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Sample records for tca cycle function

  1. Genetic and biochemical interactions involving tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) function using a collection of mutants defective in all TCA cycle genes.

    PubMed Central

    Przybyla-Zawislak, B; Gadde, D M; Ducharme, K; McCammon, M T

    1999-01-01

    The eight enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle are encoded by at least 15 different nuclear genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have constructed a set of yeast strains defective in these genes as part of a comprehensive analysis of the interactions among the TCA cycle proteins. The 15 major TCA cycle genes can be sorted into five phenotypic categories on the basis of their growth on nonfermentable carbon sources. We have previously reported a novel phenotype associated with mutants defective in the IDH2 gene encoding the Idh2p subunit of the NAD+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH). Null and nonsense idh2 mutants grow poorly on glycerol, but growth can be enhanced by extragenic mutations, termed glycerol suppressors, in the CIT1 gene encoding the TCA cycle citrate synthase and in other genes of oxidative metabolism. The TCA cycle mutant collection was utilized to search for other genes that can suppress idh2 mutants and to identify TCA cycle genes that display a similar suppressible growth phenotype on glycerol. Mutations in 7 TCA cycle genes were capable of functioning as suppressors for growth of idh2 mutants on glycerol. The only other TCA cycle gene to display the glycerol-suppressor-accumulation phenotype was IDH1, which encodes the companion Idh1p subunit of NAD-IDH. These results provide genetic evidence that NAD-IDH plays a unique role in TCA cycle function. PMID:10224250

  2. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity. PMID:26042830

  3. Dysfunctional TCA-Cycle Metabolism in Glutamate Dehydrogenase Deficient Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Jakob D; Paj?cka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H; Skytt, Dorte M; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2015-12-01

    Astrocytes take up glutamate in the synaptic area subsequent to glutamatergic transmission by the aid of high affinity glutamate transporters. Glutamate is converted to glutamine or metabolized to support intermediary metabolism and energy production. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) catalyze the reversible reaction between glutamate and ?-ketoglutarate, which is the initial step for glutamate to enter TCA cycle metabolism. In contrast to GDH, AAT requires a concomitant interconversion of oxaloacetate and aspartate. We have investigated the role of GDH in astrocyte glutamate and glucose metabolism employing siRNA mediated knock down (KD) of GDH in cultured astrocytes using stable and radioactive isotopes for metabolic mapping. An increased level of aspartate was observed upon exposure to [U-(13) C]glutamate in astrocytes exhibiting reduced GDH activity. (13) C Labeling of aspartate and TCA cycle intermediates confirmed that the increased amount of aspartate is associated with elevated TCA cycle flux from ?-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate, i.e. truncated TCA cycle. (13) C Glucose metabolism was elevated in GDH deficient astrocytes as observed by increased de novo synthesis of aspartate via pyruvate carboxylation. In the absence of glucose, lactate production from glutamate via malic enzyme was lower in GDH deficient astrocytes. In conclusions, our studies reveal that metabolism via GDH serves an important anaplerotic role by adding net carbon to the TCA cycle. A reduction in GDH activity seems to cause the astrocytes to up-regulate activity in pathways involved in maintaining the amount of TCA cycle intermediates such as pyruvate carboxylation as well as utilization of alternate substrates such as branched chain amino acids. GLIA 2015;63:2313-2326. PMID:26221781

  4. Metabolism: Part II. The Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA), Citric Acid, or Krebs Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Differentiates the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (or Krebs cycle) from glycolysis, and describes the bridge between the two as being the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl coenzyme A. Discusses the eight steps in the TCA cycle, the results of isotopic labeling experiments, and the net effects of the TCA cycle. (TW)

  5. Part II. The Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA), Citric Acid, or Krebs Cycle George M. Bodner

    E-print Network

    Bodner, George M.

    Metabolism Part II. The Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA), Citric Acid, or Krebs Cycle George M. Bodner this sequence of en- zyme-catalyzed reactions the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA), citric acid, or Krehs cycle differs fromglycolysisin several ways. First, and foremost, it is a cyclic rather

  6. Fumarate hydratase (FH), an enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle,

    E-print Network

    Ruppin, Eytan

    Fumarate hydratase (FH), an enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, is mutated of succinate and fumarate, the two metabolites generated in the TCA cycle before the conversion of fuma- rate for cancer cells. Exposure to 13 C-glucose did not result in substantial labelling of fumarate, but growth

  7. Mitochondrial engineering of the TCA cycle for fumarate production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiulai; Dong, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Yuancai; Zhao, Zihao; Liu, Liming

    2015-09-01

    Microbial fumarate production from renewable feedstock is a promising and sustainable alternative to petroleum-based chemical synthesis. Here, mitochondrial engineering was used to construct the oxidative pathway for fumarate production starting from the TCA cycle intermediate ?-ketoglutarate in Candida glabrata. Accordingly, ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGD), succinyl-CoA synthetase (SUCLG), and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) were selected to be manipulated for strengthening the oxidative pathway, and the engineered strain T.G-K-S-S exhibited increased fumarate biosynthesis (1.81gL(-1)). To further improve fumarate production, the oxidative route was optimized. First, three fusion proteins KGD2-SUCLG2, SUCLG2-SDH1 and KGD2-SDH1 were constructed, and KGD2-SUCLG2 led to improved fumarate production (4.24gL(-1)). In addition, various strengths of KGD2-SUCLG2 and SDH1 expression cassettes were designed by combinations of promoter strengths and copy numbers, resulting in a large increase in fumarate production (from 4.24gL(-1) to 8.24gL(-1)). Then, through determining intracellular amino acids and its related gene expression levels, argininosuccinate lyase in the urea cycle was identified as the key factor for restricting higher fumarate production. Correspondingly, after overexpression of it, the fumarate production was further increased to 9.96gL(-1). Next, two dicarboxylic acids transporters facilitated an improvement of fumarate production, and, as a result, the final strain T.G-KS(H)-S(M)-A-2S reached fumarate titer of 15.76gL(-1). This strategy described here paves the way to the development of an efficient pathway for microbial production of fumarate. PMID:25708514

  8. Mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates regulate body fluid and acid-base balance.

    PubMed

    Peti-Peterdi, János

    2013-07-01

    Intrarenal control mechanisms play an important role in the maintenance of body fluid and electrolyte balance and pH homeostasis. Recent discoveries of new ion transport and regulatory pathways in the distal nephron and collecting duct system have helped to better our understanding of these critical kidney functions and identified new potential therapeutic targets and approaches. In this issue of the JCI, Tokonami et al. report on the function of an exciting new paracrine mediator, the mitochondrial the citric acid(TCA) cycle intermediate ?-ketoglutarate (?KG), which via its OXGR1 receptor plays an unexpected, nontraditional role in the adaptive regulation of renal HCO(3?) secretion and salt reabsorption. PMID:23926603

  9. Glutamine oxidation maintains the TCA cycle and cell survival during impaired mitochondrial pyruvate transport.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chendong; Ko, Bookyung; Hensley, Christopher T; Jiang, Lei; Wasti, Ajla T; Kim, Jiyeon; Sudderth, Jessica; Calvaruso, Maria Antonietta; Lumata, Lloyd; Mitsche, Matthew; Rutter, Jared; Merritt, Matthew E; DeBerardinis, Ralph J

    2014-11-01

    Alternative modes of metabolism enable cells to resist metabolic stress. Inhibiting these compensatory pathways may produce synthetic lethality. We previously demonstrated that glucose deprivation stimulated a pathway in which acetyl-CoA was formed from glutamine downstream of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Here we show that import of pyruvate into the mitochondria suppresses GDH and glutamine-dependent acetyl-CoA formation. Inhibiting the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) activates GDH and reroutes glutamine metabolism to generate both oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA, enabling persistent tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle function. Pharmacological blockade of GDH elicited largely cytostatic effects in culture, but these effects became cytotoxic when combined with MPC inhibition. Concomitant administration of MPC and GDH inhibitors significantly impaired tumor growth compared to either inhibitor used as a single agent. Together, the data define a mechanism to induce glutaminolysis and uncover a survival pathway engaged during compromised supply of pyruvate to the mitochondria. PMID:25458842

  10. 11/12/13 Chapter 13 -TCA Cycle

    E-print Network

    O'Neil, Joe

    ;11/12/13 5 In eukaryotes, the Citric Acid Cycle / Krebs Cycle / Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle acetate Pantothenic Acid -mercapto-ethylamine -- - - ! #12;11/12/13 3 Lipoic Acid S S CH CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 C O HN CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH N C O H Lys of E2 E2 Lipoic Acid ! The reaction starts on E1 and ends on E

  11. Effects of intermediate metabolite carboxylic acids of TCA cycle on Microcystis with overproduction of phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shijie; Dai, Jingcheng; Xia, Ming; Ruan, Jing; Wei, Hehong; Yu, Dianzhen; Li, Ronghui; Jing, Hongmei; Tian, Chunyuan; Song, Lirong; Qiu, Dongru

    2015-04-01

    Toxic Microcystis species are the main bloom-forming cyanobacteria in freshwaters. It is imperative to develop efficient techniques to control these notorious harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here, we present a simple, efficient, and environmentally safe algicidal way to control Microcystis blooms, by using intermediate carboxylic acids from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The citric acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid all exhibited strong algicidal effects, and particularly succinic acid could cause the rapid lysis of Microcystis in a few hours. It is revealed that the Microcystis-lysing activity of succinic acid and other carboxylic acids was due to their strong acidic activity. Interestingly, the acid-lysed Microcystis cells released large amounts of phycocyanin, about 27-fold higher than those of the control. On the other hand, the transcription of mcyA and mcyD of the microcystin biosynthesis operon was not upregulated by addition of alpha-ketoglutaric acid and other carboxylic acids. Consider the environmental safety of intermediate carboxylic acids. We propose that administration of TCA cycle organic acids may not only provide an algicidal method with high efficiency and environmental safety but also serve as an applicable way to produce and extract phycocyanin from cyanobacterial biomass. PMID:25342454

  12. Assessment of the TCA functional in computational chemistry and solid-state physics

    E-print Network

    Fabiano, E; Terentjevs, A; Della Sala, F; Cortona, P

    2015-01-01

    We assess the Tognetti-Cortona-Adamo (TCA) generalized gradient approximation correlation functional [J. Chem. Phys. 128:034101 (2008)] for a variety of electronic systems. We find that, even if the TCA functional is not exact for the uniform electron gas, it is very accurate for the jellium surface correlation energies and it gives a realistic description of the quantum oscillations and surface effects of various jellium clusters, that are important model systems in computational chemistry and solid-state physics. When the TCA correlation is combined with the non-empirical PBEint, Wu-Cohen, and PBEsol$_b$ exchange functionals, the resulting exchange-correlation approximations provide good performances for a broad palette of systems and properties, being reasonably accurate for thermochemistry and geometry of molecules, transition metal complexes, non-covalent interactions,equilibrium lattice constants, bulk moduli, and cohesive energies of solids.

  13. A Possibility for Piece-wise Ignitions of a TCA Cycle in a Prebiotic Hydrothermal Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, A.; Ikeya, R.; Imai, E.; Hatori, K.; Honda, H.; Matsuno, K.

    We previously reported that formic and acetic acids were synthesized from the mixture of carbon dioxide and water in the presence of heated metal oxide serving as a catalyst (1). Fixation of carbon dioxide and monoxide could have been conceivable in the hydrothermal environment in the primitive ocean. We then considered a possibility of synthesizing major metabolites appearing in a TCA cycle in prebiotic conditions. Focused in this attempt was the vicinity of hydrothermal vents in the primitive ocean. We used a flow reactor to simulate hydrothermal circulation of seawater through hot vents (2). The experimental conditions we chose were that the hot chamber at 200 °C was connected to the cold chamber at 0 °C through a thin nozzle of its diameter 0.8 mm. The total volume of the reaction solution was 500 mL. The fluid was circulated through the flow reactor at the rate of 8 mL / min. As an initial attempt, we prepared the solution of acetic and formic acids. When iron chloride and copper sulfide were present in the solution, the products precipitated on the filter placed in the low-temperature chamber included di-carboxylic acids such as malic acid. We then proceeded to the reaction solution dissolving three different kinds of carboxylic acids, namely, succinate, fumarate, and oxoglutarate. We found that malic acid was in the solution after the operation of the flow-reactor. Formation and transformation of carboxylic acids were observed in our flow reactor. These observations, when combined together, may suggest a possibility of piece-wise ignitions of a TCA cycle even in the prebiotic ocean on the primitive earth. References (1) R. Terada, E. Imai, H. Honda, K. Hatori, and K. Matsuno.: Viva Origino 27, 197-208(1999). (2) E. Imai, H. Honda, K. Hatori, A. Brack, and K. Matsuno.: Science 283, 831-833(1999).

  14. Blocking anaplerotic entry of glutamine to TCA cycle sensitizes K-Ras mutant cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Saqcena, Mahesh; Mukhopadhyay, Suman; Hosny, Carol; Alhamed, Arwa; Chatterjee, Amrita; Foster, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo a metabolic transformation that allows for increased anabolic demands wherein glycolytic and TCA cycle intermediates are shunted away for the synthesis of biological molecules required for cell growth and division. One of the key shunts is the exit of citrate from the mitochondria and the TCA cycle for the generation of cytosolic acetyl-CoA that can be used for fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. With the loss of mitochondrial citrate, cancer cells rely on the “conditionally essential” amino acid glutamine (Q) as an anaplerotic carbon source for TCA cycle intermediates. While Q deprivation causes G1 cell cycle arrest in non-transformed cells, its impact on the cancer cell cycle is not well characterized. We report here a correlation between bypass of the Q-dependent G1 checkpoint and cancer cells harboring K-Ras mutations. Instead of arresting in G1 in response to Q-deprivation, K-Ras driven cancer cells arrest in either S- or G2/M-phase. Inhibition of K-Ras effector pathways was able to revert cells to G1 arrest upon Q deprivation. Blocking anaplerotic utilization of Q mimicked Q deprivation – causing S- and G2/M-phase arrest in K-Ras mutant cancer cells. Significantly, Q deprivation or suppression of anaplerotic Q utilization created synthetic lethality to the cell cycle phase-specific cytotoxic drugs, capecitabine and paclitaxel. These data suggest that disabling of the G1 Q checkpoint could represent a novel vulnerability of cancer cells harboring K-Ras and possibly other mutations that disable the Q-dependent checkpoint. PMID:25023699

  15. TCA precipitation.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation of proteins is commonly used to concentrate protein samples or remove contaminants, including salts and detergents, prior to downstream applications such as SDS-PAGE or 2D-gels. TCA precipitation denatures the protein, so it should not be used if the protein must remain in its folded state (e.g., if you want to measure a biochemical activity of the protein). PMID:24674058

  16. Comparison of Intact Arabidopsis thaliana Leaf Transcript Profiles during Treatment with Inhibitors of Mitochondrial Electron Transport and TCA Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianping; Ruckle, Michael E.; McIntosh, Lee; Hock, Jeffery J.; Bingham, Scott; White, Samuel J.; George, Rajani M.; Subbaiah, Chalivendra C.; Rhoads, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Plant mitochondria signal to the nucleus leading to altered transcription of nuclear genes by a process called mitochondrial retrograde regulation (MRR). MRR is implicated in metabolic homeostasis and responses to stress conditions. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) are a MRR signaling component, but whether all MRR requires ROS is not established. Inhibition of the cytochrome respiratory pathway by antimycin A (AA) or the TCA cycle by monofluoroacetate (MFA), each of which initiates MRR, can increase ROS production in some plant cells. We found that for AA and MFA applied to leaves of soil-grown Arabidopsis thaliana plants, ROS production increased with AA, but not with MFA, allowing comparison of transcript profiles under different ROS conditions during MRR. Variation in transcript accumulation over time for eight nuclear encoded mitochondrial protein genes suggested operation of both common and distinct signaling pathways between the two treatments. Consequences of mitochondrial perturbations for the whole transcriptome were examined by microarray analyses. Expression of 1316 and 606 genes was altered by AA and MFA, respectively. A subset of genes was similarly affected by both treatments, including genes encoding photosynthesis-related proteins. MFA treatment resulted in more down-regulation. Functional gene category (MapMan) and cluster analyses showed that genes with expression levels affected by perturbation from AA or MFA inhibition were most similarly affected by biotic stresses such as pathogens. Overall, the data provide further evidence for the presence of mtROS-independent MRR signaling, and support the proposed involvement of MRR and mitochondrial function in plant responses to biotic stress. PMID:23028523

  17. Reconstitution of TCA cycle with DAOCS to engineer Escherichia coli into an efficient whole cell catalyst of penicillin G.

    PubMed

    Lin, Baixue; Fan, Keqiang; Zhao, Jian; Ji, Junjie; Wu, Linjun; Yang, Keqian; Tao, Yong

    2015-08-11

    Many medically useful semisynthetic cephalosporins are derived from 7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA), which has been traditionally made by the polluting chemical method. Here, a whole-cell biocatalytic process based on an engineered Escherichia coli strain expressing 2-oxoglutarate-dependent deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS) for converting penicillin G to G-7-ADCA is developed. The major engineering strategy is to reconstitute the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of E. coli to force the metabolic flux to go through DAOCS catalyzed reaction for 2-oxoglutarate to succinate conversion. Then the glyoxylate bypass was disrupted to eliminate metabolic flux that may circumvent the reconstituted TCA cycle. Additional engineering steps were taken to reduce the degradation of penicillin G and G-7-ADCA in the bioconversion process. These steps include engineering strategies to reduce acetate accumulation in the biocatalytic process and to knock out a host ?-lactamase involved in the degradation of penicillin G and G-7-ADCA. By combining these manipulations in an engineered strain, the yield of G-7-ADCA was increased from 2.50 ± 0.79 mM (0.89 ± 0.28 g/L, 0.07 ± 0.02 g/gDCW) to 29.01 ± 1.27 mM (10.31 ± 0.46 g/L, 0.77 ± 0.03 g/gDCW) with a conversion rate of 29.01 mol%, representing an 11-fold increase compared with the starting strain (2.50 mol%). PMID:26216972

  18. The Role of TCA Cycle Anaplerosis in Ketosis and Fatty Liver in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    White, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    The transition to lactation period in dairy cattle is characterized by metabolic challenges, negative energy balance, and adipose tissue mobilization. Metabolism of mobilized adipose tissue is part of the adaptive response to negative energy balance in dairy cattle; however, the capacity of the liver to completely oxidize nonesterified fatty acids may be limited and is reflective of oxaloacetate pool, the carbon carrier of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Alternative metabolic fates of acetyl-CoA from nonesterified fatty acids include esterification to triacylglycerides and ketogenesis, and when excessive, these pathways lead to fatty liver and ketosis. Examination of the anaplerotic and cataplerotic pull of oxaloacetate by the tricarboxylic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis may provide insight into the balance of oxidation and esterification of acetyl-CoA within the liver of periparturient dairy cows. PMID:26479386

  19. Partial reverse of the TCA cycle is enhanced in Taenia crassiceps experimental neurocysticercosis after in vivo treatment with anthelminthic drugs.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Leandro, Leticia; Fraga, Carolina Miguel; de Souza Lino, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2014-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common helminthic infection and neglected disease of the central nervous system. It is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and seizures worldwide. Therefore, to study this important neglected disease, it is important to use experimental models. There is no report in the literature on how the parasite's metabolism reacts to antihelminthic treatment when it is still within the central nervous system of the host. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the energetic metabolism of cysticerci experimentally inoculated in the encephala of BALB/c mice after treatment with low dosages (not sufficient to kill the parasite) of albendazole (ABDZ) and praziquantel (PZQ). BALB/c mice were intracranially inoculated with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci and, after 30 days, received treatment with low dosages of ABDZ and PZQ. After 24 h of treatment, the mice were euthanized, and the cysticerci were removed and analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the organic acids related to the energetic metabolism of the parasite. The partial reverse of the TCA cycle was enhanced by the ABDZ and PZQ treatments both with the higher dosage, as the organic acids of this pathway were significantly increased when compared to the control group and to the other dosages. In conclusion, it was possible to detect the increase of this pathway in the parasites that were exposed to low dosages of ABDZ and PZQ, as it is a mechanism that would amplify the energy production in a hostile environment. PMID:24481905

  20. Integrated, Step-Wise, Mass-Isotopomeric Flux Analysis of the TCA Cycle.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tiago C; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Zhao, Xiaojian; Yarborough, Orlando; Sereda, Sam; Shirihai, Orian; Cline, Gary W; Mason, Graeme; Kibbey, Richard G

    2015-11-01

    Mass isotopomer multi-ordinate spectral analysis (MIMOSA) is a step-wise flux analysis platform to measure discrete glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolic rates. Importantly, direct citrate synthesis rates were obtained by deconvolving the mass spectra generated from [U-(13)C6]-D-glucose labeling for position-specific enrichments of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, oxaloacetate, and citrate. Comprehensive steady-state and dynamic analyses of key metabolic rates (pyruvate dehydrogenase, ?-oxidation, pyruvate carboxylase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and PEP/pyruvate cycling) were calculated from the position-specific transfer of (13)C from sequential precursors to their products. Important limitations of previous techniques were identified. In INS-1 cells, citrate synthase rates correlated with both insulin secretion and oxygen consumption. Pyruvate carboxylase rates were substantially lower than previously reported but showed the highest fold change in response to glucose stimulation. In conclusion, MIMOSA measures key metabolic rates from the precursor/product position-specific transfer of (13)C-label between metabolites and has broad applicability to any glucose-oxidizing cell. PMID:26411341

  1. Possible Links Between Stress Defense and the Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle in Francisella Pathogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Dieppedale, Jennifer; Gesbert, Gael; Ramond, Elodie; Chhuon, Cerina; Dubail, Iharilalao; Dupuis, Marion; Guerrera, Ida Chiara; Charbit, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious bacterium causing the zoonotic disease tularemia. In vivo, this facultative intracellular bacterium survives and replicates mainly in the cytoplasm of infected cells. We have recently identified a genetic locus, designated moxR that is important for stress resistance and intramacrophage survival of F. tularensis. In the present work, we used tandem affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry to identify in vivo interacting partners of three proteins encoded by this locus: the MoxR-like ATPase (FTL_0200), and two proteins containing motifs predicted to be involved in protein–protein interactions, bearing von Willebrand A (FTL_0201) and tetratricopeptide (FTL_0205) motifs. The three proteins were designated here for simplification, MoxR, VWA1, and TPR1, respectively. MoxR interacted with 31 proteins, including various enzymes. VWA1 interacted with fewer proteins, but these included the E2 component of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and TPR1. The protein TPR1 interacted with one hundred proteins, including the E1 and E2 subunits of both oxoglutarate and pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complexes, and their common E3 subunit. Remarkably, chromosomal deletion of either moxR or tpr1 impaired pyruvate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activities, supporting the hypothesis of a functional role for the interaction of MoxR and TPR1 with these complexes. Altogether, this work highlights possible links between stress resistance and metabolism in F. tularensis virulence. PMID:23669032

  2. The effect of Walterinnesia aegyptia venom proteins on TCA cycle activity and mitochondrial NAD(+)-redox state in cultured human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ghneim, Hazem K; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed A; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A M

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast cultures were used to study the effects of crude Walterinnesia aegyptia venom and its F1-F7 protein fractions on TCA cycle enzyme activities and mitochondrial NAD-redox state. Confluent cells were incubated with 10 ?g of venom proteins for 4 hours at 37°C. The activities of all studied TCA enzymes and the non-TCA mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase underwent significant reductions of similar magnitude (50-60% of control activity) upon incubation of cells with the crude venom and fractions F4, F5, and F7 and 60-70% for fractions F3 and F6. In addition, the crude and fractions F3-F7 venom proteins caused a drop in mitochondrial NAD(+) and NADP(+) levels equivalent to around 25% of control values. Whereas the crude and fractions F4, F5, and F7 venom proteins caused similar magnitude drops in NADH and NADPH (around 55% of control levels), fractions F3 and F6 caused a more drastic drop (60-70% of control levels) of both reduced coenzymes. Results indicate that the effects of venom proteins could be directed at the mitochondrial level and/or the rates of NAD(+) and NADP(+) biosynthesis. PMID:25705684

  3. The Effect of Walterinnesia aegyptia Venom Proteins on TCA Cycle Activity and Mitochondrial NAD+-Redox State in Cultured Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ghneim, Hazem K.; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast cultures were used to study the effects of crude Walterinnesia aegyptia venom and its F1–F7 protein fractions on TCA cycle enzyme activities and mitochondrial NAD-redox state. Confluent cells were incubated with 10??g of venom proteins for 4 hours at 37°C. The activities of all studied TCA enzymes and the non-TCA mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase underwent significant reductions of similar magnitude (50–60% of control activity) upon incubation of cells with the crude venom and fractions F4, F5, and F7 and 60–70% for fractions F3 and F6. In addition, the crude and fractions F3–F7 venom proteins caused a drop in mitochondrial NAD+ and NADP+ levels equivalent to around 25% of control values. Whereas the crude and fractions F4, F5, and F7 venom proteins caused similar magnitude drops in NADH and NADPH (around 55% of control levels), fractions F3 and F6 caused a more drastic drop (60–70% of control levels) of both reduced coenzymes. Results indicate that the effects of venom proteins could be directed at the mitochondrial level and/or the rates of NAD+ and NADP+ biosynthesis. PMID:25705684

  4. The Majority of Free-Living Autotrophic Bacteria use the Reductive TCA Cycle for Carbon Fixation at Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, B. J.; Cary, C.

    2003-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents support large micro and macroscopic communities, without the input of photosynthesis. Autotrophic production at these vents is based on hydrothermal vent fluid chemistry. Primary production has been thought to occur mainly via hydrogen sulfide oxidation through the Calvin-Benson pathway, as measured by the presence of Rubisco in endosymbionts of several invertebrate hosts. Recently, we characterized two fosmids from a large insert library of the epsilon Proteobacterial episymbionts of Alvinella pompejana. Both contained sequences encoding ATP citrate lyase, a key enzyme in the reverse TCA cycle, an alternate carbon dioxide fixation pathway. Previous investigators have demonstrated the dominance of the epsilon subdivision in the free-living bacterial communities at hydrothermal vents. Based on these results, our working hypothesis is: The rTCA cycle is the dominant pathway for carbon fixation in the free-living bacterial communities at hydrothermal vents. A selection of free-living bacterial communities from various geographic locations (9N, East Pacific Rise and Guaymas Basin) were screened for the presence, diversity and expression (via RT-PCR) of Rubisco (forms I and II) and ATP citrate lyase. Our results indicate that the ATP citrate lyase gene is diverse and is consistently expressed in several types of vent communities. The two forms of Rubisco are not consistently present or expressed in the same environments. These results indicate that chemoautotrophic production in the free-living bacterial communities at deep-sea hydrothermal vents is dominated by bacteria that utilize the rTCA cycle, and parallels the phylogenetic dominance of members of the epsilon subdivision of Proteobacteria.

  5. Contribution of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the glyoxylate shunt in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to succinic acid production during dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Aslankoohi, Elham; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2015-07-01

    Succinic acid produced by yeast during bread dough fermentation can significantly affect the rheological properties of the dough. By introducing mutations in the model S288C yeast strain, we show that the oxidative pathway of the TCA cycle and the glyoxylate shunt contribute significantly to succinic acid production during dough fermentation. More specifically, deletion of ACO1 and double deletion of ACO1 and ICL1 resulted in a 36 and 77% decrease in succinic acid levels in fermented dough, respectively. Similarly, double deletion of IDH1 and IDP1 decreased succinic acid production by 85%, while also affecting the fermentation rate. By contrast, double deletion of SDH1 and SDH2 resulted in a two-fold higher succinic acid accumulation compared to the wild-type. Deletion of fumarate reductase activity (FRD1 and OSM1) in the reductive pathway of the TCA cycle did not affect the fermentation rate and succinic acid production. The changes in the levels of succinic acid produced by mutants ?idh1?idp1 (low level) and ?sdh1?sdh2 (high level) in fermented dough only resulted in small pH differences, reflecting the buffering capacity of dough at a pH of around 5.1. Moreover, Rheofermentometer analysis using these mutants revealed no difference in maximum dough height and gas retention capacity with the dough prepared with S288C. The impact of the changed succinic acid profile on the organoleptic or antimicrobial properties of bread remains to be demonstrated. PMID:25828707

  6. High night temperature strongly impacts TCA cycle, amino acid and polyamine biosynthetic pathways in rice in a sensitivity-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Glaubitz, Ulrike; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hincha, Dirk K; Zuther, Ellen

    2015-09-01

    Global climate change combined with asymmetric warming can have detrimental effects on the yield of crop plants such as rice (Oryza sativa L.). Little is known about metabolic responses of rice to high night temperature (HNT) conditions. Twelve cultivars with different HNT sensitivity were used to investigate metabolic changes in the vegetative stage under HNT compared to control conditions. Central metabolism, especially TCA cycle and amino acid biosynthesis, were strongly affected particularly in sensitive cultivars. Levels of several metabolites were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Furthermore, pool sizes of some metabolites negatively correlated with HNT sensitivity under control conditions, indicating metabolic pre-adaptation in tolerant cultivars. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine showed increased abundance in sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions. Correlations between the content of polyamines and 75 other metabolites indicated metabolic shifts from correlations with sugar-phosphates and 1-kestose under control to correlations with sugars and amino and organic acids under HNT conditions. Increased expression levels of ADC2 and ODC1, genes encoding enzymes catalysing the first committed steps of putrescine biosynthesis, were restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT. Additionally, transcript levels of eight polyamine biosynthesis genes were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Responses to HNT in the vegetative stage result in distinct differences between differently responding cultivars with a dysregulation of central metabolism and an increase of polyamine biosynthesis restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions and a pre-adaptation of tolerant cultivars already under control conditions with higher levels of potentially protective compatible solutes. PMID:26208642

  7. High night temperature strongly impacts TCA cycle, amino acid and polyamine biosynthetic pathways in rice in a sensitivity-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Glaubitz, Ulrike; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hincha, Dirk K.; Zuther, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change combined with asymmetric warming can have detrimental effects on the yield of crop plants such as rice (Oryza sativa L.). Little is known about metabolic responses of rice to high night temperature (HNT) conditions. Twelve cultivars with different HNT sensitivity were used to investigate metabolic changes in the vegetative stage under HNT compared to control conditions. Central metabolism, especially TCA cycle and amino acid biosynthesis, were strongly affected particularly in sensitive cultivars. Levels of several metabolites were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Furthermore, pool sizes of some metabolites negatively correlated with HNT sensitivity under control conditions, indicating metabolic pre-adaptation in tolerant cultivars. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine showed increased abundance in sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions. Correlations between the content of polyamines and 75 other metabolites indicated metabolic shifts from correlations with sugar-phosphates and 1-kestose under control to correlations with sugars and amino and organic acids under HNT conditions. Increased expression levels of ADC2 and ODC1, genes encoding enzymes catalysing the first committed steps of putrescine biosynthesis, were restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT. Additionally, transcript levels of eight polyamine biosynthesis genes were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Responses to HNT in the vegetative stage result in distinct differences between differently responding cultivars with a dysregulation of central metabolism and an increase of polyamine biosynthesis restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions and a pre-adaptation of tolerant cultivars already under control conditions with higher levels of potentially protective compatible solutes. PMID:26208642

  8. Combined effects of CO2 enrichment and elevated growth temperatures on metabolites in soybean leaflets: evidence for dynamic changes of TCA cycle intermediates.

    PubMed

    Sicher, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Soybean (Glycine max [Merr.] L.) was grown in indoor chambers with ambient (38 Pa) and elevated (70 Pa) CO2 and day/night temperature treatments of 28/20, 32/24 and 36/28 °C. We hypothesized that CO2 enrichment would mitigate the deleterious effects of elevated growth temperatures on metabolites in soybean leaflets. Net CO2 assimilation rates increased incrementally with growth temperature and were enhanced up to 24 % on average by CO2 enrichment. Stomatal conductance about doubled from the lowest to highest temperature but this was partially reversed by CO2 enrichment. Metabolites were measured thrice daily and 19 and 28 of 43 total leaf metabolites were altered by the 32/24 and 36/28 °C temperature treatments, respectively, in both CO2 treatments. Polyols, raffinose and GABA increased and 23 nonstructural carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids decreased when the temperature was increased from 28 to 36 °C under ambient CO2. Citrate, aconitate and 2-oxoglutarate decreased over 90 % in the 36/28 °C compared to the 28/20 °C temperature treatment. Temperature-dependent changes of sugars, organic acids and all but three amino acids were almost completely eliminated by CO2 enrichment. The above findings suggested that specific TCA cycle intermediates were highly depleted by heat stress under ambient CO2. Mitigating effects of CO2 enrichment on soybean leaflet metabolites were attributed to altered rates of photosynthesis, photorespiration, dark respiration, the anaplerotic pathway and to possible changes of gene expression. PMID:23716183

  9. Ames Optimized TCA Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Reuther, James J.; Hicks, Raymond M.

    1999-01-01

    Configuration design at Ames was carried out with the SYN87-SB (single block) Euler code using a 193 x 49 x 65 C-H grid. The Euler solver is coupled to the constrained (NPSOL) and the unconstrained (QNMDIF) optimization packages. Since the single block grid is able to model only wing-body configurations, the nacelle/diverter effects were included in the optimization process by SYN87's option to superimpose the nacelle/diverter interference pressures on the wing. These interference pressures were calculated using the AIRPLANE code. AIRPLANE is an Euler solver that uses a unstructured tetrahedral mesh and is capable of computations about arbitrary complete configurations. In addition, the buoyancy effects of the nacelle/diverters were also included in the design process by imposing the pressure field obtained during the design process onto the triangulated surfaces of the nacelle/diverter mesh generated by AIRPLANE. The interference pressures and nacelle buoyancy effects are added to the final forces after each flow field calculation. Full details of the (recently enhanced) ghost nacelle capability are given in a related talk. The pseudo nacelle corrections were greatly improved during this design cycle. During the Ref H and Cycle 1 design activities, the nacelles were only translated and pitched. In the cycle 2 design effort the nacelles can translate vertically, and pitch to accommodate the changes in the lower surface geometry. The diverter heights (between their leading and trailing edges) were modified during design as the shape of the lower wing changed, with the drag of the diverter changing accordingly. Both adjoint and finite difference gradients were used during optimization. The adjoint-based gradients were found to give good direction in the design space for configurations near the starting point, but as the design approached a minimum, the finite difference gradients were found to be more accurate. Use of finite difference gradients was limited by the CPU time limit available on the Cray machines. A typical optimization run using finite difference gradients can use only 30 to 40 design variables and one optimization iteration within the 8 hour queue limit for the chosen grid size and convergence level. The efficiency afforded by the adjoint method allowed for 50-120 design variables and 5-10 optimization iterations in the 8 hour queue. Geometric perturbations to the wing and fuselage were made using the Hicks/Henne (HH) shape functions. The HH functions were distributed uniformly along the chords of the wing defining sections and lofted linearly. During single-surface design, constraints on thickness and volume at selected wing stations were imposed. Both fuselage camber and cross-sectional area distributions were permitted to change during design. The major disadvantage to the use of these functions is the inherent surface waviness produced by repeated use of such functions. Many smoothing operations were required following optimization runs to produce a configuration with reasonable smoothness. Wagner functions were also used on the wing sections but were never used on the fuselage. The Wagner functions are a family of increasingly oscillatory functions that have also been used extensively in airfoil design. The leading and trailing edge regions of the wing were designed by use of polynomial and monomial functions respectively. Twist was attempted but was abandoned because of little performance improvement available from changing the baseline twist.

  10. Evolution and Functional Implications of the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle as Revealed by Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, João Henrique Frota; Esteves-Ferreira, Alberto A.; Quinhones, Carla G.S.; Pereira-Lima, Italo A.; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Araújo, Wagner L.

    2014-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, a crucial component of respiratory metabolism, is composed of a set of eight enzymes present in the mitochondrial matrix. However, most of the TCA cycle enzymes are encoded in the nucleus in higher eukaryotes. In addition, evidence has accumulated demonstrating that nuclear genes were acquired from the mitochondrial genome during the course of evolution. For this reason, we here analyzed the evolutionary history of all TCA cycle enzymes in attempt to better understand the origin of these nuclear-encoded proteins. Our results indicate that prior to endosymbiotic events the TCA cycle seemed to operate only as isolated steps in both the host (eubacterial cell) and mitochondria (alphaproteobacteria). The origin of isoforms present in different cell compartments might be associated either with gene-transfer events which did not result in proper targeting of the protein to mitochondrion or with duplication events. Further in silico analyses allow us to suggest new insights into the possible roles of TCA cycle enzymes in different tissues. Finally, we performed coexpression analysis using mitochondrial TCA cycle genes revealing close connections among these genes most likely related to the higher efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in this specialized organelle. Moreover, these analyses allowed us to identify further candidate genes which might be used for metabolic engineering purposes given the importance of the TCA cycle during development and/or stress situations. PMID:25274566

  11. The Tribolium castaneum cell line TcA: a new tool kit for cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Kristopher; Jiang, Hongbo; Fu, Jinping; Phillips, Thomas W.; Beeman, Richard W.; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-01-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is an agriculturally important insect pest that has been widely used as a model organism. Recently, an adherent cell line (BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 or TcA) was developed from late pupae of the red flour beetle. Next generation transcriptome sequencing of TcA cells demonstrated expression of a wide variety of genes associated with specialized functions in chitin metabolism, immune responses and cellular and systemic RNAi pathways. Accordingly, we evaluated the sensitivity of TcA cells to dsRNA to initiate an RNAi response. TcA cells were highly sensitive to minute amounts of dsRNA, with a minimum effective dose of 100?pg/mL resulting in significant suppression of gene expression. We have also developed a plasmid containing two TcA-specific promoters, the promoter from the 40S ribosomal protein subunit (TC006550) and a bi-directional heat shock promoter (TcHS70) from the intergenic space between heat shock proteins 68a and b. These promoters have been employed to provide high levels of either constitutive (TC006550) or inducible (TcHS70) gene expression of the reporter proteins. Our results show that the TcA cell line, with its sensitivity to RNAi and functional TcA-specific promoters, is an invaluable resource for studying basic molecular and physiological questions. PMID:25354547

  12. SdhE-dependent formation of a functional Acetobacter pasteurianus succinate dehydrogenase in Gluconobacter oxydans-a first step toward a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle.

    PubMed

    Kiefler, Ines; Bringer, Stephanie; Bott, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The obligatory aerobic ?-proteobacterium Gluconobacter oxydans 621H possesses an unusual metabolism in which the majority of the carbohydrate substrates are incompletely oxidized in the periplasm and only a small fraction is metabolized in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic oxidation capabilities are limited due to an incomplete tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle caused by the lack of succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) and succinyl-CoA synthetase. As a first step to test the consequences of a functional TCA cycle for growth, metabolism, and bioenergetics of G. oxydans, we attempted to establish a heterologous Sdh in this species. Expression of Acetobacter pasteurianus sdhCDAB in G. oxydans did not yield an active succinate dehydrogenase. Co-expression of a putative sdhE gene from A. pasteurianus, which was assumed to encode an assembly factor for covalent attachment of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) to SdhA, stimulated Sdh activity up to 400-fold to 4.0 ± 0.4 U (mg membrane protein)(?1). The succinate/oxygen reductase activity of membranes was 0.68 ± 0.04 U (mg membrane protein)(?1), indicating the formation of functional Sdh complex capable of transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone. A. pasteurianus SdhE could be functionally replaced by SdhE from the ?-proteobacterium Serratia sp. According to these results, the accessory protein SdhE was necessary and sufficient for heterologous synthesis of an active A. pasteurianus Sdh in G. oxydans. Studies with the Sdh-positive G. oxydans strain provided evidence for a limited functionality of the TCA cycle despite the absence of succinyl-CoA synthetase. PMID:26399411

  13. Efficacy of Modified Jessner's Peel and 20% TCA Versus 20% TCA Peel Alone for the Treatment of Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Neerja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There is a paucity of studies on the use of chemical peels for acne scars among the Asian population. A trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and Jessner's combination chemical peel, originally described by Monheit, is said to be better than a TCA peel alone. Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of 20% TCA and Jessner's solution versus 20% TCA alone for the treatment of acne scars. Materials and Methods : The patients were divided into two groups of 25 patients each. Chemical peeling was done in both the groups. In Group I, chemical peeling with Jessner's peel followed by 20% TCA was done and in Group II patients chemical peeling with 20% TCA peel alone was done. Results: In Group I (Jessner's peel and 20% TCA), mild improvement of acne scars was seen in 8% cases, moderate improvement in 32% cases and marked improvement of acne scars was seen in 60% patients. In Group II (20% TCA), mild improvement of acne scars was seen in 32% cases, moderate improvement in 40% cases and marked improvement of acne scars was seen in 28% patients. But, the difference in improvement of acne scars was not statistically significant in both the groups (P value > 0.05). PMID:25949022

  14. Thioredoxin, a master regulator of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in plant mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Daloso, Danilo M.; Müller, Karolin; Obata, Toshihiro; Florian, Alexandra; Tohge, Takayuki; Bottcher, Alexandra; Riondet, Christophe; Bariat, Laetitia; Carrari, Fernando; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Buchanan, Bob B.; Reichheld, Jean-Philippe; Araújo, Wagner L.; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2015-01-01

    Plant mitochondria have a fully operational tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle that plays a central role in generating ATP and providing carbon skeletons for a range of biosynthetic processes in both heterotrophic and photosynthetic tissues. The cycle enzyme-encoding genes have been well characterized in terms of transcriptional and effector-mediated regulation and have also been subjected to reverse genetic analysis. However, despite this wealth of attention, a central question remains unanswered: “What regulates flux through this pathway in vivo?” Previous proteomic experiments with Arabidopsis discussed below have revealed that a number of mitochondrial enzymes, including members of the TCA cycle and affiliated pathways, harbor thioredoxin (TRX)-binding sites and are potentially redox-regulated. We have followed up on this possibility and found TRX to be a redox-sensitive mediator of TCA cycle flux. In this investigation, we first characterized, at the enzyme and metabolite levels, mutants of the mitochondrial TRX pathway in Arabidopsis: the NADP-TRX reductase a and b double mutant (ntra ntrb) and the mitochondrially located thioredoxin o1 (trxo1) mutant. These studies were followed by a comparative evaluation of the redistribution of isotopes when 13C-glucose, 13C-malate, or 13C-pyruvate was provided as a substrate to leaves of mutant or WT plants. In a complementary approach, we evaluated the in vitro activities of a range of TCA cycle and associated enzymes under varying redox states. The combined dataset suggests that TRX may deactivate both mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase and fumarase and activate the cytosolic ATP-citrate lyase in vivo, acting as a direct regulator of carbon flow through the TCA cycle and providing a mechanism for the coordination of cellular function. PMID:25646482

  15. Intellectual Performance as a Function of Repression and Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    Performance on complex (Space Relations and Verbal Reasoning) and simple (Digit Symbol) tests was investigated as a function of Byrne's Repression-Sensitization (RS) dimension, phase of menstrual cycle and premenstrual-menstrual (PM) symptomatology in a group of females not taking oral contraceptives. Two control groups, consisting of males and…

  16. MTSS1 gene regulated by miR-96 inhibits cell proliferation and metastasis in tongue squamous cellular carcinoma Tca8113 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan; Ren, Mei-Si; Shang, Chao; Zhu, Li; Zhong, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metastasis suppressor-1 (MTSS1) is a novel potential metastasis suppressor gene in several types of human cancers. However, the exact function and regulatory mechanism of MTSS1 in Tongue squamous cellular carcinoma (TSCC) have not been elucidated. Material/Methods: We first confirmed the MTSS1 gene expression by using quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining. Then we detected the effect of MTSS1 gene on Tca8113 cells proliferation and invasion ability by using MTT, wound healing and invasion assay. Finally by using bioinformatics analysis, luciferase reporter assay and a serial method, we analyzed the targeting of miR-96 on MTSS1 and the ability of miR-96 on MTSS1 gene mediated biological alterations in Tca8113 cells. Results: Our findings showed that the expression of MTSS1 was down-regulated in both TSCC tissues and Tca8113 cells. Forced expression of MTSS1 led to inhibited cell proliferation ability, retarded wound closing and reduced trans-membrane cell numbers. MiR-96 is confirmed to be a direct target of MTSS1 gene and could regulate MTSS1 mediated Tca8113 cells proliferation and metastasis. But miR-96 could not completely restore the invasion ability of Tca8113 cells. Conclusions: MiR-96 targeting and promoting MTSS1 repression may precipitate in the TSCC tumorigenesis through bypassing cell proliferation and metastasis control.

  17. Prolactin secretion and ovarian function in cycling and non-cycling African female elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Gen; Yuto, Natsuki; Keio, Megumi; Narushima, Etsuo; Katayanagi, Masayuki; Nakao, Risa; Morikubo, Syu; Sakurai, Yuko; Kaneko, Mikako; Kaewmanee, Saroch; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2010-07-01

    Reproduction of captive elephants in zoos has shown a low fecundity and requires improvement. One of the reasons for low fecundity is ovarian dysfunction in many female elephants. To investigate whether prolactin has a correlation with ovarian function in female elephants, the serum concentrations of prolactin, progesterone and estradiol-17beta in four African female elephants (one cycling female and three non-cycling female elephants) were measured. Cyclic patterns of prolactin and estradiol-17beta were observed in the cycling female elephant, which tended to be high during the follicular phase and low during the luteal phase. On the other hand, a cyclic pattern of prolactin was not observed in the non-cycling female elephants. One of the three non-cycling females (Mako) had developed breasts and showed significantly higher average levels of prolactin than the other female elephants. These results suggested that high concentrations of circulating estradiol-17beta during the follicular phase stimulated prolactin secretion. They also suggested that hyperprolactinemia in Mako was one of the causes of the developed mammary glands and ovarian dysfunction. PMID:20179385

  18. A personal user's view of functional electrical stimulation cycling.

    PubMed

    Fitzwater, Roger

    2002-03-01

    Two years of functional electrical stimulation cycling (FESC) as a researcher and subject have given me an insight into the direction that future FESC should take as well as providing me with significant health benefits and an enjoyable and functional ability to cycle. If FESC is to benefit spinal cord injured persons (SCIPs), researchers must turn their attention to making the activity convenient and enjoyable. What follows is a personal view and will be less scientifically rigorous than other presentations but hopefully still of value. It calls upon my experience as a general medical practitioner with a special interest in the value of exercise, a human powered vehicle enthusiast, an amateur FES researcher, but most importantly, an SCIP and FES cyclist. PMID:11940034

  19. Platymonas subcordiformis Channelrhodopsin-2 Function: I. THE PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTION CYCLE.

    PubMed

    Szundi, Istvan; Li, Hai; Chen, Eefei; Bogomolni, Roberto; Spudich, John L; Kliger, David S

    2015-07-01

    The photocycle kinetics of Platymonas subcordiformis channelrhodopsin-2 (PsChR2), among the most highly efficient light-gated cation channels and the most blue-shifted channelrhodopsin, was studied by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy in the 340-650-nm range and in the 100-ns to 3-s time window. Global exponential fitting of the time dependence of spectral changes revealed six lifetimes: 0.60 ?s, 5.3 ?s, 170 ?s, 1.4 ms, 6.7 ms, and 1.4 s. The sequential intermediates derived for a single unidirectional cycle scheme based on these lifetimes were found to contain mixtures of K, L, M, O, and P molecular states, named in analogy to photointermediates in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. The photochemistry is described by the superposition of two independent parallel photocycles. The analysis revealed that 30% of the photoexcited receptor molecules followed Cycle 1 through the K, M, O, and P states, whereas 70% followed Cycle 2 through the K, L, M, and O states. The recovered state, R, is spectrally close, but not identical, to the dark state on the seconds time scale. The two-cycle model of this high efficiency channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR) opens new perspectives in understanding the mechanism of channelrhodopsin function. PMID:25971972

  20. Biological catalysis of the hydrological cycle: life's thermodynamic function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelian, K.

    2011-01-01

    Darwinian theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere on the surface of the Earth of greatest biomass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of a vast amount of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its apparently life barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The dissipation of sunlight into heat by organic molecules in the biosphere and its coupling to the water cycle (as well as other abiotic processes), is by far the greatest entropy producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function; acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding irreversible abiotic process such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants of the plants and cyanobacteria, helping them to grow and to spread into initially inhospitable areas.

  1. Reductive photo-dechlorination (RPD) technology for remediation of TCA

    SciTech Connect

    Lavid, M.; Gulati, S.K.; Teytelboym, M.

    1994-12-31

    The Reductive Photo-Dechlorination (RPD) technology uses ultraviolet light in a reducing atmosphere to remove chlorine atoms from organo-chlorine waste streams at low to moderate temperatures. Because chlorinated organics are destroyed in a reducing environment, process products include valuable hydrocarbons and hydrogen chloride with no toxic oxygenated chlorocarbon by-products. The RPD process is designed specifically to treat volatile chlorinated wastes in the liquid or gaseous phases. Field applications include organic wastes produced from soil venting operations and those adsorbed on activated carbon. The process can also be used to pretreat gas streams entering catalytic oxidation systems, reducing chlorine content and hereby protecting the catalyst against poisoning. This paper focuses on photo-thermal remediation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). It describes bench-scale experimental results, kinetic modeling predictions, and selected design parameters for a pilot-scale demonstration.

  2. Vx-770 potentiates CFTR function by promoting decoupling between the gating cycle and ATP hydrolysis cycle

    PubMed Central

    Jih, Kang-Yang; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Vx-770 (Ivacaftor), a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug for clinical application to patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), shifts the paradigm from conventional symptomatic treatments to therapeutics directly tackling the root of the disease: functional defects of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel caused by pathogenic mutations. The underlying mechanism for the action of Vx-770 remains elusive partly because this compound not only increases the activity of wild-type (WT) channels whose gating is primarily controlled by ATP binding/hydrolysis, but also improves the function of G551D-CFTR, a disease-associated mutation that abolishes CFTR’s responsiveness to ATP. Here we provide a unified theory to account for this dual effect of Vx-770. We found that Vx-770 enhances spontaneous, ATP-independent activity of WT-CFTR to a similar magnitude as its effects on G551D channels, a result essentially explaining Vx-770’s effect on G551D-CFTR. Furthermore, Vx-770 increases the open time of WT-CFTR in an [ATP]-dependent manner. This distinct kinetic effect is accountable with a newly proposed CFTR gating model depicting an [ATP]-dependent “reentry” mechanism that allows CFTR shuffling among different open states by undergoing multiple rounds of ATP hydrolysis. We further examined the effect of Vx-770 on R352C-CFTR, a unique mutant that allows direct observation of hydrolysis-triggered gating events. Our data corroborate that Vx-770 increases the open time of WT-CFTR by stabilizing a posthydrolytic open state and thereby fosters decoupling between the gating cycle and ATP hydrolysis cycle. The current study also suggests that this unique mechanism of drug action can be further exploited to develop strategies that enhance the function of CFTR. PMID:23440202

  3. High-Level Functional and Operational Requirements for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilty

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Park

    2006-12-01

    High-Level Functional & Operational Requirements for the AFCF -This document describes the principal functional and operational requirements for the proposed Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF is intended to be the world's foremost facility for nuclear fuel cycle research, technology development, and demonstration. The facility will also support the near-term mission to develop and demonstrate technology in support of fuel cycle needs identified by industry, and the long-term mission to retain and retain U.S. leadership in fuel cycle operations. The AFCF is essential to demonstrate a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and make long-term improvements in fuel cycle effectiveness, performance and economy.

  4. Lower extremity functional electrical stimulation cycling promotes physical and functional recovery in chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Sadowsky, Cristina L.; Hammond, Edward R.; Strohl, Adam B.; Commean, Paul K.; Eby, Sarah A.; Damiano, Diane L.; Wingert, Jason R.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; McDonald, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of long-term lower extremity functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling on the physical integrity and functional recovery in people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Retrospective cohort, mean follow-up 29.1 months, and cross-sectional evaluation. Setting Washington University Spinal Cord Injury Neurorehabilitation Center, referral center. Participants Twenty-five people with chronic SCI who received FES during cycling were matched by age, gender, injury level, and severity, and duration of injury to 20 people with SCI who received range of motion and stretching. Intervention Lower extremity FES during cycling as part of an activity-based restorative treatment regimen. Main outcome measure Change in neurological function: motor, sensory, and combined motor–sensory scores (CMSS) assessed by the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment scale. Response was defined as ?1 point improvement. Results FES was associated with an 80% CMSS responder rate compared to 40% in controls. An average 9.6 CMSS point loss among controls was offset by an average 20-point gain among FES subjects. Quadriceps muscle mass was on average 36% higher and intra/inter-muscular fat 44% lower, in the FES group. Hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength was 30 and 35% greater, respectively, in the FES group. Quality of life and daily function measures were significantly higher in FES group. Conclusion FES during cycling in chronic SCI may provide substantial physical integrity benefits, including enhanced neurological and functional performance, increased muscle size and force-generation potential, reduced spasticity, and improved quality of life. PMID:24094120

  5. ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF RECYCLE SO2-LIME SLURRY IN TCA (TURBULENT CONTACT ABSORBER) SCRUBBER SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analysis of flue gas desulfurization by a turbulent contact absorber (TCA) employing lime slurry, including the development of performance equations for the scrubber-hold tank recycle system. Performance characteristics investigated include pressure...

  6. Control of gag-pol gene expression in the Candida albicans retrotransposon Tca2

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Elaine M; Nieduszynska, Siân R; Brunton, Fiona K; Gibson, Joanne; Glover, L Anne; Stansfield, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Background In the C. albicans retrotransposon Tca2, the gag and pol ORFs are separated by a UGA stop codon, 3' of which is a potential RNA pseudoknot. It is unclear how the Tca2 gag UGA codon is bypassed to allow pol expression. However, in other retroelements, translational readthrough of the gag stop codon can be directed by its flanking sequence, including a 3' pseudoknot. Results The hypothesis was tested that in Tca2, gag stop codon flanking sequences direct translational readthrough and synthesis of a gag-pol fusion protein. Sequence from the Tca2 gag-UGA-pol junction (300 nt) was inserted between fused lacZ and luciferase (luc) genes in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae dual reporter construct. Although downstream of UGA, luc was expressed, but its expression was unaffected by inserting additional stop codons at the 3' end of lacZ. Luc expression was instead being driven by a previously unknown minor promoter activity within the gag-pol junction region. Evidence together indicated that junction sequence alone cannot direct UGA readthrough. Using reporter genes in C. albicans, the activities of this gag-pol junction promoter and the Tca2 long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter were compared. Of the two promoters, only the LTR promoter was induced by heat-shock, which also triggers retrotransposition. Tca2 pol protein, epitope-tagged in C. albicans to allow detection, was also heat-shock induced, indicating that pol proteins were expressed from a gag-UGA-pol RNA. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that the LTR promoter directs Tca2 pol protein expression, and that pol proteins are translated from a gag-pol RNA, which thus requires a mechanism for stop codon bypass. However, in contrast to most other retroelement and viral readthrough signals, immediate gag UGA-flanking sequences were insufficient to direct stop readthrough in S. cerevisiae, indicating non-canonical mechanisms direct gag UGA bypass in Tca2. PMID:17961216

  7. Cell Cycle Dependent Regulation of Androgen Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Koryakina, Yulia; Knudsen, Karen E.; Gioeli, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Androgen Receptor (AR) is a critical oncogene in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Here we demonstrate cell cycle dependent regulation of AR activity, localization, and phosphorylation. We show that on three AR target genes, androgen-stimulated AR transactivation is highest in G1, decreased in S-phase, and abrogated in G2/M. This change in AR transactivation parallels changes in AR localization and phosphorylation. A combination of imaging techniques and quantitative analysis shows nuclear AR localization during interphase and the exclusion of the majority, but not all, AR from chromatin in mitosis. Flow cytometry analyses using a phospho-S308 AR specific antibody in asynchronous and chemically enriched G2/M PCa cells revealed ligand-independent induction of S308 phosphorylation in mitosis when CDK1 is activated. Consistent with our flow cytometry data, IP-Western blotting showed an increase in S308 phosphorylation in G2/M and an in vitro kinase assay demonstrated that CDK1 was able to phosphorylate the AR on S308. Pharmacological inhibition of CDK1 activity resulted in decreased S308 phosphorylation in PCa cells. Importantly, using a combination of anti-total AR and phospho-S308 specific antibodies in immunofluorescence experiments, we show that the AR is excluded from condensed chromatin in mitotic cells when phosphorylated on S308. In summary, we show that the phosphorylation of the AR on S308 by CDK1 in mitosis regulates AR localization and correlates with changes in AR transcriptional activity. These findings have important implications for understanding AR function as an oncogene. PMID:25691442

  8. Polymorphisms in Genes of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Key Enzymes Are Associated with Early Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xingchun; Chen, Yibing; An, Jiaze; Yu, Xiaohe; Zhang, Huiqing; Yang, Hushan; Xing, Jinliang

    2015-01-01

    Alterations of activity and expression in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle key enzymes have been indicated in several malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). They play an important role in the progression of cancer. However, the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding these key enzymes on the recurrence of HCC has not been investigated. In this study, we genotyped 17 SNPs in genes encoding TCA cycle key enzymes and analyzed their association with recurrence-free survival (RFS) in a cohort of 492 Chinese HCC patients by Cox proportional hazard model and survival tree analysis. We identified 7 SNPs in SDHC, SDHD, FH, and IDH2 genes to be significantly associated with the RFS of HCC patients. Moreover, all these SNPs were associated with the early recurrence (within 2 years after surgery) risk of diseases. Cumulative effect analysis showed that these SNPs exhibited a dose-dependent effect on the overall and early recurrence. Further stratified analysis suggested that number of risk genotypes modified the protective effect on HCC recurrence conferred by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization treatment. Finally, the survival tree analysis revealed that SNP rs10789859 in SDHD gene was the primary factor contributing to HCC recurrence in our population. To the best of our knowledge, we for the first time observed the association between SNPs in genes encoding TCA cycle key enzymes and HCC recurrence risk. Further observational and functional studies are needed to validate our findings and generalize its clinical usage. PMID:25894340

  9. Cell cycle regulation of centromere function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, J.A.; Bloom, K.

    1993-12-31

    Accurate transmission of eukaryotic chromosomes is dependent on a specialized region of the chromosome, the centromere. The centromere is the site of assembly of the kinetochore, an integrated protein/DNA complex which acts as the point of attachment between individual chromosomes and the mitotic spindle. The presence of more than one centromere on a single chromosome (dicentric chromosome) is deleterious, resulting in broken chromosome derivatives and unstable chromosome inheritance. Dicentric chromosomes were first studied extensively in Zea mays. Cytogenetic observations of the mitotic behavior of these chromosomes illustrates a sequence of events termed a breakage-fusion-bridge cycle. When the two centromeres of a single chromosome are pulled to opposite poles during mitosis, the resulting anaphase bridge which forms between them is often broken. The broken ends are highly reactive, and by fusing with other chromsomes produce a number of chromosomal anomalies, including deletions, translocations, and the regeneration of dicentric chromosomes. This cycle persists until stable rearrangements are formed.

  10. Shortening tobacco life cycle accelerates functional gene identification in genomic research.

    PubMed

    Ning, G; Xiao, X; Lv, H; Li, X; Zuo, Y; Bao, M

    2012-11-01

    Definitive allocation of function requires the introduction of genetic mutations and analysis of their phenotypic consequences. Novel, rapid and convenient techniques or materials are very important and useful to accelerate gene identification in functional genomics research. Here, over-expression of PmFT (Prunus mume), a novel FT orthologue, and PtFT (Populus tremula) lead to shortening of the tobacco life cycle. A series of novel short life cycle stable tobacco lines (30-50 days) were developed through repeated self-crossing selection breeding. Based on the second transformation via a gusA reporter gene, the promoter from BpFULL1 in silver birch (Betula pendula) and the gene (CPC) from Arabidopsis thaliana were effectively tested using short life cycle tobacco lines. Comparative analysis among wild type, short life cycle tobacco and Arabidopsis transformation system verified that it is optional to accelerate functional gene studies by shortening host plant material life cycle, at least in these short life cycle tobacco lines. The results verified that the novel short life cycle transgenic tobacco lines not only combine the advantages of economic nursery requirements and a simple transformation system, but also provide a robust, effective and stable host system to accelerate gene analysis. Thus, shortening tobacco life cycle strategy is feasible to accelerate heterologous or homologous functional gene identification in genomic research. PMID:23107371

  11. Alternative Functions of Core Cell Cycle Regulators in Neuronal Migration, Neuronal Maturation, and Synaptic Plasticity

    E-print Network

    Frank, Christopher Lee

    Recent studies have demonstrated that boundaries separating a cycling cell from a postmitotic neuron are not as concrete as expected. Novel and unique physiological functions in neurons have been ascribed for proteins ...

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 24, 2009, the Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies an...

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development ...

  14. Destruction of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) using Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP)

    E-print Network

    Cal, Mark P.

    Destruction of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) using Non- Thermal Plasma (NTP) Paper # (42930) Sandeep and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 N. Mathews, Urbana, IL 61801. Email: sagnihot@uiuc.edu b Co Author. Department of Environmental Engineering, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Place

  15. PICMG xTCA Standards Extensions for Physics: New Developments & Future Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    After several years of planning and workshop meetings, a decision was reached in late 2008 to organize PICMG xTCA for Physics Technical Subcommittees to extend the ATCA and MTCA telecom standards for enhanced system performance, availability and interoperability for physics controls and applications hardware and software. Since formation in May-June 2009, the Hardware Technical Subcommittee has developed a number of ATCA, ARTM, AMC, MTCA and RTM extensions to be completed in mid-to-late 2010. The Software Technical Subcommittee is developing guidelines to promote interoperability of modules designed by industry and laboratories, in particular focusing on middleware and generic application interfaces such as Standard Process Model, Standard Device Model and Standard Hardware API. The paper describes the prototype design work completed by the lab-industry partners to date, the timeline for hardware releases to PICMG for approval, and the status of the software guidelines roadmap. The paper also briefly summarizes the program of the 4th xTCA for Physics Workshop immediately preceding the RT2010 Conference. he case for developing ATCA and MicroTCA (xTCA) specification extensions for physics has been covered in several previous papers. Briefly, ATCA and MicroTCA is the first all-serial communication platform available to the physics community to support both massively complex accelerator controls and massively large, high bandwidth and throughput experimental data acquisition systems. The major strength of xTCA is its multi-layer highly scalable managed platform architecture designed to achieve the highest possible system availability. Physics research imaging technologies have driven industrial applications in a wide range of medical scanners, for example, and in turn continue to evolve to exponentially higher speeds and resolution through new computer, communications industry and analog-to-digital conversion chip developments. The high availability managed platform is an important new tool for the instrumentation and control systems of these most complex scientific machines and instruments ever invented. Adaptation of the xTCA platforms to physics was undertaken by a collaboration starting in May-June 2009 with the PICMG open specifications industry consortium. The remainder of this paper discusses the results of lab-industry committee work as well as important concomitant prototype developments among participating laboratories and industries.

  16. A phylogenetic approach to the early evolution of autotrophy: the case of the reverse TCA and the reductive acetyl-CoA pathways.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Arturo; Rivas, Mario; García-Ferris, Carlos; Lazcano, Antonio; Peretó, Juli

    2014-06-01

    In recent decades, a number of hypotheses on the autotrophic origin of life have been presented. These proposals invoke the emergence of reaction networks leading from CO or CO? to the organic molecules required for life. It has also been suggested that the last (universal) common ancestor (LCA or LUCA) of all extant cell lineages was a chemolitho-autotrophic thermophilic anaerobe. The antiquity of some carbon fixation pathways, the phylogenetic basal distribution of some autotrophic organisms, and the catalytic properties of iron-sulfur minerals have been advanced in support of these ideas. Here we critically examine the phylogenetic distribution and evolution of enzymes that are essential for two of the most ancient autotrophic means of metabolism: the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle and the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway. Phylogenetic analysis of citryl-CoA synthetase and of citryl-CoA lyase, key enzymatic components of the rTCA cycle, and of CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase, a key enzyme in the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway, revealed that all three enzymes have undergone major lateral transfer events and therefore cannot be used as proof of the LCA's metabolic abilities nor as evidence of an autotrophic origin of life. [Int Microbiol 2014; 17(2):91-97]. PMID:26418853

  17. Lyapunov Functions in Piecewise Linear Systems: From Fixed Point to Limit Cycle

    E-print Network

    Yian Ma; Ruoshi Yuan; Yang Li; Ping Ao; Bo Yuan

    2013-06-28

    This paper provides a first example of constructing Lyapunov functions in a class of piecewise linear systems with limit cycles. The method of construction helps analyze and control complex oscillating systems through novel geometric means. Special attention is stressed upon a problem not formerly solved: to impose consistent boundary conditions on the Lyapunov function in each linear region. By successfully solving the problem, the authors construct continuous Lyapunov functions in the whole state space. It is further demonstrated that the Lyapunov functions constructed explain for the different bifurcations leading to the emergence of limit cycle oscillation.

  18. Impact of Polyphenol Antioxidants on Cycling Performance and Cardiovascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Trinity, Joel D.; Pahnke, Matthew D.; Trombold, Justin R.; Coyle, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation sought to determine if supplementation with polyphenol antioxidant (PA) improves exercise performance in the heat (31.5 °C, 55% RH) by altering the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise. Twelve endurance trained athletes ingested PA or placebo (PLAC) for 7 days. Consecutive days of exercise testing were performed at the end of the supplementation periods. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory measures were made during exercise. Performance, as measured by a 10 min time trial (TT) following 50 min of moderate intensity cycling, was not different between treatments (PLAC: 292 ± 33 W and PA: 279 ± 38 W, p = 0.12). Gross efficiency, blood lactate, maximal neuromuscular power, and ratings of perceived exertion were also not different between treatments. Similarly, performance on the second day of testing, as assessed by time to fatigue at maximal oxygen consumption, was not different between treatments (PLAC; 377 ± 117 s vs. PA; 364 ± 128 s, p = 0.61). Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise were not different between treatments on either day of exercise testing. Polyphenol antioxidant supplementation had no impact on exercise performance and did not alter the cardiovascular or thermoregulatory responses to exercise in the heat. PMID:24667134

  19. Discovering functional transcription-factor combinations in the human cell cycle

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    Discovering functional transcription-factor combinations in the human cell cycle Zhou Zhu,1 Jay the combinatorial nature of transcriptional regulation. So far, almost all of these studies are restricted to lower eukaryotes such as budding yeast. We describe here a computational search for functional transcription

  20. Menstrual Cycle-Related Changes of Functional Cerebral Asymmetries in Fine Motor Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Fluctuating sex hormone levels during the menstrual cycle have been shown to affect functional cerebral asymmetries in cognitive domains. These effects seem to result from the neuromodulatory properties of sex hormones and their metabolites on interhemispheric processing. The present study was carried out to investigate whether functional cerebral…

  1. Molecular structure and spectral properties of ethyl 3-quinolinecarboxylate (E3Q) and [Ag(E3Q)2(TCA)] complex (TCA=Trichloroacetate).

    PubMed

    Soliman, Saied M; Kassem, Taher S; Badr, Ahmed M A; Abou Youssef, Morsy A; Assem, Rania

    2014-09-15

    A new [Ag(E3Q)2(TCA)] complex; (E3Q=Ethyl 3-quinolinecarboxylate and TCA=Trichloroacetate) has been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, FTIR, NMR and mass spectroscopy. The molecular geometry and spectroscopic properties of the complex as well as the free ligand have been calculated using the hybrid B3LYP method. The calculations predicted a distorted tetrahedral arrangement around Ag(I) ion. The vibrational spectra of the studied compounds have been assigned using potential energy distribution (PED). TD-DFT method was used to predict the electronic absorption spectra. The most intense absorption band showed a bathochromic shift and lowering of intensity in case of the complex (233.7 nm, f=0.5604) compared to E3Q (?max=228.0 nm, f=0.9072). The calculated (1)H NMR chemical shifts using GIAO method showed good correlations with the experimental data. The computed dipole moment, polarizability and HOMO-LUMO energy gap were used to predict the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. It is found that Ag(I) enhances the NLO activity. The natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses were used to elucidate the intramolecular charge transfer interactions causing stabilization for the investigated systems. PMID:24813274

  2. Effects of Swimming and Cycling Exercise Intervention on Vascular Function in Patients With Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Alkatan, Mohammed; Machin, Daniel R; Baker, Jeffrey R; Akkari, Amanda S; Park, Wonil; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Swimming exercise is an ideal and excellent form of exercise for patients with osteoarthritis (OA). However, there is no scientific evidence that regular swimming reduces vascular dysfunction and inflammation and elicits similar benefits compared with land-based exercises such as cycling in terms of reducing vascular dysfunction and inflammation in patients with OA. Forty-eight middle-aged and older patients with OA were randomly assigned to swimming or cycling training groups. Cycling training was included as a non-weight-bearing land-based comparison group. After 12 weeks of supervised exercise training, central arterial stiffness, as determined by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and carotid artery stiffness, through simultaneous ultrasound and applanation tonometry, decreased significantly after both swimming and cycling training. Vascular endothelial function, as determined by brachial flow-mediated dilation, increased significantly after swimming but not after cycling training. Both swimming and cycling interventions reduced interleukin-6 levels, whereas no changes were observed in other inflammatory markers. In conclusion, these results indicate that regular swimming exercise can exert similar or even superior effects on vascular function and inflammatory markers compared with land-based cycling exercise in patients with OA who often has an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. PMID:26541906

  3. In vivo detection of brain Krebs cycle intermediate by hyperpolarized magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Mishkovsky, Mor; Comment, Arnaud; Gruetter, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The Krebs (or tricarboxylic acid (TCA)) cycle has a central role in the regulation of brain energy regulation and metabolism, yet brain TCA cycle intermediates have never been directly detected in vivo. This study reports the first direct in vivo observation of a TCA cycle intermediate in intact brain, namely, 2-oxoglutarate, a key biomolecule connecting metabolism to neuronal activity. Our observation reveals important information about in vivo biochemical processes hitherto considered undetectable. In particular, it provides direct evidence that transport across the inner mitochondria membrane is rate limiting in the brain. The hyperpolarized magnetic resonance protocol designed for this study opens the way to direct and real-time studies of TCA cycle kinetics. PMID:22990416

  4. Using Mutant Cycle Analysis to Elucidate Long-Range Functional Coupling in Allosteric Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Shanata, Jai A. P.; Frazier, Shawnalea J.; Lester, Henry A.; Dougherty, Dennis A.

    2014-01-01

    The functional coupling of residues that are far apart in space is the quintessential property of allosteric receptors. Data from functional studies of allosteric receptors, such as whole-cell dose-response relations, can be used to determine if mutation to a receptor significantly impacts agonist potency. However, the classification of perturbations as primarily impacting binding or allosteric function is more challenging, often requiring detailed kinetic studies. This protocol describes a simple strategy, derived from mutant cycle analysis, for elucidating long-range functional coupling in allosteric receptors (ELFCAR). Introduction of a gain-of-function reporter mutation, followed by a mutant cycle analysis of the readily-measured macroscopic EC50 values can provide insight into the role of many physically distant targets. This new method should find broad application in determining the functional roles of residues in allosteric receptors. PMID:22052487

  5. Status report on a MicroTCA card for HCAL trigger and readout at SLHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mans, J.; Frahm, E.

    2010-12-01

    We present recent measurements performed using a prototype MicroTCA card for CMS-HCAL Trigger and Readout at SLHC. Our second generation prototype uses a Xilinx XC5VFX70T FPGA to perform the high-speed communication and data processing for up to eight Readout Module fibers that are streaming data at 4.8 Gbps each. The FPGA also uses two SFP+ optical interfaces at 6.4 Gbps each for data transfer to the Trigger System. A local DAQ interface in the FPGA communicates via Gigabit Ethernet with the MicroTCA MCH. Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) results and data integrity analyses are presented in challenging clocking environments including a legacy TTC system. In addition, the status of the IPbus concept for control of deeply embedded devices is presented.

  6. Treatment technologies and mechanisms for three odorants at trace level: IPMP, IBMP, and TCA.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Lin, Pengfei; Wang, Jun; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Yong; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Chao

    2016-02-01

    Odour episodes caused by algal metabolites are gaining more and more attention in recent years. Besides geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) have emerged to be important off-flavour sources. Their low odour threshold concentrations (several ng ·L(-1)), which are even lower than those of MIB and geosmin, pose challenges for treatment strategies. Hence, a practical and efficient mitigation technology is needed. The possible practical technologies, including powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and oxidation by chlorine and potassium permanganate, were investigated. The results indicated that chlorine and potassium permanganate oxidation of the three odorants were unfeasible while PAC adsorption was effective. As for adsorption, TCA, followed by IBMP and IPMP, was most easily removed by PAC. The Freundlich model could well describe the adsorption isotherm data. The adsorption capacities for IPMP, IBMP, and TCA were described as follows: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]. For five earthy/musty odorants including geosmin and MIB, octanol/water partition coefficient, molecular weight, and polarizability all promoted adsorption while aqueous solubility showed a negative influence. The hydrophobic interaction was believed to be the dominant force in the adsorption mechanism while the ?-electron interaction enhanced adsorption when a benzene ring was present. This result could be used to predict the adsorption performance of emerging odorants. PMID:26150209

  7. Animal Models for Studying the In Vivo Functions of Cell Cycle CDKs.

    PubMed

    Risal, Sanjiv; Adhikari, Deepak; Liu, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Cdks (Cdk4, Cdk6, and Cdk2) and a mitotic Cdk (Cdk1) are involved in cell cycle progression in mammals. Cyclins, Cdk inhibitors, and phosphorylations (both activating and inhibitory) at different cellular levels tightly modulate the activities of these kinases. Based on the results of biochemical studies, it was long believed that different Cdks functioned at specific stages during cell cycle progression. However, deletion of all three interphase Cdks in mice affected cell cycle entry and progression only in certain specialized cells such as hematopoietic cells, beta cells of the pancreas, pituitary lactotrophs, and cardiomyocytes. These genetic experiments challenged the prevailing biochemical model and established that Cdks function in a cell-specific, but not a stage-specific, manner during cell cycle entry and the progression of mitosis. Recent in vivo studies have further established that Cdk1 is the only Cdk that is both essential and sufficient for driving the resumption of meiosis during mouse oocyte maturation. These genetic studies suggest a minimal-essential cell cycle model in which Cdk1 is the central regulator of cell cycle progression. Cdk1 can compensate for the loss of the interphase Cdks by forming active complexes with A-, B-, E-, and D-type Cyclins in a stepwise manner. Thus, Cdk1 plays an essential role in both mitosis and meiosis in mammals, whereas interphase Cdks are dispensable. PMID:26231715

  8. Metabolic Futile Cycles and Their Functions: A Systems Analysis of Energy and Control

    E-print Network

    Hong Qian; Daniel A. Beard

    2006-06-14

    It has long been hypothesized that futile cycles in cellular metabolism are involved in the regulation of biochemical pathways. Following the work of Newsholme and Crabtree, we develop a quantitative theory for this idea based on open-system thermodynamics and metabolic control analysis. It is shown that the {\\it stoichiometric sensitivity} of an intermediary metabolite concentration with respect to changes in steady-state flux is governed by the effective equilibrium constant of the intermediate formation, and the equilibrium can be regulated by a futile cycle. The direction of the shift in the effective equilibrium constant depends on the direction of operation of the futile cycle. High stoichiometric sensitivity corresponds to ultrasensitivity of an intermediate concentration to net flow through a pathway; low stoichiometric sensitivity corresponds to super-robustness of concentration with respect to changes in flux. Both cases potentially play important roles in metabolic regulation. Futile cycles actively shift the effective equilibrium by expending energy; the magnitude of changes in effective equilibria and sensitivities is a function of the amount of energy used by a futile cycle. This proposed mechanism for control by futile cycles works remarkably similarly to kinetic proofreading in biosynthesis. The sensitivity of the system is also intimately related to the rate of concentration fluctuations of intermediate metabolites. The possibly different roles of the two major mechanisms for cellular biochemical regulation, namely reversible chemical modifications via futile cycles and shifting equilibrium by macromolecular binding, are discussed.

  9. Dwell Time and Surface Parameter Effects on Removal of Silicone Oil From D6ac Steel Using TCA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, R. E.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of dwell time, surface roughness, and the surface activation state on 1,1,1-trichloroethane's (TCA's) effectiveness for removing silicone oil from D6ac steel. Silicone-contaminated test articles were washed with TCA solvent, and then the surfaces were analyzed for residue, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The predominant factor affecting the ability to remove the silicone oil was surface roughness.

  10. Functional microarray analysis of nitrogen and carbon cycling genes across an Antarctic latitudinal transect.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Kang, Sanghoon; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Kowalchuk, George A

    2007-06-01

    Soil-borne microbial communities were examined via a functional gene microarray approach across a southern polar latitudinal gradient to gain insight into the environmental factors steering soil N- and C-cycling in terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems. The abundance and diversity of functional gene families were studied for soil-borne microbial communities inhabiting a range of environments from 51 degrees S (cool temperate-Falkland Islands) to 72 degrees S (cold rock desert-Coal Nunatak). The recently designed functional gene array used contains 24,243 oligonucleotide probes and covers >10,000 genes in >150 functional groups involved in nitrogen, carbon, sulfur and phosphorus cycling, metal reduction and resistance and organic contaminant degradation (He et al. 2007). The detected N- and C-cycle genes were significantly different across different sampling locations and vegetation types. A number of significant trends were observed regarding the distribution of key gene families across the environments examined. For example, the relative detection of cellulose degradation genes was correlated with temperature, and microbial C-fixation genes were more present in plots principally lacking vegetation. With respect to the N-cycle, denitrification genes were linked to higher soil temperatures, and N2-fixation genes were linked to plots mainly vegetated by lichens. These microarray-based results were confirmed for a number of gene families using specific real-time PCR, enzymatic assays and process rate measurements. The results presented demonstrate the utility of an integrated functional gene microarray approach in detecting shifts in functional community properties in environmental samples and provide insight into the forces driving important processes of terrestrial Antarctic nutrient cycling. PMID:18043626

  11. CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water and Menstrual Cycle Function

    Gayle C. Windham1, Kirsten Waller2, Meredith Anderson2, Laura Fenster1, Pauline Mendola3, Shanna Swan4

    1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environmental and Occupational Disea...

  12. Effects of Potent Inhibitors of the Retinoid Cycle on Visual Function and Photoreceptor Protection from

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Regeneration of the chromophore 11-cis-retinal is essential for the generation of light-sensitive visualEffects of Potent Inhibitors of the Retinoid Cycle on Visual Function and Photoreceptor Protection from Light Damage in MiceS Akiko Maeda, Tadao Maeda, Marcin Golczak, Yoshikazu Imanishi, Patrick Leahy

  13. Citral exerts its antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum by affecting the mitochondrial morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shiju; Jing, Guoxing; Wang, Xiao; Ouyang, Qiuli; Jia, Lei; Tao, Nengguo

    2015-07-01

    This work investigated the effect of citral on the mitochondrial morphology and function of Penicillium digitatum. Citral at concentrations of 2.0 or 4.0 ?L/mL strongly damaged mitochondria of test pathogen by causing the loss of matrix and increase of irregular mitochondria. The deformation extent of the mitochondria of P. digitatum enhanced with increasing concentrations of citral, as evidenced by a decrease in intracellular ATP content and an increase in extracellular ATP content of P. digitatum cells. Oxygen consumption showed that citral resulted in an inhibition in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) pathway of P. digitatum cells, induced a decrease in activities of citrate synthetase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinodehydrogenase and the content of citric acid, while enhancing the activity of malic dehydrogenase in P. digitatum cells. Our present results indicated that citral could damage the mitochondrial membrane permeability and disrupt the TCA pathway of P. digitatum. PMID:25704686

  14. Po2 cycling protects diaphragm function during reoxygenation via ROS, Akt, ERK, and mitochondrial channels.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Li; Pannell, Benjamin K; Re, Anthony T; Best, Thomas M; Wagner, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Po2 cycling, often referred to as intermittent hypoxia, involves exposing tissues to brief cycles of low oxygen environments immediately followed by hyperoxic conditions. After experiencing long-term hypoxia, muscle can be damaged during the subsequent reintroduction of oxygen, which leads to muscle dysfunction via reperfusion injury. The protective effect and mechanism behind Po2 cycling in skeletal muscle during reoxygenation have yet to be fully elucidated. We hypothesize that Po2 cycling effectively increases muscle fatigue resistance through reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and certain mitochondrial channels during reoxygenation. Using a dihydrofluorescein fluorescent probe, we detected the production of ROS in mouse diaphragmatic skeletal muscle in real time under confocal microscopy. Muscles treated with Po2 cycling displayed significantly attenuated ROS levels (n = 5; P < 0.001) as well as enhanced force generation compared with controls during reperfusion (n = 7; P < 0.05). We also used inhibitors for signaling molecules or membrane channels such as ROS, Akt, ERK, as well as chemical stimulators to close mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) or open mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). All these blockers or stimulators abolished improved muscle function with Po2 cycling treatment. This current investigation has discovered a correlation between KATP and mPTP and the Po2 cycling pathway in diaphragmatic skeletal muscle. Thus we have identified a unique signaling pathway that may involve ROS, Akt, ERK, and mitochondrial channels responsible for Po2 cycling protection during reoxygenation conditions in the diaphragm. PMID:26423578

  15. Molecular regulation of urea cycle function by the liver glucocorticoid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Jürgen G.; Conway, Sean; Schmidt, Kathrin V.; Schumacher, Jonas; Wang, Xiaoyue; de Guia, Roldan; Zota, Annika; Klement, Johanna; Seibert, Oksana; Peters, Achim; Maida, Adriano; Herzig, Stephan; Rose, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective One of the major side effects of glucocorticoid (GC) treatment is lean tissue wasting, indicating a prominent role in systemic amino acid metabolism. In order to uncover a novel aspect of GCs and their intracellular-receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), on metabolic control, we conducted amino acid and acylcarnitine profiling in human and mouse models of GC/GR gain- and loss-of-function. Methods Blood serum and tissue metabolite levels were determined in Human Addison's disease (AD) patients as well as in mouse models of systemic and liver-specific GR loss-of-function (AAV-miR-GR) with or without dexamethasone (DEX) treatments. Body composition and neuromuscular and metabolic function tests were conducted in vivo and ex vivo, the latter using precision cut liver slices. Results A serum metabolite signature of impaired urea cycle function (i.e. higher [ARG]:[ORN + CIT]) was observed in human (CTRL: 0.45 ± 0.03, AD: 1.29 ± 0.04; p < 0.001) and mouse (AAV-miR-NC: 0.97 ± 0.13, AAV-miR-GR: 2.20 ± 0.19; p < 0.001) GC/GR loss-of-function, with similar patterns also observed in liver. Serum urea levels were consistently affected by GC/GR gain- (?+32%) and loss (??30%) -of-function. Combined liver-specific GR loss-of-function with DEX treatment revealed a tissue-autonomous role for the GR to coordinate an upregulation of liver urea production rate in vivo and ex vivo, and prevent hyperammonaemia and associated neuromuscular dysfunction in vivo. Liver mRNA expression profiling and GR-cistrome mining identified Arginase I (ARG1) a urea cycle gene targeted by the liver GR. Conclusions The liver GR controls systemic and liver urea cycle function by transcriptional regulation of ARG1 expression. PMID:26500844

  16. Exercise pressor reflex function in female rats fluctuates with the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Koba, Satoshi; Yoshinaga, Kenshi; Fujita, Sayaka; Miyoshi, Michio; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2012-09-01

    In women, sympathoexcitation during static handgrip exercise is reduced during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle compared with the menstrual phase. Previous animal studies have demonstrated that estrogen modulates the exercise pressor reflex, a sympathoexcitatory mechanism originating in contracting skeletal muscle. The present study was conducted in female rats to determine whether skeletal muscle contraction-evoked reflex sympathoexcitation fluctuates with the estrous cycle. The estrous cycle was judged by vaginal smear. Plasma concentrations of estrogen were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in rats during the proestrus phase of the estrus cycle than those during the diestrus phase. In decerebrate rats, either electrically induced 30-s continuous static contraction of the hindlimb muscle or 30-s passive stretch of Achilles tendon (a maneuver that selectively stimulates mechanically sensitive muscle afferents) evoked less renal sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses in the proestrus animals than in the diestrus animals. Renal sympathoexcitatory response to 1-min intermittent (1- to 4-s stimulation to relaxation) bouts of static contraction was also significantly less in the proestrus rats than that in the diestrus rats. In ovariectomized female rats, 17?-estradiol applied into a well covering the dorsal surface of the lumbar spinal cord significantly reduced skeletal muscle contraction-evoked responses. These observations demonstrate that the exercise pressor reflex function and its mechanical component fluctuate with the estrous cycle in rats. Estrogen may cause these fluctuations through its attenuating effects on the spinal component of the reflex arc. PMID:22723635

  17. A Survey of Essential Gene Function in the Yeast Cell Division Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lisa; Castillo, Lourdes Peña; Mnaimneh, Sanie

    2006-01-01

    Mutations impacting specific stages of cell growth and division have provided a foundation for dissecting mechanisms that underlie cell cycle progression. We have undertaken an objective examination of the yeast cell cycle through flow cytometric analysis of DNA content in TetO7 promoter mutant strains representing 75% of all essential yeast genes. More than 65% of the strains displayed specific alterations in DNA content, suggesting that reduced function of an essential gene in most cases impairs progression through a specific stage of the cell cycle. Because of the large number of essential genes required for protein biosynthesis, G1 accumulation was the most common phenotype observed in our analysis. In contrast, relatively few mutants displayed S-phase delay, and most of these were defective in genes required for DNA replication or nucleotide metabolism. G2 accumulation appeared to arise from a variety of defects. In addition to providing a global view of the diversity of essential cellular processes that influence cell cycle progression, these data also provided predictions regarding the functions of individual genes: we identified four new genes involved in protein trafficking (NUS1, PHS1, PGA2, PGA3), and we found that CSE1 and SMC4 are important for DNA replication. PMID:16943325

  18. A kinase-independent function of CDK6 links the cell cycle to tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Karoline; Heller, Gerwin; Schneckenleithner, Christine; Warsch, Wolfgang; Scheicher, Ruth; Ott, Rene G; Schäfer, Markus; Fajmann, Sabine; Schlederer, Michaela; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Reichart, Ursula; Mayerhofer, Matthias; Hoeller, Christoph; Zöchbauer-Müller, Sabine; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Bock, Christoph; Kenner, Lukas; Hoefler, Gerald; Freissmuth, Michael; Green, Anthony R; Moriggl, Richard; Busslinger, Meinrad; Malumbres, Marcos; Sexl, Veronika

    2013-08-12

    In contrast to its close homolog CDK4, the cell cycle kinase CDK6 is expressed at high levels in lymphoid malignancies. In a model for p185BCR-ABL+ B-acute lymphoid leukemia, we show that CDK6 is part of a transcription complex that induces the expression of the tumor suppressor p16INK4a and the pro-angiogenic factor VEGF-A. This function is independent of CDK6's kinase activity. High CDK6 expression thus suppresses proliferation by upregulating p16INK4a, providing an internal safeguard. However, in the absence of p16INK4a, CDK6 can exert its full tumor-promoting function by enhancing proliferation and stimulating angiogenesis. The finding that CDK6 connects cell-cycle progression to angiogenesis confirms CDK6's central role in hematopoietic malignancies and could underlie the selection pressure to upregulate CDK6 and silence p16INK4a. PMID:23948297

  19. Topology of modified helical gears and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Zhang, Jiao

    1989-01-01

    The contents of this report covers: (1) development of optimal geometries for crowned helical gears; (2) a method for their generation; (3) tooth contact analysis (TCA) computer programs for the analysis of meshing and bearing contact of the crowned helical gears; and (4) modelling and simulation of gear shaft deflection. The developed method for synthesis was used to determine the optimal geometry for a crowned helical pinion surface and was directed to localize the bearing contact and guarantee favorable shape and a low level of transmission errors. Two new methods for generation of the crowned helical pinion surface are proposed. One is based on the application of a tool with a surface of revolution that slightly deviates from a regular cone surface. The tool can be used as a grinding wheel or as a shaver. The other is based on a crowning pinion tooth surface with predesigned transmission errors. The pinion tooth surface can be generated by a computer-controlled automatic grinding machine. The TCA program simulates the meshing and bearing contact of the misaligned gears. The transmission errors are also determined. The gear shaft deformation was modelled and investigated. It was found that the deflection of gear shafts has the same effect as gear misalignment.

  20. Spur gears: Optimal geometry, methods for generation and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Zhang, Jiao

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this report include the following: (1) development of optimal geometry for crowned spur gears; (2) methods for their generation; and (3) tooth contact analysis (TCA) computer programs for the analysis of meshing and bearing contact on the crowned spur gears. The method developed for synthesis is used for the determination of the optimal geometry for crowned pinion surface and is directed to reduce the sensitivity of the gears to misalignment, localize the bearing contact, and guarantee the favorable shape and low level of the transmission errors. A new method for the generation of the crowned pinion surface has been proposed. This method is based on application of the tool with a surface of revolution that slightly deviates from a regular cone surface. The tool can be used as a grinding wheel or as a shaver. The crowned pinion surface can also be generated by a generating plane whose motion is provided by an automatic grinding machine controlled by a computer. The TCA program simulates the meshing and bearing contact of the misaligned gears. The transmission errors are also determined.

  1. Cellular and functional characterization of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baithalu, Rubina Kumari; Singh, S K; Gupta, Chhavi; Raja, Anuj K; Saxena, Abhishake; Kumar, Yogendra; Singh, R; Agarwal, S K

    2013-08-01

    In the present paper, cellular composition of buffalo corpus luteum (CL) with its functional characterization based on 3?-HSD and progesterone secretory ability at different stages of estrous cycle and pregnancy was studied. Buffalo uteri along with ovaries bearing CL were collected from the local slaughter house. These were classified into different stages of estrous cycle (Stage I, II, III and IV) and pregnancy (Stage I, II and III) based on morphological appearance of CL, surface follicles on the ovary and crown rump length of conceptus. Luteal cell population, progesterone content and steroidogenic properties were studied by dispersion of luteal cells using collagenase type I enzyme, RIA and 3?-HSD activity, respectively. Large luteal cells (LLC) appeared as polyhedral or spherical in shape with a centrally placed large round nucleus and an abundance of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. However, small luteal cells (SLC) appeared to be spindle shaped with an eccentrically placed irregular nucleus and there was paucity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The size of SLC (range 12-23?m) and LLC (range 25-55?m) increased (P<0.01) with the advancement of stage of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The mean progesterone concentration per gram and per CL increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle with maximum concentration at Stage III of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The progesterone concentration decreased at Stage IV (day 17-20) of estrous cycle coinciding with CL regression. Total luteal cell number (LLC and SLC) also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and decreased (P<0.05), thereafter, at Stage IV indicating degeneration of luteal cells and regression of the CL. Total luteal cell population during pregnancy also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to II and thereafter decreased (P>0.05) indicating cessation of mitosis. Increased (P<0.05) large luteal cell numbers from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and pregnancy coincided with the increased progesterone secretion and 3?-HSD activity of CL. Thus, proportionate increases of large compared with small luteal cells were primarily responsible for increased progesterone secretion during the advanced stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Total luteal cells and progesterone content per CL during the mid-luteal stage in buffalo as observed in the present study seem to be less than with cattle suggesting inherent luteal deficiency. PMID:23896394

  2. Functional unit, technological dynamics, and scaling properties for the life cycle energy of residences.

    PubMed

    Frijia, Stephane; Guhathakurta, Subhrajit; Williams, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Prior LCA studies take the operational phase to include all energy use within a residence, implying a functional unit of all household activities, but then exclude related supply chains such as production of food, appliances, and household chemicals. We argue that bounding the functional unit to provision of a climate controlled space better focuses the LCA on the building, rather than activities that occur within a building. The second issue explored in this article is how technological change in the operational phase affects life cycle energy. Heating and cooling equipment is replaced at least several times over the lifetime of a residence; improved efficiency of newer equipment affects life cycle energy use. The third objective is to construct parametric models to describe LCA results for a family of related products. We explore these three issues through a case study of energy use of residences: one-story and two-story detached homes, 1,500-3,500 square feet in area, located in Phoenix, Arizona, built in 2002 and retired in 2051. With a restricted functional unit and accounting for technological progress, approximately 30% of a building's life cycle energy can be attributed to materials and construction, compared to 0.4-11% in previous studies. PMID:22192002

  3. Differential Editosome Protein Function between Life Cycle Stages of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Suzanne M; Guo, Xuemin; Carnes, Jason; Stuart, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    Uridine insertion and deletion RNA editing generates functional mitochondrial mRNAs in Trypanosoma brucei. The mRNAs are differentially edited in bloodstream form (BF) and procyclic form (PF) life cycle stages, and this correlates with the differential utilization of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation between the stages. The mechanism that controls this differential editing is unknown. Editing is catalyzed by multiprotein ?20S editosomes that contain endonuclease, 3'-terminal uridylyltransferase, exonuclease, and ligase activities. These editosomes also contain KREPB5 and KREPA3 proteins, which have no functional catalytic motifs, but they are essential for parasite viability, editing, and editosome integrity in BF cells. We show here that repression of KREPB5 or KREPA3 is also lethal in PF, but the effects on editosome structure differ from those in BF. In addition, we found that point mutations in KREPB5 or KREPA3 differentially affect cell growth, editosome integrity, and RNA editing between BF and PF stages. These results indicate that the functions of KREPB5 and KREPA3 editosome proteins are adjusted between the life cycle stages. This implies that these proteins are involved in the processes that control differential editing and that the 20S editosomes differ between the life cycle stages. PMID:26304125

  4. Suppression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and TCA enzymes in discrete brain regions of mice exposed to high fluoride: amelioration by Panax ginseng (Ginseng) and Lagerstroemia speciosa (Banaba) extracts.

    PubMed

    Mahaboob Basha, P; Saumya, S M

    2013-04-01

    Chronic fluoride intoxication results in pathophysiological complications pertaining to soft tissues, called non-skeletal fluorosis. This study examined whether fluoride-induced alterations in selected parameters that are indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction accompany the toxic effects of fluoride in discrete brain regions in vivo and also explored the possibility of treatment with Ginseng (GE) and Banaba (BLE) either alone or with their co-exposure which is capable of reversing parameters indicative of fluoride-induced impairments in mitochondrial function. Swiss mice, Mus musculus, were given 270 ppm fluoride (600 ppm NaF) in their drinking water for 30 days, while continuing the fluoride exposure, toxicated animals were given differential doses (50-250 mg/kg body wt) of phytoextracts through oral gavage for 2 weeks. Discrete brain regions separated from dissected animals to perform biochemical assessments. Disturbances in mitochondrial enzyme complexes (I-IV) and decrements in TCA enzymes (ICDH, SDH, and aconitase) were noted in discrete brain regions upon F exposure, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, a significant reduction in oxidative stress indices with increased MDA content as well as decrease in reduced glutathione content and increases in catalase and SOD enzyme activity suggests the involvement of severe oxidative stress affecting the mitochondrial function(s). Treatment with either GE or BLE reversed F-induced alterations in augmenting the suppressed complex enzymes followed by TCA enzymes and oxidative stress indices in a dose independent manner. However, the co-exposure of GE and BLE at a dose of 150 mg/kgbw appeared to restore mitochondrial functioning. These results provide in vivo evidence supporting the hypothesis that fluoride induces impairments in mitochondrial function, which can be reversed by treatment with GE and BLE as well their co-exposure at 150 mg/kgbw. PMID:23392579

  5. Four weeks of functional electrical stimulated cycling after spinal cord injury: a clinical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Daniel; Leichtfried, Veronika; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and the effects of functional electrical stimulated cycling (FES cycling) in patients with spinal cord injury during their rehabilitation in a special acute care unit. Thirty patients [10 with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade A, three with AIS grade B, 15 with AIS grade C, two with AIS grade D] aged 44±15.5 years and 2 (median) (interquartile range, 1.0-4.25) months after spinal cord injury were included in the study. The patients participated in a 20-min FES-cycling program 2 days per week for 4 weeks during their acute inpatient rehabilitation. The influence on muscle cross-section, muscle and leg circumference, spasticity, and the walking ability parameter (distance, time, aids) was measured. Muscle stimulation intensity and output parameters (pedalling time and distance) were also recorded. Spasticity decreased during hip abduction and adduction (70 and 98.1%, respectively). Spasticity during knee flexion and knee extension decreased by 66.8 and 76.6%, and a decrease was found during dorsal foot extension (67.8%; for all, P<0.05). Presession-postsession comparisons showed that after 4 weeks of FES cycling, an increase in the circumference of the cross-sectional area of 15.3% on the left and of 17% on the right m. rectus femoris could be observed in group AIS A+B. In the AIS C+D group, the circumference of the left m. rectus femoris increased by 25% and that of the right m. rectus femoris by 21% (for all, P<0.05). The results of the study show that FES cycling in combination with function-oriented physiotherapy and occupational therapy can have a positive influence on spasticity, walking ability, and muscular reactivation. It seems to support circulatory processes within the rehabilitation of paraplegics already after a 4-week intervention. PMID:24802976

  6. Sexual dimorphism in immune function changes during the annual cycle in house sparrows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pap, Péter László; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Vágási, Csongor István; Barta, Zoltán; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2010-10-01

    Difference between sexes in parasitism is a common phenomenon among birds, which may be related to differences between males and females in their investment into immune functions or as a consequence of differential exposure to parasites. Because life-history strategies change sex specifically during the annual cycle, immunological responses of the host aiming to reduce the impact of parasites may be sexually dimorphic. Despite the great complexity of the immune system, studies on immunoecology generally characterise the immune status through a few variables, often overlooking potentially important seasonal and gender effects. However, because of the differences in physiological and defence mechanisms among different arms of the immune system, we expect divergent responses of immune components to environmental seasonality. In male and female house sparrows ( Passer domesticus), we measured the major components of the immune system (innate, acquired, cellular and humoral) during four important life-history stages across the year: (1) mating, (2) breeding, (3) moulting and (4) during the winter capture and also following introduction to captivity in aviary. Different individuals were sampled from the same population during the four life cycle stages. We found that three out of eight immune variables showed a significant life cycle stage × sex interaction. The difference in immune response between the sexes was significant in five immune variables during the mating stage, when females had consistently stronger immune function than males, while variables varied generally non-significantly with sex during the remaining three life cycle stages. Our results show that the immune system is highly variable between life cycle stages and sexes, highlighting the potential fine tuning of the immune system to specific physiological states and environmental conditions.

  7. Fabrication of functionally gradient nanocomposite coatings by plasma electrolytic oxidation based on variable duty cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliofkhazraei, M.; Rouhaghdam, A. Sabour

    2012-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was applied on the surface of commercially pure titanium substrates in a mixed aluminate-phosphate electrolyte in the presence of silicon nitride nanoparticles as suspension in the electrolyte in order to fabricate nanocomposite coatings. Pulsed current was applied based on variable duty cycle in order to synthesize functionally gradient coatings (FGC). Different rates of variable duty cycle (3, 1.5 and 1%/min), applied current densities (0.06-0.14 A/cm2) and concentrations of nanoparticles in the electrolyte (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g l-1) were investigated. The nanopowder and coated samples were analyzed by atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The influence of different rates of variable duty cycle (or treatment times) on the growth rate of nanocomposite coatings and their microhardness values was investigated. The experimental results revealed that the content of Si3N4 nanoparticulates in the layer increases with the increase of its concentration in the plasma electrolysis bath. Nanocomposite coatings fabricated with lower rate of variable duty cycle have higher microhardness with smoother microhardness profile.

  8. HESS Opinions "Biological catalysis of the hydrological cycle: life's thermodynamic function"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelian, K.

    2012-08-01

    Darwinian theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living components of the biosphere on the Earth's surface of greatest biomass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of a vast amount of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its apparently life-barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The dissipation of sunlight into heat by organic molecules in the biosphere, and its coupling to the water cycle (as well as other abiotic processes), is by far the greatest entropy-producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function, acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding irreversible abiotic processes such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants of the plants and cyanobacteria, helping them to grow, and to spread into initially inhospitable areas.

  9. Function constrains network architecture and dynamics: A case study on the yeast cell cycle Boolean network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Kai-Yeung; Ganguli, Surya; Tang, Chao

    2007-05-01

    We develop a general method to explore how the function performed by a biological network can constrain both its structural and dynamical network properties. This approach is orthogonal to prior studies which examine the functional consequences of a given structural feature, for example a scale free architecture. A key step is to construct an algorithm that allows us to efficiently sample from a maximum entropy distribution on the space of Boolean dynamical networks constrained to perform a specific function, or cascade of gene expression. Such a distribution can act as a “functional null model” to test the significance of any given network feature, and can aid in revealing underlying evolutionary selection pressures on various network properties. Although our methods are general, we illustrate them in an analysis of the yeast cell cycle cascade. This analysis uncovers strong constraints on the architecture of the cell cycle regulatory network as well as significant selection pressures on this network to maintain ordered and convergent dynamics, possibly at the expense of sacrificing robustness to structural perturbations.

  10. Force-velocity relationship and stretch-shortening cycle function in sprint and endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Andrew J; Keane, Sean P; Coglan, John

    2004-08-01

    This study examined the torque-velocity and power-velocity relationships of quadriceps muscle function, stretch shortening cycle function, and leg-spring stiffness in sprint and endurance athletes. Isokinetic maximal knee extension torque was obtained from 7 sprinters and 7 endurance athletes using a Con-trex isokinetic dynamometer. Torque and power measures were corrected for lean-thigh cross-sectional area and lean-thigh volume, respectively. Stretch-shortening cycle function and muscle stiffness measurements were obtained while subjects performed single-legged squat, countermovement, and drop-rebound jumps on an inclined sledge and force-plate apparatus. The results indicated that sprinters generated, on average, 0.15 +/- 0.05 N.m.cm(-2) more torque across all velocities compared with endurance athletes. Significant differences were also found in the power-velocity relationships between the 2 groups. The sprinters performed significantly better than the endurance athletes on all jumps, but there were no differences in prestretch augmentation between the groups. The average vertical leg stiffness during drop jumps was significantly higher for sprinters (5.86 N.m(-1)) compared with endurance runners (3.38 N.m(-1)). The findings reinforce the need for power training to be carried out at fast contraction speeds but also show that SSC function remains important in endurance running. PMID:15320647

  11. Maximum power, ecological function and efficiency of an irreversible Carnot cycle. A cost and effectiveness optimization

    E-print Network

    G Aragon-Gonzalez; A. Canales-Palma; A. Leon-Galicia; J. R. Morales-Gomez

    2007-01-29

    In this work we include, for the Carnot cycle, irreversibilities of linear finite rate of heat transferences between the heat engine and its reservoirs, heat leak between the reservoirs and internal dissipations of the working fluid. A first optimization of the power output, the efficiency and ecological function of an irreversible Carnot cycle, with respect to: internal temperature ratio, time ratio for the heat exchange and the allocation ratio of the heat exchangers; is performed. For the second and third optimizations, the optimum values for the time ratio and internal temperature ratio are substituted into the equation of power and, then, the optimizations with respect to the cost and effectiveness ratio of the heat exchangers are performed. Finally, a criterion of partial optimization for the class of irreversible Carnot engines is herein presented.

  12. Modeling the High Speed Research Cycle 2B Longitudinal Aerodynamic Database Using Multivariate Orthogonal Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, E. A.; Proffitt, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    The data for longitudinal non-dimensional, aerodynamic coefficients in the High Speed Research Cycle 2B aerodynamic database were modeled using polynomial expressions identified with an orthogonal function modeling technique. The discrepancy between the tabular aerodynamic data and the polynomial models was tested and shown to be less than 15 percent for drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients over the entire flight envelope. Most of this discrepancy was traced to smoothing local measurement noise and to the omission of mass case 5 data in the modeling process. A simulation check case showed that the polynomial models provided a compact and accurate representation of the nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies contained in the HSR Cycle 2B tabular aerodynamic database.

  13. C4-dicarboxylic acid production by overexpressing the reductive TCA pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Ge, Chengyu; Deng, Li; Tan, Tianwei; Wang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    As C4-dicarboxylic acids could replace C4-petrochemicals, the reductive tricarboxylic acid (TCA) pathway was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris for production of the C4-dicarboxylic acids. Three expression cassettes which carried the pyruvate carboxylase gene (pc), the cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase gene (mdh1) and the retargeted fumarase gene (Tfum) were integrated into the chromosomal DNA of P. pastoris GS115 alone or jointly. Multicopy integrations were screened using quantitative PCR for C4-dicarboxylic acid overaccumulation. The results showed that the highest titer in 96 h of fumaric, malic and succinic acid (0.76, 42.28 and 9.42 g l(-1)) was obtained by co-expression of pc and mdh1 in P. pastoris. This is the first report about multiple genes engineered in P. pastoris for C4-dicarboxylic acid production. The strain Pp-PC-MDH1, moreover, has a significant potential to produce malic acid in aerobic conditions. PMID:25862576

  14. Acute Bouts of Assisted Cycling Improves Cognitive and Upper Extremity Movement Functions in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringenbach, Shannon D. R; Albert, Andrew R.; Chen, Chih-Chia; Alberts, Jay L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of 2 modes of exercise on cognitive and upper extremity movement functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Nine participants randomly completed 3 interventions over 3 consecutive weeks. The interventions were: (a) voluntary cycling (VC), in which participants cycled at their…

  15. Differences in resistance to 5-fluorouracil as a function of cell cycle delay and not apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, M.; Dive, C.; Kinsella, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    A series of human embryo fibroblasts has previously been shown to display increasing resistance to the antimetabolites methotrexate (MTX) and N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA) with increasing tumorigenicity. This increased resistance was found to be further increased as a result of salvage pathway activity for purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis. A similar pattern of increasing resistance paralleling increasing tumorigenicity has now been shown to occur with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which is independent of salvage pathway activity. The KMS normal cell line was found to be more sensitive to 5-FU than either the immortalised KMST or tumorigenic KN-NM cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of the three cell lines demonstrated high levels of p53 protein in the KMST and KN-NM cell lines, but undetectable p53 levels in the KMS cell line. From these data it was hypothesised that a difference in p53 function may be causing the difference in the patterns of sensitivity observed in the three cell lines. P53 is now believed to function as a regulator of a G1 to S cell cycle checkpoint and as an inducer of apoptosis following DNA damage to the cell. The differences in sensitivity of the cell lines could not be explained by differences in the levels of apoptosis but could be attributed to differences in cell cycle response. Our evidence suggests that loss of cell cycle control, possibly through loss of p53 function, is an important factor in increasing the drug resistance of fibroblast cell lines. Images Figure 1 PMID:8519649

  16. Nitrogen cycling in Yellowstone National Park thermal features: using gene expression to reveal ecological function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafree, S. T.; Burton, M. S.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Studies of biodiversity, metabolic strategies, and functional ecology in modern hydrothermal systems have the potential to provide insight into the metabolism and evolution of life. The geochemical and microbial diversity present at Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA, makes it an ideal place for studying the functional ecology and metabolic processes of prokaryotic organisms. While much work in terrestrial hydrothermal features is focused on phylogenetic and geochemical analyses, a few recent investigations in YNP and other hydrothermal areas have focused on “gene hunting”: screening thermal sediment and biofilm samples for the presence of genes utilized in specific metabolic processes [2, 3, 6, 7, 8]. Although research has evaluated and confirmed the presence of many of these genes in various thermophilic microbial communities, the existence of a gene in the DNA of an organism does not verify its use, and few researchers have done work to confirm the utilization (expression) of the genes discovered in thermal samples [1, 6, 7, 8]. Disequilibrium between reduced hydrothermal fluid of YNP thermal features and the atmosphere provides a copious source of potential energy to be harnessed through microbial metabolic processes, with NO3- and NO2- serving as the preferred electron acceptors and top energy sources after O2 [4, 5]. Consequentially, nitrogen cycling likely plays a vital role in microbial metabolic processes, as well as nutrient availability. This study explores the presence and utilization of functional genes that are key in steps of the nitrogen cycle, such as nitrogen fixation (NifH), denitrification (nirKS), and ammonia oxidation (amoA). Both DNA and RNA were extracted from thermal sediment and streamer biofilm communities collected in the chemosynthetic zone of various thermal features of the Sentinel Meadows Group in Lower Geyser Basin, YNP. Extracted DNA and reverse transcribed RNA (cDNA) were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and products were analyzed through gel electrophoresis to identify the presence and expression of the target functional nitrogen cycle genes. Results allow comparison of nitrogen cycling processes between different chemotrophic microbial communities both within and among the thermal features investigated in this study. [1] Botero et al., 2005. AEM 71: 1267-1275. [2] Hall et al., 2008. AEM 74: 4910-4922. [3] Meyer-Dombard et al., 2009. EOS Trans AGU 90. Abstract B23C-0390. [4] Reysenbach & Shock, 2002. Science 296: 1077-1082. [5] Shock et al., 2005. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74: 4005-4043. [6] Steunou et al., 2006. PNAS 103:2398-2403. [7] Steunou et al., 2008. The ISME Journal 2: 364-378. [8] Zhang et al., 2008. AEM 74: 6417-6426.

  17. Alterations in dopamine system function across the estrous cycle of the MAM rodent model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Stephanie M; Chen, Li; Lodge, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    Clinical studies have reported differences in the incidence and severity of schizophrenia symptoms between male and female schizophrenia patients. Unfortunately, the cause of these differences is not currently known due, in part, to the fact that preclinical studies largely focus on male subjects. Dopamine neuron activity has been previously demonstrated to change across the estrous cycle, and may therefore be of relevance, as aberrant dopamine signaling is thought to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Here we examine dopamine neuron activity across the estrous cycle in the MAM rodent model of schizophrenia. We demonstrate that the elevation in dopamine neuron activity, consistently observed in male MAM-treated rats, is most prominent during estrus and attenuated in met-estrus. Furthermore, this appears to be mediated, in part, by progesterone in the ventral hippocampus, as increases in dopamine neuron population activity (observed in estrus) were normalized by the intra-hippocampal administration of the progesterone receptor antagonist, mifepristone (but not the estrogen receptor antagonists, fulvestrant). Taken together, these data suggest that changes in dopamine system function occur across the estrous cycle in MAM-treated rats and may contribute to the differences in symptomatology between male and female schizophrenia patients. PMID:25001958

  18. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based extracellular metabolomic analysis of multidrug resistant Tca8113 oral squamous carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HUI; CHEN, JIAO; FENG, YUN; ZHOU, WENJIE; ZHANG, JIHUA; YU, YU; WANG, XIAOQIAN; ZHANG, PING

    2015-01-01

    A major obstacle of successful chemotherapy is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in the cancer cells, which is difficult to reverse. Metabolomic analysis, an emerging approach that has been increasingly applied in various fields, is able to reflect the unique chemical fingerprints of specific cellular processes in an organism. The assessment of such metabolite changes can be used to identify novel therapeutic biomarkers. In the present study, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to analyze the extracellular metabolomic spectrum of the Tca8113 oral squamous carcinoma cell line, in which MDR was induced using the carboplatin (CBP) and pingyangmycin (PYM) chemotherapy drugs in vitro. The data were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) methods. The results demonstrated that the extracellular metabolomic spectrum of metabolites such as glutamate, glycerophosphoethanol amine, ?-Glucose and ?-Glucose for the drug-induced Tca8113 cells was significantly different from the parental Tca8113 cell line. A number of biochemicals were also significantly different between the groups based on their NMR spectra, with drug-resistant cells presenting relatively higher levels of acetate and lower levels of lactate. In addition, a significantly higher peak was observed at ? 3.35 ppm in the spectrum of the PYM-induced Tca8113 cells. Therefore, 1H NMR-based metabolomic analysis has a high potential for monitoring the formation of MDR during clinical tumor chemotherapy in the future. PMID:26137105

  19. The Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) and Its Relationship to Life Cycle Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeHoff, Bryan; Levack, Danie J. H.; Rhodes, Russell E.

    2009-01-01

    The Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) is a structured, modular breakdown of every function that must be addressed to perform a generic mission. It is also usable for any subset of the mission. Unlike a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), the FBS is a function-oriented tree, not a product-oriented tree. The FBS details not products, but operations or activities that should be performed. The FBS is not tied to any particular architectural implementation because it is a listing of the needed functions, not the elements, of the architecture. The FBS for Space Transportation Systems provides a universal hierarchy of required functions, which include ground and space operations as well as infrastructure - it provides total visibility of the entire mission. By approaching the systems engineering problem from the functional view, instead of the element or hardware view, the SPST has created an exhaustive list of potential requirements which the architecture designers can use to evaluate the completeness of their designs. This is a new approach that will provide full accountability of all functions required to perform the planned mission. It serves as a giant check list to be sure that no functions are omitted, especially in the early architectural design phase. A significant characteristic of a FBS is that if architecture options are compared using this approach, then any missing or redundant elements of each option will be ' identified. Consequently, valid Life Cycle Costs (LCC) comparisons can be made. For example, one architecture option might not need a particular function while another option does. One option may have individual elements to perform each of three functions while another option needs only one element to perform the three functions. Once an architecture has been selected, the FBS will serve as a guide in development of the work breakdown structure, provide visibility of those technologies that need to be further developed to perform required functions, and help identify the personnel skills required to develop and operate the architecture. It also wifi allow the systems engineering activities to totally integrate each discipline to the maximum extent possible and optimize at the total system level, thus avoiding optimizing at the element level (stove-piping). In addition, it furnishes a framework that wifi help prevent over or under specifying requirements because all functions are identified and all elements are aligned to functions.

  20. An Estimate of the Size and Shape of Sunspot Cycle 24 Based on its Early Cycle Behavior using the Hathaway-Wilson-Reichmann Shape-Fitting Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of 12-month moving averages (12-mma) of monthly mean sunspot number (R), sunspot cycle 24 had its minimum amplitude (Rm = 1.7) in December 2008. At 12 mo past minimum, R measured 8.3, and at 18 mo past minimum, it measured 16.4. Thus far, the maximum month-to-month rate of rise in 12-mma values of monthly mean sunspot number (AR(t) max) has been 1.7, having occurred at elapsed times past minimum amplitude (t) of 14 and 15 mo. Compared to other sunspot cycles of the modern era, cycle 24?s Rm and AR(t) max (as observed so far) are the smallest on record, suggesting that it likely will be a slow-rising, long-period sunspot cycle of below average maximum amplitude (RM). Supporting this view is the now observed relative strength of cycle 24?s geomagnetic minimum amplitude as measured using the 12-mma value of the aa-geomagnetic index (aam = 8.4), which also is the smallest on record, having occurred at t equals 8 and 9 mo. From the method of Ohl (the inferred preferential association between RM and aam), one predicts RM = 55 +/- 17 (the ?1 se prediction interval) for cycle 24. Furthermore, from the Waldmeier effect (the inferred preferential association between the ascent duration (ASC) and RM) one predicts an ASC longer than 48 mo for cycle 24; hence, maximum amplitude occurrence should be after December 2012. Application of the Hathaway-Wilson-Reichmann shape-fitting function, using an RM = 70 and ASC = 56 mo, is found to adequately fit the early sunspot number growth of cycle 24.

  1. Small-molecule kinase inhibitors provide insight into Mps1 cell cycle function.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Nicholas; Jelluma, Nannette; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Soundararajan, Meera; Manak, Michael S; Kwon, Mijung; Choi, Hwan Geun; Sim, Taebo; Deveraux, Quinn L; Rottmann, Sabine; Pellman, David; Shah, Jagesh V; Kops, Geert J P L; Knapp, Stefan; Gray, Nathanael S

    2010-05-01

    Mps1, a dual-specificity kinase, is required for the proper functioning of the spindle assembly checkpoint and for the maintenance of chromosomal stability. As Mps1 function has been implicated in numerous phases of the cell cycle, the development of a potent, selective small-molecule inhibitor of Mps1 should facilitate dissection of Mps1-related biology. We describe the cellular effects and Mps1 cocrystal structures of new, selective small-molecule inhibitors of Mps1. Consistent with RNAi studies, chemical inhibition of Mps1 leads to defects in Mad1 and Mad2 establishment at unattached kinetochores, decreased Aurora B kinase activity, premature mitotic exit and gross aneuploidy, without any evidence of centrosome duplication defects. However, in U2OS cells having extra centrosomes (an abnormality found in some cancers), Mps1 inhibition increases the frequency of multipolar mitoses. Lastly, Mps1 inhibitor treatment resulted in a decrease in cancer cell viability. PMID:20383151

  2. Probability density functions for the variable solar wind near the solar cycle minimum

    E-print Network

    Vörös,; Leitner, M; Narita, Y; Consolini, G; Kovács, P; Tóth, A; Lichtenberger, J

    2015-01-01

    Unconditional and conditional statistics is used for studying the histograms of magnetic field multi-scale fluctuations in the solar wind near the solar cycle minimum in 2008. The unconditional statistics involves the magnetic data during the whole year 2008. The conditional statistics involves the magnetic field time series splitted into concatenated subsets of data according to a threshold in dynamic pressure. The threshold separates fast stream leading edge compressional and trailing edge uncompressional fluctuations. The histograms obtained from these data sets are associated with both large-scale (B) and small-scale ({\\delta}B) magnetic fluctuations, the latter corresponding to time-delayed differences. It is shown here that, by keeping flexibility but avoiding the unnecessary redundancy in modeling, the histograms can be effectively described by a limited set of theoretical probability distribution functions (PDFs), such as the normal, log-normal, kappa and logkappa functions. In a statistical sense the...

  3. Neuromuscular function and fatigue resistance of the plantar flexors following short-term cycling endurance training

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Martin; Weippert, Matthias; Wassermann, Franziska; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven; Mau-Moeller, Anett

    2015-01-01

    Previously published studies on the effect of short-term endurance training on neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors have shown that the H-reflex elicited at rest and during weak voluntary contractions was increased following the training regime. However, these studies did not test H-reflex modulation during isometric maximum voluntary contraction (iMVC) and did not incorporate a control group in their study design to compare the results of the endurance training group to individuals without the endurance training stimulus. Therefore, this randomized controlled study was directed to investigate the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors at rest and during iMVC before and after 8 weeks of cycling endurance training. Twenty-two young adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. During neuromuscular testing, rate of torque development, isometric maximum voluntary torque and muscle activation were measured. Triceps surae muscle activation and tibialis anterior muscle co-activation were assessed by normalized root mean square of the EMG signal during the initial phase of contraction (0–100, 100–200 ms) and iMVC of the plantar flexors. Furthermore, evoked spinal reflex responses of the soleus muscle (H-reflex evoked at rest and during iMVC, V-wave), peak twitch torques induced by electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at rest and fatigue resistance were evaluated. The results indicate that cycling endurance training did not lead to a significant change in any variable of interest. Data of the present study conflict with the outcome of previously published studies that have found an increase in H-reflex excitability after endurance training. However, these studies had not included a control group in their study design as was the case here. It is concluded that short-term cycling endurance training does not necessarily enhance H-reflex responses and fatigue resistance. PMID:26029114

  4. A Kinase-Independent Function of CDK6 Links the Cell Cycle to Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kollmann, Karoline; Heller, Gerwin; Schneckenleithner, Christine; Warsch, Wolfgang; Scheicher, Ruth; Ott, Rene G.; Schäfer, Markus; Fajmann, Sabine; Schlederer, Michaela; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Reichart, Ursula; Mayerhofer, Matthias; Hoeller, Christoph; Zöchbauer-Müller, Sabine; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Bock, Christoph; Kenner, Lukas; Hoefler, Gerald; Freissmuth, Michael; Green, Anthony R.; Moriggl, Richard; Busslinger, Meinrad; Malumbres, Marcos; Sexl, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Summary In contrast to its close homolog CDK4, the cell cycle kinase CDK6 is expressed at high levels in lymphoid malignancies. In a model for p185BCR-ABL+ B-acute lymphoid leukemia, we show that CDK6 is part of a transcription complex that induces the expression of the tumor suppressor p16INK4a and the pro-angiogenic factor VEGF-A. This function is independent of CDK6’s kinase activity. High CDK6 expression thus suppresses proliferation by upregulating p16INK4a, providing an internal safeguard. However, in the absence of p16INK4a, CDK6 can exert its full tumor-promoting function by enhancing proliferation and stimulating angiogenesis. The finding that CDK6 connects cell-cycle progression to angiogenesis confirms CDK6’s central role in hematopoietic malignancies and could underlie the selection pressure to upregulate CDK6 and silence p16INK4a. PMID:23948297

  5. A Dynamic View of ATP-coupled Functioning Cycle of Hsp90 N-terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huaqun; Zhou, Chen; Chen, Wuyan; Xu, Yechun; Shi, Yanhong; Wen, Yi; Zhang, Naixia

    2015-01-01

    Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is one of the most important chaperones involved in multiple cellular processes. The chaperoning function of Hsp90 is intimately coupled to the ATPase activity presented by its N-terminal domain. However, the molecular mechanism for the ATP-dependent working cycle of Hsp90 is still not fully understood. In this study, we use NMR techniques to investigate the structural characteristics and dynamic behaviors of Hsp90 N-terminal domain in its free and AMPPCP (ATP analogue) or ADP-bound states. We demonstrated that although AMPPCP and ADP bind to almost the same region of Hsp90, significantly different effects on the dynamics behaviors of the key structural elements were observed. AMPPCP binding favors the formation of the active homodimer of Hsp90 by enhancing the slow-motion featured conformational exchanges of those residues (A117–A141) within the lid segment (A111–G135) and around region, while ADP binding keeps Hsp90 staying at the inactive state by increasing the conformational rigidity of the lid segment and around region. Based on our findings, a dynamic working model for the ATP-dependent functioning cycle of Hsp90 was proposed. PMID:25867902

  6. A "footprint" of plant carbon fixation cycle functions during the development of a heterotrophic fungus.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Xueliang; Shen, Cuicui; Xie, Jiatao; Fu, Yanping; Jiang, Daohong; Hu, Zijin; Tang, Lihua; Tang, Liguang; Ding, Feng; Li, Kunfei; Wu, Song; Hu, Yanping; Luo, Lilian; Li, Yuanhao; Wang, Qihua; Li, Guoqing; Cheng, Jiasen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon fixation pathway of plants (CFPP) in photosynthesis converts solar energy to biomass, bio-products and biofuel. Intriguingly, a large number of heterotrophic fungi also possess enzymes functionally associated with CFPP, raising the questions about their roles in fungal development and in evolution. Here, we report on the presence of 17 CFPP associated enzymes (ten in Calvin-Benson-Basham reductive pentose phosphate pathway and seven in C4-dicarboxylic acid cycle) in the genome of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a heterotrophic phytopathogenic fungus, and only two unique enzymes: ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) were absent. This data suggested an incomplete CFPP-like pathway (CLP) in fungi. Functional profile analysis demonstrated that the activity of the incomplete CLP was dramatically regulated during different developmental stages of S. sclerotiorum. Subsequent experiments confirmed that many of them were essential to the virulence and/or sclerotial formation. Most of the CLP associated genes are conserved in fungi. Phylogenetic analysis showed that many of them have undergone gene duplication, gene acquisition or loss and functional diversification in evolutionary history. These findings showed an evolutionary links in the carbon fixation processes of autotrophs and heterotrophs and implicated the functions of related genes were in course of continuous change in different organisms in evolution. PMID:26263551

  7. A “footprint” of plant carbon fixation cycle functions during the development of a heterotrophic fungus

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Xueliang; Shen, Cuicui; Xie, Jiatao; Fu, Yanping; Jiang, Daohong; Hu, Zijin; Tang, Lihua; Tang, Liguang; Ding, Feng; Li, Kunfei; Wu, Song; Hu, Yanping; Luo, Lilian; Li, Yuanhao; Wang, Qihua; Li, Guoqing; Cheng, Jiasen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon fixation pathway of plants (CFPP) in photosynthesis converts solar energy to biomass, bio-products and biofuel. Intriguingly, a large number of heterotrophic fungi also possess enzymes functionally associated with CFPP, raising the questions about their roles in fungal development and in evolution. Here, we report on the presence of 17 CFPP associated enzymes (ten in Calvin-Benson-Basham reductive pentose phosphate pathway and seven in C4-dicarboxylic acid cycle) in the genome of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a heterotrophic phytopathogenic fungus, and only two unique enzymes: ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) were absent. This data suggested an incomplete CFPP-like pathway (CLP) in fungi. Functional profile analysis demonstrated that the activity of the incomplete CLP was dramatically regulated during different developmental stages of S. sclerotiorum. Subsequent experiments confirmed that many of them were essential to the virulence and/or sclerotial formation. Most of the CLP associated genes are conserved in fungi. Phylogenetic analysis showed that many of them have undergone gene duplication, gene acquisition or loss and functional diversification in evolutionary history. These findings showed an evolutionary links in the carbon fixation processes of autotrophs and heterotrophs and implicated the functions of related genes were in course of continuous change in different organisms in evolution. PMID:26263551

  8. LIMD1 antagonizes E2F1 activity and cell cycle progression by enhancing Rb function in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mayank, Adarsh K; Sharma, Shipra; Deshwal, Ravi K; Lal, Sunil K

    2014-07-01

    Tumour suppressor genes restrain inappropriate cell growth and division, as well as stimulate cell death to maintain tissue homeostasis. Loss of function leads to abnormal cellular behaviour, including hyperproliferation of cell and perturbation of cell cycle regulation. LIMD1 is a tumour suppressor gene located at chromosome 3p21.3, a region commonly deleted in many solid malignancies. LIMD1 interacts with retinoblastoma (Rb) and is involved in Rb-mediated downregulation of E2F1-target genes. However, the role of LIMD1 in cell cycle regulation remains unclear. We propose that LIMD1 induces cell cycle arrest, utilising Rb-E2F1 axis, and show that ectopic expression of LIMD1 in A549 cells results in hypo-phosphorylation that potentiates Rb function, which correlates with downregulation of E2F1. In agreement with these observations, LIMD1 overexpression retards cell cycle progression and blocks S-phase entry, as cells accumulate in G0/G1 phase and have reduced incorporation of BrdU. Most significantly, LIMD1-dependent effects on Rb function and cell cycle are reversed on depletion of endogenous LIMD1, underscoring its centrality in Rb-mediated cell cycle regulation. Hence, our findings provide new insight into cell cycle control by Rb-LIMD1 nexus. PMID:24523249

  9. Global Analysis of CPEBs Reveals Sequential and Non-Redundant Functions in Mitotic Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Giangarrà, Valeria; Igea, Ana; Castellazzi, Chiara Lara; Bava, Felice-Alessio; Mendez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    CPEB (Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding) proteins are a family of four RNA-binding proteins that regulate the translation of maternal mRNAs controlling meiotic cell cycle progression. But CPEBs are not limited to the transcriptionally silent germline; they are also expressed, in various combinations, in somatic cells, yet their role in regulation of mitosis-related gene expression is largely unknown. Deregulation of CPEB1 and CPEB4 have been linked to tumor development. However, a systematic analysis addressing their requirements for the temporal regulation of mitotic gene expression has yet to be performed. This study addresses the requirements of each of the four CPEBs for mitotic phase transitions, with a particular focus on cytoplasmic polyadenylation and translational regulation. We demonstrate that CPEB3 is the only member dispensable for mitotic cell division, whereas the other three members, CPEB1, 2, and 4, are essential to successful mitotic cell division. Thus, CPEB1 is required for prophase entry, CPEB2 for metaphase and CPEB4 for cytokinesis. These three CPEBs have sequential non-redundant functions that promote the phase-specific polyadenylation and translational activation of CPE-regulated transcripts in the mitotic cell cycle. PMID:26398195

  10. Loss of Drosophila melanogaster TRPA1 Function Affects "Siesta" Behavior but Not Synchronization to Temperature Cycles.

    PubMed

    Roessingh, Sanne; Wolfgang, Werner; Stanewsky, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    To maintain synchrony with the environment, circadian clocks use a wide range of cycling sensory cues that provide input to the clock (zeitgebers), including environmental temperature cycles (TCs). There is some knowledge about which clock neuronal groups are important for temperature synchronization, but we currently lack knowledge on the temperature receptors and their signaling pathways that feed temperature information to the (neuronal) clock. Since TRPA1 is a well-known thermosensor that functions in a range of temperature-related behaviors, and it is potentially expressed in clock neurons, we set out to test the putative role of TRPA1 in temperature synchronization of the circadian clock. We found that flies lacking TRPA1 are still able to synchronize their behavioral activity to TCs comparable to wild-type flies, both in 16°C : 25°C and 20°C : 29°C TCs. In addition, we found that flies lacking TRPA1 show higher activity levels during the middle of the warm phase of 20°C : 29°C TCs, and we show that this TRPA1-mediated repression of locomotor activity during the "siesta" is caused by a lack of sleep. Based on these data, we conclude that the TRPA1 channel is not required for temperature synchronization in this broad temperature range but instead is required to repress activity during the warm part of the day. PMID:26459465

  11. Power Effects on High Lift, Stability and Control Characteristics of the TCA Model Tested in the LaRC 14 x 22 Ft Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glessner, Paul T.

    1999-01-01

    The TCA-2 wind-tunnel test was the second in a series of planned tests utilizing the 5% Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) model. Each of the tests was planned to utilize the unique capabilities of the NASA Langley 14'x22' and the NASA Ames 12' test facilities, in order to assess specific aspects of the high lift and stability and control characteristics of the TCA configuration. However, shortly after the completion of the TCA-1 test, an early projection of the Technology Configuration (TC) identified the need for several significant changes to the baseline TCA configuration. These changes were necessary in order to meet more stringent noise certification levels, as well as, to provide a means to control dynamic structural modes. The projected changes included a change to the outboard wing (increased aspect ratio and lower sweep) and a reconfiguration of the longitudinal control surfaces to include a medium size canard and a reduced horizontal tail. The impact of these proposed changes did not affect the TCA-2 test, because it was specifically planned to address power effects on the empennage and a smaller horizontal tail was in the plan to be tested. However, the focus of future tests was reevaluated and the emphasis was shifted away from assessment of TCA specific configurations to a more general assessment of configurations that encompass the projected design space for the TC.

  12. Plasmodial HSP70s are functionally adapted to the malaria parasite life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Przyborski, Jude M.; Diehl, Mathias; Blatch, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, encodes a minimal complement of six heat shock protein 70s (PfHSP70s), some of which are highly expressed and are thought to play an important role in the survival and pathology of the parasite. In addition to canonical features of molecular chaperones, these HSP70s possess properties that reflect functional adaptation to a parasitic life style, including resistance to thermal insult during fever periods and host–parasite interactions. The parasite even exports an HSP70 to the host cell where it is likely to be involved in host cell modification. This review focuses on the features of the PfHSP70s, particularly with respect to their adaptation to the malaria parasite life cycle. PMID:26167469

  13. Plasmodial HSP70s are functionally adapted to the malaria parasite life cycle.

    PubMed

    Przyborski, Jude M; Diehl, Mathias; Blatch, Gregory L

    2015-01-01

    The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, encodes a minimal complement of six heat shock protein 70s (PfHSP70s), some of which are highly expressed and are thought to play an important role in the survival and pathology of the parasite. In addition to canonical features of molecular chaperones, these HSP70s possess properties that reflect functional adaptation to a parasitic life style, including resistance to thermal insult during fever periods and host-parasite interactions. The parasite even exports an HSP70 to the host cell where it is likely to be involved in host cell modification. This review focuses on the features of the PfHSP70s, particularly with respect to their adaptation to the malaria parasite life cycle. PMID:26167469

  14. Viral Membrane Channels: Role and Function in the Virus Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sze, Ching Wooen; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Viroporins are small, hydrophobic trans-membrane viral proteins that oligomerize to form hydrophilic pores in the host cell membranes. These proteins are crucial for the pathogenicity and replication of viruses as they aid in various stages of the viral life cycle, from genome uncoating to viral release. In addition, the ion channel activity of viroporin causes disruption in the cellular ion homeostasis, in particular the calcium ion. Fluctuation in the calcium level triggers the activation of the host defensive programmed cell death pathways as well as the inflammasome, which in turn are being subverted for the viruses’ replication benefits. This review article summarizes recent developments in the functional investigation of viroporins from various viruses and their contributions to viral replication and virulence. PMID:26110585

  15. Seasonal cycles, phylogenetic assembly, and functional diversity of orchid bee communities

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Santiago R; Hernández, Carlos; Link, Andres; López-Uribe, Margarita M

    2015-01-01

    Neotropical rainforests sustain some of the most diverse terrestrial communities on Earth. Euglossine (or orchid) bees are a diverse lineage of insect pollinators distributed throughout the American tropics, where they provide pollination services to a staggering diversity of flowering plant taxa. Elucidating the seasonal patterns of phylogenetic assembly and functional trait diversity of bee communities can shed new light into the mechanisms that govern the assembly of bee pollinator communities and the potential effects of declining bee populations. Male euglossine bees collect, store, and accumulate odoriferous compounds (perfumes) to subsequently use during courtship display. Thus, synthetic chemical baits can be used to attract and monitor euglossine bee populations. We conducted monthly censuses of orchid bees in three sites in the Magdalena valley of Colombia – a region where Central and South American biotas converge – to investigate the structure, diversity, and assembly of euglossine bee communities through time in relation to seasonal climatic cycles. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that phylogenetic community structure and functional trait diversity changed in response to seasonal rainfall fluctuations. All communities exhibited strong to moderate phylogenetic clustering throughout the year, with few pronounced bursts of phylogenetic overdispersion that coincided with the transition from wet-to-dry seasons. Despite the heterogeneous distribution of functional traits (e.g., body size, body mass, and proboscis length) and the observed seasonal fluctuations in phylogenetic diversity, we found that functional trait diversity, evenness, and divergence remained constant during all seasons in all communities. However, similar to the pattern observed with phylogenetic diversity, functional trait richness fluctuated markedly with rainfall in all sites. These results emphasize the importance of considering seasonal fluctuations in community assembly and provide a glimpse to the potential effects that climatic alterations may have on both pollinator communities and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:26140205

  16. Seasonal cycles, phylogenetic assembly, and functional diversity of orchid bee communities.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Santiago R; Hernández, Carlos; Link, Andres; López-Uribe, Margarita M

    2015-05-01

    Neotropical rainforests sustain some of the most diverse terrestrial communities on Earth. Euglossine (or orchid) bees are a diverse lineage of insect pollinators distributed throughout the American tropics, where they provide pollination services to a staggering diversity of flowering plant taxa. Elucidating the seasonal patterns of phylogenetic assembly and functional trait diversity of bee communities can shed new light into the mechanisms that govern the assembly of bee pollinator communities and the potential effects of declining bee populations. Male euglossine bees collect, store, and accumulate odoriferous compounds (perfumes) to subsequently use during courtship display. Thus, synthetic chemical baits can be used to attract and monitor euglossine bee populations. We conducted monthly censuses of orchid bees in three sites in the Magdalena valley of Colombia - a region where Central and South American biotas converge - to investigate the structure, diversity, and assembly of euglossine bee communities through time in relation to seasonal climatic cycles. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that phylogenetic community structure and functional trait diversity changed in response to seasonal rainfall fluctuations. All communities exhibited strong to moderate phylogenetic clustering throughout the year, with few pronounced bursts of phylogenetic overdispersion that coincided with the transition from wet-to-dry seasons. Despite the heterogeneous distribution of functional traits (e.g., body size, body mass, and proboscis length) and the observed seasonal fluctuations in phylogenetic diversity, we found that functional trait diversity, evenness, and divergence remained constant during all seasons in all communities. However, similar to the pattern observed with phylogenetic diversity, functional trait richness fluctuated markedly with rainfall in all sites. These results emphasize the importance of considering seasonal fluctuations in community assembly and provide a glimpse to the potential effects that climatic alterations may have on both pollinator communities and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:26140205

  17. DNA Damage Response and Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Function throughout the Cell Cycle to Ensure Genomic Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Katherine S.; Chau, Thinh; Engebrecht, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    Errors in replication or segregation lead to DNA damage, mutations, and aneuploidies. Consequently, cells monitor these events and delay progression through the cell cycle so repair precedes division. The DNA damage response (DDR), which monitors DNA integrity, and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which responds to defects in spindle attachment/tension during metaphase of mitosis and meiosis, are critical for preventing genome instability. Here we show that the DDR and SAC function together throughout the cell cycle to ensure genome integrity in C. elegans germ cells. Metaphase defects result in enrichment of SAC and DDR components to chromatin, and both SAC and DDR are required for metaphase delays. During persistent metaphase arrest following establishment of bi-oriented chromosomes, stability of the metaphase plate is compromised in the absence of DDR kinases ATR or CHK1 or SAC components, MAD1/MAD2, suggesting SAC functions in metaphase beyond its interactions with APC activator CDC20. In response to DNA damage, MAD2 and the histone variant CENPA become enriched at the nuclear periphery in a DDR-dependent manner. Further, depletion of either MAD1 or CENPA results in loss of peripherally associated damaged DNA. In contrast to a SAC-insensitive CDC20 mutant, germ cells deficient for SAC or CENPA cannot efficiently repair DNA damage, suggesting that SAC mediates DNA repair through CENPA interactions with the nuclear periphery. We also show that replication perturbations result in relocalization of MAD1/MAD2 in human cells, suggesting that the role of SAC in DNA repair is conserved. PMID:25898113

  18. The N cycle in Earth subsurface. Reactivity of functional genes to anthropogenic CO2 injections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trias, Rosalia; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Le Campion, Paul; Gíslason, Sigurður R.; Aradóttir, Edda S.; Alfreðsson, Helgui A.; Mesfin, Kiflom G.; Snæbjörnsdóttir, Sandra Ó.; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2014-05-01

    The Nitrogen cycle has been widely studied in surface ecosystems, due to the importance of this nutrient for the organisms' development, and to the impact in the environment of most of the N forms, many of them being considered pollutants. However, little is known about the importance of the N-related metabolisms in subsurface systems now recognized to host diverse and active microbial life. In this study, we have periodically sampled the subsurface aquifers of the Icelandic pilot site for CO2 storage associated with the geothermal plant of Hellisheidi (operated by Reykjavik Energy; http://www.or.is/en/projects/carbfix). With the aim of understanding the dynamics of N-cycle in the subsurface, and its reactivity to CO2 injections, we quantified through qPCR the functional genes amoA (archaea), amoA (bacteria), nirK, nirS, nosZ, nifH, and the 16SrRNA genes of the anammox, total archaea and total bacteria. The 16SrRNA gene quantification provided values of around 107 gene copies/l at non injection periods. CO2 injection caused first a slight decrease probably due to pH decrease or toxicity by oxygen contamination during the injections. Two months after injection, the copy numbers increased up to 109 gene copies/l, and slowly returned to pre-injection values. The archaeal 16S rDNA copy numbers showed a similar reaction, with higher toxicity effects, and a lower increase afterwards. Due to the high reactivity of the microbial populations to CO2 injections, all the N cycle quantifications were related to the total 16S rDNA copies for normalization. Nitrifying genes (amoA) were mainly represented by the ammonia oxidizing archaea, and were apparently not affected by CO2 injections. Anammox bacteria were present in a very low percentage, and the obtained copy numbers tended to decrease after the injection. These results were surprising due to the autotrophic character of ammonia oxidizers, but could be explained by a competitive exclusion. On the contrary, N-fixation (nifH) was stimulated by the injections, doubling their relative abundance in relation to bacteria 16S rDNA copy numbers, supplying the N requirements of new biomass formed by autotrophic CO2 fixation. Finally, denitrifying bacteria (nirK, nirS and nosZ) showed a higher seasonal variation, but were positively stimulated by the CO2 injections. This process can be autotrophic in some species, using directly the injected CO2 as C source. Altogether the results suggest a high response of the N cycle to the CO2 injections, and its potential contribution to the formation of new biomass and C fixation. We provide evidences for the importance of the N cycle on the subsurface and its reactivity to CO2 injections, being therefore important the consideration of this cycle in CO2 storage modelling.

  19. Sexual functioning and commitment to their current relationship among breastfeeding and regularly cycling women in Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Escasa-Dorne, Michelle J

    2015-03-01

    This project investigates the relationship between lactation and female sexual functioning and relationship commitment among partnered women in urban Manila. Previous literature suggests that the time after giving birth is often rife with lower sexual functioning and relationship dissatisfaction. Given the important role of caregiving by multiple individuals in humans, the current cross-sectional study suggests that female sexuality may decline immediately after giving birth but then may increase afterwards. Non-cycling, breastfeeding (n?=?86); cycling, breastfeeding (n?=?48); and nulliparous, regularly cycling (n?=?105) women were recruited from neighborhood health centers in Manila to complete questionnaires that assessed sexual functioning and relationship satisfaction, along with demographic variables. Cycling, breastfeeding women report the highest sexual functioning scores and commitment scores. Females undergoing life history trade-offs between mating effort and parenting effort during the postpartum phase may employ a strategy in which they continue investment both in their offspring and in a romantic relationship. Variations in self-reported sexual functioning, level of commitment in a relationship, and love toward her current partner may indicate that breastfeeding women engage in sexual activities as part of a relationship maintenance strategy. Cultural and life history factors will serve as a framework for the findings. The current findings suggest women in Manila may experience a post-birth increase in sexual functioning that may be higher than pre-pregnancy levels. Future studies should incorporate a longitudinal component or a memory recall on pre-pregnancy and post-birth sexual functioning levels. PMID:25847056

  20. The 14-3-3 Proteins of Trypanosoma brucei Function in Motility, Cytokinesis, and Cell Cycle*S

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    in these species. However, to our knowledge, there have been no functional analyses of protozoan 14-3-3. The protozoan pathogen T. brucei is the causal agent of sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana disease in cattle

  1. Progesterone mediates brain functional connectivity changes during the menstrual cycle—a pilot resting state MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Arélin, Katrin; Mueller, Karsten; Barth, Claudia; Rekkas, Paraskevi V.; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Burmann, Inga; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in intrinsic brain organization has sparked various innovative approaches to generating comprehensive connectivity-based maps of the human brain. Prior reports point to a sexual dimorphism of the structural and functional human connectome. However, it is uncertain whether subtle changes in sex hormones, as occur during the monthly menstrual cycle, substantially impact the functional architecture of the female brain. Here, we performed eigenvector centrality (EC) mapping in 32 longitudinal resting state fMRI scans of a single healthy subject without oral contraceptive use, across four menstrual cycles, and assessed estrogen and progesterone levels. To investigate associations between cycle-dependent hormones and brain connectivity, we performed correlation analyses between the EC maps and the respective hormone levels. On the whole brain level, we found a significant positive correlation between progesterone and EC in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and bilateral sensorimotor cortex. In a secondary region-of-interest analysis, we detected a progesterone-modulated increase in functional connectivity of both bilateral DLPFC and bilateral sensorimotor cortex with the hippocampus. Our results suggest that the menstrual cycle substantially impacts intrinsic functional connectivity, particularly in brain areas associated with contextual memory-regulation, such as the hippocampus. These findings are the first to link the subtle hormonal fluctuations that occur during the menstrual cycle, to significant changes in regional functional connectivity in the hippocampus in a longitudinal design, given the limitation of data acquisition in a single subject. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of such a longitudinal Resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) design and illustrates a means of creating a personalized map of the human brain by integrating potential mediators of brain states, such as menstrual cycle phase. PMID:25755630

  2. Progesterone mediates brain functional connectivity changes during the menstrual cycle-a pilot resting state MRI study.

    PubMed

    Arélin, Katrin; Mueller, Karsten; Barth, Claudia; Rekkas, Paraskevi V; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Burmann, Inga; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in intrinsic brain organization has sparked various innovative approaches to generating comprehensive connectivity-based maps of the human brain. Prior reports point to a sexual dimorphism of the structural and functional human connectome. However, it is uncertain whether subtle changes in sex hormones, as occur during the monthly menstrual cycle, substantially impact the functional architecture of the female brain. Here, we performed eigenvector centrality (EC) mapping in 32 longitudinal resting state fMRI scans of a single healthy subject without oral contraceptive use, across four menstrual cycles, and assessed estrogen and progesterone levels. To investigate associations between cycle-dependent hormones and brain connectivity, we performed correlation analyses between the EC maps and the respective hormone levels. On the whole brain level, we found a significant positive correlation between progesterone and EC in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and bilateral sensorimotor cortex. In a secondary region-of-interest analysis, we detected a progesterone-modulated increase in functional connectivity of both bilateral DLPFC and bilateral sensorimotor cortex with the hippocampus. Our results suggest that the menstrual cycle substantially impacts intrinsic functional connectivity, particularly in brain areas associated with contextual memory-regulation, such as the hippocampus. These findings are the first to link the subtle hormonal fluctuations that occur during the menstrual cycle, to significant changes in regional functional connectivity in the hippocampus in a longitudinal design, given the limitation of data acquisition in a single subject. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of such a longitudinal Resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) design and illustrates a means of creating a personalized map of the human brain by integrating potential mediators of brain states, such as menstrual cycle phase. PMID:25755630

  3. Overexpression of metabolic enzymes at the junction of glycolysis and the TCA cycle in Escherichia coli: physiological effects and application 

    E-print Network

    Spitzer, Richard G.

    1999-01-01

    the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (Pps) has increased the yield of the aromatic precursor 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) from glucose by two- fold compared to previous methods. In this study, Pps overexpression is again applied...

  4. Ingestion of sodium plus water improves cardiovascular function and performance during dehydrating cycling in the heat.

    PubMed

    Hamouti, N; Fernández-Elías, V E; Ortega, J F; Mora-Rodriguez, R

    2014-06-01

    We studied if salt and water ingestion alleviates the physiological strain caused by dehydrating exercise in the heat. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2max?: 60 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed three randomized trials in a hot-dry environment (33 °C, 30% rh, 2.5 m/s airflow). Ninety minutes before the exercise, participants ingested 10 mL of water/kg body mass either alone (CON trial) or with salt to result in concentrations of 82 or 164 mM Na(+) (ModNa(+) or HighNa(+) trial, respectively). Then, participants cycled at 63% of VO2 m ? a x for 120 min immediately followed by a time-trial. After 120 min of exercise, the reduction in plasma volume was lessened with ModNa(+) and HighNa(+) trials (-11.9 ± 2.1 and -9.8 ± 4.2%) in comparison with CON (-16.4 ± 3.2%; P < 0.05). However, heat accumulation or dissipation (forearm skin blood flow and sweat rate) were not improved by salt ingestion. In contrast, both salt trials maintained cardiac output (? 1.3 ± 1.4 L/min; P < 0.05) and stroke volume (? 10 ± 11 mL/beat; P < 0.05) above CON after 120 min of exercise. Furthermore, the salt trials equally improved time-trial performance by 7.4% above CON (? 289 ± 42 vs 269 ± 50 W, respectively; P < 0.05). Our data suggest that pre-exercise ingestion of salt plus water maintains higher plasma volume during dehydrating exercise in the heat without thermoregulatory effects. However, it maintains cardiovascular function and improves cycling performance. PMID:23253191

  5. Intravenous administration of Honokiol provides neuroprotection and improves functional recovery after traumatic brain injury through cell cycle inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiquan; Liao, Zhengbu; Sun, Xiaochuan; Shi, Quanhong; Huo, Gang; Xie, Yanfeng; Tang, Xiaolan; Zhi, Xinggang; Tang, Zhaohua

    2014-11-01

    Recently, increasing evidence has shown that cell cycle activation is a key factor of neuronal death and neurological dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aims to investigate the effects of Honokiol, a cell cycle inhibitor, on attenuating the neuronal damage and facilitating functional recovery after TBI in rats, in an attempt to unveil its underlying molecular mechanisms in TBI. This study suggested that delayed intravenous administration of Honokiol could effectively ameliorate TBI-induced sensorimotor and cognitive dysfunctions. Meanwhile, Honokiol treatment could also reduce the lesion volume and increase the neuronal survival in the cortex and hippocampus. The neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the cortex and hippocampus were further significantly attenuated by Honokiol treatment. In addition, the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, including cyclin D1, CDK4, pRb and E2F1, was significantly increased and endogenous cell cycle inhibitor p27 was markedly decreased at different time points after TBI. And these changes were significantly reversed by post-injury Honokiol treatment. Furthermore, the expression of some of the key cell cycle proteins such as cyclin D1 and E2F1 and the associated apoptosis in neurons were both remarkably attenuated by Honokiol treatment. These results show that delayed intravenous administration of Honokiol could effectively improve the functional recovery and attenuate the neuronal cell death, which is probably, at least in part, attributed to its role as a cell cycle inhibitior. This might give clues to developing attractive therapies for future clinical trials. PMID:24973706

  6. The tricarboxylic acid cycle in Shewanella oneidensis is independent of Fur and RyhB control

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng; McCue, Lee Ann; Parsons, Andrea; Feng, Sheng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is well established in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae that strains harboring mutations in the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) are unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) compounds, due to the down-regulation of key TCA cycle enzymes, such as AcnA and SdhABCD. This down-regulation is mediated by a Fur-regulated small regulatory RNA named RyhB. It is unclear in the g-proteobacterium S. oneidensis whether TCA is also regulated by Fur and RyhB. Results: In the present study, we showed that a fur deletion mutant of S. oneidensis could utilize TCA compounds. Consistently, expression of the TCA cycle genes acnA and sdhA was not down-regulated in the mutant. To explore this observation further, we identified a ryhB gene in Shewanella species and experimentally demonstrated the gene expression. Further experiments suggested that RyhB was up-regulated in fur mutant, but that AcnA and SdhA were not controlled by RyhB. Conclusions: These cumulative results delineate an important difference of the Fur-RyhB regulatory cycle between S. oneidensis and other g-proteobacteria. This work represents a step forward for understanding the unique regulation in S. oneidensis.

  7. Spatial Distribution of Cellular Function: The Partitioning of Proteins between Mitochondria and the Nucleus in MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Qattan, Amal T.; Radulovic, Marko; Crawford, Mark; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent proteomics analysis of the nuclei and mitochondria of MCF7 breast cancer cells identified 985 proteins (40% of all detected proteins) present in both organelles. Numerous proteins from all five complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (e.g., NDUFA5, NDUFB10, NDUFS1, NDUF2, SDHA, UQRB, UQRC2, UQCRH, COX5A, COX5B, MT-CO2, ATP5A1, ATP5B, ATP5H, etc.), from the TCA-cycle (DLST, IDH2, IDH3A, OGDH, SUCLAG2, etc.), and from glycolysis (ALDOA, ENO1, FBP1, GPI, PGK1, TALDO1, etc.) were distributed to both the nucleus and mitochondria. In contrast, proteins involved in nuclear/mitochondrial RNA processing/translation and Ras/Rab signaling showed different partitioning patterns. The identity of the OxPhos, TCA-cycle, and glycolysis proteins distributed to both the nucleus and mitochondria provides evidence for spatio-functional integration of these processes over the two different subcellular organelles. We suggest that there are unrecognized aspects of functional coordination between the nucleus and mitochondria, that integration of core functional processes via wide subcellular distribution of constituent proteins is a common characteristic of cells, and that subcellular spatial integration of function may be a vital aspect of cancer. PMID:23051583

  8. Existence of limit cycles and homoclinic bifurcation in a plant-herbivore model with toxin-determined functional response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yulin; Feng, Zhilan; Zheng, Yiqiang; Cen, Xiuli

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we study a two-dimensional toxin-determined functional response model (TDFRM). The toxin-determined functional response explicitly takes into consideration the reduction in the consumption of plants by herbivore due to chemical defense, which generates more complex dynamics of the plant-herbivore interactions. The purpose of the present paper is to analyze the existence of limit cycles and bifurcations of the model. By applying the theories of rotated vector fields and the extended planar termination principle, we establish the conditions for the existence of limit cycles and homoclinic loop. It is shown that a limit cycle is generated in a supercritical Hopf bifurcation and terminated in a homoclinic bifurcation, as the parameters vary. Analytic proofs are provided for all results, which generalize the results presented in [11].

  9. Preconditioning of self-consistent-field cycles in density-functional theory: The extrapolar method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglade, P.-M.; Gonze, X.

    2008-07-01

    The number of self-consistent-field iterations needed for the density-functional theory treatment of metallic systems grows with the size of the unit cell, not only for basic algorithms like simple mixing, but also for more advanced schemes, in which results from several past steps are mixed. Preconditioning techniques have the potential to suppress this growth, although the available methods have strong limitations: either they deliver little improvement in case of mixed systems with metallic and nonmetallic regions, or the computation of the preconditioner scales badly with the size of the system, with a large prefactor. We propose an approximate preconditioner, with tremendously reduced prefactor, that makes the number of self-consistent cycle nearly independent of the size of the system, and bears little overhead up to the one hundred atom range. The susceptibility matrix, a key ingredient in our scheme, is approximated thanks to the closure relation. Instead of using the exact formulation of the dielectric matrix, we rely on the random-phase approximation, that allows to further decrease the prefactor thanks to a very low wave vector cutoff, even for systems with both vacuum and a metallic region. We test this algorithm for systems of increasing size and demonstrate its practical usefulness.

  10. Proteasome function is required for biological timing throughout the twenty-four hour cycle.

    PubMed

    van Ooijen, Gerben; Dixon, Laura E; Troein, Carl; Millar, Andrew J

    2011-05-24

    Circadian clocks were, until recently, seen as a consequence of rhythmic transcription of clock components, directed by transcriptional/translational feedback loops (TTFLs). Oscillations of protein modification were then discovered in cyanobacteria. Canonical posttranslational signaling processes have known importance for clocks across taxa. More recently, evidence from the unicellular eukaryote Ostreococcus tauri revealed a transcription-independent, rhythmic protein modification shared in anucleate human cells. In this study, the Ostreococcus system reveals a central role for targeted protein degradation in the mechanism of circadian timing. The Ostreococcus clockwork contains a TTFL involving the morning-expressed CCA1 and evening-expressed TOC1 proteins. Cellular CCA1 and TOC1 protein content and degradation rates are analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using luciferase reporter fusion proteins. CCA1 protein degradation rates, measured in high time resolution, feature a sharp clock-regulated peak under constant conditions. TOC1 degradation peaks in response to darkness. Targeted protein degradation, unlike transcription and translation, is shown to be essential to sustain TTFL rhythmicity throughout the circadian cycle. Although proteasomal degradation is not necessary for sustained posttranslational oscillations in transcriptionally inactive cells, TTFL and posttranslational oscillators are normally coupled, and proteasome function is crucial to sustain both. PMID:21530263

  11. SILAC-based proteomic analysis reveals that salidroside antagonizes cobalt chloride-induced hypoxic effects by restoring the tricarboxylic acid cycle in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhong-Wei; Chen, Xi; Jin, Xiao-Han; Meng, Xiang-Yan; Zhou, Xin; Fan, Feng-Xu; Mao, Shi-Yun; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Shan, Na-Na; Li, Yu-Ming; Xu, Rui-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic status alters the energy metabolism and induces cell injury in cardiomyocytes, and it further triggers the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous studies have shown that salidroside (SAL) exhibits anti-hypoxic activity. However, the mechanisms remain obscure. In the present study, we successfully screened 92 different expression proteins in CoCl2-induced hypoxic conditions, 106 different expression proteins in the SAL-mediated anti-hypoxic group were compared with the hypoxic group using quantitative proteomics strategy, respectively. We confirmed that SAL showed a positive protective function involving the acetyl-CoA metabolic, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle using bioinformatics analysis. We also demonstrated that SAL plays a critical role in restoring the TCA cycle and in protecting cardiomyocytes from oxidative injury via up-regulation expressions of PDHE1-B, ACO2, SUCLG1, SUCLG2 and down-regulation of MDH2. SAL also inhibited H9c2 cell apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of pro-apoptotic molecules caspase 3 and caspase 9 as well as activation of the anti-apoptotic molecular Bcl-2. Additionally, SAL also improved mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intercellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) accumulation and inhibited the excessive consumption of ATP in H9c2 cells. PMID:26435418

  12. Advanced oxidation degradation kinetics as a function of ultraviolet LED duty cycle.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Kelsey; Spencer, Michael; Bates, Christopher; Miller, Michael E; Almquist, Catherine; Grimaila, Michael; Magnuson, Matthew; Willison, Stuart; Phillips, Rebecca; Racz, LeeAnn

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) may be a viable option as a UV light source for advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) utilizing photocatalysts or oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide. The effect of UV-LED duty cycle, expressed as the percentage of time the LED is powered, was investigated in an AOP with hydrogen peroxide, using methylene blue (MB) to assess contaminant degradation. The UV-LED AOP degraded the MB at all duty cycles. However, adsorption of MB onto the LED emitting surface caused a linear decline in reactor performance over time. With regard to the effect of duty cycle, the observed rate constant of MB degradation, after being adjusted to account for the duty cycle, was greater for 5 and 10% duty cycles than higher duty cycles, providing a value approximately 160% higher at 5% duty cycle than continuous operation. This increase in adjusted rate constant at low duty cycles, as well as contaminant fouling of the LED surface, may impact design and operational considerations for pulsed UV-LED AOP systems. PMID:25945855

  13. Parametric Flutter Analysis of the TCA Configuration and Recommendation for FFM Design and Scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Myles; Lenkey, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The current HSR Aeroelasticity plan to design, build, and test a full span, free flying transonic flutter model in the TDT has many technical obstacles that must be overcome for a successful program. One technical obstacle is the determination of a suitable configuration and point in the sky to use in setting the scaling point for the ASE models program. Determining this configuration and point in the sky requires balancing several conflicting requirements, including model buildability, tunnel test safety, and the ability of the model to represent the flutter mechanisms of interest. As will be discussed in detail in subsequent sections, the current TCA design exhibits several flutter mechanisms of interest. It has been decided that the ASE models program will focus on the low frequency symmetric flutter mechanism, and will make no attempt to investigate high frequency flutter mechanisms. There are several reasons for this choice. First, it is believed that the high frequency flutter mechanisms are similar in nature to classical wing bending/torsion flutter, and therefore there is more confidence that this mechanism can be predicted using current techniques. The low frequency mode, on the other hand, is a highly coupled mechanism involving wing, body, tail, and engine motion which may be very difficult to predict. Second, the high frequency flutter modes result in very small weight penalties (several hundred pounds), while suppression of the low frequency mechanism inside the flight envelope causes thousands of pounds to be added to the structure. In order to successfully test the low frequency flutter mode of interest, a suitable starting configuration and point in the sky must be identified. The configuration and point in the sky must result in a wind tunnel model that (1) represents the low-frequency wing/body/engine/empennage flutter mechanisms that are unique to HSCT configurations, (2) flutters at an acceptably low frequency in the tunnel, (3) flutters at an acceptably low dynamic pressure in the tunnel, (4) allows sufficient weight for model buildability without inordinately high cost, and (5) has significant separation between the target flutter mechanism and other, potentially catastrophic, flutter mechanisms.

  14. Stable isotope approaches for tracking C cycling and function in microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pett-Ridge, J.

    2008-12-01

    Identifying the microorganisms responsible for specific processes in C cycling remains a major challenge in environmental microbiology, one that requires integration of multiple techniques. Stable isotope probing, or SIP, has come to represent a variety of powerful approaches that allow simultaneous identification of identity and function in microbial communities. Bulk methods such as DNA/RNA-SIP and PLFA-SIP are well developed and allow tracking of a multitude of C substrates (acetate, cellulose, CH4, CO2, and plant litter) into specific microbial consumers. However, to understand the spatio-temporal context of may key C transformations and microbial interactions, new imaging technologies are needed to analyze processes and properties of macromolecule complexes, microbes, plant root cells, soil (micro)aggregates, phytoplankton and marine snow as they undergoes formation and decomposition. New and sensitive in situ approaches include NanoSIMS single cell analysis, isotope arrays, and combinations of immuno- or FISH labeling with high resolution isotope imaging. Recent work illustrates how these powerful new techniques use targeted stable isotope probing to measure biological, physical and chemical processes and can be used in soil systems to study microbial mats or rhizosphere interactions. In both terrestrial and aquatic systems, they allow us to directly link C and other nutrient metabolism at the organismal level. Lastly, these new aproaches may be of great use in the study of trophic cascades and metabolic networks. While cross-feeding is often thought of as a confounding effect in SIP-type studies, with fine scale temporal sampling and FISH-SIMS analysis, we have the opportunity trace C flows through microbial foodwebs and to their eventual fate in stabilized organic-mineral complexes.

  15. Effects of functional electric stimulation cycle ergometry training on lower limb musculature in acute sci individuals.

    PubMed

    Demchak, Timothy J; Linderman, Jon K; Mysiw, W Jerry; Jackson, Rebecca; Suun, Jihong; Devor, Steven T

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three different intervals for a between sets rest period during a common isokinetic knee extension strength-testing protocol of twenty older Brazilian men (66.30 ± 3.92 yrs). The volunteers underwent unilateral knee extension (Biodex System 3) testing to determine their individual isokinetic peak torque at 60, 90, and 120° ·s-1. The contraction speeds and the rest periods between sets (30, 60 and 90 s) were randomly performed in three different days with a minimum rest period of 48 hours. Significant differences between and within sets were analyzed using a One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Although, at angular velocity of 60°·s-1 produced a higher peak torque, there were no significant differences in peak torque among any of the rest periods. Likewise, there were no significant differences between mean peak torque among all resting periods (30, 60 and 90s) at angular velocities of 90 and 120°·s-1. The results showed that during a common isokinetic strength testing protocol a between set rest period of at least 30 s is sufficient for recovery before the next test set in older men. Key PointsMuscle fiber cross sectional area (CSAf ) decreased 38% following spinal cord injury (SCI).Early intervention with functional electric stimulation cycle ergometry (FES-CE) prevented further loss of CSAf in SCI patients and increased power output.Muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myonuclear density were unaffected by SCI or FES-CE. PMID:24453530

  16. Functional genes to assess nitrogen cycling and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: primers and processing matter

    PubMed Central

    Penton, C. Ryan; Johnson, Timothy A.; Quensen, John F.; Iwai, Shoko; Cole, James R.; Tiedje, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Targeting sequencing to genes involved in key environmental processes, i.e., ecofunctional genes, provides an opportunity to sample nature's gene guilds to greater depth and help link community structure to process-level outcomes. Vastly different approaches have been implemented for sequence processing and, ultimately, for taxonomic placement of these gene reads. The overall quality of next generation sequence analysis of functional genes is dependent on multiple steps and assumptions of unknown diversity. To illustrate current issues surrounding amplicon read processing we provide examples for three ecofunctional gene groups. A combination of in silico, environmental and cultured strain sequences was used to test new primers targeting the dioxin and dibenzofuran degrading genes dxnA1, dbfA1, and carAa. The majority of obtained environmental sequences were classified into novel sequence clusters, illustrating the discovery value of the approach. For the nitrite reductase step in denitrification, the well-known nirK primers exhibited deficiencies in reference database coverage, illustrating the need to refine primer-binding sites and/or to design multiple primers, while nirS primers exhibited bias against five phyla. Amino acid-based OTU clustering of these two N-cycle genes from soil samples yielded only 114 unique nirK and 45 unique nirS genus-level groupings, likely a reflection of constricted primer coverage. Finally, supervised and non-supervised OTU analysis methods were compared using the nifH gene of nitrogen fixation, with generally similar outcomes, but the clustering (non-supervised) method yielded higher diversity estimates and stronger site-based differences. High throughput amplicon sequencing can provide inexpensive and rapid access to nature's related sequences by circumventing the culturing barrier, but each unique gene requires individual considerations in terms of primer design and sequence processing and classification. PMID:24062736

  17. Gluconeogenesis is associated with high rates of tricarboxylic acid and pyruvate cycling in fasting northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Cory D; Houser, Dorian S; Fowler, Melinda A; Costa, Daniel P; Crocker, Daniel E

    2012-08-01

    Animals that endure prolonged periods of food deprivation preserve vital organ function by sparing protein from catabolism. Much of this protein sparing is achieved by reducing metabolic rate and suppressing gluconeogenesis while fasting. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) endure prolonged fasts of up to 3 mo at multiple life stages. During these fasts, elephant seals maintain high levels of activity and energy expenditure associated with breeding, reproduction, lactation, and development while maintaining rates of glucose production typical of a postabsorptive mammal. Therefore, we investigated how fasting elephant seals meet the requirements of glucose-dependent tissues while suppressing protein catabolism by measuring the contribution of glycogenolysis, glycerol, and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to endogenous glucose production (EGP) during their natural 2-mo postweaning fast. Additionally, pathway flux rates associated with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were measured specifically, flux through phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate cycling. The rate of glucose production decreased during the fast (F(1,13) = 5.7, P = 0.04) but remained similar to that of postabsorptive mammals. The fractional contributions of glycogen, glycerol, and PEP did not change with fasting; PEP was the primary gluconeogenic precursor and accounted for ?95% of EGP. This large contribution of PEP to glucose production occurred without substantial protein loss. Fluxes through the TCA cycle, PEPCK, and pyruvate cycling were higher than reported in other species and were the most energetically costly component of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism. The active pyruvate recycling fluxes detected in elephant seals may serve to rectify gluconeogeneic PEP production during restricted anaplerotic inflow in these fasting-adapted animals. PMID:22673783

  18. HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immunity is enhanced by co-inoculation of TCA3 expression plasmid with DNA vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, T; Fukushima, J; Hamajima, K; Ishii, N; Aoki, I; Bukawa, H; Ishigatsubo, Y; Tani, K; Okubo, T; Dorf, M E; Okuda, K

    1997-01-01

    We developed a candidate DNA vaccine designated pCMV160IIIB with pcREV (pCMV160IIIB/REV) that encodes gp160 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1IIIB and Rev driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promotor. This vaccine induced both HIV-1-specific antibodies and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity. In the present study, we inoculated the TCA3 expression plasmid into mouse skeletal muscle with pCMV160IIIB/REV to determine whether this cytokine expression plasmid was able to modify the immune response. Results of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay using footpad swelling as well as those of a CTL assay clearly demonstrated that cell-mediated immunity (CMI) elicited by co-inoculation of pCMV160IIIB/REV with the TCA3 expression plasmid was markedly enhanced compared with that obtained using pCMV160IIIB/REV alone. When TCA3 expression plasmid was inoculated with anti-TCA3 antibody, enhancement of the DTH response was suppressed below the level of that obtained with pCMV160IIIB/REV alone. The titre of HIV-1-specific IgG2a was slightly high when pCMV160IIIB/REV was co-inoculated with this plasmid, suggesting that T-helper 1 (Th1) response was predominant in TCA3-inoculated mice. Infiltration of mononuclear cells was seen in the muscles at sites where TCA3 expression plasmid had been inoculated. Our present data suggest that TCA3 expression plasmid has potent adjuvant activity that results in an augmented CMI response. Images Figure 3 PMID:9038705

  19. Krebs cycle function is required for activation of the Spo0A transcription factor in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Ireton, K; Jin, S; Grossman, A D; Sonenshein, A L

    1995-01-01

    Expression of genes early during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis requires the activity of the transcription factor encoded by spo0A. The active, phosphorylated form of Spo0A is produced through the action of a multicomponent pathway, the phosphorelay. A mutant defective in the first three enzymes of the Krebs citric acid cycle was unable to express early sporulation genes, apparently because of a failure to activate the phosphorelay. Cells that produce an altered Spo0A protein that can be phosphorylated by an alternative pathway were not dependent on Krebs cycle function for early sporulation gene expression. These findings suggest that Krebs cycle enzymes transmit a signal to activate the phosphorelay and that B. subtilis monitors its metabolic potential before committing itself to spore formation. PMID:7708735

  20. DYNAMICS AND FUNCTION OF THE TEAR FILM IN RELATION TO THE BLINK CYCLE RJ Braun, PE King-Smith, CG Begley, Longfei Li and NR Gewecke

    E-print Network

    our understanding of the fluid dynamics of the tear film and its potential impact on the ocularDYNAMICS AND FUNCTION OF THE TEAR FILM IN RELATION TO THE BLINK CYCLE By RJ Braun, PE King and Function of the Tear Film in Relation to the Blink Cycle RJ Braun,1,4,6 PE King-Smith,2 CG Begley,3 Longfei

  1. Non-target effects of repeated chlorothalonil application on soil nitrogen cycling: The key functional gene study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Manyun; Xu, Zhihong; Teng, Ying; Christie, Peter; Wang, Jun; Ren, Wenjie; Luo, Yongming; Li, Zhengao

    2016-02-01

    The widespread and increasing application of chlorothalonil (CTN) raises concerns about its non-target impacts, but little information is available on the effect of CTN on the key functional genes related to soil nitrogen (N) cycling, especially in the case of repeated applications. In the present study, a microcosm incubation was conducted to determine CTN residues and the impacts on the abundances of key functional genes related to N cycling after repeated CTN applications. The results demonstrated that repeated CTN applications at the recommended application rate and five times the recommended rate led to the accumulation of CTN residue in soil at concentrations of 5.59 and 78.79mgkg(-1), respectively, by the end of incubation. Real time PCR (RT-PCR) revealed that repeated CTN applications had negative effects on the chiA and aprA gene abundances. There were significantly negative correlations between CTN residues and abundances of AOA and AOB genes. In addition, the abundances of key functional genes involved in soil denitrification were declined by repeated CTN applications with the sole exception of the nosZ gene. This study suggests that repeated CTN applications could lead to the accumulation of CTN residue and generate somewhat inconsistent and erratic effects on the abundances of key functional genes related to soil N cycling. PMID:26613517

  2. LWR fuel-cycle costs as a function of burnup. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, W.; Goldstein, L.; Joseph, L.; Nikmohammadian, N.

    1984-11-01

    Utilities may be able to decrease fuel-cycle costs as much as 5% in PWRs and 6% in BWRs by increasing discharge burnup to optimum practical limits. With one exception, this analysis of 12- and 18-month fuel cycles indicated a potential for still further cost reductions at higher burnup rates than those considered (39 GWd/MtU for BWRs and 55 GWd/MtU for PWRs).

  3. Regulation of leukocyte tricarboxylic acid cycle in drug-naïve Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Rafael T; Streck, Emilio L; Forlenza, Orestes V; Brunoni, Andre R; Zanetti, Marcus V; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Diniz, Breno S; Portela, Luis V; Carvalho, André F; Zarate, Carlos A; Gattaz, Wagner F; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo

    2015-09-25

    Several lines of evidence suggest a role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). The tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) is fundamental for mitochondrial energy production and produces substrates used in oxidative phosphorylation by the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The activity of the key TCA cycle enzymes citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase has never been evaluated in BD. In the present study, these enzymes were assayed from leukocytes of drug-naïve BD patients in a major depressive episode (n=18) and compared to 24 age-matched healthy controls. Drug-naïve BD patients did not show differences in activities of citrate synthase (p=0.79), malate dehydrogenase (p=0.17), and succinate dehydrogenase (p=0.35) compared with healthy controls. No correlation between any TCA cycle enzyme activity and severity of depressive symptoms was observed. Overall, these data suggest that the activities of the TCA cycle enzymes are not altered in major depressive episodes of recent-onset BD, which may support the concept of illness staging and neuroprogression in BD. PMID:26297865

  4. Study of the damage evolution function of tin silver copper in cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasaimeh, Awni

    The present research focused on the assessment of solder joint fatigue life in microelectronics assemblies. A general concern of any reliability engineer is whether accelerated tests are relevant to field conditions. The risk of this was minimized by developing an approach to reduce the duration of an accelerated thermal cycling test, thus allowing for the use of less accelerated test conditions. For this purpose the conventional dye and pry technique was improved and used together with artificial neural networks to measure and characterize very early stages of crack growth. The same work also demonstrated a quantitative link between thermal cycling induced recrystallization and a strong acceleration of the subsequent fatigue crack growth and failure. A new study was conducted in which different combinations of annealing and isothermal cycling provided a systematic characterization of the effects of a range of individual parameters on the recrystallization. Experiments showed the ongoing coarsening of secondary precipitates to have a clear effect on recrystallization. The rate of recrystallization was also shown not to scale with the inelastic energy deposition. This means that the most popular current thermal cycling model cannot apply to SnAgCu solder joints. Recrystallization of the Sn grains is usually not the rate limiting mechanism in isothermal cycling. The crack initiation stage often takes up a much greater fraction of the overall life, and the eventual failure of BGA joints tends to involve transgranular crack growth instead. Cycling of individual solder joints allowed for monitoring of the evolution of the solder properties and the rate of inelastic energy deposition. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation and the subsequent number of cycles to failure were shown to be determined by the inelastic energy deposition. This provides for a simple model for the extrapolation of accelerated test results to the much milder cycling amplitudes characteristic of long term service conditions based on conventional Finite Element Modeling. It also offers a critical basis for the ongoing development of a practical model to account for the often dramatic break-down of Miner's rule of linear damage accumulation under variable cycling amplitudes as expected in realistic applications.

  5. Cuckoo Search Algorithm Based on Repeat-Cycle Asymptotic Self-Learning and Self-Evolving Disturbance for Function Optimization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-sheng; Li, Shu-xia; Song, Jiang-di

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve convergence velocity and optimization accuracy of the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm for solving the function optimization problems, a new improved cuckoo search algorithm based on the repeat-cycle asymptotic self-learning and self-evolving disturbance (RC-SSCS) is proposed. A disturbance operation is added into the algorithm by constructing a disturbance factor to make a more careful and thorough search near the bird's nests location. In order to select a reasonable repeat-cycled disturbance number, a further study on the choice of disturbance times is made. Finally, six typical test functions are adopted to carry out simulation experiments, meanwhile, compare algorithms of this paper with two typical swarm intelligence algorithms particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. The results show that the improved cuckoo search algorithm has better convergence velocity and optimization accuracy. PMID:26366164

  6. Cuckoo Search Algorithm Based on Repeat-Cycle Asymptotic Self-Learning and Self-Evolving Disturbance for Function Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie-sheng; Li, Shu-xia; Song, Jiang-di

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve convergence velocity and optimization accuracy of the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm for solving the function optimization problems, a new improved cuckoo search algorithm based on the repeat-cycle asymptotic self-learning and self-evolving disturbance (RC-SSCS) is proposed. A disturbance operation is added into the algorithm by constructing a disturbance factor to make a more careful and thorough search near the bird's nests location. In order to select a reasonable repeat-cycled disturbance number, a further study on the choice of disturbance times is made. Finally, six typical test functions are adopted to carry out simulation experiments, meanwhile, compare algorithms of this paper with two typical swarm intelligence algorithms particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. The results show that the improved cuckoo search algorithm has better convergence velocity and optimization accuracy. PMID:26366164

  7. Unstructured Grid Euler Method Assessment for Aerodynamics Performance Prediction of the Complete TCA Configuration at Supersonic Cruise Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffari, Farhad

    1999-01-01

    Unstructured grid Euler computations, performed at supersonic cruise speed, are presented for a proposed high speed civil transport configuration, designated as the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) within the High Speed Research (HSR) Program. The numerical results are obtained for the complete TCA cruise configuration which includes the wing, fuselage, empennage, diverters, and flow through nacelles at Mach 2.4 for a range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. The computed surface and off-surface flow characteristics are analyzed and the pressure coefficient contours on the wing lower surface are shown to correlate reasonably well with the available pressure sensitive paint results, particularly, for the complex shock wave structures around the nacelles. The predicted longitudinal and lateral/directional performance characteristics are shown to correlate very well with the measured data across the examined range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. The results from the present effort have been documented into a NASA Controlled-Distribution report which is being presently reviewed for publication.

  8. Li-Ion polymer cells thermal property changes as a function of cycle-life

    SciTech Connect

    Maleki, Hossein; Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Hallmark, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The impact of elevated temperature chargeedischarge cycling on thermal conductivity (K-value) of Lithium Ion Polymer (LIP) cells of various chemistries from three different manufacturers was investigated. These included high voltage (Graphite/LiCoO2:3.0e4.35 V), wide voltage (Si:C/LiCoO2:2.7e4.35 V) and conventional (Graphite/LiCoO2:3.0e4.2 V) chemistries. Investigation results show limited variability within the in-plane and through-plane K-values for the fresh cells with graphite-based anodes from all three suppliers. After 500 cycles at 45 C, in-plane and through-plane K-values of the high voltage cells reduced less vs. those for the wide voltage cells. Such results suggest that high temperature cycling could have a greater impact on thermal properties of Si:C cells than on the LIP cells with graphite (Gr) anode cells we tested. This difference is due to the excess swelling of Si:C-anode based cells vs. Gr-anode cells during cycling, especially at elevated temperatures. Thermal modeling is used to evaluate the impact of K-value changes, due to cycles at 45 C, on the cells internal heat propagation under internal short circuit condition that leads to localized meltdown of the separator.

  9. Anaplerotic Triheptanoin Diet Enhances Mitochondrial Substrate Use to Remodel the Metabolome and Improve Lifespan, Motor Function, and Sociability in MeCP2-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qun; Degano, Alicia L.; Penati, Judith; Zhuo, Justin; Roe, Charles R.; Ronnett, Gabriele V.

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene that encodes methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Symptoms range in severity and include psychomotor disabilities, seizures, ataxia, and intellectual disability. Symptom onset is between 6-18 months of age, a critical period of brain development that is highly energy-dependent. Notably, patients with RTT have evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as abnormal levels of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin, suggesting overall metabolic imbalance. We hypothesized that one contributor to RTT symptoms is energy deficiency due to defective nutrient substrate utilization by the TCA cycle. This energy deficit would lead to a metabolic imbalance, but would be treatable by providing anaplerotic substrates to the TCA cycle to enhance energy production. We show that dietary therapy with triheptanoin significantly increased longevity and improved motor function and social interaction in male mice hemizygous for Mecp2 knockout. Anaplerotic therapy in Mecp2 knockout mice also improved indicators of impaired substrate utilization, decreased adiposity, increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, decreased serum leptin and insulin, and improved mitochondrial morphology in skeletal muscle. Untargeted metabolomics of liver and skeletal muscle revealed increases in levels of TCA cycle intermediates with triheptanoin diet, as well as normalizations of glucose and fatty acid biochemical pathways consistent with the improved metabolic phenotype in Mecp2 knockout mice on triheptanoin. These results suggest that an approach using dietary supplementation with anaplerotic substrate is effective in improving symptoms and metabolic health in RTT. PMID:25299635

  10. The functional anatomy of semantic retrieval is influenced by gender, menstrual cycle, and sex hormones

    PubMed Central

    Engelien, A.; Schöning, S.; Zwitserlood, P.; Jansen, A.; Pletziger, E.; Beizai, P.; Kersting, A.; Ohrmann, P.; Luders, E.; Greb, R. R.; Heindel, W.; Arolt, V.; Kugel, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the neurobiology of semantic retrieval and describes the influence of gender, menstrual cycle, and sex hormones on semantic networks. Healthy right-handed subjects (12 men, 12 women) were investigated with 3T-fMRI during synonym generation. Behavioral performance and sex hormone levels were assessed. Women were examined during the early follicular and midluteal cycle phase. The activation pattern in all groups involved left frontal and temporal as well as bilateral medial frontal, cingulate, occipital, basal ganglia, and cerebellar regions. Men showed greater left frontal activation than women in both menstrual cycle phases. Women yielded high correlations of left prefrontal activation with estradiol in the midluteal phase and with progesterone in both phases. Testosterone levels correlated highly with left prefrontal activation in all three groups. In all, we describe a cerebral network involved in semantic processing and demonstrate that it is significantly affected by gender and sex steroid hormones. PMID:18548194

  11. Patterns of matrix metalloproteinase expression in cycling endometrium imply differential functions and regulation by steroid hormones.

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, W H; Matrisian, L M; Giudice, L C; Dsupin, B; Cannon, P; Svitek, C; Gorstein, F; Osteen, K G

    1994-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are a highly regulated family of enzymes, that together can degrade most components of the extracellular matrix. These proteins are active in normal and pathological processes involving tissue remodeling; however, their sites of synthesis and specific roles are poorly understood. Using in situ hybridization, we determined cellular distributions of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases, in endometrium during the reproductive cycle. The mRNAs for all the metalloproteinases were detected in menstrual endometrium, but with different tissue distributions. The mRNA for matrilysin was localized to epithelium, while the others were detected in stromal cells. Only the transcripts for the 72-kD gelatinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 were detected throughout the cycle. Transcripts for stromelysin-2 and the 92-kD gelatinase were only detected in late secretory and menstrual endometrium, while those for matrilysin, the 72-kD gelatinase, and stromelysin-3 were also consistently detected in proliferative endometrium. These data indicate that matrix metalloproteinases are expressed in cell-type, tissue, and reproductive cycle-specific patterns, consistent with regulation by steroid hormones, and with specific roles in the complex tissue growth and remodeling processes occurring in the endometrium during the reproductive cycle. Images PMID:8083380

  12. Systems-Level Metabolic Flux Profiling Elucidates a Complete, Bifurcated Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in Clostridium acetobutylicum ? †

    PubMed Central

    Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; Fan, Jing; Roquet, Nathaniel; Rabitz, Herschel; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2010-01-01

    Obligatory anaerobic bacteria are major contributors to the overall metabolism of soil and the human gut. The metabolic pathways of these bacteria remain, however, poorly understood. Using isotope tracers, mass spectrometry, and quantitative flux modeling, here we directly map the metabolic pathways of Clostridium acetobutylicum, a soil bacterium whose major fermentation products include the biofuels butanol and hydrogen. While genome annotation suggests the absence of most tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes, our results demonstrate that this bacterium has a complete, albeit bifurcated, TCA cycle; oxaloacetate flows to succinate both through citrate/?-ketoglutarate and via malate/fumarate. Our investigations also yielded insights into the pathways utilized for glucose catabolism and amino acid biosynthesis and revealed that the organism's one-carbon metabolism is distinct from that of model microbes, involving reversible pyruvate decarboxylation and the use of pyruvate as the one-carbon donor for biosynthetic reactions. This study represents the first in vivo characterization of the TCA cycle and central metabolism of C. acetobutylicum. Our results establish a role for the full TCA cycle in an obligatory anaerobic organism and demonstrate the importance of complementing genome annotation with isotope tracer studies for determining the metabolic pathways of diverse microbes. PMID:20622067

  13. Staphylococcus epidermidis Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Production Significantly Increases during Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Stress

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Cuong; Kidder, Joshua B.; Jacobson, Erik R.; Otto, Michael; Proctor, Richard A.; Somerville, Greg A.

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcal polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is important for the development of a mature biofilm. PIA production is increased during growth in a nutrient-replete or iron-limited medium and under conditions of low oxygen availability. Additionally, stress-inducing stimuli such as heat, ethanol, and high concentrations of salt increase the production of PIA. These same environmental conditions are known to repress tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, leading us to hypothesize that altering TCA cycle activity would affect PIA production. Culturing Staphylococcus epidermidis with a low concentration of the TCA cycle inhibitor fluorocitrate dramatically increased PIA production without impairing glucose catabolism, the growth rate, or the growth yields. These data lead us to speculate that one mechanism by which staphylococci perceive external environmental change is through alterations in TCA cycle activity leading to changes in the intracellular levels of biosynthetic intermediates, ATP, or the redox status of the cell. These changes in the metabolic status of the bacteria result in the attenuation or augmentation of PIA production. PMID:15838022

  14. Biostimulation induces syntrophic interactions that impact C, S and N cycling in a sediment microbial community

    SciTech Connect

    Handley, KM; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Steefel, Carl I; Sharon, I; Williams, Ken; Miller, CS; Frischkorn, Kyle C; Chourey, Karuna; Thomas, Brian; Shah, Manesh B; Long, Phil; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of subsurface microorganisms to induce reductive immobilization of metals is a promising approach for bioremediation, yet the overall microbial community response is typically poorly understood. Here we used community proteogenomics to test the hypothesis that excess input of acetate activates syntrophic interactions among autotrophs and heterotrophs. A flow-through sediment column was incubated in a groundwater well of an acetate-amended aquifer. Genomic sequences from the community recovered during microbial sulfate reduction were used to econstruct, de novo, near-complete genomes for Desulfobacter (Deltaproteobacteria) and relatives of Sulfurovum and Sulfurimonas (Epsilonproteobacteria), and Bacteroidetes. Partial genomes were obtained for Clostridiales (Firmicutes) and Desulfuromonadales-like Deltaproteobacteria. The majority of proteins identified by mass spectrometry corresponded to Desulfobacter-like species, and demonstrate the role of this organism in sulfate reduction (Dsr and APS), nitrogen-fixation (Nif) and acetate oxidation to CO2 during amendment. Results suggest less abundant Desulfuromonadales and Bacteroidetes also actively contributed to CO2 production via the TCA cycle. Proteomic data indicate that sulfide was partially re-oxidized by Epsilonproteobacteria through nitrate-dependent sulfide oxidation (using Nap, Nir, Nos, SQR and Sox), with CO2 fixed using the reverse TCA cycle. Modeling shows that this reaction was thermodynamically possible, and kinetically favorable relative to acetate-dependent denitrification. We conclude that high-levels of carbon amendment aimed to stimulate anaerobic heterotrophy led to carbon fixation in co-dependent chemoautotrophs. These results have implications for understanding complex ecosystem behavior, and show that high levels of organic carbon supplementation can expand the range of microbial functionalities accessible for ecosystem manipulation.

  15. Decoupling of soil nutrient cycles as a function of aridity in global drylands.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T; Gallardo, Antonio; Bowker, Matthew A; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Quero, Jose Luis; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; García-Gómez, Miguel; Soliveres, Santiago; García-Palacios, Pablo; Berdugo, Miguel; Valencia, Enrique; Escolar, Cristina; Arredondo, Tulio; Barraza-Zepeda, Claudia; Bran, Donaldo; Carreira, José Antonio; Chaieb, Mohamed; Conceição, Abel A; Derak, Mchich; Eldridge, David J; Escudero, Adrián; Espinosa, Carlos I; Gaitán, Juan; Gatica, M Gabriel; Gómez-González, Susana; Guzman, Elizabeth; Gutiérrez, Julio R; Florentino, Adriana; Hepper, Estela; Hernández, Rosa M; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Liu, Jushan; Mau, Rebecca L; Miriti, Maria; Monerris, Jorge; Naseri, Kamal; Noumi, Zouhaier; Polo, Vicente; Prina, Aníbal; Pucheta, Eduardo; Ramírez, Elizabeth; Ramírez-Collantes, David A; Romão, Roberto; Tighe, Matthew; Torres, Duilio; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Ungar, Eugene D; Val, James; Wamiti, Wanyoike; Wang, Deli; Zaady, Eli

    2013-10-31

    The biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are interlinked by primary production, respiration and decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. It has been suggested that the C, N and P cycles could become uncoupled under rapid climate change because of the different degrees of control exerted on the supply of these elements by biological and geochemical processes. Climatic controls on biogeochemical cycles are particularly relevant in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid ecosystems (drylands) because their biological activity is mainly driven by water availability. The increase in aridity predicted for the twenty-first century in many drylands worldwide may therefore threaten the balance between these cycles, differentially affecting the availability of essential nutrients. Here we evaluate how aridity affects the balance between C, N and P in soils collected from 224 dryland sites from all continents except Antarctica. We find a negative effect of aridity on the concentration of soil organic C and total N, but a positive effect on the concentration of inorganic P. Aridity is negatively related to plant cover, which may favour the dominance of physical processes such as rock weathering, a major source of P to ecosystems, over biological processes that provide more C and N, such as litter decomposition. Our findings suggest that any predicted increase in aridity with climate change will probably reduce the concentrations of N and C in global drylands, but increase that of P. These changes would uncouple the C, N and P cycles in drylands and could negatively affect the provision of key services provided by these ecosystems. PMID:24172979

  16. Decoupling of soil nutrient cycles as a function of aridity in global drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T.; Gallardo, Antonio; Bowker, Matthew A.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Quero, Jose Luis; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; García-Gómez, Miguel; Soliveres, Santiago; García-Palacios, Pablo; Berdugo, Miguel; Valencia, Enrique; Escolar, Cristina; Arredondo, Tulio; Barraza-Zepeda, Claudia; Bran, Donaldo; Carreira, José Antonio; Chaieb, Mohamed; Conceição, Abel A.; Derak, Mchich; Eldridge, David J.; Escudero, Adrián; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Gaitán, Juan; Gatica, M. Gabriel; Gómez-González, Susana; Guzman, Elizabeth; Gutiérrez, Julio R.; Florentino, Adriana; Hepper, Estela; Hernández, Rosa M.; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Liu, Jushan; Mau, Rebecca L.; Miriti, Maria; Monerris, Jorge; Naseri, Kamal; Noumi, Zouhaier; Polo, Vicente; Prina, Aníbal; Pucheta, Eduardo; Ramírez, Elizabeth; Ramírez-Collantes, David A.; Romão, Roberto; Tighe, Matthew; Torres, Duilio; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Ungar, Eugene D.; Val, James; Wamiti, Wanyoike; Wang, Deli; Zaady, Eli

    2013-10-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are interlinked by primary production, respiration and decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. It has been suggested that the C, N and P cycles could become uncoupled under rapid climate change because of the different degrees of control exerted on the supply of these elements by biological and geochemical processes. Climatic controls on biogeochemical cycles are particularly relevant in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid ecosystems (drylands) because their biological activity is mainly driven by water availability. The increase in aridity predicted for the twenty-first century in many drylands worldwide may therefore threaten the balance between these cycles, differentially affecting the availability of essential nutrients. Here we evaluate how aridity affects the balance between C, N and P in soils collected from 224 dryland sites from all continents except Antarctica. We find a negative effect of aridity on the concentration of soil organic C and total N, but a positive effect on the concentration of inorganic P. Aridity is negatively related to plant cover, which may favour the dominance of physical processes such as rock weathering, a major source of P to ecosystems, over biological processes that provide more C and N, such as litter decomposition. Our findings suggest that any predicted increase in aridity with climate change will probably reduce the concentrations of N and C in global drylands, but increase that of P. These changes would uncouple the C, N and P cycles in drylands and could negatively affect the provision of key services provided by these ecosystems.

  17. JMJD5 interacts with p53 and negatively regulates p53 function in control of cell cycle and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaobin; Zhang, Shuilian; Qi, Hongyan; Wang, Zhengyang; Chen, Hong-Wu; Shao, Jimin; Shen, Jing

    2015-10-01

    JMJD5 is a Jumonji C domain-containing demethylase/hydroxylase shown to be essential in embryological development, osteoclastic maturation, circadian rhythm regulation and cancer metabolism. However, its role and underlying mechanisms in oncogenesis remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that JMJD5 forms complex with the tumor suppressor p53 by interacting with p53 DNA-binding domain (DBD), and negatively regulates its activity. Downregulation of JMJD5 resulted in increased expression of multiple p53 downstream genes, such as the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1A and DNA repair effector P53R2, only in p53-proficient lung cancer cells. Upon DNA damage, the JMJD5-p53 association decreased, and thereby, promoted p53 recruitment to the target genes and stimulated its transcriptional activity. Furthermore, JMJD5 facilitated the cell cycle progression in a p53-dependent manner under both normal and DNA damage conditions. Depletion of JMJD5 inhibited cell proliferation and enhanced adriamycin-induced cell growth suppression in the presence of p53. Collectively, our results reveal that JMJD5 is a novel binding partner of p53 and it functions as a positive modulator of cell cycle and cell proliferation mainly through the repression of p53 pathway. Our study extends the mechanistic understanding of JMJD5 function in cancer development and implicates JMJD5 as a potential therapeutic target for cancer. PMID:26025680

  18. A single-point mutation in HCF causes temperature-sensitive cell-cycle arrest and disrupts VP16 function.

    PubMed

    Goto, H; Motomura, S; Wilson, A C; Freiman, R N; Nakabeppu, Y; Fukushima, K; Fujishima, M; Herr, W; Nishimoto, T

    1997-03-15

    The temperature-sensitive BHK21 hamster cell line tsBN67 ceases to proliferate at the nonpermissive temperature after a lag of one to a few cell divisions, and the arrested cells display a gene expression pattern similar to that of serum-starved cells. The temperature-sensitive phenotype is reversible and results from a single missense mutation--proline to serine at position 134--in HCF, a cellular protein that, together with the viral protein VP16, activates transcription of herpes simplex virus (HSV) immediate-early genes. The tsBN67 HCF mutation also prevents VP16 activation of transcription at the nonpermissive temperature. The finding that the same point mutation in HCF disrupts both VP16 function and the cell cycle suggests that HCF plays a role in cell-cycle progression in addition to VP16-dependent transcription. PMID:9087427

  19. Structure and function of Hip, an attenuator of the Hsp70 chaperone cycle.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuo; Hartl, F Ulrich; Bracher, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    The Hsp70-interacting protein, Hip, cooperates with the chaperone Hsp70 in protein folding and prevention of aggregation. Hsp70 interacts with non-native protein substrates in an ATP-dependent reaction cycle regulated by J-domain proteins and nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs). Hip is thought to delay substrate release by slowing ADP dissociation from Hsp70. Here we present crystal structures of the dimerization domain and the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of rat Hip. As shown in a cocrystal structure, the TPR core of Hip interacts with the Hsp70 ATPase domain through an extensive interface, to form a bracket that locks ADP in the binding cleft. Hip and NEF binding to Hsp70 are mutually exclusive, and thus Hip attenuates active cycling of Hsp70-substrate complexes. This mechanism explains how Hip enhances aggregation prevention by Hsp70 and facilitates transfer of specific proteins to downstream chaperones or the proteasome. PMID:23812373

  20. [Interaction of menadione and duroquinone with Q-cycle during DT-diaphorase function].

    PubMed

    Kolesova, G M; Karnaukhova, L V; Iaguzhinski?, L S

    1991-10-01

    The interaction of quinones (menadione and duroquinone) with DT-diaphorase and mitochondrial electron transport chain translocators at low (120 mosM) and high (400 mosM) values of the medium tonicity in the quinone concentration range of 6-90 microM was studied. It was shown that with a rise in menadione (K3) concentration the number of electron transport carriers interacting with it increase. At K3 concentration of 6 microM the latter is reduced by DT-diaphorase and fully oxidized via the Q-cycle. At K3 concentration of 15 microM the latter is also reduced by DT-diaphorase via the Q-cycle, but in this case the oxidation is incomplete (about 30% K3H2 is oxidized by the terminal part of the respiratory chain). At 90 microM K3 50% of quinone is reduced by DT-diaphorase and 50% by the respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase complex enzymes; about 30% of K3H2 is oxidized via the Q-cycle, about 20%--by the terminal part of the respiratory chain and about 50%--by O2 without cytochrome oxidase. Unlike menadione, duroquinone (6-90 microM) is reduced only by DT-diaphorase and is oxidized in all cases by cytochrome oxidase. It was shown that the increase in the mitochondrial matrix volume in low tonicity media decreases the rate of the DT-diaphorase shunt operation. PMID:1777518

  1. PP2A function toward mitotic kinases and substrates during the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ae Lee; Yang, Young

    2013-01-01

    To maintain cellular homeostasis against the demands of the extracellular environment, a precise regulation of kinases and phosphatases is essential. In cell cycle regulation mechanisms, activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1) and cyclin B complex (CDK1:cyclin B) causes a remarkable change in protein phosphorylation. Activation of CDK1:cyclin B is regulated by two auto-amplification loops-CDK1:cyclin B activates Cdc25, its own activating phosphatase, and inhibits Wee1, its own inhibiting kinase. Recent biological evidence has revealed that the inhibition of its counteracting phosphatase activity also occurs, and it is parallel to CDK1:cyclin B activation during mitosis. Phosphatase regulation of mitotic kinases and their substrates is essential to ensure that the progression of the cell cycle is ordered. Outlining how the mutual control of kinases and phosphatases governs the localization and timing of cell division will give us a new understanding about cell cycle regulation. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(6): 289-294] PMID:23790971

  2. The mechanism of sensory transduction in a mechanoreceptor. Functional stages in campaniform sensilla during the molting cycle

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructural modifications that cockroach campaniform sensilla undergo at three major stages in the molting cycle and finds that the sensilla are physiological functional at all developmental stages leading to ecdysis. Late stage animals on the verge of ecdysis have two completely separate cuticles. The campaniform sensillum sends a 220-mum extension of the sensory process through a hole in its cap in the new (inner) cuticle across a fluid-filled molting space to its functional insertion in the cap in the old (outer) cuticle. Mechanical stimulation of the old cap excites the sensillum. The ultrastructural geometry of late stage sensilla, coupled with the observation they are physiolgically functional, supports the hypotheses (a) that sensory transduction occurs at the tip of the sensory process, and (b) that cap identation causes the cap cuticle to pinch the tip of the sensory process, thereby stimulating the sensillum. PMID:993271

  3. Aircraft Emission Scenarios Projected in Year 2015 for the NASA Technology Concept Aircraft (TCA) High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from projected fleets of high speed civil transports (HSCTs) on a universal airline network. Inventories for 500 and 1000 HSCT fleets, as well as the concurrent subsonic fleets, were calculated. The HSCT scenarios are calculated using the NASA technology concept airplane (TCA) and update an earlier report. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer pressure altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  4. EFFECTS OF LAND USE CHANGES ON THE FUNCTIONING OF SOILS AND WATERSHEDS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL SAVANNAS: PHASE 2, IMPACTS ON NUTRIENT AND CARBON CYCLES AND TRACE GAS EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is funded through an interagency agreement with NASA. The research in this project is contributing to assessments of the effects of land use in central Brazil on: 1) the stocks and cycling rates of carbon and nutrient cycling; 2) the function and structure of soil ...

  5. Phylogeny and phylogeography of functional genes shared among seven terrestrial subsurface metagenomes reveal N-cycling and microbial evolutionary relationships

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Cameron, Connor; Magnabosco, Cara; Brown, C. Titus; Schilkey, Faye; Grim, Sharon; Hendrickson, Sarah; Pullin, Michael; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; van Heerden, Esta; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, Tullis C.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies on community phylogenetics and phylogeography of microorganisms living in extreme environments are rare. Terrestrial subsurface habitats are valuable for studying microbial biogeographical patterns due to their isolation and the restricted dispersal mechanisms. Since the taxonomic identity of a microorganism does not always correspond well with its functional role in a particular community, the use of taxonomic assignments or patterns may give limited inference on how microbial functions are affected by historical, geographical and environmental factors. With seven metagenomic libraries generated from fracture water samples collected from five South African mines, this study was carried out to (1) screen for ubiquitous functions or pathways of biogeochemical cycling of CH4, S, and N; (2) to characterize the biodiversity represented by the common functional genes; (3) to investigate the subsurface biogeography as revealed by this subset of genes; and (4) to explore the possibility of using metagenomic data for evolutionary study. The ubiquitous functional genes are NarV, NPD, PAPS reductase, NifH, NifD, NifK, NifE, and NifN genes. Although these eight common functional genes were taxonomically and phylogenetically diverse and distinct from each other, the dissimilarity between samples did not correlate strongly with geographical or environmental parameters or residence time of the water. Por genes homologous to those of Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii detected in all metagenomes were deep lineages of Nitrospirae, suggesting that subsurface habitats have preserved ancestral genetic signatures that inform the study of the origin and evolution of prokaryotes. PMID:25400621

  6. The tricarboxylic acid cycle in Shewanella oneidensis is independent of Fur and RyhB control

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng; McCue, Lee Ann; Parsons, Andrea B.; Feng, Sheng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-10-26

    It is well established in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae that strains harboring mutations in the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) are unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) compounds, due to the down-regulation of key TCA cycle enzymes, such as AcnA and SdhABCD. This down-regulation is mediated by a Fur-regulated small regulatory RNA named RyhB. In this study, we showed that a fur deletion mutant of the ?-proteobacterium S. oneidensis could utilize TCA compounds. In addition, expression of the TCA cycle genes acnA and sdhA was not down-regulated in the mutant. To explore this observation further, we identified a ryhB gene in Shewanella species and demonstrated its expression experimentally. Further experiments suggested that RyhB was up-regulated in fur mutant, but that AcnA and SdhA were not controlled by RyhB. This work delineates an important difference of the Fur-RyhB regulatory cycle between S. oneidensis and other ?-proteobacteria.

  7. Mechanisms of Beat-to-Beat Regulation of Cardiac Pacemaker Cell Function by Ca2+ Cycling Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yaniv, Yael; Stern, Michael D.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Maltsev, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    Whether intracellular Ca2+ cycling dynamics regulate cardiac pacemaker cell function on a beat-to-beat basis remains unknown. Here we show that under physiological conditions, application of low concentrations of caffeine (2–4 mM) to isolated single rabbit sinoatrial node cells acutely reduces their spontaneous action potential cycle length (CL) and increases Ca2+ transient amplitude for several cycles. Numerical simulations, using a modified Maltsev-Lakatta coupled-clock model, faithfully reproduced these effects, and also the effects of CL prolongation and dysrhythmic spontaneous beating (produced by cytosolic Ca2+ buffering) and an acute CL reduction (produced by flash-induced Ca2+ release from a caged Ca2+ buffer), which we had reported previously. Three contemporary numerical models (including the original Maltsev-Lakatta model) failed to reproduce the experimental results. In our proposed new model, Ca2+ releases acutely change the CL via activation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger current. Time-dependent CL reductions after flash-induced Ca2+ releases (the memory effect) are linked to changes in Ca2+ available for pumping into sarcoplasmic reticulum which, in turn, changes the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load, diastolic Ca2+ releases, and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger current. These results support the idea that Ca2+ regulates CL in cardiac pacemaker cells on a beat-to-beat basis, and suggest a more realistic numerical mechanism of this regulation. PMID:24094396

  8. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, Gary W.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with {sup 31}P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by {sup 13}C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found to be similar in DMEM to those in KRB. And, the correlation of total PC flux with insulin secretion rates in DMEM was found to be congruous with the correlation in KRB. Together, these results suggest that signaling mechanisms associated with both TCA cycle flux and with anaplerotic flux, but not ATP production, may be responsible for the enhanced rates of insulin secretion in more complex, and physiologically-relevant media.

  9. Dynamics and function of the tear film in relation to the blink cycle.

    PubMed

    Braun, R J; King-Smith, P E; Begley, C G; Li, Longfei; Gewecke, N R

    2015-03-01

    Great strides have recently been made in quantitative measurements of tear film thickness and thinning, mathematical modeling thereof and linking these to sensory perception. This paper summarizes recent progress in these areas and reports on new results. The complete blink cycle is used as a framework that attempts to unify the results that are currently available. Understanding of tear film dynamics is aided by combining information from different imaging methods, including fluorescence, retroillumination and a new high-speed stroboscopic imaging system developed for studying the tear film during the blink cycle. During the downstroke of the blink, lipid is compressed as a thick layer just under the upper lid which is often released as a narrow thick band of lipid at the beginning of the upstroke. "Rippling" of the tear film/air interface due to motion of the tear film over the corneal surface, somewhat like the flow of water in a shallow stream over a rocky streambed, was observed during lid motion and treated theoretically here. New mathematical predictions of tear film osmolarity over the exposed ocular surface and in tear breakup are presented; the latter is closely linked to new in vivo observations. Models include the effects of evaporation, osmotic flow through the cornea and conjunctiva, quenching of fluorescence, tangential flow of aqueous tears and diffusion of tear solutes and fluorescein. These and other combinations of experiment and theory increase our understanding of the fluid dynamics of the tear film and its potential impact on the ocular surface. PMID:25479602

  10. Characterization of subcellular components in synchronized hepatoma cells as a function of the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Quintart, Joël; Bartholeyns, Jacques; Baudhuin, Pierre

    1979-01-01

    The specific activity and subcellular distribution of marker enzymes for the main subcellular components were analysed in homogenates of synchronized hepatoma cells (Morris 7288c), obtained by selective detachment at mitosis combined with a metaphase block with Colcemid. Markers for lysosomes, mitochondrial outer membrane, plasma membrane and cytosol are synthesized throughout the cycle at the same rate as the bulk of cellular protein. Larger variations are observed for a Golgi marker; after a decrease around mitosis, the specific activity of galactosyltransferase increases steadily from middle G1-phase on, and at the end of G2-phase it is nearly twice that observed at the beginning of G1-phase. Our results show that synthesis of cytochrome oxidase may occur preferentially in G2-phase. Large modifications of the density distribution of lysosomes are observed during the cell cycle; the median equilibrium density of lysosomal markers decreases in G1-phase, and some increase in soluble activity occurs at the same time. Reverse changes occur progressively during S- and G2-phases. At mitosis, Golgi galactosyltransferase shows a more dispersed distribution, and modifications in the density distribution of endoplasmic-reticulum NADPH–cytochrome c reductase are observed. The latter can be most easily explained by a detachment of ribosomes from endoplasmic-reticulum membranes. No significant modifications occur in mitochondrial and plasma-membrane markers. PMID:575039

  11. Environmental impacts on the diversity of methane-cycling microbes and their resultant function

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Emma L.; Allison, Steven D.; Helliker, Brent R.

    2013-01-01

    Methane is an important anthropogenic greenhouse gas that is produced and consumed in soils by microorganisms responding to micro-environmental conditions. Current estimates show that soil consumption accounts for 5–15% of methane removed from the atmosphere on an annual basis. Recent variability in atmospheric methane concentrations has called into question the reliability of estimates of methane consumption and calls for novel approaches in order to predict future atmospheric methane trends. This review synthesizes the environmental and climatic factors influencing the consumption of methane from the atmosphere by non-wetland, terrestrial soil microorganisms. In particular, we focus on published efforts to connect community composition and diversity of methane-cycling microbial communities to observed rates of methane flux. We find abundant evidence for direct connections between shifts in the methane-cycling microbial community, due to climate and environmental changes, and observed methane flux levels. These responses vary by ecosystem and associated vegetation type. This information will be useful in process-based models of ecosystem methane flux responses to shifts in environmental and climatic parameters. PMID:23966984

  12. Representing key phytoplankton functional groups in ocean carbon cycle models: Coccolithophorids

    E-print Network

    Kleypas, Joanie

    . In this paper we address the physical and chemical processes that select for coccolithophorid blooms detected, we developed a probability density function that accounts for the physical chemical variables. INDEX TERMS: 1615 Global Change: Biogeochemical processes (4805); 4594 Oceanography: Physical

  13. A Functional Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Operates during Growth of Bordetella pertussis on Amino Acid Mixtures as Sole Carbon Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Garnier, Dominique; Speck, Denis

    2015-01-01

    It has been claimed that citrate synthase, aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities are non-functional in Bordetella pertussis and that this might explain why this bacterium’s growth is sometimes associated with accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and/or free fatty acids. However, the sequenced genome includes the entire citric acid pathway genes. Furthermore, these genes were expressed and the corresponding enzyme activities detected at high levels for the pathway when grown on a defined medium imitating the amino acid content of complex media often used for growth of this pathogenic microorganism. In addition, no significant PHB or fatty acids could be detected. Analysis of the carbon balance and stoichiometric flux analysis based on specific rates of amino acid consumption, and estimated biomass requirements coherent with the observed growth rate, clearly indicate that a fully functional tricarboxylic acid cycle operates in contrast to previous reports. PMID:26684737

  14. Endogenous and exogenous control of ecosystem function: N cycling in headwater streams

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, Patrick J; Valett, H. Maurice; Thomas, Steve; Webster, Jackson; Dahm, Cliff; Fellows, Christine; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Peterson, Chris G.

    2008-01-01

    Allochthonous inputs act as resource subsidies to many ecosystems, where they exert strong influences on metabolism and material cycling. At the same time, metabolic theory proposes endogenous thermal control independent of resource supply. To address the relative importance of exogenous and endogenous influences, we quantified spatial and temporal variation in ecosystem metabolism and nitrogen (N) uptake using seasonal releases of {sup 15}N as nitrate in six streams differing in riparian-stream interaction and metabolic character. Nitrate removal was quantified using a nutrient spiraling approach based on measurements of downstream decline in {sup 15}N flux. Respiration (R) and gross primary production (GPP) were measured with whole-stream diel oxygen budgets. Uptake and metabolism metrics were addressed as z scores relative to site means to assess temporal variation. In open-canopied streams, areal uptake (U; {micro}g N {center_dot} m{sup -2} {center_dot} s{sup -1}) was closely related to GPP, metabolic rates increased with temperature, and R was accurately predicted by metabolic scaling relationships. In forested streams, N spiraling was not related to GPP; instead, uptake velocity (v{sub f}; mm/s) was closely related to R. In contrast to open-canopied streams, N uptake and metabolic activity were negatively correlated to temperature and poorly described by scaling laws. We contend that streams differ along a gradient of exogenous and endogenous control that relates to the relative influences of resource subsidies and in-stream energetics as determinants of seasonal patterns of metabolism and N cycling. Our research suggests that temporal variation in the propagation of ecological influence between adjacent systems generates phases when ecosystems are alternatively characterized as endogenously and exogenously controlled.

  15. rre37 Overexpression Alters Gene Expression Related to the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle and Pyruvate Metabolism in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Hiroko; Watanabe, Atsuko; Takanobu, Junko; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Osanai, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and pyruvate metabolism of cyanobacteria are unique and important from the perspectives of biology and biotechnology research. Rre37, a response regulator induced by nitrogen depletion, activates gene expression related to sugar catabolism. Our previous microarray analysis has suggested that Rre37 controls the transcription of genes involved in sugar catabolism, pyruvate metabolism, and the TCA cycle. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the transcript levels of 12?TCA cycle genes and 13 pyruvate metabolism genes. The transcripts of 6 genes (acnB, icd, ppc, pyk1, me, and pta) increased after 4?h of nitrogen depletion in the wild-type GT strain but the induction was abolished by rre37 overexpression. The repression of gene expression of fumC, ddh, and ackA caused by nitrogen depletion was abolished by rre37 overexpression. The expression of me was differently affected by rre37 overexpression, compared to the other 24 genes. These results indicate that Rre37 differently controls the genes of the TCA cycle and pyruvate metabolism, implying the key reaction of the primary in this unicellular cyanobacterium. PMID:25614900

  16. Interconnection between tricarboxylic acid cycle and energy generation in microbial fuel cell performed by desulfuromonas acetoxidans IMV B-7384

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliv, Oresta M.; Maslovska, Olga D.; Ferensovych, Yaroslav P.; Bilyy, Oleksandr I.; Hnatush, Svitlana O.

    2015-05-01

    Desulfuromonas acetoxidans IMV B-7384 is exoelectrogenic obligate anaerobic sulfur-reducing bacterium. Its one of the first described electrogenic bacterium that performs complete oxidation of an organic substrate with electron transfer directly to the electrode in microbial fuel cell (MFC). This bacterium is very promising for MFC development because of inexpensive cultivation medium, high survival rate and selective resistance to various heavy metal ions. The size of D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 cells is comparatively small (0.4-0.8×1-2 ?m) that is highly beneficial while application of porous anode material because of complete bacterial cover of an electrode area with further significant improvement of the effectiveness of its usage. The interconnection between functioning of reductive stage of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle under anaerobic conditions, and MFC performance was established. Malic, pyruvic, fumaric and succinic acids in concentration 42 mM were separately added into the anode chamber of MFC as the redox agents. Application of malic acid caused the most stabile and the highest power generation in comparison with other investigated organic acids. Its maximum equaled 10.07±0.17mW/m2 on 136 hour of bacterial cultivation. Under addition of pyruvic, succinic and fumaric acids into the anode chamber of MFC the maximal power values equaled 5.80±0.25 mW/m2; 3.2±0.11 mW/m2, and 2.14±0.19 mW/m2 respectively on 40, 56 and 32 hour of bacterial cultivation. Hence the malic acid conversion via reductive stage of TCA cycle is shown to be the most efficient process in terms of electricity generation by D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 in MFC under anaerobic conditions.

  17. Functional Dissection of Caenorhabditis elegans CLK-2/ TEL2 Cell Cycle Defects during Embryogenesis and

    E-print Network

    Gartner, Anton

    Schnabel2 , Anton Gartner1 * 1 Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, College of Life length regulation in budding yeast, but work in Caenorhabditis elegans has uncovered a function in DNA damage response signalling. Subsequently, DNA damage signalling defects associated with CLK-2/TEL2 have

  18. An N-Myristoylated Globin with a Redox-Sensing Function That Regulates the Defecation Cycle in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Tilleman, Lesley; De Henau, Sasha; Pauwels, Martje; Nagy, Nora; Pintelon, Isabel; Braeckman, Bart P.; De Wael, Karolien; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Adriaensen, Dirk; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Moens, Luc; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Globins occur in all kingdoms of life where they fulfill a wide variety of functions. In the past they used to be primarily characterized as oxygen transport/storage proteins, but since the discovery of new members of the globin family like neuroglobin and cytoglobin, more diverse and complex functions have been assigned to this heterogeneous family. Here we propose a function for a membrane-bound globin of C. elegans, GLB-26. This globin was predicted to be myristoylated at its N-terminus, a post-translational modification only recently described in the globin family. In vivo, this globin is found in the membrane of the head mesodermal cell and in the tail stomato-intestinal and anal depressor muscle cells. Since GLB-26 is almost directly oxidized when exposed to oxygen, we postulate a possible function as electron transfer protein. Phenotypical studies show that GLB-26 takes part in regulating the length of the defecation cycle in C. elegans under oxidative stress conditions. PMID:23251335

  19. Study of nickel electrode oxidation as a function of 80% depth of discharge cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, D.F. Jr.; Scoles, D.L.; Johnson, Z.W.; Hayden, J.W.; Pennington, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Oxidation of nickel sinter used in nickel oxide electrodes in aerospace nickel cadmium cells leads to hydrogen gassing and the potential for cell rupture. The oxidation is directly related to loss of overcharge protection built into the cell during manufacturing. In nickel hydrogen cells, excessive oxidation of the nickel sinter can eventually lead to a burst before leak situation and is a potential source of failure. It is well known that nickel cadmium cells having nylon separators contribute to loss of overcharge via a hydrolysis reaction of the nylon in the potassium hydroxide electrolyte environment in the cell. The hydrolysis reaction produces lower chain organics which are oxidized by the positive electrode and oxygen. Oxidation of the organics diminishes the overcharge protection. With introduction of the Super NiCd{trademark} and the Magnum{trademark} nickel cadmium cells the nylon hydrolysis reaction is eliminated, but any reducing agent in the cell such as nickel or an organic additive can contribute to loss of overcharge protection. The present effort describes chemical analyses made to evaluate the extent of overcharge protection loss in nickel cadmium cells which do not have nylon hydrolysis, and quantifies the amount of hydrogen buildup in nickel hydrogen cells which are subjected to 80% depth of discharge cycling with and without the presence of cadmium in the positive electrode.

  20. Some evidence on determinants of fuel economy as a function of driving cycle and test type

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.

    1993-08-01

    Statistical methods are used with 107 vehicles whose fuel economy was presented and reported for five test types in a single publication by Consumers Union (CU) for 1986--1988 vehicles. Standard loglinear statistical formulations (i.e., multiplicative models of interactions) are used with data from this and supplementary sources to develop coefficients estimating the percent fuel economy gain per percent change in engine/vehicle design characteristic. The coefficients are developed for the five different test conditions evaluated by CU and are compared with each other on the basis of attributes of the tests. The insights of engineering models are used to develop expectations regarding the shift in size of coefficients as driving cycles change. In both the engineering models and the statistical model, the effect of weight is estimated to be higher in urban driving than in highway driving. For two test categories -- field tests and dynamometer tests -- the benefits of weight reduction are statistically estimated to be greatest in urban driving conditions. The effect on idle fuel flow rate of designing vehicles to hold performance roughly constant by maintaining power per kilogram and/or displacement per kilogram is examined, and its implication for the size of the weight effect is simply approximated from Sovran`s 1983 engineering model results. The fuel-economy-decreasing effect of the desire for performance is estimated to be somewhat larger in the statistical analysis than in the NAS study, when engine technology is held constant.

  1. Effect of Yoga on Autonomic Functions and Psychological Status During Both Phases of Menstrual Cycle in Young Healthy Females

    PubMed Central

    Kanojia, Sarita; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Gandhi, Asha; Kapoor, Raj; Kukreja, Ajay; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Context: Premenstrual stress affects 75% of women of childbearing age and yoga has been found to be beneficial in many psycho-somatic disorders. Aims: To investigate the effect of integrated yoga on autonomic parameters and psychological well-being during both pre and post phases of menstrual cycle in healthy young female subjects. Settings and Design: Present study is a randomized control trial and was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India. Material and Methods: Fifty apparently healthy females in the age group of 18-20 years were randomized into two groups: Group I (n=25) consisted of subjects who practiced yoga 35-40 minutes per day, six times per week for the duration of three menstrual cycles. Training was given by qualified yoga instructor. Group II (n=25) subjects acted as controls. Following parameters were recorded at the beginning and after completion of three menstrual cycles in all the subjects: Height, weight (BW), Resting Heart Rate (HR), Resting Systolic (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), parasympathetic reactivity tests including Expiration-Inspiration Ratio (E: I ratio) and 30:15 ratio, sympathetic reactivity tests including BP changes due to Isometric Hand Grip (IHG) exercise, and Cold Pressor Test (CPT). Assessment of psychological status was done by administering DIPAS (Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences) inventories of Anger self report scale, Trait Anxiety, Sense of well-being and Depression scale. Statistical Analysis: Intra-group comparison of physiological parameters was done by using paired ‘t’ test, whereas intra-group comparison of non-parameteric data such as scores of anxiety, depression, anger and sense of well-being was done by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Inter-group comparison of parameters was done by Students ‘t’ test for parametric tests and Mann-Whitney ‘U’ test for non-parameteric tests. Results: There was significantly higher BW, resting SBP, DBP, sympathetic activity and blunting of parasympathetic reactivity and also, significantly higher scores of anger, depression, anxiety and decreased score of well-being in premenstrual phase as compared to postmenstrual phase in both the groups in initial cycle. There was significantly higher percentage decrease in BW, HR, SBP & DBP in yoga group as compared to control group in both the phases from initial to second and onwards between second and third menstrual cycle. Also, decrease in anger, depression and anxiety and increase in well-being score was significant in yoga group as compared to control group from initial to second and third cycle in premenstrual phase while the change was significant only in depression score in postmenstrual phase. Conclusion: Our study shows that there was significant alteration of autonomic functions and psychological status in premenstrual phase when compared with postmenstrual phase in young healthy females. Also, regular practice of yoga has beneficial effects on both phases of menstrual cycle by bringing parasympathodominance and psychological well-being probably by balancing neuro-endocrinal axis. PMID:24298457

  2. The role of surface chemical analysis in a study to select replacement processes for TCA vapor degreasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesley, Michael W.; Davis, Lawrence E.; Moulder, John F.; Carlson, Brad A.

    1995-01-01

    The role of surface-sensitive chemical analysis (ESCA, AES, and SIMS) in a study to select a process to replace 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (TCA) vapor degreasing as a steel and aluminum bonding surface preparation method is described. The effort was primarily concerned with spray-in-air cleaning processes involving aqueous alkaline and semi-aqueous cleaners and a contamination sensitive epoxy-to-metal bondline. While all five cleaners tested produced bonding strength results equal to or better than those produced by vapor degreasing, the aqueous alkaline cleaners yielded results which were superior to those produced by the semi-aqueous cleaners. The main reason for the enhanced performance appears to be a silicate layer left behind by the aqueous alkaline cleaners. The silicate layer increases the polarity of the surface and enhances epoxy-to-metal bonding. On the other hand, one of the semi-aqueous cleaners left a nonpolar carbonaceous residue which appeared to have a negative effect on epoxy-to-metal bonding. Differences in cleaning efficiency between cleaners/processes were also identified. These differences in surface chemistry, which were sufficient to affect bonding, were not detected by conventional chemical analysis techniques.

  3. Genetic determinants of FOXM1 overexpression in epithelial ovarian cancer and functional contribution to cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Barger, Carter J; Zhang, Wa; Hillman, Joanna; Stablewski, Aimee B; Higgins, Michael J; Vanderhyden, Barbara C; Odunsi, Kunle; Karpf, Adam R

    2015-09-29

    The FOXM1 transcription factor network is frequently activated in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), the most common and lethal subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We used primary human EOC tissues, HGSOC cell lines, mouse and human ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells, and a murine transgenic ovarian cancer model to investigate genetic determinants of FOXM1 overexpression in EOC, and to begin to define its functional contribution to disease pathology. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data indicated that the FOXM1 locus is amplified in ~12% of HGSOC, greater than any other tumor type examined, and that FOXM1 amplification correlates with increased expression and poor survival. In an independent set of primary EOC tissues, FOXM1 expression correlated with advanced stage and grade. Of the three known FOXM1 isoforms, FOXM1c showed highest expression in EOC. In murine OSE cells, combined knockout of Rb1 and Trp53 synergistically induced FOXM1. Consistently, human OSE cells immortalized with SV40 Large T antigen (IOSE-SV) had significantly higher FOXM1 expression than OSE immortalized with hTERT (IOSE-T). FOXM1 was overexpressed in murine ovarian tumors driven by combined Rb1/Trp53 disruption. FOXM1 induction in IOSE-SV cells was partially dependent on E2F1, and FOXM1 expression correlated with E2F1 expression in human EOC tissues. Finally, FOXM1 functionally contributed to cell cycle progression and relevant target gene expression in human OSE and HGSOC cell models. In summary, gene amplification, p53 and Rb disruption, and E2F1 activation drive FOXM1 expression in EOC, and FOXM1 promotes cell cycle progression in EOC cell models. PMID:26243836

  4. The Relationship between Sleep-Wake Cycle and Cognitive Functioning in Young People with Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Joanne S.; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S. C.; Hermens, Daniel F.; Naismith, Sharon L.; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16–30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18–30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a ‘long sleep’ cluster, a ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster, and a ‘delayed and disrupted sleep’ cluster. Circadian clusters included a ‘strong circadian’ cluster, a ‘weak circadian’ cluster, and a ‘delayed circadian’ cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The ‘long sleep’ cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in young adults early in the course of affective illness. PMID:25898321

  5. In situ Expression of Functional Genes Reveals Nitrogen Cycling at High Temperatures in Terrestrial Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiacono, S. T.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    An essential element for life, nitrogen occurs in all living organisms and is critical for the synthesis of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, and other forms of biomass. Thus, nitrogen cycling likely plays a vital role in microbial metabolic processes as well as nutrient availability. For microorganisms in "extreme" environments, this means developing adaptations that allow them to survive in harsh conditions and still perform the metabolisms essential to sustain life. Recent studies have screened biofilms and thermal sediments of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) thermal features for the presence of nifH genes, which code for a key enzyme in the nitrogen fixation process [1-4]. Furthermore, analysis of nitrogen isotopes in biofilms across a temperature and chemical gradient revealed that nitrogen fixation likely varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [5]. Although research has evaluated and confirmed the presence of nifH genes in various thermophilic microbial communities, the existence of a gene in the DNA of an organism does not verify its use. Instead, other methods, such as culturing, isotope tracer assays, and gene expression studies are required to provide direct evidence of biological nitrogen fixation. Culturing and isotope tracer approaches have successfully revealed high-temperature biological nitrogen fixation in both marine hydrothermal vent microbial communities [6] and in acidic, terrestrial hydrothermal sediment [3]. Transcriptomics-based techniques (using mRNA extracted from samples to confirm in situ expression of targeted genes) have been much more limited in number, and only a few studies have, to date, investigated in situ expression of the nifH gene in thermophilic microbial communities [2, 7]. This study explores the presence and expression of nifH genes in several features of the Lower Geyser Basin (LGB) of YNP. Nucleic acids from chemosynthetic and photosynthetic microbial communities were extracted and then amplified using (reverse-transcription) polymerase chain reaction to identify the presence and expression of nifH genes, and resultant (RT-)PCR product was cloned and sequenced. Results reveal high-temperature in situ expression of nifH in select LGB features [7] which is, to the authors' knowledge, the first direct evidence of nifH transcription in the chemosynthetic zones of terrestrial hydrothermal systems. Results also indicate the presence of novel nifH sequences and allow phylogenetic comparison of nifH genes along geochemical gradients within individual hot spring features and between various thermal features in the LGB. Collectively, these results provide evidence for microbial adaptations that have led to the ability to support basic metabolic processes under "extreme" conditions. [1] Hall et al., 2008. AEM 74: 4910-4922. [2] Steunou et al., 2008. The ISME Journal 2: 364-378. [3] Hamilton et al., 2011. Microb Ecol DOI 10.1007/s00248-011-9824-9. [4] Raymond et al., 2008. EOS Trans AGU. Abstract B14A-03. [5] Havig et al., 2010. J Geophys Res-Biogeo 116: G01005. [6] Mehta & Baross, 2006. Science 314: 1783-1786. [7] Loiacono et al., 2011. Submitted FEMS Microbiol Ecol.

  6. New model fit functions of the plasmapause location determined using THEMIS observations during the ascending phase of Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Junghee; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Jin-Hee; Shin, Dae-Kyu; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Turner, Drew

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that the plasmapause is influenced by the solar wind and magnetospheric conditions. Empirical models of its location have been previously developed such as those by O'Brien and Moldwin (2003) and Larsen et al. (2006). In this study, we identified the locations of the plasmapause using the plasma density data obtained from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellites. We used the data for the period (2008-2012) corresponding to the ascending phase of Solar Cycle 24. Our database includes data from over a year of unusually weak solar wind conditions, correspondingly covering the plasmapause locations in a wider L range than those in previous studies. It also contains many coronal hole stream intervals during which the plasmasphere is eroded and recovers over a timescale of several days. The plasmapause was rigorously determined by requiring a density gradient by a factor of 15 within a radial distance of 0.5 L. We first determined the statistical correlation of the plasmapause locations with several solar wind parameters as well as geomagnetic indices. We found that the plasmapause locations are well correlated with the solar wind speed and the interplanetary magnetic field Bz, therefore the y component of the convective electric field, and some energy coupling functions such as the well-known Akasofu's epsilon parameter. The plasmapause locations are also highly correlated with the geomagnetic indices, Dst, AE, and Kp, as recognized previously. Finally, we suggest new model fit functions for the plasmapause locations in terms of the solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. When applied to a new data interval outside the model training interval, our model fit functions work better than existing ones. The new model fit functions developed here extend the range of conditions from those used in previous works.

  7. Effect of multiple freezing/thawing cycles on the structural and functional properties of waxy rice starch.

    PubMed

    Tao, Han; Yan, Juan; Zhao, Jianwei; Tian, Yaoqi; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2015-01-01

    The structural and functional properties of non-gelatinized waxy rice starch were investigated after 1, 3, 7, and 10 freezing/thawing cycles. Freezing caused an increasing damaged starch from 1.36% in native waxy rice starch to 5.77% in 10 freezing/thawing-treated starch (FTS), as evidenced by the cracking surface on starch granules. More dry matter concentration was leached, which was characterized by high amylopectin concentration (4.34 mg/mL). The leaching was accompanied by a decrease in relative crystallinity from 35.19% in native starch to 31.34% in 10 FTS. Freezing treatment also led to significant deviations in the functional characteristics, for instance decreased gelatinization temperature range, enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. The resistant starch content of 10FTS significantly decreased from 58.9% to 19%, whereas the slowly digested starch content greatly increased from 23.8% in native starch to 50.3%. The increase in susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis may be attributed to porous granular surface, amylopectin leaching, and the decrease in the relative crystallinity caused by freezing water. PMID:26018506

  8. Effect of Multiple Freezing/Thawing Cycles on the Structural and Functional Properties of Waxy Rice Starch

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Han; Yan, Juan; Zhao, Jianwei; Tian, Yaoqi; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2015-01-01

    The structural and functional properties of non-gelatinized waxy rice starch were investigated after 1, 3, 7, and 10 freezing/thawing cycles. Freezing caused an increasing damaged starch from 1.36% in native waxy rice starch to 5.77% in 10 freezing/thawing-treated starch (FTS), as evidenced by the cracking surface on starch granules. More dry matter concentration was leached, which was characterized by high amylopectin concentration (4.34 mg/mL). The leaching was accompanied by a decrease in relative crystallinity from 35.19% in native starch to 31.34% in 10 FTS. Freezing treatment also led to significant deviations in the functional characteristics, for instance decreased gelatinization temperature range, enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. The resistant starch content of 10FTS significantly decreased from 58.9% to 19%, whereas the slowly digested starch content greatly increased from 23.8% in native starch to 50.3%. The increase in susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis may be attributed to porous granular surface, amylopectin leaching, and the decrease in the relative crystallinity caused by freezing water. PMID:26018506

  9. Effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 gene silencing on the proliferation, invasion and migration of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113

    PubMed Central

    SHAO, YUAN; SHA, XIAO-YING; BAI, YAN-XIA; QUAN, FANG; WU, SHENG-LI

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) gene silencing on the proliferation, migration and invasion of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113. RNA interference was used to knock down the expression of ADAM10 in the TCA8113 cell line and the proliferation, migration and invasive ability of the treated cells were observed in vitro. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and E-cadherin in the treated cells were determined by western blot analysis. The proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of cells in the ADAM10 siRNA-treated group were significantly lower than those in the control groups (P<0.05). In addition, compared with the control groups, the expression levels of EGFR and E-cadherin in the ADAM10 siRNA-treated cells were significantly decreased (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.05), respectively. These results suggested that ADAM10 is important in regulating the proliferation, invasion and migration of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113 and that the mechanism may, at least in part, be associated with the upregulation of EGFR and the downregulation of E-cadherin. PMID:25333745

  10. Low Temperature, Rapid Thermal Cycle Annealing of HgCdTe Grown on CdTe/Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simingalam, Sina; Brill, Gregory; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal; Rao, Mulpuri V.

    2015-05-01

    The HgCdTe(MCT) grown on CdTe/Si substrate has a high dislocation density due to lattice mismatch. Thermal cycle annealing (TCA) is effective in reducing the dislocation density. The TCA at high temperatures results in inter-diffusion of the constituent elements across the MCT/CdTe interface. In this study, we observed a reduction in dislocation density with good surface morphology due to proper design of the TCA system, low annealing temperature, and large number of annealing cycles. The ampoule containing the samples is placed in direct contact with the graphite heating tube which helps in increasing the heating and cooling rates of the annealing cycle. To maintain Hg overpressure, Hg is placed in the sample holder, instead of in the ampoule to avoid Hg condensation. The best results were obtained by cycling the annealing temperature between 290°C and 350°C. Anneals were performed by using 32, 64, 128 and 256 cycles. We obtained an etch pit density (EPD) as low as 1 × 106 cm-2. Lower EPD was not achieved either by increasing annealing temperature or number of annealing cycles. Through secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis, we observed very little inter-diffusion of Cd across the MCT/CdTe interface for the 128 cycle annealing. These results show promise in bridging the gap in the device performance between the MCT material grown on CdTe/Si and CdZnTe substrates.

  11. The Pyruvate-Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Node

    PubMed Central

    Bücker, René; Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Becker, Judith; Dersch, Petra; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Despite our increasing knowledge of the specific pathogenicity factors in bacteria, the contribution of metabolic processes to virulence is largely unknown. Here, we elucidate a tight connection between pathogenicity and core metabolism in the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by integrated transcriptome and [13C]fluxome analysis of the wild type and virulence-regulator mutants. During aerobic growth on glucose, Y. pseudotuberculosis reveals an unusual flux distribution with a high level of secreted pyruvate. The absence of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators RovA, CsrA, and Crp strongly perturbs the fluxes of carbon core metabolism at the level of pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and these perturbations are accompanied by transcriptional changes in the corresponding enzymes. Knock-outs of regulators of this metabolic branch point and of its central enzyme, pyruvate kinase (?pykF), result in mutants with significantly reduced virulence in an oral mouse infection model. In summary, our work identifies the pyruvate-TCA cycle node as a focal point for controlling the host colonization and virulence of Yersinia. PMID:25164818

  12. NCORRECTEDPROOF TCA 73951 18

    E-print Network

    Chickos, James S.

    such as melting temperature that would identify the particular 54 diasteriomer associated with t-gas chromatography to evaluate the vaporization enthalpy of a component in an equilibrium mixture 3 4 Manuel Temprado of temperature were also used to calculate vapor pressures of the target compounds and all resulting data were

  13. Assessing Cell Cycle Independent Function of the CDK Inhibitor p21(CDKN¹A) in DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Dutto, Ilaria; Tillhon, Micol; Prosperi, Ennio

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21(CDKN1A) is a small protein that is able to regulate many important cell functions, often independently of its activity of CDK inhibitor. In addition to cell cycle, this protein regulates cell transcription, apoptosis, cell motility, and DNA repair. In particular, p21 may participate in different DNA repair processes, like the nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair (BER), and double-strand breaks (DSB) repair, because of its ability to interact with DNA repair proteins, such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a master regulator of many DNA transactions. Although this role has been debated for a long time, the influence of p21 in DNA repair has been now established. However, it remain to be clarified how this role is coupled to proteasomal degradation that has been shown to occur after DNA damage. This chapter describes procedures to study p21 protein recruitment to localized DNA damage sites in the cell nucleus. In particular, we describe a technique based on local irrradiation with UV light through a polycarbonate filter with micropores; an in situ lysis procedure to detect chromatin-bound proteins by immunofluorescence; a cell fractionation procedure to study chromatin association of p21 by Western blot analysis, and p21 protein-protein interactions by an immunoprecipitation assay. PMID:26231713

  14. Solar Wind Helium Abundance as a Function of Speed and Heliographic Latitude: Variation through a Solar Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, J. C.; Stenens, M. L.; Stevens, M. L.; Lazarus, A. J.; Steinberg, J. T.; Ogilvie, Keith W.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of the variation of the relative abundance of helium to hydrogen in the solar wind as a function of solar wind speed and heliographic latitude over the previous solar cycle. The average values of A(sub He), the ratio of helium to hydrogen number densities, are calculated in 25 speed intervals over 27-day Carrington rotations using Faraday Cup observations from the Wind spacecraft between 1995 and 2005. The higher speed and time resolution of this study compared to an earlier work with the Wind observations has led to the discovery of three new aspects of A(sub He), modulation during solar minimum from mid-1995 to mid-1997. First, we find that for solar wind speeds between 350 and 415 km/s, A(sub He), varies with a clear six-month periodicity, with a minimum value at the heliographic equatorial plane and a typical gradient of 0.01 per degree in latitude. For the slow wind this is a 30% effect. We suggest that the latitudinal gradient may be due to an additional dependence of coronal proton flux on coronal field strength or the stability of coronal loops. Second, once the gradient is subtracted, we find that A(sub He), is a remarkably linear function of solar wind speed. Finally, we identify a vanishing speed, at which A(sub He), is zero, is 259 km/s and note that this speed corresponds to the minimum solar wind speed observed at one AU. The vanishing speed may be related to previous theoretical work in which enhancements of coronal helium lead to stagnation of the escaping proton flux. During solar maximum the A(sub He), dependences on speed and latitude disappear, and we interpret this as evidence of two source regions for slow solar wind in the ecliptic plane, one being the solar minimum streamer belt and the other likely being active regions.

  15. Mitigation of acute kidney injury by cell-cycle inhibitors that suppress both CDK4/6 and OCT2 functions.

    PubMed

    Pabla, Navjotsingh; Gibson, Alice A; Buege, Mike; Ong, Su Sien; Li, Lie; Hu, Shuiying; Du, Guoqing; Sprowl, Jason A; Vasilyeva, Aksana; Janke, Laura J; Schlatter, Eberhard; Chen, Taosheng; Ciarimboli, Giuliano; Sparreboom, Alex

    2015-04-21

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially fatal syndrome characterized by a rapid decline in kidney function caused by ischemic or toxic injury to renal tubular cells. The widely used chemotherapy drug cisplatin accumulates preferentially in the renal tubular cells and is a frequent cause of drug-induced AKI. During the development of AKI the quiescent tubular cells reenter the cell cycle. Strategies that block cell-cycle progression ameliorate kidney injury, possibly by averting cell division in the presence of extensive DNA damage. However, the early signaling events that lead to cell-cycle activation during AKI are not known. In the current study, using mouse models of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, we show that the G1/S-regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) pathway is activated in parallel with renal cell-cycle entry but before the development of AKI. Targeted inhibition of CDK4/6 pathway by small-molecule inhibitors palbociclib (PD-0332991) and ribociclib (LEE011) resulted in inhibition of cell-cycle progression, amelioration of kidney injury, and improved overall survival. Of additional significance, these compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), which contributes to the cellular accumulation of cisplatin and subsequent kidney injury. The unique cell-cycle and OCT2-targeting activities of palbociclib and LEE011, combined with their potential for clinical translation, support their further exploration as therapeutic candidates for prevention of AKI. PMID:25848011

  16. Mitigation of acute kidney injury by cell-cycle inhibitors that suppress both CDK4/6 and OCT2 functions

    PubMed Central

    Pabla, Navjotsingh; Gibson, Alice A.; Buege, Mike; Ong, Su Sien; Li, Lie; Hu, Shuiying; Du, Guoqing; Sprowl, Jason A.; Vasilyeva, Aksana; Janke, Laura J.; Schlatter, Eberhard; Chen, Taosheng; Ciarimboli, Giuliano; Sparreboom, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially fatal syndrome characterized by a rapid decline in kidney function caused by ischemic or toxic injury to renal tubular cells. The widely used chemotherapy drug cisplatin accumulates preferentially in the renal tubular cells and is a frequent cause of drug-induced AKI. During the development of AKI the quiescent tubular cells reenter the cell cycle. Strategies that block cell-cycle progression ameliorate kidney injury, possibly by averting cell division in the presence of extensive DNA damage. However, the early signaling events that lead to cell-cycle activation during AKI are not known. In the current study, using mouse models of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, we show that the G1/S-regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) pathway is activated in parallel with renal cell-cycle entry but before the development of AKI. Targeted inhibition of CDK4/6 pathway by small-molecule inhibitors palbociclib (PD-0332991) and ribociclib (LEE011) resulted in inhibition of cell-cycle progression, amelioration of kidney injury, and improved overall survival. Of additional significance, these compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), which contributes to the cellular accumulation of cisplatin and subsequent kidney injury. The unique cell-cycle and OCT2-targeting activities of palbociclib and LEE011, combined with their potential for clinical translation, support their further exploration as therapeutic candidates for prevention of AKI. PMID:25848011

  17. Differences in Retinal Structure and Function between Aging Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats are Strongly Influenced by the Estrus Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chaychi, Samaneh; Polosa, Anna; Lachapelle, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Biological sex and age are considered as two important factors that may influence the function and structure of the retina, an effect that might be governed by sexual hormones such as estrogen. The purpose of this study was to delineate the influence that biological sex and age exert on the retinal function and structure of rodents and also clarify the effect that the estrus cycle might exert on the retinal function of female rats. Method The retinal function of 50 normal male and female albino Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was investigated with the electroretinogram (ERG) at postnatal day (P) 30, 60, 100, 200, and 300 (n = 5–6 male and female rats/age). Following the ERG recording sessions, retinal histology was performed in both sexes. In parallel, the retinal function of premenopausal and menopausal female rats aged P540 were also compared. Results Sex and age-related changes in retinal structure and function were observed in our animal model. However, irrespective of age, no significant difference was observed in ERG and retinal histology obtained from male and female rats. Notwithstanding the above we did however notice that between P60 and P200 there was a gradual increase in ERG amplitudes of female rats compared to males. Furthermore, the ERG of premenopausal female rats aged 18 months old (P540) was larger compared to age-matched menopausal female rats as well as that of male rats. Conclusion Our results showed that biological sex and age can influence the retinal function and structure of albino SD rats. Furthermore, we showed that cycled female rats have better retinal function compared to the menopausal female rats suggesting a beneficial effect of the estrus cycle on the retinal function. PMID:26317201

  18. Nuclear import, virion incorporation, and cell cycle arrest/differentiation are mediated by distinct functional domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr.

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, S; Ayyavoo, V; Patel, M; Kieber-Emmons, T; Weiner, D B

    1997-01-01

    The vpr gene product of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a virion-associated protein that is essential for efficient viral replication in monocytes/macrophages. Vpr is primarily localized in the nucleus when expressed in the absence of other viral proteins. Vpr is packaged efficiently into viral particles through interactions with the p6 domain of the Gag precursor polyprotein p55gag. We developed a panel of expression vectors encoding Vpr molecules mutated in the amino-terminal helical domain, leucine-isoleucine (LR) domain, and carboxy-terminal domain to map the different functional domains and to define the interrelationships between virion incorporation, nuclear localization, cell cycle arrest, and differentiation functions of Vpr. We observed that substitution mutations in the N-terminal domain of Vpr impaired both nuclear localization and virion packaging, suggesting that the helical structure may play a vital role in modulating both of these biological properties. The LR domain was found to be involved in the nuclear localization of Vpr. In contrast, cell cycle arrest appears to be largely controlled by the C-terminal domain of Vpr. The LR and C-terminal domains do not appear to be essential for virion incorporation of Vpr. Interestingly, we found that two Vpr mutants harboring single amino acid substitutions (A30L and G75A) retained the ability to translocate to the nucleus but were impaired in the cell cycle arrest function. In contrast, mutation of Leu68 to Ser resulted in a protein that localizes in the cytoplasm while retaining the ability to arrest host cell proliferation. We speculate that the nuclear localization and cell cycle arrest functions of Vpr are not interrelated and that these functions are mediated by separable putative functional domains of Vpr. PMID:9261351

  19. Thermochemical cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, J. E.; Soliman, M. A.; Carty, R. H.; Conger, W. L.; Cox, K. E.; Lawson, D.

    1975-01-01

    The thermochemical production of hydrogen is described along with the HYDRGN computer program which attempts to rate the various thermochemical cycles. Specific thermochemical cycles discussed include: iron sulfur cycle; iron chloride cycle; and hybrid sulfuric acid cycle.

  20. Topside Ionospheric Temperatures As a Function of Solar Cycle Measured By Cindi from the C/NOFS Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, W. R.; Heelis, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Since the April 26, 2008 launch of C/NOFS, the Ion Velocity Meter (IVM), a part of the CINDI instrument package, has made in-situ measurements of plasma temperature, composition, density, and velocity in the 400-850 km altitude range of the equatorial ionosphere. The low inclination orbit caused the perigee to advance through all local times in about 67 days allowing seasonal sampling of ionospheric temperature (Ti), density, and composition. Here we examine the variations of these quantities as a function of altitude, local time, and solar cycle. The time period immediately following launch had unusually low solar activity with F10.7 cm radio fluxes consistently around 70 sfu. This condition resulted in a cold (Ti ~600 K in the pre-dawn region) low-density ionosphere near the spacecraft's 400 km perigee altitude and a low O+/H+ transition height. In contrast, by 2012 the average F10.7 was ~130 sfu and only in the pre-dawn region (Ti ~ 800K) did the transition height drop below the spacecraft's 800 km apogee. Using the IRI-2012 model we observe that Ti varies between the neutral temperature at low altitudes at night and the electron temperature (Te) in the morning above 500 km. At all levels of solar activity there is a midday trough in Ti. In the 400-650 km altitude range it is observed that Ti is actually higher in the daytime during the low solar activity period of 2008-2009 than in the moderate solar activity period of 2011-2012.

  1. Analysis of altered gait cycle duration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis based on nonparametric probability density function estimation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunfeng; Shi, Lei

    2011-04-01

    Human locomotion is regulated by the central nervous system (CNS). The neurophysiological changes in the CNS due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may cause altered gait cycle duration (stride interval) or other gait rhythm. This article used a statistical method to analyze the altered stride interval in patients with ALS. We first estimated the probability density functions (PDFs) of stride interval from the outlier-processed gait rhythm time series, by using the nonparametric Parzen-window approach. Based on the PDFs estimated, the mean of the left-foot stride interval and the modified Kullback-Leibler divergence (MKLD) can be computed to serve as dominant features. In the classification experiments, the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) with Gaussian kernels was applied to distinguish the stride patterns in ALS patients. According to the results obtained with the stride interval time series recorded from 16 healthy control subjects and 13 patients with ALS, the key findings of the present study are summarized as follows. (1) It is observed that the mean of stride interval computed based on the PDF for the left foot is correlated with that for the right foot in patients with ALS. (2) The MKLD parameter of the gait in ALS is significantly different from that in healthy controls. (3) The diagnostic performance of the nonlinear LS-SVM, evaluated by the leave-one-out cross-validation method, is superior to that obtained by the linear discriminant analysis. The LS-SVM can effectively separate the stride patterns between the groups of healthy controls and ALS patients with an overall accurate rate of 82.8% and an area of 0.869 under the receiver operating characteristic curve. PMID:21130016

  2. Functional Classification of Uncultured “Candidatus Caldiarchaeum subterraneum” Using the Maple System

    PubMed Central

    Takami, Hideto; Arai, Wataru; Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Taniguchi, Takeaki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the metabolic and physiological potential evaluator system based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional modules was employed to establish a functional classification of archaeal species and to determine the comprehensive functions (functionome) of the previously uncultivated thermophile “Candidatus Caldiarchaeum subterraneum” (Ca. C. subterraneum). A phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of proteins common among 142 archaea and 2 bacteria, and among 137 archaea and 13 unicellular eukaryotes suggested that Ca. C. subterraneum is closely related to thaumarchaeotic species. Consistent with the results of the phylogenetic analysis, clustering and principal component analyses based on the completion ratio patterns for all KEGG modules in 79 archaeal species suggested that the overall metabolic and physiological potential of Ca. C. subterraneum is similar to that of thaumarchaeotic species. However, Ca. C. subterraneum possessed almost no genes in the modules required for nitrification and the hydroxypropionate–hydroxybutyrate cycle for carbon fixation, unlike thaumarchaeotic species. However, it possessed all genes in the modules required for central carbohydrate metabolism, such as glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and the glyoxylate cycle, as well as multiple sets of sugar and branched chain amino acid ABC transporters. These metabolic and physiological features appear to support the predominantly aerobic character of Ca. C. subterraneum, which lives in a subsurface thermophilic microbial mat community with a heterotrophic lifestyle. PMID:26196861

  3. Diurnal Changes in Mitochondrial Function Reveal Daily Optimization of Light and Dark Respiratory Metabolism in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun Pong; Eubel, Holger; Millar, A. Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Biomass production by plants is often negatively correlated with respiratory rate, but the value of this rate changes dramatically during diurnal cycles, and hence, biomass is the cumulative result of complex environment-dependent metabolic processes. Mitochondria in photosynthetic plant tissues undertake substantially different metabolic roles during light and dark periods that are dictated by substrate availability and the functional capacity of mitochondria defined by their protein composition. We surveyed the heterogeneity of the mitochondrial proteome and its function during a typical night and day cycle in Arabidopsis shoots. This used a staged, quantitative analysis of the proteome across 10 time points covering 24 h of the life of 3-week-old Arabidopsis shoots grown under 12-h dark and 12-h light conditions. Detailed analysis of enzyme capacities and substrate-dependent respiratory processes of isolated mitochondria were also undertaken during the same time course. Together these data reveal a range of dynamic changes in mitochondrial capacity and uncover day- and night-enhanced protein components. Clear diurnal changes were evident in mitochondrial capacities to drive the TCA cycle and to undertake functions associated with nitrogen and sulfur metabolism, redox poise, and mitochondrial antioxidant defense. These data quantify the nature and nuances of a daily rhythm in Arabidopsis mitochondrial respiratory capacity. PMID:20601493

  4. NUCLEAR FUNCTIONS OF ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI: REGULATION OF THE G2-M CELL CYCLE TRANSITION & INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT INTERACTION

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yang

    2009-01-22

    , intermediate filament protein lamin B1 was verified to interact with APC in both cultured cells and human tissue. Together, I provide evidence supporting a role for APC in G2-M cell cycle transition and in cytoskeletal regulation....

  5. Combined effects of CO2 enrichment and elevated growth temperatures on metabolites in soybean leaflets; evidence for dynamic changes of TCA cycle intermediates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max [Merr.]L.) was grown in indoor chambers with ambient (38 Pa) and elevated (70 Pa) CO2 and day/night temperature treatments of 28/20, 32/24, and 36/28 °C. Net rates of CO2 assimilation increased with growth temperature and were enhanced an additional 25% on average by CO2 enrich...

  6. The Ethylmalonyl-CoA Pathway Is Used in Place of the Glyoxylate Cycle by Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 during Growth on Acetate*

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kathrin; Peyraud, Rémi; Kiefer, Patrick; Christen, Philipp; Delmotte, Nathanaël; Massou, Stéphane; Portais, Jean-Charles; Vorholt, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA assimilation was extensively studied in organisms harboring the glyoxylate cycle. In this study, we analyzed the metabolism of the facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, which lacks isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle, during growth on acetate. MS/MS-based proteomic analysis revealed that the protein repertoire of M. extorquens AM1 grown on acetate is similar to that of cells grown on methanol and includes enzymes of the ethylmalonyl-CoA (EMC) pathway that were recently shown to operate during growth on methanol. Dynamic 13C labeling experiments indicate the presence of distinct entry points for acetate: the EMC pathway and the TCA cycle. 13C steady-state metabolic flux analysis showed that oxidation of acetyl-CoA occurs predominantly via the TCA cycle and that assimilation occurs via the EMC pathway. Furthermore, acetyl-CoA condenses with the EMC pathway product glyoxylate, resulting in malate formation. The latter, also formed by the TCA cycle, is converted to phosphoglycerate by a reaction sequence that is reversed with respect to the serine cycle. Thus, the results obtained in this study reveal the utilization of common pathways during the growth of M. extorquens AM1 on C1 and C2 compounds, but with a major redirection of flux within the central metabolism. Furthermore, our results indicate that the metabolic flux distribution is highly complex in this model methylotroph during growth on acetate and is fundamentally different from organisms using the glyoxylate cycle. PMID:22105076

  7. Effects of naturally occurring polymethyoxyflavonoids on cell growth, p-glycoprotein function, cell cycle, and apoptosis of daunorubicin-resistant T lymphoblastoid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kimiko; Tanaka, Sachiko; Kagami, Keisuke; Henmi, Kayo; Toyoda, Hiroo; Kaise, Toshikazu; Hirano, Toshihiko

    2010-03-01

    Effects of polymethoxyflavonoids tangeretin and nobiletin and the related polyphenolic compounds baicalein, wogonin, quercetin, and epigallocatechin gallate on the cell growth, P-glycoprotein function, apoptosis, and cell cycle of human T lymphoblastoid leukemia MOLT-4 and its daunorubicin-resistant cells were investigated. The IC50 values of these compounds on the cell growth were 7.1-32.2 micromol/L, and the inhibitory effects were observed to be almost equal to the parent MOLT-4 and the daunorubicin-resistant cells. Tangeretin and nobiletin showed the strongest effects with the IC50 values of 7.1-14.0 micromol/L. These polymethoxyflavonoids inhibited the P-glycoprotein function and significantly influenced the cell cycle (p<.05), whereas they did not induce apoptosis. PMID:19863351

  8. Linking sediment structure, hydrological functioning and biogeochemical cycling in disturbed coastal saltmarshes and implications for vegetation development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Kate; Harvey, Gemma; James, Tempest; Simon, Carr; Michelle, Morris

    2014-05-01

    Saltmarsh restoration undoubtedly provides environmental enhancement, with vegetation quickly re-establishing following the breach of sea walls and subsequent tidal inundation of previously defended areas. Yet evidence increasingly suggests that the restored saltmarshes do not have the same biological characteristics as their natural counterparts (Mossman et al. 2012) and this may be in part be due to physicochemical parameters at the site including anoxia and poor drainage. Hence, restored saltmarshes may not offer the range and quality of ecosystem services anticipated. These environments will have been 'disturbed' by previous land use and there is little understanding of the impacts of this disturbance on the wider hydrogeomorphic and biogeochemical functioning in restored saltmarshes and the implications for saltmarsh vegetation development. This study examines linkages between physical sediment characteristics, sediment structure (using X-ray microtomography), sub-surface hydrology (using pressure transducers and time series analysis), and sediment and porewater geochemistry (major and trace elements, major anions) in sediment cores collected from undisturbed saltmarshes and those restored by de-embankment. Sub-surface sediments in restored saltmarshes have lower organic matter content, lower moisture content and higher bulk density than undisturbed sites. Using X-ray tomography a clear horizon can be observed which separates relict agricultural soils at depth with less dense and structureless sediments deposited since de-embankment. Ratios of open to closed pore space suggest that while undisturbed saltmarshes have the highest porosity, restored saltmarshes have larger void spaces, but limited pore connectivity. Sub-surface hydrological response to tidal flooding was subdued in the restored compared to the undisturbed site, suggesting that porewater flow may be impeded. Time series analysis indicated that flow pathways differ in restored saltmarsh sediments with preferential horizontal flows. The undisturbed saltmarsh displayed typical vertical geochemical sediment profiles. However, in the restored sites total Fe and Mn are elevated at depth indicating an absence of diagenetic cycling, whilst porewater sulphate and nitrate increased at depth suggesting that vertical solute transport is impeded in restored sites. In surface sediments, though total Hg concentrations are similar, Hg methylation rates are significantly higher than in the undisturbed saltmarsh suggesting that surface anoxia and poor drainage may result in increased mobilization and bioavailability of Hg. These findings have implications for the wider biogeochemical ecosystem services offered by saltmarsh restoration and the water-logged, anoxic conditions produced are unsuitable for seedling germination and plant growth. This highlights the need for integrated understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes.

  9. C1 metabolism and the Calvin cycle function simultaneously and independently during HCHO metabolism and detoxification in Arabidopsis thaliana treated with HCHO solutions.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhong-Bang; Xiao, Su-Qin; You, Lan; Wang, Sha-Sha; Tan, Hao; Li, Kun-Zhi; Chen, Li-Mei

    2013-08-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is suggested to be detoxified through one-carbon (C1) metabolism or assimilated by the Calvin cycle in plants. To further understand the function of the Calvin cycle and C1 metabolism in HCHO metabolism in plants, HCHO elimination and metabolism by Arabidopsis thaliana in HCHO solutions was investigated in this study. Results verified that Arabidopsis could completely eliminate aqueous HCHO from the HCHO solutions. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C-NMR) analysis showed that H(13)CHO absorbed by Arabidopsis was first oxidized to H(13)COOH. Subsequently, a clear increase in [U-(13)C]Gluc peaks accompanied by a strong enhancement in peaks of [2-(13)C]Ser and [3-(13)C]Ser appeared in Arabidopsis. Pretreatment with cyclosporin A or L-carnitine, which might inhibit the transport of (13)C-enriched compounds into chloroplasts and mitochondria, caused a remarkable decline in yields of both [U-(13)C]Gluc and [3-(13)C]Ser in H(13)CHO-treated Arabidopsis. These results suggested that both the Calvin cycle and the C1 metabolism functioned simultaneously during HCHO detoxification. Moreover, both functioned more quickly under high H(13)CHO stress than low H(13)CHO stress. When a photorespiration mutant was treated in 6 mm H(13)CHO solution, formation of [U-(13)C]Gluc and [2-(13)C]Ser was completely inhibited, but generation of [3-(13)C]Ser was not significantly affected. This evidence suggested that the Calvin cycle and C1 metabolism functioned independently in Arabidopsis during HCHO metabolism. PMID:23421623

  10. Free Reaction Enthalpy Profile of the Schrock Cycle Derived from Density Functional Theory Calculations on the Full [Mo(HIPT)N3N] Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Thimm, Wulf; Gradert, Christian; Broda, Henning; Wennmohs, Frank; Neese, Frank; Tuczek, Felix

    2015-10-01

    A series of density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the full [Mo(HIPT)N3N] catalyst are performed to obtain an energy profile of the Schrock cycle. This is a continuation of our earlier investigation of this cycle in which the bulky hexaisopropyterphenyl (HIPT) substituents of the ligand were replaced by hydrogen atoms (Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 5639). In an effort to provide a treatment that is as converged as possible from a quantum-chemical point of view, the present study now fully takes the HIPT moieties into account. Moreover, structures and energies are calculated with a near-saturated basis set, leading to models with 280 atoms and 4850 basis functions. Solvent and scalar relativistic effects have been treated using the conductor-like screening model and zeroth-order regular approximation, respectively. Free reaction enthalpies are evaluated using the PBE and B3LYP functionals. A comparison to the available experimental data reveals much better agreement with the experiment than preceding DFT treatments of the Schrock cycle. In particular, free reaction enthalpies of reduction steps and NH3/N2 exchange are now excellently reproduced. PMID:26107395

  11. Stability of IRA-45 solid amine resin as a function of carbon dioxide absorption and steam desorption cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Peter C.; Wydeven, Theodore

    1987-01-01

    The removal of CO2 from the NASA Space Station's cabin atmosphere, which may be undertaken by a solid-amine water (steam)-desorbed system, is presently evaluated with a view to long-term amine resin stability and adsorption/desorption cycling by means of an automated laboratory flow-testing facility. While the CO2-adsorption capacity of the IRA-45 amine resin used gradually decreased over time, the rate of degradation significantly decreased after the first 10 cycles. Attention is given to the presence (and possible need for removal) of trimethylamine in the process air downstream of the resin bed.

  12. Predicting VO[subscript 2max] in College-Aged Participants Using Cycle Ergometry and Perceived Functional Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, David E.; George, James D.; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ron L.; Webb, Carrie V.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict treadmill VO[subscript 2max] scores using both exercise and non-exercise data. One hundred five college-aged participants (53 male, 52 female) successfully completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test and a maximal graded exercise test on a motorized treadmill.…

  13. In Situ Activity and Functional Diversity of Microbes Linking Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles in Marine Ecosystems: BI-OMP Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, Robert E.

    2004-05-01

    We developed methods to simultaneously detect genes or gene expression involved with carbon and nitrogen cycling in individual marine bacterial cells in their natural matrices. The technique focuses on in situ polymerase chain reaction which we were the first lab to successfully obtain with intact prokaryotic cells. We listed the papers published to date from this project and summarize highlights of our results.

  14. Metabolic engineering in the biotechnological production of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of microorganisms: Advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xian; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, which are chemically synthesized, are also natural intermediates in the metabolic pathways of microorganisms, among which the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the most crucial route existing in almost all living organisms. Organic acids in the TCA cycle include citric acid, ?-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, and oxaloacetate, which are building-block chemicals with wide applications and huge markets. In this review, we summarize the synthesis pathways of these organic acids and review recent advances in metabolic engineering strategies that enhance organic acid production. We also propose further improvements for the production of organic acids with systems and synthetic biology-guided metabolic engineering strategies. PMID:25902192

  15. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in thermally heated sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Burton, M.; Vennelakanti, S.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrothermally heated sediment environments, such as are found in abundance throughout Yellowstone National Park, host fully functional microbial ecosystems. As with any ecosystem, both sources and sinks of carbon, nitrogen, and a myriad of other nutrients and energy-driving factors must be supplied. While we know microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse, we know little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling. Previous work has shown that carbon cycling in one hot spring in Yellowstone National Park [“Bison Pool”] and its associated runoff channel functions as a complex system. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in sediments and biofilms across a temperature and chemical gradient at this location revealed that the four best studied carbon fixation pathways [Calvin, reverse tricarboxylic acid, acetyl-CoA, 3-hydroxypropionate cycles] may all be functioning in this system, and nitrogen fixation varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [1]. Microcosm experiments using biofilms from this hot spring as inoculae with 13C labeled carbon substrates indicate heterotrophic growth [2]. In addition, metagenomic analysis of environmental DNA has indicated the presence of genes involved in carbon fixation [both phototrophic and autotrophic], and heterotrophy, as well as nitrogen fixation [3]. Studies from other Yellowstone locations have also found genetic evidence for carbon and nitrogen fixation [4, 5]. Of particular interest is the role of individuals in carbon and nitrogen cycling as environmental conditions suitable for chemosynthetic and photosynthetic growth vary. This study explores the diversity of cbbM/cbbL [Calvin cycle], aclB/oor/porA [rTCA cycle], nifH [nitrogen fixation], nirK [nitrite reduction] and amoA [ammonia oxidation] genes across a variety of Yellowstone environments. The transition of genetic diversity within sediments and biofilms is focused on the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone from a variety of hot springs spanning a range of pH and geochemical conditions. By sampling across this ecotone, changes in carbon and nitrogen fixation as a function of changing community structure become apparent. Environmental DNA was extracted from these samples, and the presence/absence of Bacteria and Archaea determined by PCR. In addition, PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of the aforementioned functional genes. Further, comparison across a broad spectrum of environmental conditions supplies context for phylogenetic analysis of diversity. [1] Havig, J.R., 2009. Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Biofilms: Composition of Biofilms in Siliceous Sinter-Deposting Hot Springs. Doctoral Dissertation, Arizona State University. [2] Meyer-Dombard et al., 2007. Microbial Diversity and SIP Investigations of Streamer Biofilm Communities in Yellowstone. Goldschmidt Geochemical Conference. [3] Raymond et al., 2008. EOS Trans AGU. Abstract B14A-03. [4] Hall et al., 2008. AEM 74:4910-4922. [5] Steunou et al., 2006. PNAS 103:2398-2403.

  16. MicroRNA-31 functions as a tumor suppressor by regulating cell cycle and epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulatory proteins in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyun Jin; Eun, Jung Woo; Shen, Qingyu; Park, Se Jin; Shin, Woo Chan; Yang, Hee Doo; Park, Mijung; Park, Won Sang; Kang, Yong-Koo; Nam, Suk Woo

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-31 (miR-31) is among the most frequently altered microRNAs in human cancers and altered expression of miR-31 has been detected in a large variety of tumor types, but the functional role of miR-31 still hold both tumor suppressive and oncogenic roles in different tumor types. MiR-31 expression was down-regulated in a large cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and low expression of miR-31 was significantly associated with poor prognosis of HCC patients. Ectopic expression of miR-31 mimics suppressed HCC cell growth by transcriptional deregulation of cell cycle proteins. Additional study evidenced miR-31 directly to suppress HDAC2 and CDK2 expression by inhibiting mRNA translation in HCC cells. We also found that ectopic expression of miR-31 mimics reduced metastatic potential of HCC cells by selectively regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulatory proteins such as N-cadherin, E-cadherin, vimentin and fibronectin. HCC tissues derived from chemical-induced rat liver cancer models validated that miR-31 expression is significantly down-regulated, and that those cell cycle- and EMT-regulatory proteins are deregulated in rat liver cancer. Overall, we suggest that miR-31 functions as a tumor suppressor by selectively regulating cell cycle and EMT regulatory proteins in human hepatocarcinogenesis providing a novel target for the molecular treatment of liver malignancies. PMID:25797269

  17. Identification by Random Mutagenesis of Functional Domains in KREPB5 That Differentially Affect RNA Editing between Life Cycle Stages of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Suzanne M; Carnes, Jason; Stuart, Kenneth

    2015-12-01

    KREPB5 is an essential component of ?20S editosomes in Trypanosoma brucei which contains a degenerate, noncatalytic RNase III domain. To explore the function of this protein, we used a novel approach to make and screen numerous conditional null T. brucei bloodstream form cell lines that express randomly mutagenized KREPB5 alleles. We identified nine single amino acid substitutions that could not complement the conditional loss of wild-type KREPB5. Seven of these were within the RNase III domain, and two were in the C-terminal region that has no homology to known motifs. Exclusive expression of these mutated KREPB5 alleles in the absence of wild-type allele expression resulted in growth inhibition, the loss of ?20S editosomes, and inhibition of RNA editing in BF cells. Eight of these mutations were lethal in bloodstream form parasites but not in procyclic-form parasites, showing that multiple domains function in a life cycle-dependent manner. Amino acid changes at a substantial number of positions, including up to 7 per allele, allowed complementation and thus did not block KREPB5 function. Hence, the degenerate RNase III domain and a newly identified domain are critical for KREPB5 function and have differential effects between the life cycle stages of T. brucei that differentially edit mRNAs. PMID:26370513

  18. Performance improvement of GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes grown on Si(111) substrate by thermal cycle annealing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyun-Hao; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2014-01-01

    A simple thermal cycle annealing (TCA) process was used to improve the quality of GaN grown on a Si substrate. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and etch pit density (EPD) results revealed that using more process cycles, the defect density cannot be further reduced. However, the performance of GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiodes (PDs) prepared on Si substrates showed significant improvement. With a two-cycle TCA process, it is found that the dark current of the device was only 1.46 × 10-11 A, and the photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio was about 1.33 × 105 at 5 V. Also, the UV/visible rejection ratios can reach as high as 1077.

  19. FoxO and FoxM1 Transcription Factors Have Antagonistic Functions in Neonatal Cardiomyocyte Cell Cycle Withdrawal and IGF1 Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Arunima; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V.; Yutzey, Katherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale In the mammalian heart, cardiomyocytes withdraw from the cell cycle and initiate hypertrophic growth soon after birth, but the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control these neonatal transitions are not well-defined. Objective Forkhead family transcription factors have been implicated as positive (FoxM1) and negative (FoxO1 and FoxO3) regulators of cardiomyocyte proliferation prenatally, but their regulatory interactions and functions in neonatal cell cycle withdrawal have not been reported previously. Potential regulators of Fox activity, including the metabolic indicator AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and Fox transcriptional targets (p21, p27, Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)) also were examined. Methods and Results In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, AMPK activates FoxOs, and AMPK inhibition is sufficient to induce cell proliferation. In vivo, combined loss of FoxO1 and FoxO3 specifically in cardiomyocytes leads to delayed cell cycle withdrawal and increased expression of IGF1 and FoxM1. Conversely, cardiomyocyte-specific loss of FoxM1 results in decreased neonatal cardiomyocyte cell proliferation, decreased expression of IGF1, and increased expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27. IGF1 is a direct downstream target of cardiac Fox transcription factors, which is negatively regulated by FoxOs and positively regulated by FoxM1, dependent on AMPK activation status. Conclusions These data support a regulatory mechanism whereby the balance of FoxO and FoxM1 transcription factors integrates metabolic status, mediated by AMPK, and cell cycle regulation, through competitive regulation of target genes including IGF1, in neonatal cardiomyocytes. PMID:23152492

  20. Cycle Inhibiting Factors (CIFs) Are a Growing Family of Functional Cyclomodulins Present in Invertebrate and Mammal Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Jubelin, Grégory; Chavez, Carolina Varela; Taieb, Frédéric; Banfield, Mark J.; Samba-Louaka, Ascel; Nobe, Rika; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Zumbihl, Robert; Givaudan, Alain; Escoubas, Jean-Michel; Oswald, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) produced by enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli was the first cyclomodulin to be identified that is injected into host cells via the type III secretion machinery. Cif provokes cytopathic effects characterized by G1 and G2 cell cycle arrests, accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) p21waf1/cip1 and p27kip1 and formation of actin stress fibres. The X-ray crystal structure of Cif revealed it to be a divergent member of a superfamily of enzymes including cysteine proteases and acetyltransferases that share a conserved catalytic triad. Here we report the discovery and characterization of four Cif homologs encoded by different pathogenic or symbiotic bacteria isolated from vertebrates or invertebrates. Cif homologs from the enterobacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Photorhabdus luminescens, Photorhabdus asymbiotica and the ?-proteobacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei all induce cytopathic effects identical to those observed with Cif from pathogenic E. coli. Although these Cif homologs are remarkably divergent in primary sequence, the catalytic triad is strictly conserved and was shown to be crucial for cell cycle arrest, cytoskeleton reorganization and CKIs accumulation. These results reveal that Cif proteins form a growing family of cyclomodulins in bacteria that interact with very distinct hosts including insects, nematodes and humans. PMID:19308257

  1. Contribution of metabolic reprogramming to macrophage plasticity and function.

    PubMed

    El Kasmi, Karim C; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2015-08-01

    Macrophages display a spectrum of functional activation phenotypes depending on the composition of the microenvironment they reside in, including type of tissue/organ and character of injurious challenge they are exposed to. Our understanding of how macrophage plasticity is regulated by the local microenvironment is still limited. Here we review and discuss the recent literature regarding the contribution of cellular metabolic pathways to the ability of the macrophage to sense the microenvironment and to alter its function. We propose that distinct alterations in the microenvironment induce a spectrum of inducible and reversible metabolic programs that might form the basis of the inducible and reversible spectrum of functional macrophage activation/polarization phenotypes. We highlight that metabolic pathways in the bidirectional communication between macrophages and stromals cells are an important component of chronic inflammatory conditions. Recent work demonstrates that inflammatory macrophage activation is tightly associated with metabolic reprogramming to aerobic glycolysis, an altered TCA cycle, and reduced mitochondrial respiration. We review cytosolic and mitochondrial mechanisms that promote initiation and maintenance of macrophage activation as they relate to increased aerobic glycolysis and highlight potential pathways through which anti-inflammatory IL-10 could promote macrophage deactivation. Finally, we propose that in addition to their role in energy generation and regulation of apoptosis, mitochondria reprogram their metabolism to also participate in regulating macrophage activation and plasticity. PMID:26454572

  2. Developmental regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mouse mammary gland during a prolonged lactation cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the lactating mammary cell is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to use proteomics to relate temporal changes in mammary cell mitochondrial function during lactation to changes in the proteins that make up this organelle. The hypo...

  3. Solar activity secular cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramynin, A. P.; Mordvinov, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term variations in solar activity secular cycles have been studied using a method for the expansion of reconstructed sunspot number series Sn( t) for 11400 years in terms of natural orthogonal functions. It has been established that three expansion components describe more than 98% of all Sn( t) variations. In this case, the contribution of the first expansion component is about 92%. The averaged form of the 88year secular cycle has been determined based on the form of the first expansion coordinate function. The quasi-periodicities modulating the secular cycle have been revealed based on the time function conjugate to the first function. The quasi-periodicities modulating the secular cycle coincide with those observed in the Sn( t) series spectrum. A change in the secular cycle form and the time variations in this form are described by the second and third expansion components, the contributions of which are about 4 and 2%, respectively. The variations in the steepness of the secular cycle branches are more pronounced in the 200-year cycle, and the secular cycle amplitude varies more evidently in the 2300-year cycle.

  4. Global Analysis of Host Cell Gene Expression Late during Cytomegalovirus Infection Reveals Extensive Dysregulation of Cell Cycle Gene Expression and Induction of Pseudomitosis Independent of US28 Function

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Laura; Mocarski, Edward S.

    2004-01-01

    Replication of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) depends on host cell gene products working in conjunction with viral functions and leads to a dramatic dysregulation of cell cycle gene expression. Comprehensive transcriptional profiling was used to identify pathways most dramatically modulated by CMV at late times during infection and to determine the extent to which expression of the viral chemokine receptor US28 contributed to modulating cellular gene expression. Cells infected with the AD169 strain of virus or a fully replication competent US28-deficient derivative (RV101) were profiled throughout the late phase of infection (50, 72, and 98 h postinfection). Although sensitive statistical analysis showed striking global changes in transcript levels in infected cells compared to uninfected cells, the expression of US28 did not contribute to these alterations. CMV infection resulted in lower levels of transcripts encoding cytoskeletal, extracellular matrix, and adhesion proteins, together with small GTPases and apoptosis regulators, and in higher levels of transcripts encoding cell cycle, DNA replication, energy production, and inflammation-related gene products. Surprisingly, a large number of cellular transcripts encoding mitosis-related proteins were upmodulated at late times in infection, and these were associated with the formation of abnormal mitotic spindles and the appearance of pseudomitotic cells. These data extend our understanding of how broadly CMV alters the regulation of host cell cycle gene products and highlight the establishment of a mitosis-like environment in the absence of cellular DNA replication as important for viral replication and maturation. PMID:15479839

  5. Sensory screening for large-format natural corks by "dry soak" testing and its correlation to headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) releasable trichloroanisole (TCA) analysis.

    PubMed

    Macku, Carlos; Gonzalez, Lesa; Schleussner, Christiane; Mesquita, Ana Cristina; Herwatt, James W; Kirch, Leonard C; Schwartz, Rob J

    2009-09-01

    Large-format natural corks were individually screened for trichloroanisole (TCA) taint and other non-characteristic cork odors by smelling the high relative humidity headspace of the jarred closure during expert panel sensory sessions. The method was coined "dry soak sensory screening". Out of a population of 2296 corks, 138 specimens [6% of the total population (TP)] were retained because of unusual odors, ranging from mild to severe. All retained corks were analyzed for releasable TCA (RTCA) by the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. Results indicated that 30 corks (1.3% TP) had concentrations between 1.0 and 5.0 ppt. Most of these corks had non-typical TCA odors described as ashtray, musty, moldy, dirty, and wet cardboard. A total of 13 retained corks (0.57% TP) had RTCA values higher than 5.0 ppt, mostly displaying the typical TCA odor. Dry soak screening has been determined to be a clean, fast, and most importantly, a nondestructive method ideal for screening large-format natural corks with off odors. PMID:19722710

  6. Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…

  7. Trichloroacetic acid cycling in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) saplings and the effects on tree health following long term exposure. 

    E-print Network

    Dickey, Catherine A; Heal, Kate V; Stidson, R T; Koren, R; Cape, Neil; Schröder, V; Heal, Mathew R

    2004-01-01

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA, CCl3COOH) has been associated with forest damage but the source of TCA to trees is poorly characterised. To investigate the routes and effects of TCA uptake in conifers, 120 Sitka spruce (Picea ...

  8. Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P?functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning. PMID:26396042

  9. Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo

    2015-09-01

    Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P?functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning.

  10. Cytological cycles and fates in Psidium myrtoides are altered towards new cell metabolism and functionalities by the galling activity of Nothotrioza myrtoidis.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, R G S; Isaias, R M S

    2015-03-01

    The morphogenesis of galls occurs by the redifferentiation of cells that assume new functions in the modified host plant organs. The redifferentiated cells in the galls of Nothotrioza myrtoidis on Psidium myrtoides have low complexity metabolism and are photosynthesis-deficient. These galls were studied in search for evidences of the establishment of new cell cycles and fates and cytological gradients that corroborate their metabolic profile. Young and mature leaves of P. myrtoides and leaf galls induced by N. myrtoidis at different developmental stages were collected along 24 months and analyzed under light and transmission electron microscopy. The leaves of P. myrtoides are long-lasting and did not senesce within the analyzed period, while the galls have a shorter cycle, and senesce within 1 year. A homogenous parenchyma is established by a "standby-redifferentiation" of the chlorophyllous tissues, and sclerenchyma cells redifferentiate from parenchyma cells in the outer cortex of the mature galls. The lack of organelles, the underdeveloped lamellation of chloroplasts, and the occurrence of few plastoglobules are related to the photosynthetic deficiency of the galls. No cytological gradients were observed, but the organelle-rich cells of the vascular and perivascular parenchymas are similar to those of the nutritive tissues of galls induced by other insect taxa. These cells nearest to the feeding sites of N. myrtoidis present higher metabolism and well-developed apparatus for the prevention of oxidative stress. The features herein described corroborate the low metabolic profile of the galls as the cell cycles and fates of P. myrtoides are manipulated for completely new functionalities. PMID:25272990

  11. Evolutionarily conserved pressure for the existence of distinct G2/M cell cycle arrest and A3H inactivation functions in HIV-1 Vif.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke; Du, Juan; Rui, Yajuan; Zheng, Wenwen; Kang, Jian; Hou, Jingwei; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Wenyan; Simon, Viviana A; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 Vif assembles the Cul5-EloB/C E3 ubiquitin ligase to induce proteasomal degradation of the cellular antiviral APOBEC3 proteins. Detailed structural studies have confirmed critical functional domains in Vif that we have previously identified as important for the interaction of EloB/C, Cul5, and CBF?. However, the mechanism by which Vif recognizes substrates remains poorly understood. Specific regions of Vif have been identified as being responsible for binding and depleting APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F. Interestingly, we have now identified distinct yet overlapping domains that are required for HIV-1 Vif-mediated G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest and APOBEC3H degradation, but not for the inactivation of APOBEC3G or APOBEC3F. Surprisingly, Vif molecules from primary HIV-1 variants that caused G2/M arrest were unable to inactivate APOBEC3H; on the other hand, HIV-1 Vif variants that could inactivate APOBEC3H were unable to induce G2/M arrest. All of these Vif variants still maintained the ability to inactivate APOBEC3G/F. Thus, primary HIV-1 variants have evolved to possess distinct functional activities that allow them to suppress APOBEC3H or cause G2 cell cycle arrest, using mutually exclusive interface domains. APOBEC3H depletion and G2 arrest are apparently evolutionary selected features that cannot co-exist on a single Vif molecule. The existence and persistence of both types of HIV-1 Vif variant suggests the importance of APOBEC3H suppression and cell cycle regulation for HIV-1's survival in vivo. PMID:25590520

  12. The transcriptional regulation of the glyoxylate cycle in SAR11 in response to iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Beier, Sara; Gálvez, María J; Molina, Veronica; Sarthou, Géraldine; Quéroué, Fabien; Blain, Stephane; Obernosterer, Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central metabolic pathway that is present in all aerobic organisms and initiates the respiration of organic material. The glyoxylate cycle is a variation of the TCA cycle, where organic material is recycled for subsequent assimilation into cell material instead of being released as carbon dioxide. Despite the importance for the fate of organic matter, the environmental factors that induce the glyoxylate cycle in microbial communities remain poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the expression of isocitrate lyase, the enzyme that induces the switch to the glyoxylate cycle, of the ubiquitous SAR11 clade in response to natural iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean. The cell-specific transcriptional regulation of the glyoxylate cycle, as determined by the ratio between copy numbers of isocitrate lyase gene transcripts and isocitrate genes, was consistently lower in iron fertilized than in high-nutrient, low chlorophyll waters (by 2.4- to 16.5-fold). SAR11 cell-specific isocitrate lyase gene transcription was negatively correlated to chlorophyll a, and bulk bacterial heterotrophic metabolism. We conclude that the glyoxylate cycle is a metabolic strategy for SAR11 that is highly sensitive to the degree of iron and carbon limitation in the marine environment. PMID:25625554

  13. Postsynthetic acetylation of histones during the cell cycle: a general function for the displacement of histones during chromatin rearrangements.

    PubMed Central

    Loidl, P; Gröbner, P

    1987-01-01

    Postsynthetic acetylation of core histones exhibits a peak during S-phase of the Physarum cell cycle. The maximum 3H-acetate incorporation precedes the maximum of histone synthesis. Acetate is incorporated into all core histones during S-phase, but only into H2A and H2B during G2-period. Resolution of acetylated H4-subspecies reveals acetate incorporation into preexisting H4, but not into newly synthesized molecules during mitosis and early S-phase. In a protamine competition assay histones from S-phase chromatin are released at lower protamine concentrations as compared to the lower acetylated G2-chromatin. We demonstrate a preferential release of highly acetylated H4-subspecies at low protamine concentrations. Our results fit into a general model of the relationship between histone acetylation and chromatin assembly. According to this model acetylation of core histones would serve as a signal for displacement of histones from nucleosomes by modulating histone-protein or histone-DNA interactions. We propose that this mechanism operates during DNA-replication and transcription, as well as during other chromatin rearrangements. Images PMID:3118335

  14. Nucleotide sequence and functional analysis of cbbR, a positive regulator of the Calvin cycle operons of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, J L; Tabita, F R

    1993-01-01

    Structural genes encoding Calvin cycle enzymes in Rhodobacter sphaeroides are duplicated and organized within two physically distinct transcriptional units, the form I and form II cbb operons. Nucleotide sequence determination of the region upstream of the form I operon revealed a divergently transcribed open reading frame, cbbR, that showed significant similarity to the LysR family of transcriptional regulatory proteins. Mutants containing an insertionally inactivated cbbR gene were impaired in photoheterotrophic growth and completely unable to grow photolithoautotrophically with CO2 as the sole carbon source. In the cbbR strain, expression of genes within the form I operon was completely abolished and that of the form II operon was reduced to about 30% of the wild-type level. The cloned cbbR gene complemented the mutant for wild-type growth characteristics, and normal levels of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) were observed. However, rocket immunoelectrophoresis revealed that the wild-type level of RubisCO was due to overexpression of the form II enzyme, whereas expression of the form I RubisCO was 10% of that of the wild-type strain. The cbbR insertional inactivation did not appear to affect aerobic expression of either CO2 fixation operon, but preliminary evidence suggests that the constitutive expression of the form II operon observed in the cbbR strain may be subject to repression during aerobic growth. PMID:8376325

  15. Gene expression profiles in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) during the estrous cycle and pregnancy: Possible roles of chemokines in regulating CL function during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; HAYASHI, Ken-Go; HOSOE, Misa; IGA, Kosuke; KIZAKI, Keiichiro; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    To determine functional differences between the corpus luteum (CL) of the estrous cycle and pregnancy in cows, gene expression profiles were compared using a 15 K bovine oligo DNA microarray. In the pregnant CL at days 20–25, 40–45 and 150–160, the expressions of 138, 265 and 455 genes differed by a factor of > 2-fold (P < 0.05) from their expressions in the cyclic CL (days 10–12 of the estrous cycle). Messenger RNA expressions of chemokines (eotaxin, lymphotactin and ENA-78) and their receptors (CCR3, XCR1 and CXCR2) were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Transcripts of eotaxin were more abundant in the CL at days 40–45 and 150–160 of pregnancy than in the cyclic CL (P < 0.01). In contrast, the mRNA expressions of lymphotactin, ENA-78 and XCR1 were lower in the CL of pregnancy (P < 0.05). Messenger RNAs of CCR3 and CXCR2 were similarly detected both in the cyclic and pregnant CL. Tissue protein levels of eotaxin were significantly higher in the CL at days 150–160 of pregnancy than in the CL at other stages, whereas the lymphotactin protein levels in the CL at days 20–25 of pregnancy were lower (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that CCR3 was expressed in the luteal cells and that XCR1 was expressed in both the luteal cells and endothelial cells. Collectively, the different gene expression profiles may contribute to functional differences between the cyclic and pregnant CL, and chemokines including eotaxin and lymphotactin may regulate CL function during pregnancy in cows. PMID:25382605

  16. Methanol to olefin Conversion on HSAPO-34 zeolite from periodic density functional theory calculations: a complete cycle of side chain hydrocarbon pool mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.M.; Wang, Y.D.; Xie, Z.K.; Liu, Z.P.

    2009-03-15

    For its unique position in the coal chemical industry, the methanol to olefin (MTO) reaction has been a hot topic in zeolite catalysis. Due to the complexities of catalyst structure and reaction networks, many questions such as how the olefin chain is built from methanol remain elusive. On the basis of periodic density functional theory calculations, this work establishes the first complete catalytic cycle for MTO reaction via hexamethylbenzene (HMB) trapped in HSAPO-34 zeolite based on the so-called side chain hydrocarbon pool mechanism. The cycle starts from the methylation of HMB that leads to heptamethylbenzenium ion (heptaMB{sup +}) intermediate. This is then followed by the growth of side chain via repeated deprotonation of benzenium ions and methylation of the exocyclic double bond. Ethene and propene can finally be released from the side ethyl and isopropyl groups of benzenium ions by deprotonation and subsequent protonation steps. We demonstrate that (i) HMB/HSAPO-34 only yields propene as the primary product based on the side chain hydrocarbon pool mechanism and (ii) an indirect proton-shift step mediated by water that is always available in the system is energetically more favorable than the traditionally regarded internal hydrogen-shift step. Finally, the implications of our results toward understanding the effect of acidity of zeolite on MTO activity are also discussed.

  17. Mice Deficient for the Wild-Type p53-Induced Phosphatase Gene (Wip1) Exhibit Defects in Reproductive Organs, Immune Function, and Cell Cycle Control

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jene; Nannenga, Bonnie; Demidov, Oleg N.; Bulavin, Dmitry V.; Cooney, Austin; Brayton, Cory; Zhang, Yongxin; Mbawuike, Innocent N.; Bradley, Allan; Appella, Ettore; Donehower, Lawrence A.

    2002-01-01

    The Wip1 gene is a serine/threonine phosphatase that is induced in a p53-dependent manner by DNA-damaging agents. We show here that Wip1 message is expressed in moderate levels in all organs, but is present at very high levels in the testes, particularly in the postmeiotic round spermatid compartment of the seminiferous tubules. We have confirmed that Wip1 mRNA is induced by ionizing radiation in mouse tissues in a p53-dependent manner. To further determine the normal biological function of Wip1 in mammalian organisms, we have generated Wip1-deficient mice. Wip1 null mice are viable but show a variety of postnatal abnormalities, including variable male runting, male reproductive organ atrophy, reduced male fertility, and reduced male longevity. Mice lacking Wip1 show increased susceptibility to pathogens and diminished T- and B-cell function. Fibroblasts derived from Wip1 null embryos have decreased proliferation rates and appear to be compromised in entering mitosis. The data are consistent with an important role for Wip1 in spermatogenesis, lymphoid cell function, and cell cycle regulation. PMID:11809801

  18. Mice deficient for the wild-type p53-induced phosphatase gene (Wip1) exhibit defects in reproductive organs, immune function, and cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jene; Nannenga, Bonnie; Demidov, Oleg N; Bulavin, Dmitry V; Cooney, Austin; Brayton, Cory; Zhang, Yongxin; Mbawuike, Innocent N; Bradley, Allan; Appella, Ettore; Donehower, Lawrence A

    2002-02-01

    The Wip1 gene is a serine/threonine phosphatase that is induced in a p53-dependent manner by DNA-damaging agents. We show here that Wip1 message is expressed in moderate levels in all organs, but is present at very high levels in the testes, particularly in the postmeiotic round spermatid compartment of the seminiferous tubules. We have confirmed that Wip1 mRNA is induced by ionizing radiation in mouse tissues in a p53-dependent manner. To further determine the normal biological function of Wip1 in mammalian organisms, we have generated Wip1-deficient mice. Wip1 null mice are viable but show a variety of postnatal abnormalities, including variable male runting, male reproductive organ atrophy, reduced male fertility, and reduced male longevity. Mice lacking Wip1 show increased susceptibility to pathogens and diminished T- and B-cell function. Fibroblasts derived from Wip1 null embryos have decreased proliferation rates and appear to be compromised in entering mitosis. The data are consistent with an important role for Wip1 in spermatogenesis, lymphoid cell function, and cell cycle regulation. PMID:11809801

  19. The function and dynamics of the apical scaffolding protein E3KARP are regulated by cell-cycle phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Sauvanet, Cécile; Garbett, Damien; Bretscher, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We examine the dynamics and function of the apical scaffolding protein E3KARP/NHERF2, which consists of two PDZ domains and a tail containing an ezrin-binding domain. The exchange rate of E3KARP is greatly enhanced during mitosis due to phosphorylation at Ser-303 in its tail region. Whereas E3KARP can substitute for the function of the closely related scaffolding protein EBP50/NHERF1 in the formation of interphase microvilli, E3KARP S303D cannot. Moreover, the S303D mutation enhances the in vivo dynamics of the E3KARP tail alone, whereas in vitro the interaction of E3KARP with active ezrin is unaffected by S303D, implicating another factor regulating dynamics in vivo. A-Raf is found to be required for S303 phosphorylation in mitotic cells. Regulation of the dynamics of EBP50 is known to be dependent on its tail region but modulated by PDZ domain occupancy, which is not the case for E3KARP. Of interest, in both cases, the mechanisms regulating dynamics involve the tails, which are the most diverged region of the paralogues and probably evolved independently after a gene duplication event that occurred early in vertebrate evolution. PMID:26310448

  20. SYN2 is an autism predisposing gene: loss-of-function mutations alter synaptic vesicle cycling and axon outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Anna; Fadda, Manuela; Piton, Amélie; Patry, Lysanne; Marte, Antonella; Rossi, Pia; Cadieux-Dion, Maxime; Gauthier, Julie; Lapointe, Line; Mottron, Laurent; Valtorta, Flavia; Rouleau, Guy A; Fassio, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio; Cossette, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of genes predisposing to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been identified, many of which are implicated in synaptic function. This 'synaptic autism pathway' notably includes disruption of SYN1 that is associated with epilepsy, autism and abnormal behavior in both human and mice models. Synapsins constitute a multigene family of neuron-specific phosphoproteins (SYN1-3) present in the majority of synapses where they are implicated in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. Synapsins I and II, the major Syn isoforms in the adult brain, display partially overlapping functions and defects in both isoforms are associated with epilepsy and autistic-like behavior in mice. In this study, we show that nonsense (A94fs199X) and missense (Y236S and G464R) mutations in SYN2 are associated with ASD in humans. The phenotype is apparent in males. Female carriers of SYN2 mutations are unaffected, suggesting that SYN2 is another example of autosomal sex-limited expression in ASD. When expressed in SYN2 ?knockout neurons, wild-type human Syn II fully rescues the SYN2 knockout phenotype, whereas the nonsense mutant is not expressed and the missense mutants are virtually unable to modify the SYN2 knockout phenotype. These results identify for the first time SYN2 ?as a novel predisposing gene for ASD and strengthen the hypothesis that a disturbance of synaptic homeostasis underlies ASD. PMID:23956174

  1. Functional impact of Aurora A-mediated phosphorylation of HP1? at serine 83 during cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous elegant studies performed in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have identified a requirement for heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) for spindle pole formation and appropriate cell division. In mammalian cells, HP1? has been implicated in both somatic and germ cell proliferation. High levels of HP1? protein associate with enhanced cell proliferation and oncogenesis, while its genetic inactivation results in meiotic and mitotic failure. However, the regulation of HP1? by kinases, critical for supporting mitotic progression, remains to be fully characterized. Results We report for the first time that during mitotic cell division, HP1? colocalizes and is phosphorylated at serine 83 (Ser83) in G2/M phase by Aurora A. Since Aurora A regulates both cell proliferation and mitotic aberrations, we evaluated the role of HP1? in the regulation of these phenomena using siRNA-mediated knockdown, as well as phosphomimetic and nonphosphorylatable site-directed mutants. We found that genetic downregulation of HP1?, which decreases the levels of phosphorylation of HP1? at Ser83 (P-Ser83-HP1?), results in mitotic aberrations that can be rescued by reintroducing wild type HP1?, but not the nonphosphorylatable S83A-HP1? mutant. In addition, proliferation assays showed that the phosphomimetic S83D-HP1? increases 5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation, whereas the nonphosphorylatable S83A-HP1? mutant abrogates this effect. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed that the effects of these mutants on mitotic functions are congruently reflected in G2/M gene expression networks in a manner that mimics the on and off states for P-Ser83-HP1?. Conclusions This is the first description of a mitotic Aurora A-HP1? pathway, whose integrity is necessary for the execution of proper somatic cell division, providing insight into specific types of posttranslational modifications that associate to distinct functional outcomes of this important chromatin protein. PMID:23829974

  2. Menstrual Cycle

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pregnancy This information in Spanish ( en español ) The menstrual cycle Day 1 starts with the first day of ... drop around Day 25 . This signals the next menstrual cycle to begin. The egg will break apart and ...

  3. Biogeochemical Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This lecture will introduce the concept of biogeochemical cycling. The roles of microbes in the cycling of nutrients, production and consumption of trace gases, and mineralization will be briefly introduced.

  4. Genetic studies on the role of the nucleoside transport function in nucleoside efflux, the inosine cycle, and purine biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, B; Kaur, K; Watts, T

    1983-01-01

    A mutant clone (AU-100) which is 90% deficient in adenylosuccinate synthetase activity was characterized from wild-type murine S49 T-lymphoma cells. This AU-100 cell line and its hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient derivative, AUTG-50B, overproduce purines severalfold and excrete massive amounts of inosine into the culture medium (Ullman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79:5127-5131, 1982). We introduced a mutation into both of these cell lines which make them incapable of taking up nucleosides from the culture medium. The genetic deficiency in nucleoside transport prevents the adenylosuccinate synthetase-deficient AU-100 cells from excreting inosine. Because of an extremely efficient intracellular inosine salvage system, the nucleoside transport-deficient AU-100 cells also no longer overproduce purines. AUTG-50B cells which have been made genetically deficient in nucleoside transport still overproduce purines but excrete hypoxanthine rather than inosine. These studies demonstrate genetically that nucleoside transport and nucleoside efflux share a common component and that nucleoside transport has an important regulatory function which profoundly affects the rates of purine biosynthesis and purine salvage. Images PMID:6604218

  5. Ant-mediated ecosystem functions on a warmer planet: effects on soil movement, decomposition and nutrient cycling.

    PubMed

    Del Toro, Israel; Ribbons, Relena R; Ellison, Aaron M

    2015-09-01

    1. Direct and indirect consequences of global warming on ecosystem functions and processes mediated by invertebrates remain understudied but are likely to have major impacts on ecosystems in the future. Among animals, invertebrates are taxonomically diverse, responsive to temperature changes, and play major ecological roles which also respond to temperature changes. 2. We used a mesocosm experiment to evaluate impacts of two warming treatments (+3·5 and +5 °C, set-points) and the presence and absence of the ant Formica subsericea (a major mediator of processes in north temperate ecosystems) on decomposition rate, soil movement, soil respiration and nitrogen availability. 3, Replicate 19-L mesocosms were placed outdoors in lathe houses and continuously warmed for 30 days in 2011 and 85 days in 2012. Warming treatments mimicked expected temperature increases for future climates in eastern North America. 4. In both years, the amount of soil displaced and soil respiration increased in the warming and ant presence treatments (soil movement: 73-119%; soil respiration: 37-48% relative to the control treatments without ants). 5. Decomposition rate and nitrogen availability tended to decrease in the warmest treatments (decomposition rate: -26 to -30%; nitrate availability: -11 to -42%). 6. Path analyses indicated that ants had significant short-term direct and indirect effects on the studied ecosystem processes. These results suggest that ants may be moving more soil and building deeper nests to escape increasing temperatures, but warming may also influence their direct and indirect effects on soil ecosystem processes. PMID:25773283

  6. Mutations in the Yeast Hsp70, Ssa1, at P417 Alter ATP Cycling, Interdomain Coupling, and Specific Chaperone Functions.

    PubMed

    Needham, Patrick G; Patel, Hardik J; Chiosis, Gabriela; Thibodeau, Patrick H; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2015-09-11

    The major cytoplasmic Hsp70 chaperones in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the Ssa proteins, and much of our understanding of Hsp70 biology has emerged from studying ssa mutant strains. For example, Ssa1 catalyzes multiple cellular functions, including protein transport and degradation, and to this end, the ssa1-45 mutant has proved invaluable. However, the biochemical defects associated with the corresponding Ssa1-45 protein (P417L) are unknown. Consequently, we characterized Ssa1 P417L, as well as a P417S variant, which corresponds to a mutation in the gene encoding the yeast mitochondrial Hsp70. We discovered that the P417L and P417S proteins exhibit accelerated ATPase activity that was similar to the Hsp40-stimulated rate of ATP hydrolysis of wild-type Ssa1. We also found that the mutant proteins were compromised for peptide binding. These data are consistent with defects in peptide-stimulated ATPase activity and with results from limited proteolysis experiments, which indicated that the mutants' substrate binding domains were highly vulnerable to digestion. Defects in the reactivation of heat-denatured luciferase were also evident. Correspondingly, yeast expressing P417L or P417S as the only copy of Ssa were temperature sensitive and exhibited defects in Ssa1-dependent protein translocation and misfolded protein degradation. Together, our studies suggest that the structure of the substrate binding domain is altered and that coupling between this domain and the nucleotide binding domain is disabled when the conserved P417 residue is mutated. Our data also provide new insights into the nature of the many cellular defects associated with the ssa1-45 allele. PMID:25913688

  7. Eur. J. Biochem. 173,437-443 (1988) A functional five-enzyme complex of chloroplasts involved in the Calvin cycle

    E-print Network

    1988-01-01

    involved in the Calvin cycle Brigitte GONTERO ',Maria Luz CARDENAS' and Jacques RICARD' Centre de of the Calvin cycle, of which the two reactions catalysed by phosphoribulokinase and ribulose belonging to the Calvin cycle, although some recent reports suggest the possibility of an association

  8. Linking N2O emissions from biochar-amended soil to the structure and function of the N-cycling microbial community.

    PubMed

    Harter, Johannes; Krause, Hans-Martin; Schuettler, Stefanie; Ruser, Reiner; Fromme, Markus; Scholten, Thomas; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2014-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes 8% to global greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural sources represent about 60% of anthropogenic N2O emissions. Most agricultural N2O emissions are due to increased fertilizer application. A considerable fraction of nitrogen fertilizers are converted to N2O by microbiological processes (that is, nitrification and denitrification). Soil amended with biochar (charcoal created by pyrolysis of biomass) has been demonstrated to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and affect greenhouse gas emissions, for example, reduce N2O emissions. Despite several studies on variations in the general microbial community structure due to soil biochar amendment, hitherto the specific role of the nitrogen cycling microbial community in mitigating soil N2O emissions has not been subject of systematic investigation. We performed a microcosm study with a water-saturated soil amended with different amounts (0%, 2% and 10% (w/w)) of high-temperature biochar. By quantifying the abundance and activity of functional marker genes of microbial nitrogen fixation (nifH), nitrification (amoA) and denitrification (nirK, nirS and nosZ) using quantitative PCR we found that biochar addition enhanced microbial nitrous oxide reduction and increased the abundance of microorganisms capable of N2-fixation. Soil biochar amendment increased the relative gene and transcript copy numbers of the nosZ-encoded bacterial N2O reductase, suggesting a mechanistic link to the observed reduction in N2O emissions. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the impact of biochar on the nitrogen cycling microbial community and the consequences of soil biochar amendment for microbial nitrogen transformation processes and N2O emissions from soil. PMID:24067258

  9. Centrosome structure and function is altered by chloral hydrate and diazepam during the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the mode of action of the tranquillizers chloral hydrate and diazepam during fertilization and mitosis of the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs. Most striking effects of these drugs are the alteration of centrosomal material and the abnormal microtubule configurations during exposure and after recovery from the drugs. This finding is utilized to study the mechanisms of centrosome compaction and decompaction and the dynamic configurational changes of centrosomal material and its interactions with microtubules. When 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam is applied at specific phases during the first cell cycle of sea urchin eggs, expanded centrosomal material compacts at distinct regions and super-compacts into dense spheres while microtubules disassemble. When eggs are treated before pronuclear fusion, centrosomal material aggregates around each of the two pronuclei while microtubules disappear. Upon recovery, atypical asters oftentimes with multiple foci are formed from centrosomal material surrounding the pronuclei which indicates that the drugs have affected centrosomal material and prevent it from functioning normally. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies with antibodies that routinely stain centrosomes in sea urchin eggs (4D2; and Ah-6) depict centrosomal material that is altered when compared to control cells. This centrosomal material is not able to reform normal microtubule patterns upon recovery but will form multiple asters around the two pronuclei. When cells are treated with 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam during mitosis, the bipolar centrosomal material becomes compacted and aggregates into multiple dense spheres while spindle and polar microtubules disassemble. With increased incubation time, the smaller dense centrosome particles aggregate into bigger and fewer spheres. Upon recovery, unusual irregular microtubule configurations are formed from centrosomes that have lost their ability to reform normal mitotic figures. These results indicate that chloral hydrate and diazepam affect centrosome structure which results in the inability to reform normal microtubule formations and causes abnormal fertilization and mitosis.

  10. Linking N2O emissions from biochar-amended soil to the structure and function of the N-cycling microbial community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, Johannes; Krause, Hans-Martin; Schuettler, Stefanie; Ruser, Reiner; Fromme, Markus; Scholten, Thomas; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes 8% to global greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural sources represent about 60% of anthropogenic N2O emissions. Most agricultural N2O emissions are due to increased fertilizer application. A considerable fraction of nitrogen fertilizers are converted to N2O by microbially-mediated processes. Soil amended with biochar has been demonstrated to reduce N2O emissions in the field and in laboratory experiments. Although N2O emission mitigation following soil biochar amendment has been reported frequently the underlying processes and specific role of the nitrogen cycling microbial community in decreasing soil N2O emissions has not been subject of systematic investigation. To investigate the impact of biochar on the microbial community of nitrogen-transforming microorganisms we performed a microcosm study with arable soil amended with different amounts (0%, 2% and 10% (w/w)) of high-temperature wood derived biochar. By quantifying the abundance and activity of functional marker genes of microbial nitrogen fixation (nifH), nitrification (amoA) and denitrification (nirK, nirS and nosZ) using quantitative real-time PCR we found that biochar addition enhanced microbial nitrous oxide reduction and increased the abundance of microorganisms capable of N2-fixation. Soil biochar amendment increased the relative gene and transcript copy numbers of the nosZ-encoded bacterial N2O reductase, suggesting a mechanistic link to the observed reduction in N2O emissions. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the impact of biochar on the nitrogen cycling microbial community and the consequences of soil biochar amendment for microbial nitrogen transformation processes and N2O emissions from soil.

  11. Linking N2O emissions from biochar-amended soil to the structure and function of the N-cycling microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Harter, Johannes; Krause, Hans-Martin; Schuettler, Stefanie; Ruser, Reiner; Fromme, Markus; Scholten, Thomas; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes 8% to global greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural sources represent about 60% of anthropogenic N2O emissions. Most agricultural N2O emissions are due to increased fertilizer application. A considerable fraction of nitrogen fertilizers are converted to N2O by microbiological processes (that is, nitrification and denitrification). Soil amended with biochar (charcoal created by pyrolysis of biomass) has been demonstrated to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and affect greenhouse gas emissions, for example, reduce N2O emissions. Despite several studies on variations in the general microbial community structure due to soil biochar amendment, hitherto the specific role of the nitrogen cycling microbial community in mitigating soil N2O emissions has not been subject of systematic investigation. We performed a microcosm study with a water-saturated soil amended with different amounts (0%, 2% and 10% (w/w)) of high-temperature biochar. By quantifying the abundance and activity of functional marker genes of microbial nitrogen fixation (nifH), nitrification (amoA) and denitrification (nirK, nirS and nosZ) using quantitative PCR we found that biochar addition enhanced microbial nitrous oxide reduction and increased the abundance of microorganisms capable of N2-fixation. Soil biochar amendment increased the relative gene and transcript copy numbers of the nosZ-encoded bacterial N2O reductase, suggesting a mechanistic link to the observed reduction in N2O emissions. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the impact of biochar on the nitrogen cycling microbial community and the consequences of soil biochar amendment for microbial nitrogen transformation processes and N2O emissions from soil. PMID:24067258

  12. Protease Inhibitors Block Multiple Functions of the NS3/4A Protease-Helicase during the Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Masaki, Takahiro; Lovell, William; Hamlett, Chris; Saalau-Bethell, Susanne; Graham, Brent

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 is a multifunctional protein composed of a protease domain and a helicase domain linked by a flexible linker. Protease activity is required to generate viral nonstructural (NS) proteins involved in RNA replication. Helicase activity is required for RNA replication, and genetic evidence implicates the helicase domain in virus assembly. Binding of protease inhibitors (PIs) to the protease active site blocks NS3-dependent polyprotein processing but might impact other steps of the virus life cycle. Kinetic analyses of antiviral suppression of cell culture-infectious genotype 1a strain H77S.3 were performed using assays that measure different readouts of the viral life cycle. In addition to the active-site PI telaprevir, we examined an allosteric protease-helicase inhibitor (APHI) that binds a site in the interdomain interface. By measuring nucleotide incorporation into HCV genomes, we found that telaprevir inhibits RNA synthesis as early as 12 h at high but clinically relevant concentrations. Immunoblot analyses showed that NS5B abundance was not reduced until after 12 h, suggesting that telaprevir exerts a direct effect on RNA synthesis. In contrast, the APHI could partially inhibit RNA synthesis, suggesting that the allosteric site is not always available during RNA synthesis. The APHI and active-site PI were both able to block virus assembly soon (<12 h) after drug treatment, suggesting that they rapidly engage with and block a pool of NS3 involved in assembly. In conclusion, PIs and APHIs can block NS3 functions in RNA synthesis and virus assembly, in addition to inhibiting polyprotein processing. IMPORTANCE The NS3/4A protease of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important antiviral target. Currently, three PIs have been approved for therapy of chronic hepatitis C, and several others are in development. NS3-dependent cleavage of the HCV polyprotein is required to generate the mature nonstructural proteins that form the viral replicase. Inhibition of protease activity can block RNA replication by preventing expression of mature replicase components. Like many viral proteins, NS3 is multifunctional, but how PIs affect stages of the HCV life cycle beyond polyprotein processing has not been well studied. Using cell-based assays, we show here that PIs can directly inhibit viral RNA synthesis and also block a late stage in virus assembly/maturation at clinically relevant concentrations. PMID:25740995

  13. TRIIODOTHYRONINE INCREASES MYOCARDIAL FUNCTION AND PYRUVATE ENTRY INTO THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE AFTER REPERFUSION IN A MODEL OF INFANT CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Aaron; Bouchard, Bertrand; Ning, Xue-Han; Isern, Nancy G.; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2012-03-01

    We utilized a translational model of infant CPB to test the hypothesis that T3 modulates pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) thereby providing the energy support for improved cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion. Methods and Results: Neonatal piglets received intracoronary [2-13Carbon(13C)]-pyruvate for 40 minutes (8 mM) during control aerobic conditions (Cont) or immediately after reperfusion (IR) from global hypothermic ischemia. A third group (IR-Tr) received T3 (1.2 ug/kg) during reperfusion. We assessed absolute CAC intermediate levels (aCAC) and flux parameters into the CAC through oxidative pyruvate decarboxylation (PDC ) and anaplerotic carboxylation (PC; ) using 13C-labeled pyruvate and isotopomer analysis by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13C NMR. Neither IR nor IR-Tr modified aCAC. However, compared to IR, T3 (group IR-Tr) increased cardiac power and oxygen consumption after CPB while elevating both PDC and PC (~ four-fold). T3 inhibited IR induced reductions in CAC intermediate molar percent enrichment (MPE) and oxaloacetate(citrate)/malate MPE ratio; an index of aspartate entry into the CAC. Conclusions: T3 markedly enhances PC and PDC thereby providing substrate for elevated cardiac function and work after reperfusion. The increases in pyruvate flux occur with preservation of the CAC intermediate pool. Additionally, T3 inhibition of reductions in CAC intermediate MPEs indicates that T3 reduces the reliance on amino acids (AA) for anaplerosis after reperfusion. Thus, AA should be more available for other functions such as protein synthesis.

  14. The regulatory function of miR-200c on inflammatory and cell-cycle associated genes in SK-LMS-1, a leiomyosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Tsai-Der; Ho, Matthew; Khorram, Omid

    2015-05-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcoma is a relatively rare malignancy with high mortality due to metastasis and chemoresistance. Leiomyosarcomas share similar morphological characteristics with leiomyomas which are considered to have the potential of transformation into leiomyosarcoma. Accumulated evidence suggests that microRNAs acting as regulators of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level play key roles in diverse biological processes including cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that miR-200c, whose expression is altered in leiomyomas, equally plays a key role in pathogenesis of leiomyosarcoma. Using SK-LMS-1 leiomyosarcoma cell line as an in vitro model here, we found that the level of expression of miR-200c was significantly lower as compared to isolated leiomyoma smooth muscle cells. Overexpression (gain-of-function) of miR-200c in SK-LMS-1 through direct interaction with 3'-untranslated region of IKBKB, IL8, CDK2, and CCNE2, respectively, resulted in suppression of their expression as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Additionally, gain-of-function of miR-200c through inhibition of IKBKB expression resulted in decreased p65 transcriptional activity in IL8 promoter. Gain-of-function of miR-200c also increased SK-LMS-1 caspase 3/7 activity and inhibited their proliferation and migration. In summary, the results suggest that a progressive decline in miR-200c expression which alters transcriptional regulation of specific target genes that control nuclear factor-?B signaling pathway, inflammation, cell cycle, and migration, in part may promote development and progression of leiomyosarcomas, including their transformation from leiomyomas. PMID:25305131

  15. Purple bamboo salt has anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells in vitro and preventive effects on buccal mucosa cancer in mice in vivo

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, XIN; DENG, XIAOXIAO; PARK, KUN-YOUNG; QIU, LIHUA; PANG, LIANG

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo salt is a traditional healthy salt known in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of the salt were evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells. At 1% concentration, the growth inhibitory rate of purple bamboo salt was 61% higher than that of sea salt (27%). Apoptosis analysis of the cancer cells was carried out using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to investigate the mechanism of the anticancer effects in tongue carcinoma cells. Purple bamboo salt induced a stronger apoptotic effect than sea salt. An Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with salt samples. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the group treated with purple bamboo salt were smaller than those from the sea salt treatment and control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that canceration in the purple bamboo salt group was weaker compared with that in the sea salt group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, the purple bamboo salt group demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, compared with the sea salt and control groups. The results demonstrated that purple bamboo salt had improved in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with sea salt in mice. PMID:23403521

  16. Role for a region of helically unstable DNA within the Epstein-Barr virus latent cycle origin of DNA replication oriP in origin function

    SciTech Connect

    Polonskaya, Zhanna; Benham, Craig J.; Hearing, Janet . E-mail: jhearing@ms.cc.sunysb.edu

    2004-10-25

    The minimal replicator of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent cycle origin of DNA replication oriP is composed of two binding sites for the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and flanking inverted repeats that bind the telomere repeat binding factor TRF2. Although not required for minimal replicator activity, additional binding sites for EBNA-1 and TRF2 and one or more auxiliary elements located to the right of the EBNA-1/TRF2 sites are required for the efficient replication of oriP plasmids. Another region of oriP that is predicted to be destabilized by DNA supercoiling is shown here to be an important functional component of oriP. The ability of DNA fragments of unrelated sequence and possessing supercoiled-induced DNA duplex destabilized (SIDD) structures, but not fragments characterized by helically stable DNA, to substitute for this component of oriP demonstrates a role for the SIDD region in the initiation of oriP-plasmid DNA replication.

  17. Cycle-to-cycle variability as an optimal behavioral strategy

    PubMed Central

    Brezina, Vladimir; Proekt, Alex; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.

    2009-01-01

    Aplysia feeding behavior is highly variable from cycle to cycle. In some cycles, when the variability causes a mismatch between the animal's movements and the requirements of the feeding task, the variability makes the behavior unsuccessful. We propose that the behavior is variable nevertheless because the variability serves a higher-order functional purpose. When the animal is faced with a new and only imperfectly known feeding task in each cycle, the variability implements a trial-and-error search through the space of possible feeding movements. Over many cycles, this may be the animal's optimal strategy in an uncertain and changing feeding environment. PMID:19830256

  18. Cycle-to-cycle variability as an optimal behavioral strategy.

    PubMed

    Brezina, Vladimir; Proekt, Alex; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2006-06-01

    Aplysia feeding behavior is highly variable from cycle to cycle. In some cycles, when the variability causes a mismatch between the animal's movements and the requirements of the feeding task, the variability makes the behavior unsuccessful. We propose that the behavior is variable nevertheless because the variability serves a higher-order functional purpose. When the animal is faced with a new and only imperfectly known feeding task in each cycle, the variability implements a trial-and-error search through the space of possible feeding movements. Over many cycles, this may be the animal's optimal strategy in an uncertain and changing feeding environment. PMID:19830256

  19. Escherichia coli Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (FabI) Supports Efficient Operation of a Functional Reversal of the ?-Oxidation Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Vick, Jacob E.; Clomburg, James M.; Blankschien, Matthew D.; Chou, Alexander; Kim, Seohyoung

    2014-01-01

    We recently used a synthetic/bottom-up approach to establish the identity of the four enzymes composing an engineered functional reversal of the ?-oxidation cycle for fuel and chemical production in Escherichia coli (J. M. Clomburg, J. E. Vick, M. D. Blankschien, M. Rodriguez-Moya, and R. Gonzalez, ACS Synth Biol 1:541–554, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/sb3000782). While native enzymes that catalyze the first three steps of the pathway were identified, the identity of the native enzyme(s) acting as the trans-enoyl coenzyme A (CoA) reductase(s) remained unknown, limiting the amount of product that could be synthesized (e.g., 0.34 g/liter butyrate) and requiring the overexpression of a foreign enzyme (the Euglena gracilis trans-enoyl-CoA reductase [EgTER]) to achieve high titers (e.g., 3.4 g/liter butyrate). Here, we examine several native E. coli enzymes hypothesized to catalyze the reduction of enoyl-CoAs to acyl-CoAs. Our results indicate that FabI, the native enoyl-acyl carrier protein (enoyl-ACP) reductase (ENR) from type II fatty acid biosynthesis, possesses sufficient NADH-dependent TER activity to support the efficient operation of a ?-oxidation reversal. Overexpression of FabI proved as effective as EgTER for the production of butyrate and longer-chain carboxylic acids. Given the essential nature of fabI, we investigated whether bacterial ENRs from other families were able to complement a fabI deletion without promiscuous reduction of crotonyl-CoA. These characteristics from Bacillus subtilis FabL enabled ?fabI complementation experiments that conclusively established that FabI encodes a native enoyl-CoA reductase activity that supports the ?-oxidation reversal in E. coli. PMID:25527535

  20. NETs and cell cycle regulation.

    PubMed

    Robson, Michael I; Le Thanh, Phu; Schirmer, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    There are many ways that the nuclear envelope can influence the cell cycle. In addition to roles of lamins in regulating the master cell cycle regulator pRb and nuclear envelope breakdown in mitosis, many other nuclear envelope proteins influence the cell cycle through regulatory or structural functions. Of particular note among these are the nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that appear to influence cell cycle regulation through multiple separate mechanisms. Some NETs and other nuclear envelope proteins accumulate on the mitotic spindle, suggesting functional or structural roles in the cell cycle. In interphase exogenous overexpression of some NETs promotes an increase in G1 populations, while others promote an increase in G2/M populations, sometimes associated with the induction of senescence. Intriguingly, most of the NETs linked to the cell cycle are highly restricted in their tissue expression; thus, their misregulation in cancer could contribute to the many tissue-specific types of cancer. PMID:24563348

  1. Vapor Compression Cycle Design Program (CYCLE_D)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 49 NIST Vapor Compression Cycle Design Program (CYCLE_D) (PC database for purchase)   The CYCLE_D database package simulates the vapor compression refrigeration cycles. It is fully compatible with REFPROP 9.0 and covers the 62 single-compound refrigerants . Fluids can be used in mixtures comprising up to five components.

  2. Studying Microbial Mat Functioning Amidst "Unexpected Diversity": Methodological Approaches and Initial Results from Metatranscriptomes of Mats Over Diel cycles, iTags from Long Term Manipulations, and Biogeochemical Cycling in Simplified Microbial Mats Constructed from Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebout, B.; Bebout, L. E.; Detweiler, A. M.; Everroad, R. C.; Lee, J.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Weber, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial mats are famously amongst the most diverse microbial ecosystems on Earth, inhabiting some of the most inclement environments known, including hypersaline, dry, hot, cold, nutrient poor, and high UV environments. The high microbial diversity of microbial mats makes studies of microbial ecology notably difficult. To address this challenge, we have been using a combination of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, iTags and culture-based simplified microbial mats to study biogeochemical cycling (H2 production, N2 fixation, and fermentation) in microbial mats collected from Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Bay, California. Metatranscriptomes of microbial mats incubated over a diel cycle have revealed that a number of gene systems activate only during the day in Cyanobacteria, while the remaining appear to be constitutive. The dominant cyanobacterium in the mat (Microcoleus chthonoplastes) expresses several pathways for nitrogen scavenging undocumented in cultured strains, as well as the expression of two starch storage and utilization cycles. Community composition shifts in response to long term manipulations of mats were assessed using iTags. Changes in community diversity were observed as hydrogen fluxes increased in response to a lowering of sulfate concentrations. To produce simplified microbial mats, we have isolated members of 13 of the 15 top taxa from our iTag libraries into culture. Simplified microbial mats and simple co-cultures and consortia constructed from these isolates reproduce many of the natural patterns of biogeochemical cycling in the parent natural microbial mats, but against a background of far lower overall diversity, simplifying studies of changes in gene expression (over the short term), interactions between community members, and community composition changes (over the longer term), in response to environmental forcing.

  3. Functional analysis of actin-like protein MreB and alternative sigma factor RpoN in chlamydial developmental cycle

    E-print Network

    Balwalli, Namita Ashwin

    2013-05-31

    confirms its role in transcription of the predicted targets CT652.1 and CT683. Elucidating its role in vivo using modified shuttle vector is the next step to study its role in the chlamydial developmental cycle....

  4. Characterization of a Functional Role of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum Isocitrate Lyase in Desiccation Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jeong-Min; Lee, Hae-In; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Sugawara, Masayuki; Chang, Woo-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum is a nitrogen-fixing symbiont of soybean. In previous studies, transcriptomic profiling of B. japonicum USDA110, grown under various environmental conditions, revealed the highly induced gene aceA, encoding isocitrate lyase (ICL). The ICL catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate in the glyoxylate bypass of the TCA cycle. Here, we evaluated the functional role of B. japonicum ICL under desiccation-induced stress conditions. We purified AceA (molecular mass = 65 kDa) from B. japonicum USDA110, using a His-tag and Ni-NTA column approach, and confirmed its ICL enzyme activity. The aceA mutant showed higher sensitivity to desiccation stress (27% relative humidity (RH)), compared to the wild type. ICL activity of the wild type strain increased approximately 2.5-fold upon exposure to 27% RH for 24 h. The aceA mutant also showed an increased susceptibility to salt stress. Gene expression analysis of aceA using qRT-PCR revealed a 148-fold induction by desiccation, while other genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway were not differentially expressed in this condition. Transcriptome analyses revealed that stress-related genes, such as chaperones, were upregulated in the wild-type under desiccating conditions, even though fold induction was not dramatic (ca. 1.5–2.5-fold). PMID:26204840

  5. Comparison of Optimal Thermodynamic Models of the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle from Heterotrophs, Cyanobacteria, and Green Sulfur Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Dennis G.; Jaramillo Riveri, Sebastian I.; Baxter, Douglas J.; Cannon, William R.

    2014-12-15

    We have applied a new stochastic simulation approach to predict the metabolite levels, energy flow, and material flux in the different oxidative TCA cycles found in E. coli and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and in the reductive TCA cycle typical of chemolithoautotrophs and phototrophic green sulfur bacteria such as Chlorobaculum tepidum. The simulation approach is based on equations of state and employs an assumption similar to that used in transition state theory. The ability to evaluate the thermodynamics of metabolic pathways allows one to understand the relationship between coupling of energy and material gradients in the environment and the selforganization of stable biological systems, and it is shown that each cycle operates in the direction expected due to its environmental niche. The simulations predict changes in metabolite levels and flux in response to changes in cofactor concentrations that would be hard to predict without an elaborate model based on the law of mass action. In fact, we show that a thermodynamically unfavorable reaction can still have flux in the forward direction when it is part of a reaction network. The ability to predict metabolite levels, energy flow and material flux should be significant for understanding the dynamics of natural systems and for understanding principles for engineering organisms for production of specialty chemicals, such as biofuels.

  6. Characterization of RAD9 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and evidence that its function acts posttranslationally in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage.

    PubMed Central

    Weinert, T A; Hartwell, L H

    1990-01-01

    In eucaryotic cells, incompletely replicated or damaged chromosomes induce cell cycle arrest in G2 before mitosis, and in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the RAD9 gene is essential for the cell cycle arrest (T.A. Weinert and L. H. Hartwell, Science 241:317-322, 1988). In this report, we extend the analysis of RAD9-dependent cell cycle control. We found that both induction of RAD9-dependent arrest in G2 and recovery from arrest could occur in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, showing that the mechanism of RAD9-dependent control involves a posttranslational mechanism(s). We have isolated and determined the DNA sequence of the RAD9 gene, confirming the DNA sequence reported previously (R. H. Schiestl, P. Reynolds, S. Prakash, and L. Prakash, Mol. Cell. Biol. 9:1882-1886, 1989). The predicted protein sequence for the Rad9 protein bears no similarity to sequences of known proteins. We also found that synthesis of the RAD9 transcript in the cell cycle was constitutive and not induced by X-irradiation. We constructed yeast cells containing a complete deletion of the RAD9 gene; the rad9 null mutants were viable, sensitive to X- and UV irradiation, and defective for cell cycle arrest after DNA damage. Although Rad+ and rad9 delta cells had similar growth rates and cell cycle kinetics in unirradiated cells, the spontaneous rate of chromosome loss (in unirradiated cells) was elevated 7- to 21-fold in rad9 delta cells. These studies show that in the presence of induced or endogenous DNA damage, RAD9 is a negative regulator that inhibits progression from G2 in order to preserve cell viability and to maintain the fidelity of chromosome transmission. Images PMID:2247073

  7. Menu Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Alfred; Almony, John

    The curriculum guide for commercial foods instruction is designed to aid the teacher in communicating the importance of menu cycles in commercial food production. It also provides information about the necessary steps in getting food from the raw form to the finished product, and then to the consumer. In addition to providing information on how to…

  8. Biochemical Validation of the Glyoxylate Cycle in the Cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis fritschii Strain PCC 9212.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyi; Bryant, Donald A

    2015-05-29

    Cyanobacteria are important photoautotrophic bacteria with extensive but variable metabolic capacities. The existence of the glyoxylate cycle, a variant of the TCA cycle, is still poorly documented in cyanobacteria. Previous studies reported the activities of isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, the key enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle in some cyanobacteria, but other studies concluded that these enzymes are missing. In this study the genes encoding isocitrate lyase and malate synthase from Chlorogloeopsis fritschii PCC 9212 were identified, and the recombinant enzymes were biochemically characterized. Consistent with the presence of the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, C. fritschii could assimilate acetate under both light and dark growth conditions. Transcript abundances for isocitrate lyase and malate synthase increased, and C. fritschii grew faster, when the growth medium was supplemented with acetate. Adding acetate to the growth medium also increased the yield of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate. When the genes encoding isocitrate lyase and malate synthase were expressed in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, the acetate assimilation capacity of the resulting strain was greater than that of wild type. Database searches showed that the genes for the glyoxylate cycle exist in only a few other cyanobacteria, all of which are able to fix nitrogen. This study demonstrates that the glyoxylate cycle exists in a few cyanobacteria, and that this pathway plays an important role in the assimilation of acetate for growth in one of those organisms. The glyoxylate cycle might play a role in coordinating carbon and nitrogen metabolism under conditions of nitrogen fixation. PMID:25869135

  9. Quantitative PCR Analysis of Functional Genes in Iron-Rich Microbial Mats at an Active Hydrothermal Vent System (L?'ihi Seamount, Hawai'i)

    PubMed Central

    Jesser, Kelsey J.; Fullerton, Heather; Hager, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    The chemolithotrophic Zetaproteobacteria represent a novel class of Proteobacteria which oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III) and are the dominant bacterial population in iron-rich microbial mats. Zetaproteobacteria were first discovered at L?'ihi Seamount, located 35 km southeast off the big island of Hawai'i, which is characterized by low-temperature diffuse hydrothermal venting. Novel nondegenerate quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for genes associated with microbial nitrogen fixation, denitrification, arsenic detoxification, Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB), and reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles were developed using selected microbial mat community-derived metagenomes. Nitrogen fixation genes were not detected, but all other functional genes were present. This suggests that arsenic detoxification and denitrification processes are likely cooccurring in addition to two modes of carbon fixation. Two groups of microbial mat community types were identified by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and were further described based on qPCR data for zetaproteobacterial abundance and carbon fixation mode preference. qPCR variance was associated with mat morphology but not with temperature or sample site. Geochemistry data were significantly associated with sample site and mat morphology. Together, these qPCR assays constitute a functional gene signature for iron microbial mat communities across a broad array of temperatures, mat types, chemistries, and sampling sites at L?'ihi Seamount. PMID:25681182

  10. Quantitative PCR analysis of functional genes in iron-rich microbial mats at an active hydrothermal vent system (L?'ihi Seamount, Hawai'i).

    PubMed

    Jesser, Kelsey J; Fullerton, Heather; Hager, Kevin W; Moyer, Craig L

    2015-05-01

    The chemolithotrophic Zetaproteobacteria represent a novel class of Proteobacteria which oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III) and are the dominant bacterial population in iron-rich microbial mats. Zetaproteobacteria were first discovered at L?'ihi Seamount, located 35 km southeast off the big island of Hawai'i, which is characterized by low-temperature diffuse hydrothermal venting. Novel nondegenerate quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for genes associated with microbial nitrogen fixation, denitrification, arsenic detoxification, Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB), and reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles were developed using selected microbial mat community-derived metagenomes. Nitrogen fixation genes were not detected, but all other functional genes were present. This suggests that arsenic detoxification and denitrification processes are likely cooccurring in addition to two modes of carbon fixation. Two groups of microbial mat community types were identified by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and were further described based on qPCR data for zetaproteobacterial abundance and carbon fixation mode preference. qPCR variance was associated with mat morphology but not with temperature or sample site. Geochemistry data were significantly associated with sample site and mat morphology. Together, these qPCR assays constitute a functional gene signature for iron microbial mat communities across a broad array of temperatures, mat types, chemistries, and sampling sites at L?'ihi Seamount. PMID:25681182

  11. The nucleotide exchange factor MGE exerts a key function in the ATP-dependent cycle of mt-Hsp70-Tim44 interaction driving mitochondrial protein import.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, H C; Westermann, B; Neupert, W; Brunner, M

    1996-01-01

    Import of preproteins into the mitochondrial matrix is driven by the ATP-dependent interaction of mt-Hsp70 with the peripheral inner membrane import protein Tim44 and the preprotein in transit. We show that Mge1p, a co-chaperone of mt-Hsp70, plays a key role in the ATP-dependent import reaction cycle in yeast. Our data suggest a cycle in which the mt-Hsp70-Tim44 complex forms with ATP: Mge1p promotes assembly of the complex in the presence of ATP. Hydrolysis of ATP by mt-Hsp70 occurs in complex with Tim44. Mge1p is then required for the dissociation of the ADP form of mt-Hsp70 from Tim44 after release of inorganic phosphate but before release of ADP. ATP hydrolysis and complex dissociation are accompanied by tight binding of mt-Hsp70 to the preprotein in transit. Subsequently, the release of mt-Hsp70 from the polypeptide chain is triggered by Mge1p which promotes release of ADP from mt-Hsp70. Rebinding of ATP to mt-Hsp70 completes the reaction cycle. Images PMID:8918457

  12. Genome-wide In-silico Identification of Transcriptional Regulators Controlling Cell Cycle in Human Cells

    E-print Network

    Shamir, Ron

    - 1 - Genome-wide In-silico Identification of Transcriptional Regulators Controlling Cell Cycle cell cycle Key words: Transcriptional regulation, cell cycle, functional genomics. #12;- 2 - Abstract on transcriptional mechanisms that control cell cycle progression, our computational analyses revealed eight

  13. Metformin and phenformin deplete tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolytic intermediates during cell transformation and NTPs in cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Janzer, Andreas; German, Natalie J.; Gonzalez-Herrera, Karina N.; Asara, John M.; Haigis, Marcia C.; Struhl, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Metformin, a first-line diabetes drug linked to cancer prevention in retrospective clinical analyses, inhibits cellular transformation and selectively kills breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). Although a few metabolic effects of metformin and the related biguanide phenformin have been investigated in established cancer cell lines, the global metabolic impact of biguanides during the process of neoplastic transformation and in CSCs is unknown. Here, we use LC/MS/MS metabolomics (>200 metabolites) to assess metabolic changes induced by metformin and phenformin in an Src-inducible model of cellular transformation and in mammosphere-derived breast CSCs. Although phenformin is the more potent biguanide in both systems, the metabolic profiles of these drugs are remarkably similar, although not identical. During the process of cellular transformation, biguanide treatment prevents the boost in glycolytic intermediates at a specific stage of the pathway and coordinately decreases tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. In contrast, in breast CSCs, biguanides have a modest effect on glycolytic and TCA cycle intermediates, but they strongly deplete nucleotide triphosphates and may impede nucleotide synthesis. These metabolic profiles are consistent with the idea that biguanides inhibit mitochondrial complex 1, but they indicate that their metabolic effects differ depending on the stage of cellular transformation. PMID:25002509

  14. Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles

    DOEpatents

    Dao, Kim (14 Nace Ave., Piedmont, CA 94611)

    1990-01-01

    Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

  15. Acclimation to Chronic O3 in Field-grown Soybean is Characterized by Increased Levels of TCA Cycle Transcripts and ROS Scavenging Compounds in Addition to Decreased Photosynthetic Capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a pollutant that is generated by volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides and sunlight. When plants take in O3 through stomata, harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced that induce the production of ROS scavenging antioxidants. Climate change predictions indic...

  16. Functional Interactions between BM88/Cend1, Ran-Binding Protein M and Dyrk1B Kinase Affect Cyclin D1 Levels and Cell Cycle Progression/Exit in Mouse Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsioras, Konstantinos; Papastefanaki, Florentia; Politis, Panagiotis K.; Matsas, Rebecca; Gaitanou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    BM88/Cend1 is a neuronal-lineage specific modulator with a pivotal role in coordination of cell cycle exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors. In the current study we identified the signal transduction scaffolding protein Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) as a BM88/Cend1 binding partner and showed that BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1B (Dyrk1B) are expressed in mouse brain as well as in cultured embryonic cortical neurons while RanBPM can form complexes with either of the two other proteins. To elucidate a potential mechanism involving BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and Dyrk1B in cell cycle progression/exit, we transiently co-expressed these proteins in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro 2a cells. We found that the BM88/Cend1-dependent or Dyrk1B-dependent down-regulation of cyclin D1 is reversed following their functional interaction with RanBPM. More specifically, functional interaction of RanBPM with either BM88/Cend1 or Dyrk1B stabilizes cyclin D1 in the nucleus and promotes 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation as a measure of enhanced cell proliferation. However, the RanBPM-dependent Dyrk1B cytosolic retention and degradation is reverted in the presence of Cend1 resulting in cyclin D1 destabilization. Co-expression of RanBPM with either BM88/Cend1 or Dyrk1B also had a negative effect on Neuro 2a cell differentiation. Our results suggest that functional interactions between BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and Dyrk1B affect the balance between cellular proliferation and differentiation in Neuro 2a cells and indicate that a potentially similar mechanism may influence cell cycle progression/exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors. PMID:24312406

  17. The photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozier, R. H.; Niederberger, W.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction cycle of bacteriorhodopsin in the purple membrane isolated from Halobacterium halobium has been studied by optical absorption spectroscopy using low-temperature and flash kinetic techniques. After absorption of light, bacteriorhodopsin passes through at least five distinct intermediates. The temperature and pH dependence of the absorbance changes suggests that branch points and/or reversible steps exist in this cycle. Flash spectroscopy in the presence of a pH-indicating dye shows that the transient release of a proton accompanies the photoreaction cycle. The proton release occurs from the exterior and the uptake is on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane, as required by the function of bacteriorhodopsin as a light-driven proton pump. Proton translocating steps connecting release and uptake are indicated by deuterium isotope effects on the kinetics of the cycle. The rapid decay of a light-induced linear dichroism shows that a chromophore orientation change occurs during the reaction cycle.

  18. Your Menstrual Cycle

    MedlinePLUS

    ... during your menstrual cycle What happens during your menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle includes not just your period, but the rise ... tool is based on a sample 28-day menstrual cycle, but every woman is different in how long ...

  19. The highly efficient holding function of the mollusc ‘catch’ muscle is not based on decelerated myosin head cross-bridge cycles

    PubMed Central

    Galler, Stefan; Litzlbauer, Julia; Kröss, Markus; Grassberger, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Certain smooth muscles are able to reduce energy consumption greatly when holding without shortening. For instance, this is the case with muscles surrounding blood vessels used for regulating blood flow and pressure. The phenomenon is most conspicuous in ‘catch’ muscles of molluscs, which have been used as models for investigating this important physiological property of smooth muscle. When the shells of mussels are held closed, the responsible muscles enter the highly energy-efficient state of catch. According to the traditional view, the state of catch is caused by the slowing down of the force-generating cycles of the molecular motors, the myosin heads. Here, we show that catch can still be induced and maintained when the myosin heads are prevented from generating force. This new evidence proves that the long-held explanation of the state of catch being due to the slowing down of force producing myosin head cycles is not valid and that the highly economic holding state is caused by the formation of a rigid network of inter-myofilament connections based on passive molecular structures. PMID:19906664

  20. c-Myc and AMPK Control Cellular Energy Levels by Cooperatively Regulating Mitochondrial Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Lia R.; Sharma, Lokendra; Wang, Huabo; Kang, Audry; d’Souza, Sonia; Lu, Jie; McLaughlin, Michael; Dolezal, James M.; Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan T.; Ding, Ying; Zeng, Xuemei; Yates, Nathan; Prochownik, Edward V.

    2015-01-01

    The c-Myc (Myc) oncoprotein and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulate glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (Oxphos) although often for different purposes. Because Myc over-expression depletes ATP with the resultant activation of AMPK, we explored the potential co-dependency of and cross-talk between these proteins by comparing the consequences of acute Myc induction in ampk+/+ (WT) and ampk-/- (KO) murine embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). KO MEFs showed a higher basal rate of glycolysis than WT MEFs and an appropriate increase in response to activation of a Myc-estrogen receptor (MycER) fusion protein. However, KO MEFs had a diminished ability to increase Oxphos, mitochondrial mass and reactive oxygen species in response to MycER activation. Other differences between WT and KO MEFs, either in the basal state or following MycER induction, included abnormalities in electron transport chain function, levels of TCA cycle-related oxidoreductases and cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox states. Transcriptional profiling of pathways pertinent to glycolysis, Oxphos and mitochondrial structure and function also uncovered significant differences between WT and KO MEFs and their response to MycER activation. Finally, an unbiased mass-spectrometry (MS)-based survey capable of quantifying ~40% of all mitochondrial proteins, showed about 15% of them to be AMPK- and/or Myc-dependent in their steady state. Significant differences in the activities of the rate-limiting enzymes pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, which dictate pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A abundance, were also differentially responsive to Myc and AMPK and could account for some of the differences in basal metabolite levels that were also detected by MS. Thus, Myc and AMPK are highly co-dependent and appear to engage in significant cross-talk across numerous pathways which support metabolic and ATP-generating functions. PMID:26230505

  1. Inferring deep biosphere function and diversity through (near) surface biosphere portals (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Woycheese, K. M.; Swingley, W.; Schubotz, F.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    The consideration of surface expressions of the deep subsurface- such as springs- remains one of the most economically viable means to query the deep biosphere's diversity and function. Hot spring source pools are ideal portals for accessing and inferring the taxonomic and functional diversity of related deep subsurface microbial communities. Consideration of the geochemical composition of deep vs. surface fluids provides context for interpretation of community function. Further, parallel assessment of 16S rRNA data, metagenomic sequencing, and isotopic compositions of biomass in surface springs allows inference of the functional capacities of subsurface ecosystems. Springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), the Philippines, and Turkey are considered here, incorporating near-surface, transition, and surface ecosystems to identify 'legacy' taxa and functions of the deep biosphere. We find that source pools often support functional capacity suited to subsurface ecosystems. For example, in hot ecosystems, source pools are strictly chemosynthetic, and surface environments with measureable dissolved oxygen may contain evidence of community functions more favorable under anaerobic conditions. Metagenomic reads from a YNP ecosystem indicate the genetic capacity for sulfate reduction at high temperature. However, inorganic sulfate reduction is only minimally energy-yielding in these surface environments suggesting the potential that sulfate reduction is a 'legacy' function of deeper biosphere ecosystems. Carbon fixation tactics shift with increased surface exposure of the thermal fluids. Genes related to the rTCA cycle and the acetyl co-A pathway are most prevalent in highest temperature, anaerobic sites. At lower temperature sites, fewer total carbon fixation genes were observed, perhaps indicating an increase in heterotrophic metabolism with increased surface exposure. In hydrogen and methane rich springs in the Philippines and Turkey, methanogenic taxa dominate source spring archaeal communities, however methanogenesis is predicted to not be a viable metabolic function. Bacterial communities dominated by heterotrophic taxa suggest that the inorganic carbon-poor deeper subsurface fluids do not support autotrophic metabolic functions. Transitions in community functional and taxonomic diversity as a result of transitions in environment, for example as a result of fluid cooling/mixing or in response to climate-related stimulus, drive community plasticity and redundancy. Together, these surface-related datasets allow informed reconstruction of biogeochemical processes and microbial community diversity relevant to deep subsurface communities, and along with other recent work broaden our view of community function in deep subsurface hydrothermal ecosystems and the transition to surface environments.

  2. Nuclear cathepsin D enhances TRPS1 transcriptional repressor function to regulate cell cycle progression and transformation in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bach, Anne-Sophie; Derocq, Danielle; Laurent-Matha, Valérie; Montcourrier, Philippe; Sebti, Salwa; Orsetti, Béatrice; Theillet, Charles; Gongora, Céline; Pattingre, Sophie; Ibing, Eva; Roger, Pascal; Linares, Laetitia K; Reinheckel, Thomas; Meurice, Guillaume; Kaiser, Frank J; Gespach, Christian; Liaudet-Coopman, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-29

    The lysosomal protease cathepsin D (Cath-D) is overproduced in breast cancer cells (BCC) and supports tumor growth and metastasis formation. Here, we describe the mechanism whereby Cath-D is accumulated in the nucleus of ER?-positive (ER+) BCC. We identified TRPS1 (tricho-rhino-phalangeal-syndrome 1), a repressor of GATA-mediated transcription, and BAT3 (Scythe/BAG6), a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling chaperone protein, as new Cath-D-interacting nuclear proteins. Cath-D binds to BAT3 in ER+ BCC and they partially co-localize at the surface of lysosomes and in the nucleus. BAT3 silencing inhibits Cath-D accumulation in the nucleus, indicating that Cath-D nuclear targeting is controlled by BAT3. Fully mature Cath-D also binds to full-length TRPS1 and they co-localize in the nucleus of ER+ BCC where they are associated with chromatin. Using the LexA-VP16 fusion co-activator reporter assay, we then show that Cath-D acts as a transcriptional repressor, independently of its catalytic activity. Moreover, microarray analysis of BCC in which Cath-D and/or TRPS1 expression were silenced indicated that Cath-D enhances TRPS1-mediated repression of several TRPS1-regulated genes implicated in carcinogenesis, including PTHrP, a canonical TRPS1 gene target. In addition, co-silencing of TRPS1 and Cath-D in BCC affects the transcription of cell cycle, proliferation and transformation genes, and impairs cell cycle progression and soft agar colony formation. These findings indicate that Cath-D acts as a nuclear transcriptional cofactor of TRPS1 to regulate ER+ BCC proliferation and transformation in a non-proteolytic manner. PMID:26183398

  3. Functional and molecular structural analysis of dentine interfaces promoted by a Zn-doped self-etching adhesive and an in vitro load cycling model.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Aguilera, Fátima S; Osorio, Estrella; Cabello, Inmaculada; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if mechanical cycling influences bioactivity and bond strength of resin-dentine interface after bonding with Zn-doped self-etching adhesives. Sound dentine surfaces were bonded with Clearfil SE Bond (SEB), 10 wt% ZnO microparticles or 2 wt% ZnCl2 were added into the SEB primer (P) or bonding (Bd) for Zn-doping. Bonded interfaces were stored in simulated body fluid (24h), and then tested or submitted to mechanical loading. Microtensile bond strength testing was performed. Debonded dentine surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy. Remineralisation of the bonded interfaces was assessed by nano-indentation, Raman spectroscopy, and Masson?s trichrome staining. Load cycling (LC) increased the percentage of adhesive failures in all groups. LC increased the Young?s modulus (Ei) at the hybrid layer (HL) when SEB, SEB·P-ZnO and SEB·P-ZnCl2 were applied, but decreased when both ZnO and ZnCl2 were incorporated into the bonding. Ei was higher when Zn compounds were incorporated into the primer (SEB·P). ZnO promoted an increase, and ZnCl2 a decrease, of both the relative presence of minerals and crystallinity, after LC. LC increased collagen crosslinking with both SEB·P-ZnO and SEB·P-ZnCl2. The ratios which reflect the nature of collagen increased, in general, at both HL and BHL after LC, confirming recovery, better organisation, improved structural differences and collagen quality. After loading, trichrome staining reflected a deeper demineralised dentine fringe when Zn-doped compounds were incorporated into SEB·Bd. Multiple Zn-rich phosphate deposits and salt formations were detected. Mineral precipitates nucleated in multilayered platforms or globular formations on peritubular and intertubular dentine. PMID:26122790

  4. A Comparison of Possible Physical, Chemical, and Microbial Functional Gene Controls on Methane Cycling at Two Distinct Sites on the Alaskan North Slope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.

    2014-12-01

    Greater thaw depth in the Arctic permafrost regions will increase soil liquid-water content and enrich for the microbial production of methane (CH4). Carbon cycling in Arctic soils is poorly understood with regard to biological controls on observed CH4 fluxes. In the analysis presented here I have measured and compared chemical and physical properties and conducted an anaerobic incubation experiment on soil core samples obtained from Atqasuk and Ivotuk, two sites on the North Slope of Alaska. Additionally, metagenomes have been sequenced across a soil depth profile at both sites. There are significant differences between the two sites with regard to soil bulk density, pH, volumetric water content, total carbon, total phosphate, Iron III and methanogenesis potential. The sites are not significantly different in total organic matter, total nitrogen, Iron II and anaerobic respiration potential. Volumetric water content is highly correlated at both sites with soil bulk density, with higher water content measured at Ivotuk with finer, siltier soil, and lower water content measured at Atqasuk with coarser, sandier soil. The water retention in these soils may influence carbon dioxide and methane flux at these two sites. Incubations produced similar levels of carbon dioxide at both sites, and much higher levels of methane at Atqasuk than Ivotuk. Multiple regression analysis shows a strong correlation between volumetric water content and pH as predictor variables for methanogenesis in Ivotuk, though not in Atqasuk. Additionally, carbon dioxide production is significantly correlated with methane production in all samples and all depths, though there is a much stronger relationship in Atqasuk. This may indicate a relationship between methane oxidation and carbon dioxide production in Atqasuk, though further investigation is needed. Preliminary metagenomic data for Ivotuk indicates a possible relationship between iron reducing bacteria and soil iron concentrations. Further analysis of metagenomic data is ongoing and will ideally provide greater insights into methane cycling at these two sites.

  5. A Synthesis of Solar Cycle Prediction Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Wilson, Robert M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1999-01-01

    A number of techniques currently in use for predicting solar activity on a solar cycle timescale are tested with historical data. Some techniques, e.g., regression and curve fitting, work well as solar activity approaches maximum and provide a month-by-month description of future activity, while others, e.g., geomagnetic precursors, work well near solar minimum but only provide an estimate of the amplitude of the cycle. A synthesis of different techniques is shown to provide a more accurate and useful forecast of solar cycle activity levels. A combination of two uncorrelated geomagnetic precursor techniques provides a more accurate prediction for the amplitude of a solar activity cycle at a time well before activity minimum. This combined precursor method gives a smoothed sunspot number maximum of 154 plus or minus 21 at the 95% level of confidence for the next cycle maximum. A mathematical function dependent on the time of cycle initiation and the cycle amplitude is used to describe the level of solar activity month by month for the next cycle. As the time of cycle maximum approaches a better estimate of the cycle activity is obtained by including the fit between previous activity levels and this function. This Combined Solar Cycle Activity Forecast gives, as of January 1999, a smoothed sunspot maximum of 146 plus or minus 20 at the 95% level of confidence for the next cycle maximum.

  6. Modeling the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar; Christopher A. Juchau

    2010-08-01

    A review of existing nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis codes was performed to determine if any existing codes meet technical and functional requirements defined for a U.S. national program supporting the global and domestic assessment, development and deployment of nuclear energy systems. The program would be implemented using an interconnected architecture of different codes ranging from the fuel cycle analysis code, which is the subject of the review, to fundamental physical and mechanistic codes. Four main functions are defined for the code: (1) the ability to characterize and deploy individual fuel cycle facilities and reactors in a simulation, while discretely tracking material movements, (2) the capability to perform an uncertainty analysis for each element of the fuel cycle and an aggregate uncertainty analysis, (3) the inclusion of an optimization engine able to optimize simultaneously across multiple objective functions, and (4) open and accessible code software and documentation to aid in collaboration between multiple entities and facilitate software updates. Existing codes, categorized as annualized or discrete fuel tracking codes, were assessed according to the four functions and associated requirements. These codes were developed by various government, education and industrial entities to fulfill particular needs. In some cases, decisions were made during code development to limit the level of detail included in a code to ease its use or to focus on certain aspects of a fuel cycle to address specific questions. The review revealed that while no two of the codes are identical, they all perform many of the same basic functions. No code was able to perform defined function 2 or several requirements of functions 1 and 3. Based on this review, it was concluded that the functions and requirements will be met only with development of a new code, referred to as GENIUS.

  7. Algae displaying the diadinoxanthin cycle also possess the violaxanthin cycle.

    PubMed

    Lohr, M; Wilhelm, C

    1999-07-20

    According to general agreement, all photosynthetic organisms using xanthophyll cycling for photoprotection contain either the violaxanthin (Vx) cycle or the diadinoxanthin (Ddx) cycle instead. Here, we report the temporal accumulation of substantial amounts of pigments of the Vx cycle under prolonged high-light stress in several microalgae thought to possess only the Ddx cycle. In the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, used as a model organism, these pigments also participate in xanthophyll cycling, and their accumulation depends on de novo synthesis of carotenoids and on deepoxidase activity. Furthermore, our data strongly suggest a biosynthetic sequence from Vx via Ddx to fucoxanthin in P. tricornutum. This gives experimental support to the long-stated hypothesis that Vx is a common precursor of all carotenoids with an allenic or acetylenic group, including the main light-harvesting carotenoids in most chlorophyll a/c-containing algae. Thus, another important function for xanthophyll cycling may be to optimize the biosynthesis of light-harvesting xanthophylls under fluctuating light conditions. PMID:10411953

  8. INCUBATION TEMPERATURE AND EGGSHELL CONDUCTANCE EFFECTS ON THE INTESTINAL MATURATION AND THYROID FUNCTION IN COMMERCIAL TURKEY POULTS HATCHING FROM THE FIRST CYCLE FLOCK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggshell conductance (G) and egg white (EW) affect poult viability. Poor livability may be related intestinal maturation and thyroid function of the neonate. The objectives of this study were to test if incubator temperature and G determine poult maturity among egg from a young turkey flock. Matu...

  9. Effects of Melatonin on Morphological and Functional Parameters of the Pineal Gland and Organs of Immune System in Rats During Natural Light Cycle and Constant Illumination.

    PubMed

    Litvinenko, G I; Shurlygina, A V; Gritsyk, O B; Mel'nikova, E V; Tenditnik, M V; Avrorov, P A; Trufakin, V A

    2015-10-01

    We studied the response of the pineal gland and organs of the immune system to melatonin treatment in Wistar rats kept under conditions of abnormal illumination regimen. The animals were kept under natural light regimen or continuous illumination for 14 days and then received daily injections of melatonin (once a day in the evening) for 7 days. Administration of melatonin to rats kept at natural light cycle was followed by a decrease in percent ratio of CD4(+)8(+) splenocytes and CD4(-)8(+) thymocytes. In 24-h light with the following melatonin injections were accompanied by an increase in percent rate and absolute amount of CD4(+)8(+) cells in the spleen, and a decrease in percent rate of CD11b/c and CD4(-)8(+) splenocytes. In the thymus amount of CD4(-)8(+) cells increased, and absolute number of CD4(+)25(+) cells reduced. Melatonin significantly decreased lipofuscin concentration in the pineal gland during continuous light. Direction and intensity of effects of melatonin on parameters of cell immunity and state of the pineal gland were different under normal and continuous light conditions. It should be taken into account during using of this hormone for correction of immune and endocrine impairments developing during change in light/dark rhythm. PMID:26515173

  10. Evidence for DNA-PK-dependent and -independent DNA double-strand break repair pathways in mammalian cells as a function of the cell cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S E; Mitchell, R A; Cheng, A; Hendrickson, E A

    1997-01-01

    Mice homozygous for the scid (severe combined immune deficiency) mutation are defective in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and are consequently very X-ray sensitive and defective in the lymphoid V(D)J recombination process. Recently, a strong candidate for the scid gene has been identified as the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex. Here, we show that the activity of the DNA-PK complex is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, with peaks of activity found at the G1/early S phase and again at the G2 phase in wild-type cells. Interestingly, only the deficit of the G1/early S phase DNA-PK activity correlated with an increased hypersensitivity to X-irradiation and a DNA DSB repair deficit in synchronized scid pre-B cells. Finally, we demonstrate that the DNA-PK activity found at the G2 phase may be required for exit from a DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint arrest. These observations suggest the presence of two pathways (DNA-PK-dependent and -independent) of illegitimate mammalian DNA DSB repair and two distinct roles (DNA DSB repair and G2 checkpoint traversal) for DNA-PK in the cellular response to ionizing radiation. PMID:9032269

  11. Time-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing in Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks withDuty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks withDuty-Cycle Wireles

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    ;IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction: duty-cycle WSN: duty-cycle WSN: duty-cycle WSN: duty-cycle WSN · Duty-cycle WSN ­ Each node has two working states: · active: all functions (send/receive, etcIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction: duty-cycle WSN: duty-cycle WSN: duty-cycle WSN: duty-cycle WSN Any duty-cycle WSN can be converted

  12. Seasonal Patterns and Relationships among Coccidian Infestations, Measures of Oxidative Physiology, and Immune Function in Free-Living House Sparrows over an Annual Cycle.

    PubMed

    Pap, Péter L; P?tra?, Laura; Osváth, Gergely; Buehler, Deborah M; Versteegh, Maaike A; Sesarman, Alina; Banciu, Manuela; Vágási, Csongor I

    2015-01-01

    Temporal variation in oxidative physiology and its associated immune function may occur as a result of changes in parasite infection over the year. Evidence from field and laboratory studies suggests links between infection risk, oxidative stress, and the ability of animals to mount an immune response; however, the importance of parasites in mediating seasonal change in physiological makeup is still debated. Also, little is known about the temporal consistency of relationships among parasite infestation, markers of oxidative status and immune function in wild animals, and whether variation in oxidative measures can be viewed as a single integrated system. To address these questions, we sampled free-living house sparrows (Passer domesticus) every 2 mo over a complete year and measured infestation with coccidian parasites as well as nine traits that reflect condition, oxidative physiology, and immune function. We found significant seasonal variation in coccidian infestation and in seven out of nine condition and physiological variables over the year. However, we found little support for parasite-mediated change in condition, oxidative physiology, and immune functions in house sparrows. In accordance with this, we found no temporal consistency in relationships between the intensity of infestation and physiology. Among measures of oxidative physiology, antioxidants (measured as the total antioxidant capacity and the concentration of uric acid in the plasma) and oxidative damage (measured through the level of malondialdehyde in plasma) positively and consistently covaried over the year, while no such associations were found for the rest of traits (body mass, total glutathione, and leukocyte numbers). Our results show that natural levels of chronic coccidian infection have a limited effect on the seasonal change of physiological traits, suggesting that the variation of the latter is probably more affected by short-term disturbances, such as acute infection and/or season-specific stress stimuli. PMID:26052636

  13. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus): Changes in baseline activity, reactivity, and fecal excretion of glucocorticoids across the diurnal cycle

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Breanna N.; Saltzman, Wendy; de Jong, Trynke R.; Milnes, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The California mouse, Peromyscus californicus, is an increasingly popular animal model in behavioral, neural, and endocrine studies, but little is known about its baseline hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity or HPA responses to stressors. We characterized plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations in P. californicus under baseline conditions across the diurnal cycle, in response to pharmacological manipulation of the HPA axis, and in response to a variety of stressors at different times of day. In addition, we explored the use of fecal samples to monitor adrenocortical activity non-invasively. California mice have very high baseline levels of circulating CORT that change markedly over 24 hours, but that do not differ between the sexes. This species may be somewhat glucocorticoid-resistant in comparison to other rodents as a relatively high dose of dexamethasone (5 mg/kg, s.c.) was required to suppress plasma CORT for 8 h post-injection. CORT responses to stressors and ACTH injection differed with time of day, as CORT concentrations were elevated more readily during the morning (inactive period) than in the evening (active period) when compared to time-matched control. Data from 3H-CORT injection studies show that the time course for excretion of fecal CORT, or glucocorticoid metabolites, differs with time of injection. Mice injected in the evening excreted the majority of fecal radioactivity 2–4 h post-injection whereas mice injected during the morning did so at 14–16 h post-injection. Unfortunately, the antibody we used does not adequately bind the most prevalent fecal glucocorticoid metabolites and therefore we could not validate its use for fecal assays. PMID:23026495

  14. Cyclin E-CDK2 protein phosphorylates plant homeodomain finger protein 8 (PHF8) and regulates its function in the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Huang, Yan; Wei, Qian; Tong, Xiaomei; Cai, Rong; Nalepa, Grzegorz; Ye, Xin

    2015-02-13

    Cyclin E-CDK2 is a key regulator in G1/S transition. Previously, we identified a number of CDK2-interacting proteins, including PHF8 (plant homeodomain finger protein 8). In this report, we confirmed that PHF8 is a novel cyclin E-CDK2 substrate. By taking the approach of mass spectrometry, we identified that PHF8 Ser-844 is phosphorylated by cyclin E-CDK2. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that WT PHF8 demethylates histone H3K9me2 more efficiently than the cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylation-deficient PHF8-S844A mutant. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis showed that WT PHF8 promotes S phase progression more robustly than PHF8-S844A. Real-time PCR results demonstrated that PHF8 increases transcription of cyclin E, E2F3, and E2F7 to significantly higher levels compared with PHF8-S844A. Further analysis by ChIP assay indicated that PHF8 binds to the cyclin E promoter stronger than PHF8-S844A and reduces the H3K9me2 level at the cyclin E promoter more efficiently than PHF8-S844A. In addition, we found that cyclin E-CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of PHF8 Ser-844 promotes PHF8-dependent rRNA transcription in luciferase reporter assays and real-time PCR. Taken together, these results indicate that cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylates PHF8 to stimulate its demethylase activity to promote rRNA transcription and cell cycle progression. PMID:25548279

  15. Carbon cycling and carbon metabolism by soil fungi in a boreal forest: impacts of wildfire and permafrost on functional genes, isotope signatures, and ectomycorrhizae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldrop, M. P.; Harden, J. W.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that control the stabilization and destabilization of soil carbon within boreal forest ecosystems is of great importance to the global carbon budget. Much is currently known about boreal soil carbon dynamics in relation to biophysical and landscape variables such as temperature, moisture, wildfire intensity, and stand age. We have less information regarding the controls on decomposition at the molecular scale, where interactions between microbial communities, their genetic `potential' for decomposition, functional genes, enzyme synthesis, and organic matter transformations occur. We have entered an age in which these connections can be made at the molecular scale, but what form do they take, and can they scale up to affect carbon dynamics at the level of the ecosystem? We examined these molecular scale processes in mature boreal forest soils and soils that had been impacted by wildfire near Delta Junction, Alaska. We also examined the interactive effect of permafrost presence, which reduces soil drainage, with wildfire. We focused on three themes: linking microbial communities and laccase functional genes to soil laccase enzyme activity and lignin decomposition, assessing substrate availability using the natural abundance ?13C isotope ratios of microbial biomass, and the influence of ectomycorrhizal mats on decomposition. Wildfire reduced fungal biomass, laccase functional gene abundance, laccase activity, and ?13C-lignin decomposition. Relationships between gene abundance and microbial activity were significant and logarithmic in form. Soil drainage, which is mediated by the presence of permafrost, had little effect on the abundance of fungi, functional genes, or potential process rates. Microbial biomass ?13C was always enriched relative to soil organic matter, and this difference was greater in control soils compared to wildfire-affected soils, indicating that Ä??13C MB-SOIL may indicate the level of bioavailability of soil carbon for microbial metabolism. Ectomycorrhizal mats occurred only in control soils and increased fungal biomass, functional gene abundance, enzyme activities and process rates compared to non-mat soils. Taken together these results indicate that linkages can be made between the distribution of soil microbial communities, molecular scale information, and soil carbon dynamics.

  16. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle].

    PubMed

    Zavarzin, G A

    2002-01-01

    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites. PMID:11910807

  17. No evidence for parasitism-linked changes in immune function or oxidative physiology over the annual cycle of an avian species.

    PubMed

    Pap, Péter L; Sesarman, Alina; Vágási, Csongor I; Buehler, Deborah M; P?tra?, Laura; Versteegh, Maaike A; Banciu, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Temporally changing environmental conditions occur in most parts of the world and can exert strong pressure on the immune defense of organisms. Seasonality may result in changes in physiological traits over the year, and such changes may be essential for the optimization of defense against infections. Evidence from field and laboratory studies suggest the existence of links between environmental conditions, such as infection risk, and the ability of animals to mount an immune response or to overcome infections; however, the importance of parasites in mediating seasonal change in immune defense is still debated. In this study, we test the hypothesis that seasonal change in immune function and connected physiological traits is related to parasite infection. We sampled captive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) once every 2 mo over 14 mo and compared the annual variation in 12 measures of condition, immune function, antioxidant status, and oxidative damage among birds naturally infested with coccidians or medicated against these parasites. We found significant variation in 10 of 12 traits over the year. However, we found little support for parasite-mediated change in immune function and oxidative status in captive house sparrows. Of the 12 measures, only one was slightly affected by parasite treatment. In support of the absence of any effect of coccidians on the annual profile of the condition and physiological traits, we found no consistent relationships between the intensity of infestation and these response variables over the year. Our results show that chronic coccidian infections have limited effect on the seasonal changing of physiological traits and that the patterns of these measures are probably more affected by acute infection and/or virulent parasite strains. PMID:25244384

  18. Comparing the Antibacterial and Functional Properties of Cameroonian and Manuka Honeys for Potential Wound Healing-Have We Come Full Cycle in Dealing with Antibiotic Resistance?

    PubMed

    Boateng, Joshua; Diunase, Keshu Nso

    2015-01-01

    The increased incidence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has generated renewed interest in "traditional" antimicrobials, such as honey. This paper reports on a study comparing physico-chemical, antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics (that potentially contribute in part, to the functional wound healing activity) of Cameroonian honeys with those of Manuka honey. Agar well diffusion was used to generate zones of inhibition against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus while broth dilutions were used to study the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Non-peroxide activity was investigated by catalase for hydrogen peroxide reduction. The Cameroonian honeys demonstrated functional properties similar to Manuka honey, with strong correlations between the antioxidant activity and total phenol content of each honey. They were also as effective as Manuka honey in reducing bacteria load with an MIC of 10% w/v against all three bacteria and exhibited non-peroxide antimicrobial activity. These Cameroon honeys have potential therapeutic activity and may contain compounds with activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Antibacterial agents from such natural sources present a potential affordable treatment of wound infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, which are a leading cause of amputations and deaths in many African countries. PMID:26364634

  19. Seasonal Nitrogen Cycles on Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Paige, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal model, developed to predict seasonal nitrogen cycles on Triton, has been modified and applied to Pluto. The model is used to calculate the partitioning of nitrogen between surface frost deposits and the atmosphere, as a function of time for various sets of input parameters.

  20. Structural and functional characterization of a cell cycle associated HDAC1/2 complex reveals the structural basis for complex assembly and nucleosome targeting

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Toshimasa; Fairall, Louise; Muskett, Frederick W.; Milano, Charles P.; Watson, Peter J.; Arnaudo, Nadia; Saleh, Almutasem; Millard, Christopher J.; El-Mezgueldi, Mohammed; Martino, Fabrizio; Schwabe, John W.R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent proteomic studies have identified a novel histone deacetylase complex that is upregulated during mitosis and is associated with cyclin A. This complex is conserved from nematodes to man and contains histone deacetylases 1 and 2, the MIDEAS corepressor protein and a protein called DNTTIP1 whose function was hitherto poorly understood. Here, we report the structures of two domains from DNTTIP1. The amino-terminal region forms a tight dimerization domain with a novel structural fold that interacts with and mediates assembly of the HDAC1:MIDEAS complex. The carboxy-terminal domain of DNTTIP1 has a structure related to the SKI/SNO/DAC domain, despite lacking obvious sequence homology. We show that this domain in DNTTIP1 mediates interaction with both DNA and nucleosomes. Thus, DNTTIP1 acts as a dimeric chromatin binding module in the HDAC1:MIDEAS corepressor complex. PMID:25653165

  1. Health across the Human Life Cycle Beschrijving van het profielthema

    E-print Network

    Health across the Human Life Cycle Beschrijving van het profielthema Intensieve ondersteund: Brain function and dysfunction over the lifespan, en Health, Prevention and the Human Life Cycle hersenaandoeningen, narcolepsie, neurovasculaire aandoeningen, taal en leervaardigheden, stress en angststoornissen

  2. Using Phospholipids and Stable Carbon Isotopes to Assess Microbial Community Structures and Carbon Cycle Pathways in Kamchatka Hot Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Romanek, C. S.; Burgess, E. A.; Wiegel, J.; Mills, G.; Zhang, C. L.

    2006-12-01

    Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and stable carbon isotopes were used to assess the microbial community structures in Kamchatka hot springs. Eighteen mats or surface sediments were collected from hot springs having temperatures of 31 to 91°C and pHs of 4.9 to 8.5. These samples were clearly separated into three groups according to the bacterial PLFA: 1) those dominated by terminally branched odd-numbered fatty acids, 2) those dominated by C18:1 and 3) those dominated by C20:1. With support from other minor PLFA components, group 2 may be used as biomarkers for Chloroflexales or other phototrophic bacteria and group 3 for Aquificales, respectively. Among the sampled hot springs, the Arkashin pool represents the simplest microbial structure with members of Aquificales being the dominant primary producers. On the other hand, the Zavarzin pool may represent the most heterogeneous pool that may include members of Chloroflexales and Aquificales as primary producers. Bacterial 16S rDNA clone libraries confirmed the presence of these microbial groups in the two pools. Results of stable carbon isotope fractionation between CO2 source, bulk biomass and total PLFA showed that primary producers in the Arkashin pool primarily used the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle (e.g., members of Aquificales); whereas the Zavarzin pool may be a mixture of the 3-hydroxypropionate (3-HP) pathway (e.g. members of Chloroflexales) and the rTCA cycle. Bacterial contribution using the Calvin cycle was not significant and may be less important in Kamchatka hot springs.

  3. Systems Approaches to Predict the Functions of Glycoside Hydrolases during the Life Cycle of Aspergillus niger Using Developmental Mutants ?brlA and ?flbA

    PubMed Central

    van Munster, Jolanda M.; Nitsche, Benjamin M.; Akeroyd, Michiel; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Ram, Arthur F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger encounters carbon starvation in nature as well as during industrial fermentations. In response, regulatory networks initiate and control autolysis and sporulation. Carbohydrate-active enzymes play an important role in these processes, for example by modifying cell walls during spore cell wall biogenesis or in cell wall degradation connected to autolysis. Results In this study, we used developmental mutants (?flbA and ?brlA) which are characterized by an aconidial phenotype when grown on a plate, but also in bioreactor-controlled submerged cultivations during carbon starvation. By comparing the transcriptomes, proteomes, enzyme activities and the fungal cell wall compositions of a wild type A. niger strain and these developmental mutants during carbon starvation, a global overview of the function of carbohydrate-active enzymes is provided. Seven genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes, including cfcA, were expressed during starvation in all strains; they may encode enzymes involved in cell wall recycling. Genes expressed in the wild-type during starvation, but not in the developmental mutants are likely involved in conidiogenesis. Eighteen of such genes were identified, including characterized sporulation-specific chitinases and An15g02350, member of the recently identified carbohydrate-active enzyme family AA11. Eight of the eighteen genes were also expressed, independent of FlbA or BrlA, in vegetative mycelium, indicating that they also have a role during vegetative growth. The ?flbA strain had a reduced specific growth rate, an increased chitin content of the cell wall and specific expression of genes that are induced in response to cell wall stress, indicating that integrity of the cell wall of strain ?flbA is reduced. Conclusion The combination of the developmental mutants ?flbA and ?brlA resulted in the identification of enzymes involved in cell wall recycling and sporulation-specific cell wall modification, which contributes to understanding cell wall remodeling mechanisms during development. PMID:25629352

  4. Functional roles of TRPV1 and TRPV4 in control of lower urinary tract activity: dual analysis of behavior and reflex during the micturition cycle.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Mitsuharu; Mochizuki, Tsutomu; Nakagomi, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Tatsuya; Kira, Satoru; Mizumachi, Ryoji; Sokabe, Takaaki; Takayama, Yasunori; Tominaga, Makoto; Takeda, Masayuki

    2015-05-15

    The present study used a dual analysis of voiding behavior and reflex micturition to examine lower urinary tract function in transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)1 knockout (KO) mice and TRPV4 KO mice. In metabolic cage experiments conducted under conscious conditions (i.e., voluntary voiding behavior), TRPV4 KO mice showed a markedly higher voiding frequency (VF; 19.3 ± 1.2 times/day) and a smaller urine volume/voiding (UVV; 114 ± 9 ?l) compared with wild-type (WT) littermates (VF: 5.2 ± 0.5 times/day and UVV: 380 ± 34 ?l). Meanwhile, TRPV1 KO mice showed a similar VF to WT littermates (6.8 ± 0.5 times/day) with a significantly smaller UVV (276 ± 20 ?l). Water intake among these genotypes was the same, but TRPV4 KO mice had a larger urine output than the other two groups. In cystometrogram experiments conducted in decerebrate unanesthetized mice (i.e., reflex micturition response), no differences between the three groups were found in any cystometrogram variables, including voided volume, volume threshold for inducing micturition contraction, maximal voiding pressure, and bladder compliance. However, both TRPV1 KO and TRPV4 KO mice showed a significant number of nonvoiding bladder contractions (NVCs; 3.5 ± 0.9 and 2.8 ± 0.7 contractions, respectively) before each voiding, whereas WT mice showed virtually no NVCs. These results suggest that in the reflex micturition circuit, a lack of either channel is involved in NVCs during bladder filling, whereas in the forebrain, it is involved in the early timing of urine release, possibly in the conscious response to the bladder instability. PMID:25761879

  5. Functional laser speckle imaging of cerebral blood flow under hypothermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minheng; Miao, Peng; Zhu, Yisheng; Tong, Shanbao

    2011-08-01

    Hypothermia can unintentionally occur in daily life, e.g., in cardiovascular surgery or applied as therapeutics in the neurosciences critical care unit. So far, the temperature-induced spatiotemporal responses of the neural function have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the functional change in cerebral blood flow (CBF), accompanied with neuronal activation, by laser speckle imaging (LSI) during hypothermia. Laser speckle images from Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8, male) were acquired under normothermia (37°C) and moderate hypothermia (32°C). For each animal, 10 trials of electrical hindpaw stimulation were delivered under both temperatures. Using registered laser speckle contrast analysis and temporal clustering analysis (TCA), we found a delayed response peak and a prolonged response window under hypothermia. Hypothermia also decreased the activation area and the amplitude of the peak CBF. The combination of LSI and TCA is a high-resolution functional imaging method to investigate the spatiotemporal neurovascular coupling in both normal and pathological brain functions.

  6. Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis

    E-print Network

    1 Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis Vasilis Fthenakis Center of Life Cycle Analysis Earth Brookhaven National Laboratory www.clca.columbia.edu www.pv.bnl.gov #12;2 The Life Cycle of PVThe Life Cycle (air, water, solid) M, Q E PV array Photovoltaic modules Balance of System (BOS) (Inverters

  7. Cycling To Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Stan

    1999-01-01

    Encourages environmental and outdoor educators to promote bicycling. In the community and the curriculum, cycling connects environmental issues, health and fitness, law and citizenship, appropriate technology, and the joy of being outdoors. Describes the Ontario Cycling Association's cycling strategy and its four components: school cycling

  8. Transcription Regulatory Networks in Yeast Cell Cycle

    E-print Network

    CHAPTER 4 Transcription Regulatory Networks in Yeast Cell Cycle Nilanjana Banerjee and Michael Q. Zhang* Introduction T he functional genomics techniques for mapping transcription regulatory networks organisms. As a consequence, yeast is particularly amenable for analyz- ing transcriptional regulatory

  9. A Computational Method for Identifying Yeast Cell Cycle Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The eukaryotic cell cycle is a complex process and is precisely regulated at many levels. Many genes specific to the cell cycle are regulated transcriptionally and are expressed just before they are needed. To understand the cell cycle process, it is important to identify the cell cycle transcription factors (TFs) that regulate the expression of cell cycle-regulated genes. Here, we describe a computational method to identify cell cycle TFs in yeast by integrating current ChIP-chip, mutant, transcription factor-binding site (TFBS), and cell cycle gene expression data. For each identified cell cycle TF, our method also assigned specific cell cycle phases in which the TF functions and identified the time lag for the TF to exert regulatory effects on its target genes. Moreover, our method can identify novel cell cycle-regulated genes as a by-product. PMID:26254926

  10. Oxygenated monoterpenes citral and carvacrol cause oxidative damage in Escherichia coli without the involvement of tricarboxylic acid cycle and Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Chueca, Beatriz; Pagán, Rafael; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2014-10-17

    Oxygenated monoterpenes citral and carvacrol are common constituents of many essential oils (EOs) that have been extensively studied as antimicrobial agents but whose mechanisms of microbial inactivation have not been totally elucidated. A recent study described a mechanism of Escherichia coli death for (+)-limonene, a hydrocarbon monoterpene also frequently present in EOs, similar to the common mechanism proposed for bactericidal antibiotics. This mechanism involves the formation of Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical, a reactive oxygen species (ROS), via tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which would ultimately inactivate cells. Our objective was to determine whether E. coli MG1655 inactivation by citral and carvacrol follows a similar mechanism of cell death. Challenging experiments with 300?L/L citral and 100?L/L carvacrol inactivated at least 2.5log10cycles of exponentially growing cells in 3h under aerobic conditions. The presence of thiourea (an ROS scavenger) reduced cell inactivation in 2log10cycles, demonstrating the role of ROS in cell death. Decreased resistance of a ?recA mutant (deficient in an enzyme involved in SOS response to DNA damage) indicated that citral and carvacrol caused oxidative damage to DNA. Although the mechanism of E. coli inactivation by carvacrol and citral was similarly mediated by ROS, their formation did not follow the same pathways described for (+)-limonene and bactericidal drugs because neither Fenton reaction nor NADH production via the TCA cycle was involved in cell death. Moreover, further experiments demonstrated antimicrobial activity of citral and carvacrol in anaerobic environments without the involvement of ROS. As a consequence, cell death by carvacrol and citral in anaerobiosis follows a different mechanism than that observed under aerobic conditions. These results demonstrated a different mechanism of inactivation by citral and carvacrol with regard to (+)-limonene and bactericidal antibiotics, indicating the complexity of the mechanisms of bacterial inactivation among EO constituents. Advancements in the description of these mechanisms will help in extending and improving the use of these compounds as natural antimicrobials. PMID:25146464

  11. CyclePad Help System CyclePad License

    E-print Network

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    of Library Examples of Cycles Simple Steam Rankine Cycle Simple Refrigerator Cycle Basic Gas Turbine Cycle Steam Cycle with Reheat Combined Gas Turbine & Rankine Cycle Basic Engineering Thermodynamics Tables Turbine Compressor Pump Heater Cooler Heat Exchanger Throttle #12;CyclePad Help System 4 Splitter

  12. Application for DBDBD 2012 Name: Brend Wanders

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    (also known as the citric acid cycle, or Krebs cycle) is used by aerobic organism to generate energy or behavioural feature of an organism Metabolomics integration, with a focus on the TCA cycle. The TCA cycle

  13. Animating the Carbon Cycle Oswald J. Schmitz,1

    E-print Network

    Wilmers, Chris

    Animating the Carbon Cycle Oswald J. Schmitz,1 * Peter A. Raymond,1 James A. Estes,2 Werner A. Kurz, USA ABSTRACT Understanding the biogeochemical processes reg- ulating carbon cycling is central'' the carbon cycle requires broader consideration of the functional role of animals in mediating biogeochemical

  14. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePLUS

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/22/2015; last reviewed 9/22/2015) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  15. Cell cycle control in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Thomasova, Dana; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2015-10-01

    Proper control of the cell cycle is mandatory during homeostasis and disease. The balance of p53 and MDM2 integrates numerous signalling pathways to regulate the cell cycle, which is executed by multiple proteins including the cyclins, cyclin kinases and cyclin kinase inhibitors. Mutations or environmental factors that affect cell cycle control can lead to inappropriate hyperplasia or cancer as well as to cell loss and tissue atrophy. Normal kidney function is maintained largely by post-mitotic quiescent cells in the G0 phase with a low turnover. Early cell cycle activation during kidney injury contributes to cell death via mitotic catastrophe, i.e. death via mitosis, e.g. of cell with significant DNA damage. At later stages, cell cycle entry supports tissue regeneration and functional reconstitution via cell hypertrophy and/or cell proliferation. It is of note that so-called proliferation markers such as Ki67, PCNA or BrdU identify only cell cycle entry without telling whether this results in cell hypertrophy, cell division or mitotic catastrophe. With this in mind, some established concepts on kidney injury and regeneration are to be re-evaluated. Here, we discuss the components and functional roles of p53/MDM2-mediated cell cycle regulation in kidney homeostasis and disease. PMID:25538161

  16. The microbial cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Nurse, P.; Streiblova, E.

    1984-01-01

    This book concentrates on the major problems of cell cycle control in microorganisms. A wide variety of microorganisms, ranging from bacteria and yeasts to hyphal fungi, algae, and ciliates are analyzed, with emphasis on the basic similarities among the organisms. Different ways of looking at cell cycle control which emphasize aspects of the problem such as circadian rhythms, limit cycle oscillators, and cell size models, are considered. New approaches such as the study of cell cycle mutants, and cloning of cell cycle control genes are also presented.

  17. Trichloroacetic acid cycling in Sitka spruce saplings and effects on sapling health following long term exposure

    E-print Network

    growing seasons. At the end of each growing season similar elevated TCA concentrations (approximate range the experiment. However at the end of the first growing season needles of saplings exposed to 10 or 100 mg l À1 concentrations to the soil. At the end of each growing season the combined TCA storage in needles, stemwood

  18. Developmental Cell Nucleoporin Levels Regulate Cell Cycle Progression

    E-print Network

    Forbes, Douglass

    to mitosis, it underscores the importance of cell cycle in regulating nucleo- cytoplasmic trafficking- nately cell cycle-regulated. At mitosis, however, a member of the complex, Nup96, is preferentially nucleoporins also have additional functions in mitosis, including spindle as- sembly and checkpoint functions

  19. Low cycle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. D. (editor); Kaisand, L. R. (editor); Halford, G. R. (editor); Leis, B. N. (editor)

    1988-01-01

    The papers contained in this volume focus on various aspects of low cycle fatigue, including cyclic deformation, crack propagation, high-temperature low cycle fatigue, microstructural defects, multiaxial and variable amplitude loading, and life prediction. Papers are presented on the low cycle fatigue of some aluminum alloys, prediction of crack growth under creep-fatigue loading conditions, high-temperature low cycle fatigue behavior and lifetime prediction of a nickel-base ODS alloy, and an integrated approach to creep-fatigue life prediction. Other topics discussed include thermal fatigue testing of coated monocrystalline superalloys, low cycle fatigue of Al-Mg-Si alloys, and the effect of superimposed stresses at high frequency on low cycle fatigue.

  20. [Cycling in Zagreb].

    PubMed

    Matos, Stipan; Krapac, Ladislav; Krapac, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Cycling in Zagreb, as means of urban transport inside and outside the city, has a bright past, hazy presence but a promising future. Every day, aggressive citizens who lack urban traffic culture mistreat many cyclists but also many pedestrians. Sedentary way of living, unhealthy eating habits and inadequate recreation would surely be reduced if Zagreb had a network of cycling tracks (190 cm) or lanes (80 cm). Main city roads were constructed at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, the lack of cycling tracks is particularly evident in terms of missing connections between northern and southern parts of the city. Transportation of bikes in public vehicles, parking of bikes as well as cycling along the foot of the mountains Medvednica and Zumberacko gorje is not adequately organized. Better organization is necessary not only because of the present young generation but also because of the young who will shortly become citizens of the EU, where cycling is enormously popular. Cycling tourism is not known in Zagreb, partly due to inadequate roads. The surroundings of Zagreb are more suitable for cycling tourism and attractive brochures and tourist guides offer information to tourists on bikes. Professional, acrobatic and sports cycling do not have a tradition in Zagreb and in Croatia. The same holds true for recreational cycling and indoor exercise cycling. The authors discuss the impact of popularization of cycling using print and electronic media. The role of district and local self-government in the construction and improvement of traffic roads in Zagreb is very important. It is also significant for the implementation of legal regulations that must be obeyed by all traffic participants in order to protect cyclists, the most vulnerable group of traffic participants besides passengers. Multidisciplinary action of all benevolent experts would surely increase safety and pleasure of cycling in the city and its surroundings. This would also help reduce daily stress and improve the quality of living in the capital of Croatia. PMID:18949922

  1. Teaching the Krebs Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a simple but rigorous treatment of the Krebs Cycle suitable for A-level Biology students. The importance of the addition of water molecules in various stages of the cycle is stressed as well as the removal of hydrogen atoms by the oxidizing enzymes. (JN)

  2. The Energy Strategy Cycle 

    E-print Network

    Korich, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    self-feeding are normally associated with unfavorable situations. However, an attempt is mane here to develop a cycle that has a tendency to be self-moving toward an improved long-range energy state. As with any self-closing cycle, a key issue...

  3. Quantum computing Hamiltonian cycles

    E-print Network

    T. Rudolph

    1996-03-03

    An algorithm for quantum computing Hamiltonian cycles of simple, cubic, bipartite graphs is discussed. It is shown that it is possible to evolve a quantum computer into an entanglement of states which map onto the set of all possible paths originating from a chosen vertex, and furthermore to subsequently project out all states not corresponding to Hamiltonian cycles.

  4. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  5. Seeing the Carbon Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drouin, Pamela; Welty, David J.; Repeta, Daniel; Engle-Belknap, Cheryl A.; Cramer, Catherine; Frashure, Kim; Chen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom experiment that was developed to introduce middle school learners to the carbon cycle. The experiment deals with transfer of CO[subscript 2] between liquid reservoirs and the effect CO[subscript 2] has on algae growth. It allows students to observe the influence of the carbon cycle on algae growth,…

  6. The carbon cycle revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolin, Bert; Fung, Inez

    1992-01-01

    Discussions during the Global Change Institute indicated a need to present, in some detail and as accurately as possible, our present knowledge about the carbon cycle, the uncertainties in this knowledge, and the reasons for these uncertainties. We discuss basic issues of internal consistency within the carbon cycle, and end by summarizing the key unknowns.

  7. The Oxygen Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swant, Gary D.

    Produced for primary grades, this booklet provides study of the oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle in nature. Line drawings, a minimum amount of narrative, and a glossary of terms make up its content. The booklet is designed to be used as reading material, a coloring book, or for dramatic arts with students acting out parts of the cycle. This work was…

  8. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  9. Which 100-kyr Cycle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, A.; Loutre, M. F.; Mélice, J. L.

    The origin of all the fundamental frequencies characterising the long term variations of the astronomical parameters has been identified. This allows to discuss their inter- relationship and possible changes in times. Different sources for the so-called 100-kyr cycle have been found in the astronomical parameters and in the insolation itself. The most popular 100-kyr cycle is certainly the eccentricity one. Actually, the periods of the most important spectral components of e used in Berger (1978) are 412 885, 14 945, 123 297, 99 590 and 131 248 yr. Instability of the resulting average 100-kyr cy- cle has been shown related to the ~ 400-kyr cycle. The derivative of eccentricity is definitely showing a spectrum dominated by the 100-kyr cycle with the same spectral components as e itself. The inclination of the Earth orbital plane on the ecliptic does not display any 100-kyr cycle, but it is not the case for its inclination on the reference plane for which cycles of 98 046 and 107 478 years appear. Finally the frequency modulation of obliquity is characterised by cycles 171 kyr and 97 kyr long. For inso- lation, it is known that there is only a very weak signal around 100-kyr coming from e itself. However, if we consider the seasonal cycle at the equator, its amplitude varies with cycles of 400 kyr, 100 kyr, 41 kyr, 10 kyr and 5 kyr, all related to e. Although all these cycles are close to the 100 kyr cycle found in geological data, the origin of this kind of cycle can be best identified by comparing the proxy record to the re- sponse of the climate system to the astronomical forcing. This forcing signal which contains, in one way or another, the astronomical characteristics mentioned above is, at least, partly distorted and transformed, a modification which can only be estimated through climate models. Such a climate model has been developed in the early 80Ss in Louvain-la-Neuve and used since to simulate the last and next glacial-interglacial cycles.

  10. The feline bile salt export pump: a structural and functional comparison with canine and human Bsep/BSEP

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) is the primary transporter for the excretion of bile acids from hepatocytes into bile. In human, inhibition of BSEP by drugs has been related to drug-induced cholestasis and subsequent cytotoxic effects. The role of BSEP in canine and feline liver diseases has not been studied in detail, but the same mechanism of inhibition by drugs as in humans could play a role in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional characteristics of feline Bsep in comparison with canine and human Bsep/BSEP with respect to substrate affinities and inhibitory potential of model drugs. Orthologs of all three species were cloned and cell membrane vesicles overexpressing feline, canine and human Bsep/BSEP were prepared for functional analyses. Results The cDNA sequences of the open reading frames of feline, canine and human Bsep/BSEP showed a high similarity between the species. Functional studies demonstrated for all species a tendency to a higher affinity of BSEP/Bsep for the conjugated bile acid taurocholic acid (TCA) than glycocholic acid (GCA), and a higher affinity for GCA than for the unconjugated cholic acid (CA). The inhibitory potency of the model inhibitors cyclosporine A, troglitazone and ketoconazole was characterized against TCA uptake into BSEP/Bsep containing membrane vesicles. All three substances potently inhibited TCA uptake without significant species differences. Conclusion Structure and functional characteristics of cat, dog and human Bsep/BSEP appeared to be very similar, indicating that the properties of this transporter have been highly preserved among the different species. Therefore, inhibition of BSEP by drugs could also be a mechanism in cholestasis and liver disease in veterinary relevant animal species. This model could be used to predict drug-induced liver injury caused by BSEP inhibition at an early stage in veterinary drug development. PMID:24359682

  11. SUMOylation-Mediated Regulation of Cell Cycle Progression and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Eifler, Karolin; Vertegaal, Alfred C O

    2015-12-01

    Protein conjugation with Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMOylation) has critical roles during cell cycle progression. Many important cell cycle regulators, including many oncogenes and tumor suppressors, are functionally regulated via SUMOylation. The dynamic SUMOylation pattern observed throughout the cell cycle is ensured via distinct spatial and temporal regulation of the SUMO machinery. Additionally, SUMOylation cooperates with other post-translational modifications to mediate cell cycle progression. Deregulation of these SUMOylation and deSUMOylation enzymes causes severe defects in cell proliferation and genome stability. Different types of cancer were recently shown to be dependent on a functioning SUMOylation system, a finding that could be exploited in anticancer therapies. PMID:26601932

  12. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-10-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  13. The Anderson Quin Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.H.; Bilbow, W.M.

    1993-03-18

    The objective of this study was to make a more refined evaluation of the Anderson Quin Cycle based on most recent information on the performance of various elements that will be used in the Anderson Quin Cycle. My original estimate of the work plan for evaluating and optimizing the Anderson Quin Cycle called for 7000 man hours of work. Since this grant was limited to 2150 man hours, we could not expect to achieve all the objectives within the allotted period of work. However, the most relevant program objectives have been completed as reported here. The analysis generally confirms the results originally estimated in my paper on the subject. (Ref. 2) Further optimizations should show even higher efficiencies. The Anderson Quin Cycle (US Patent applied for) basically consists of 5 elements in the power cycle: A refrigeration system to cool and clean the inlet air before it enters the compressor that supplies air for the gas turbine; a gas turbine consisting of a compressor, combustor, and turbine; a steam boiler and steam turbine system using the heat from the exhaust gas out of the gas turbine; a vapor turbine cycle, which utilizes the condensed heat from the exhaust of the steam turbine and the exhaust gas heat leaving the steam boiler to operate a vapor turbine cycle which utilizes another fluid than water, in this case isobutane; and the fifth element consists of a gas cooler and heat pump system, which removes the heat from the exhaust gas to lower its temperature essentially to atmospheric temperature, and at the same time permits treatment of the exhaust gas to remove acid components such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Current industry accepted component characteristics were incorporated in the performance analysis of the overall cycle, ensuring accurate and meaningful operating predictions. The characteristics and performance of each of the elements are described. The thermal efficiency of the optimized calculated Anderson Quin Cycle is 62 percent.

  14. Solar Cycle Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, William Dean

    2011-01-01

    Solar cycle predictions are needed to plan long-term space missions; just like weather predictions are needed to plan your next vacation. Fleets of satellites circle the Earth collecting many types of science data, protecting astronauts, and relaying information. All of these satellites are sensitive at some level to solar cycle effects. Predictions of drag on LEO spacecraft are one of the most important. Launching a satellite with less propellant can mean a higher orbit, but unanticipated solar activity and increased drag can make that a Pyrrhic victory. Energetic events at the Sun can produce crippling radiation storms that endanger all assets in space. Testing solar dynamo theories by quantitative predictions of what will happen in 5-20 years is the next arena for solar cycle predictions. I will describe the current state of solar cycle predictions and anticipate how those predictions could be made more accurate in the future.

  15. The Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  16. Mining the Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemler, Debra; King, Hobart

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach that uses the learning cycle to meaningfully teach students about mineral properties while alleviating the tedious nature of identifying mineral specimens. Discusses mineral properties, cooperative learning, and mineral identification. (JRH)

  17. Urea Cycle Disease Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the body’s process to breakdown products, such as ammonia. Ammonia is a product of protein digestion and the ... cycle is required for the body to excrete ammonia. In patients with partial enzyme deficiencies, the first ...

  18. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The group of techniques that as a class are referred to as synthetic battery cycling are described with reference to spacecraft battery systems. Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system.

  19. FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.

    2011-01-03

    The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S. (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated. (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass. (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

  20. FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.; Carter, J.

    2010-10-13

    The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S; (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated; (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass; and (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

  1. Solar Cycle Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, William Dean

    2012-01-01

    Solar cycle predictions are needed to plan long-term space missions; just like weather predictions are needed to plan the launch. Fleets of satellites circle the Earth collecting many types of science data, protecting astronauts, and relaying information. All of these satellites are sensitive at some level to solar cycle effects. Predictions of drag on LEO spacecraft are one of the most important. Launching a satellite with less propellant can mean a higher orbit, but unanticipated solar activity and increased drag can make that a Pyrrhic victory as you consume the reduced propellant load more rapidly. Energetic events at the Sun can produce crippling radiation storms that endanger all assets in space. Solar cycle predictions also anticipate the shortwave emissions that cause degradation of solar panels. Testing solar dynamo theories by quantitative predictions of what will happen in 5-20 years is the next arena for solar cycle predictions. A summary and analysis of 75 predictions of the amplitude of the upcoming Solar Cycle 24 is presented. The current state of solar cycle predictions and some anticipations how those predictions could be made more accurate in the future will be discussed.

  2. Kalina cycle application to gas turbine combined cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorge, R.W.; Corman, J.C.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Gas turbine-based combined cycles have gained broad market acceptance due to their favorable economics, high efficiency and excellent environmental performance. Combined-cycle performance improvements have tracked the rapid advance of gas turbine technology. The introduction of the steam-cooled STAG 107H and 109H combined-cycle systems with their 60% net plant efficiency capability is the latest step in this trend. High-efficiency steam bottoming cycles have also advanced, with the current state-of-the-art being the three-pressure reheat cycle. The Kalina Cycle utilizing a mixture of ammonia and water as the working fluid promises to further continue these combined cycle-performance improvements with dramatic changes in the bottoming cycle. These improvements are due to non-isothermal heat acquisition and heat rejection, as well as internal heat recuperation, which reduce losses of thermodynamic availability, or exergy, in the cycle. This paper discusses the application of the Kalina Cycle to gas turbine-based combined cycles, including system design and performance characteristics. It compares Kalina Cycle performance and economics with that of a state-of-the-art steam bottoming cycle, showing the potential economic advantages of this innovative cycle in combined-cycle applications. Several variants of the Kalina Cycle system and the Distillation Condensation Subsystem (DCSS), which replaces the condenser as the heat rejection and recuperation system of the Kalina Cycle, have been studied. Results show that the Kalina Cycle can enhance the gas turbine bottoming cycle power output by over 15% when compared with a three-pressure reheat Rankine bottoming cycle. This yields an efficiency improvement of 2-3 percentage points, a significant advance in the state-of-the-art. Based on these substantial performance gains, GE is pursuing the commercialization of the Kalina Cycle for combined-cycle applications under a worldwide exclusive license from Exergy, Inc.

  3. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This life cycle design project was a collaborative effort between the Center for Sustainable Systems (formerly National Pollution Prevention Center) at the University of Michigan, a cross functional team at Ford, and the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of the U.S. En...

  4. Effect of cumulative seismic damage and corrosion on life-cycle cost of reinforced concrete bridges 

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Ramesh

    2009-05-15

    Bridge design should take into account not only safety and functionality, but also the cost effectiveness of investments throughout a bridge life-cycle. This work presents a probabilistic approach to compute the life-cycle cost (LCC) of corroding...

  5. Seasonal cycle and interannual variability in the Amazon hydrologic cycle

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Ning

    of Amazon deforestation involves various aspects of the hydro- logic cycle and its interactionSeasonal cycle and interannual variability in the Amazon hydrologic cycle Ning Zeng Department Abstract. An analysis of the Amazon basin hydrologic cycle has been carried out using the NASA

  6. Ecological Perspectives on Microbes Involved in N-Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Isobe, Kazuo; Ohte, Nobuhito

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) cycles have been directly linked to the functional stability of ecosystems because N is an essential element for life. Furthermore, the supply of N to organisms regulates primary productivity in many natural ecosystems. Microbial communities have been shown to significantly contribute to N cycles because many N-cycling processes are microbially mediated. Only particular groups of microbes were implicated in N-cycling processes, such as nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and denitrification, until a few decades ago. However, recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies and sophisticated isolation techniques have enabled microbiologists to discover that N-cycling microbes are unexpectedly diverse in their functions and phylogenies. Therefore, elucidating the link between biogeochemical N-cycling processes and microbial community dynamics can provide a more mechanistic understanding of N cycles than the direct observation of N dynamics. In this review, we summarized recent findings that characterized the microbes governing novel N-cycling processes. We also discussed the ecological role of N-cycling microbial community dynamics, which is essential for advancing our understanding of the functional stability of ecosystems. PMID:24621510

  7. Cell Cycle Synchronization in Xenopus Egg Extracts.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Peter J; Neusiedler, Julia; Creavin, Kevin; Chadha, Gaganmeet Singh; Blow, J Julian

    2016-01-01

    Many important discoveries in cell cycle research have been made using cell-free extracts prepared from the eggs of the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. These extracts efficiently support the key nuclear functions of the eukaryotic cell cycle in vitro under apparently the same controls that exist in vivo. The Xenopus cell-free system is therefore uniquely suited to the study of the mechanisms, dynamics and integration of cell cycle regulated processes at a biochemical level. Here, we describe methods currently in use in our laboratory for the preparation of Xenopus egg extracts and demembranated sperm nuclei. We detail how these extracts can be used to study the key transitions of the eukaryotic cell cycle and describe conditions under which these transitions can be manipulated by addition of drugs that either retard or advance passage. In addition, we describe in detail essential techniques that provide a practical starting point for investigating the function of proteins involved in the operation of the eukaryotic cell cycle. PMID:26254920

  8. Quasar Absorption Line Survey - Cycle 4 High

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, John

    1994-01-01

    The Absorption Line Survey of bright quasars provides a homogeneous data base for studying fundamental questions about the origin and evolution of gaseous systems in the universe. The initial results determine at small redshifts the number densities of Ly-ALPHA systems, of metal-lines and extragalactic halos, of Lyman-limit systems, of associated absorption systems, and the shapes and intensities of quasar emission lines and spectral energy distributions. The survey reveals that much of the sky is covered by high or very high velocity metal-line clouds present in the Galactic halo. A larger sample, which includes the requested Cycle 3 observations, is required to answer many important questions. For example, what is the correlation function of Ly-ALPHA systems at small redshifts? What fraction of the metal, the Ly-ALPHA, and the Ly-limit systems are associated with galaxies and what are the characteristic sizes of the outer gaseous regions of different types of galaxies? Do absorbing systems show evidence of the large-scale structure seen with galaxies and clusters of galaxies? The observations requested in Cycle 3 will extend the region of coverage of the Key Project sample from the redshift range of z = 0.0 to 1.0 (Cycles 1& 2) to z = 0.0 to 1.6 (Cycles 1-3). THIS FILE CONTAINS THE HIGH PRIORITY OBSERVATIONS FROM CYCLES 2 and 3 WHICH WERE NOT COMPLETED IN THOSE CYCLES.

  9. Thermodynamics of an idealized hydrologic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konings, Alexandra G.; Feng, Xue; Molini, Annalisa; Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare

    2012-05-01

    The diurnal hydrologic cycle, a sequence of evapotranspiration, boundary layer growth, moist convection, and precipitation, is described in a thermodynamic framework, assuming an atmosphere composed solely of water. This idealized cycle is shown to be equivalent to an abbreviated version of the classical Rankine cycle where not all the water vapor is condensed. Energy and entropy fluxes of the processes involved in the cycle are quantified using the reversible approximation as a function of the quality of the liquid-vapor mixture (the ratio of the residual background vapor and the total mass of water) and the different temperatures at which evaporation and condensation take place. The proposed framework allows quantitative estimates of the net work (which is used by the cycle to drive the atmospheric circulation and dissipated by various frictional forces and nonidealities) as well as of the thermodynamic efficiency of the cycle. Possible extensions of the idealized framework relating to the role of dry air and the inclusion of various irreversible processes are also discussed.

  10. Cell cycle control and seed development

    PubMed Central

    Dante, Ricardo A.; Larkins, Brian A.; Sabelli, Paolo A.

    2014-01-01

    Seed development is a complex process that requires coordinated integration of many genetic, metabolic, and physiological pathways and environmental cues. Different cell cycle types, such as asymmetric cell division, acytokinetic mitosis, mitotic cell division, and endoreduplication, frequently occur in sequential yet overlapping manner during the development of the embryo and the endosperm, seed structures that are both products of double fertilization. Asymmetric cell divisions in the embryo generate polarized daughter cells with different cell fates. While nuclear and cell division cycles play a key role in determining final seed cell numbers, endoreduplication is often associated with processes such as cell enlargement and accumulation of storage metabolites that underlie cell differentiation and growth of the different seed compartments. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of different cell cycle mechanisms operating during seed development and their impact on the growth, development, and function of seed tissues. Particularly, the roles of core cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin-dependent-kinases and their inhibitors, the Retinoblastoma-Related/E2F pathway and the proteasome-ubiquitin system, are discussed in the contexts of different cell cycle types that characterize seed development. The contributions of nuclear and cellular proliferative cycles and endoreduplication to cereal endosperm development are also discussed. PMID:25295050

  11. Helium process cycle

    DOEpatents

    Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

    2008-08-12

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  12. Helium process cycle

    DOEpatents

    Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

    2007-10-09

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  13. Annual Cycles of Steroid Hormone Production, Gonad Development, and Reproductive

    E-print Network

    Tricas, Timothy C.

    Annual Cycles of Steroid Hormone Production, Gonad Development, and Reproductive Behavior and ultimate function of this extended preovulatory mating are un- known. Annual cycles of the gonadal steroids their choice of mates. This estuary sample population shows higher ab- solute steroid levels and distinct

  14. Solar magnetic cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Karen L.

    1993-01-01

    Using NSO/KP magnetograms, the pattern and rate of the emergence of magnetic flux and the development of the large-scale patterns of unipolar fields are considered in terms of the solar magnetic cycle. Magnetic flux emerges in active regions at an average rate of 2 x 10(exp 21) Mx/day, approximately 10 times the estimated rate in ephemeral regions. Observations are presented that demonstrate that the large-scale unipolar fields originate in active regions and activity nests. For cycle 21, the net contribution of ephemeral regions to the axial dipole moment of the Sun is positive, and is of opposite sign to that of active regions. Its amplitude is smaller by a factor of 6, assuming an average lifetime of ephemeral regions of 8 hours. Active regions larger than 4500 Mm(sup 2) are the primary contributor to the cycle variation of Sun's axial dipole moment.

  15. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  16. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

    1992-12-22

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

  17. The global sulfur cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, D. (editor)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the planetary biology microbial ecology's 1984 Summer Research Program, which examined various aspects of the global sulfur cycle are summarized. Ways in which sulfur flows through the many living and chemical species that inhabit the surface of the Earth were investigated. Major topics studied include: (1) sulfur cycling and metabolism of phototropic and filamentous sulfur bacteria; (2) sulfur reduction in sediments of marine and evaporite environments; (3) recent cyanobacterial mats; (4) microanalysis of community metabolism in proximity to the photic zone in potential stromatolites; and (5) formation and activity of microbial biofilms on metal sulfides and other mineral surfaces. Relationships between the global sulfur cycle and the understanding of the early evolution of the Earth and biosphere and current processes that affect global habitability are stressed.

  18. The solar activity cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Douglas M.; Devore, C. R.; Sheeley, Neil R., Jr.; Harvey, Karen L.; Hoeksema, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    This review emphasizes observations of photospheric magnetic flux during cycle 21 (1976-1986) and how these measurements have been used to model the cyclic variability of the heliospheric magnetic field. Indices of solar activity are discussed in terms of their potential to figure in theoretical or empirical models. Other recent data, such as measurements of large-scale surface flows and information on the sun's internal rotation from helioseismology, as well as the magnetic flux observations, are considered in the context of Babcock's phenomenological model of the solar cycle.

  19. Global water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Christy, John R.; Goodman, Steven J.; Miller, Tim L.; Fitzjarrald, Dan; Lapenta, Bill; Wang, Shouping

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates changes on both global and regional scales. The following subject areas are covered: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) diabatic heating; (4) MSU (Microwave Sounding Unit) temperature analysis; (5) Optimal precipitation and streamflow analysis; (6) CCM (Community Climate Model) hydrological cycle; (7) CCM1 climate sensitivity to lower boundary forcing; and (8) mesoscale modeling of atmosphere/surface interaction.

  20. Global water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  1. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the fast growing capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system. The group of techniques that as a class have been referred to as Synthetic Battery Cycling is developed in part to try to bridge the gap of understanding that exists between single cell characteristics and battery system behavior.

  2. Cycles in fossil diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  3. Fuel Cycle System Analysis Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Dirk Gombert; Edward A. Hoffman; Gretchen E. Matthern; Kent A. Williams

    2009-06-01

    This Handbook aims to improve understanding and communication regarding nuclear fuel cycle options. It is intended to assist DOE, Campaign Managers, and other presenters prepare presentations and reports. When looking for information, check here. The Handbook generally includes few details of how calculations were performed, which can be found by consulting references provided to the reader. The Handbook emphasizes results in the form of graphics and diagrams, with only enough text to explain the graphic, to ensure that the messages associated with the graphic is clear, and to explain key assumptions and methods that cause the graphed results. Some of the material is new and is not found in previous reports, for example: (1) Section 3 has system-level mass flow diagrams for 0-tier (once-through), 1-tier (UOX to CR=0.50 fast reactor), and 2-tier (UOX to MOX-Pu to CR=0.50 fast reactor) scenarios - at both static and dynamic equilibrium. (2) To help inform fast reactor transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio and uranium supply behavior, section 5 provides the sustainable fast reactor growth rate as a function of TRU conversion ratio. (3) To help clarify the difference in recycling Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, and all-TRU, section 5 provides mass fraction, gamma, and neutron emission for those four cases for MOX, heterogeneous LWR IMF (assemblies mixing IMF and UOX pins), and a CR=0.50 fast reactor. There are data for the first 10 LWR recycle passes and equilibrium. (4) Section 6 provides information on the cycle length, planned and unplanned outages, and TRU enrichment as a function of fast reactor TRU conversion ratio, as well as the dilution of TRU feedstock by uranium in making fast reactor fuel. (The recovered uranium is considered to be more pure than recovered TRU.) The latter parameter impacts the required TRU impurity limits specified by the Fuels Campaign. (5) Section 7 provides flows for an 800-tonne UOX separation plant. (6) To complement 'tornado' economic uncertainty diagrams, which show at a glance combined uncertainty information, section 9.2 has a new set of simpler graphs that show the impact on fuel cycle costs for once through, 1-tier, and 2-tier scenarios as a function of key input parameters.

  4. Carbon cycles in Late Cretaceous time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprovieri, M.; Sabatino, N.; Pelosi, N.; Batenburg, S.; Coccioni, R.; Iavarone, M.; Mazzola, S.

    2012-04-01

    A refined astronomical tuning of the upper Albian-lower Campanian record is proposed from the Tethyan pelagic sedimentary sequence of the Bottaccione reference section (Umbria-Marche Basin, central Italy). Long-term eccentricity cycles filtered from a new high-resolution bulk sample ?13C signal were tuned to the highly stable 405 kyr cycles of the insolation target curve. Application of integrated methodologies of non-stationary/non-linear signals analysis (Intrinsic Mode Functions, WWZ Wavelet, non-linear filtering techniques, etc.) provided reliable numerical tools to explore the highly complex ~23 Myr long record. Exploration of the hierarchical pattern organization of lithology in selected parts of the sedimentary record provided an important constrain for the tuning strategy. The proposed orbital tuning provides a new and accurate age model for dating biostratigraphic, magnetic and carbon isotope events. Moreover, the exploration of long-term cycles (~1.2 to ~7.1 Myr) in the ?13C signal throughout the entire record offers an unprecedented chance to investigate processes associated to global carbon cycle dynamics and response to orbital forcing, biogeochemical cycles and sea level changes. Long-term eccentricity cycles of ~2.5 Myr beat the ~23 Myr long record although a direct control of this long-term eccentricity component on the deposition of sediments identified throughout the succession and coeval to the Bonarelli and mid-Cenomanian anoxic events can be unequivocally excluded. During the Turonian-Coniacian stratigraphic intervals, cycles of 1.2 Myr primarily modulate the ?13C curve , fuelling the debate on the potential role of glacio-eustacy on the carbon cycle during short-intervals of this super-greenhouse period. Finally, cycles of ~7.1, 4.5 and 3.2 Myr modulate the entire ?13C record and represent primary very long-term oscillation modes of Earth's climate-ocean system. Although an ultimate driver of these long-term periodicities is lacking we speculate that the 4.5 and 2.5 Myr cycles documented in the Late Cretaceous represent homologues of the present eccentricity grand cycles evolved by chaotic behaviour of solar planets during the Mesozoic. They could represent appropriate system low-frequency means for geological correlation and robust constraints on the orbital evolution of the Solar System.

  5. Water Cycle Missions for the Next Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The global water cycle describes the circulation of water as a vital and dynamic substance in its liquid, solid, and vapor phases as it moves through the atmosphere, oceans and land. Life in its many forms exists because of water, and modern civilization depends on learning how to live within the constraints imposed by the availability of water. The scientific challenge posed by the need to observe the global water cycle is to integrate in situ and space-borne observations to quantify the key water-cycle state variables and fluxes. The vision to address that challenge is a series of Earth observation missions that will measure the states, stocks, flows, and residence times of water on regional to global scales followed by a series of coordinated missions that will address the processes, on a global scale, that underlie variability and changes in water in all its three phases. The accompanying societal challenge is to foster the improved use of water data and information as a basis for enlightened management of water resources, to protect life and property from effects of extremes in the water cycle. A major change in thinking about water science that goes beyond its physics to include its role in ecosystems and society is also required. Better water-cycle observations, especially on the continental and global scales, will be essential. Water-cycle predictions need to be readily available globally to reduce loss of life and property caused by water-related natural hazards. Building on the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space , and the 2012 Chapman Conference on Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle, a workshop was held in April 2013 to gather wisdom and determine how to prepare for the next generation of water cycle missions in support of the second Earth Science Decadal Survey. This talk will present the outcomes of the workshop including the intersection between science questions, technology readiness and satellite design optimization. A series of next-generation water cycle mission working groups were proposed and white papers, designed to identify capacity gaps and inform NASA were developed. The workshop identified several visions for the next decade of water cycle satellite observations, and developed a roadmap and action plan for developing the foundation for these missions. Achieving this outcome will result in optimized community investments and better functionality of these future missions, and will help to foster broader range of scientists and professionals engaged in water cycle observation planning and development around the country, and the world.

  6. Disengaging from Conflict Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Youth in pain often show self-defeating and destructive patterns of behavior which should be seen as calls for help and positive support. Instead, deep-seated brain programs and cultural beliefs about discipline can trigger angry or avoidant behavior by adults who deal with these young people. This brief introduction to the Conflict Cycle

  7. LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life cycle analysis, or LCA for short, is a term that has been used more and more over the past year to describe the cradle-to-grave environmental impacts of a product. he LCA is a way of looking at the environmental demands of a product holistically; that is, looking at,the reso...

  8. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  9. GENERAL CIRCULATION Energy Cycle

    E-print Network

    Grotjahn, Richard

    , and Water Resources, Davis, CA 95616-8627, USA Introduction The energy cycle provides a physically of water, and 1 2ðu2 þ v2 þ w2 Þ the kinetic energy (KE). Together the first two terms define the dry everywhere. On average, the tropics receive and absorb far more solar energy annually than the polar regions

  10. GLOBAL TERRESTRIAL CARBON CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great uncertainty with regard to the future role of the terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, arising from both an inadequate understanding of current pools and fluxes as well as the potential effects of rising atmospheric concentrations of CO, on natural eco...

  11. Assisted Cycling Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses Assisted Cycling Tours (ACT), a Westminster, Colorado based 501(c)3, non-profit that is offering the joy of bicycle tours in breathtaking, scenic locations to children and adults with developmental and physical disabilities and their families. ACT was founded by Bob Matter and his son David with a goal of opening up the…

  12. Re-Cycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert W.; Covault, Corbin E.

    2015-01-01

    An old comedy routine on Saturday Night Live by Father Guido Sarducci introduced a "Five-Minute University," because five minutes is all that's remembered after graduation anyway. In counterpoint, we discuss "cycling," a teaching method for memory enhancement. Our principal implementation consists of offering a simple version…

  13. The Science of Cycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Zoe; Daniels, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Children are engaged by finding out about science in the real world (Harlen, 2010). Many children will be cyclists or will have seen or heard about the success of British cyclists in the Olympics and the Tour de France. This makes cycling a good hook to draw children into learning science. It is also a good cross-curricular topic, with strong…

  14. Life cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a technical, data-based and holistic approach to define and subsequently reduce the environmental burdens associated with a product, process, or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and material usage and waste discharges, assessing the impact of those wastes on the environment, and evaluating and implementing opportunities to effect environmental improvements. The assessment includes the entire life-cycle of the product, process or activity encompassing extraction and processing of raw materials, manufacturing, transportation and distribution, use/reuse, recycling and final disposal. LCA is a useful tool for evaluating the environmental consequences of a product, process, or activity, however, current applications of LCA have not been performed in consistent or easily understood ways. This inconsistency has caused increased criticism of LCA. The EPA recognized the need to develop an LCA framework which could be used to provide consistent use across the board. Also, additional research is needed to enhance the understanding about the steps in the performance of an LCA and its appropriate usage. This paper will present the research activities of the EPA leading toward the development of an acceptable method for conducting LCA`s. This research has resulted in the development of two guidance manuals. The first manual is intended to be a practical guide to conducting and interpreting the life-cycle inventory. A nine-step approach to performing a comprehensive inventory is presented along with the general issues to be addressed. The second manual addresses life-cycle design.

  15. Scaling Population Cycles of Herbivores and Carnivores

    E-print Network

    Mulder, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Periodicity in population dynamics is a fundamental issue. In addition to current species-specific analyses, allometry facilitates understanding of limit cycles amongst different species. So far, body-size regressions have been derived for the oscillation period of the population densities of warm-blooded species, in particular herbivores. Here, we extend the allometric analysis to other clades, allowing for a comparison between the obtained slopes and intercepts. The oscillation periods were derived from databases and original studies to cover a broad range of conditions and species. Then, values were related to specific body size by regression analysis. For different groups of herbivorous species, the oscillation period increased as a function of individual mass as a power law with exponents of 0.11-0.27. The intercepts of the resulting linear regressions indicated that cycle times for equally-sized species increased from homeotherms up to invertebrates. Overall, cycle times for predators did not scale to b...

  16. Westinghouse fuel cell combined cycle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veyo, S.

    1996-12-31

    Efficiency (voltage) of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) should increase with operating pressure, and a pressurized SOFC could function as the heat addition process in a Brayton cycle gas turbine (GT) engine. An overall cycle efficiency of 70% should be possible. In cogeneration, half of the waste heat from a PSOFC/GT should be able to be captured in process steam and hot water, leading to a fuel effectiveness of about 85%. In order to make the PSOFC/GT a commercial reality, satisfactory operation of the SOFC at elevated pressure must be verified, a pressurized SOFC generator module must be designed, built, and tested, and the combined cycle and parameters must be optimized. A prototype must also be demonstrated. This paper describes progress toward making the PSOFC/GT a reality.

  17. Review Article Hepatic response to aluminum toxicity: Dyslipidemia and

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2232 Anaerobic metabolism: Al promotes anaerobic respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2232 Al disrupts the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aerobic respiration

  18. Diary of a Wimpy Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David; Upton, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The cause of the low and extended minimum in solar activity between Sunspot Cycles 23 and 24 was the small size of Sunspot Cycle 24 itself - small cycles start late and leave behind low minima. Cycle 24 is small because the polar fields produced during Cycle 23 were substantially weaker than those produced during the previous cycles and those (weak) polar fields are the seeds for the activity of the following cycle. Here we discuss the observed characteristics of Cycle 24 and contrast them to the characteristics of previous cycles. We present observations and Magnetic Flux Transport simulations with data assimilated from SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI that help to explain these differences and point the way to predictions of future activity levels.

  19. Assessing Understanding of the Learning Cycle: The ULC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Edmund A.; Maier, Steven J.; McCann, Florence

    2008-08-01

    An 18-item, multiple choice, 2-tiered instrument designed to measure understanding of the learning cycle (ULC) was developed and field-tested from the learning cycle test (LCT) of Odom and Settlage ( Journal of Science Teacher Education, 7, 123 142, 1996). All question sets of the LCT were modified to some degree and 5 new sets were added, resulting in the ULC. The ULC measures (a) understandings and misunderstandings of the learning cycle, (b) the learning cycle’s association with Piaget’s ( Biology and knowledge theory: An essay on the relations between organic regulations and cognitive processes, 1975) theory of mental functioning, and (c) applications of the learning cycle. The resulting ULC instrument was evaluated for internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha, yielding a coefficient of .791.

  20. Protein tyrosine nitration in the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Min; Mateoiu, Claudia; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Enrichment of 3-nitrotyrosine containing proteins from cells synchronized in different phases of the cell cycle. {yields} Identification of 76 tyrosine nitrated proteins that change expression during the cell cycle. {yields} Nineteen identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins is associated with cell response to oxidative/nitrosative stress. Tyrosine nitration is relatively low abundant post-translational modification that may affect protein functions. Little is known about the extent of protein tyrosine nitration in cells during progression through the cell cycle. Here we report identification of proteins enriched for tyrosine nitration in cells synchronized in G0/G1, S or G2/M phases of the cell cycle. We identified 27 proteins in cells synchronized in G0/G1 phase, 37 proteins in S phase synchronized cells, and 12 proteins related to G2/M phase. Nineteen of the identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. Thus, our data indicate which tyrosine nitrated proteins may affect regulation of the cell cycle.

  1. Pulsed nature of solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevolenskaya, E. E.; Ponyavin, Yu. D.

    2015-12-01

    Solar cycle 24 is characterized by relatively weak sunspot activity and is developing according to the smallest cycle scenario (Svalgaard, Cliver, and Kamide, 2005). Using the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) data for May 2010-September 2014, we present the results of a study of solar cycle 24 in the photosphere and corona during the ascending and maximum epochs. These data have been prepared in the form of synoptic maps (one map corresponds to one solar rotation) as functions of latitude and longitude for Carrington rotations CR2097-CR2154. To study the axisymmetric structure of the cycle, the maps have been averaged over longitude. Solar activity pulses, which are visible in an axisymmetric midlatitude magnetic flux, correspond to coronal brightening events in the extreme ultraviolet in the 193 Å band. Solar cycle 24 is characterized by weak magnetic polar activity, weakly pronounced high-latitude waves of coronal activity, and north-south asymmetry in the sign change of the polar solar magnetic field, which is directly connected with the asymmetry in an emerging magnetic flux in the region of sunspot activity and, hence, solar activity pulses. Thus, the north polar field became mainly positive in the latitude zone from 75.01° to 79.73° in 2013, while the south field started changing sign in September 2014.

  2. Metabolic cycling without cell division cycling in respiring yeast

    E-print Network

    Slavov, Nikolai G.

    Despite rapid progress in characterizing the yeast metabolic cycle, its connection to the cell division cycle (CDC) has remained unclear. We discovered that a prototrophic batch culture of budding yeast, growing in a ...

  3. Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, M. G.; Sherman, A.; Studer, P. A.; Daniels, A.; Goldowsky, M. P.

    1983-06-01

    A long lifetime Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler particularly adapted for space applications is described. It consists of a compressor section centrally aligned end to end with an expansion section, and respectively includes a reciprocating compressor piston and displacer radially suspended in interconnecting cylindrical housings by active magnetic bearings and has adjacent reduced clearance regions so as to be in noncontacting relationship therewith and wherein one or more of these regions operate as clearance seals. The piston and displacer are reciprocated in their housings by linear drive motors to vary the volume of respectively adjacent compression and expansion spaces which contain a gaseous working fluid and a thermal regenerator to effect Stirling cycle cryogenic cooling.

  4. Gap Cycling for SWIFT

    E-print Network

    Corum, Curtis A; Snyder, Carl J; Garwood, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: SWIFT (SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation) is a non- Cartesian MRI method with unique features and capabilities. In SWIFT, radiofrequency (RF) excitation and reception are performed nearly simultaneously, by rapidly switching between transmit and receive during a frequency-swept RF pulse. Because both the transmitted pulse and data acquisition are simultaneously amplitude-modulated in SWIFT (in contrast to continuous RF excitation and uninterrupted data acquisition in more familiar MRI sequences), crosstalk between different frequency bands occurs in the data. This crosstalk leads to a "bulls-eye" artifact in SWIFT images. We present a method to cancel this inter-band crosstalk by cycling the pulse and receive gap positions relative to the un-gapped pulse shape. We call this strategy "gap cycling." Methods: We carry out theoretical analysis, simulation and experiments to characterize the signal chain, resulting artifacts, and their elimination for SWIFT. Results: Theoretical analysis reveals t...

  5. Are solar cycles predictable?

    E-print Network

    Schuessler, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Various methods (or recipes) have been proposed to predict future solar activity levels - with mixed success. Among these, some precursor methods based upon quantities determined around or a few years before solar minimum have provided rather high correlations with the strength of the following cycles. Recently, data assimilation with an advection-dominated (flux-transport) dynamo model has been proposed as a predictive tool, yielding remarkably high correlation coefficients. After discussing the potential implications of these results and the criticism that has been raised, we study the possible physical origin(s) of the predictive skill provided by precursor and other methods. It is found that the combination of the overlap of solar cycles and their amplitude-dependent rise time (Waldmeier's rule) introduces correlations in the sunspot number (or area) record, which account for the predictive skill of many precursor methods. This explanation requires no direct physical relation between the precursor quantit...

  6. Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Deborah J.

    2014-10-28

    These slides will be presented at the training course “International Training Course on Implementing State Systems of Accounting for and Control (SSAC) of Nuclear Material for States with Small Quantity Protocols (SQP),” on November 3-7, 2014 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The slides provide a basic overview of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. This is a joint training course provided by NNSA and IAEA.

  7. Stirling cycle engine

    DOEpatents

    Lundholm, Gunnar (Lund, SE)

    1983-01-01

    In a Stirling cycle engine having a plurality of working gas charges separated by pistons reciprocating in cylinders, the total gas content is minimized and the mean pressure equalization among the serial cylinders is improved by using two piston rings axially spaced at least as much as the piston stroke and by providing a duct in the cylinder wall opening in the space between the two piston rings and leading to a source of minimum or maximum working gas pressure.

  8. The carbon dioxide cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, P.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Titus, T.N.

    2005-01-01

    The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Centrifugal Gas Compression Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fultun, Roy

    2002-11-01

    A centrifuged gas of kinetic, elastic hard spheres compresses isothermally and without flow of heat in a process that reverses free expansion. This theorem follows from stated assumptions via a collection of thought experiments, theorems and other supporting results, and it excludes application of the reversible mechanical adiabatic power law in this context. The existence of an isothermal adiabatic centrifugal compression process makes a three-process cycle possible using a fixed sample of the working gas. The three processes are: adiabatic mechanical expansion and cooling against a piston, isothermal adiabatic centrifugal compression back to the original volume, and isochoric temperature rise back to the original temperature due to an influx of heat. This cycle forms the basis for a Thomson perpetuum mobile that induces a loop of energy flow in an isolated system consisting of a heat bath connectable by a thermal path to the working gas, a mechanical extractor of the gas's internal energy, and a device that uses that mechanical energy and dissipates it as heat back into the heat bath. We present a simple experimental procedure to test the assertion that adiabatic centrifugal compression is isothermal. An energy budget for the cycle provides a criterion for breakeven in the conversion of heat to mechanical energy.

  10. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may be rapid, ultra-rapid or ultradian cycling. Biological rhythm disturbances: This theory proposes that people with rapid cycling have daily biological rhythms that are out of sync with typical “ ...

  11. American business cycles and innovation 

    E-print Network

    Hood, Michael

    2013-02-22

    introduces the concepts of innovation and invention. The second section discusses the business cycles and highlights general causes of business cycles. The final section details the history of the iron, steel, aluminum, and pharmaceutical industries...

  12. Internal cycle modeling and environmental assessment of multiple cycle consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiliyannis, C.A.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic flow models are presented for remanufactured, reused or recycled products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early loss and stochastic return are included for fast and slow cycling products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reuse-to-input flow ratio (Internal Cycle Factor, ICF) is determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cycle rate, which is increasing with the ICF, monitors eco-performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early internal cycle losses diminish the ICF, the cycle rate and performance. - Abstract: Dynamic annual flow models incorporating consumer discard and usage loss and featuring deterministic and stochastic end-of-cycle (EOC) return by the consumer are developed for reused or remanufactured products (multiple cycle products, MCPs), including fast and slow cycling, short and long-lived products. It is shown that internal flows (reuse and overall consumption) increase proportionally to the dimensionless internal cycle factor (ICF) which is related to environmental impact reduction factors. The combined reuse/recycle (or cycle) rate is shown capable for shortcut, albeit effective, monitoring of environmental performance in terms of waste production, virgin material extraction and manufacturing impacts of all MCPs, a task, which physical variables (lifetime, cycling frequency, mean or total number of return trips) and conventional rates, via which environmental policy has been officially implemented (e.g. recycling rate) cannot accomplish. The cycle rate is shown to be an increasing (hyperbolic) function of ICF. The impact of the stochastic EOC return characteristics on total reuse and consumption flows, as well as on eco-performance, is assessed: symmetric EOC return has a small, positive effect on performance compared to deterministic, while early shifted EOC return is more beneficial. In order to be efficient, environmental policy should set higher minimum reuse targets for higher trippage MCPs. The results may serve for monitoring, flow accounting and comparative eco-assessment of MCPs. They may be useful in identifying reachable and efficient reuse/recycle targets for consumer products and in planning return via appropriate labelling and digital coding for enhancing environmental performance, while satisfying consumer demand.

  13. On the Importance of Cycle Minimum in Sunspot Cycle Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of the minima between sunspot cycles are found to provide important information for predicting the amplitude and timing of the following cycle. For example, the time of the occurrence of sunspot minimum sets the length of the previous cycle, which is correlated by the amplitude-period effect to the amplitude of the next cycle, with cycles of shorter (longer) than average length usually being followed by cycles of larger (smaller) than average size (true for 16 of 21 sunspot cycles). Likewise, the size of the minimum at cycle onset is correlated with the size of the cycle's maximum amplitude, with cycles of larger (smaller) than average size minima usually being associated with larger (smaller) than average size maxima (true for 16 of 22 sunspot cycles). Also, it was found that the size of the previous cycle's minimum and maximum relates to the size of the following cycle's minimum and maximum with an even-odd cycle number dependency. The latter effect suggests that cycle 23 will have a minimum and maximum amplitude probably larger than average in size (in particular, minimum smoothed sunspot number Rm = 12.3 +/- 7.5 and maximum smoothed sunspot number RM = 198.8 +/- 36.5, at the 95-percent level of confidence), further suggesting (by the Waldmeier effect) that it will have a faster than average rise to maximum (fast-rising cycles have ascent durations of about 41 +/- 7 months). Thus, if, as expected, onset for cycle 23 will be December 1996 +/- 3 months, based on smoothed sunspot number, then the length of cycle 22 will be about 123 +/- 3 months, inferring that it is a short-period cycle and that cycle 23 maximum amplitude probably will be larger than average in size (from the amplitude-period effect), having an RM of about 133 +/- 39 (based on the usual +/- 30 percent spread that has been seen between observed and predicted values), with maximum amplitude occurrence likely sometime between July 1999 and October 2000.

  14. Perturbation of phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis affects mitochondrial morphology and cell-cycle progression in

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    in the mammalian host form a single tube with few short cristae and there is no functional Krebs cycle. DuringPerturbation of phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis affects mitochondrial morphology and cell-cycle-down of ET. Interference with phospholipid synthesis also impaired normal cell-cycle progression. ET RNAi led

  15. Changes in Brain Size during the Menstrual Cycle Georg Hagemann1,2.

    E-print Network

    Gaser, Christian

    Changes in Brain Size during the Menstrual Cycle Georg Hagemann1,2. *, Tarik Ugur1,3 , Ekkehard: There is increasing evidence for hormone-dependent modification of function and behavior during the menstrual cycle/Principal Findings: We used MR-volumetry to investigate short-term brain volume changes across the menstrual cycle

  16. DOE's Enriched Background Isotope Study Data Improved a Classic Ecosystem Carbon Cycling Model

    E-print Network

    Post, Wilfred M.

    DOE's Enriched Background Isotope Study Data Improved a Classic Ecosystem Carbon Cycling Model functional mechanisms within the classic carbon cycling model ­ DayCent. · EBIS field studies quantified not currently included in forest carbon cycle models. · Major revisions to the DayCent model included (1) adding

  17. On optimal velocity during cycling.

    PubMed

    Maro?ski, R

    1994-02-01

    This paper focuses on the solution of two problems related to cycling. One is to determine the velocity as a function of distance which minimizes the cyclist's energy expenditure in covering a given distance in a set time. The other is to determine the velocity as a function of the distance which minimizes time for fixed energy expenditure. To solve these problems, an equation of motion for the cyclist riding over arbitrary terrain is written using Newton's second law. This equation is used to evaluate either energy expenditure or time, and the minimization problems are solved using an optimal control formulation in conjunction with the method of Miele [Optimization Techniques with Applications to Aerospace Systems, pp. 69-98 (1962) Academic Press, New York]. Solutions to both optimal control problems are the same. The solutions are illustrated through two examples. In one example where the relative wind velocity is zero, the optimal cruising velocity is constant regardless of terrain. In the second, where the relative wind velocity fluctuates, the optimal cruising velocity varies. PMID:8132689

  18. HEURISTIC SEARCH FOR HAMILTON CYCLES

    E-print Network

    Mohar, Bojan

    HEURISTIC SEARCH FOR HAMILTON CYCLES IN CUBIC GRAPHS Janez ALES, Bojan MOHAR and Tomaz PISANSKI. A successful heuristic algorithm for nding Hamilton cycles in cubic graphs is described. Several graphs from Cayley graph of PSL2(7) contains a Hamilton cycle (see Section 4). 2 A HEURISTIC ALGORITHM

  19. Hormonal contraceptives, menstrual cycle and brain response to faces.

    PubMed

    Marecková, Klara; Perrin, Jennifer S; Nawaz Khan, Irum; Lawrence, Claire; Dickie, Erin; McQuiggan, Doug A; Paus, Tomás

    2014-02-01

    Both behavioral and neuroimaging evidence support a female advantage in the perception of human faces. Here we explored the possibility that this relationship may be partially mediated by female sex hormones by investigating the relationship between the brain's response to faces and the use of oral contraceptives, as well as the phase of the menstrual cycle. First, functional magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 young women [10 freely cycling and 10 taking oral contraception (OC)] during two phases of their cycle: mid-cycle and menstruation. We found stronger neural responses to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA) in women taking oral contraceptives (vs freely cycling women) and during mid-cycle (vs menstruation) in both groups. Mean blood oxygenation level-dependent response in both left and right FFA increased as function of the duration of OC use. Next, this relationship between the use of OC and FFA response was replicated in an independent sample of 110 adolescent girls. Finally in a parallel behavioral study carried out in another sample of women, we found no evidence of differences in the pattern of eye movements while viewing faces between freely cycling women vs those taking oral contraceptives. The imaging findings might indicate enhanced processing of social cues in women taking OC and women during mid-cycle. PMID:23175677

  20. Hormonal contraceptives, menstrual cycle and brain response to faces

    PubMed Central

    Mare?ková, Klara; Perrin, Jennifer S.; Nawaz Khan, Irum; Lawrence, Claire; Dickie, Erin; McQuiggan, Doug A.

    2014-01-01

    Both behavioral and neuroimaging evidence support a female advantage in the perception of human faces. Here we explored the possibility that this relationship may be partially mediated by female sex hormones by investigating the relationship between the brain’s response to faces and the use of oral contraceptives, as well as the phase of the menstrual cycle. First, functional magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 young women [10 freely cycling and 10 taking oral contraception (OC)] during two phases of their cycle: mid-cycle and menstruation. We found stronger neural responses to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA) in women taking oral contraceptives (vs freely cycling women) and during mid-cycle (vs menstruation) in both groups. Mean blood oxygenation level-dependent response in both left and right FFA increased as function of the duration of OC use. Next, this relationship between the use of OC and FFA response was replicated in an independent sample of 110 adolescent girls. Finally in a parallel behavioral study carried out in another sample of women, we found no evidence of differences in the pattern of eye movements while viewing faces between freely cycling women vs those taking oral contraceptives. The imaging findings might indicate enhanced processing of social cues in women taking OC and women during mid-cycle. PMID:23175677

  1. Physiological relevance of cell cycle kinases.

    PubMed

    Malumbres, Marcos

    2011-07-01

    The basic biology of the cell division cycle and its control by protein kinases was originally studied through genetic and biochemical studies in yeast and other model organisms. The major regulatory mechanisms identified in this pioneer work are conserved in mammals. However, recent studies in different cell types or genetic models are now providing a new perspective on the function of these major cell cycle regulators in different tissues. Here, we review the physiological relevance of mammalian cell cycle kinases such as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), Aurora and Polo-like kinases, and mitotic checkpoint regulators (Bub1, BubR1, and Mps1) as well as other less-studied enzymes such as Cdc7, Nek proteins, or Mastl and their implications in development, tissue homeostasis, and human disease. Among these functions, the control of self-renewal or asymmetric cell division in stem/progenitor cells and the ability to regenerate injured tissues is a central issue in current research. In addition, many of these proteins play previously unexpected roles in metabolism, cardiovascular function, or neuron biology. The modulation of their enzymatic activity may therefore have multiple therapeutic benefits in human disease. PMID:21742793

  2. Fictitious Supercontinent Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    "Supercontinent cycles" or "Wilson cycles" is the idea that before Pangaea there were a series of supercontinents that each formed and then broke apart and separated before colliding again, re-aggregating, and suturing into a new supercontinent in a continuing sequence. I suggest that "supercontinent cycles" are artificial constructs, like planetary orbit epicycles, attempts to describe geological phenomena within the framework of problematic paradigms, namely, planetesimal Earth formation and plate tectonics' mantle convection. The so-called 'standard model of solar system formation' is problematic as it would lead to insufficiently massive planetary cores and necessitates additional ad hoc hypotheses such as the 'frost line' between Mars and Jupiter to explain planetary differences and whole-planet melting to explain core formation from essentially undifferentiated matter. The assumption of mantle convection is crucial for plate tectonics, not only for seafloor spreading, but also for continental movement; continent masses are assumed to ride atop convection cells. In plate tectonics, plate collisions are thought to be the sole mechanism for fold-mountain formation. Indeed, the occurrence of mountain chains characterized by folding which significantly predate the breakup of Pangaea is the primary basis for assuming the existence of supercontinent cycles with their respective periods of ancient mountain-forming plate collisions. Mantle convection is physically impossible. Rayleigh Number justification has been misapplied. The mantle bottom is too dense to float to the surface by thermal expansion. Sometimes attempts are made to obviate the 'bottom heavy' prohibition by adopting the tacit assumption that the mantle behaves as an ideal gas with no viscous losses, i.e., 'adiabatic'. But the mantle is a solid that does not behave as an ideal gas as evidenced by earthquakes occurring at depths as great as 660 km. Absent mantle convection, plate tectonics is not valid and there is no motive force for driving supercontinent cycles. The reasonable conclusion one must draw, as in the case of epicycles, is there must exist a new and fundamentally different geoscience paradigm which obviates the problems inherent in plate tectonics and in planetesimal Earth formation and yet better explains geological features. I have disclosed a new indivisible geoscience paradigm, called Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics (WEDD), that begins with and is the consequence of our planet's early formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant and which permits deduction of: (1) Earth's internal composition and highly-reduced oxidation state; (2) Core formation without whole-planet melting; (3) Powerful new internal energy sources, protoplanetary energy of compression and georeactor nuclear fission energy; (4) Mechanism for heat emplacement at the base of the crust; (5) Georeactor geomagnetic field generation; (6) Decompression-driven geodynamics that accounts for the myriad of observations attributed to plate tectonics without requiring physically-impossible mantle convection, and; (7) A mechanism for fold-mountain formation that does not necessarily require plate collision. The latter obviates the necessity to assume supercontinent cycles. The fundamental basis of geodynamics is this: In response to decompression-driven Earth volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and mountain ranges characterized by folding form to accommodate changes in curvature. Resources at NuclearPlanet.com .

  3. Laser speckle analysis synchronised with cardiac cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Pavel; Scheffold, Frank; Weber, Bruno

    2015-07-01

    We present an improved Laser speckle imaging approach to investigate the cerebral blood flow response following function stimulation of a single vibrissa. By synchronising speckle analysis with the cardiac cycle we are able to obtain robust averaging of the correlation signals while at the same time removing the contributions due to the pulsation of blood flow and associated tissue adaptation. With our inter-pulse correlation analysis we can follow second-scale dynamics of the cortical vascular system in response to functional brain activation. We find evidence for two temporally separated processes in the blood flow pattern following stimulation we tentatively attribute to vasodilation and vasoconstriction phases, respectively.

  4. GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Toshio; Lawford, Richard; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    It is critically important to recognize and co-manage the fundamental linkages across the water-dependent domains; land use, including deforestation; ecosystem services; and food-, energy- and health-securities. Sharing coordinated, comprehensive and sustained observations and information for sound decision-making is a first step; however, to take full advantage of these opportunities, we need to develop an effective collaboration mechanism for working together across different disciplines, sectors and agencies, and thereby gain a holistic view of the continuity between environmentally sustainable development, climate change adaptation and enhanced resilience. To promote effective multi-sectoral, interdisciplinary collaboration based on coordinated and integrated efforts, the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is implementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). A component of GEOSS now under development is the "GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator (WCI)", which integrates Earth observations, modeling, data and information, management systems and education systems. GEOSS/WCI sets up "work benches" by which partners can share data, information and applications in an interoperable way, exchange knowledge and experiences, deepen mutual understanding and work together effectively to ultimately respond to issues of both mitigation and adaptation. (A work bench is a virtual geographical or phenomenological space where experts and managers collaborate to use information to address a problem within that space). GEOSS/WCI enhances the coordination of efforts to strengthen individual, institutional and infrastructure capacities, especially for effective interdisciplinary coordination and integration. GEO has established the GEOSS Asian Water Cycle Initiative (AWCI) and GEOSS African Water Cycle Coordination Initiative (AfWCCI). Through regional, inter-disciplinary, multi-sectoral integration and inter-agency coordination in Asia and Africa, GEOSS/WCI is now leading to effective actions and public awareness in support of water security and sustainable development.

  5. GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, T.; Lawford, R. G.; Cripe, D.

    2012-12-01

    It is critically important to recognize and co-manage the fundamental linkages across the water-dependent domains; land use, including deforestation; ecosystem services; and food-, energy- and health-securities. Sharing coordinated, comprehensive and sustained observations and information for sound decision-making is a first step; however, to take full advantage of these opportunities, we need to develop an effective collaboration mechanism for working together across different disciplines, sectors and agencies, and thereby gain a holistic view of the continuity between environmentally sustainable development, climate change adaptation and enhanced resilience. To promote effective multi-sectoral, interdisciplinary collaboration based on coordinated and integrated efforts, the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is now developing a "GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator (WCI)", which integrates "Earth observations", "modeling", "data and information", "management systems" and "education systems". GEOSS/WCI sets up "work benches" by which partners can share data, information and applications in an interoperable way, exchange knowledge and experiences, deepen mutual understanding and work together effectively to ultimately respond to issues of both mitigation and adaptation. (A work bench is a virtual geographical or phenomenological space where experts and managers collaborate to use information to address a problem within that space). GEOSS/WCI enhances the coordination of efforts to strengthen individual, institutional and infrastructure capacities, especially for effective interdisciplinary coordination and integration. GEO has established the GEOSS Asian Water Cycle Initiative (AWCI) and GEOSS African Water Cycle Coordination Initiative (AfWCCI). Through regional, inter-disciplinary, multi-sectoral integration and inter-agency coordination in Asia and Africa, GEOSS/WCI is now leading to effective actions and public awareness in support of water security and sustainable development.

  6. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  7. Re-Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert W.; Covault, Corbin E.

    2015-11-01

    An old comedy routine on Saturday Night Live by Father Guido Sarducci introduced a "Five-Minute University," because five minutes is all that's remembered after graduation anyway. In counterpoint, we discuss "cycling," a teaching method for memory enhancement. Our principal implementation consists of offering a simple version of a given course in the first third of the semester, a deeper and more integrated version in the second third, and the final, targeted version in the last third. We describe the benefits and challenges in this tale from the trenches.

  8. Cycling Joule Thomson refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tward, E. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A symmetrical adsorption pump/compressor system having a pair of mirror image legs and a Joule Thomson expander, or valve, interposed between the legs thereof for providing a, efficient refrigeration cycle is described. The system further includes a plurality of gas operational heat switches adapted selectively to transfer heat from a thermal load and to transfer or discharge heat through a heat projector, such as a radiator or the like. The heat switches comprise heat pressurizable chambers adapted for alternate pressurization in response to adsorption and desorption of a pressurizing gas confined therein.

  9. Effect of thermal cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stephen F.

    1988-05-01

    The objective of this effort is to evaluate the stability of low expansion Zerodur, developmental Zerodur, ULE, and Cer-Vit as possible substrate materials for high energy laser mirrors. This effort will determine whether there is instability in developmental Zerodur, ULE and Cer-Vit over operating temperatures and coating temperatures (300 to 475 K). Zerodur has already been shown to exhibit instability. Thermal cycling will be investigated as a possible approach to eliminate or reduce hysteresis. The effect of polishing on hysteresis will also be investigated.

  10. Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle.

    PubMed

    Palao, J P; Kosloff, R; Gordon, J M

    2001-11-01

    The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a three-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force-the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultralow temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics. PMID:11736037

  11. Liquid air cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  12. Geomicrobiological cycling of antimony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, T. R.; Terry, L.; Dovick, M. A.; Braiotta, F.

    2013-12-01

    Microbiologically catalyzed oxidation and reduction of toxic metalloids (e.g., As, Se, and Te) generally proceeds much faster than corresponding abiotic reactions. These microbial transformations constitute biogeochemical cycles that control chemical speciation and environmental behavior of metalloids in aqueous environments. Particular progress has been made over the past two decades in documenting microbiological biotransformations of As, which include anaerobic respiratory reduction of As(V) to As(III), oxidation of As(III) to As(V) linked to chemoautotrophy or photoautotrophy, and cellular detoxification pathways. By contrast, microbial interactions with Sb, As's group 15 neighbor and a toxic element of emerging global concern, are poorly understood. Our work with sediment microcosms, enrichment cultures, and bacterial isolates suggests that prokaryotic metabolisms may be similarly important to environmental Sb cycling. Enrichment cultures and isolates from a Sb-contaminated mine site in Idaho exhibited Sb(V)-dependent heterotrophic respiration under anaerobic conditions and Sb(III)-dependent autotrophic growth in the presence of air. Live, anoxic cultures reduced 2 mM Sb(V) to Sb(III) within 5 d, while no activity occurred in killed controls. Sb(V) reduction was stimulated by lactate or acetate and was quantitatively coupled to the oxidation of lactate. The oxidation of radiolabeled 14C-acetate (monitored by GC-GPC) demonstrated Sb(V)-dependent oxidation to 14CO2, suggesting a dissimilatory process. Sb(V) dependent growth in cultures was demonstrated by direct counting. Microbiological reduction of Sb(V) also occurred in anerobic sediment microcosms from an uncontaminated suburban lake, but did not appear to be linked to growth and is interpreted as a mechanism of biological detoxification. Aerobic microcosms and cultures from the Idaho mine oxidized 2 mM Sb(III) to Sb(V) within 7 d and coupled this reaction to cell growth quantified by direct counting. An anoxygenic photosynthetic community of purple sulfur bacteria from Pyramid Lake, NV, however, that was capable of growth via anoxygenic photosynthesis using As(III) as an electron donor was not capable of similar growth using Sb(III). These results suggest that geomicrobiological Sb cycling is an important influence on the environmental speciation and behavior of Sb, and portend the presence of a global biogeochemical Sb cycle that is analogous to but distinct from that for As.

  13. Natural Cycles, Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Rood, R. B.; Aikin, A. C.; Stolarski, R. S.; Mccormick, M. P.; Fahey, David W.

    1992-01-01

    The major gaseous components of the exhaust of stratospheric aircraft are expected to be the products of combustion (CO2 and H2O), odd nitrogen (NO, NO2 HNO3), and products indicating combustion inefficiencies (CO and total unburned hydrocarbons). The species distributions are produced by a balance of photochemical and transport processes. A necessary element in evaluating the impact of aircraft exhaust on the lower stratospheric composition is to place the aircraft emissions in perspective within the natural cycles of stratospheric species. Following are a description of mass transport in the lower stratosphere and a discussion of the natural behavior of the major gaseous components of the stratospheric aircraft exhaust.

  14. Rapid cycling medical synchrotron and beam delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Peggs, Stephen G. (Port Jefferson, NY); Brennan, J. Michael (East Northport, NY); Tuozzolo, Joseph E. (Sayville, NY); Zaltsman, Alexander (Commack, NY)

    2008-10-07

    A medical synchrotron which cycles rapidly in order to accelerate particles for delivery in a beam therapy system. The synchrotron generally includes a radiofrequency (RF) cavity for accelerating the particles as a beam and a plurality of combined function magnets arranged in a ring. Each of the combined function magnets performs two functions. The first function of the combined function magnet is to bend the particle beam along an orbital path around the ring. The second function of the combined function magnet is to focus or defocus the particle beam as it travels around the path. The radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a ferrite loaded cavity adapted for high speed frequency swings for rapid cycling acceleration of the particles.

  15. Performance analysis of an OTEC plant and a desalination plant using an integrated hybrid cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, Haruo; Miyara, Akio; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Nakaoka, Tsutomu

    1996-05-01

    A performance analysis of an OTEC plant using an integrated hybrid cycle (I-H OTEC Cycle) has been conducted. The I-H OTEC cycle is a combination of a closed-cycle OTEC plant and a spray flash desalination plant. In an I-H OTEC cycle, warm sea water evaporates the liquid ammonia in the OTEC evaporator, then enters the flash chamber and evaporates itself. The evaporated steam enters the desalination condenser and is condensed by the cold sea water passed through the OTEC condenser. The optimization of the I-H OTEC cycle is analyzed by the method of steepest descent. The total heat transfer area of heat exchangers per net power is used as an objective function. Numerical results are reported for a 10 MW I-H OTEC cycle with plate-type heat exchangers and ammonia as working fluid. The results are compared with those of a joint hybrid OTEC cycle (J-H OTEC Cycle).

  16. The Contemporary Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    The global carbon cycle refers to the exchanges of carbon within and between four major reservoirs: the atmosphere, the oceans, land, and fossil fuels. Carbon may be transferred from one reservoir to another in seconds (e.g., the fixation of atmospheric CO2 into sugar through photosynthesis) or over millennia (e.g., the accumulation of fossil carbon (coal, oil, gas) through deposition and diagenesis of organic matter). This chapter emphasizes the exchanges that are important over years to decades and includes those occurring over the scale of months to a few centuries. The focus will be on the years 1980-2000 but our considerations will broadly include the years ˜1850-2100. Chapter 8.09, deals with longer-term processes that involve rates of carbon exchange that are small on an annual timescale (weathering, vulcanism, sedimentation, and diagenesis).The carbon cycle is important for at least three reasons. First, carbon forms the structure of all life on the planet, making up ˜50% of the dry weight of living things. Second, the cycling of carbon approximates the flows of energy around the Earth, the metabolism of natural, human, and industrial systems. Plants transform radiant energy into chemical energy in the form of sugars, starches, and other forms of organic matter; this energy, whether in living organisms or dead organic matter, supports food chains in natural ecosystems as well as human ecosystems, not the least of which are industrial societies habituated (addicted?) to fossil forms of energy for heating, transportation, and generation of electricity. The increased use of fossil fuels has led to a third reason for interest in the carbon cycle. Carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), forms two of the most important greenhouse gases. These gases contribute to a natural greenhouse effect that has kept the planet warm enough to evolve and support life (without the greenhouse effect the Earth's average temperature would be -33°C). Additions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere from industrial activity, however, are increasing the concentrations of these gases, enhancing the greenhouse effect, and starting to warm the Earth.The rate and extent of the warming depend, in part, on the global carbon cycle. If the rate at which the oceans remove CO2 from the atmosphere were faster, e.g., concentrations of CO2 would have increased less over the last century. If the processes removing carbon from the atmosphere and storing it on land were to diminish, concentrations of CO2 would increase more rapidly than projected on the basis of recent history. The processes responsible for adding carbon to, and withdrawing it from, the atmosphere are not well enough understood to predict future levels of CO2 with great accuracy. These processes are a part of the global carbon cycle.Some of the processes that add carbon to the atmosphere or remove it, such as the combustion of fossil fuels and the establishment of tree plantations, are under direct human control. Others, such as the accumulation of carbon in the oceans or on land as a result of changes in global climate (i.e., feedbacks between the global carbon cycle and climate), are not under direct human control except through controlling rates of greenhouse gas emissions and, hence, climatic change. Because CO2 has been more important than all of the other greenhouse gases under human control, combined, and is expected to continue so in the future, understanding the global carbon cycle is a vital part of managing global climate.This chapter addresses, first, the reservoirs and natural flows of carbon on the earth. It then addresses the sources of carbon to the atmosphere from human uses of land and energy and the sinks of carbon on land and in the oceans that have kept the atmospheric accumulation of CO2 lower than it would otherwise have been. The chapter describes changes in the distribution of carbon among the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial ecosystems over the past 150 years as a result of human-induced emissions of carbon. The processes responsible fo

  17. Are solar cycles predictable?

    E-print Network

    Manfred Schuessler

    2007-12-12

    Various methods (or recipes) have been proposed to predict future solar activity levels - with mixed success. Among these, some precursor methods based upon quantities determined around or a few years before solar minimum have provided rather high correlations with the strength of the following cycles. Recently, data assimilation with an advection-dominated (flux-transport) dynamo model has been proposed as a predictive tool, yielding remarkably high correlation coefficients. After discussing the potential implications of these results and the criticism that has been raised, we study the possible physical origin(s) of the predictive skill provided by precursor and other methods. It is found that the combination of the overlap of solar cycles and their amplitude-dependent rise time (Waldmeier's rule) introduces correlations in the sunspot number (or area) record, which account for the predictive skill of many precursor methods. This explanation requires no direct physical relation between the precursor quantity and the dynamo mechanism (in the sense of the Babcock-Leighton scheme or otherwise).

  18. Surveying the lipogenesis landscape in Yarrowia lipolytica through understanding the function of a Mga2p regulatory protein mutant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Leqian; Markham, Kelly; Blazeck, John; Zhou, Nijia; Leon, Dacia; Otoupal, Peter; Alper, Hal S

    2015-09-01

    Lipogenic organisms represent great starting points for metabolic engineering of oleochemical production. While previous engineering efforts were able to significantly improve lipid production in Yarrowia lipolytica, the lipogenesis landscape, especially with respect to regulatory elements, has not been fully explored. Through a comparative genomics and transcriptomics approach, we identified and validated a mutant mga2 protein that serves as a regulator of desaturase gene expression and potent lipogenesis factor. The resulting strain is enriched in unsaturated fatty acids. Comparing the underlying mechanism of this mutant to other previously engineered strains suggests that creating an imbalance between glycolysis and the TCA cycle can serve as a driving force for lipogenesis when combined with fatty acid catabolism overexpressions. Further comparative transcriptomics analysis revealed both distinct and convergent rewiring associated with these different genotypes. Finally, by combining metabolic engineering targets, it is possible to further engineer a strain containing the mutant mga2 gene to a lipid production titer of 25g/L. PMID:26219673

  19. Circadian clock NAD+ cycle drives mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Peek, Clara Bien; Affinati, Alison H; Ramsey, Kathryn Moynihan; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Yu, Wei; Sena, Laura A; Ilkayeva, Olga; Marcheva, Biliana; Kobayashi, Yumiko; Omura, Chiaki; Levine, Daniel C; Bacsik, David J; Gius, David; Newgard, Christopher B; Goetzman, Eric; Chandel, Navdeep S; Denu, John M; Mrksich, Milan; Bass, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Circadian clocks are self-sustained cellular oscillators that synchronize oxidative and reductive cycles in anticipation of the solar cycle. We found that the clock transcription feedback loop produces cycles of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis, adenosine triphosphate production, and mitochondrial respiration through modulation of mitochondrial protein acetylation to synchronize oxidative metabolic pathways with the 24-hour fasting and feeding cycle. Circadian control of the activity of the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) generated rhythms in the acetylation and activity of oxidative enzymes and respiration in isolated mitochondria, and NAD(+) supplementation restored protein deacetylation and enhanced oxygen consumption in circadian mutant mice. Thus, circadian control of NAD(+) bioavailability modulates mitochondrial oxidative function and organismal metabolism across the daily cycles of fasting and feeding. PMID:24051248

  20. The Kalina cycle and similar cycles for geothermal power production

    SciTech Connect

    Bliem, C.J.

    1988-09-01

    This report contains a brief discussion of the mechanics of the Kalina cycle and ideas to extend the concept to other somewhat different cycles. A modified cycle which has a potential heat rejection advantage but little or no performance improvement is discussed. Then, the results of the application of the Kalina cycle and the modified cycle to a geothermal application (360/degree/F resource) are discussed. The results are compared with published results for the Kalina cycle with high temperature sources and estimates about performance at the geothermal temperatures. Finally, the conclusions of this scoping work are given along with recommendations of the direction of future work in this area. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The Cycles of Math and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Rock, David

    2002-01-01

    Introduces lesson plans on cycles designed for middle school students. Activities include: (1) "Boiling and Evaporation"; (2) "Experimenting with Evaporation"; (3) "Condensation and the Water Cycle"; and (4) "Understanding Cycles". Explains the mathematical applications of cycles. (YDS)

  2. Prediction and control of limit cycling motions in boosting rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Brett

    An investigation concerning the prediction and control of observed limit cycling behavior in a boosting rocket is considered. The suspected source of the nonlinear behavior is the presence of Coulomb friction in the nozzle pivot mechanism. A classical sinusoidal describing function analysis is used to accurately recreate and predict the observed oscillatory characteristic. In so doing, insight is offered into the limit cycling mechanism and confidence is gained in the closed-loop system design. Nonlinear simulation results are further used to support and verify the results obtained from describing function theory. Insight into the limit cycling behavior is, in turn, used to adjust control system parameters in order to passively control the oscillatory tendencies. Tradeoffs with the guidance and control system stability/performance are also noted. Finally, active control of the limit cycling behavior, using a novel feedback algorithm to adjust the inherent nozzle sticking-unsticking characteristics, is considered.

  3. DLEU2, frequently deleted in malignancy, functions as a critical host gene of the cell cycle inhibitory microRNAs miR-15a and miR-16-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, Mikael; Harada, Masako; Loven, Jakob; Castro, Juan; Davis, Zadie; Oscier, David; Henriksson, Marie; Sangfelt, Olle; Grander, Dan; Corcoran, Martin M.

    2009-10-15

    The microRNAs miR-15a and miR-16-1 are downregulated in multiple tumor types and are frequently deleted in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. Despite their abundance in most cells the transcriptional regulation of miR-15a/16-1 remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the putative tumor suppressor DLEU2 acts as a host gene of these microRNAs. Mature miR-15a/miR-16-1 are produced in a Drosha-dependent process from DLEU2 and binding of the Myc oncoprotein to two alterative DLEU2 promoters represses both the host gene transcript and levels of mature miR-15a/miR-16-1. In line with a functional role for DLEU2 in the expression of the microRNAs, the miR-15a/miR-16-1 locus is retained in four CLL cases that delete both promoters of this gene and expression analysis indicates that this leads to functional loss of mature miR-15a/16-1. We additionally show that DLEU2 negatively regulates the G1 Cyclins E1 and D1 through miR-15a/miR-16-1 and provide evidence that these oncoproteins are subject to miR-15a/miR-16-1-mediated repression under normal conditions. We also demonstrate that DLEU2 overexpression blocks cellular proliferation and inhibits the colony-forming ability of tumor cell lines in a miR-15a/miR-16-1-dependent way. Together the data illuminate how inactivation of DLEU2 promotes cell proliferation and tumor progression through functional loss of miR-15a/miR-16-1.

  4. The soil N cycle: new insights and key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Groenigen, J. W.; Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; Kuyper, Th. W.; Lubbers, I. M.; Rütting, T.; Groffman, P. M.

    2015-03-01

    The study of soil N cycling processes has been, is, and will be at the centre of attention in soil science research. The importance of N as a nutrient for all biota; the ever-increasing rates of its anthropogenic input in terrestrial (agro)ecosystems; its resultant losses to the environment; and the complexity of the biological, physical, and chemical factors that regulate N cycling processes all contribute to the necessity of further understanding, measuring, and altering the soil N cycle. Here, we review important insights with respect to the soil N cycle that have been made over the last decade, and present a personal view on the key challenges of future research. We identify three key challenges with respect to basic N cycling processes producing gaseous emissions: 1. quantifying the importance of nitrifier denitrification and its main controlling factors; 2. characterizing the greenhouse gas mitigation potential and microbiological basis for N2O consumption; 3. characterizing hotspots and hot moments of denitrification Furthermore, we identified a key challenge with respect to modelling: 1. disentangling gross N transformation rates using advanced 15N / 18O tracing models Finally, we propose four key challenges related to how ecological interactions control N cycling processes: 1. linking functional diversity of soil fauna to N cycling processes beyond mineralization; 2. determining the functional relationship between root traits and soil N cycling; 3. characterizing the control that different types of mycorrhizal symbioses exert on N cycling; 4. quantifying the contribution of non-symbiotic pathways to total N fixation fluxes in natural systems We postulate that addressing these challenges will constitute a comprehensive research agenda with respect to the N cycle for the next decade. Such an agenda would help us to meet future challenges on food and energy security, biodiversity conservation, water and air quality, and climate stability.

  5. The soil N cycle: new insights and key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Groenigen, J. W.; Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; Kuyper, T. W.; Lubbers, I. M.; Rütting, T.; Groffman, P. M.

    2014-10-01

    The study of soil N cycling processes has been, is, and will be at the center of attention in soil science research. The importance of N as a nutrient for all biota; the ever increasing rates of its anthropogenic input in terrestrial (agro)ecosystems; its resultant losses to the environment; and the complexity of the biological, physical, and chemical factors that regulate N cycling processes all contribute to the necessity of further understanding, measurement and mitigation of the soil N cycle. Here, we review important insights with respect to the soil N cycle that have been made over the last decade, and present a personal view on the key challenges for future research (Fig. 1). We identified four key questions with respect to N cycling processes: 1. How large is the contribution of non-symbiotic N fixation in natural systems? 2. How important is nitrifier denitrification and what are its main controlling factors? 3. What is the greenhouse gas mitigation potential and microbiological basis for N2O consumption? 4. How can we characterize hot-spots and hot-moments of denitrification? Furthermore, we propose three questions about proximal controls on N cycling processes: 1. How does functional diversity of soil fauna affect N cycling beyond mineralization? 2. What is the functional relationship between root traits and soil N cycling? 3. To what extent do different types of mycorrhizal symbioses (differentially) affect N cycling? Finally, we identified a key challenge with respect to modelling: 1. How can advanced 15N/18O tracing models help us to better disentangle gross N transformation rates? We postulate that addressing these questions would constitute a comprehensive research agenda with respect to the N cycle for the next decade. Such an agenda would help us to meet future challenges on food and energy security, biodiversity conservation and climate stability.

  6. Sulphur geodynamic cycle.

    PubMed

    Kagoshima, Takanori; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Fischer, Tobias P; Hattori, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of volcanic and hydrothermal fluxes to the surface environments is important to elucidate the geochemical cycle of sulphur and the evolution of ocean chemistry. This paper presents S/(3)He ratios of vesicles in mid-ocean ridge (MOR) basalt glass together with the ratios of high-temperature hydrothermal fluids to calculate the sulphur flux of 100 Gmol/y at MOR. The S/(3)He ratios of high-temperature volcanic gases show sulphur flux of 720 Gmol/y at arc volcanoes (ARC) with a contribution from the mantle of 2.9%, which is calculated as 21 Gmol/y. The C/S flux ratio of 12 from the mantle at MOR and ARC is comparable to the C/S ratio in the surface inventory, which suggests that these elements in the surface environments originated from the upper mantle. PMID:25660256

  7. Krebs Cycle Wordsearch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helser, Terry L.

    2001-04-01

    This puzzle embeds 46 names, terms, abbreviations, and acronyms about the citric acid (Krebs) cycle in a 14- x 17-letter matrix. A descriptive narrative beside it describes important features of the pathway. All the terms a student needs to find are embedded there with the first letter followed by underlined blanks to be completed. Therefore, the students usually must find the terms to know how to spell them, correctly fill in the blanks in the narrative with the terms, and then find and highlight the terms in the letter matrix. When all are found, the 24 unused letters complete a sentence that describes a major feature of this central pathway. The puzzle may be used as homework, an extra-credit project, or a group project in the classroom in any course where basic metabolism is learned. It disguises as fun the hard work needed to learn the names of the intermediates, enzymes, and cofactors.

  8. Variable cycle engine

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, A.P.; Sprunger, E.V.

    1980-09-16

    A variable cycle turboshaft engine includes a remote fan system and respective high and low pressure systems for selectively driving the fan system in such a manner as to provide VTOL takeoff capability and minimum specific fuel consumption (SFC) at cruise and loiter conditions. For takeoff the fan system is primarily driven by the relatively large low pressure system whose combustor receives the motive fluid from a core bypass duct and, for cruise and loiter conditions, the fan system is driven by both a relatively small high pressure core and the low pressure system with its combustor inoperative. A mixer is disposed downstream of the high pressure system for mixing the relatively cold air from the bypass duct and the relatively hot air from the core prior to its flow to the low pressure turbine.

  9. Sulphur geodynamic cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kagoshima, Takanori; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Fischer, Tobias P.; Hattori, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of volcanic and hydrothermal fluxes to the surface environments is important to elucidate the geochemical cycle of sulphur and the evolution of ocean chemistry. This paper presents S/3He ratios of vesicles in mid-ocean ridge (MOR) basalt glass together with the ratios of high-temperature hydrothermal fluids to calculate the sulphur flux of 100?Gmol/y at MOR. The S/3He ratios of high-temperature volcanic gases show sulphur flux of 720?Gmol/y at arc volcanoes (ARC) with a contribution from the mantle of 2.9%, which is calculated as 21?Gmol/y. The C/S flux ratio of 12 from the mantle at MOR and ARC is comparable to the C/S ratio in the surface inventory, which suggests that these elements in the surface environments originated from the upper mantle. PMID:25660256

  10. Nutrient Cycling Study

    SciTech Connect

    Peter A. Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The particular goal of this study is to develop measurement techniques for understanding how consortia of organisms from geothermal facilities utilize sulfur and iron for metabolic activity; and in turn, what role that activity plays in initiating or promoting the development of a biofilm on plant substrates. Sulfur cycling is of interest because sulfur is produced in the resource. Iron is found in some of the steel formulations used in plant components and is also added as chemical treatment for reducing sulfide emissions from the plants. This report describes the set-up and operation of a bioreactor for evaluating the response of colonies of geothermal organisms to changes in nutrient and environmental conditions. Data from initial experiments are presented and plans for future testing is discussed.

  11. The Pyrogenic Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Michael I.; Wynn, Jonathan G.; Saiz, Gustavo; Wurster, Christopher M.; McBeath, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC; includes soot, char, black carbon, and biochar) is produced by the incomplete combustion of organic matter accompanying biomass burning and fossil fuel consumption. PyC is pervasive in the environment, distributed throughout the atmosphere as well as soils, sediments, and water in both the marine and terrestrial environment. The physicochemical characteristics of PyC are complex and highly variable, dependent on the organic precursor and the conditions of formation. A component of PyC is highly recalcitrant and persists in the environment for millennia. However, it is now clear that a significant proportion of PyC undergoes transformation, translocation, and remineralization by a range of biotic and abiotic processes on comparatively short timescales. Here we synthesize current knowledge of the production, stocks, and fluxes of PyC as well as the physical and chemical processes through which it interacts as a dynamic component of the global carbon cycle.

  12. What drives glacial cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Denton, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Milankovitch theory advocates that the glacial cycles have three components: the tilt of the earth's spin axis; the shape of the earth's orbit; and the interaction between the tilt and the eccentricity effects. These three factors work together to vary the amount of sunshine reaching the high northern latitudes in summer and allow the great ice sheets to grow during intervals of cool summers and mild winters. Evidence is presented which indicates that the circulation pattern of the Atlantic ocean was shifted dramatically about 14,000 years ago, at the same time that glaciers in both hemispheres started to retreat. The authors believe that massive reorganizations of the ocean-atmosphere system are the key events that link cyclic changes in the earth's orbit to the advance and retreat of ice sheet.

  13. Open cycle thermoacoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Robert Stowers

    2000-01-01

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  14. Deep sulfur cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, N.; Mandeville, C. W.

    2009-12-01

    Geochemical cycle of sulfur in near-surface reservoirs has been a subject of intense studies for decades. It has been shown that sulfur isotopic compositions of sedimentary sulfides and sulfates record interactions of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and lithosphere, with ?34S of sedimentary sulfides continuously decreasing from 0‰ toward present-day values of ~-30 to -40‰ over the Phanerozoic (e.g., Canfield, 2004). It has also been shown that microbial reduction of the present-day seawater sulfate (?34S=+21‰) results in large shifts in isotopic compositions of secondary pyrites in altered oceanic crust (to ?34S=-70‰: Rouxel et al., 2009). How much of these near surface isotopic variations survive during deep geochemical cycle of sulfur interacting with the mantle infinite reservoir with ?34S=0‰? Could extent of their survival be used as a tracer of processes and dynamics involved in deep geochemical cycle? As a first step toward answering these questions, ?34S was determined in-situ using a Cameca IMS 1280 ion microprobe at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in materials representing various domains of deep geochemical cycle. They include pyrites in altered MORB as potential subducting materials and pyrites in UHP eclogites as samples that have experienced subduction zone processes, and mantle-derived melts are represented by olivine-hosted melt inclusions in MORB and those in IAB, and undegassed submarine OIB glasses. Salient features of the results include: (1) pyrites in altered MORB (with O. Rouxel; from ODP site 801 and ODP Hole 1301B) range from -70 to +19‰, (2) pyrites in UHP eclogites from the Western Gneiss Region, Norway (with B. Hacker and A. Kylander-Clark) show a limited overall range from -3.4 to + 2.8‰ among five samples, with one of them covering almost the entire range, indicating limited scale lengths of isotopic equilibration during subduction, (3) olivine-hosted melt inclusions in arc basalts from Galunggung (-2.8 - +5.2‰ with majority between +3 and +5), Krakatau (+1.5 - +8.6‰ with a cluster around +3 - +5), and Augustine (+8 - +12‰) show larger variations among arc magmas than previously known, (4) olivine-hosted melt inclusions from a FAMOUS lava (519-4-1) range from -9.5 to +10.5‰, and (5) undegassed submarine glasses from Samoa (with M. Jackson) appear to show separate ranges for individual islands, including Vailulu clustering around -1.9 to +2.1‰ and Malumalu ranging from -0.9 to -12.1‰. Overall, the results clearly show that low temperature signatures are not completely erased during recycling and isotopic exchange with the mantle infinite reservoir, and that mantle-derived melts still display large isotopic variations for small sampling scales, similar to observations on other isotope systems. Canfield, D. E. (2004) Amer. Jour. Sci., 304, 839-861. Rouxel, O. et al., (2009) Goldschmidt Conf. Abstract.

  15. The supercontinent cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, R.D.; Worsley, T.R.; Moody, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    This paper discusses a new theory of plate tectonics which proposes that Pangaea was only the most recent in a series of supercontinents that have been breaking up and reassembling every 500 million years or so. The cycle, driven by heat percolating up from the mantle, splits continents and drives interrelated processes that shape the earth's geology and climate and play a role in biological evolution. The framework of the supercontinent theory makes it possible to understand the timing of changes in sea level that have taken place in the past 570 million years, and also helps to explain periods of intense mountain building, episodes of glaciation, and changes in the nature of life on the earth.

  16. The planning cycle.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William

    2005-01-01

    Information technology planning can be described as a continuous cyclical process composed of three phases whose primary purpose is optimum allocation of scarce resources. In the assessment phase, planners assess user needs, environmental factors, business objectives, and IT infrastructure needs to develop IT projects that address needs in each of these areas. A major goal of this phase is to develop a broad IT inventory. The prioritization phase seeks to ensure optimum allocation of scarce resources by prioritizing ITprojects based on: Costs--total life cycle costs. Benefits--both quantitative and non-quantitative, including support for the organization's strategic business objectives. Risks--subjective assessments of technological and non-technological risks. Implementation requirements--time and personnel requirements to implement the system. The scheduling phase incorporates sequencing considerations, personnel availability, and budgetary constraints to produce an IT plan in which project priorities are adjusted to meet organizational realities. PMID:16045085

  17. Cell cycle control, checkpoint mechanisms, and genotoxic stress.

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, R E; Kaufmann, W K; Paules, R S

    1999-01-01

    The ability of cells to maintain genomic integrity is vital for cell survival and proliferation. Lack of fidelity in DNA replication and maintenance can result in deleterious mutations leading to cell death or, in multicellular organisms, cancer. The purpose of this review is to discuss the known signal transduction pathways that regulate cell cycle progression and the mechanisms cells employ to insure DNA stability in the face of genotoxic stress. In particular, we focus on mammalian cell cycle checkpoint functions, their role in maintaining DNA stability during the cell cycle following exposure to genotoxic agents, and the gene products that act in checkpoint function signal transduction cascades. Key transitions in the cell cycle are regulated by the activities of various protein kinase complexes composed of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) molecules. Surveillance control mechanisms that check to ensure proper completion of early events and cellular integrity before initiation of subsequent events in cell cycle progression are referred to as cell cycle checkpoints and can generate a transient delay that provides the cell more time to repair damage before progressing to the next phase of the cycle. A variety of cellular responses are elicited that function in checkpoint signaling to inhibit cyclin/Cdk activities. These responses include the p53-dependent and p53-independent induction of Cdk inhibitors and the p53-independent inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk molecules themselves. Eliciting proper G1, S, and G2 checkpoint responses to double-strand DNA breaks requires the function of the Ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene product. Several human heritable cancer-prone syndromes known to alter DNA stability have been found to have defects in checkpoint surveillance pathways. Exposures to several common sources of genotoxic stress, including oxidative stress, ionizing radiation, UV radiation, and the genotoxic compound benzo[a]pyrene, elicit cell cycle checkpoint responses that show both similarities and differences in their molecular signaling. Images Figure 3 PMID:10229703

  18. Elastic properties of granular materials under uniaxial compaction cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, N.; Anderson, O. L.

    1973-01-01

    Data on andesitic and basaltic sands are presented showing compressional sound velocity, density, and creep as functions of uniaxial loading through several compaction cycles. Maximum pressures over which acoustic measurements were made were in the range from 600 to 700 bars. The dynamic elastic modulus varies with pressure in a manner analogous to that of a static elastic modulus defined by small pressure perturbations on a typical compaction cycle. After several compaction cycles, two compressional elastic moduli apparently exist at low pressure (thus two modes of compressional wave propagation through the samples are indicated). The elastic moduli observations are briefly discussed in terms of a general expression for compressibility.

  19. Effects of nicotine on cellular proliferation, macromolecular synthesis and cell cycle phase distribution in human and murine cells

    SciTech Connect

    Konno, S.; Chiao, J.; Rossi, J.; Wang, C.H.; Wu, J.M.

    1986-05-01

    Addition of nicotine causes a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth in established human and murine cells. In the human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemic cells, 3 mM nicotine results in a 50% inhibition of cellular proliferation after 80 h. Nicotine was also found to affect the cell cycle distribution of HL-60 cells. Treatment with 4 mM nicotine for 20 h causes an increase in proportion of Gl-phase cells (from 49% to 57%) and a significant decrease in the proportion of S-phase cells (from 41% to 32%). These results suggest that nicotine causes cell arrest in the Gl-phase which may in part account for its effects on cell growth. To determine whether nicotine has a primary effect on the uptake/transport of macromolecular precursors into cells, HL-60 cells were treated with 2-6 mM nicotine for 30 h/sub 3/ at the end of which time cells were labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine, (/sup 3/H)uridine, (/sup 14/C)lysine and (/sup 35/S)methionine, the trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble and insoluble radioactivities from each of the labeling conditions were determined. These studies show that nicotine primarily affect the synthesis of proteins.

  20. Thermus oshimai JL-2 and T. thermophilus JL-18 genome analysis illuminates pathways for carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycling.

    PubMed

    Murugapiran, Senthil K; Huntemann, Marcel; Wei, Chia-Lin; Han, James; Detter, J C; Han, Cliff; Erkkila, Tracy H; Teshima, Hazuki; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Szeto, Ernest; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Peters, Lin; Pitluck, Sam; Lam, Jenny; McDonald, Austin I; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Woyke, Tanja; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    The complete genomes of Thermus oshimai JL-2 and T. thermophilus JL-18 each consist of a circular chromosome, 2.07 Mb and 1.9 Mb, respectively, and two plasmids ranging from 0.27 Mb to 57.2 kb. Comparison of the T. thermophilus JL-18 chromosome with those from other strains of T. thermophilus revealed a high degree of synteny, whereas the megaplasmids from the same strains were highly plastic. The T. oshimai JL-2 chromosome and megaplasmids shared little or no synteny with other sequenced Thermus strains. Phylogenomic analyses using a concatenated set of conserved proteins confirmed the phylogenetic and taxonomic assignments based on 16S rRNA phylogenetics. Both chromosomes encode a complete glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and pentose phosphate pathway plus glucosidases, glycosidases, proteases, and peptidases, highlighting highly versatile heterotrophic capabilities. Megaplasmids of both strains contained a gene cluster encoding enzymes predicted to catalyze the sequential reduction of nitrate to nitrous oxide; however, the nitrous oxide reductase required for the terminal step in denitrification was absent, consistent with their incomplete denitrification phenotypes. A sox gene cluster was identified in both chromosomes, suggesting a mode of chemolithotrophy. In addition, nrf and psr gene clusters in T. oshmai JL-2 suggest respiratory nitrite ammonification and polysulfide reduction as possible modes of anaerobic respiration. PMID:24019992

  1. Hyperdominance in Amazonian forest carbon cycling.

    PubMed

    Fauset, Sophie; Johnson, Michelle O; Gloor, Manuel; Baker, Timothy R; Monteagudo M, Abel; Brienen, Roel J W; Feldpausch, Ted R; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C A; Baraloto, Christopher; Engel, Julien; Pétronelli, Pascal; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís C; Laurance, Susan G W; Laurance, William F; Chave, Jerôme; Allie, Elodie; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Terborgh, John W; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Silveira, Marcos; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Neill, David; Hérault, Bruno; Dourdain, Aurélie; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Marimon, Beatriz S; Salomão, Rafael P; Comiskey, James A; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Toledo, Marisol; Licona, Juan Carlos; Alarcón, Alfredo; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; van der Meer, Peter J; Killeen, Timothy J; Marimon Junior, Ben-Hur; Poorter, Lourens; Boot, Rene G A; Stergios, Basil; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Costa, Flávia R C; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Groot, Nikée; Arets, Eric; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Castro, Wendeson; Coronado, Euridice N Honorio; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Stahl, Clement; Barroso, Jorcely; Talbot, Joey; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; van der Heijden, Geertje; Thomas, Raquel; Vos, Vincent A; Almeida, Everton C; Davila, Esteban Álvarez; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Erwin, Terry L; Morandi, Paulo S; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Valadão, Marco B X; Zagt, Roderick J; van der Hout, Peter; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez; Pipoly, John J; Wang, Ophelia; Alexiades, Miguel; Cerón, Carlos E; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Di Fiore, Anthony; Peacock, Julie; Camacho, Nadir C Pallqui; Umetsu, Ricardo K; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Burnham, Robyn J; Herrera, Rafael; Quesada, Carlos A; Stropp, Juliana; Vieira, Simone A; Steininger, Marc; Rodríguez, Carlos Reynel; Restrepo, Zorayda; Muelbert, Adriane Esquivel; Lewis, Simon L; Pickavance, Georgia C; Phillips, Oliver L

    2015-01-01

    While Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, the abundance of trees is skewed strongly towards relatively few 'hyperdominant' species. In addition to their diversity, Amazonian trees are a key component of the global carbon cycle, assimilating and storing more carbon than any other ecosystem on Earth. Here we ask, using a unique data set of 530 forest plots, if the functions of storing and producing woody carbon are concentrated in a small number of tree species, whether the most abundant species also dominate carbon cycling, and whether dominant species are characterized by specific functional traits. We find that dominance of forest function is even more concentrated in a few species than is dominance of tree abundance, with only ?1% of Amazon tree species responsible for 50% of carbon storage and productivity. Although those species that contribute most to biomass and productivity are often abundant, species maximum size is also influential, while the identity and ranking of dominant species varies by function and by region. PMID:25919449

  2. Hyperdominance in Amazonian forest carbon cycling

    PubMed Central

    Fauset, Sophie; Johnson, Michelle O.; Gloor, Manuel; Baker, Timothy R.; Monteagudo M., Abel; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C.A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Engel, Julien; Pétronelli, Pascal; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís C.; Laurance, Susan G.W.; Laurance, William F.; Chave, Jerôme; Allie, Elodie; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Terborgh, John W.; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Silveira, Marcos; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Neill, David; Hérault, Bruno; Dourdain, Aurélie; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Salomão, Rafael P.; Comiskey, James A.; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Toledo, Marisol; Licona, Juan Carlos; Alarcón, Alfredo; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; van der Meer, Peter J.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Marimon Junior, Ben-Hur; Poorter, Lourens; Boot, Rene G.A.; Stergios, Basil; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Costa, Flávia R.C.; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Groot, Nikée; Arets, Eric; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Castro, Wendeson; Coronado, Euridice N. Honorio; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Stahl, Clement; Barroso, Jorcely; Talbot, Joey; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; van der Heijden, Geertje; Thomas, Raquel; Vos, Vincent A.; Almeida, Everton C.; Davila, Esteban Álvarez; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C.; Erwin, Terry L.; Morandi, Paulo S.; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Valadão, Marco B.X.; Zagt, Roderick J.; van der Hout, Peter; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez; Pipoly, John J.; Wang, Ophelia; Alexiades, Miguel; Cerón, Carlos E.; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Di Fiore, Anthony; Peacock, Julie; Camacho, Nadir C. Pallqui; Umetsu, Ricardo K.; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Burnham, Robyn J.; Herrera, Rafael; Quesada, Carlos A.; Stropp, Juliana; Vieira, Simone A.; Steininger, Marc; Rodríguez, Carlos Reynel; Restrepo, Zorayda; Muelbert, Adriane Esquivel; Lewis, Simon L.; Pickavance, Georgia C.; Phillips, Oliver L.

    2015-01-01

    While Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, the abundance of trees is skewed strongly towards relatively few ‘hyperdominant' species. In addition to their diversity, Amazonian trees are a key component of the global carbon cycle, assimilating and storing more carbon than any other ecosystem on Earth. Here we ask, using a unique data set of 530 forest plots, if the functions of storing and producing woody carbon are concentrated in a small number of tree species, whether the most abundant species also dominate carbon cycling, and whether dominant species are characterized by specific functional traits. We find that dominance of forest function is even more concentrated in a few species than is dominance of tree abundance, with only ?1% of Amazon tree species responsible for 50% of carbon storage and productivity. Although those species that contribute most to biomass and productivity are often abundant, species maximum size is also influential, while the identity and ranking of dominant species varies by function and by region. PMID:25919449

  3. Identification of cell cycle-regulated genes in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xu; Karuturi, R Krishna Murthy; Miller, Lance D; Lin, Kui; Jia, Yonghui; Kondu, Pinar; Wang, Long; Wong, Lim-Soon; Liu, Edison T; Balasubramanian, Mohan K; Liu, Jianhua

    2005-03-01

    Cell cycle progression is both regulated and accompanied by periodic changes in the expression levels of a large number of genes. To investigate cell cycle-regulated transcriptional programs in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we developed a whole-genome oligonucleotide-based DNA microarray. Microarray analysis of both wild-type and cdc25 mutant cell cultures was performed to identify transcripts whose levels oscillated during the cell cycle. Using an unsupervised algorithm, we identified 747 genes that met the criteria for cell cycle-regulated expression. Peaks of gene expression were found to be distributed throughout the entire cell cycle. Furthermore, we found that four promoter motifs exhibited strong association with cell cycle phase-specific expression. Examination of the regulation of MCB motif-containing genes through the perturbation of DNA synthesis control/MCB-binding factor (DSC/MBF)-mediated transcription in arrested synchronous cdc10 mutant cell cultures revealed a subset of functional targets of the DSC/MBF transcription factor complex, as well as certain gene promoter requirements. Finally, we compared our data with those for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found approximately 140 genes that are cell cycle regulated in both yeasts, suggesting that these genes may play an evolutionarily conserved role in regulation of cell cycle-specific processes. Our complete data sets are available at http://giscompute.gis.a-star.edu.sg/~gisljh/CDC. PMID:15616197

  4. Anti cancer effects of curcumin: cycle of life and death

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Gaurisankar; Das, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    Increasing knowledge on the cell cycle deregulations in cancers has promoted the introduction of phytochemicals, which can either modulate signaling pathways leading to cell cycle regulation or directly alter cell cycle regulatory molecules, in cancer therapy. Most human malignancies are driven by chromosomal translocations or other genetic alterations that directly affect the function of critical cell cycle proteins such as cyclins as well as tumor suppressors, e.g., p53. In this respect, cell cycle regulation and its modulation by curcumin are gaining widespread attention in recent years. Extensive research has addressed the chemotherapeutic potential of curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a relatively non-toxic plant derived polyphenol. The mechanisms implicated are diverse and appear to involve a combination of cell signaling pathways at multiple levels. In the present review we discuss how alterations in the cell cycle control contribute to the malignant transformation and provide an overview of how curcumin targets cell cycle regulatory molecules to assert anti-proliferative and/or apoptotic effects in cancer cells. The purpose of the current article is to present an appraisal of the current level of knowledge regarding the potential of curcumin as an agent for the chemoprevention of cancer via an understanding of its mechanism of action at the level of cell cycle regulation. Taken together, this review seeks to summarize the unique properties of curcumin that may be exploited for successful clinical cancer prevention. PMID:18834508

  5. Rethinking the Ancient Sulfur Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fike, David A.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Rose, Catherine V.

    2015-05-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle integrates the metabolic activity of multiple microbial pathways (e.g., sulfate reduction, disproportionation, and sulfide oxidation) along with abiotic reactions and geological processes that cycle sulfur through various reservoirs. The sulfur cycle impacts the global carbon cycle and climate primarily through the remineralization of organic carbon. Over geological timescales, cycling of sulfur is closely tied to the redox state of Earth's exosphere through the burial of oxidized (sulfate) and reduced (sulfide) sulfur species in marine sediments. Biological sulfur cycling is associated with isotopic fractionations that can be used to trace the fluxes through various metabolic pathways. The resulting isotopic data provide insights into sulfur cycling in both modern and ancient environments via isotopic signatures in sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases. Here, we review the deep-time δ34S record of marine sulfates and sulfides in light of recent advances in understanding how isotopic signatures are generated by microbial activity, how these signatures are encoded in marine sediments, and how they may be altered following deposition. The resulting picture shows a sulfur cycle intimately coupled to ambient carbon cycling, where sulfur isotopic records preserved in sedimentary rocks are critically dependent on sedimentological and geochemical conditions (e.g., iron availability) during deposition.

  6. Self-organizing biochemical cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    I examine the plausibility of theories that postulate the development of complex chemical organization without requiring the replication of genetic polymers such as RNA. One conclusion is that theories that involve the organization of complex, small-molecule metabolic cycles such as the reductive citric acid cycle on mineral surfaces make unreasonable assumptions about the catalytic properties of minerals and the ability of minerals to organize sequences of disparate reactions. Another conclusion is that data in the Beilstein Handbook of Organic Chemistry that have been claimed to support the hypothesis that the reductive citric acid cycle originated as a self-organized cycle can more plausibly be interpreted in a different way.

  7. Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, R.A.; MacDonald, G.J.

    1997-07-11

    Narrow spectral features in ocean sediment records offer strong evidence that the cycles of glaciation were driven by astronomical forces. Two million years ago, the cycles match the 41,000-year period of Earth`s obliquity. This supports the Croll/Milankovitch theory, which attributes the cycles to variations in insolation. But for the past million years, the spectrum is dominated by a single 100,000-year feature and is a poor match to the predictions of insolation models. The spectrum can be accounted for by a theory that derives the cycles of glaciation from variations in the inclination of Earth`s orbital plane.

  8. Recycling and Life Cycle Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit

    2010-01-01

    This chapter addresses recycling and life cycle considerations related to the growing use of lightweight materials in vehicles. The chapter first addresses the benefit of a life cycle perspective in materials choice, and the role that recycling plays in reducing energy inputs and environmental impacts in a vehicle s life cycle. Some limitations of life cycle analysis and results of several vehicle- and fleet-level assessments are drawn from published studies. With emphasis on lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites, the status of the existing recycling infrastructure and technological challenges being faced by the industry also are discussed.

  9. The Learning Cycle: A Reintroduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Steven J.; Marek, Edmund A.

    2006-02-01

    The learning cycle is an inquiry approach to instruction that continues to demonstrate significant effectiveness in the classroom.1-3 Rooted in Piaget's theory of intellectual development, learning cycles provide a structured means for students to construct concepts from direct experiences with science phenomena. Learning cycles have been the subject of numerous articles in science practitioner periodicals as well as the focus of much research in science education journals.4 This paper reintroduces the learning cycle by giving a brief description, followed by an example suitable for a range of physics classrooms.

  10. Regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    PRESTO computer program was developed to analyze performance of wide range of steam turbine cycles with special attention given to regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles. It can be used to model standard turbine cycles, including such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking, and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses are used to calculate cycle heat rate and generator output. Program provides power engineer with flexible aid for design and analysis of steam turbine systems.

  11. Coherent regulation in yeast cell cycle network

    E-print Network

    Nese Aral; Alkan Kabakcioglu

    2014-12-14

    We define a measure of coherent activity for gene regulatory networks, a property that reflects the unity of purpose between the regulatory agents with a common target. We propose that such harmonious regulatory action is desirable under a demand for energy efficiency and may be selected for under evolutionary pressures. We consider two recent models of the cell-cycle regulatory network of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a case study and calculate their degree of coherence. A comparison with random networks of similar size and composition reveals that the yeast's cell-cycle regulation is wired to yield and exceptionally high level of coherent regulatory activity. We also investigate the mean degree of coherence as a function of the network size, connectivity and the fraction of repressory/activatory interactions.

  12. The menstrual cycle and sport performance.

    PubMed

    Constantini, Naama W; Dubnov, Gal; Lebrun, Constance M

    2005-04-01

    The female sex steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone have potential effects on exercise capacity and performance through numerous mechanisms, such as substrate metabolism, cardiorespiratory function, thermoregulation, psychologic factors, and injuries. Consequently, hormone level changes may theoretically lead to either improved or decreased performance at various times throughout the menstrual cycle. Numerous methodological issues and a paucity of studies have precluded evidence-based conclusions in almost every area of research in this field. In addition, there appears to be a great degree of inter- and intraindividual variability in these hormonal responses. Using oral contraceptives may be advantageous for female athletes who are negatively affected by their menstrual cycle, as they may provide a stable yet controllable hormonal milieu for training and competition. PMID:15892917

  13. Specific cell cycle synchronization with butyrate and cell cycle analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synchronized cells have been invaluable for many kinds of cell cycle and cell proliferation studies. Butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MDBK cells. To explore the possibility of using butyrate-blocked cells to obtain synchronized cells, we investigated the property of the cell cyc...

  14. Reproductive cycles of buffalo.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2011-04-01

    The domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has an important role in the agricultural economy of many developing countries in Asia, providing milk, meat and draught power. It is also used in some Mediterranean and Latin American countries as a source of milk and meat for specialized markets. Although the buffalo can adapt to harsh environments and live on poor quality forage, reproductive efficiency is often compromised by such conditions, resulting in late sexual maturity, long postpartum anoestrus, poor expression of oestrus, poor conception rates and long calving intervals. The age at puberty is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate, and under favourable conditions occurs at 15-18 months in river buffalo and 21-24 months in swamp buffalo. The ovaries are smaller than in cattle and contain fewer primordial follicles. Buffalo are capable of breeding throughout the year, but in many countries a seasonal pattern of ovarian activity occurs. This is attributed in tropical regions to changes in rainfall resulting in feed availability or to temperature stress resulting in elevated prolactin secretion, and in temperate regions to changes in photoperiod and melatonin secretion. The mean length of the oestrous cycle is 21 days, with greater variation than observed in cattle. The signs of oestrus in buffalo are less overt than in cattle and homosexual behaviour between females is rare. The duration of oestrus is 5-27 h, with ovulation occurring 24-48 h (mean 34 h) after the onset of oestrus. The hormonal changes occurring in peripheral circulation are similar to those observed in cattle, but the peak concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol-17? are less. The number of follicular waves during an oestrous cycle varies from one to three and influences the length of the luteal phase as well as the inter-ovulatory interval. Under optimal conditions, dairy types managed with limited or no suckling resume oestrus cyclicity by 30-60 days after calving, while swamp types with free suckling do so at 60-90 days. However, in many farming systems prolonged postpartum anoestrus is a major problem, and the causes include poor nutrition and body condition, and stress due to harsh climates and improper management. Synchronization of time or induction of oestrus can be done using the same regimens as applied in cattle, using various combinations of prostaglandins, progesterone releasing devices, GnRH and eCG, but success rate is poor when treatment is done during the periods of marginal breeding activity or seasonal anoestrus. PMID:20869822

  15. Addressing analytical uncertainties in the determination of trichloroacetic acid in soil

    E-print Network

    Addressing analytical uncertainties in the determination of trichloroacetic acid in soil Catherine cycling of trichloroacetic acid (TCA), but soil TCA concentration is a methodologically defined quantity humic acid solutions showed there was no additional chloroform formation under decarboxylation

  16. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  17. Reproductive cycles of deer.

    PubMed

    Asher, G W

    2011-04-01

    The cervids are a complex assemblage of taxa showing extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. Reproductive strategies adopted by various species are also diverse, and include a range from highly seasonal to completely aseasonal birth patterns. The recent growth in knowledge on cervid reproduction is strongly biased towards the larger-bodied, gregarious mixed grazer-browser species that have adapted well to human management and commercialisation. These species tend to represent 'K-selected' climax species characterised by very productive annual breeding success, singleton births and long breeding life (10+ years). Conversely, we know relatively little about the reproductive patterns of the 'r-selected' smaller-bodied, solitary (and often highly territorial), forest-dwelling browser species, often characterised by great fecundity (twinning) and shorter breeding life (<10 years). This group includes many of the endangered cervid taxa. This review extends earlier reviews to include more recent work on cervid reproductive cycles, particularly in relation to environmental factors influencing gestation length. PMID:20884138

  18. Wilson Cycle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    The main activity relating to the study during this half year was a three week field trip to study Chinese sedimentary basins (June 10 to July 3, 1986) at no cost to the project. This study, while of a reconnaissance character, permitted progress in understanding how the processes of island arc-collision and micro-continental collision operated during the Paleozoic in far western China (especially the Junggar and Tarim basins and in the intervening Tien Shan Mountains). These effects of the continuing collision of India and Asia on the area were also studied. Most specifically, these result in the elevation of the Tien Shan to more than 4 km above sea level and the depression of Turfan to move 150m below sea level. Both thrusting and large-scale strike-slip motion are important in producing these elevation changes. Some effort during the half year was also devoted to the study of greenstone-belts in terms of the Wilson Cycle.

  19. The Global Nitrogen Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, J. N.

    2003-12-01

    Once upon a time nitrogen did not exist. Today it does. In the intervening time the universe was formed, nitrogen was created, the Earth came into existence, and its atmosphere and oceans were formed! In this analysis of the Earth's nitrogen cycle, I start with an overview of these important events relative to nitrogen and then move on to the more traditional analysis of the nitrogen cycle itself and the role of humans in its alteration.The universe is ˜15 Gyr old. Even after its formation, there was still a period when nitrogen did not exist. It took ˜300 thousand years after the big bang for the Universe to cool enough to create atoms; hydrogen and helium formed first. Nitrogen was formed in the stars through the process of nucleosynthesis. When a star's helium mass becomes great enough to reach the necessary pressure and temperature, helium begins to fuse into still heavier elements, including nitrogen.Approximately 10 Gyr elapsed before Earth was formed (˜4.5 Ga (billion years ago)) by the accumulation of pre-assembled materials in a multistage process. Assuming that N2 was the predominate nitrogen species in these materials and given that the temperature of space is -270 °C, N2 was probably a solid when the Earth was formed since its boiling point (b.p.) and melting point (m.p.) are -196 °C and -210 °C, respectively. Towards the end of the accumulation period, temperatures were probably high enough for significant melting of some of the accumulated material. The volcanic gases emitted by the resulting volcanism strongly influenced the surface environment. Nitrogen was converted from a solid to a gas and emitted as N2. Carbon and sulfur were probably emitted as CO and H2S (Holland, 1984). N2 is still the most common nitrogen volcanic gas emitted today at a rate of ˜2 TgN yr-1 (Jaffee, 1992).Once emitted, the gases either remained in the atmosphere or were deposited to the Earth's surface, thus continuing the process of biogeochemical cycling. The rate of transfer depended on the reactivity of the emitted material. At the lower extreme of reactivity are the noble gases, neon and argon. Most neon and argon emitted during the degassing of the newly formed Earth is still in the atmosphere, and essentially none has been transferred to the hydrosphere or crust. At the other extreme are carbon and sulfur. Over 99% of the carbon and sulfur emitted during degassing are no longer in the atmosphere, but reside in the hydrosphere or the crust. Nitrogen is intermediate. Of the ˜6×106 TgN in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and crust, ˜2/3 is in the atmosphere as N2 with most of the remainder in the crust. The atmosphere is a large nitrogen reservoir primarily, because the triple bond of the N2 molecule requires a significant amount of energy to break. In the early atmosphere, the only sources of such energy were solar radiation and electrical discharges.At this point we had an earth with mostly N2 and devoid of life. How did we get to an earth with mostly N2 and teeming with life? First, N2 had to be converted into reactive N (Nr). (The term reactive nitrogen (Nr) includes all biologically active, photochemically reactive, and radiatively active nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere and biosphere of the Earth. Thus, Nr includes inorganic reduced forms of nitrogen (e.g., NH3 and NH4+), inorganic oxidized forms (e.g., NOx, HNO3, N2O, and NO3-), and organic compounds (e.g., urea, amines, and proteins).) The early atmosphere was reducing and had limited NH3. However, NH3 was a necessary ingredient in forming early organic matter. One possibility for NH3 generation was the cycling of seawater through volcanics (Holland, 1984). Under such a process, NH3 could then be released to the atmosphere where, when combined with CH4, H2, H2O, and electrical energy, organic molecules including amino acids could be formed (Miller, 1953). In essence, electrical discharges and UV radiation can convert mixtures of reduced gases into mixtures of organic molecules that can then be deposited to land surfaces and oceans ( Holland, 1984).To recap, Ea

  20. Environmentally optimized nuclear energy cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, D.

    1993-12-31

    This paper will present work being performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to design a minimum waste light water reactor. The driving concept of the design is that waste must be minimized with new designs and technologies over the entire fuel cycle. Concepts include burnup of high-level radioactive wastes, immobilization of fission products, and recycling of wastes from other cycle processes.

  1. The water cycle for kids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neno, Stephanie; Morgan, Jim; Zonolli, Gabriele; Perlman, Howard; Gonthier, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have created a water-cycle diagram for use in elementary and middle schools. The diagram is available in many languages. This diagram is part of the USGS's Water Science School, in which the water cycle is described in detail.

  2. Variations on the Zilch Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, P.-M.; Tanoue, C. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Thermo dynamic cycles in introductory physics courses are usually made up from a small number of permutations of isothermal, adiabatic, and constant-pressure and volume quasistatic strokes, with the working fluid usually being an ideal gas. Among them we find the Carnot, Stirling, Otto, Diesel, and Joule-Brayton cycles; in more advanced courses,…

  3. Reducing Life-Cycle Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents factors to consider when determining roofing life-cycle costs, explaining that costs do not tell the whole story; discussing components that should go into the decision (cost, maintenance, energy use, and environmental costs); and concluding that important elements in reducing life-cycle costs include energy savings through increased…

  4. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  5. Orbital Resonance and Solar Cycles

    E-print Network

    P. A. Semi

    2009-03-29

    We present an analysis of planetary moves, encoded in DE406 ephemerides. We show resonance cycles between most planets in Solar System, of differing quality. The most precise resonance - between Earth and Venus, which not only stabilizes orbits of both planets, locks planet Venus rotation in tidal locking, but also affects the Sun: This resonance group (E+V) also influences Sunspot cycles - the position of syzygy between Earth and Venus, when the barycenter of the resonance group most closely approaches the Sun and stops for some time, relative to Jupiter planet, well matches the Sunspot cycle of 11 years, not only for the last 400 years of measured Sunspot cycles, but also in 1000 years of historical record of "severe winters". We show, how cycles in angular momentum of Earth and Venus planets match with the Sunspot cycle and how the main cycle in angular momentum of the whole Solar system (854-year cycle of Jupiter/Saturn) matches with climatologic data, assumed to show connection with Solar output power and insolation. We show the possible connections between E+V events and Solar global p-Mode frequency changes. We futher show angular momentum tables and charts for individual planets, as encoded in DE405 and DE406 ephemerides. We show, that inner planets orbit on heliocentric trajectories whereas outer planets orbit on barycentric trajectories.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation based on life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels is given. The presentation focuses on energy and biofuels, interesting environmental aspects of biofuels, and how to do a life cycle assessment with some examples related to biofuel systems. The stages of a (biofuel...

  7. Fuel cycle cost uncertainty from nuclear fuel cycle comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; McNelis, D.; Yim, M.S.

    2013-07-01

    This paper examined the uncertainty in fuel cycle cost (FCC) calculation by considering both model and parameter uncertainty. Four different fuel cycle options were compared in the analysis including the once-through cycle (OT), the DUPIC cycle, the MOX cycle and a closed fuel cycle with fast reactors (FR). The model uncertainty was addressed by using three different FCC modeling approaches with and without the time value of money consideration. The relative ratios of FCC in comparison to OT did not change much by using different modeling approaches. This observation was consistent with the results of the sensitivity study for the discount rate. Two different sets of data with uncertainty range of unit costs were used to address the parameter uncertainty of the FCC calculation. The sensitivity study showed that the dominating contributor to the total variance of FCC is the uranium price. In general, the FCC of OT was found to be the lowest followed by FR, MOX, and DUPIC. But depending on the uranium price, the FR cycle was found to have lower FCC over OT. The reprocessing cost was also found to have a major impact on FCC.

  8. Cycling with BRCA2 from DNA repair to mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunsook

    2014-11-15

    Genetic integrity in proliferating cells is guaranteed by the harmony of DNA replication, appropriate DNA repair, and segregation of the duplicated genome. Breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 is a unique tumor suppressor that is involved in all three processes. Hence, it is critical in genome maintenance. The functions of BRCA2 in DNA repair and homology-directed recombination (HDR) have been reviewed numerous times. Here, I will briefly go through the functions of BRCA2 in HDR and focus on the emerging roles of BRCA2 in telomere homeostasis and mitosis, then discuss how BRCA2 exerts distinct functions in a cell-cycle specific manner in the maintenance of genomic integrity. - Highlights: • BRCA2 is a multifaceted tumor suppressor and is crucial in genetic integrity. • BRCA2 exerts distinct functions in cell cycle-specific manner. • Mitotic kinases regulate diverse functions of BRCA2 in mitosis and cytokinesis.

  9. Reversed argininosuccinate lyase activity in fumarate hydratase-deficient cancer cells

    E-print Network

    Zheng, Liang; MacKenzie, Elaine D.; Karim, Saadia A.; Hedley, Ann; Blyth, Karen; Kalna, Gabriela; Watson, David G.; Szlosarek, Peter; Frezza, Christian; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2013-03-21

    , argininosuccinate synthetase; FH, fumarate hydratase; TCA, tricarboxylic acid. Additional file 3: Isotopologue distribution of TCA cycle metabolites after incubation with U-13C-glutamine. (A) Mouse and (B) human FH-deficient or proficient cell lines were incubated... . The accumulation of TCA cycle metabolites in Fh1?/? cells diverts TCA metabolites into heme biosynthesis and degradation, engaging a linear metabolic pathway beginning with glutamine uptake and ending with bilirubin excretion [10]. Of note, one of the key enzymes...

  10. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Regulates a Redox Cycle Within the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sarsour, Ehab H.; Kalen, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a nuclear-encoded and mitochondria-matrix-localized oxidation-reduction (redox) enzyme that regulates cellular redox homeostasis. Cellular redox processes are known to regulate proliferative and quiescent growth states. Therefore, MnSOD and mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be critical regulators of quiescent cells' entry into the cell cycle and exit from the proliferative cycle back to the quiescent state. Recent Advances/Critical Issues: Recent evidence suggests that the intracellular redox environment fluctuates during the cell cycle, shifting toward a more oxidized status during mitosis. MnSOD activity is higher in G0/G1 cells compared with S, G2 and M phases. After cell division, MnSOD activity increases in the G1 phase of the daughter generation. The periodic fluctuation in MnSOD activity during the cell cycle inversely correlates with cellular superoxide levels as well as glucose and oxygen consumption. Based on an inverse correlation between MnSOD activity and glucose consumption during the cell cycle, it is proposed that MnSOD is a central molecular player for the “Warburg effect.” Future Directions: In general, loss of MnSOD activity results in aberrant proliferation. A better understanding of the MnSOD and mitochondrial ROS-dependent cell cycle processes may lead to novel approaches to overcome aberrant proliferation. Since ROS have both deleterious (pathological) and beneficial (physiological) effects, it is proposed that “eustress” should be used when discussing ROS processes that regulate normal physiological functions, while “oxidative stress” should be used to discuss the deleterious effects of ROS. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1618–1627. PMID:23590434

  11. Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  12. Serum pattern of circulating adipokines throughout the physiological menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Asimakopoulos, Byron; Milousis, Athanasios; Gioka, Theodora; Kabouromiti, Georgia; Gianisslis, George; Troussa, Androniki; Simopoulou, Mara; Katergari, Simoni; Tripsianis, Gregory; Nikolettos, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin during the physiological menstrual cycle. Sixteen women (age: 19-30 years; body mass index: 19.46-24.9) with regular menstrual cycles participated. Fasting blood samples were collected on alternate days throughout a full menstrual cycle. Mean resistin concentrations were slightly higher during the luteal phase (5.30+/-0.23 ng/ml) compared to the follicular (4.68+/-0.07 ng/ml) and midcycle (4.86+/-0.09 ng/ml) phases (p=0.032). Mean leptin concentrations during the follicular phase (18.14+/-0.28 ng/ml) were significantly lower compared to the midcycle (21.79+/-0.29 ng/ml, p=0.006) and luteal phases (23.75+/-0.64 ng/ml, p<0.001). The variation of adiponectin concentrations throughout the menstrual cycle was not significant. According to the results, circulating resistin, likewise leptin concentrations vary significantly during the physiological menstrual cycle presenting with higher values during the luteal phase. This pattern, although its physiological importance is not clear, suggests that resistin, likewise to leptin, may have a role in the regulation of cyclic female reproductive functions. The stable adiponectin concentrations throughout the menstrual cycle indicate that this adipokine probably does not play a considerable role in female reproductive functions. PMID:19225215

  13. On the Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    E-print Network

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, ...

  14. A geospatial data life cycle services framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jörg; Ehbrecht, Carsten; Kindermann, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    We present an OGC standards based framework enabling the stepwise development and integration of data life cycle management services. We concentrate on data life cycle steps after the data generation: data identification, replication, publication and distribution. The framework exposes various data transport, data checking and metadata generation functionalities as individual services. These services can be chained to support users in cross institutional data management activities. The framework is currently being deployed as part of a distributed climate and environmental data life cycle lab initially supporting the following data management activities: - data transport and replication between home institute and a data center - data quality control at a remote compute site or remote data center - assignment of persistent identifiers to data entities - publication of quality results as well as data at a data portal A concrete application scenario is shown, where climate model data is transported to a data center and checked and published as part of a worldwide data federation. From a technology perspective the following basic services are integrated in the application scenario: - iRods middleware based data transport - Handle based persistent identifier assignment - domain specific quality control software - data publication services provided by the worldwide earth system grid data federation (ESGF). All these basic services are wrapped as OGC web processing services and integrated in the presented framework. Next steps include the integration of data services provided by the European EUDAT data infrastructure as well as supporting specific observational data application scenarios.

  15. Detection probabilities in fuel cycle oriented safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Canty, J.J.; Stein, G.; Avenhaus, R. )

    1987-01-01

    An intensified discussion of evaluation criteria for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards effectiveness is currently under way. Considerations basic to the establishment of such criteria are derived from the model agreement INFCIRC/153 and include threshold amounts, strategic significance, conversion times, required assurances, cost-effectiveness, and nonintrusiveness. In addition to these aspects, the extent to which fuel cycle characteristics are taken into account in safeguards implementations (Article 81c of INFCIRC/153) will be reflected in the criteria. The effectiveness of safeguards implemented under given manpower constraints is evaluated. As the significant quantity and timeliness criteria have established themselves within the safeguards community, these are taken as fixed. Detection probabilities, on the other hand, still provide a certain degree of freedom in interpretation. The problem of randomization of inspection activities across a fuel cycle, or portions thereof, is formalized as a two-person zero-sum game, the payoff function of which is the detection probability achieved by the inspectorate. It is argued, from the point of view of risk of detection, that fuel cycle-independent, minimally accepted threshold criteria for such detection probabilities cannot and should not be applied.

  16. Stirling cycle engine and refrigeration systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higa, W. H. (inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A Stirling cycle heat engine is disclosed in which displacer motion is controlled as a function of the working fluid pressure P sub 1 and a substantially constant pressure P sub 0. The heat engine includes an auxiliary chamber at the constant pressure P sub 0. An end surface of a displacer piston is disposed in the auxiliary chamber. During the compression portion of the engine cycle when P sub 1 rises above P sub 0 the displacer forces the working fluid to pass from the cold chamber to the hot chamber of the engine. During the expansion portion of the engine cycle the heated working fluid in the hot chamber does work by pushing down on the engine's drive piston. As the working fluid pressure P sub 1 drops below P sub 0 the displacer forces most of the working fluid in the hot chamber to pass through the regenerator to the cold chamber. The engine is easily combinable with a refrigeration section to provide a refrigeration system in which the engine's single drive piston serves both the engine and the refrigeration section.

  17. Seasonal Nitrogen Cycles on Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Candice J.; Paige, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A thermal model, developed to predict seasonal nitrogen cycles on Triton, has been modified and applied to Pluto. The model was used to calculate the partitioning of nitrogen between surface frost deposits and the atmosphere, as a function of time for various sets of input parameters. Volatile transport was confirmed to have a significant effect on Pluto's climate as nitrogen moved around on a seasonal time scale between hemispheres, and sublimed into and condensed out of the atmosphere. Pluto's high obliquity was found to have a significant effect on the distribution of frost on its surface. Conditions that would lead to permanent polar caps on Triton were found to lead to permanent zonal frost bands on Pluto. In some instances, frost sublimed from the middle of a seasonal cap outward, resulting in a "polar bald spot". Frost which was darker than the substrate did not satisfy observables on Pluto, in contrast to our findings for Triton. Bright frost (brighter than the substrate) came closer to matching observables. Atmospheric pressure varied seasonally. The amplitudes, and to a lesser extent the phase, of the variation depended significantly on frost and substrate properties. Atmospheric pressure was found to be determined both by Pluto's distance from the sun and by the subsolar latitude. In most cases two peaks in atmospheric pressure were observed annually: a greater one associated with the sublimation of the north polar cap just as Pluto receded from perihelion, and a lesser one associated with the sublimation of the south polar cap as Pluto approached perihelion. Our model predicted frost-free dark substrate surface temperatures in the 50 to 60 K range, while frost temperatures typically ranged between 30 to 40 K. Temporal changes in frost coverage illustrated by our results, and changes in the viewing geometry of Pluto from the Earth, may be important for interpretation of ground-based measurements of Pluto's thermal emission.

  18. Optimum Discharge Burnup and Cycle Length for PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Secker, Jeffrey R.; Johansen, Baard J.; Stucker, David L.; Ozer, Odelli; Ivanov, Kostadin; Yilmaz, Serkan; Young, E.H

    2005-08-15

    This paper discusses the results of a pressurized water reactor fuel management study determining the optimum discharge burnup and cycle length. A comprehensive study was performed considering 12-, 18-, and 24-month fuel cycles over a wide range of discharge burnups. A neutronic study was performed followed by an economic evaluation. The first phase of the study limited the fuel enrichments used in the study to <5 wt% {sup 235}U consistent with constraints today. The second phase extended the range of discharge burnups for 18-month cycles by using fuel enriched in excess of 5 wt%. The neutronic study used state-of-the-art reactor physics methods to accurately determine enrichment requirements. Energy requirements were consistent with today's high capacity factors (>98%) and short (15-day) refueling outages. The economic evaluation method considers various component costs including uranium, conversion, enrichment, fabrication and spent-fuel storage costs as well as the effect of discounting of the revenue stream. The resulting fuel cycle costs as a function of cycle length and discharge burnup are presented and discussed. Fuel costs decline with increasing discharge burnup for all cycle lengths up to the maximum discharge burnup considered. The choice of optimum cycle length depends on assumptions for outage costs.

  19. Synthetic battery cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of interactive computer graphics is suggested as an aid in battery system development. Mathematical representations of simplistic but fully representative functions of many electrochemical concepts of current practical interest will permit battery level charge and discharge phenomena to be analyzed in a qualitative manner prior to the assembly and testing of actual hardware. This technique is a useful addition to the variety of tools available to the battery system designer as he bridges the gap between interesting single cell life test data and reliable energy storage subsystems.

  20. Functioning Hardware Functional Specifications

    E-print Network

    Cores. ASPLOS 2010. #12;Bacon et al.'s Liquid Metal Fig. 2. Block level diagram of DES and Lime code, Liquid Metal, ECOOP 2008. #12;What are we doing about it? #12;Functional Programs to FPGAs #12;Functional

  1. Abelian integrals and limit cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumortier, Freddy; Roussarie, Robert

    The paper deals with generic perturbations from a Hamiltonian planar vector field and more precisely with the number and bifurcation pattern of the limit cycles. In this paper we show that near a 2-saddle cycle, the number of limit cycles produced in unfoldings with one unbroken connection, can exceed the number of zeros of the related Abelian integral, even if the latter represents a stable elementary catastrophe. We however also show that in general, finite codimension of the Abelian integral leads to a finite upper bound on the local cyclicity. In the treatment, we introduce the notion of simple asymptotic scale deformation.

  2. Approximation of periodicity in sunspot formation of and prediction of the 25th cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchina, E. M.; Sarychev, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    The empirical parameters of functions approximating solar activity cycles 8-23 are used. These parameters show the position of the cycle on the time axis (the start time) and its shape, which is characterized by the extension along the time axes and activity index. A statistical connections was found between two shape parameters of the cycle (the so-called Waldmeier effect) and between the extension of the cycle growth branch and the start time of the following cycle. A connection between the parameters of the given and future cycles has been obtained for a function approximating the "secular" variations in the cycle amplitude. The aforementioned empirical relationships can be stated in the form of three equations that contain the parameters of the current and future cycles. Solving this system, we obtain estimates for three parameters of the function approximating the next cycle. For the 25th cycle, it was found that the maximum of the smoothed Wolf number 116 is expected in March/April 2026; the duration of the activity growth branch is 4.16 years.

  3. Theoretical support for simple cycle forecasting schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlet, Guillaume

    The variability of the sun plays an important role in space weather. A solar eruption could destroy satellites or pose threat to astronauts on spacecrafts. Space weather is also a very important knowledge for air traffic organization. Moreover, we know that a strong link exist between climate change and the solar activity. Despite the fact that the sun is the better know star across the universe, a lot of physics process that take place in the sun are not completely understood. For all these reasons, understanding the sun remains a very significant goal in modern astrophysics. It's generally agreed that the solar dynamo, which takes place in the convective layer, is the generator of the periodic reversal of the solar magnetic field. Few years ago, asteroseismology proved that Backcock-Leigthon model is one of the possible dynamo models. Such simulations showed good results accordingly with sun's observations. They were able to reproduce the characteristic patterns of the solar activity. These simulations could support predictions for the future cycle. In our case, we imagined a very simple method to predict the amplitude of the upcoming cycle, based on the B-L model. We know that the sunspots number is an indirect measurement of the toroidal field intensity. In the B-L model, the poloidal component of the large-scale magnetic field is regenerated by the toroidal component, which was generated by the poloidal component itself. Therefore it implies to know the shape of the non-linear function linking the amplitude of a cycle and its preceding. In this presentation I will discuss limits of our simple model and explain in details why it will be possible to use it to do solar cycle predictions.

  4. NATURE CELL BIOLOGY ADVANCE ONLINE PUBLICATION www.nature.com/naturecellbiology 28 Direct coupling of the cell cycle and

    E-print Network

    coupling of the cell cycle and cell death machinery by E2F Zaher Nahle*, Julia Polakoff*, Ramana V that functions at multiple levels to efficiently induce cell death. The data also underscore how cell cycle of proliferation-associated genes. As cells progress into the cell cycle, cyclin-dependent kinases phosphorylate Rb

  5. Cycle-to-cycle control of reconfigurable die sheet metal forming

    E-print Network

    Vaughan, Chester Dewey

    2004-01-01

    This research addresses cycle to cycle control as applied to a sheet metal stretch forming process. More specifically, it attempts to validate the use of cycle to cycle (CtC) control for a multiple input-multiple output ...

  6. Self-organizing biochemical cycles

    PubMed Central

    Orgel, Leslie E.

    2000-01-01

    I examine the plausibility of theories that postulate the development of complex chemical organization without requiring the replication of genetic polymers such as RNA. One conclusion is that theories that involve the organization of complex, small-molecule metabolic cycles such as the reductive citric acid cycle on mineral surfaces make unreasonable assumptions about the catalytic properties of minerals and the ability of minerals to organize sequences of disparate reactions. Another conclusion is that data in the Beilstein Handbook of Organic Chemistry that have been claimed to support the hypothesis that the reductive citric acid cycle originated as a self-organized cycle can more plausibly be interpreted in a different way. PMID:11058157

  7. National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... urea cycle in regulating nitric oxide in the human body, the study is being conducted by Dr. ... a major discovery in ASA deficiency that transforms human science. The research has been published in Nature ...

  8. Fuel cycle code, "FUELMOVE III"

    E-print Network

    Sovka, Jerry Alois

    1963-01-01

    Further modifications to the fuel cycle code FUELMOVE are described which were made in an attempt to obtain results for reflected reactors operated under batch, outin, and bidirectional fueling schemes. Numerical methods ...

  9. The Sphinx's Riddle: Life and Career Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burack, Elmer H.

    1984-01-01

    Career cycles should be considered apart from life cycles, even though the two are interrelated. This essay examines five theories about life and career cycles, and offers insights into their limitations and potential uses. (JB)

  10. Sustainability Features of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    E-print Network

    Passerini, Stefano

    The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of stages that nuclear fuel materials go through in a cradle to grave framework. The Once Through Cycle (OTC) is the current fuel cycle implemented in the United States; in which an ...

  11. Limit cycle vibrations in turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S. G.

    1991-01-01

    The focus is on an examination of rotordynamic systems which are simultaneously susceptible to limit cycle instability and subharmonic response. Characteristics of each phenomenon are determined as well as their interrelationship. A normalized, single mass rotor model is examined as well as a complex model of the high pressure fuel turbopump and the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Entrainment of limit cycle instability by subharmonic response is demonstrated for both models. The nonuniqueness of the solution is also demonstrated.

  12. Economics of Organic Rankine Cycle 

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    going to air fins or cooling water. It includes discussion of some installations, and the impact of pinch technology on the analysis of Rankine Cycle opportunities. Some graphs to assist in deciding whether a poten tial application is economic... be economically used elsewhere in the process and therefore is not waste heat. Heat below 200?F is waste heat, but the investments required to recover it via Rankine Cycle become prohibitive as will be seen in the following sections. As was mentioned earlier...

  13. Ecology of the nitrogen cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Sprent, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    This book consists of two parts, approximately equal in size. The first part covers the general features of the nitrogen cycle, while the second part consists of case histories from particular environments. These include arid and semi-arid areas, tundras, peat soils, lakes, marshes, and such saline systems as salt marshes, coral reefs, intertidal zones, and the open sea. The last chapter discusses the human impact on the cycle through agriculture, forestry, and acidification.

  14. Equipment life cycle costs minimised.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Sharon

    2004-11-01

    With the cost of energy now a major component of building operating costs, NHS Trust managers increasingly focus on estimating total life cycle costs of equipment such as boiler room and heat, steam and incineration plant. "Life cycle costing" is a broad term and encompasses a wide range of techniques that take into account both initial and future costs as well as the savings of an investment over a period of time. PMID:15575554

  15. Targeting cell cycle regulators in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Aleem, Eiman; Arceci, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies represent the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in economically developed countries. In hematologic malignancies normal hematopoiesis is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of a genetically altered stem or progenitor cell (HSPC) that maintains its ability of self-renewal. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) not only regulate the mammalian cell cycle, but also influence other vital cellular processes, such as stem cell renewal, differentiation, transcription, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Chromosomal translocations, amplification, overexpression and altered CDK activities have been described in different types of human cancer, which have made them attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition. Mouse models deficient for one or more CDKs have significantly contributed to our current understanding of the physiological functions of CDKs, as well as their roles in human cancer. The present review focuses on selected cell cycle kinases with recent emerging key functions in hematopoiesis and in hematopoietic malignancies, such as CDK6 and its role in MLL-rearranged leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, CDK1 and its regulator WEE-1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and cyclin C/CDK8/CDK19 complexes in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. The knowledge gained from gene knockout experiments in mice of these kinases is also summarized. An overview of compounds targeting these kinases, which are currently in clinical development in various solid tumors and hematopoietic malignances, is presented. These include the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors (palbociclib, LEE011, LY2835219), pan-CDK inhibitors that target CDK1 (dinaciclib, flavopiridol, AT7519, TG02, P276-00, terampeprocol and RGB 286638) as well as the WEE-1 kinase inhibitor, MK-1775. The advantage of combination therapy of cell cycle inhibitors with conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of AML, such as cytarabine, is discussed. PMID:25914884

  16. Targeting cell cycle regulators in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aleem, Eiman; Arceci, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies represent the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in economically developed countries. In hematologic malignancies normal hematopoiesis is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of a genetically altered stem or progenitor cell (HSPC) that maintains its ability of self-renewal. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) not only regulate the mammalian cell cycle, but also influence other vital cellular processes, such as stem cell renewal, differentiation, transcription, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Chromosomal translocations, amplification, overexpression and altered CDK activities have been described in different types of human cancer, which have made them attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition. Mouse models deficient for one or more CDKs have significantly contributed to our current understanding of the physiological functions of CDKs, as well as their roles in human cancer. The present review focuses on selected cell cycle kinases with recent emerging key functions in hematopoiesis and in hematopoietic malignancies, such as CDK6 and its role in MLL-rearranged leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, CDK1 and its regulator WEE-1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and cyclin C/CDK8/CDK19 complexes in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. The knowledge gained from gene knockout experiments in mice of these kinases is also summarized. An overview of compounds targeting these kinases, which are currently in clinical development in various solid tumors and hematopoietic malignances, is presented. These include the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors (palbociclib, LEE011, LY2835219), pan-CDK inhibitors that target CDK1 (dinaciclib, flavopiridol, AT7519, TG02, P276-00, terampeprocol and RGB 286638) as well as the WEE-1 kinase inhibitor, MK-1775. The advantage of combination therapy of cell cycle inhibitors with conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of AML, such as cytarabine, is discussed. PMID:25914884

  17. Chain modeling for life cycle systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, J.J.; Shapiro, V.

    1997-12-01

    Throughout Sandia`s history, products have been represented by drawings. Solid modeling systems have recently replaced drawings as the preferred means for representing product geometry. These systems are used for product visualization, engineering analysis and manufacturing planning. Unfortunately, solid modeling technology is inadequate for life cycle systems engineering, which requires maintenance of technical history, efficient management of geometric and non-geometric data, and explicit representation of engineering and manufacturing characteristics. Such information is not part of the mathematical foundation of solid modeling. The current state-of-the-art in life cycle engineering is comprised of painstakingly created special purpose tools, which often are incompatible. New research on {open_quotes}chain modeling{close_quotes} provides a method of chaining the functionality of a part to the geometric representation. Chain modeling extends classical solid modeling to include physical, manufacturing, and procedural information required for life cycle engineering. In addition, chain modeling promises to provide the missing theoretical basis for Sandia`s parent/child product realization paradigm. In chain modeling, artifacts and systems are characterized in terms of their combinatorial properties: cell complexes, chains, and their operators. This approach is firmly rooted in algebraic topology and is a natural extension of current technology. The potential benefits of this approach include explicit hierarchical and combinatorial representation of physics, geometry, functionality, test, and legacy data in a common computational framework that supports a rational decision process and partial design automation. Chain modeling will have a significant impact on design preservation, system identification, parameterization, system reliability, and design simplification.

  18. Reaction cycle and thermodynamics in bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    Light causes the all-trans to 13-cis isomerization of the retinal in bacteriorhodopsin; the thermal relaxation leading back to the initial state drives proton transport first via proton transfer between the retinal Schiff base and D85 and then between the Schiff base and D96. The reaction sequence and thermodynamics of this photocycle are described by measuring time-resolved absorption changes with a gated multichannel analyzer between 100 ns and 100 ms, at six temperatures between 5 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Analysis of the energetics of the chromophore reaction sequence is on the basis of a recently proposed model (Varo & Lanyi, Biochemistry 30, 5016-5022, 1991) which consists of a single cycle and many reversible reactions: BR -hv-->K<==>L<==>M1-->M2<==>N<==>O-->BR. The existence of the M1-->M2 reaction, which functions as the switch in the proton transfer, is confirmed by spectroscopic evidence. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicate that the exchange of free energy between the protein and the protons is at the switch step. Further, a large entropy decrease at this reaction suggests a protein conformation change which will conserve delta G for driving the completion of the reaction cycle. The results provide insights to mechanism and energy coupling in this system, with possible relevance to the general question of how ion pumps function.

  19. Drosophila Embryonic Cell-Cycle Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Unhavaithaya, Yingdee; Park, Eugenia A.; Royzman, Irena; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all cell division mutants in Drosophila were recovered in late larval/pupal lethal screens, with less than 10 embryonic lethal mutants identified, because larval development occurs without a requirement for cell division. Only cells in the nervous system and the imaginal cells that generate the adult body divide during larval stages, with larval tissues growing by increasing ploidy rather than cell number. Thus, most mutants perturbing mitosis or the cell cycle do not manifest a phenotype until the adult body differentiates in late larval and pupal stages. To identify cell-cycle components whose maternal pools are depleted in embryogenesis or that have specific functions in embryogenesis, we screened for mutants defective in cell division during embryogenesis. Five new alleles of Cyclin E were recovered, ranging from a missense mutation that is viable to stop codons causing embryonic lethality. These permitted us to investigate the requirements for Cyclin E function in neuroblast cell fate determination, a role previously shown for a null Cyclin E allele. The mutations causing truncation of the protein affect cell fate of the NB6-4 neuroblast, whereas the weak missense mutation has no effect. We identified mutations in the pavarotti (pav) and tumbleweed (tum) genes needed for cytokinesis by a phenotype of large and multinucleate cells in the embryonic epidermis and nervous system. Other mutations affecting the centromere protein CAL1 and the kinetochore protein Spc105R caused mitotic defects in the nervous system. PMID:23979936

  20. The NEWS Water Cycle Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; William, Olson

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the first phase of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project was to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project was a multi-institutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe the results of the water cycle component of the first phase of the project, which include seasonal (monthly) climatologies of water fluxes over land, ocean, and atmosphere at continental and ocean basin scales. The requirement of closure of the water budget (i.e., mass conservation) at various scales was exploited to constrain the flux estimates via an optimization approach that will also be described. Further, error assessments were included with the input datasets, and we examine these in relation to inferred uncertainty in the optimized flux estimates in order to gauge our current ability to close the water budget within an expected uncertainty range.