep weighing 53 ± 4 (SD) kg were anesthetized and ventilated with 100% oxygen. Oleic acid was injected into the pulmonary circulation until PaO2:FiO2 ? 60 mmHg, followed by transition to a protective CMV protocol (n=5) or TLV (n=5) for 24 hours. Pathophysiology was recorded and the lungs were harvested for histological analysis. Animals treated with CMV became progressively hypoxic and hypercarbic despite maximum ventilatory support. Sheep treated with TLV maintained normal blood gases with statistically greater PO2 (p<10?9) and lower PCO2 (p < 10?3) than the CMV group. Survival at 24 hours in the TLV and CMV groups were 100% and 40% respectively (p< 0.05). Thus, TLV provided gas exchange superior to CMV in this laboratory model of severe ARDS. PMID:21084968

Pohlmann, Joshua R; Brant, David O; Daul, Morgan A; Reoma, Junewai L; Kim, Anne C; Osterholzer, Kathryn R; Johnson, Kent J; Bartlett, Robert H; Cook, Keith E; Hirschl, Ronald B

2011-01-01

356

Failure diagnosis of high speed gear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Directing to the failure of high speed gear pair, this paper investigates its failure mechanism. Based on the failure characteristics, this paper adopts the power spectrum and empirical mode decomposition to detect two types of gear tooth failures. Defects were intentionally seeded in two separate pinions to explore feasible approach to monitor the tooth condition in a high speed gear

Fang Wang; Shaoping Wang

2011-01-01

357

Effect of Interfacial Roughness of Bond Coat on the Residual Adhesion Strength of a Plasma Sprayed TBC System after Thermal Cycle Fatigue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the bond coat on residual adhesion strength after thermal cycle fatigue was investigated in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBC). This study used CoNiCrAlY powder with two different particle sizes for spraying bond coat material to examine the effect of interface roughness between the bond coat and top coat. In addition, the bond coat was sprayed on either by a high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) or a low pressure plasma spray (LPPS). The residual adhesion strength of the TBC top coat was evaluated as a function of the number of thermal cycles by the modified 4-point bending test. In addition, SEM observations of thermal fatigue cracking morphologies and measurements of the residual stress in the ceramic top coat were carried out. The experimental results indicated that, after thermal cycle fatigue, microcracks were generated in the ceramic top coat; however, they were moderated in a rough interface TBC compared to a smooth interface TBC. In addition, the bond coat sprayed by the HVOF method showed a higher resistance to microcracking than the coat sprayed using the LPPS. Residual stress in the ceramic top coat is almost zero at 0 thermal cycles. After thermal cycle fatigue, it becomes compressional stress; however, it is independent of the bond coat. There was little difference in the adhesion strength by bond coat in as-sprayed conditions. On the other hand, the specimen with a rough interface exhibited higher residual adhesion strength after thermal cycle fatigue compared with the specimens with a relatively smooth interface. In addition, if the bond coat is sprayed by HVOF, the residual adhesion strength increases. It was revealed that the difference in residual adhesion strength by bond coat is related to the distribution morphology of thermal fatigue microcracks.

Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Fukanuma, Hirotaka; Ohno, Naoyuki

358

The dual role of fission yeast Tbc1/cofactor C orchestrates microtubule homeostasis in tubulin folding and acts as a GAP for GTPase Alp41/Arl2  

PubMed Central

Supplying the appropriate amount of correctly folded ?/?-tubulin heterodimers is critical for microtubule dynamics. Formation of assembly-competent heterodimers is remarkably elaborate at the molecular level, in which the ?- and ?-tubulins are separately processed in a chaperone-dependent manner. This sequential step is performed by the tubulin-folding cofactor pathway, comprising a specific set of regulatory proteins: cofactors A–E. We identified the fission yeast cofactor: the orthologue of cofactor C, Tbc1. In addition to its roles in tubulin folding, Tbc1 acts as a GAP in regulating Alp41/Arl2, a highly conserved small GTPase. Of interest, the expression of GDP- or GTP-bound Alp41 showed the identical microtubule loss phenotype, suggesting that continuous cycling between these forms is important for its functions. In addition, we found that Alp41 interacts with Alp1D, the orthologue of cofactor D, specifically when in the GDP-bound form. Intriguingly, Alp1D colocalizes with microtubules when in excess, eventually leading to depolymerization, which is sequestered by co-overproducing GDP-bound Alp41. We present a model of the final stages of the tubulin cofactor pathway that includes a dual role for both Tbc1 and Alp1D in opposing regulation of the microtubule. PMID:23576550

Mori, Risa; Toda, Takashi

2013-01-01

359

Transfusion-independent ?0-thalassemia after bone marrow transplantation failure: proposed involvement of high parental HbF and an epigenetic mechanism  

PubMed Central

Currently, bone marrow transplantation is the only curative treatment for ?-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. In rare cases, sustained and full fetal hemoglobin production was observed in patients after failure of bone marrow transplantation. This rendered the patients transfusion-free, despite genetic disease and transplant rejection. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unexplored. We have studied a trio (father-mother-child) in which the affected child became transfusion-independent after rejection of an allogeneic bone marrow graft. Remarkably, we found that his non-thalassemic mother also expressed unusually high levels of ?-globin. High HbF in one of the parents may therefore be of prognostic value in these rare cases. Genotyping of the HBB locus and the HbF quantitative trait loci HBS1L-MYB, KLF1 and BCL11A, and protein expression analysis of KLF1 and BCL11A, failed to explain the increased HbF levels, indicating that an as yet unidentified HbF modifier locus may be involved. We hypothesize that epigenetic events brought about by the transplantation procedure allow therapeutic levels of HbF expression in the child. Potential implications of our observations for reactivation of ?-globin expression and interpretation of the French globin gene therapy case are discussed. PMID:25232502

Paciaroni, Katia; Lucarelli, Guido; Martelli, Fabrizio; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; von Lindern, Marieke; Borg, Joseph; Gillemans, Nynke; van Dijk, Thamar B; Philipsen, Sjaak

2014-01-01

360

TOXICOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF IMPLEMENTATION FAILURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Implantation in mammals requires the successful completion of a series of integrated phenomena, including uterine preparation, synchronized embryo transport, embryonic attachment, uterine transformation, placental development, and the requisite hormonal milieu to support each ste...

361

The Chemistry of Failure Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the chemistry of failure analysis in sufficient detail to serve as a practical guide for the failure analyst. It includes a discussion of the chemistry of plastic composition formulation. This discussion is preparatory to the main body of the paper which covers the chemistry and mechanics of decapsulation and, also, an explanation of the principles of chemical

Mike Jacques

1979-01-01

362

Heart Failure Overview  

MedlinePLUS

CHF; Congestive heart failure; Left-sided heart failure; Right-sided heart failure - Cor pulmonale; Cardiomyopathy - heart failure ... Heart failure is often a long-term (chronic) condition, but it may come on suddenly. It can ...

363

Cardioprotective Effects of a Novel Hydrogen Sulfide Agent-Controlled Release Formulation of S-Propargyl-Cysteine on Heart Failure Rats and Molecular Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Objective Heart failure (HF) is one of the most serious diseases worldwide. S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC), a novel modulator of endogenous hydrogen sulfide, is proved to be able to protect against acute myocardial ischemia. In order to produce more stable and sustainable hydrogen sulfide, we used controlled release formulation of SPRC (CR-SPRC) to elucidate possible cardioprotective effects on HF rats and investigate involved mechanisms on apoptosis and oxidation. Methods Left coronary artery was occluded to induce HF model of rat. The survival rats were randomly divided into 7 groups after 24 hours and treated with drugs for 6 weeks. Echocardiographic indexes were recorded to determine cardiac function. TTC staining was performed to determine infarct size. Plasmatic level of hydrogen sulfide was detected by modified sulfide electrode. Activity of enzyme and expression of protein were determined by colorimetry and Western blot, respectively. Results The cardioprotective effects of CR-SPRC on HF rats were confirmed by significant reduction of infarct size and improvement of cardiac function, with better effects compared to normal SPRC. CR-SPRC modulated antioxidant defenses by preserving levels of GSH, CAT and SOD and reducing CK leakage. In addition, CR-SPRC elevated ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and inhibited activity of caspases to protect against myocardial apoptosis. The cardioprotective effects of CR-SPRC were mediated by hydrogen sulfide. Conclusions All experiment data indicated cardioprotective effects of CR-SPRC on HF rats. More importantly, CR-SPRC exerted better effects than normal SPRC in all respects, providing a new perspective on hydrogen sulfide-mediated drug therapy. PMID:23874913

Liu, Xu; Ma, Fenfen; Tran, Ba Hieu; Zou, Yunzeng; Wang, Shujun; Zhu, Yi Zhun

2013-01-01

364

IFN-? induces aberrant CD49b(+) NK cell recruitment through regulating CX3CL1: a novel mechanism by which IFN-? provokes pregnancy failure.  

PubMed

Interferon-? (IFN-?), a pleiotropic lymphokine, has important regulatory effects on many cell types. Although IFN-? is essential for the initiation of uterine vascular modifications and maintenance of decidual integrity, IFN-? administration can also cause pregnancy failure in many species. However, little is known about the effector mechanisms involved. In this study, using an IFN-?-induced abortion mouse model, we reported that no Dolichos biflorus agglutinin lectin-positive uterine natural killer (uNK) cells were observed in the uteri from IFN-?-induced abortion mice. By contrast, the percentage of CD3(-)CD49b(+) NK cells in the uterus and blood from a foetal resorption group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Similarly, significantly upregulated expression of CD49b (a pan-NK cell marker), CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 (CX3CL1 receptor) was detected in the uteri of IFN-?-induced abortion mice. Using isolated uterine stromal cells, we showed that upregulated expression of CX3CL1 by IFN-? was dependent on a Janus family kinase 2-signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (JAK2-STAT1) pathway. We further demonstrated the chemotactic activity of CX3CL1 in uterine stromal cell conditioned medium on primary splenic NK cells. Finally, we observed increased recruitment of CD49b(+) NK cells into the endometrium after exogenous CX3CL1 administration. Collectively, our findings indicate that IFN-? can significantly increase uterine CX3CL1 expression via activation of the JAK2-STAT1 pathway, thus inducing CD49b(+) NK cell uterine homing, and eventually provoke foetal loss. Thus, we provide a new line of evidence correlating the deleterious effects of IFN-? on pregnancy with the aberrant regulation of CX3CL1 and CD49b(+) NK cells.Cell Death and Disease (2014) 5, e1512; doi:10.1038/cddis.2014.470; published online 6 November 2014. PMID:25375377

Li, Z-Y; Chao, H-H; Liu, H-Y; Song, Z-H; Li, L-L; Zhang, Y-J; Yang, Y; Peng, J-P

2014-01-01

365

Characteristics of Space Shuttle Main Engine failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During development and operation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), 27 ground test failures of sufficient severity to be termed 'major incident' have occurred. Resourecs including NASA Failure Investigation Board reports, contractor failure reports, originally recorded data, along with engineering notes, data bases, and presentations connected with the failures were available for compilation into the engine failure review presented in this paper. Most SSME failures were a result of design deficiencies stemming from inadequate definition of dynamic loads. High cycle fatigue was the most frequent mechanism leading to failure. Eighteen of the 27 failures occurred during constant power level operation. Formal board reports were not available for all failures. Therefore, the failure history presented in this paper is not complete or of uniform quality.

Cikanek, Harry A., III

1987-01-01

366

[Fe(IV)?O(TBC)(CH3CN)]2+: comparative reactivity of iron(IV)-oxo species with constrained equatorial cyclam ligation.  

PubMed

[Fe(IV)?O(TBC)(CH(3)CN)](2+) (TBC = 1,4,8,11-tetrabenzyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) is characterized, and its reactivity differences relative to [Fe(IV)?O(TMC)(CH(3)CN)](2+) (TMC = 1,4,8,11-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) are evaluated in hydrogen atom (H-atom) abstraction and oxo-transfer reactions. Structural differences are defined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and correlated to reactivities using density functional theory. The S = 1 ground states are highly similar and result in large activation barriers (~25 kcal/mol) due to steric interactions between the cyclam chelate and the substrate (e.g., ethylbenzene) associated with the equatorial ?-attack required by this spin state. Conversely, H-atom abstraction reactivity on an S = 2 surface allows for a ?-attack with an axial substrate approach. This results in decreased steric interactions with the cyclam and a lower barrier (~9 kcal/mol). For [Fe(IV)?O(TBC)(CH(3)CN)](2+), the S = 2 excited state in the reactant is lower in energy and therefore more accessible at the transition state due to a weaker ligand field associated with the steric interactions of the benzyl substituents with the trans-axial ligand. This study is further extended to the oxo-transfer reaction, which is a two-electron process requiring both ?- and ?-electron transfer and thus a nonlinear transition state. In oxo-transfer, the S = 2 has a lower barrier due to sequential vs concerted (S = 1) two electron transfer which gives a high-spin ferric intermediate at the transition state. The [Fe(IV)?O(TBC)(CH(3)CN)](2+) complex is more distorted at the transition state, with the iron farther out of the equatorial plane due to the steric interaction of the benzyl groups with the trans-axial ligand. This allows for better orbital overlap with the substrate, a lower barrier, and an increased rate of oxo-transfer. PMID:22708532

Wilson, Samuel A; Chen, Junying; Hong, Seungwoo; Lee, Yong-Min; Clémancey, Martin; Garcia-Serres, Ricardo; Nomura, Takashi; Ogura, Takashi; Latour, Jean-Marc; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O; Nam, Wonwoo; Solomon, Edward I

2012-07-18

367

Signature Analysis for IC Diagnosis and Failure Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of signature analysis is presented that is based on ATE data, experiential knowledge of failure modes and mechanisms, or a combination of both. This method can be used on low numbers of failures or even single failures. It uses the Dempster-Shafer theory to calculate failure mechanism confidence. This method can be used for rapid diagnosis of complex IC

Christopher L. Henderson; Jerry M. Soden

1997-01-01

368

Failure Modes in Adhesively Bonded Carton Boards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carton board packages are often adhesively bonded. The adhesive joint may fail due to cohesive fracture in the adhesive, interfacial fracture between the adhesive and one of the carton board surfaces, or cohesive fracture in the carton board. The failure may also be a combination of these failure modes. From previous studies, it is well known that the failure mechanism

Christer Korin; Nils Hallbäck; Robert Junghans

2008-01-01

369

Failure mode maps for honeycomb sandwich panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure modes for sandwich beams of GFRP laminate skins and Nomex honeycomb core are investigated. Theoretical models using honeycomb mechanics and classical beam theory are described. A failure mode map for loading under 3-point bending is constructed, showing the dependence of failure mode and load on the ratio of skin thickness to span length and honeycomb relative density. Beam specimens

A. Petras; M. P. F. Sutcliffe

1999-01-01

370

A Combined Experimental and Finite Element Study to Predict the Failure Mechanisms in SiC Coated Carbon\\/Carbon Composites at Room and Elevated Temperatures under Flexural Loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response of quasi-isotropic laminates of SiC coated Carbon\\/Carbon (C\\/C) composites have been investigated under flexural loading at various temperatures. Variation of load-deflection behavior with temperatures are studied. Increase in flexural strength and stiffness are observed with the rise in temperature. Extensive analyses through Optical Microscope (OM) and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) have been performed to understand the failure mechanisms. Damage zone

H. Mahfuz; P. S. Das; Dongwei Xue; J. Krishnagopalan; S. Jeelani

1993-01-01

371

Electromigration failure mechanisms for SnAg3.5 solder bumps on Ti /Cr-Cu/Cu and Ni(P )/Au metallization pads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromigration behavior of SnAg3.5 solder bumps is investigated under the current densities of 1×104A /cm2 and 5×103A /cm2 at 150°C. Different failure modes were observed for the two stressing conditions. When stressed at 1×104A /cm2, damage occurred in both the anode/chip side and the cathode/chip side. However, failure happened only in the cathode/chip side under the stressing of 5×103A /cm2. A three-dimensional simulation of the current-density distribution was performed to provide a better understanding of the current-crowding behavior in the solder bump. The current-crowding effect was found to account for the failure in the cathode/chip side. In addition, both the temperature increase and the thermal gradients were measured during the two stressing conditions. The measured temperature increase due to Joule heating was as high as 54.5°C, and the thermal gradient reached 365°C /cm when stressed by 1×104A/cm2. This induced thermal gradient may cause atoms to migrate from the chip side to the substrate side, contributing to the failure in the anode/chip side. Moreover, the formation of intermetallic compounds in the anode/chip side may also be responsible for the failure in the anode/chip side.

Shao, T. L.; Chen, Y. H.; Chiu, S. H.; Chen, Chih

2004-10-01

372

Simulations of mechanical failure in ice: Implications of terrestrial fracture models as applied to they icy satellites of the outer solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the South Pole of Enceladus, a small icy moon orbiting Saturn, is a heavily fractured ice plain surrounded by a nearly-circular mountain range. Remarkably, the Cassini orbiter detected jets of water emanating from the icy shell and into space, originating from 4 parallel "tiger stripe" rifts within the center of the ice plain. The tiger stripes imaged on Enceladus are morphologically similar to rifts observed to form under extensional stress regimes in terrestrial ice shelves; the putative subsurface ocean hypothesized beneath the icy shell strengthens the analogy that their formation may have similar mechanical origins. Past studies have also suggested that the tiger stripes are the result of a process similar to that of mid-ocean ridge spreading on the Earth, but it remains to be seen whether or not such motion is consistent with the mountainous features seen at the circular cliff-like boundary of the region. In an attempt to understand the formation of these tiger stripes and their relationship to the observed mountain chains, we apply a conceptual model in which the ice is considered to be less like a continuous fluid body and, instead, behaves like a granular material made up of discrete blocks of ice. The tidal forces on the small moon tug on the shell enough that it has been cracked many times over, motivating the assumption that the ice exists in a continuum between wholly intact ice and highly pre-fractured ice. We employ several experimental setups with the intention of mapping the deformation of the south polar segment of the shell, to determine the processes that may contribute to its observed morphological state. These setups range from large scale topographical models, e.g., simulating the build up of mountains and processes that lead to overall elevation differences in the region, to small-scale, and focus on the more detailed level of fracturing. We explore our ice-shelf rifting analogy by modeling both icy moon fracturing and ice shelf rifting to compare and contrast the failure modes that we observe, results that bolster both our comparative platform and, importantly, our understanding of fracture in ice shelves on the Earth as well. A similar approach could be applied to the chaos regions of Europa, where fractures are prevalent and whose underlying causes are not well understood.

Walker, C. C.; Bassis, J. N.

2011-12-01

373

Failure Morphologies of Cyclically Oxidized ZrO2-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBC s) were thermal cycle tested in air at 1163 C until spallation of the top coat. Each thermal cycle consisted of a 45 minute exposure at the elevated temperature followed by a 15 minute cool to ambient temperature. The TBC s consisted of a ZrO2-based top coat containing various amounts of Y2O3, and/or Yb2O3, Gd2O3, and Nd2O3 applied by air plasma spraying and an MCrAlY bond coat applied by low pressure plasma spraying. The substrate was a single-crystal, Ni-based superalloy. The time to failure of the top coat varied from tens to hundreds of thermal cycles based on composition and spray parameters. The bond coat/top coat interface morphology and sample cross sections were examined by SEM and optical microscopy. The failure morphology following the cyclic oxidation testing will be discussed in relationship to the properties of the ceramic top coats.

Nesbit, James A.; Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Barrett, Charles A.

1990-01-01

374

Ciliary genes TBC1D32/C6orf170 and SCLT1 are mutated in patients with OFD type IX.  

PubMed

Clinical syndromes caused by defects in the primary cilium are heterogeneous but there are recurrent phenotypic manifestations that define them as a collective group known as ciliopathies. Dozens of genes have been linked to various ciliopathies but large patient cohorts have clearly revealed the existence of additional genetic heterogeneity, which is yet to be fully appreciated. In our search for novel ciliopathy-linked genes through the study of unmapped ciliopathy phenotypes, we have identified two simplex cases with a severe ciliopathy phenotype consistent with oro-facio-digital syndrome type IX featuring midline cleft, microcephaly, and colobomatous microphathalmia/anophthalmia. In addition, there was variable presence of polydactyly, absent pituitary, and congenital heart disease. The autozygome of each index harbored a single novel truncating variant as revealed by exome sequencing, and the affected genes (SCLT1 and TBC1D32/C6orf170) have established roles in centrosomal biology and ciliogenesis. Our findings suggest a previously unrecognized role of SCLT1 and TBC1D32 in the pathogenesis of ciliopathy in humans. PMID:24285566

Adly, Nouran; Alhashem, Amal; Ammari, Amer; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

2014-01-01

375

ABSTRACT.--A removal experiment was conducted to measure how much and by what mechanisms brood parasitic Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) cause nest failures in a  

E-print Network

parasitic Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) cause nest failures in a commonly used host, the Song y por qué me- canismos Molothrus ater ocasiona fracasos de nidificación en Melospiza melodia, una especie hospedera común. Cuando el número de M. ater hembras se redujo experimentalmente, los fracasos de

Zanette, Liana

376

Influence of Bond Coat Roughness on Life Time of APS Thermal Barrier Coating Systems under Thermo-Mechanical Load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the bond coat roughness on the life time of air plasma-sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) was investigated under thermo-mechanical (TMF) load. The TBC system was applied on hollow cylindrical specimens made of the single crystal super alloy CMSX-4 in the orientation <001> with a MCrAlY-bond coat. Two different values of the bond coat roughness were investigated. In order to study the influence of the thicknesses of the thermally grown oxide layer (TGO), the specimens were isothermally oxidized at 1000 °C for a long term prior to the TMF experiments. The thermo-mechanical experiments show a higher number of cycles-to-failure for TBCs corresponding to an increase of the bond coat roughness. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that a certain TGO thickness is needed to produce a total delamination of the top coat in the TMF experiments. This minimum thickness varies with the surface roughness of the bond coat and the TMF cycle's phase shift and strain range. Crack initiation and crack propagation were investigated by microscopical analyses, for example, SEM and EDX. Therefore most of the experiments were completed before a total delamination of the top coat occurred. On the basis of these investigations, crack initiation and crack propagation under thermo-mechanical load were described systematically.

Schmidt, Andreas; Aleksanoglu, Herman; Mao, Tongsheng; Scholz, Alfred; Berger, Christina

377

Electromigration failure mechanisms for SnAg3.5 solder bumps on Ti/Cr-Cu/Cu and Ni(P)/Au metallization pads  

SciTech Connect

The electromigration behavior of SnAg3.5 solder bumps is investigated under the current densities of 1x10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} and 5x10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2} at 150 deg. C. Different failure modes were observed for the two stressing conditions. When stressed at 1x10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}, damage occurred in both the anode/chip side and the cathode/chip side. However, failure happened only in the cathode/chip side under the stressing of 5x10{sup 3}A/cm{sup 2}. A three-dimensional simulation of the current-density distribution was performed to provide a better understanding of the current-crowding behavior in the solder bump. The current-crowding effect was found to account for the failure in the cathode/chip side. In addition, both the temperature increase and the thermal gradients were measured during the two stressing conditions. The measured temperature increase due to Joule heating was as high as 54.5 deg. C, and the thermal gradient reached 365 deg. C/cm when stressed by 1x10{sup 4}A/cm{sup 2}. This induced thermal gradient may cause atoms to migrate from the chip side to the substrate side, contributing to the failure in the anode/chip side. Moreover, the formation of intermetallic compounds in the anode/chip side may also be responsible for the failure in the anode/chip side.

Shao, T.L.; Chen, Y.H.; Chiu, S.H.; Chen Chih [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-chu 300, Taiwan (China)

2004-10-15

378

Modeling oxidation induced stresses in thermal barrier coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation of the bond coat of a thermal barrier coating (TBC) is an important contributing factor to spallation of the ceramic top coat during service. However, the mechanisms by which oxidation facilitates TBC failure are poorly understood. It is also unclear how oxidation may interact with other potential degradation mechanisms. A finite element model was developed to evaluate stresses induced

A. M Freborg; B. L Ferguson; W. J Brindley; G. J Petrus

1998-01-01

379

Immune System Alterations in Acute Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute heart failure has emerged as a major public health problem, with over 1 million hospitalizations annually, but debate\\u000a continues concerning the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Whether there are unique and important mechanisms that mediate\\u000a decompensation distinct from those operative in chronic heart failure or whether mechanisms in common to both play a more\\u000a prominent role in acute heart failure

Kirkwood F. Adams; Tien M. H. Ng

380

Failure modes in surface micromachined microelectromechanical actuators  

SciTech Connect

In order for the rapidly emerging field of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) to meet its extraordinary expectations regarding commercial impact, issues pertaining to how they fail must be understood. The authors identify failure modes common to a broad range of MEMS actuators, including adhesion (stiction) and friction induced failures caused by improper operational methods, mechanical instabilities, and electrical instabilities. Demonstrated methods to mitigate these failure modes include implementing optimized designs, model based operational methods, and chemical surface treatments.

Miller, S.L.; Rodgers, M.S.; LaVigne, G.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Clews, P.; Tanner, D.M.; Peterson, K.A.

1998-03-01

381

Congestive heart failure. New frontiers.  

PubMed Central

Congestive heart failure is a common syndrome with high mortality in its advanced stages. Current therapy includes the use of vasodilator drugs, which have been shown to prolong life. Despite current therapy, mortality remains high in patients with severe heart failure. Potent new inotropic vasodilators have improved ventricular performance but have not prolonged life in patients with end-stage heart failure. Serious arrhythmias are implicated in the sudden deaths of 30% to 40% of patients with severe heart failure, but the benefits of antiarrhythmic therapy have not been established. Upcoming trials will address this question. Ventricular remodeling and progressive dilatation after myocardial infarction commonly lead to congestive heart failure; early unloading of the ventricle with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor may attenuate these events. These findings support the concept that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may be useful in managing heart failure of all degrees of severity, including left ventricular dysfunction and end-stage heart failure. Part of the damage that may occur with acute myocardial infarction, particularly in this era of thrombolysis therapy, is reperfusion injury, which may be mediated by oxygen-derived free radicals. Better knowledge of the mechanisms and treatment of myocardial infarction, the leading cause of congestive heart failure, may help prevent or attenuate the development of this syndrome. PMID:1678903

Parmley, W. W.; Chatterjee, K.; Francis, G. S.; Firth, B. G.; Kloner, R. A.

1991-01-01

382

Reconstructing western Grand Canyon's lava dams and their failure mechanisms: new insights from geochemical correlation and 40Ar/39Ar dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New geochemical analyzes and 40Ar/39Ar dating of lava dam remnants allows for the more accurate reconstruction of the timing, extent, and structure of western Grand Canyon’s lava dams. Whole-rock major, trace, and rare-earth element (REE) analyzes on over 60 basaltic lava dam remnants, cascades, plugs, and basaltic alluvium, show compositional variation from basanites to alkali basalts to tholeiites. Whitmore Canyon flows, for example, are some of the only tholeiitic flows and have a distinguishable trace and REE composition, which allows for correlation of dam remnants. Over 30 new high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dates also aid in remnant correlation and establish a better-constrained sequence of intra-canyon lava dams. Reliable 40Ar/39Ar dates on western Grand Canyon’s intra-canyon basalts range from ca. 100 ka to 840 ka (new date). The best understood lava dam formed from tholeiitic flows that erupted on the north rim, flowed down Whitmore side canyon and blocked a 6-km-long reach of the Grand Canyon. The youngest of these flows is unique because we know its age (200ka), its composition (tholeiitic), and the exact area where it entered Grand Canyon. The highest flow in the resulting dam, Whitmore Cascade, is capped with very coarse basaltic alluvium that previous workers have attributed to an upstream catastrophic dam failure event at about 200 ka. However, strong similarities between the geochemistry and age of the alluvium with the underlying Whitmore Cascade flow suggest that the alluvial deposit is related to failure of the 200 ka Whitmore Cascade dam itself. Similarly the 100 ka Upper Gray Ledge flow is commonly overlain by a balsaltic alluvium that is indistinguishable in terms of age and geochemistry from the underlying Upper Gray Ledge flow. These observations lead to a new model for Grand Canyon lava dams by which lava dams undergo multi-staged failure where the upstream parts of dams fail quickly (sometimes catastrophically) but downstream parts are longer lived because they undergo less interaction with river water and fracturing and generally fill dry portions of the river bed. Identification of far-traveled clasts on top of lava dam remnants in at least two locations supports the idea that the stable Colorado River established itself on top of the distal parts of some lava dams. Thus, whereas previous workers reported that deposits from outburst flood dam failure events exist in western grand canyon, our data identify specific dam failures and an interaction of catastrophic events at the head of lava dams and modified fluvial processes in distal portions of dams.

Crow, R.; Karlstrom, K. E.; McIntosh, W. C.; Peters, L.; Dunbar, N. W.

2010-12-01

383

Light water reactor lower head failure analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the results from a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research program to investigate the mode and timing of vessel lower head failure. Major objectives of the analysis were to identify plausible failure mechanisms and to develop a method for determining which failure mode would occur first in different light water reactor designs and accident conditions. Failure mechanisms, such as tube ejection, tube rupture, global vessel failure, and localized vessel creep rupture, were studied. Newly developed models and existing models were applied to predict which failure mechanism would occur first in various severe accident scenarios. So that a broader range of conditions could be considered simultaneously, calculations relied heavily on models with closed-form or simplified numerical solution techniques. Finite element techniques-were employed for analytical model verification and examining more detailed phenomena. High-temperature creep and tensile data were obtained for predicting vessel and penetration structural response.

Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1993-10-01

384

Influence of "Island-Like" Oxides in the Bond-Coat on the Stress and Failure Patterns of the Thermal-Barrier Coatings Fabricated by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying During Long-Term High Temperature Oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs) are very important ceramic-coating materials due to their excellent performance at high temperature. The inner zone of the bond-coat is often easily endured oxidized (internal oxidation) in the process of thermal spraying and the long-time exposure to the high temperature, and the "island-like" oxides can be formed. Especially, when the bond-coat was fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), this trend is more evident. In this paper, the stress distribution around the thermally grown oxide (TGO) has been calculated by the finite element method when the "island-like" oxides have been considered. The simulation results indicate that the maximum tensile stress and compressive stress existed in the TGO, and the existence of the "island-like" oxides will further decrease the maximum tensile stress level in the TGO. While the "island-like" oxides in the bond-coat will decrease the effective thickness of the TGO at the metallic layer/ceramic layer interface due to the oxidation of the metallic elements in the bond-coat. The crack propagation equation has been established and the failure mechanism of the TBC due to the formation and growth of the TGO has also been discussed in detail. The lifetime of the TBCs which have experienced high temperature oxidation has been predicted and the theoretical results agreed well with the experimental data.

Wang, L.; Zhao, Y. X.; Zhong, X. H.; Tao, S. Y.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Y.

2014-02-01

385

Progressive Failure Analysis Methodology for Laminated Composite Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A progressive failure analysis method has been developed for predicting the failure of laminated composite structures under geometrically nonlinear deformations. The progressive failure analysis uses C(exp 1) shell elements based on classical lamination theory to calculate the in-plane stresses. Several failure criteria, including the maximum strain criterion, Hashin's criterion, and Christensen's criterion, are used to predict the failure mechanisms and several options are available to degrade the material properties after failures. The progressive failure analysis method is implemented in the COMET finite element analysis code and can predict the damage and response of laminated composite structures from initial loading to final failure. The different failure criteria and material degradation methods are compared and assessed by performing analyses of several laminated composite structures. Results from the progressive failure method indicate good correlation with the existing test data except in structural applications where interlaminar stresses are important which may cause failure mechanisms such as debonding or delaminations.

Sleight, David W.

1999-01-01

386

Probabilistic power system security analysis considering protection failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method of probabilistic security analysis of power systems including protection system failures. Protection system failure is the main cause of cascading outages. A protection system reliability model including two major protection failure modes is adopted to demonstrate the effects of different protection failure modes on power system reliability. The mechanism and scheme of protection system have

Xingbin Yu; Chanan Singh

2004-01-01

387

Failure initiation and propagation characteristics of honeycomb sandwich composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy absorbed during the failure of a variety of structural shapes is influenced by material, geometry and the failure mode. Failure initiation and propagation of the honeycomb sandwich under loading involves not only non-linear behavior of the constituent materials, but also complex interactions between various failure mechanisms. Therefore, there is a need for an improved understanding of the material

A. R. Othman; D. C. Barton

2008-01-01

388

Solar cell\\/module degradation and failure diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar cell\\/module degradation and failure diagnostics are reviewed. Cell and packaging failure are distinguished. Failure relevant to photovoltaics(PV) is caused by and can be accelerated with each or combination of each of the following stresses: temperature, voltage, moisture, current, and thermal cycling. Failure mechanisms for the different module technologies are summarized. Diagnostic tools for locating the affected area within a

T. J. McMahon

2008-01-01

389

A study of power diode failure mechanisms in the US Army research laboratory 30-mm solid propellant electrothermal-chemical (SPETC) gun facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have been performed with a 100-kJ Pulse Forming Network (PFN) at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) for the purpose of characterizing semiconductor diodes which serve as capacitor-protecting crowbar devices. These devices are viewed as critical electronic power components required for electric gun research that is currently in progress within the U.S. Army and elsewhere. As part of this study, computer techniques were used to refine and develop the understanding of the dynamic, or switching, behavior of PFN diodes. In combination with experimental results, the computer simulations helped to define particular conditions within a given electric gun system that can cause vulnerable or stressful situations for the semiconductor devices under test. It was determined from analyses of the various data collected, that when operated in a PFN under specific loading conditions (simulated here with fixed resistive loads), diodes are subject to transient or high frequency voltage peaks. In some experimental cases at the ARL, the magnitude of the rate of change in voltage (dV/dt) across the devices was such that catastrophic failure was observed. The details of the boundary conditions necessary for device failure are described and several solutions that will circumvent operational problems including device grouping, choice of diode reverse recovery time, and selection of capacitive and inductive circuit parameters are discussed in detail. Background information describing some fundamental physics of semiconductor diodes and their role in electrothermal-chemical (ETC) propulsion technology is provided first.

Katulka, Gary L.; White, Kevin J.

1995-02-01

390

PNL-SA-22914 Presented at the 48th Meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group (MFPG 48) 19-21 April 1994 in Wakefield, MA  

E-print Network

hypothesis using a suite of analog and/or digital Test Measurement or Diagnostic Equipment (TMDE). The resultant analysis will either support or refute his hypothesis. The mechanic repeats this iterative process requires the mechanic to take separate Digital Multimeter (DMM) readings at the Electronic Control Unit

391

Failure Analysis at the Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

History has shown that failures occur in every engineering endeavor, and what we learn from those failures contributes to the knowledge base to safely complete future missions. The necessity of failure analysis is at its apex at the end of one aged program and at the beginning of a new and untested program. The information that we gain through failure analysis corrects the deficiencies in the current vehicle to make the next generation of vehicles more efficient and safe. The Failure Analysis and Materials Evaluation Branch in the Materials Science Division at the Kennedy Space Center performs metallurgical, mechanical, electrical, and non-metallic materials failure analyses and accident investigations on both flight hardware and ground support equipment for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Constellation, and Launch Services Programs. This paper will explore a variety of failure case studies at the Kennedy Space Center and the lessons learned that can be applied in future programs.

Salazar, Victoria L.; Wright, M. Clara

2010-01-01

392

Failure Analysis at the Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

History has shown that failures occur in every engineering endeavor, and what we learn from those failures contributes to the knowledge base to safely complete future missions. The necessity of failure analysis is at its apex at the end of one aged program (i.e. Shuttle) and at the beginning of a new and untested program (i.e. Constellation). The information that we gain through failure analysis corrects the deficiencies in the current vehicle to make the next generation of vehicles more efficient and safe. The Failure Analysis and Materials Evaluation section in the Materials Science Division at the Kennedy Space Center performs metallurgical, mechanical, electrical, and non-metallic failure analysis and accident investigations on both flight hardware and ground support equipment (GSE) for the Shuttle, International Space Station, Constellation, and Launch Services Programs. This presentation will explore a variety of failure case studies at KSC and the lessons learned that can be applied in future programs.

Salazar, Victoria L.; Wright, Clara

2010-01-01

393

Functional and Physical Competition between Phospholamban and its Mutants Provides Insight into the Molecular Mechanism of Gene Therapy for Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

We have used functional co-reconstitution of purified sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) with phospholamban (PLB), its inhibitor in the heart, to test the hypothesis that loss-of-function (LOF) PLB mutants (PLBM) can compete with wild-type PLB (PLBW) to relieve SERCA inhibition. Co-reconstitution at varying PLB/SERCA ratios was conducted using synthetic PLBW, gain-of-function mutant I40A, or loss-of-function (LOF) mutants S16E (phosphorylation mimic) or L31A. Inhibitory potency was defined as the fractional increase in KCa, measured from the Ca2+-dependence of ATPase activity. At saturating levels of these PLB variants, the inhibitory potency of I40A was about three times that of PLBW, while the potency of each of the LOF PLBM was about one third that of PLBW. However, there was no significant variation in the apparent SERCA affinity for these four PLB variants. When SERCA was co-reconstituted with mixtures of PLBW and LOF PLBM, inhibitory potency was reduced relative to that of PLBW alone. Furthermore, FRET between donor-labeled SERCA and acceptor-labeled PLBW was decreased by both (unlabeled) LOF PLBM. These results show that LOF PLBM can compete both physically and functionally with PLBW, provide a rational explanation for the success of S16E-based gene therapy in animal models of heart failure, and establish a powerful platform for designing and testing more effective PLBM targeted for gene therapy of heart failure in humans. PMID:21510919

Lockamy, Elizabeth L.; Cornea, Razvan L.; Karim, Christine B.; Thomas, David D.

2011-01-01

394

Failure of action potential propagation in sensory neurons: mechanisms and loss of afferent filtering in C-type units after painful nerve injury  

PubMed Central

The T-junction of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a potential impediment to action potential (AP) propagation towards the CNS. Using intracellular recordings from rat DRG neuronal somata during stimulation of the dorsal root, we determined that the maximal rate at which all of 20 APs in a train could successfully transit the T-junction (following frequency) was lowest in C-type units, followed by A-type units with inflected descending limbs of the AP, and highest in A-type units without inflections. In C-type units, following frequency was slower than the rate at which AP trains could be produced in either dorsal root axonal segments or in the soma alone, indicating that the T-junction is a site that acts as a low-pass filter for AP propagation. Following frequency was slower for a train of 20 APs than for two, indicating that a cumulative process leads to propagation failure. Propagation failure was accompanied by diminished somatic membrane input resistance, and was enhanced when Ca2+-sensitive K+ currents were augmented or when Ca2+-sensitive Cl? currents were blocked. After peripheral nerve injury, following frequencies were increased in axotomized C-type neurons and decreased in axotomized non-inflected A-type neurons. These findings reveal that the T-junction in sensory neurons is a regulator of afferent impulse traffic. Diminished filtering of AP trains at the T-junction of C-type neurons with axotomized peripheral processes could enhance the transmission of activity that is ectopically triggered in a neuroma or the neuronal soma, possibly contributing to pain generation. PMID:23148321

Gemes, Geza; Koopmeiners, Andrew; Rigaud, Marcel; Lirk, Philipp; Sapunar, Damir; Bangaru, Madhavi Latha; Vilceanu, Daniel; Garrison, Sheldon R; Ljubkovic, Marko; Mueller, Samantha J; Stucky, Cheryl L; Hogan, Quinn H

2013-01-01

395

Analyses of Transistor Punchthrough Failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The failure of two transistors in the Altitude Switch Assembly for the Solid Rocket Booster followed by two additional failures a year later presented a challenge to failure analysts. These devices had successfully worked for many years on numerous missions. There was no history of failures with this type of device. Extensive checks of the test procedures gave no indication for a source of the cause. The devices were manufactured more than twenty years ago and failure information on this lot date code was not readily available. External visual exam, radiography, PEID, and leak testing were performed with nominal results Electrical testing indicated nearly identical base-emitter and base-collector characteristics (both forward and reverse) with a low resistance short emitter to collector. These characteristics are indicative of a classic failure mechanism called punchthrough. In failure analysis punchthrough refers to an condition where a relatively low voltage pulse causes the device to conduct very hard producing localized areas of thermal runaway or "hot spots". At one or more of these hot spots, the excessive currents melt the silicon. Heavily doped emitter material diffuses through the base region to the collector forming a diffusion pipe shorting the emitter to base to collector. Upon cooling, an alloy junction forms between the pipe and the base region. Generally, the hot spot (punch-through site) is under the bond and no surface artifact is visible. The devices were delidded and the internal structures were examined microscopically. The gold emitter lead was melted on one device, but others had anomalies in the metallization around the in-tact emitter bonds. The SEM examination confirmed some anomalies to be cosmetic defects while other anomalies were artifacts of the punchthrough site. Subsequent to these analyses, the contractor determined that some irregular testing procedures occurred at the time of the failures heretofore unreported. These testing irregularities involved the use of a breakout box and were the likely cause of the failures. There was no evidence to suggest a generic failure mechanism was responsible for the failure of these transistors.

Nicolas, David P.

1999-01-01

396

Thermal barrier coating life modeling in aircraft gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical models useful for predicting ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) spalling life in aircraft gas turbine engines are presented. Electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) and plasma sprayed TBC systems are discussed. TBC spalling was attributed to a combination of <