These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Elevated TCA cycle function in the pathology of diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance and fatty liver[S  

PubMed Central

The manner in which insulin resistance impinges on hepatic mitochondrial function is complex. Although liver insulin resistance is associated with respiratory dysfunction, the effect on fat oxidation remains controversial, and biosynthetic pathways that traverse mitochondria are actually increased. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the site of terminal fat oxidation, chief source of electrons for respiration, and a metabolic progenitor of gluconeogenesis. Therefore, we tested whether insulin resistance promotes hepatic TCA cycle flux in mice progressing to insulin resistance and fatty liver on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 32 weeks using standard biomolecular and in vivo 2H/13C tracer methods. Relative mitochondrial content increased, but respiratory efficiency declined by 32 weeks of HFD. Fasting ketogenesis became unresponsive to feeding or insulin clamp, indicating blunted but constitutively active mitochondrial ?-oxidation. Impaired insulin signaling was marked by elevated in vivo gluconeogenesis and anaplerotic and oxidative TCA cycle flux. The induction of TCA cycle function corresponded to the development of mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, hepatic oxidative stress, and inflammation. Thus, the hepatic TCA cycle appears to enable mitochondrial dysfunction during insulin resistance by increasing electron deposition into an inefficient respiratory chain prone to reactive oxygen species production and by providing mitochondria-derived substrate for elevated gluconeogenesis. PMID:22493093

Satapati, Santhosh; Sunny, Nishanth E.; Kucejova, Blanka; Fu, Xiaorong; He, Tian Teng; Mendez-Lucas, Andres; Shelton, John M.; Perales, Jose C.; Browning, Jeffrey D.; Burgess, Shawn C.

2012-01-01

2

2-Oxoglutarate: linking TCA cycle function with amino acid, glucosinolate, flavonoid, alkaloid, and gibberellin biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) is used as an obligatory substrate in a range of oxidative reactions catalyzed by 2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. These enzymes are widespread in nature being involved in several important biochemical processes. We have recently demonstrated that tomato plants in which the TCA cycle enzyme 2-OG dehydrogenase (2-ODD) was antisense inhibited were characterized by early senescence and modified fruit ripening associated with differences in the levels of bioactive gibberellin (GA). Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence that the TCA cycle plays an important role in modulating the rate of flux from 2-OG to amino acid metabolism. Here we discuss recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of 2-OG metabolism occurring in different biological systems indicating the importance of 2-OG and 2-OG dependent dioxygenases not only in glucosinolate, flavonoid and alkaloid metabolism but also in GA and amino acid metabolism. We additionally summarize recent findings regarding the impact of modification of 2-OG metabolism on biosynthetic pathways involving 2-ODDs. PMID:25360142

Araujo, Wagner L.; Martins, Auxiliadora O.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Tohge, Takayuki

2014-01-01

3

Metabolism: Part II. The Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA), Citric Acid, or Krebs Cycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differentiates the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (or Krebs cycle) from glycolysis, and describes the bridge between the two as being the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl coenzyme A. Discusses the eight steps in the TCA cycle, the results of isotopic labeling experiments, and the net effects of the TCA cycle. (TW)

Bodner, George M.

1986-01-01

4

Mitochondrial dysfunctions in cancer: Genetic defects and oncogenic signaling impinging on TCA cycle activity.  

PubMed

The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central route for oxidative metabolism. Besides being responsible for the production of NADH and FADH2, which fuel the mitochondrial electron transport chain to generate ATP, the TCA cycle is also a robust source of metabolic intermediates required for anabolic reactions. This is particularly important for highly proliferating cells, like tumour cells, which require a continuous supply of precursors for the synthesis of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. A number of mutations among the TCA cycle enzymes have been discovered and their association with some tumour types has been established. In this review we summarise the current knowledge regarding alterations of the TCA cycle in tumours, with particular attention to the three germline mutations of the enzymes succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase and isocitrate dehydrogenase, which are involved in the pathogenesis of tumours, and to the aberrant regulation of TCA cycle components that are under the control of oncogenes and tumour suppressors. PMID:24614286

Desideri, Enrico; Vegliante, Rolando; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

2015-01-28

5

Cofactor balance by nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) coordinates reductive carboxylation and glucose catabolism in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle.  

PubMed

Cancer and proliferating cells exhibit an increased demand for glutamine-derived carbons to support anabolic processes. In addition, reductive carboxylation of ?-ketoglutarate by isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and 2 (IDH2) was recently shown to be a major source of citrate synthesis from glutamine. The role of NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) cofactors in coordinating glucose and glutamine utilization in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is not well understood, with the source(s) of NADPH for the reductive carboxylation reaction remaining unexplored. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) is a mitochondrial enzyme that transfers reducing equivalents from NADH to NADPH. Here, we show that knockdown of NNT inhibits the contribution of glutamine to the TCA cycle and activates glucose catabolism in SkMel5 melanoma cells. The increase in glucose oxidation partially occurred through pyruvate carboxylase and rendered NNT knockdown cells more sensitive to glucose deprivation. Importantly, knocking down NNT inhibits reductive carboxylation in SkMel5 and 786-O renal carcinoma cells. Overexpression of NNT is sufficient to stimulate glutamine oxidation and reductive carboxylation, whereas it inhibits glucose catabolism in the TCA cycle. These observations are supported by an impairment of the NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratios. Our findings underscore the role of NNT in regulating central carbon metabolism via redox balance, calling for other mechanisms that coordinate substrate preference to maintain a functional TCA cycle. PMID:23504317

Gameiro, Paulo A; Laviolette, Laura A; Kelleher, Joanne K; Iliopoulos, Othon; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

2013-05-01

6

Involvement of the TCA cycle in the anaerobic metabolism of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs).  

PubMed

For decades, glycolysis has been generally accepted to supply the reducing power for the anaerobic conversion of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) to polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). However, the importance of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle has also been raised since 1980s. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the involvement of the TCA cycle in the anaerobic metabolism of PAOs. To achieve this goal, the glycogen pool of an activated sludge highly enriched in Candidatus Accumulibacter Phosphatis (hereafter referred to as Accumulibacter), a putative PAO was reduced substantially through starving the sludge under intermittent anaerobic and aerobic conditions. After the starvation, acetate added was still taken up anaerobically and stored as PHA, with negligible glycogen degradation. The metabolic models proposed by Pereira, Hesselmann and Yagci, which predict the formation of reducing power through glycolysis and the full or partial TCA cycle, were used to estimate the carbon fluxes. The results demonstrate that Accumulibacter can use both glycogen and acetate to generate reducing power anaerobically. The anaerobic production of reducing power from acetate is likely through the full TCA cycle. The proportion of TCA cycle involvement depends on the availability of degradable glycogen. PMID:19144373

Zhou, Yan; Pijuan, Maite; Zeng, Raymond J; Yuan, Zhiguo

2009-03-01

7

Fumarate hydratase (FH), an enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle,  

E-print Network

are generated) in the TCA cycle. Haem is also degraded to produce bilirubin. This linear pathway of glutamine metabolism through to bilirubin gen- eration allows for some production of mitochondrial NADH. Consistent and bilirubin excretion, including haem oxygenase 1 (Hmox1). Knockdown of Hmox1 using short hairpin RNAs reduced

Ruppin, Eytan

8

Importance of glutamine metabolism in leukemia cells by energy production through TCA cycle and by redox homeostasis.  

PubMed

Some cancer cells depend on glutamine despite of pronounced glycolysis. We examined the glutamine metabolism in leukemia cells, and found that HL-60 cells most depended on glutamine in the 4 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cell lines examined: growth of HL-60 cells was most suppressed by glutamine deprivation and by inhibition of glutaminolysis, which was rescued by tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate, oxaloacetic acid. Glutamine is also involved in antioxidant defense function by increasing glutathione. Glutamine deprivation suppressed the glutathione content and elevated reactive oxygen species most evidently in HL-60 cells. Glutamine metabolism might be a therapeutic target in some leukemia. PMID:24762082

Goto, Mineaki; Miwa, Hiroshi; Shikami, Masato; Tsunekawa-Imai, Norikazu; Suganuma, Kazuto; Mizuno, Shohei; Takahashi, Miyuki; Mizutani, Motonori; Hanamura, Ichiro; Nitta, Masakazu

2014-07-01

9

Effect of gene disruptions of the TCA cycle on production of succinic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Succinate is the main taste component produced by yeasts during sake (Japanese rice wine) fermentation. The pathway leading to accumulation of succinate was examined in liquid culture in the presence of a high concentration (15%) of glucose under aerobic and anaerobic conditions using a series of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in which various genes that encode the expression of enzymes required in TCA cycle were disrupted. When cultured in YPD medium containing 15% glucose under aerobic conditions, the KGD1 (alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase) gene disrupted mutant produced a lower level of succinate than the wild-type strain, while the SDH1 (succinate dehydrogenase) gene-disrupted mutant produced an increased level of succinate. On the other hand, the FUM1 (fumarase) gene disrupted mutant produced significantly higher levels of fumarate but did not form malate at all. These results indicate that succinate, fumarate and malate are mainly synthesized through the TCA cycle (oxidative direction) even in the presence of glucose at a concentration as high as 15%. When the growth condition was shifted from aerobic to anaerobic, the increased level of succinate in SDH1 disruptants was no longer observed, whereas the decreased level of succinate in the KGD1 diruptant was still observed. A double mutant of the two fumarate reductase isozyme genes (OSM1 and FRDS) showed a succinate productivity of 50% as compared to the parent when cells were incubated in glucose-buffered solution. These results indicate that succinate could be synthesized through two pathways, namely, alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation via the TCA cycle and fumarate reduction under anaerobic conditions. PMID:16232421

Arikawa, Y; Kuroyanagi, T; Shimosaka, M; Muratsubaki, H; Enomoto, K; Kodaira, R; Okazaki, M

1999-01-01

10

Dysregulation of glucose transport, glycolysis, TCA cycle and glutaminolysis by oncogenes and tumor suppressors in cancer cells.  

PubMed

A common set of functional characteristics of cancer cells is that cancer cells consume a large amount of glucose, maintain high rate of glycolysis and convert a majority of glucose into lactic acid even in the presence of oxygen compared to that of normal cells (Warburg's Effects). In addition, cancer cells exhibit substantial alterations in several energy metabolism pathways including glucose transport, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, glutaminolysis, mitochondrial respiratory chain oxidative phosphorylation and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). In the present work, we focused on reviewing the current knowledge about the dysregulation of the proteins/enzymes involved in the key regulatory steps of glucose transport, glycolysis, TCA cycle and glutaminolysis by several oncogenes including c-Myc and hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and tumor suppressor, p53, in cancer cells. The dysregulation of glucose transport and energy metabolism pathways by oncogenes and lost functions of the tumor suppressors have been implicated as important biomarkers for cancer detection and as valuable targets for the development of new anticancer therapies. PMID:22750268

Chen, Jin-Qiang; Russo, Jose

2012-12-01

11

Improving the description of metabolic networks: the TCA cycle as example.  

PubMed

To collect the ever-increasing yet scattered knowledge on metabolism, multiple pathway databases like the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes have been created. A complete and accurate description of the metabolic network for human and other organisms is essential to foster new biological discoveries. Previous research has shown, however, that the level of agreement among pathway databases is surprisingly low. We investigated whether the lack of consensus among databases can be explained by an inaccurate representation of the knowledge described in scientific literature. As an example, we focus on the well-known tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and evaluated the description of this pathway as found in a comprehensive selection of 10 human metabolic pathway databases. Remarkably, none of the descriptions given by these databases is entirely correct. Moreover, consensus exists on only 3 reactions. Mistakes in pathway databases might lead to the propagation of incorrect knowledge, misinterpretation of high-throughput molecular data, and poorly designed follow-up experiments. We provide an improved description of the TCA cycle via the community-curated database WikiPathways. We review various initiatives that aim to improve the description of the human metabolic network and discuss the importance of the active involvement of biological experts in these. PMID:22661004

Stobbe, Miranda D; Houten, Sander M; van Kampen, Antoine H C; Wanders, Ronald J A; Moerland, Perry D

2012-09-01

12

Excessive hepatic mitochondrial TCA cycle and gluconeogenesis in humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Approximately one-third of the U.S. population has nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition closely associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of liver injury. Dysregulated mitochondrial metabolism is central in these disorders, but the manner and degree of dysregulation are disputed. This study tested whether humans with NAFLD have abnormal in vivo hepatic mitochondrial metabolism. Subjects with low (3.0%) and high (17%) intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) were studied using (2)H and (13)C tracers to evaluate systemic lipolysis, hepatic glucose production, and mitochondrial pathways (TCA cycle, anaplerosis, and ketogenesis). Individuals with NAFLD had 50% higher rates of lipolysis and 30% higher rates of gluconeogenesis. There was a positive correlation between IHTG content and both mitochondrial oxidative and anaplerotic fluxes. These data indicate that mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is ~2-fold greater in those with NAFLD, providing a potential link between IHTG content, oxidative stress, and liver damage. PMID:22152305

Sunny, Nishanth E; Parks, Elizabeth J; Browning, Jeffrey D; Burgess, Shawn C

2011-12-01

13

Real Time Molecular Imaging of TCA Cycle Metabolism in vivo By Hyperpolarized 1-13C Diethyl Succinate  

PubMed Central

The Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) is central to metabolic energy production and is known to be altered in many disease states. Real time molecular imaging of TCA cycle in vivo will be important in understanding the metabolic basis of several diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) using FDG-glucose (2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose) is already being used as a metabolic imaging agent in clinics. However, FDG-glucose does not reveal anything past glucose uptake and phosphorylation. We have developed a new metabolic imaging agent, hyperpolarized diethyl 1-13C 2,3-d2 succinate, that allows for real time in vivo imaging and spectroscopy of the TCA cycle. Diethyl succinate can be hyperpolarized using parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) in an aqueous solution with signal enhancement of 5000 compared to Boltzmann polarization. 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were achieved in vivo seconds after injection of 10 to 20 ?mol of hyperpolarized diethyl succinate into normal mice. The downstream metabolites of hyperpolarized diethyl succinate were identified in vivo as malate, succinate, fumarate and aspartate. The metabolism of diethyl succinate was altered after exposing the animal to 3-nitropropionate, a known irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase. Based on our results, hyperpolarized diethyl succinate allows for in real time in vivo MRI and MRS with a high signal to noise ratio and with visualization of multiple steps of the TCA cycle. Hyperpolarization of diethyl succinate and its in vivo applications may reveal an entirely new regime wherein the local status of TCA cycle metabolism is interrogated on the time scale of seconds to minutes with unprecedented chemical specificity and MR sensitivity. PMID:22146049

Zacharias, Niki M.; Chan, Henry R.; Sailasuta, Napapon; Ross, Brian D.

2011-01-01

14

GC\\/MS-based profiling of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules in ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The roles that amino acids play in immunity and inflammation are well defined, and the relationship between inflammatory bowel\\u000a disease (IBD) and certain amino acids has recently attracted attention. In this study, the levels of amino acids and trichloroacetic\\u000a acid (TCA) cycle-related molecules in the colonic tissues and sera of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) were profiled\\u000a by gas chromatography\\/mass

Makoto Ooi; Shin Nishiumi; Tomoo Yoshie; Yuuki Shiomi; Michitaka Kohashi; Ken Fukunaga; Shiro Nakamura; Takayuki Matsumoto; Naoya Hatano; Masakazu Shinohara; Yasuhiro Irino; Tadaomi Takenawa; Takeshi Azuma; Masaru Yoshida

15

Comparison of Intact Arabidopsis thaliana Leaf Transcript Profiles during Treatment with Inhibitors of Mitochondrial Electron Transport and TCA Cycle  

PubMed Central

Plant mitochondria signal to the nucleus leading to altered transcription of nuclear genes by a process called mitochondrial retrograde regulation (MRR). MRR is implicated in metabolic homeostasis and responses to stress conditions. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) are a MRR signaling component, but whether all MRR requires ROS is not established. Inhibition of the cytochrome respiratory pathway by antimycin A (AA) or the TCA cycle by monofluoroacetate (MFA), each of which initiates MRR, can increase ROS production in some plant cells. We found that for AA and MFA applied to leaves of soil-grown Arabidopsis thaliana plants, ROS production increased with AA, but not with MFA, allowing comparison of transcript profiles under different ROS conditions during MRR. Variation in transcript accumulation over time for eight nuclear encoded mitochondrial protein genes suggested operation of both common and distinct signaling pathways between the two treatments. Consequences of mitochondrial perturbations for the whole transcriptome were examined by microarray analyses. Expression of 1316 and 606 genes was altered by AA and MFA, respectively. A subset of genes was similarly affected by both treatments, including genes encoding photosynthesis-related proteins. MFA treatment resulted in more down-regulation. Functional gene category (MapMan) and cluster analyses showed that genes with expression levels affected by perturbation from AA or MFA inhibition were most similarly affected by biotic stresses such as pathogens. Overall, the data provide further evidence for the presence of mtROS-independent MRR signaling, and support the proposed involvement of MRR and mitochondrial function in plant responses to biotic stress. PMID:23028523

Yu, Jianping; Ruckle, Michael E.; McIntosh, Lee; Hock, Jeffery J.; Bingham, Scott; White, Samuel J.; George, Rajani M.; Subbaiah, Chalivendra C.; Rhoads, David M.

2012-01-01

16

Exposure of Clinical MRSA Heterogeneous Strains to ?-Lactams Redirects Metabolism to Optimize Energy Production through the TCA Cycle  

PubMed Central

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as one of the most important pathogens both in health care and community-onset infections. The prerequisite for methicillin resistance is mecA, which encodes a ?-lactam-insensitive penicillin binding protein PBP2a. A characteristic of MRSA strains from hospital and community associated infections is their heterogeneous expression of resistance to ?-lactam (HeR) in which only a small portion (?0.1%) of the population expresses resistance to oxacillin (OXA) ?10 µg/ml, while in other isolates, most of the population expresses resistance to a high level (homotypic resistance, HoR). The mechanism associated with heterogeneous expression requires both increase expression of mecA and a mutational event that involved the triggering of a ?-lactam-mediated SOS response and related lexA and recA genes. In the present study we investigated the cellular physiology of HeR-MRSA strains during the process of ?-lactam-mediated HeR/HoR selection at sub-inhibitory concentrations by using a combinatorial approach of microarray analyses and global biochemical profiling employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to investigate changes in metabolic pathways and the metabolome associated with ?-lactam-mediated HeR/HoR selection in clinically relevant heterogeneous MRSA. We found unique features present in the oxacillin-selected SA13011-HoR derivative when compared to the corresponding SA13011-HeR parental strain that included significant increases in tricarboxyl citric acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and a concomitant decrease in fermentative pathways. Inactivation of the TCA cycle enzyme cis-aconitase gene in the SA13011-HeR strain abolished ?-lactam-mediated HeR/HoR selection demonstrating the significance of altered TCA cycle activity during the HeR/HoR selection. These results provide evidence of both the metabolic cost and the adaptation that HeR-MRSA clinical strains undergo when exposed to ?-lactam pressure, indicating that the energy production is redirected to supply the cell wall synthesis/metabolism, which in turn contributes to the survival response in the presence of ?-lactam antibiotics. PMID:23940684

Keaton, Mignon A.; Rosato, Roberto R.; Plata, Konrad B.; Singh, Christopher R.; Rosato, Adriana E.

2013-01-01

17

Fitness of Escherichia coli during Urinary Tract Infection Requires Gluconeogenesis and the TCA Cycle  

PubMed Central

Microbial pathogenesis studies traditionally encompass dissection of virulence properties such as the bacterium's ability to elaborate toxins, adhere to and invade host cells, cause tissue damage, or otherwise disrupt normal host immune and cellular functions. In contrast, bacterial metabolism during infection has only been recently appreciated to contribute to persistence as much as their virulence properties. In this study, we used comparative proteomics to investigate the expression of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) cytoplasmic proteins during growth in the urinary tract environment and systematic disruption of central metabolic pathways to better understand bacterial metabolism during infection. Using two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and tandem mass spectrometry, it was found that UPEC differentially expresses 84 cytoplasmic proteins between growth in LB medium and growth in human urine (P<0.005). Proteins induced during growth in urine included those involved in the import of short peptides and enzymes required for the transport and catabolism of sialic acid, gluconate, and the pentose sugars xylose and arabinose. Proteins required for the biosynthesis of arginine and serine along with the enzyme agmatinase that is used to produce the polyamine putrescine were also up-regulated in urine. To complement these data, we constructed mutants in these genes and created mutants defective in each central metabolic pathway and tested the relative fitness of these UPEC mutants in vivo in an infection model. Import of peptides, gluconeogenesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle are required for E. coli fitness during urinary tract infection while glycolysis, both the non-oxidative and oxidative branches of the pentose phosphate pathway, and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway were dispensable in vivo. These findings suggest that peptides and amino acids are the primary carbon source for E. coli during infection of the urinary tract. Because anaplerosis, or using central pathways to replenish metabolic intermediates, is required for UPEC fitness in vivo, we propose that central metabolic pathways of bacteria could be considered critical components of virulence for pathogenic microbes. PMID:19478872

Alteri, Christopher J.; Smith, Sara N.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

2009-01-01

18

Possible Links Between Stress Defense and the Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle in Francisella Pathogenesis*  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious bacterium causing the zoonotic disease tularemia. In vivo, this facultative intracellular bacterium survives and replicates mainly in the cytoplasm of infected cells. We have recently identified a genetic locus, designated moxR that is important for stress resistance and intramacrophage survival of F. tularensis. In the present work, we used tandem affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry to identify in vivo interacting partners of three proteins encoded by this locus: the MoxR-like ATPase (FTL_0200), and two proteins containing motifs predicted to be involved in protein–protein interactions, bearing von Willebrand A (FTL_0201) and tetratricopeptide (FTL_0205) motifs. The three proteins were designated here for simplification, MoxR, VWA1, and TPR1, respectively. MoxR interacted with 31 proteins, including various enzymes. VWA1 interacted with fewer proteins, but these included the E2 component of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and TPR1. The protein TPR1 interacted with one hundred proteins, including the E1 and E2 subunits of both oxoglutarate and pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complexes, and their common E3 subunit. Remarkably, chromosomal deletion of either moxR or tpr1 impaired pyruvate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activities, supporting the hypothesis of a functional role for the interaction of MoxR and TPR1 with these complexes. Altogether, this work highlights possible links between stress resistance and metabolism in F. tularensis virulence. PMID:23669032

Dieppedale, Jennifer; Gesbert, Gael; Ramond, Elodie; Chhuon, Cerina; Dubail, Iharilalao; Dupuis, Marion; Guerrera, Ida Chiara; Charbit, Alain

2013-01-01

19

Modulation of key enzymes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism, and TCA cycle of the tropical freshwater fish Labeo rohita fed gelatinized and non-gelatinized starch diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 60-day experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary gelatinized (G) and non-gelatinized (NG) starch on the key\\u000a metabolic enzymes of glycolysis (hexokinase, glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenesis (glucose-6\\u000a phosphatase and fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase), protein metabolism (aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase),\\u000a and TCA cycle (malate dehydrogenase) in Labeo rohita juveniles. In the analysis, 234 juveniles

Vikas Kumar; N. P. Sahu; A. K. Pal; Shivendra Kumar; Amit Kumar Sinha; Jayant Ranjan; Kartik Baruah

2010-01-01

20

CELLULAR & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LETTERS 129 THE SMALL WORLD IN BIOPHYSICAL SYSTEMS STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF GLYCOLYSIS AND THE TCA CYCLE IN ESCHERICHIA COLI  

E-print Network

Abstract: It has been shown that the central metabolic network of Escherichia coli is of the small-world type. In this paper, we present that the metabolic network of glycolysis and TCA cycle as a part of the E. coli metabolism is also a small-world network. We found that the hubs of the studied network are consistent with those found in the complete metabolic network. The evolutionary meaning of this finding is discussed.

Borut Krajnc; Marko Marhl

21

Functional Characterization of TcaA: Minimal Requirement for Teicoplanin Susceptibility and Role in Caenorhabditis elegans Virulence?  

PubMed Central

The inactivation of TcaA contributes to intrinsic teicoplanin resistance in experimental and clinical isolates of glycopeptide-intermediate resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PhoA fusions confirmed that TcaA is a transmembrane protein with a short intracellular N-terminal domain containing a C-4 zinc finger binding motif, a single membrane-spanning domain, and a large extracellular C-terminal domain. The region conferring teicoplanin susceptibility was narrowed down to the transmembrane part and the first third of the extracellular domain of TcaA, suggesting that neither the C-4 zinc finger binding motif nor the C terminus contributed to teicoplanin susceptibility. TcaA belongs to the cell wall stress stimulon, which comprises a set of genes universally upregulated by cell wall damage. Induction of tcaA was shown to be fully dependent on the two-component regulatory system VraSR. A 66-bp region upstream of the transcriptional start site, which contained an inverted repeat partially covering the promoter box, was shown to be essential for VraSR-mediated induction by cell wall stress. Interestingly, the induction or overexpression of tcaA did not contribute further to teicoplanin susceptibility, suggesting that small amounts of TcaA, such as those present under normal uninduced conditions, were sufficient for TcaA-mediated teicoplanin susceptibility. The strong attenuation of tcaA deletion mutants in a Caenorhabditis elegans survival assay suggested that TcaA may, in addition to affecting glycopeptide susceptibility, also play a role in virulence. PMID:17709474

McCallum, Nadine; Brassinga, Ann Karen C.; Sifri, Costi D.; Berger-Bachi, Brigitte

2007-01-01

22

Effect of glutamine substitution by TCA cycle intermediates on the production and sialylation of Fc-fusion protein in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture.  

PubMed

In an effort to reduce the accumulation of ammonia in culture medium, three different TCA cycle intermediates, (alpha-ketoglutarate (?-KG), citric acid and succinic acid) along with glutamic acid for a comparison, were examined as a substitute for glutamine with rCHO cell line producing a Fc-fusion glycoprotein. Among them, ?-KG showed the best production performance. When cells were cultivated with 4 mM ?-KG, the final ammonia concentration did not exceed 3 mM, which is less than one fourth of that with 4 mM glutamine. The replacement of glutamine increased the lag phase and reduced cell growth. However, it increased the specific productivity by 2.7-fold, resulting in a 1.3-fold increase in the maximum product concentration. Furthermore, the sialic acid content of the Fc-fusion protein with 4 mM ?-KG was higher than that with 4 mM glutamine in all cultures, most likely due to the lower ammonia concentration. The results of Western blotting and activity assays of intracellular ?-2,3-sialyltransferase and extracellular sialidases are in good agreement with tests done to assess the sialic acid content of the Fc-fusion protein. Taken together, the data obtained here demonstrate that ?-KG is a potential substitute for glutamine for improved glycoprotein production in rCHO cells. PMID:24721212

Ha, Tae Kwang; Lee, Gyun Min

2014-06-20

23

TCA High Lift Preliminary Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a TCA (Technology Concept Airplane) High lift Preliminary Assessment. The topics discussed are: 1) Model Description; 2) Data Repeatability; 3) Effect of Inboard L.E. (Leading Edge) Flap Span; 4) Comparison of 14'x22' TCA-1 With NTF (National Transonic Facility) Modified Ref. H; 5) Comparison of 14'x22' and NTF Ref. H Results; 6) Effect of Outboard Sealed Slat on TCA; 7) TCA Full Scale Build-ups; 8) Full Scale L/D Comparisons; 9) TCA Full Scale; and 10) Touchdown Lift Curves. This paper is in viewgraph form.

Wyatt, G. H.; Polito, R. C.; Yeh, D. T.; Elzey, M. E.; Tran, J. T.; Meredith, Paul T.

1999-01-01

24

The differential effects of TCA-cycle acids on the growth of plant cells cultured in liquid media containing various nitrogen sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Canadian No. 1), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. humilis) and wheat (triticum monococcum L.) cells were grown in a defined, liquid medium containing either ammonium sulfate, L-glutamine or potassium nitrate as the sole nitrogen source, and the effects of the tricarboxylic-acid (TCA) intermediates, citrate and a-ketoglutarate (5, 10, 15 mM), on the growth (dry-weight increase)

Yukio Fukunaga; John King; Jeffrey J. Child

1978-01-01

25

Ames Optimized TCA Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Configuration design at Ames was carried out with the SYN87-SB (single block) Euler code using a 193 x 49 x 65 C-H grid. The Euler solver is coupled to the constrained (NPSOL) and the unconstrained (QNMDIF) optimization packages. Since the single block grid is able to model only wing-body configurations, the nacelle/diverter effects were included in the optimization process by SYN87's option to superimpose the nacelle/diverter interference pressures on the wing. These interference pressures were calculated using the AIRPLANE code. AIRPLANE is an Euler solver that uses a unstructured tetrahedral mesh and is capable of computations about arbitrary complete configurations. In addition, the buoyancy effects of the nacelle/diverters were also included in the design process by imposing the pressure field obtained during the design process onto the triangulated surfaces of the nacelle/diverter mesh generated by AIRPLANE. The interference pressures and nacelle buoyancy effects are added to the final forces after each flow field calculation. Full details of the (recently enhanced) ghost nacelle capability are given in a related talk. The pseudo nacelle corrections were greatly improved during this design cycle. During the Ref H and Cycle 1 design activities, the nacelles were only translated and pitched. In the cycle 2 design effort the nacelles can translate vertically, and pitch to accommodate the changes in the lower surface geometry. The diverter heights (between their leading and trailing edges) were modified during design as the shape of the lower wing changed, with the drag of the diverter changing accordingly. Both adjoint and finite difference gradients were used during optimization. The adjoint-based gradients were found to give good direction in the design space for configurations near the starting point, but as the design approached a minimum, the finite difference gradients were found to be more accurate. Use of finite difference gradients was limited by the CPU time limit available on the Cray machines. A typical optimization run using finite difference gradients can use only 30 to 40 design variables and one optimization iteration within the 8 hour queue limit for the chosen grid size and convergence level. The efficiency afforded by the adjoint method allowed for 50-120 design variables and 5-10 optimization iterations in the 8 hour queue. Geometric perturbations to the wing and fuselage were made using the Hicks/Henne (HH) shape functions. The HH functions were distributed uniformly along the chords of the wing defining sections and lofted linearly. During single-surface design, constraints on thickness and volume at selected wing stations were imposed. Both fuselage camber and cross-sectional area distributions were permitted to change during design. The major disadvantage to the use of these functions is the inherent surface waviness produced by repeated use of such functions. Many smoothing operations were required following optimization runs to produce a configuration with reasonable smoothness. Wagner functions were also used on the wing sections but were never used on the fuselage. The Wagner functions are a family of increasingly oscillatory functions that have also been used extensively in airfoil design. The leading and trailing edge regions of the wing were designed by use of polynomial and monomial functions respectively. Twist was attempted but was abandoned because of little performance improvement available from changing the baseline twist.

Cliff, Susan E.; Reuther, James J.; Hicks, Raymond M.

1999-01-01

26

Genome-wide screen identifies Escherichia coli TCA cycle-related mutants with extended chronological lifespan dependent on acetate metabolism and the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ArcA  

PubMed Central

Summary Single-gene mutants with extended lifespan have been described in several model organisms. We performed a genome-wide screen for long-lived mutants in Escherichia coli which revealed strains lacking TCA cycle-related genes that exhibit longer stationary phase survival and increased resistance to heat stress compared to wild-type. Extended lifespan in the sdhA mutant, lacking subunit A of succinate dehydrogenase, is associated with reduced production of superoxide and increased stress resistance. On the other hand, the longer lifespan of the lipoic acid synthase mutant (lipA) is associated with reduced oxygen consumption and requires the acetate-producing enzyme pyruvate oxidase, as well as acetyl-CoA synthetase, the enzyme that converts extracellular acetate to acetyl-CoA. The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ArcA, acting independently of acetate metabolism, is also required for maximum lifespan extension in the lipA and lpdA mutants, indicating that these mutations promote entry into a mode normally associated with a low-oxygen environment. Since analogous changes from respiration to fermentation have been observed in long-lived Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans strains, such metabolic alterations may represent an evolutionarily conserved strategy to extend lifespan. PMID:20707865

Gonidakis, Stavros; Finkel, Steven E.; Longo, Valter D.

2010-01-01

27

Evolution and Functional Implications of the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle as Revealed by Phylogenetic Analysis  

PubMed Central

The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, a crucial component of respiratory metabolism, is composed of a set of eight enzymes present in the mitochondrial matrix. However, most of the TCA cycle enzymes are encoded in the nucleus in higher eukaryotes. In addition, evidence has accumulated demonstrating that nuclear genes were acquired from the mitochondrial genome during the course of evolution. For this reason, we here analyzed the evolutionary history of all TCA cycle enzymes in attempt to better understand the origin of these nuclear-encoded proteins. Our results indicate that prior to endosymbiotic events the TCA cycle seemed to operate only as isolated steps in both the host (eubacterial cell) and mitochondria (alphaproteobacteria). The origin of isoforms present in different cell compartments might be associated either with gene-transfer events which did not result in proper targeting of the protein to mitochondrion or with duplication events. Further in silico analyses allow us to suggest new insights into the possible roles of TCA cycle enzymes in different tissues. Finally, we performed coexpression analysis using mitochondrial TCA cycle genes revealing close connections among these genes most likely related to the higher efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in this specialized organelle. Moreover, these analyses allowed us to identify further candidate genes which might be used for metabolic engineering purposes given the importance of the TCA cycle during development and/or stress situations. PMID:25274566

Cavalcanti, João Henrique Frota; Esteves-Ferreira, Alberto A.; Quinhones, Carla G.S.; Pereira-Lima, Italo A.; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Araújo, Wagner L.

2014-01-01

28

Development of a MicroTCA Carrier Hub for CMS at HL-LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a Micro TCA Carrier Hub card which provides timing, control and data acquisition functions in a Micro TCA crate for HL-LHC readout electronics. This module may be mounted in the primary or redundant MCH slot in a Micro TCA crate, and distributes low-jitter LHC RF clock and encoded fast timing signals to up to 12 AMC modules. In addition, it receives buffer status signals and DAQ data at up to 600 MBytes/sec from each AMC. The prototype module is built on a commercial MCH base board with a custom mezzanine board stack. The latest Xilinx® Virtex®-6 FPGA are used to provide a clear upgrade path. Prototype modules have been developed for a CMS HCAL test beam in summer 2010. We describe the specifications of the module, its application in a Micro TCA system beyond CMS HCAL, and our experience in commissioning the module for the test beam.

Dimitriyev, M.; Hazen, E.; Wu, S. X.; Rohlf, J.

2010-12-01

29

PIE Nacelle Flow Analysis and TCA Inlet Flow Quality Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation includes three topics: (1) Analysis of isolated boattail drag; (2) Computation of Technology Concept Airplane (TCA)-installed nacelle effects on aerodynamic performance; and (3) Assessment of TCA inlet flow quality.

Shieh, C. F.; Arslan, Alan; Sundaran, P.; Kim, Suk; Won, Mark J.

1999-01-01

30

The Tribolium castaneum cell line TcA: a new tool kit for cell biology.  

PubMed

The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is an agriculturally important insect pest that has been widely used as a model organism. Recently, an adherent cell line (BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 or TcA) was developed from late pupae of the red flour beetle. Next generation transcriptome sequencing of TcA cells demonstrated expression of a wide variety of genes associated with specialized functions in chitin metabolism, immune responses and cellular and systemic RNAi pathways. Accordingly, we evaluated the sensitivity of TcA cells to dsRNA to initiate an RNAi response. TcA cells were highly sensitive to minute amounts of dsRNA, with a minimum effective dose of 100?pg/mL resulting in significant suppression of gene expression. We have also developed a plasmid containing two TcA-specific promoters, the promoter from the 40S ribosomal protein subunit (TC006550) and a bi-directional heat shock promoter (TcHS70) from the intergenic space between heat shock proteins 68a and b. These promoters have been employed to provide high levels of either constitutive (TC006550) or inducible (TcHS70) gene expression of the reporter proteins. Our results show that the TcA cell line, with its sensitivity to RNAi and functional TcA-specific promoters, is an invaluable resource for studying basic molecular and physiological questions. PMID:25354547

Silver, Kristopher; Jiang, Hongbo; Fu, Jinping; Phillips, Thomas W; Beeman, Richard W; Park, Yoonseong

2014-01-01

31

The Tribolium castaneum cell line TcA: a new tool kit for cell biology  

PubMed Central

The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is an agriculturally important insect pest that has been widely used as a model organism. Recently, an adherent cell line (BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 or TcA) was developed from late pupae of the red flour beetle. Next generation transcriptome sequencing of TcA cells demonstrated expression of a wide variety of genes associated with specialized functions in chitin metabolism, immune responses and cellular and systemic RNAi pathways. Accordingly, we evaluated the sensitivity of TcA cells to dsRNA to initiate an RNAi response. TcA cells were highly sensitive to minute amounts of dsRNA, with a minimum effective dose of 100?pg/mL resulting in significant suppression of gene expression. We have also developed a plasmid containing two TcA-specific promoters, the promoter from the 40S ribosomal protein subunit (TC006550) and a bi-directional heat shock promoter (TcHS70) from the intergenic space between heat shock proteins 68a and b. These promoters have been employed to provide high levels of either constitutive (TC006550) or inducible (TcHS70) gene expression of the reporter proteins. Our results show that the TcA cell line, with its sensitivity to RNAi and functional TcA-specific promoters, is an invaluable resource for studying basic molecular and physiological questions. PMID:25354547

Silver, Kristopher; Jiang, Hongbo; Fu, Jinping; Phillips, Thomas W.; Beeman, Richard W.; Park, Yoonseong

2014-01-01

32

In folio respiratory fluxomics revealed by 13C isotopic labeling and H/D isotope effects highlight the noncyclic nature of the tricarboxylic acid "cycle" in illuminated leaves.  

PubMed

While the possible importance of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle reactions for leaf photosynthesis operation has been recognized, many uncertainties remain on whether TCA cycle biochemistry is similar in the light compared with the dark. It is widely accepted that leaf day respiration and the metabolic commitment to TCA decarboxylation are down-regulated in illuminated leaves. However, the metabolic basis (i.e. the limiting steps involved in such a down-regulation) is not well known. Here, we investigated the in vivo metabolic fluxes of individual reactions of the TCA cycle by developing two isotopic methods, (13)C tracing and fluxomics and the use of H/D isotope effects, with Xanthium strumarium leaves. We provide evidence that the TCA "cycle" does not work in the forward direction like a proper cycle but, rather, operates in both the reverse and forward directions to produce fumarate and glutamate, respectively. Such a functional division of the cycle plausibly reflects the compromise between two contrasted forces: (1) the feedback inhibition by NADH and ATP on TCA enzymes in the light, and (2) the need to provide pH-buffering organic acids and carbon skeletons for nitrate absorption and assimilation. PMID:19675152

Tcherkez, Guillaume; Mahé, Aline; Gauthier, Paul; Mauve, Caroline; Gout, Elizabeth; Bligny, Richard; Cornic, Gabriel; Hodges, Michael

2009-10-01

33

11/12/13 Chapter 13 -TCA Cycle  

E-print Network

Pantothenic Acid -mercapto-ethylamine -- - - ! #12;11/12/13 3 Lipoic Acid S S CH CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 C O HN CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH N C O H Lys of E2 E2 Lipoic Acid ! The reaction starts on E1 and ends on E3. The long flexible lipoic acid arm carries 2e- from E1 to E3. E1 uses TPP to decarboxylate

O'Neil, Joe

34

Reese/Doering 4/2004 TCA PRECIPITATION  

E-print Network

Reese/Doering 4/2004 TCA PRECIPITATION OVERVIEW This is a standard method for precipitating protein-PAGE). It may also be used to precipitate a very dilute or low abundance sample, in which case a carrier protein

Doering, Tamara

35

Functional interplay between cell cycle and cell phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Cell cycle distribution of adherent cells is typically assessed using flow cytometry, which precludes the measurements of many cell properties and their cycle phase in the same environment. Here we develop and validate a microscopy system to quantitatively analyze the cell-cycle phase of thousands of adherent cells and their associated cell properties simultaneously. This assay demonstrates that population-averaged cell phenotypes can be written as a linear combination of cell-cycle fractions and phase-dependent phenotypes. By perturbing cell cycle through inhibition of cell-cycle regulators or changing nuclear morphology by depletion of structural proteins, our results reveal that cell cycle regulators and structural proteins can significantly interfere with each other’s prima facie functions. This study introduces a high-throughput method to simultaneously measure cell cycle and phenotypes at single-cell resolution, which reveals a complex functional interplay between cell cycle and cell phenotypes. PMID:23319145

Chen, Wei-Chiang; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Phillip, Jude M.; Khatau, Shyam B.; Choi, Jae Min; Dallas, Matthew R.; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Sun, Sean X.; Lee, Jerry S.H.; Hodzic, Didier; Wirtz, Denis

2013-01-01

36

Preliminary Evaluation of Nonlinear Effects on TCA Flutter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of nonlinear aerodynamics, especially at high angles-of-attack with leading-edge separation, on the TCA flutter properties at transonic speeds. In order to achieve that objective, flutter simulations with Navier-Stokes CFD must be performed. To this end, time-marching Navier-Stokes solutions are computed for the TCA wing/body configuration at high angles-of-attack in transonic flight regimes. The approach is to perform non-linear flutter calculations on the TCA at two angles-of-attack, the first one being a case with attached flow (a=2.8 degrees) and the second one being a high angle-of-attack case with a wing leading edge vortex (a=12.11 degrees). Comparisons of the resulting histories and frequency damping information for both angles-of-attack will evaluate the impact of high-alpha aerodynamics on flutter.

Arslan, Alan E.; Hartwich, Peter M.; Baker, Myles L.

1998-01-01

37

In vitro platelet function in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the effects of elevated endogenous E2 levels on in vitro platelet function in patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH).Design: Women with normal ovulatory cycles and patients undergoing COH on cycle day 3 and near ovulation (preovulatory follicles were at least 16 mm in diameter) were studied. Serum E2, Thrombostat 4000, (V. d. Goltz, Seeon, Germany), von Willebrand

Gloria Richard-Davis; Valerie Montgomery-Rice; Eberhard F. Mammen; Rasheed S. Alshameeri; Dorcas Morgan; Kamran S. Moghissi

1997-01-01

38

Cell Cycle-Specific Function of Ikaros in Human Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Background The loss of Ikaros is associated with the development of B and T cell leukemia. Data on Ikaros function, including its role as a tumor suppressor and a regulator of cell cycle progression, come almost exclusively from murine studies; little is known of the mechanisms that regulate human Ikaros function. Our studies are the first to examine the function and regulation of human Ikaros isoforms during the cell cycle in human ALL. Procedures Electromobility shift assay (EMSA), confocal microscopy, and phosphopeptide mapping were used to study Ikaros function during different stages of the cell cycle. Results The DNA-binding activity of human Ikaros complexes undergoes dynamic changes as the cell cycle progresses. In S phase, Ikaros DNA-binding affinity for regulatory regions of its target genes decreases, while its binding to pericentromeric heterochromatin is preserved and correlates with Ikaros pericentromeric localization. These S phase-specific changes in Ikaros function are controlled by phosphorylation via the CK2 kinase pathway. During cell cycle progression, the subcellular pericentromeric localization of the largest human Ikaros isoforms is different from that in mouse cells, suggesting unique functions for human Ikaros. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the function of Ikaros is cell cycle-specific and controlled by CK2-mediated phosphorylation during S phase of the cell cycle in human T-cell and B-cell ALL. The differences we observe in murine and human Ikaros function highlight the importance of using human cells in studies of ALL. These data identify the CK2 pathway as a target for therapies in ALL. PMID:22106042

Li, Zhanjun; Song, Chunhua; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Lai, Liangxue; Payne, Kimberly J.; Dovat, Sinisa

2011-01-01

39

Intellectual Performance as a Function of Repression and Menstrual Cycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance on complex (Space Relations and Verbal Reasoning) and simple (Digit Symbol) tests was investigated as a function of Byrne's Repression-Sensitization (RS) dimension, phase of menstrual cycle and premenstrual-menstrual (PM) symptomatology in a group of females not taking oral contraceptives. Two control groups, consisting of males and…

Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

40

Novel functions of core cell cycle regulators in neuronal migration.  

PubMed

The cerebral cortex is one of the most intricate regions of the brain, which required elaborated cell migration patterns for its development. Experimental observations show that projection neurons migrate radially within the cortical wall, whereas interneurons migrate along multiple tangential paths to reach the developing cortex. Tight regulation of the cell migration processes ensures proper positioning and functional integration of neurons to specific cerebral cortical circuits. Disruption of neuronal migration often lead to cortical dysfunction and/or malformation associated with neurological disorders. Unveiling the molecular control of neuronal migration is thus fundamental to understand the physiological or pathological development of the cerebral cortex. Generation of functional cortical neurons is a complex and stratified process that relies on decision of neural progenitors to leave the cell cycle and generate neurons that migrate and differentiate to reach their final position in the cortical wall. Although accumulating work shed some light on the molecular control of neuronal migration, we currently do not have a comprehensive understanding of how cell cycle exit and migration/differentiation are coordinated at the molecular level. The current chapter tends to lift the veil on this issue by discussing how core cell cycle regulators, and in particular p27(Kip1) acts as a multifunctional protein to control critical steps of neuronal migration through activities that go far beyond cell cycle regulation. PMID:24243100

Godin, Juliette D; Nguyen, Laurent

2014-01-01

41

Oxidation of Silicon in TCA/O 2 Ambients Mitra Navi and Scott T. Dunham  

E-print Network

Oxidation of Silicon in TCA/O 2 Ambients Mitra Navi and Scott T. Dunham Electrical, Computer chlorine incorporation, film growth kinetics and oxidation enhanced diffusion of phosphorus during oxidation in TCA (1,1,1­Trichloroethane)/O 2 ambients. Silicon wafers were oxidized at 900 and 1000 ffi C

Dunham, Scott

42

Destruction of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) using Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP)  

E-print Network

Destruction of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) using Non- Thermal Plasma (NTP) Paper # (42930) Sandeep to determine the feasibility of using non-thermal plasma (NTP) for destruction of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA stationary sources must be monitored and controlled. Non-Thermal Plasma Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is a new

Cal, Mark P.

43

Comparison of CFD Predictions of the TCA Baseline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) comparisons being presented are compared to each other and to wind tunnel (WT) data on the baseline TCA. Some of the CFD computations were done prior to the tests and others later. Only force data (CL vs CD) from CFD will be presented as part of this report. The WT data presented comes from the testing of the baseline TCA in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT), Test Section #2. There are 2 sets of wind tunnel data being presented: one from test 1671 of model 2a (flapped wing) and the other from test 1679 of model 2b (solid wing). Most of the plots show only one run from each of the WT tests per configuration. But many repeat runs were taken during the tests. The WT repeat runs showed an uncertainty in the drag of +/- 0.5 count. There were times when the uncertainty in drag was better, +/- 0.25 count. Test 1671 data was of forces and pressures measured from model 2a. The wing had cutouts for installing various leading and trailing edge flaps at lower Mach numbers. The internal duct of the nacelles are not designed and fabricated as defined in the outer mold lines (OML) iges file. The internal duct was fabricated such that a linear transition occurs from the inlet to exhaust. Whereas, the iges definition has a constant area internal duct that quickly transitions from the inlet to exhaust cross sectional shape. The nacelle internal duct was fabricated, the way described, to save time and money. The variation in the cross sectional area is less than 1% from the iges definition. The nacelles were also installed with and without fairings. Fairings are defined as the build up of the nacelles on the upper wing surface so that the nacelles poke through the upper surface as defined in the OML iges file. Test 1679 data was of forces measured from model 2a and 2b. The wing for model 2b was a solid wing. The nacelles were built the same way as for model 2a, except for the nacelle base pressure installation. The nacelles were only tested with the fairings for model 2a and 2b during test 1679.

Cappuccio, Gelsomina

1999-01-01

44

Preliminary Results of the 1.5% TCA (Modular) Controls Model in the NASA Langley UPWT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To summarize the significant highlights in this report: (1) Data quality, determined by multiple repeat runs performed on the TCA baseline configuration, and long-term repeatability, determined by comparing baseline Reference H data from this test to a previous test, have been shown to be good. (2) The longitudinal stability of the TCA is more non-linear than for the Reference H, and while it is similar at normal lift values, the TCA has considerably more pitch-up at higher lift. (3) Longitudinal control effectiveness of the TCA is similar to the Reference H and the ratio of elevator effectiveness to horizontal tail effectiveness is approximately 0.3. 4) The directional stability of the TCA is improved relative to Reference H at higher angles-of attack. The chine is effective for improving directional stability. (5) The directional control effectiveness 'of the TCA rudder is the same as that of the Reference H rudder at low angles-of-attack, after taking factors, such as number of rudder panels deflected and vertical tail volume into account. However, rudder effectiveness was shown to be reduced at higher angles-of-attack. (6) The lateral stability was shown to be reduced relative to the Reference H, which may be beneficial at low speeds for alleviating lateral control saturation. (7) Lateral control effectiveness for the TCA was shown to be similar to the Reference H for negative trailing-edge flap deflections and was reduced by approximately 25% for positive trailing-edge flap deflections.

Kubiatko, Paul; McMillin, Naomi; Cameron, Douglas C.

1999-01-01

45

Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle-Dependent Attenuation of Staphylococcus aureus In Vivo Virulence by Selective Inhibition of Amino Acid Transport?  

PubMed Central

Staphylococci are the leading causes of endovascular infections worldwide. Commonly, these infections involve the formation of biofilms on the surface of biomaterials. Biofilms are a complex aggregation of bacteria commonly encapsulated by an adhesive exopolysaccharide matrix. In staphylococci, this exopolysaccharide matrix is composed of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA). PIA is synthesized when the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is repressed. The inverse correlation between PIA synthesis and TCA cycle activity led us to hypothesize that increasing TCA cycle activity would decrease PIA synthesis and biofilm formation and reduce virulence in a rabbit catheter-induced model of biofilm infection. TCA cycle activity can be induced by preventing staphylococci from exogenously acquiring a TCA cycle-derived amino acid necessary for growth. To determine if TCA cycle induction would decrease PIA synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus, the glutamine permease gene (glnP) was inactivated and TCA cycle activity, PIA accumulation, biofilm forming ability, and virulence in an experimental catheter-induced endovascular biofilm (endocarditis) model were determined. Inactivation of this major glutamine transporter increased TCA cycle activity, transiently decreased PIA synthesis, and significantly reduced in vivo virulence in the endocarditis model in terms of achievable bacterial densities in biofilm-associated cardiac vegetations, kidneys, and spleen. These data confirm the close linkage of TCA cycle activity and virulence factor production and establish that this metabolic linkage can be manipulated to alter infectious outcomes. PMID:19667045

Zhu, Yefei; Xiong, Yan Q.; Sadykov, Marat R.; Fey, Paul D.; Lei, Mei G.; Lee, Chia Y.; Bayer, Arnold S.; Somerville, Greg A.

2009-01-01

46

Development of a cellular biosensor for the detection of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA).  

PubMed

2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) is a microbial metabolite formed from chlorophenols through the activity of several natural fungal strains present on the cork oak bark. TCA is the primary compound responsible for the mousty/mould off-odour known as "cork taint" present in cork stoppers, wine, water and alcoholic beverages. Chromatographic and electrochemical methods are currently used for the determination of TCA, however its detection at low concentrations remains a technical challenge. The aim of this study was the development of a rapid novel biosensor system based on the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA). The sensor measured the electric response of cultured membrane-engineered fibroblast cells suspended in an alginate gel matrix due to the change of their membrane potential in the presence of the analyte. Membrane-engineered cells were prepared by osmotic insertion of 0.5 ?g/l of specific TCA antibodies into the membrane of the cells. The BERA-based sensor was able to detect TCA in a few minutes (3-5 min) at extremely low concentrations (10(-1)ppt), thus demonstrating higher sensitivity than the human sensory threshold. In addition, the assay was quite selective against other haloanisoles and halophenols structurally related to or co-occurring with TCA. Finally the sensor was tested against real white wine samples from cork soaks. At this real test, the BERA sensor was able to detect TCA from cork soaks rapidly (3-5 min) at very low concentrations (1.02-12 ng/l), covering the whole range for the detection threshold for wines (1.4-10 ng/l). Therefore, this novel biosensor offers new perspectives for ultra-rapid, ultra-sensitive and low-cost monitoring of TCA presence in cork and wine and possibly also other food commodities. PMID:21482306

Varelas, Vassileios; Sanvicens, Nuria; M-Pilar-Marco; Kintzios, Spiridon

2011-05-15

47

Induction of PDGF-B in TCA-treated epidermal keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is one of the most widely used peeling agents, and induces full necrosis of the whole epidermis,\\u000a followed by reconstitution of the epidermis and the matrix of the papillary dermis. The cytotoxic effects of TCA, such as\\u000a suppressing proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts and protein synthesis by fibroblasts, have already been reported.\\u000a However, the entire biological mechanism

Nozomi Yonei; Nobuo Kanazawa; Toshio Ohtani; Fukumi Furukawa; Yuki Yamamoto

2007-01-01

48

TcaR-ssDNA complex crystal structure reveals new DNA binding mechanism of the MarR family proteins  

PubMed Central

The teicoplanin-associated locus regulator (TcaR) regulates gene expression of proteins on the intercellular adhesion (ica) locus involved in staphylococci poly-N-acetylglucosamine biosynthesis. The absence of TcaR increases poly-N-acetylglucosamine production and promotes biofilm formation. Until recently, the mechanism of multiple antibiotic resistance regulator family protein members, such as TcaR, was restricted to binding double-stranded DNA. However, we recently found that TcaR strongly interacts with single-stranded DNA, which is a new role for this family of proteins. In this study, we report Staphylococcus epidermidis TcaR–single-stranded DNA complex structures. Our model suggests that TcaR and single-stranded DNA form a 61-symmetry polymer composed of TcaR dimers with single-stranded DNA that wraps outside the polymer and 12 nt per TcaR dimer. Single-stranded DNA binding to TcaR involves a large conformational change at the DNA binding lobe. Several point mutations involving the single-stranded DNA binding surface validate interactions between single-stranded DNA and TcaR. Our results extend the novel role of multiple antibiotic resistance regulator family proteins in staphylococci. PMID:24531929

Chang, Yu-Ming; Ho, Chun-Han; Chen, Cammy K.-M.; Maestre-Reyna, Manuel; Chang-Chien, Masatoshi Weiting; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

2014-01-01

49

Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma  

PubMed Central

Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma. PMID:23130283

Puri, Neerja

2012-01-01

50

Functional genomic analysis of potato tuber life-cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Potato tuber life-cycle is composed of many individual developmental stages including tuber formation, tuber development,\\u000a dormancy and sprouting. We have used cDNA-AFLP fingerprinting to analyse gene expression in 24 individual stages of development,\\u000a over the period from stolon formation through sprouting. In addition to these developmental stages, different tissues were\\u000a analysed to assess tissue specificity and various controls were incorporated

Christian Bachem; Rutger van der Hoeven; Joost Lucker; Ronald Oomen; Emanuela Casarini; Evert Jacobsen; Richard Visser

2000-01-01

51

On limit cycles and the describing function method in periodically switched circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines existence, uniqueness, and stability of limit cycles in periodically switched circuits. The motivation comes from the field of power electronics where switched circuit models composed of passive elements, independent sources, and ideal switches are studied. The paper then studies the describing function method for computation of limit cycles in these switched circuits. Typical power circuit models have nonlinear elements

Seth R. Sanders

1993-01-01

52

Evaluation of Functional Electrical Stimulation to Assist Cycling in Four Adolescents with Spastic Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) often have difficulty participating in exercise at intensities necessary to improve cardiovascular fitness. Functional electrical stimulation- (FES-) assisted cycling is proposed as a form of exercise for adolescents with CP. The aims of this paper were to adapt methods and assess the feasibility of applying FES cycling technology in adolescents with CP, determine methods of performing cycling tests in adolescents with CP, and evaluate the immediate effects of FES assistance on cycling performance. Materials/Methods. Four participants (12–14 years old; GMFCS levels III-IV) participated in a case-based pilot study of FES-assisted cycling in which bilateral quadriceps muscles were activated using surface electrodes. Cycling cadence, power output, and heart rate were collected. Results. FES-assisted cycling was well tolerated (n = 4) and cases are presented demonstrating increased cadence (2–43?rpm), power output (19–70%), and heart rates (4-5%) and decreased variability (8–13%) in cycling performance when FES was applied, compared to volitional cycling without FES assistance. Some participants (n = 2) required the use of an auxiliary hub motor for assistance. Conclusions. FES-assisted cycling is feasible for individuals with CP and may lead to immediate improvements in cycling performance. Future work will examine the potential for long-term fitness gains using this intervention. PMID:22685479

Harrington, Ann Tokay; McRae, Calum G. A.; Lee, Samuel C. K.

2012-01-01

53

Alternative Functions of Core Cell Cycle Regulators in Neuronal Migration, Neuronal Maturation, and Synaptic Plasticity  

E-print Network

Recent studies have demonstrated that boundaries separating a cycling cell from a postmitotic neuron are not as concrete as expected. Novel and unique physiological functions in neurons have been ascribed for proteins ...

Frank, Christopher Lee

54

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) mixture toxicity to the macrophytes Myriophyllum spicatum and Myriophyllum sibiricum in aquatic microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) have been detected together in environmental water samples throughout the world. TCA may enter into aquatic systems via rainout as the degradation product of chlorinated solvents, herbicide use, as a by-product of water disinfection and from emissions of spent bleach liquor of kraft pulp mills. Sources of TFA include degradation of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

Mark L. Hanson; Paul K. Sibley; Scott A. Mabury; Keith R. Solomon; Derek C. G. Muir

2002-01-01

55

Impact of polyphenol antioxidants on cycling performance and cardiovascular function.  

PubMed

This investigation sought to determine if supplementation with polyphenol antioxidant (PA) improves exercise performance in the heat (31.5 °C, 55% RH) by altering the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise. Twelve endurance trained athletes ingested PA or placebo (PLAC) for 7 days. Consecutive days of exercise testing were performed at the end of the supplementation periods. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory measures were made during exercise. Performance, as measured by a 10 min time trial (TT) following 50 min of moderate intensity cycling, was not different between treatments (PLAC: 292 ± 33 W and PA: 279 ± 38 W, p = 0.12). Gross efficiency, blood lactate, maximal neuromuscular power, and ratings of perceived exertion were also not different between treatments. Similarly, performance on the second day of testing, as assessed by time to fatigue at maximal oxygen consumption, was not different between treatments (PLAC; 377 ± 117 s vs. PA; 364 ± 128 s, p = 0.61). Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise were not different between treatments on either day of exercise testing. Polyphenol antioxidant supplementation had no impact on exercise performance and did not alter the cardiovascular or thermoregulatory responses to exercise in the heat. PMID:24667134

Trinity, Joel D; Pahnke, Matthew D; Trombold, Justin R; Coyle, Edward F

2014-01-01

56

Menstrual Cycle-Related Changes of Functional Cerebral Asymmetries in Fine Motor Coordination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fluctuating sex hormone levels during the menstrual cycle have been shown to affect functional cerebral asymmetries in cognitive domains. These effects seem to result from the neuromodulatory properties of sex hormones and their metabolites on interhemispheric processing. The present study was carried out to investigate whether functional cerebral…

Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

2012-01-01

57

Alternative functions of core cell cycle regulators in neuronal migration, neuronal maturation, and synaptic plasticity  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated that boundaries separating a cycling cell from a post-mitotic neuron are not as concrete as expected. Novel and unique physiological functions in neurons have been ascribed for proteins fundamentally required for cell cycle progression and control. These “core” cell cycle regulators serve diverse post-mitotic functions that span various developmental stages of a neuron, including neuronal migration, axonal elongation, axon pruning, dendrite morphogenesis, and synaptic maturation and plasticity. In this review, we detail the non-proliferative post-mitotic roles that these cell cycle proteins have recently been reported to play, the significance of their expression in neurons, mechanistic insight when available, and future prospects. PMID:19447088

Frank, Christopher L.; Tsai, Li-Huei

2009-01-01

58

Molecular structure and spectral properties of ethyl 3-quinolinecarboxylate (E3Q) and [Ag(E3Q)2(TCA)] complex (TCA=Trichloroacetate).  

PubMed

A new [Ag(E3Q)2(TCA)] complex; (E3Q=Ethyl 3-quinolinecarboxylate and TCA=Trichloroacetate) has been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, FTIR, NMR and mass spectroscopy. The molecular geometry and spectroscopic properties of the complex as well as the free ligand have been calculated using the hybrid B3LYP method. The calculations predicted a distorted tetrahedral arrangement around Ag(I) ion. The vibrational spectra of the studied compounds have been assigned using potential energy distribution (PED). TD-DFT method was used to predict the electronic absorption spectra. The most intense absorption band showed a bathochromic shift and lowering of intensity in case of the complex (233.7 nm, f=0.5604) compared to E3Q (?max=228.0 nm, f=0.9072). The calculated (1)H NMR chemical shifts using GIAO method showed good correlations with the experimental data. The computed dipole moment, polarizability and HOMO-LUMO energy gap were used to predict the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. It is found that Ag(I) enhances the NLO activity. The natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses were used to elucidate the intramolecular charge transfer interactions causing stabilization for the investigated systems. PMID:24813274

Soliman, Saied M; Kassem, Taher S; Badr, Ahmed M A; Abou Youssef, Morsy A; Assem, Rania

2014-09-15

59

The multiple hats of Vasa function and its regulation of cell cycle progression  

PubMed Central

Summary Vasa, an ATP-dependent RNA helicase, is broadly conserved among various organisms from cnidarians to mammals. It has a rich history of utility as a germline marker, and is believed to function as a positive translational regulator in the determination and maintenance of germline cells. Studies in non-model organisms, however, revealed that Vasa is also present in somatic cells of many tissues. In many cases these cells are multipotent, are non-germline associated, and give rise to a variety of different tissue types. Recent work now also demonstrates that Vasa functions in the regulation of the cell cycle. Here we discuss this newly described function of Vasa in mitotic and meiotic cell cycles, and we address the conundrum created within these observations, that is, that most cells are mitotically independent of Vasa, yet when Vasa is present in a cell, it appears to be essential for cell cycle progression. PMID:21823188

Yajima, Mamiko; Wessel, Gary M.

2011-01-01

60

Superior cardiac function via anaplerotic pyruvate in the immature swine heart after cardiopulmonary bypass and reperfusion  

PubMed Central

Pyruvate produces inotropic responses in the adult reperfused heart. Pyruvate oxidation and anaplerotic entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via carboxylation are linked to the stimulation of contractile function. The goals of this study were to determine if these metabolic pathways operate and are maintained in the developing myocardium after reperfusion. Immature male swine (age: 10–18 days) were subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Intracoronary infusion of [2-13C]pyruvate (to achieve an estimated final concentration of 8 mM) was given for 35 min, starting either during weaning (group I) and after its discontinuation (group II) or without (control) CPB. Hemodynamic data were collected. 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the fraction of pyruvate entering the TCA cycle via pyruvate carboxylation (PC) to total TCA cycle entry (PC plus decarboxlyation via pyruvate dehydrogenase). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine total glutamate enrichment. Pyruvate infusion starting during the weaning of mechanical circulatory support improved maximum dP/dt (P < 0.05) but waiting to start the infusion until after the discontinuation of CPB did not. Glutamate fractional enrichment was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy as adequate (>5%) to provide signal to noise in the NMR experiment in all groups. The ratio of pyruvate carboxylase to total pyruvate entry into the TCA cycle did not differ between groups (group I: 20 ± 4%, group II: 23 ± 7%, and control: 27 ± 7%). These data show that robust PC operates in the neonatal pig heart and is maintained during reperfusion under conditions that emulate CPB and reperfusion in human infants. PMID:18849332

Olson, Aaron K.; Hyyti, Outi M.; Cohen, Gordon A.; Ning, Xue-Han; Sadilek, Martin; Isern, Nancy; Portman, Michael A.

2008-01-01

61

In vivo detection of brain Krebs cycle intermediate by hyperpolarized magnetic resonance  

PubMed Central

The Krebs (or tricarboxylic acid (TCA)) cycle has a central role in the regulation of brain energy regulation and metabolism, yet brain TCA cycle intermediates have never been directly detected in vivo. This study reports the first direct in vivo observation of a TCA cycle intermediate in intact brain, namely, 2-oxoglutarate, a key biomolecule connecting metabolism to neuronal activity. Our observation reveals important information about in vivo biochemical processes hitherto considered undetectable. In particular, it provides direct evidence that transport across the inner mitochondria membrane is rate limiting in the brain. The hyperpolarized magnetic resonance protocol designed for this study opens the way to direct and real-time studies of TCA cycle kinetics. PMID:22990416

Mishkovsky, Mor; Comment, Arnaud; Gruetter, Rolf

2012-01-01

62

An Exploratory Study of Cardiac Function and Oxygen Uptake During Cycle Ergometry in Overweight Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Obesity has been proposed to negatively impact cardiac function in overweight (OW) individuals. The relationship between diastolic dysfunction and oxygen uptake ([Vdot ]O2) kinetics is equivocal. This exploratory investigation evaluated the relationship between resting left ventricular function and [Vdot ]O2 kinetics during cycle ergometry in OW and non-overweight (NO) children and adolescents.Research Methods and Procedures: Fourteen OW (>85 percentile

Viswanath B. Unnithan; Tracy Baynard; Christopher R. Potter; Piers Barker; Kevin S. Heffernan; Erin Kelly; Greg Yates; Bo Fernhall

2007-01-01

63

Sexual dimorphism in immune function changes during the annual cycle in house sparrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difference between sexes in parasitism is a common phenomenon among birds, which may be related to differences between males and females in their investment into immune functions or as a consequence of differential exposure to parasites. Because life-history strategies change sex specifically during the annual cycle, immunological responses of the host aiming to reduce the impact of parasites may be

Péter László Pap; Gábor Árpád Czirják; Csongor István Vágási; Zoltán Barta; Dennis Hasselquist

2010-01-01

64

CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water and Menstrual Cycle Function Gayle C. Windham1, Kirsten Waller2, Meredith Anderson2, Laura Fenster1, Pauline Mendola3, Shanna Swan4 1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environmental and Occupational Disea...

65

Site-selective hexa-hetero-functionalization of ?-cyclodextrin an archetypical C6-symmetric concave cycle.  

PubMed

Access to Cn (n>4) symmetric cyclic concave molecules with a different function on each of their n subunits is an unmet challenge. The reason lies in the lack of a post-functionalization method whose site selectivity is sufficiently understood, predictable and modulable to access most functionalization patterns. Here we disclose a new site-directing rule for a debenzylation reaction on cyclodextrins that solves this problem and allows the unprecedented access to penta- and ultimately hexa-differentiations of such C6 concave cycles. This achievement opens the access to objects with very high-density information. PMID:25382259

Wang, Bo; Zaborova, Elena; Guieu, Samuel; Petrillo, Marta; Guitet, Maxime; Blériot, Yves; Ménand, Mickaël; Zhang, Yongmin; Sollogoub, Matthieu

2014-01-01

66

Effect of RF heating on edge parameters in the TCA tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed scrape-off measurements during Alfvén wave heating experiments (PRF ~ 200 kW) in TCA are presented. The Measurements are performed by means of electrical probes and by deposition probes fixed onto the antennae. It is shown that different antenna designs strongly influence the behaviour of the boundary plasma. Even during low power RF heating experiments is it found that the plasma-antenna interaction leads to a non-Maxwellian plasma. Low frequency density fluctuations are associated with changes of the density and temperature profiles during RF. High frequency fluctuations at the driving frequency and their harmonics are observed.

de Chambrier, A.; Collins, G. A.; Duperrex, P.-A.; Heym, A.; Hofmann, F.; Hollenstein, Ch.; Joye, B.; Keller, R.; Lietti, A.; Lister, J. B.; Marcus, F. B.; Moret, J.-M.; Nowak, S.; Pochelon, A.; Simm, W.; Vep?ek, S.

1984-12-01

67

[Construction and fermentation control of reductive TCA pathway for malic acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].  

PubMed

Malic acid is widely used in food, and chemical industries. Through overexpressing pyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase in pdc1-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae, malic acid was successfully produced through the reductive TCA pathway. No malic acid was detected in wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae, however, 45 mmol/L malic acid was produced in engineered strain, and the concentration of byproduct ethanol also reduced by 18%. The production of malic acid enhanced 6% by increasing the concentration of Ca2+. In addition, the final concentration reached 52.5 mmol/L malic acid by addition of biotin. The increasing is almost 16% higher than that of the original strain. PMID:24432663

Yan, Daojiang; Wang, Caixia; Zhou, Jiemin; Liu, Yilan; Yang, Maohua; Xing, Jianmin

2013-10-01

68

Gene expression signatures but not cell cycle checkpoint functions distinguish AT carriers from normal individuals  

PubMed Central

Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated gene (ATM). AT carriers with one mutant ATM allele are usually not severely affected although they carry an increased risk of developing cancer. There has not been an easy and reliable diagnostic method to identify AT carriers. Cell cycle checkpoint functions upon ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage and gene expression signatures were analyzed in the current study to test for differential responses in human lymphoblastoid cell lines with different ATM genotypes. While both dose- and time-dependent G1 and G2 checkpoint functions were highly attenuated in ATM?/? cell lines, these functions were preserved in ATM+/? cell lines equivalent to ATM+/+ cell lines. However, gene expression signatures at both baseline (consisting of 203 probes) and post-IR treatment (consisting of 126 probes) were able to distinguish ATM+/? cell lines from ATM+/+ and ATM?/? cell lines. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis of the genes in the baseline signature indicate that ATM function-related categories, DNA metabolism, cell cycle, cell death control, and the p53 signaling pathway, were overrepresented. The same analyses of the genes in the IR-responsive signature revealed that biological categories including response to DNA damage stimulus, p53 signaling, and cell cycle pathways were overrepresented, which again confirmed involvement of ATM functions. The results indicate that AT carriers who have unaffected G1 and G2 checkpoint functions can be distinguished from normal individuals and AT patients by expression signatures of genes related to ATM functions. PMID:23943852

Zhang, Liwen; Simpson, Dennis A.; Innes, Cynthia L.; Chou, Jeff; Bushel, Pierre R.; Paules, Richard S.; Kaufmann, William K.

2013-01-01

69

Essential functions of iron-requiring proteins in DNA replication, repair and cell cycle control.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic cells contain numerous iron-requiring proteins such as iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster proteins, hemoproteins and ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs). These proteins utilize iron as a cofactor and perform key roles in DNA replication, DNA repair, metabolic catalysis, iron regulation and cell cycle progression. Disruption of iron homeostasis always impairs the functions of these iron-requiring proteins and is genetically associated with diseases characterized by DNA repair defects in mammals. Organisms have evolved multi-layered mechanisms to regulate iron balance to ensure genome stability and cell development. This review briefly provides current perspectives on iron homeostasis in yeast and mammals, and mainly summarizes the most recent understandings on iron-requiring protein functions involved in DNA stability maintenance and cell cycle control. PMID:25000876

Zhang, Caiguo

2014-10-01

70

Sexual dimorphism in immune function changes during the annual cycle in house sparrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difference between sexes in parasitism is a common phenomenon among birds, which may be related to differences between males\\u000a and females in their investment into immune functions or as a consequence of differential exposure to parasites. Because life-history\\u000a strategies change sex specifically during the annual cycle, immunological responses of the host aiming to reduce the impact\\u000a of parasites may be

Péter László Pap; Gábor Árpád Czirják; Csongor István Vágási; Zoltán Barta; Dennis Hasselquist

2010-01-01

71

Alterations in neuromuscular function and perceptual responses following acute eccentric cycling exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous investigators have reported velocity-dependent strength loss for single-joint actions following acute eccentric exercise.\\u000a The extent to which velocity influences recovery of multi-joint function is not well documented. Our main purpose was to compare\\u000a alterations in maximal cycling power produced across a range of pedaling rates following eccentric exercise. An additional\\u000a purpose was to determine the extent to which changes

Steven J. Elmer; John McDaniel; James C. Martin

2010-01-01

72

Connecting the Bethe entropy and the edge zeta function of a cycle code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let the induced Bethe entropy of a pseudo-codeword be the Bethe entropy of the pseudo-marginal that, among all pseudo-marginals that correspond to this pseudo-codeword, has the maximal Bethe entropy. The aim of the present paper is to discuss a connection between the induced Bethe entropy of a cycle code and the edge zeta function of the same code. Namely, we

Pascal O. Vontobel

2010-01-01

73

Integrative Functional Genomics of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Identifies Host Dependencies in Complete Viral Replication Cycle  

PubMed Central

Recent functional genomics studies including genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens demonstrated that hepatitis C virus (HCV) exploits an extensive network of host factors for productive infection and propagation. How these co-opted host functions interact with various steps of HCV replication cycle and exert pro- or antiviral effects on HCV infection remains largely undefined. Here we present an unbiased and systematic strategy to functionally interrogate HCV host dependencies uncovered from our previous infectious HCV (HCVcc) siRNA screen. Applying functional genomics approaches and various in vitro HCV model systems, including HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp), single-cycle infectious particles (HCVsc), subgenomic replicons, and HCV cell culture systems (HCVcc), we identified and characterized novel host factors or pathways required for each individual step of the HCV replication cycle. Particularly, we uncovered multiple HCV entry factors, including E-cadherin, choline kinase ?, NADPH oxidase CYBA, Rho GTPase RAC1 and SMAD family member 6. We also demonstrated that guanine nucleotide binding protein GNB2L1, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2J1, and 39 other host factors are required for HCV RNA replication, while the deubiquitinating enzyme USP11 and multiple other cellular genes are specifically involved in HCV IRES-mediated translation. Families of antiviral factors that target HCV replication or translation were also identified. In addition, various virologic assays validated that 66 host factors are involved in HCV assembly or secretion. These genes included insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a proviral factor, and N-Myc down regulated Gene 1 (NDRG1), an antiviral factor. Bioinformatics meta-analyses of our results integrated with literature mining of previously published HCV host factors allows the construction of an extensive roadmap of cellular networks and pathways involved in the complete HCV replication cycle. This comprehensive study of HCV host dependencies yields novel insights into viral infection, pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24852294

Li, Qisheng; Zhang, Yong-Yuan; Chiu, Stephan; Hu, Zongyi; Lan, Keng-Hsin; Cha, Helen; Sodroski, Catherine; Zhang, Fang; Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Thomas, Emmanuel; Liang, T. Jake

2014-01-01

74

Topology of modified helical gears and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contents of this report covers: (1) development of optimal geometries for crowned helical gears; (2) a method for their generation; (3) tooth contact analysis (TCA) computer programs for the analysis of meshing and bearing contact of the crowned helical gears; and (4) modelling and simulation of gear shaft deflection. The developed method for synthesis was used to determine the optimal geometry for a crowned helical pinion surface and was directed to localize the bearing contact and guarantee favorable shape and a low level of transmission errors. Two new methods for generation of the crowned helical pinion surface are proposed. One is based on the application of a tool with a surface of revolution that slightly deviates from a regular cone surface. The tool can be used as a grinding wheel or as a shaver. The other is based on a crowning pinion tooth surface with predesigned transmission errors. The pinion tooth surface can be generated by a computer-controlled automatic grinding machine. The TCA program simulates the meshing and bearing contact of the misaligned gears. The transmission errors are also determined. The gear shaft deformation was modelled and investigated. It was found that the deflection of gear shafts has the same effect as gear misalignment.

Litvin, Faydor L.; Zhang, Jiao

1989-01-01

75

Spur gears: Optimal geometry, methods for generation and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contents of this report include the following: (1) development of optimal geometry for crowned spur gears; (2) methods for their generation; and (3) tooth contact analysis (TCA) computer programs for the analysis of meshing and bearing contact on the crowned spur gears. The method developed for synthesis is used for the determination of the optimal geometry for crowned pinion surface and is directed to reduce the sensitivity of the gears to misalignment, localize the bearing contact, and guarantee the favorable shape and low level of the transmission errors. A new method for the generation of the crowned pinion surface has been proposed. This method is based on application of the tool with a surface of revolution that slightly deviates from a regular cone surface. The tool can be used as a grinding wheel or as a shaver. The crowned pinion surface can also be generated by a generating plane whose motion is provided by an automatic grinding machine controlled by a computer. The TCA program simulates the meshing and bearing contact of the misaligned gears. The transmission errors are also determined.

Litvin, Faydor L.; Zhang, Jiao

1988-01-01

76

Sexual dimorphism in immune function changes during the annual cycle in house sparrows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Difference between sexes in parasitism is a common phenomenon among birds, which may be related to differences between males and females in their investment into immune functions or as a consequence of differential exposure to parasites. Because life-history strategies change sex specifically during the annual cycle, immunological responses of the host aiming to reduce the impact of parasites may be sexually dimorphic. Despite the great complexity of the immune system, studies on immunoecology generally characterise the immune status through a few variables, often overlooking potentially important seasonal and gender effects. However, because of the differences in physiological and defence mechanisms among different arms of the immune system, we expect divergent responses of immune components to environmental seasonality. In male and female house sparrows ( Passer domesticus), we measured the major components of the immune system (innate, acquired, cellular and humoral) during four important life-history stages across the year: (1) mating, (2) breeding, (3) moulting and (4) during the winter capture and also following introduction to captivity in aviary. Different individuals were sampled from the same population during the four life cycle stages. We found that three out of eight immune variables showed a significant life cycle stage × sex interaction. The difference in immune response between the sexes was significant in five immune variables during the mating stage, when females had consistently stronger immune function than males, while variables varied generally non-significantly with sex during the remaining three life cycle stages. Our results show that the immune system is highly variable between life cycle stages and sexes, highlighting the potential fine tuning of the immune system to specific physiological states and environmental conditions.

Pap, Péter László; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Vágási, Csongor István; Barta, Zoltán; Hasselquist, Dennis

2010-10-01

77

Four weeks of functional electrical stimulated cycling after spinal cord injury: a clinical cohort study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and the effects of functional electrical stimulated cycling (FES cycling) in patients with spinal cord injury during their rehabilitation in a special acute care unit. Thirty patients [10 with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade A, three with AIS grade B, 15 with AIS grade C, two with AIS grade D] aged 44±15.5 years and 2 (median) (interquartile range, 1.0-4.25) months after spinal cord injury were included in the study. The patients participated in a 20-min FES-cycling program 2 days per week for 4 weeks during their acute inpatient rehabilitation. The influence on muscle cross-section, muscle and leg circumference, spasticity, and the walking ability parameter (distance, time, aids) was measured. Muscle stimulation intensity and output parameters (pedalling time and distance) were also recorded. Spasticity decreased during hip abduction and adduction (70 and 98.1%, respectively). Spasticity during knee flexion and knee extension decreased by 66.8 and 76.6%, and a decrease was found during dorsal foot extension (67.8%; for all, P<0.05). Presession-postsession comparisons showed that after 4 weeks of FES cycling, an increase in the circumference of the cross-sectional area of 15.3% on the left and of 17% on the right m. rectus femoris could be observed in group AIS A+B. In the AIS C+D group, the circumference of the left m. rectus femoris increased by 25% and that of the right m. rectus femoris by 21% (for all, P<0.05). The results of the study show that FES cycling in combination with function-oriented physiotherapy and occupational therapy can have a positive influence on spasticity, walking ability, and muscular reactivation. It seems to support circulatory processes within the rehabilitation of paraplegics already after a 4-week intervention. PMID:24802976

Kuhn, Daniel; Leichtfried, Veronika; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

2014-09-01

78

Seat Pressure Changes after Eight Weeks of Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a common secondary condition associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). PUs can potentially interfere with activities of daily living, occupational duties, and rehabilitation programs, and in severe cases they may threaten life. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling has been proposed as an activity that may decrease the risk of PUs through the promotion of increased blood flow and thickening of the gluteus maximus. The purpose of this pilot study was to measure the effects of home-based FES cycling on the average and maximal seat pressure of wheelchair-reliant individuals with SCI. Method: Eight male veterans with C5-T6 SCI participated in FES cycling 3 times per week. Cycling parameters were individualized depending on the comfort of the participants and the amount of current needed to perform the cycling activity. Pressure mapping was completed immediately before and after the 8 weeks of FES cycling with the measurement performed by a force sensitive application (FSA) 4 pressure mapping system. Results: The mean average seat pressure decreased by 3.69 ± 4.46 mm Hg (35.57 ± 11.99 to 31.88 ± 13.02), while the mean maximum seat pressure decreased by 14.56 ±18.45 mm Hg (112 ± 34.73 to 98.36 ± 25.89). Although neither measurement was statistically significant, there was a strong trend toward a reduction in average and maximal seat pressure (P = .052 and P = .061, respectively). Conclusion: The positive trend of decreased seat pressure in our study creates incentive for further investigation of the effects of electrical stimulation activities on seat pressure and the prevention of PUs. PMID:23960706

2013-01-01

79

Force-velocity relationship and stretch-shortening cycle function in sprint and endurance athletes.  

PubMed

This study examined the torque-velocity and power-velocity relationships of quadriceps muscle function, stretch shortening cycle function, and leg-spring stiffness in sprint and endurance athletes. Isokinetic maximal knee extension torque was obtained from 7 sprinters and 7 endurance athletes using a Con-trex isokinetic dynamometer. Torque and power measures were corrected for lean-thigh cross-sectional area and lean-thigh volume, respectively. Stretch-shortening cycle function and muscle stiffness measurements were obtained while subjects performed single-legged squat, countermovement, and drop-rebound jumps on an inclined sledge and force-plate apparatus. The results indicated that sprinters generated, on average, 0.15 +/- 0.05 N.m.cm(-2) more torque across all velocities compared with endurance athletes. Significant differences were also found in the power-velocity relationships between the 2 groups. The sprinters performed significantly better than the endurance athletes on all jumps, but there were no differences in prestretch augmentation between the groups. The average vertical leg stiffness during drop jumps was significantly higher for sprinters (5.86 N.m(-1)) compared with endurance runners (3.38 N.m(-1)). The findings reinforce the need for power training to be carried out at fast contraction speeds but also show that SSC function remains important in endurance running. PMID:15320647

Harrison, Andrew J; Keane, Sean P; Coglan, John

2004-08-01

80

Computational estimation of tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes using noisy NMR data from cardiac biopsies  

PubMed Central

Background The aerobic energy metabolism of cardiac muscle cells is of major importance for the contractile function of the heart. Because energy metabolism is very heterogeneously distributed in heart tissue, especially during coronary disease, a method to quantify metabolic fluxes in small tissue samples is desirable. Taking tissue biopsies after infusion of substrates labeled with stable carbon isotopes makes this possible in animal experiments. However, the appreciable noise level in NMR spectra of extracted tissue samples makes computational estimation of metabolic fluxes challenging and a good method to define confidence regions was not yet available. Results Here we present a computational analysis method for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites. The method was validated using measurements on extracts of single tissue biopsies taken from porcine heart in vivo. Isotopic enrichment of glutamate was measured by NMR spectroscopy in tissue samples taken at a single time point after the timed infusion of 13C labeled substrates for the TCA cycle. The NMR intensities for glutamate were analyzed with a computational model describing carbon transitions in the TCA cycle and carbon exchange with amino acids. The model dynamics depended on five flux parameters, which were optimized to fit the NMR measurements. To determine confidence regions for the estimated fluxes, we used the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm for Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling to generate extensive ensembles of feasible flux combinations that describe the data within measurement precision limits. To validate our method, we compared myocardial oxygen consumption calculated from the TCA cycle flux with in vivo blood gas measurements for 38 hearts under several experimental conditions, e.g. during coronary artery narrowing. Conclusions Despite the appreciable NMR noise level, the oxygen consumption in the tissue samples, estimated from the NMR spectra, correlates with blood-gas oxygen uptake measurements for the whole heart. The MCMC method provides confidence regions for the estimated metabolic fluxes in single cardiac biopsies, taking the quantified measurement noise level and the nonlinear dependencies between parameters fully into account. PMID:23965343

2013-01-01

81

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) mixture toxicity to the macrophytes Myriophyllum spicatum and Myriophyllum sibiricum in aquatic microcosms.  

PubMed

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) have been detected together in environmental water samples throughout the world. TCA may enter into aquatic systems via rainout as the degradation product of chlorinated solvents, herbicide use, as a by-product of water disinfection and from emissions of spent bleach liquor of kraft pulp mills. Sources of TFA include degradation of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) refrigerants and pesticides. These substances are phytotoxic and widely distributed in aquatic environments. A study to assess the risk of a binary mixture of TCA and TFA to macrophytes in aquatic microcosms was conducted as part of a larger study on haloacetic acids. M. spicatum and M. sibiricum were exposed to 0.1, 1, 3 and 10 mg/l of both TCA and TFA (neutralized with sodium hydroxide) in replicate (n = 3) 12000 l aquatic microcosms for 49 days in an one-way analysis of variance design. Each microcosm was stocked with 14 individual apical shoots per species. The plants were sampled at regular intervals and assessed for the somatic endpoints of plant length, root growth, number of nodes and wet and dry mass and the biochemical endpoints of chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, carotenoid content and citric acid levels. Results indicate that there were statistically significant effects of the TCA/TFA mixture on certain pigment concentrations immediately after the start of exposure (2-7 days), but the plants showed no signs of stress thereafter. These data suggest that TCA/TFA mixtures at environmentally relevant concentrations do not pose a significant risk to these aquatic macrophytes. PMID:11878273

Hanson, Mark L; Sibley, Paul K; Mabury, Scott A; Solomon, Keith R; Muir, Derek C G

2002-02-21

82

Modeling the High Speed Research Cycle 2B Longitudinal Aerodynamic Database Using Multivariate Orthogonal Functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data for longitudinal non-dimensional, aerodynamic coefficients in the High Speed Research Cycle 2B aerodynamic database were modeled using polynomial expressions identified with an orthogonal function modeling technique. The discrepancy between the tabular aerodynamic data and the polynomial models was tested and shown to be less than 15 percent for drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients over the entire flight envelope. Most of this discrepancy was traced to smoothing local measurement noise and to the omission of mass case 5 data in the modeling process. A simulation check case showed that the polynomial models provided a compact and accurate representation of the nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies contained in the HSR Cycle 2B tabular aerodynamic database.

Morelli, E. A.; Proffitt, M. S.

1999-01-01

83

An overview of nanotechnology-based functional proteomics for cancer and cell cycle progression.  

PubMed

Nanogenomics and nanoproteomics allow the study and comparison of the huge number of genes and proteins involved in the cell cycle progression of human T lymphocytes and in its transformation in lymphoma. Nanogenomics has, however, many pitfalls that only functional proteomics, called nucleic acid programmable protein array (NAPPA), is capable of overcoming by probing with unique sensitivity native in situ protein-protein interactions. This allows identification of the key proteins involved in the control of cancer and proliferation in the light of recent label-free NAPPA approaches based on nanotechnologies. Bioinformatics in combination with label free NAPPA, anodic porous alumina (APA) and DNA analyser (DNASER) microarrays appear capable of providing the long-range framework for the basic molecular understanding of cancer and cell cycle progression. PMID:20651353

Nicolini, Claudio; Pechkova, Eugenia

2010-06-01

84

Tricarboxylic acid cycle-sustained oxidative phosphorylation in isolated myelin vesicles.  

PubMed

The Central Nervous System (CNS) function was shown to be fueled exclusively by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). This is in line with the sensitivity of brain to hypoxia, but less with the scarcity of the mitochondria in CNS. Consistently with the ectopic expression of FoF1-ATP synthase and the electron transfer chain in myelin, we have reported data demonstrating that isolated myelin vesicles (IMV) conduct OXPHOS. It may suggest that myelin sheath could be a site for the whole aerobic degradation of glucose. In this paper, we assayed the functionality of glycolysis and of TCA cycle enzymes in IMV purified from bovine forebrain. We found the presence and activity of all of the glycolytic and TCA cycle enzymes, comparable to those in mitochondria-enriched fractions, in the same experimental conditions. IMV also contain consistent carbonic anhydrase activity. These data suggest that myelin may be a contributor in energy supply for the axon, performing an extra-mitochondrial aerobic OXPHOS. The vision of myelin as the site of aerobic metabolism may shed a new light on many demyelinating pathologies, that cause an a yet unresolved axonal degeneration and whose clinical onset coincides with myelin development completion. PMID:23851157

Ravera, Silvia; Bartolucci, Martina; Calzia, Daniela; Aluigi, Maria Grazia; Ramoino, Paola; Morelli, Alessandro; Panfoli, Isabella

2013-11-01

85

Inter-limb Changes in Arterial Function after Intense Cycling Exercise.  

PubMed

We investigated whether muscle exercise, by inducing a subsequent local response, alters local and systemic arterial function differently. Eleven healthy volunteers (31±8 years) performed a 45-min cycling session at a heart rate corresponding to 10% above ventilatory threshold. Measurements were performed before and 45?min after exercise. Central and peripheral blood pressures were assessed by applanation tonometry and automatic sphygmomanometer, respectively. Brachial and popliteal arterial changes in diameter and blood flow were assessed using ultrasonography. The endothelium-dependent function was assessed simultaneously on brachial and popliteal arteries by flow-mediated dilation. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both upper and lower limbs as well as centrally. Ankle-brachial index decreased significantly. Cross-sectional area and blood flow of popliteal and brachial arteries increased significantly. The increase in blood flow was higher in the brachial than in the popliteal artery, whereas diameter increase was of similar magnitude between the two arteries. When normalized with shear rate, brachial flow-mediated dilation was significantly greater, whereas popliteal flow-mediated dilation was similar post- vs. pre-exercise. After an acute bout of intense cycling, blood flow increase and endothelial function were greater in the non-exercised upper limb compared to the exercised lower limb, suggesting that anaerobic exercise blunts the enhancement of systemic endothelium-dependant vasodilation in active muscle beds. PMID:24886921

Rossi, P; Gargne, O; Ayme, K; Gavarry, O; Boussuges, A

2014-10-01

86

Oral contraceptive pill use and menstrual cycle phase are associated with altered resting state functional connectivity.  

PubMed

At rest, brain activity can be characterized not by an absence of organized activity but instead by spatially and temporally correlated patterns of activity. In this experiment, we investigated whether and to what extent resting state functional connectivity is modulated by sex hormones in women, both across the menstrual cycle and when altered by oral contraceptive pills. Sex hormones have been shown to have important effects on task-related activity, but few studies have investigated the extent to which they can influence the behavior of functional networks at rest. These hormones are dramatically altered by the use of hormonal contraception, which is used by approximately 100 million women worldwide. However, potential cognitive side effects of hormonal contraception have been given little attention. Here, we collected resting state data for naturally-cycling women (n=45) and women using combined oral contraceptive pills (n=46) and evaluated the differences in resting state activity between these two groups using independent component analysis. We found that in the default mode network and in a network associated with executive control, resting state dynamics were altered both by the menstrual cycle and by oral contraceptive use. Specifically, the connectivity of the left angular gyrus, the left middle frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex were different between groups. Because the anterior cingulate cortex and left middle frontal gyrus are important for higher-order cognitive and emotional processing, including conflict monitoring, changes in the relationship of these structures to the functional networks with which they interact may have important consequences for attention, affect, and/or emotion regulation. PMID:24365676

Petersen, Nicole; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Goharzad, Azaadeh; Cahill, Larry

2014-04-15

87

Acute Bouts of Assisted Cycling Improves Cognitive and Upper Extremity Movement Functions in Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of 2 modes of exercise on cognitive and upper extremity movement functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Nine participants randomly completed 3 interventions over 3 consecutive weeks. The interventions were: (a) voluntary cycling (VC), in which participants cycled at their…

Ringenbach, Shannon D. R; Albert, Andrew R.; Chen, Chih-Chia; Alberts, Jay L.

2014-01-01

88

Alterations in dopamine system function across the estrous cycle of the MAM rodent model of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Clinical studies have reported differences in the incidence and severity of schizophrenia symptoms between male and female schizophrenia patients. Unfortunately, the cause of these differences is not currently known due, in part, to the fact that preclinical studies largely focus on male subjects. Dopamine neuron activity has been previously demonstrated to change across the estrous cycle, and may therefore be of relevance, as aberrant dopamine signaling is thought to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Here we examine dopamine neuron activity across the estrous cycle in the MAM rodent model of schizophrenia. We demonstrate that the elevation in dopamine neuron activity, consistently observed in male MAM-treated rats, is most prominent during estrus and attenuated in met-estrus. Furthermore, this appears to be mediated, in part, by progesterone in the ventral hippocampus, as increases in dopamine neuron population activity (observed in estrus) were normalized by the intra-hippocampal administration of the progesterone receptor antagonist, mifepristone (but not the estrogen receptor antagonists, fulvestrant). Taken together, these data suggest that changes in dopamine system function occur across the estrous cycle in MAM-treated rats and may contribute to the differences in symptomatology between male and female schizophrenia patients. PMID:25001958

Perez, Stephanie M; Chen, Li; Lodge, Daniel J

2014-09-01

89

Expression and function of K(v)7 channels in murine myometrium throughout oestrous cycle.  

PubMed

This study represents an extensive characterisation of the expression and functional impact of KCNQ and KCNE accessory subunits in a murine uterus using a combination of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, patch clamp electrophysiology and isometric tension recording. The use of uterine tissue throughout the oestrous cycle provided a physiological model with which to assess hormonal regulation of these genes. Messenger ribonucleic acid for all KCNQ genes were detected throughout the oestrous cycle with the KCNQ1 message predominant. KCNE isoforms were detected at each stage of the cycle. KCNE4 was the most abundant (p < 0.0001), and KCNQ1, KCNQ5 and KCNE1 were up-regulated in metestrous (p < 0.0001). The K(v)7 channel inhibitor XE991 reduced outward K(+) currents and significantly increased spontaneous myometrial contractions (p < 0.05), whereas retigabine (K(v)7 activator) significantly relaxed uterine tissues (p < 0.001). These data are the first to characterise KCNQ and KCNE gene expression in a cell type outside of neurons and the cardiovascular system. PMID:18709386

McCallum, Laura A; Greenwood, Iain A; Tribe, Rachel M

2009-03-01

90

Neural development is dependent on the function of specificity protein 2 in cell cycle progression  

PubMed Central

Faithful progression through the cell cycle is crucial to the maintenance and developmental potential of stem cells. Here, we demonstrate that neural stem cells (NSCs) and intermediate neural progenitor cells (NPCs) employ a zinc-finger transcription factor specificity protein 2 (Sp2) as a cell cycle regulator in two temporally and spatially distinct progenitor domains. Differential conditional deletion of Sp2 in early embryonic cerebral cortical progenitors, and perinatal olfactory bulb progenitors disrupted transitions through G1, G2 and M phases, whereas DNA synthesis appeared intact. Cell-autonomous function of Sp2 was identified by deletion of Sp2 using mosaic analysis with double markers, which clearly established that conditional Sp2-null NSCs and NPCs are M phase arrested in vivo. Importantly, conditional deletion of Sp2 led to a decline in the generation of NPCs and neurons in the developing and postnatal brains. Our findings implicate Sp2-dependent mechanisms as novel regulators of cell cycle progression, the absence of which disrupts neurogenesis in the embryonic and postnatal brain. PMID:23293287

Liang, Huixuan; Xiao, Guanxi; Yin, Haifeng; Hippenmeyer, Simon; Horowitz, Jonathan M.; Ghashghaei, H. Troy

2013-01-01

91

Extraction-less, rapid assay for the direct detection of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) in cork samples.  

PubMed

2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), the cork taint molecule, has been the target of several analytical approaches over the few past years. In spite of the development of highly efficient and sensitive tools for its detection, ranging from advanced chromatography to biosensor-based techniques, a practical breakthrough for routine cork screening purposes has not yet been realized, in part due to the requirement of a lengthy extraction of TCA in organic solvents, mostly 12% ethanol and the high detectability required. In the present report, we present a modification of a previously reported biosensor system based on the measurement of the electric response of cultured fibroblast cells membrane-engineered with the pAb78 TCA-specific antibody. Samples were prepared by macerating cork tissue and mixing it directly with the cellular biorecognition elements, without any intervening extraction process. By using this novel approach, we were able to detect TCA in just five minutes at extremely low concentrations (down to 0.2 ppt). The novel biosensor offers a number of practical benefits, including a very considerable reduction in the total assay time by one day, and a full portability, enabling its direct employment for on-site, high throughput screening of cork in the field and production facilities, without requiring any type of supporting infrastructure. PMID:24840453

Apostolou, Theofylaktos; Pascual, Nuria; Marco, M-Pilar; Moschos, Anastassios; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Kaltsas, Grigoris; Kintzios, Spyridon

2014-07-01

92

Acute bouts of assisted cycling improves cognitive and upper extremity movement functions in adolescents with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of 2 modes of exercise on cognitive and upper extremity movement functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Nine participants randomly completed 3 interventions over 3 consecutive weeks. The interventions were: (a) voluntary cycling (VC), in which participants cycled at their self-selected pedaling rate; (b) assisted cycling (AC), in which the participants' voluntary pedaling rates were augmented with a motor to ensure the maintenance of 80 rpm; and (c) no cycling (NC), in which the participants sat and listened to music. Manual dexterity improved after AC, but not after VC or NC. Measures of cognitive function, including reaction time and cognitive planning, also improved after AC, but not after the other interventions. Future research will try to uncover the mechanisms involved in the behavioral improvements found after an acute bout of assisted cycling in adolescents with DS. PMID:24725111

Ringenbach, Shannon D R; Albert, Andrew R; Chen, Chih-Chia J J; Alberts, Jay L

2014-04-01

93

Identification of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) causing a musty/muddy off-flavor in sake and its production in rice koji and moromi mash.  

PubMed

2,4,6-Trichloroanisole (TCA), which has been identified as the main component responsible for the cork taint in wine, was detected in sake samples having a musty/muddy off-flavor by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). We confirmed that TCA is one of the components causing this off-flavor in sake, as in other alcoholic beverages, from a sensory analysis showing the correlation between TCA concentration and the intensity of the musty/muddy off-flavor. We investigated the route of TCA production in the rice koji preparation process and in the moromi mash process for sake brewing. We found that TCA is produced mainly by the biomethylation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) by rice koji in brewing and that TCP originates from the wooden tools used in preparing rice koji. PMID:16198261

Miki, Atsushi; Isogai, Atsuko; Utsunomiya, Hitoshi; Iwata, Hiroshi

2005-08-01

94

Functional capabilities of molecular network components controlling the mammalian G1/S cell cycle phase transition.  

PubMed

The molecular interactions implicated in the mammalian G1/S cell cycle phase transition comprise a highly nonlinear network which can produce seemingly paradoxical results and make intuitive interpretations unreliable. A new approach to this problem is presented, consisting of (1) a convention of unambiguous reaction diagrams, (2) a convenient computer simulation method, and (3) a quasi-evolutionary method of probing the functional capabilities of simplified components of the network. Simulations were carried out for a sequence of hypothetical primordial systems, beginning with the simplest plausibly functional system. The complexity of the system was then increased in small steps, such that functionality was added at each step. The results suggested new functional concepts: (1) Rb-family proteins could store E2F in a manner analogous to the way a condenser stores electric charge, and, upon phosphorylation, release a large wave of active E2F; (2) excessive or premature cyclin-dependent kinase activities could paradoxically impair E2F activity during the G1/S transition period. The results show how network simulations, carried out by means of the methods described, can assist in the design and interpretation of experiments probing the control of the G1/S phase transition. PMID:9519880

Kohn, K W

1998-02-26

95

Biostimulation induces syntrophic interactions that impact C, S and N cycling in a sediment microbial community.  

PubMed

Stimulation of subsurface microorganisms to induce reductive immobilization of metals is a promising approach for bioremediation, yet the overall microbial community response is typically poorly understood. Here we used proteogenomics to test the hypothesis that excess input of acetate activates complex community functioning and syntrophic interactions among autotrophs and heterotrophs. A flow-through sediment column was incubated in a groundwater well of an acetate-amended aquifer and recovered during microbial sulfate reduction. De novo reconstruction of community sequences yielded near-complete genomes of Desulfobacter (Deltaproteobacteria), Sulfurovum- and Sulfurimonas-like Epsilonproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Partial genomes were obtained for Clostridiales (Firmicutes) and Desulfuromonadales-like Deltaproteobacteria. The majority of proteins identified by mass spectrometry corresponded to Desulfobacter-like species, and demonstrate the role of this organism in sulfate reduction (Dsr and APS), nitrogen fixation and acetate oxidation to CO2 during amendment. Results indicate less abundant Desulfuromonadales, and possibly Bacteroidetes, also actively contributed to CO2 production via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Proteomic data indicate that sulfide was partially re-oxidized by Epsilonproteobacteria through nitrate-dependent sulfide oxidation (using Nap, Nir, Nos, SQR and Sox), with CO2 fixed using the reverse TCA cycle. We infer that high acetate concentrations, aimed at stimulating anaerobic heterotrophy, led to the co-enrichment of, and carbon fixation in Epsilonproteobacteria. Results give an insight into ecosystem behavior following addition of simple organic carbon to the subsurface, and demonstrate a range of biological processes and community interactions were stimulated. PMID:23190730

Handley, Kim M; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Steefel, Carl I; Williams, Kenneth H; Sharon, Itai; Miller, Christopher S; Frischkorn, Kyle R; Chourey, Karuna; Thomas, Brian C; Shah, Manesh B; Long, Philip E; Hettich, Robert L; Banfield, Jillian F

2013-04-01

96

Biostimulation induces syntrophic interactions that impact C, S and N cycling in a sediment microbial community  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of subsurface microorganisms to induce reductive immobilization of metals is a promising approach for bioremediation, yet the overall microbial community response is typically poorly understood. Here we used proteogenomics to test the hypothesis that excess input of acetate activates complex community functioning and syntrophic interactions among autotrophs and heterotrophs. A flow-through sediment column was incubated in a groundwater well of an acetate-amended aquifer and recovered during microbial sulfate reduction. De novo reconstruction of community sequences yielded near-complete genomes of Desulfobacter (Deltaproteobacteria), Sulfurovum- and Sulfurimonas-like Epsilonproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Partial genomes were obtained for Clostridiales (Firmicutes) and Desulfuromonadales-like Deltaproteobacteria. The majority of proteins identified by mass spectrometry corresponded to Desulfobacter-like species, and demonstrate the role of this organism in sulfate reduction (Dsr and APS), nitrogen fixation and acetate oxidation to CO2 during amendment. Results indicate less abundant Desulfuromonadales, and possibly Bacteroidetes, also actively contributed to CO2 production via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Proteomic data indicate that sulfide was partially re-oxidized by Epsilonproteobacteria through nitrate-dependent sulfide oxidation (using Nap, Nir, Nos, SQR and Sox), with CO2 fixed using the reverse TCA cycle. We infer that high acetate concentrations, aimed at stimulating anaerobic heterotrophy, led to the co-enrichment of, and carbon fixation in Epsilonproteobacteria. Results give an insight into ecosystem behavior following addition of simple organic carbon to the subsurface, and demonstrate a range of biological processes and community interactions were stimulated. PMID:23190730

Handley, Kim M; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Steefel, Carl I; Williams, Kenneth H; Sharon, Itai; Miller, Christopher S; Frischkorn, Kyle R; Chourey, Karuna; Thomas, Brian C; Shah, Manesh B; Long, Philip E; Hettich, Robert L; Banfield, Jillian F

2013-01-01

97

Midkine-A functions upstream of Id2a to regulate cell cycle kinetics in the developing vertebrate retina  

PubMed Central

Background Midkine is a small heparin binding growth factor expressed in numerous tissues during development. The unique midkine gene in mammals has two paralogs in zebrafish: midkine-a (mdka) and midkine-b (mdkb). In the zebrafish retina, during both larval development and adult photoreceptor regeneration, mdka is expressed in retinal stem and progenitor cells and functions as a molecular component of the retina’s stem cell niche. In this study, loss-of-function and conditional overexpression were used to investigate the function of Mdka in the retina of the embryonic zebrafish. Results The results show that during early retinal development Mdka functions to regulate cell cycle kinetics. Following targeted knockdown of Mdka synthesis, retinal progenitors cycle more slowly, and this results in microphthalmia, a diminished rate of cell cycle exit and a temporal delay of cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation. In contrast, Mdka overexpression results in acceleration of the cell cycle and retinal overgrowth. Mdka gain-of-function, however, does not temporally advance cell cycle exit. Experiments to identify a potential Mdka signaling pathway show that Mdka functions upstream of the HLH regulatory protein, Id2a. Gene expression analysis shows Mdka regulates id2a expression, and co-injection of Mdka morpholinos and id2a mRNA rescues the Mdka loss-of-function phenotype. Conclusions These data show that in zebrafish, Mdka resides in a shared Id2a pathway to regulate cell cycle kinetics in retinal progenitors. This is the first study to demonstrate the function of Midkine during retinal development and adds Midkine to the list of growth factors that transcriptionally regulate Id proteins. PMID:23111152

2012-01-01

98

Form and function of the corpus luteum during the human menstrual cycle  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize the growth and regression of the corpus luteum (CL) during an interovulatory interval (IOI) using serial transvaginal ultrasonography. Methods Fifty healthy women of reproductive age with a history of regular menstrual cycles underwent daily transvaginal ultrasonography for one IOI. Measurements of luteal area and luteal numerical pixel value (NPV) were recorded each day after ovulation until the CL could no longer be detected. Blood was drawn every third day during the IOI to measure serum concentrations of progesterone and estradiol-17?. Results Corpora lutea were of two morphological types: those with a central fluid-filled cavity (CFFC) (78%) and those without (22%). Eighty-eight percent of women exhibited a CL containing a CFFC 2 days after ovulation, followed by 34% 13 days after ovulation and 2% 27 days after ovulation. Luteal area, progesterone concentration and estradiol concentration increased for approximately the first 6 days following ovulation followed by a subsequent decline. Luteal NPV decreased from days 1 to 11 and increased during days 11–16. Changes in luteal area, NPV, progesterone and estradiol concentrations did not differ in women with two versus three waves of follicular development. Conclusions Peak luteal function, as determined by maximum luteal area, progesterone concentration and estradiol concentration, is observed 6 days following ovulation. Luteal NPV is reflective of morphological and endocrinological changes in the CL. The development of a CFFC during luteinization is a normal physiological phenomenon. The CL can be detected, but is not functional, during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. PMID:15846762

BAERWALD, A. R.; ADAMS, G. P.; PIERSON, R. A.

2010-01-01

99

Functional citric acid cycle in an arcA mutant of Escherichia coli during growth with nitrate under anoxic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of the citric acid cycle of Escherichia coli during nitrate respiration (anoxic conditions) was studied by measuring end products and enzyme activities. Excretion of\\u000a products other than CO2, such as acetate or ethanol, was taken as an indication for a non-functional cycle. From glycerol, approximately 0.3 mol\\u000a acetate was produced; the residual portion was completely oxidized, indicating the

Corinna Prohl; Birgit Wackwitz; Dorina Vlad; Gottfried Unden

1998-01-01

100

Glucocorticoid receptor function regulated by coordinated action of the Hsp90 and Hsp70 chaperone cycles.  

PubMed

The glucocorticoid receptor (GR), like many signaling proteins, depends on the Hsp90 molecular chaperone for in vivo function. Although Hsp90 is required for ligand binding in vivo, purified apo GR is capable of binding ligand with no enhancement from Hsp90. We reveal that Hsp70, known to facilitate client delivery to Hsp90, inactivates GR through partial unfolding, whereas Hsp90 reverses this inactivation. Full recovery of ligand binding requires ATP hydrolysis on Hsp90 and the Hop and p23 cochaperones. Surprisingly, Hsp90 ATP hydrolysis appears to regulate client transfer from Hsp70, likely through a coupling of the two chaperone's ATP cycles. Such coupling is embodied in contacts between Hsp90 and Hsp70 in the GR:Hsp70:Hsp90:Hop complex imaged by cryoelectron microscopy. Whereas GR released from Hsp70 is aggregation prone, release from Hsp90 protects GR from aggregation and enhances its ligand affinity. Together, this illustrates how coordinated chaperone interactions can enhance stability, function, and regulation. PMID:24949977

Kirschke, Elaine; Goswami, Devrishi; Southworth, Daniel; Griffin, Patrick R; Agard, David A

2014-06-19

101

Overexpression of metabolic enzymes at the junction of glycolylsis and the TCA cycle in Escherichia coli: physiological effects and application  

E-print Network

The metabolism of Escherichia coli has central importance in biochemical engineering, metabolic engineering, and molecular biology. This study relates to all three disciplines. In biochemical engineering, previous studies show that overexpressing...

Spitzer, Richard G.

2012-06-07

102

Ingestion of sodium plus water improves cardiovascular function and performance during dehydrating cycling in the heat.  

PubMed

We studied if salt and water ingestion alleviates the physiological strain caused by dehydrating exercise in the heat. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2max?: 60 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed three randomized trials in a hot-dry environment (33 °C, 30% rh, 2.5 m/s airflow). Ninety minutes before the exercise, participants ingested 10 mL of water/kg body mass either alone (CON trial) or with salt to result in concentrations of 82 or 164 mM Na(+) (ModNa(+) or HighNa(+) trial, respectively). Then, participants cycled at 63% of VO2 m ? a x for 120 min immediately followed by a time-trial. After 120 min of exercise, the reduction in plasma volume was lessened with ModNa(+) and HighNa(+) trials (-11.9 ± 2.1 and -9.8 ± 4.2%) in comparison with CON (-16.4 ± 3.2%; P < 0.05). However, heat accumulation or dissipation (forearm skin blood flow and sweat rate) were not improved by salt ingestion. In contrast, both salt trials maintained cardiac output (? 1.3 ± 1.4 L/min; P < 0.05) and stroke volume (? 10 ± 11 mL/beat; P < 0.05) above CON after 120 min of exercise. Furthermore, the salt trials equally improved time-trial performance by 7.4% above CON (? 289 ± 42 vs 269 ± 50 W, respectively; P < 0.05). Our data suggest that pre-exercise ingestion of salt plus water maintains higher plasma volume during dehydrating exercise in the heat without thermoregulatory effects. However, it maintains cardiovascular function and improves cycling performance. PMID:23253191

Hamouti, N; Fernández-Elías, V E; Ortega, J F; Mora-Rodriguez, R

2014-06-01

103

Atherosclerosis and cardiac function assessment in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice undergoing body weight cycling  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity has become an epidemic in many countries and is supporting a billion dollar industry involved in promoting weight loss through diet, exercise and surgical procedures. Because of difficulties in maintaining body weight reduction, a pattern of weight cycling often occurs (so called ‘yo-yo' dieting) that may result in deleterious outcomes to health. There is controversy about cardiovascular benefits of yo-yo dieting, and an animal model is needed to better understand the contributions of major diet and body weight changes on heart and vascular functions. Our purpose is to determine the effects of weight cycling on cardiac function and atherosclerosis development in a mouse model. Methods: We used low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice due to their sensitivity to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases when fed high-fat diets. Alternating ad libitum feeding of high-fat and low-fat (rodent chow) diets was used to instigate weight cycling during a 29-week period. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests were done at 22 and 24 weeks, echocardiograms at 25 weeks and atherosclerosis and plasma lipoproteins assessed at 29 weeks. Results: Mice subjected to weight cycling showed improvements in glucose homeostasis during the weight loss cycle. Weight-cycled mice showed a reduction in the severity of atherosclerosis as compared with high-fat diet-fed mice. However, atherosclerosis still persisted in weight-cycled mice as compared with mice fed rodent chow. Cardiac function was impaired in weight-cycled mice and matched with that of mice fed only the high-fat diet. Conclusion: This model provides an initial structure in which to begin detailed studies of diet, calorie restriction and surgical modifications on energy balance and metabolic diseases. This model also shows differential effects of yo-yo dieting on metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23797386

McMillen, T S; Minami, E; LeBoeuf, R C

2013-01-01

104

Intravenous administration of Honokiol provides neuroprotection and improves functional recovery after traumatic brain injury through cell cycle inhibition.  

PubMed

Recently, increasing evidence has shown that cell cycle activation is a key factor of neuronal death and neurological dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aims to investigate the effects of Honokiol, a cell cycle inhibitor, on attenuating the neuronal damage and facilitating functional recovery after TBI in rats, in an attempt to unveil its underlying molecular mechanisms in TBI. This study suggested that delayed intravenous administration of Honokiol could effectively ameliorate TBI-induced sensorimotor and cognitive dysfunctions. Meanwhile, Honokiol treatment could also reduce the lesion volume and increase the neuronal survival in the cortex and hippocampus. The neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the cortex and hippocampus were further significantly attenuated by Honokiol treatment. In addition, the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, including cyclin D1, CDK4, pRb and E2F1, was significantly increased and endogenous cell cycle inhibitor p27 was markedly decreased at different time points after TBI. And these changes were significantly reversed by post-injury Honokiol treatment. Furthermore, the expression of some of the key cell cycle proteins such as cyclin D1 and E2F1 and the associated apoptosis in neurons were both remarkably attenuated by Honokiol treatment. These results show that delayed intravenous administration of Honokiol could effectively improve the functional recovery and attenuate the neuronal cell death, which is probably, at least in part, attributed to its role as a cell cycle inhibitior. This might give clues to developing attractive therapies for future clinical trials. PMID:24973706

Wang, Haiquan; Liao, Zhengbu; Sun, Xiaochuan; Shi, Quanhong; Huo, Gang; Xie, Yanfeng; Tang, Xiaolan; Zhi, Xinggang; Tang, Zhaohua

2014-11-01

105

Proteasome Function Is Required for Biological Timing throughout the Twenty-Four Hour Cycle  

PubMed Central

Summary Circadian clocks were, until recently, seen as a consequence of rhythmic transcription of clock components, directed by transcriptional/translational feedback loops (TTFLs). Oscillations of protein modification were then discovered in cyanobacteria [1, 2]. Canonical posttranslational signaling processes have known importance for clocks across taxa [3–11]. More recently, evidence from the unicellular eukaryote Ostreococcus tauri revealed a transcription-independent, rhythmic protein modification [12] shared in anucleate human cells [13]. In this study, the Ostreococcus system reveals a central role for targeted protein degradation in the mechanism of circadian timing. The Ostreococcus clockwork contains a TTFL involving the morning-expressed CCA1 and evening-expressed TOC1 proteins [14]. Cellular CCA1 and TOC1 protein content and degradation rates are analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using luciferase reporter fusion proteins. CCA1 protein degradation rates, measured in high time resolution, feature a sharp clock-regulated peak under constant conditions. TOC1 degradation peaks in response to darkness. Targeted protein degradation, unlike transcription and translation, is shown to be essential to sustain TTFL rhythmicity throughout the circadian cycle. Although proteasomal degradation is not necessary for sustained posttranslational oscillations in transcriptionally inactive cells, TTFL and posttranslational oscillators are normally coupled, and proteasome function is crucial to sustain both. PMID:21530263

van Ooijen, Gerben; Dixon, Laura E.; Troein, Carl; Millar, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

106

Effects of Functional Electric Stimulation Cycle Ergometry Training on Lower Limb Musculature in Acute Sci Individuals  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to compare three different intervals for a between sets rest period during a common isokinetic knee extension strength-testing protocol of twenty older Brazilian men (66.30 ± 3.92 yrs). The volunteers underwent unilateral knee extension (Biodex System 3) testing to determine their individual isokinetic peak torque at 60, 90, and 120° ·s-1. The contraction speeds and the rest periods between sets (30, 60 and 90 s) were randomly performed in three different days with a minimum rest period of 48 hours. Significant differences between and within sets were analyzed using a One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Although, at angular velocity of 60°·s-1 produced a higher peak torque, there were no significant differences in peak torque among any of the rest periods. Likewise, there were no significant differences between mean peak torque among all resting periods (30, 60 and 90s) at angular velocities of 90 and 120°·s-1. The results showed that during a common isokinetic strength testing protocol a between set rest period of at least 30 s is sufficient for recovery before the next test set in older men. Key Points Muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSAf ) decreased 38% following spinal cord injury (SCI). Early intervention with functional electric stimulation cycle ergometry (FES-CE) prevented further loss of CSAf in SCI patients and increased power output. Muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myonuclear density were unaffected by SCI or FES-CE PMID:24453530

Demchak, Timothy J.; Linderman, Jon K.; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Jackson, Rebecca; Suun, Jihong; Devor, Steven T.

2005-01-01

107

Expansion-contraction cycles for cement optimized as a function of additives  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was carried out to investigate the addition of specific additives to cement in order to eliminate the micro-fractures and micro-annuli that cause gas migration. The experiments performed monitored the change in the cement slurry pressure during the setting of the cement. During the setting period of the cement, two time cycles of cement expansion and contraction were observed. This is due to the individual contributions of each part of the cement mixture. To obtain the optimum tightness of the cement, final optimum concentrations of the additives were obtained experimentally, where the cyclic pressure behavior of the cement was optimized for the best final cement results. By utilizing the correct amount of Anchorage Clay, XC-Polymer, Ironite Scavenger, Ultrafine cement and Synthetic Rubber powder in a class G mixture at a given temperature and confining pressure, an impermeable cement mixture can be obtained. The correct amount of Synthetic Rubber used for cyclic pressure reduction is a function of cement setting temperature and pressure as well as the elastic properties of the rubber. By using laboratory testing at different pressure and temperature with different rubber concentrations and elastic properties, it is estimated that the entire annulus can have an impermeable cement from surface to total depth. The difference in temperature and pressure with depth dictates the concentration and elastic properties of the rubber as the required expansion and contraction changes with depth.

Talabani, S.; Hareland, G. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

108

An ATP and Oxalate Generating Variant Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Counters Aluminum Toxicity in Pseudomonas  

E-print Network

(AGODH) led to the enhanced synthesis of oxalate, a dicarboxylic acid involved in the immobilizationAn ATP and Oxalate Generating Variant Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Counters Aluminum Toxicity Abstract Although the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is essential in almost all aerobic organisms, its

Appanna, Vasu

109

The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, an Ancient Metabolic Network with a Novel Twist  

E-print Network

The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, an Ancient Metabolic Network with a Novel Twist Ryan J. Mailloux acid (TCA) cycle is an essential metabolic network in all oxidative organisms and provides precursors-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH), NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-ICDH), and succinate de- hydrogenase (SDH

Appanna, Vasu

110

A SET-domain-independent role of WRAD complex in cell-cycle regulatory function of mixed lineage leukemia  

PubMed Central

MLL, the trithorax ortholog, is a well-characterized histone 3 lysine 4 methyltransferase that is crucial for proper regulation of the Hox genes during embryonic development. Chromosomal translocations, disrupting the Mll gene, lead to aggressive leukemia with poor prognosis. However, the functions of MLL in cellular processes like cell-cycle regulation are not well studied. Here we show that the MLL has a regulatory role during multiple phases of the cell cycle. RNAi-mediated knockdown reveals that MLL regulates S-phase progression and, proper segregation and cytokinesis during M phase. Using deletions and mutations, we narrow the cell-cycle regulatory role to the C subunit of MLL. Our analysis reveals that the transactivation domain and not the SET domain is important for the S-phase function of MLL. Surprisingly, disruption of MLL–WRAD interaction is sufficient to disrupt proper mitotic progression. These mitotic functions of WRAD are independent of SET domain of MLL and, therefore, define a new role of WRAD in subset of MLL functions. Finally, we address the overlapping and unique roles of the different SET family members in the cell cycle. PMID:24880690

Ali, Aamir; Veeranki, Sailaja Naga; Tyagi, Shweta

2014-01-01

111

Ovarian Cycle and Effect of Social Changes on Adrenal and Ovarian Function in Pygathrix nemaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assist captive breeding of the endangered red-shanked douc langur (Pygathrix nemaeus), basic knowledge on female reproductive physiology is important. We aimed 1) to characterize the pattern of fecal estrogens and progestogens during the ovarian cycle and 2) to use the information to provide reliable data on ovarian cycle characteristics. Moreover, we examined the potential impact of a change in

Michael Heistermann; Christelle Ademmer; Werner Kaumanns

2004-01-01

112

Parametric Flutter Analysis of the TCA Configuration and Recommendation for FFM Design and Scaling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current HSR Aeroelasticity plan to design, build, and test a full span, free flying transonic flutter model in the TDT has many technical obstacles that must be overcome for a successful program. One technical obstacle is the determination of a suitable configuration and point in the sky to use in setting the scaling point for the ASE models program. Determining this configuration and point in the sky requires balancing several conflicting requirements, including model buildability, tunnel test safety, and the ability of the model to represent the flutter mechanisms of interest. As will be discussed in detail in subsequent sections, the current TCA design exhibits several flutter mechanisms of interest. It has been decided that the ASE models program will focus on the low frequency symmetric flutter mechanism, and will make no attempt to investigate high frequency flutter mechanisms. There are several reasons for this choice. First, it is believed that the high frequency flutter mechanisms are similar in nature to classical wing bending/torsion flutter, and therefore there is more confidence that this mechanism can be predicted using current techniques. The low frequency mode, on the other hand, is a highly coupled mechanism involving wing, body, tail, and engine motion which may be very difficult to predict. Second, the high frequency flutter modes result in very small weight penalties (several hundred pounds), while suppression of the low frequency mechanism inside the flight envelope causes thousands of pounds to be added to the structure. In order to successfully test the low frequency flutter mode of interest, a suitable starting configuration and point in the sky must be identified. The configuration and point in the sky must result in a wind tunnel model that (1) represents the low-frequency wing/body/engine/empennage flutter mechanisms that are unique to HSCT configurations, (2) flutters at an acceptably low frequency in the tunnel, (3) flutters at an acceptably low dynamic pressure in the tunnel, (4) allows sufficient weight for model buildability without inordinately high cost, and (5) has significant separation between the target flutter mechanism and other, potentially catastrophic, flutter mechanisms.

Baker, Myles; Lenkey, Peter

1997-01-01

113

Early rehabilitation in critical care (eRiCC): functional electrical stimulation with cycling protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intensive care-acquired weakness is a common problem, leads to significant impairment in physical functioning and muscle strength, and is prevalent in individuals with sepsis. Early rehabilitation has been shown to be safe and feasible; however, commencement is often delayed due to a patient's inability to co-operate. An intervention that begins early in an intensive care unit (ICU) admission without the need for patient volition may be beneficial in attenuating muscle wasting. The eRiCC (early rehabilitation in critical care) trial will investigate the effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycling and cycling alone, compared to standard care, in individuals with sepsis. Methods and analysis This is a single centre randomised controlled trial. Participants (n=80) aged ?18?years, with a diagnosis of sepsis or severe sepsis, who are expected to be mechanically ventilated for ?48?h and remain in the intensive care ?4?days will be randomised within 72?h of admission to (1) standard care or (2) intervention where participants will receive functional electrical muscle stimulation-assisted supine cycling on one leg while the other leg undergoes cycling alone. Primary outcome measures include: muscle mass (quadriceps ultrasonography; bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy); muscle strength (Medical Research Council Scale; hand-held dynamometry) and physical function (Physical Function in Intensive Care Test; Functional Status Score in intensive care; 6?min walk test). Blinded outcome assessors will assess measures at baseline, weekly, at ICU discharge and acute hospital discharge. Secondary measures will be evaluated in a nested subgroup (n=20) and will consist of biochemical/histological analyses of collected muscle, urine and blood samples at baseline and at ICU discharge. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained from the relevant institution, and results will be published to inform clinical practice in the care of patients with sepsis to optimise rehabilitation and physical function outcomes. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000528853. PMID:22983782

Parry, Selina M; Berney, Sue; Koopman, Rene; Bryant, Adam; El-Ansary, Doa; Puthucheary, Zudin; Hart, Nicholas; Warrillow, Stephen; Denehy, Linda

2012-01-01

114

Effect of biofeedback cycling training on functional recovery and walking ability of lower extremity in patients with stroke.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of biofeedback cycling training on lower limb functional recovery, walking endurance, and walking speed for patients with chronic stroke. Thirty-one patients with stroke (stroke onset >3 months) were randomly assigned into two groups using a crossover design. One group (N = 16; mean: 53.6 ± 10.3 years) underwent conventional rehabilitation and cycling training (30 minutes/time, 5 times per week for 4 weeks), followed by only conventional rehabilitation for another 4 weeks. The other group (N = 15; mean: 54.5 ± 8.0 years) underwent the same training in reverse order. The bike used in this biofeedback cycling training was the MOTOmed viva2 Movement Trainer. Outcome measures included the lower extremity subscale of Fugl-Meyer assessment (LE-FMA), the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the 10-meter walk test (10MWT), and the modified Ashworth scale (MAS). All participants were assessed at the beginning of the study, at the end of the 4(th) week, and at the end of the 8(th) week. Thirty participants completed the study, including the cycling training interventions and all assessments. The results showed that improvements in the period with cycling training were significantly better than the noncycling period in the LE-FMA (p < 0.05), 6MWT (p < 0.001), 10MWT (p < 0.001), and MAS (p < 0.001) scores. No significant carryover effects were observed. The improvements on outcome measures were significantly different between the cycling period and the noncycling period after adjusting for potential confounding factors in the multivariate analysis of variance (p < 0.001). The study result indicates that the additional 4-week biofeedback cycling training could lead to improved LE functional recovery, walking endurance, and speed for patients with chronic stroke. PMID:24388057

Yang, Huei-Ching; Lee, Chia-Ling; Lin, Roxane; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Chen, Chia-Hsin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Lo, Sing Kai

2014-01-01

115

Functional genes to assess nitrogen cycling and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: primers and processing matter  

PubMed Central

Targeting sequencing to genes involved in key environmental processes, i.e., ecofunctional genes, provides an opportunity to sample nature's gene guilds to greater depth and help link community structure to process-level outcomes. Vastly different approaches have been implemented for sequence processing and, ultimately, for taxonomic placement of these gene reads. The overall quality of next generation sequence analysis of functional genes is dependent on multiple steps and assumptions of unknown diversity. To illustrate current issues surrounding amplicon read processing we provide examples for three ecofunctional gene groups. A combination of in silico, environmental and cultured strain sequences was used to test new primers targeting the dioxin and dibenzofuran degrading genes dxnA1, dbfA1, and carAa. The majority of obtained environmental sequences were classified into novel sequence clusters, illustrating the discovery value of the approach. For the nitrite reductase step in denitrification, the well-known nirK primers exhibited deficiencies in reference database coverage, illustrating the need to refine primer-binding sites and/or to design multiple primers, while nirS primers exhibited bias against five phyla. Amino acid-based OTU clustering of these two N-cycle genes from soil samples yielded only 114 unique nirK and 45 unique nirS genus-level groupings, likely a reflection of constricted primer coverage. Finally, supervised and non-supervised OTU analysis methods were compared using the nifH gene of nitrogen fixation, with generally similar outcomes, but the clustering (non-supervised) method yielded higher diversity estimates and stronger site-based differences. High throughput amplicon sequencing can provide inexpensive and rapid access to nature's related sequences by circumventing the culturing barrier, but each unique gene requires individual considerations in terms of primer design and sequence processing and classification. PMID:24062736

Penton, C. Ryan; Johnson, Timothy A.; Quensen, John F.; Iwai, Shoko; Cole, James R.; Tiedje, James M.

2013-01-01

116

The tricarboxylic acid cycle in Shewanella oneidensis is independent of Fur and RyhB control  

SciTech Connect

Background: It is well established in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae that strains harboring mutations in the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) are unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) compounds, due to the down-regulation of key TCA cycle enzymes, such as AcnA and SdhABCD. This down-regulation is mediated by a Fur-regulated small regulatory RNA named RyhB. It is unclear in the g-proteobacterium S. oneidensis whether TCA is also regulated by Fur and RyhB. Results: In the present study, we showed that a fur deletion mutant of S. oneidensis could utilize TCA compounds. Consistently, expression of the TCA cycle genes acnA and sdhA was not down-regulated in the mutant. To explore this observation further, we identified a ryhB gene in Shewanella species and experimentally demonstrated the gene expression. Further experiments suggested that RyhB was up-regulated in fur mutant, but that AcnA and SdhA were not controlled by RyhB. Conclusions: These cumulative results delineate an important difference of the Fur-RyhB regulatory cycle between S. oneidensis and other g-proteobacteria. This work represents a step forward for understanding the unique regulation in S. oneidensis.

Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; McCue, Lee Ann [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Parsons, Andrea [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Feng, Sheng [Duke University; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

2010-01-01

117

The tricarboxylic acid cycle in Shewanella oneidensis is independent of Fur and RyhB control  

PubMed Central

Background It is well established in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae that strains harboring mutations in the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) are unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) compounds, due to the down-regulation of key TCA cycle enzymes, such as AcnA and SdhABCD. This down-regulation is mediated by a Fur-regulated small regulatory RNA named RyhB. It is unclear in the ?-proteobacterium S. oneidensis whether TCA is also regulated by Fur and RyhB. Results In the present study, we showed that a fur deletion mutant of S. oneidensis could utilize TCA compounds. Consistently, expression of the TCA cycle genes acnA and sdhA was not down-regulated in the mutant. To explore this observation further, we identified a ryhB gene in Shewanella species and experimentally demonstrated the gene expression. Further experiments suggested that RyhB was up-regulated in fur mutant, but that AcnA and SdhA were not controlled by RyhB. Conclusions These cumulative results delineate an important difference of the Fur-RyhB regulatory cycle between S. oneidensis and other ?-proteobacteria. This work represents a step forward for understanding the unique regulation in S. oneidensis. PMID:20950482

2010-01-01

118

Computational functions in biochemical reaction networks.  

PubMed Central

In prior work we demonstrated the implementation of logic gates, sequential computers (universal Turing machines), and parallel computers by means of the kinetics of chemical reaction mechanisms. In the present article we develop this subject further by first investigating the computational properties of several enzymatic (single and multiple) reaction mechanisms: we show their steady states are analogous to either Boolean or fuzzy logic gates. Nearly perfect digital function is obtained only in the regime in which the enzymes are saturated with their substrates. With these enzymatic gates, we construct combinational chemical networks that execute a given truth-table. The dynamic range of a network's output is strongly affected by "input/output matching" conditions among the internal gate elements. We find a simple mechanism, similar to the interconversion of fructose-6-phosphate between its two bisphosphate forms (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and fructose-2,6-bisphosphate), that functions analogously to an AND gate. When the simple model is supplanted with one in which the enzyme rate laws are derived from experimental data, the steady state of the mechanism functions as an asymmetric fuzzy aggregation operator with properties akin to a fuzzy AND gate. The qualitative behavior of the mechanism does not change when situated within a large model of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and the TCA cycle. The mechanism, in this case, switches the pathway's mode from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis in response to chemical signals of low blood glucose (cAMP) and abundant fuel for the TCA cycle (acetyl coenzyme A). Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:7948674

Arkin, A; Ross, J

1994-01-01

119

Study of the damage evolution function of tin silver copper in cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present research focused on the assessment of solder joint fatigue life in microelectronics assemblies. A general concern of any reliability engineer is whether accelerated tests are relevant to field conditions. The risk of this was minimized by developing an approach to reduce the duration of an accelerated thermal cycling test, thus allowing for the use of less accelerated test conditions. For this purpose the conventional dye and pry technique was improved and used together with artificial neural networks to measure and characterize very early stages of crack growth. The same work also demonstrated a quantitative link between thermal cycling induced recrystallization and a strong acceleration of the subsequent fatigue crack growth and failure. A new study was conducted in which different combinations of annealing and isothermal cycling provided a systematic characterization of the effects of a range of individual parameters on the recrystallization. Experiments showed the ongoing coarsening of secondary precipitates to have a clear effect on recrystallization. The rate of recrystallization was also shown not to scale with the inelastic energy deposition. This means that the most popular current thermal cycling model cannot apply to SnAgCu solder joints. Recrystallization of the Sn grains is usually not the rate limiting mechanism in isothermal cycling. The crack initiation stage often takes up a much greater fraction of the overall life, and the eventual failure of BGA joints tends to involve transgranular crack growth instead. Cycling of individual solder joints allowed for monitoring of the evolution of the solder properties and the rate of inelastic energy deposition. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation and the subsequent number of cycles to failure were shown to be determined by the inelastic energy deposition. This provides for a simple model for the extrapolation of accelerated test results to the much milder cycling amplitudes characteristic of long term service conditions based on conventional Finite Element Modeling. It also offers a critical basis for the ongoing development of a practical model to account for the often dramatic break-down of Miner's rule of linear damage accumulation under variable cycling amplitudes as expected in realistic applications.

Qasaimeh, Awni

120

Retinoblastoma protein and anaphase-promoting complex physically interact and functionally cooperate during cell-cycle exit.  

PubMed

The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) negatively regulates the progression from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle, in part, by repressing E2F-dependent transcription. pRB also possesses E2F-independent functions that contribute to cell-cycle control--for example, during pRB-mediated cell-cycle arrest pRB associates with Skp2, the F-box protein of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, and promotes the stability of the cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitor p27(Kip1) through an unknown mechanism. Degradation of p27(Kip1) is mediated by ubiquitin-dependent targeting of p27(Kip1) by SCF -Skp2 (ref. 4). Here, we report a novel interaction between pRB and the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) that controls p27(Kip1) stability by targeting Skp2 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Cdh1, an activator of APC/C, not only interacts with pRB but is also required for a pRB-induced cell-cycle arrest. The results reveal an unexpected physical convergence between the pRB tumour-suppressor protein and E3 ligase complexes, and raise the possibility that pRB may direct APC/C to additional targets during pRB-mediated cell-cycle exit. PMID:17187060

Binné, Ulrich K; Classon, Marie K; Dick, Frederick A; Wei, Wenyi; Rape, Michael; Kaelin, William G; Näär, Anders M; Dyson, Nicholas J

2007-02-01

121

Functional Modules in the Arabidopsis Core Cell Cycle Binary Protein–Protein Interaction Network[W  

PubMed Central

As in other eukaryotes, cell division in plants is highly conserved and regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) that are themselves predominantly regulated at the posttranscriptional level by their association with proteins such as cyclins. Although over the last years the knowledge of the plant cell cycle has considerably increased, little is known on the assembly and regulation of the different CDK complexes. To map protein–protein interactions between core cell cycle proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana, a binary protein–protein interactome network was generated using two complementary high-throughput interaction assays, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Pairwise interactions among 58 core cell cycle proteins were tested, resulting in 357 interactions, of which 293 have not been reported before. Integration of the binary interaction results with cell cycle phase-dependent expression information and localization data allowed the construction of a dynamic interaction network. The obtained interaction map constitutes a framework for further in-depth analysis of the cell cycle machinery. PMID:20407024

Boruc, Joanna; Van den Daele, Hilde; Hollunder, Jens; Rombauts, Stephane; Mylle, Evelien; Hilson, Pierre; Inzé, Dirk; De Veylder, Lieven; Russinova, Eugenia

2010-01-01

122

Optimal work–rest cycles for an isometric intermittent gripping task as a function of force, posture and grip span  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the maximum acceptable contraction frequencies (i.e. work–rest cycles) for an isometric-intermittent handgrip task as a function of grip span, applied force and shoulder posture using psychophysical and physiological approaches. Twelve healthy males served as subjects. The three grip spans investigated were the optimal, 2 cm narrower than the optimal, and 2 cm wider than

Mahmut Eksioglu

2006-01-01

123

Unstructured Grid Euler Method Assessment for Aerodynamics Performance Prediction of the Complete TCA Configuration at Supersonic Cruise Speed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unstructured grid Euler computations, performed at supersonic cruise speed, are presented for a proposed high speed civil transport configuration, designated as the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) within the High Speed Research (HSR) Program. The numerical results are obtained for the complete TCA cruise configuration which includes the wing, fuselage, empennage, diverters, and flow through nacelles at Mach 2.4 for a range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. The computed surface and off-surface flow characteristics are analyzed and the pressure coefficient contours on the wing lower surface are shown to correlate reasonably well with the available pressure sensitive paint results, particularly, for the complex shock wave structures around the nacelles. The predicted longitudinal and lateral/directional performance characteristics are shown to correlate very well with the measured data across the examined range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. The results from the present effort have been documented into a NASA Controlled-Distribution report which is being presently reviewed for publication.

Ghaffari, Farhad

1999-01-01

124

Icotinib inhibits the invasion of Tca8113 cells via downregulation of nuclear factor ?B-mediated matrix metalloproteinase expression  

PubMed Central

Icotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which has been revealed to inhibit proliferation in tumor cells. However, the effect of icotinib on cancer cell metastasis remains to be explained. This study examines the effect of icotinib on the migration and invasion of squamous cells of tongue carcinoma (Tca8113 cells) in vitro. The results of the Boyden chamber invasion assay demonstrated that icotinib reduced cell invasion, suppressed the protein levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-9, and increased the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. In addition, icotinib was found to significantly decrease the protein levels of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) p65, which suggested that icotinib inhibits NF-?B activity. Furthermore, treatment with the NF-?B inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, suppressed cell invasion and MMP-2 expression. These results suggested that icotinib inhibits the invasion of Tca8113 cells by downregulating MMP via the inactivation of the NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:25120710

YANG, CAILING; YAN, JIANGUO; YUAN, GUOYAN; ZHANG, YINGHUA; LU, DERONG; REN, MINGXIN; CUI, WEIGANG

2014-01-01

125

Variation in Risk Taking Behavior Among Female College Students as a Function of the Menstrual Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is some evidence that women are less likely to be raped during the mid-portion of the menstrual cycle. In order to determine if women might be behaving in ways to decrease their chances of sexual assault when they are most likely to conceive, female college students were asked to complete a questionnaire about their activities during the past 24

Tara J Chavanne; Gordon G Gallup

1998-01-01

126

Decoupling of soil nutrient cycles as a function of aridity in global drylands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are interlinked by primary production, respiration and decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. It has been suggested that the C, N and P cycles could become uncoupled under rapid climate change because of the different degrees of control exerted on the supply of these elements by biological and geochemical processes. Climatic controls on biogeochemical cycles are particularly relevant in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid ecosystems (drylands) because their biological activity is mainly driven by water availability. The increase in aridity predicted for the twenty-first century in many drylands worldwide may therefore threaten the balance between these cycles, differentially affecting the availability of essential nutrients. Here we evaluate how aridity affects the balance between C, N and P in soils collected from 224 dryland sites from all continents except Antarctica. We find a negative effect of aridity on the concentration of soil organic C and total N, but a positive effect on the concentration of inorganic P. Aridity is negatively related to plant cover, which may favour the dominance of physical processes such as rock weathering, a major source of P to ecosystems, over biological processes that provide more C and N, such as litter decomposition. Our findings suggest that any predicted increase in aridity with climate change will probably reduce the concentrations of N and C in global drylands, but increase that of P. These changes would uncouple the C, N and P cycles in drylands and could negatively affect the provision of key services provided by these ecosystems.

Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T.; Gallardo, Antonio; Bowker, Matthew A.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Quero, Jose Luis; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; García-Gómez, Miguel; Soliveres, Santiago; García-Palacios, Pablo; Berdugo, Miguel; Valencia, Enrique; Escolar, Cristina; Arredondo, Tulio; Barraza-Zepeda, Claudia; Bran, Donaldo; Carreira, José Antonio; Chaieb, Mohamed; Conceição, Abel A.; Derak, Mchich; Eldridge, David J.; Escudero, Adrián; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Gaitán, Juan; Gatica, M. Gabriel; Gómez-González, Susana; Guzman, Elizabeth; Gutiérrez, Julio R.; Florentino, Adriana; Hepper, Estela; Hernández, Rosa M.; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Liu, Jushan; Mau, Rebecca L.; Miriti, Maria; Monerris, Jorge; Naseri, Kamal; Noumi, Zouhaier; Polo, Vicente; Prina, Aníbal; Pucheta, Eduardo; Ramírez, Elizabeth; Ramírez-Collantes, David A.; Romão, Roberto; Tighe, Matthew; Torres, Duilio; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Ungar, Eugene D.; Val, James; Wamiti, Wanyoike; Wang, Deli; Zaady, Eli

2013-10-01

127

Cell cycle regulation as a mechanism for functional separation of the apparently redundant uracil DNA glycosylases TDG and UNG2  

PubMed Central

Human Thymine-DNA Glycosylase (TDG) is a member of the uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily. It excises uracil, thymine and a number of chemical base lesions when mispaired with guanine in double-stranded DNA. These activities are not unique to TDG; at least three additional proteins with similar enzymatic properties are present in mammalian cells. The successful co-evolution of these enzymes implies the existence of non-redundant biological functions that must be coordinated. Here, we report cell cycle regulation as a mechanism for the functional separation of apparently redundant DNA glycosylases. We show that cells entering S-phase eliminate TDG through the ubiquitin–proteasome system and then maintain a TDG-free condition until G2. Incomplete degradation of ectopically expressed TDG impedes S-phase progression and cell proliferation. The mode of cell cycle regulation of TDG is strictly inverse to that of UNG2, which peaks in and throughout S-phase and then declines to undetectable levels until it appears again just before the next S-phase. Thus, TDG- and UNG2-dependent base excision repair alternates throughout the cell cycle, and the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway constitutes the underlying regulatory system. PMID:17526518

Hardeland, Ulrike; Kunz, Christophe; Focke, Frauke; Szadkowski, Marta; Schar, Primo

2007-01-01

128

The Teicoplanin-Associated Locus Regulator (TcaR) and the Intercellular Adhesin Locus Regulator (IcaR) Are Transcriptional Inhibitors of the ica Locus in Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Infections involving Staphylococcus aureus are often more severe and difficult to treat when the organism assumes a biofilm mode of growth. The polysaccharide poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG), also known as polysaccharide intercellular adhesin, is synthesized by the products of the intercellular adhesin (ica) locus and plays a key role in biofilm formation. Numerous conditions and exogenous factors influence ica transcription and PNAG synthesis, but the regulatory factors and pathways through which these environmental stimuli act have been only partially characterized. We developed a DNA affinity chromatography system to purify potential regulatory proteins that bind to the ica promoter region. Using this technique, we isolated four proteins, including the staphylococcal gene regulator SarA, a MarR family transcriptional regulator of the teicoplanin-associated locus TcaR, DNA-binding protein II, and topoisomerase IV, that bound to the ica promoter. Site-directed deletion mutagenesis of tcaR indicated that TcaR was a negative regulator of ica transcription, but deletion of tcaR alone did not induce any changes in PNAG production or in adherence to polystyrene. We also investigated the role of IcaR, encoded within the ica locus but divergently transcribed from the biosynthetic genes. As has been shown previously in Staphylococcus epidermidis, we found that IcaR was also a negative regulator of ica transcription in S. aureus. We also demonstrate that mutation of icaR augmented PNAG production and adherence to polystyrene. Transcription of the ica locus, PNAG production, and adherence to polystyrene were further increased in a tcaR icaR double mutant. In summary, TcaR appeared to be a weak negative regulator of transcription of the ica locus, whereas IcaR was a strong negative regulator, and in their absence PNAG production and biofilm formation were enhanced. PMID:15060048

Jefferson, Kimberly K.; Pier, Danielle B.; Goldmann, Donald A.; Pier, Gerald B.

2004-01-01

129

Application of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) to extraction of soft body for the determination of tissue Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the prosobranch Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant).  

PubMed

The application of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) as a shell extractant for preparation of soft body parts with reference to tissue metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) in shellfish has been evaluated on the example of the mud snail Hydrobia ulvae, a small marine prosobranch densely present in rocky and soft-bottom habitats of the eastern Atlantic. A solution of 0.1 M TCA was tested on individuals treated according to two different protocols: (1) thawed after freezing ("non-dried") and (2) thawed and air-dried to a constant weight ("dried"). Two points were investigated in detail to improve the method: individual soft tissue dry weight and tissue metal concentration following a standard digestion method. In both instances, the results were compared with those from manually dissected snails. Conditions for total shell decalcification of 60 individuals (3-4 mm long) were 5.5 h in 20 ml of 0.1 M TCA.No differences in individual soft tissue weight were observed between the treatments, indicating good efficiency of the TCA extraction with respect to weight of soft body parts. In contrast, tissue metal concentrations varied among treatments. The TCA extraction of the dried animals had a good recovery for Cd, most likely due to the lower solubility of Cd vital cellular components (proteins and mineral concretions) from the dried tissue. Satisfactory recoveries of the tissue concentrations of Cu and Pb were obtained for the non-dried individuals. This might be related to the specific distribution of metals in the organism (namely in the digestive glands and gonads) and their different chemical reactivity with TCA after the tissue was dried. Limited susceptibility of Zn-bearing protein bindings to complexing with TCA also accounts for significantly lower concentrations of Zn in the mud snail's soft tissue that was extracted. The 0.1 M TCA solution is therefore recommended for extraction of the shells of Hydrobia ulvae for tissue determination of Cd, Cu and Pb; however the treatment protocol does affect metal recovery and thus a consistent procedure should be followed. The extracted metals from the soft tissues and shells of the mud snails (on the basis of both metal concentrations and contents) were ranked in order of increasing contribution of soft body parts to the total (shell+tissue): Pb

Sokolowski, Adam; Richard, Pierre; Fichet, Denis; Radenac, Gilles; Guyot, Thierry

2003-10-01

130

Anaplerotic Triheptanoin Diet Enhances Mitochondrial Substrate Use to Remodel the Metabolome and Improve Lifespan, Motor Function, and Sociability in MeCP2-Null Mice  

PubMed Central

Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene that encodes methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Symptoms range in severity and include psychomotor disabilities, seizures, ataxia, and intellectual disability. Symptom onset is between 6-18 months of age, a critical period of brain development that is highly energy-dependent. Notably, patients with RTT have evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as abnormal levels of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin, suggesting overall metabolic imbalance. We hypothesized that one contributor to RTT symptoms is energy deficiency due to defective nutrient substrate utilization by the TCA cycle. This energy deficit would lead to a metabolic imbalance, but would be treatable by providing anaplerotic substrates to the TCA cycle to enhance energy production. We show that dietary therapy with triheptanoin significantly increased longevity and improved motor function and social interaction in male mice hemizygous for Mecp2 knockout. Anaplerotic therapy in Mecp2 knockout mice also improved indicators of impaired substrate utilization, decreased adiposity, increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, decreased serum leptin and insulin, and improved mitochondrial morphology in skeletal muscle. Untargeted metabolomics of liver and skeletal muscle revealed increases in levels of TCA cycle intermediates with triheptanoin diet, as well as normalizations of glucose and fatty acid biochemical pathways consistent with the improved metabolic phenotype in Mecp2 knockout mice on triheptanoin. These results suggest that an approach using dietary supplementation with anaplerotic substrate is effective in improving symptoms and metabolic health in RTT. PMID:25299635

Li, Qun; Degano, Alicia L.; Penati, Judith; Zhuo, Justin; Roe, Charles R.; Ronnett, Gabriele V.

2014-01-01

131

Anaplerotic Triheptanoin Diet Enhances Mitochondrial Substrate Use to Remodel the Metabolome and Improve Lifespan, Motor Function, and Sociability in MeCP2-Null Mice.  

PubMed

Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene that encodes methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Symptoms range in severity and include psychomotor disabilities, seizures, ataxia, and intellectual disability. Symptom onset is between 6-18 months of age, a critical period of brain development that is highly energy-dependent. Notably, patients with RTT have evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as abnormal levels of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin, suggesting overall metabolic imbalance. We hypothesized that one contributor to RTT symptoms is energy deficiency due to defective nutrient substrate utilization by the TCA cycle. This energy deficit would lead to a metabolic imbalance, but would be treatable by providing anaplerotic substrates to the TCA cycle to enhance energy production. We show that dietary therapy with triheptanoin significantly increased longevity and improved motor function and social interaction in male mice hemizygous for Mecp2 knockout. Anaplerotic therapy in Mecp2 knockout mice also improved indicators of impaired substrate utilization, decreased adiposity, increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, decreased serum leptin and insulin, and improved mitochondrial morphology in skeletal muscle. Untargeted metabolomics of liver and skeletal muscle revealed increases in levels of TCA cycle intermediates with triheptanoin diet, as well as normalizations of glucose and fatty acid biochemical pathways consistent with the improved metabolic phenotype in Mecp2 knockout mice on triheptanoin. These results suggest that an approach using dietary supplementation with anaplerotic substrate is effective in improving symptoms and metabolic health in RTT. PMID:25299635

Park, Min Jung; Aja, Susan; Li, Qun; Degano, Alicia L; Penati, Judith; Zhuo, Justin; Roe, Charles R; Ronnett, Gabriele V

2014-01-01

132

Inactivation of the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Aconitase Gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes T?494 Impairs Morphological and Physiological Differentiation  

PubMed Central

The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle aconitase gene acnA from Streptomyces viridochromogenes Tü494 was cloned and analyzed. AcnA catalyzes the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate in the TCA cycle, as indicated by the ability of acnA to complement the aconitase-deficient Escherichia coli mutant JRG3259. An acnA mutant was unable to develop aerial mycelium and to sporulate, resulting in a bald phenotype. Furthermore, the mutant did not produce the antibiotic phosphinothricin tripeptide, demonstrating that AcnA also affects physiological differentiation. PMID:10559181

Schwartz, D.; Kaspar, S.; Kienzlen, G.; Muschko, K.; Wohlleben, W.

1999-01-01

133

Nitrogen cycling in Yellowstone National Park thermal features: using gene expression to reveal ecological function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of biodiversity, metabolic strategies, and functional ecology in modern hydrothermal systems have the potential to provide insight into the metabolism and evolution of life. The geochemical and microbial diversity present at Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA, makes it an ideal place for studying the functional ecology and metabolic processes of prokaryotic organisms. While much work in terrestrial hydrothermal

S. T. Lafree; M. S. Burton; D. R. Meyer-Dombard

2010-01-01

134

Oligonucleotide Microarray for the Study of Functional Gene Diversity in the Nitrogen Cycle in the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of functional diversity and its dynamics in the environment is essential for understanding the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of aquatic systems. Here we describe the development and optimization of a DNA microarray method for the detection and quantification of functional genes in the environment and report on their preliminary application to the study of the denitrification gene nirS

Gaspar Taroncher-Oldenburg; Erin M. Griner; Chris A. Francis; Bess B. Ward

2003-01-01

135

Radiation-induced cardiomyopathy as a function of radiation beam gating to the cardiac cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Portions of the heart are often unavoidably included in the primary treatment volume during thoracic radiotherapy, and radiation-induced heart disease has been observed as a treatment-related complication. Such complications have been observed in humans following radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease and treatment of the left breast for carcinoma. Recent attempts have been made to prevent re-stenosis following angioplasty procedures using external beam irradiation. These attempts were not successful, however, due to the large volume of heart included in the treatment field and subsequent cardiac morbidity. We suggest a mechanism for sparing the heart from radiation damage by synchronizing the radiation beam with the cardiac cycle and delivering radiation only when the heart is in a relatively hypoxic state. We present data from a rat model testing this hypothesis and show that radiation damage to the heart can be altered by synchronizing the radiation beam with the cardiac cycle. This technique may be useful in reducing radiation damage to the heart secondary to treatment for diseases such as Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer.

Gladstone, David J.; Flanagan, Michael F.; Southworth, Jean B.; Hadley, Vaughn; Thibualt, Melissa Wei; Hug, Eugen B.; Hoopes, P. Jack

2004-04-01

136

Environmental impacts on the diversity of methane-cycling microbes and their resultant function  

PubMed Central

Methane is an important anthropogenic greenhouse gas that is produced and consumed in soils by microorganisms responding to micro-environmental conditions. Current estimates show that soil consumption accounts for 5–15% of methane removed from the atmosphere on an annual basis. Recent variability in atmospheric methane concentrations has called into question the reliability of estimates of methane consumption and calls for novel approaches in order to predict future atmospheric methane trends. This review synthesizes the environmental and climatic factors influencing the consumption of methane from the atmosphere by non-wetland, terrestrial soil microorganisms. In particular, we focus on published efforts to connect community composition and diversity of methane-cycling microbial communities to observed rates of methane flux. We find abundant evidence for direct connections between shifts in the methane-cycling microbial community, due to climate and environmental changes, and observed methane flux levels. These responses vary by ecosystem and associated vegetation type. This information will be useful in process-based models of ecosystem methane flux responses to shifts in environmental and climatic parameters. PMID:23966984

Aronson, Emma L.; Allison, Steven D.; Helliker, Brent R.

2013-01-01

137

EFFECTS OF LAND USE CHANGES ON THE FUNCTIONING OF SOILS AND WATERSHEDS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL SAVANNAS: PHASE 2, IMPACTS ON NUTRIENT AND CARBON CYCLES AND TRACE GAS EXCHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This research is funded through an interagency agreement with NASA. The research in this project is contributing to assessments of the effects of land use in central Brazil on: 1) the stocks and cycling rates of carbon and nutrient cycling; 2) the function and structure of soil ...

138

Phylogeny and phylogeography of functional genes shared among seven terrestrial subsurface metagenomes reveal N-cycling and microbial evolutionary relationships  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies on community phylogenetics and phylogeography of microorganisms living in extreme environments are rare. Terrestrial subsurface habitats are valuable for studying microbial biogeographical patterns due to their isolation and the restricted dispersal mechanisms. Since the taxonomic identity of a microorganism does not always correspond well with its functional role in a particular community, the use of taxonomic assignments or patterns may give limited inference on how microbial functions are affected by historical, geographical and environmental factors. With seven metagenomic libraries generated from fracture water samples collected from five South African mines, this study was carried out to (1) screen for ubiquitous functions or pathways of biogeochemical cycling of CH4, S, and N; (2) to characterize the biodiversity represented by the common functional genes; (3) to investigate the subsurface biogeography as revealed by this subset of genes; and (4) to explore the possibility of using metagenomic data for evolutionary study. The ubiquitous functional genes are NarV, NPD, PAPS reductase, NifH, NifD, NifK, NifE, and NifN genes. Although these eight common functional genes were taxonomically and phylogenetically diverse and distinct from each other, the dissimilarity between samples did not correlate strongly with geographical or environmental parameters or residence time of the water. Por genes homologous to those of Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii detected in all metagenomes were deep lineages of Nitrospirae, suggesting that subsurface habitats have preserved ancestral genetic signatures that inform the study of the origin and evolution of prokaryotes. PMID:25400621

Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Cameron, Connor; Magnabosco, Cara; Brown, C. Titus; Schilkey, Faye; Grim, Sharon; Hendrickson, Sarah; Pullin, Michael; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; van Heerden, Esta; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, Tullis C.

2014-01-01

139

c-Myb Regulates Cell Cycle-Dependent Expression of Erbin: An Implication for a Novel Function of Erbin  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we demonstrated the cell cycle periodicity of Erbin expression with the maximal expression of Erbin in G2/M phase. A significant increase in Erbin promoter activity was observed in G2/M phase-synchronized cells. Sequence analysis revealed a c-Myb site in the core promoter region of Erbin. Mutagenesis of c-Myb consensus sequences abrogated the increased Erbin promoter activity in G2/M phase. ChIP and oligonucleotide pull-down assays validated that the recruitment of c-Myb to the consensus sequences was specific. The interaction of c-Myb with c-Myb site in the Erbin promoter was significantly enhanced in G2/M phase. Ectopic overexpression of c-Myb led to the up-regulation of Erbin promoter activity and c-Myb silencing by small interfering RNA significantly decreased Erbin protein level. Transfection of c-Myb rescued Erbin expression that was impaired by c-Myb knockdown. It proves that c-Myb and the c-Myb response element mediate the cell cycle-dependent expression of Erbin. Inactivation of Erbin causes an acceleration of the G1/S transition, the formation of multipolar spindles and abnormal chromosome congression. These results unravel a critical role of c-Myb in promoting Erbin transcription in G2/M phase and also predict an unappreciated function of Erbin in cell cycle progression. PMID:22880131

Zhang, Hao; Qian, Lu; Yu, Ming; Hu, Meiru; Zhang, Ruihong; Wang, Tianyou; Han, Caili; Duan, Huijun; Guo, Ning

2012-01-01

140

Metabolite and isotopomer balancing in the analysis of metabolic cycles: II. Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper (Klapa et al., 1999), we pre- sented a model for the analysis of isotopomer distribu- tions of the TCA cycle intermediates resulting from 13C (or 14C) labeling experiments. Results allow the rigorous determination of the degree of enrichment at specific carbon atoms of metabolites, of the molecular weight distribution of metabolite isotopomers, as well as of

Sung M. Park; Maria I. Klapa; Anthony J. Sinskey; Gregory Stephanopoulos

1999-01-01

141

p53 functions as a cell cycle control protein in osteosarcomas.  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the p53 gene have been associated with a wide range of human tumors, including osteosarcomas. Although it has been shown that wild-type p53 can block the ability of E1a and ras to cotransform primary rodent cells, it is poorly understood why inactivation of the p53 gene is important for tumor formation. We show that overexpression of the gene encoding wild-type p53 blocks the growth of osteosarcoma cells. The growth arrest was determined to be due to an inability of the transfected cells to progress into S phase. This suggests that the role of the p53 gene as an antioncogene may be in controlling the cell cycle in a fashion analogous to the check-point control genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Images PMID:2233717

Diller, L; Kassel, J; Nelson, C E; Gryka, M A; Litwak, G; Gebhardt, M; Bressac, B; Ozturk, M; Baker, S J; Vogelstein, B

1990-01-01

142

Endogenous and exogenous control of ecosystem function: N cycling in headwater streams  

SciTech Connect

Allochthonous inputs act as resource subsidies to many ecosystems, where they exert strong influences on metabolism and material cycling. At the same time, metabolic theory proposes endogenous thermal control independent of resource supply. To address the relative importance of exogenous and endogenous influences, we quantified spatial and temporal variation in ecosystem metabolism and nitrogen (N) uptake using seasonal releases of {sup 15}N as nitrate in six streams differing in riparian-stream interaction and metabolic character. Nitrate removal was quantified using a nutrient spiraling approach based on measurements of downstream decline in {sup 15}N flux. Respiration (R) and gross primary production (GPP) were measured with whole-stream diel oxygen budgets. Uptake and metabolism metrics were addressed as z scores relative to site means to assess temporal variation. In open-canopied streams, areal uptake (U; {micro}g N {center_dot} m{sup -2} {center_dot} s{sup -1}) was closely related to GPP, metabolic rates increased with temperature, and R was accurately predicted by metabolic scaling relationships. In forested streams, N spiraling was not related to GPP; instead, uptake velocity (v{sub f}; mm/s) was closely related to R. In contrast to open-canopied streams, N uptake and metabolic activity were negatively correlated to temperature and poorly described by scaling laws. We contend that streams differ along a gradient of exogenous and endogenous control that relates to the relative influences of resource subsidies and in-stream energetics as determinants of seasonal patterns of metabolism and N cycling. Our research suggests that temporal variation in the propagation of ecological influence between adjacent systems generates phases when ecosystems are alternatively characterized as endogenously and exogenously controlled.

Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Valett, H. Maurice [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Thomas, Steve [University of Nebraska; Webster, Jackson [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Dahm, Cliff [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Fellows, Christine [Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia; Crenshaw, Chelsea [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Peterson, Chris G. [Loyola University

2008-01-01

143

The potential of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) for detection of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in wine.  

PubMed

The off-flavor of "tainted wine" is attributed mainly to the presence of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in the wine. In the present study the atmospheric pressure gas-phase ion chemistry, pertaining to ion mobility spectrometry, of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole was investigated. In positive ion mode the dominant species is a monomer ion with a lower intensity dimer species with reduced mobility values (K(0)) of 1.58 and 1.20 cm(2)V(-1) s(-1), respectively. In negative mode the ion with K(0) =1.64 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) is ascribed to a trichlorophenoxide species while the ions with K(0) =1.48 and 1.13 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) are attributed to chloride attachment adducts of a TCA monomer and dimer, respectively. The limit of detection of the system for 2,4,6-TCA dissolved in dichloromethane deposited on a filter paper was 2.1 ?g and 1.7 ppm in the gas phase. In ethanol and in wine the limit of detection is higher implying that pre-concentration and pre-separation are required before IMS can be used to monitor the level of TCA in wine. PMID:22483899

Karpas, Zeev; Guamán, Ana V; Calvo, Daniel; Pardo, Antonio; Marco, Santiago

2012-05-15

144

Draft Genome Sequence of Calcium-Dependent Paenibacillus sp. Strain TCA20, Isolated from a Hot Spring Containing a High Concentration of Calcium Ions  

PubMed Central

Calcium-dependent Paenibacillus sp. strain TCA20 was isolated from a water sample of a hot spring containing a high concentration of calcium ions. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this bacterium, which may be the basis for the research of calcium ion homeostasis. PMID:25189580

Fujinami, Shun; Takeda-Yano, Kiyoko; Onodera, Takefumi; Satoh, Katsuya; Sano, Motohiko; Takahashi, Yuka; Narumi, Issay

2014-01-01

145

Functional electrical stimulation cycling improves body composition, metabolic and neural factors in persons  

E-print Network

was used to assess motor and sensory function. An oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and insulin- response test-ray absorptiometry. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) neu- rological classification of SCI test battery was performed to assess blood glucose control. Additional metabolic variables including plasma cholesterol

Griffin, Lisa

146

Life-cycle and functional cytology of the hepatopancreatic cells of Astacus astacus (Crustacea, Decapoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatopancreas of the freshwater crayfish Astacus astacus was reinvestigated by means of light and electron microscopy using refined techniques of tissue preservation. The results contribute significantly to the solution of controversial problems of the decapod hepatopancreas such as cell genealogy, cellular interdependences, elimination of senescent cells and functional interpretation of the cell types. The three mature cell types of

G. Vogt

1994-01-01

147

Functioning of land-water ecotones in relation to nutrient cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results of the study on the functioning of the littoral zone of the Gooimeer, The Netherlands, are presented. The results comprise data on the chemical composition of the open water and the aquatic littoral zone, the composition of phytoplankton, metaphyton and epiphyton. On the basis of these data, the Gooimeer littoral zone is characterized as an eutrophic land-water ecotone

Henk de Haan; Henricus T. S. Boschker; Kerst Buis; Thomas E. Cappenberg

1993-01-01

148

Some evidence on determinants of fuel economy as a function of driving cycle and test type  

SciTech Connect

Statistical methods are used with 107 vehicles whose fuel economy was presented and reported for five test types in a single publication by Consumers Union (CU) for 1986--1988 vehicles. Standard loglinear statistical formulations (i.e., multiplicative models of interactions) are used with data from this and supplementary sources to develop coefficients estimating the percent fuel economy gain per percent change in engine/vehicle design characteristic. The coefficients are developed for the five different test conditions evaluated by CU and are compared with each other on the basis of attributes of the tests. The insights of engineering models are used to develop expectations regarding the shift in size of coefficients as driving cycles change. In both the engineering models and the statistical model, the effect of weight is estimated to be higher in urban driving than in highway driving. For two test categories -- field tests and dynamometer tests -- the benefits of weight reduction are statistically estimated to be greatest in urban driving conditions. The effect on idle fuel flow rate of designing vehicles to hold performance roughly constant by maintaining power per kilogram and/or displacement per kilogram is examined, and its implication for the size of the weight effect is simply approximated from Sovran`s 1983 engineering model results. The fuel-economy-decreasing effect of the desire for performance is estimated to be somewhat larger in the statistical analysis than in the NAS study, when engine technology is held constant.

Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.

1993-08-01

149

Dosage-Sensitive Function of RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED and Convergent Epigenetic Control Are Required during the Arabidopsis Life Cycle  

PubMed Central

The plant life cycle alternates between two distinct multi-cellular generations, the reduced gametophytes and the dominant sporophyte. Little is known about how generation-specific cell fate, differentiation, and development are controlled by the core regulators of the cell cycle. In Arabidopsis, RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED (RBR), an evolutionarily ancient cell cycle regulator, controls cell proliferation, differentiation, and regulation of a subset of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) genes and METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1) in the male and female gametophytes, as well as cell fate establishment in the male gametophyte. Here we demonstrate that RBR is also essential for cell fate determination in the female gametophyte, as revealed by loss of cell-specific marker expression in all the gametophytic cells that lack RBR. Maintenance of genome integrity also requires RBR, because diploid plants heterozygous for rbr (rbr/RBR) produce an abnormal portion of triploid offspring, likely due to gametic genome duplication. While the sporophyte of the diploid mutant plants phenocopied wild type due to the haplosufficiency of RBR, genetic analysis of tetraploid plants triplex for rbr (rbr/rbr/rbr/RBR) revealed that RBR has a dosage-dependent pleiotropic effect on sporophytic development, trichome differentiation, and regulation of PRC2 subunit genes CURLY LEAF (CLF) and VERNALIZATION 2 (VRN2), and MET1 in leaves. There were, however, no obvious cell cycle and cell proliferation defects in these plant tissues, suggesting that a single functional RBR copy in tetraploids is capable of maintaining normal cell division but is not sufficient for distinct differentiation and developmental processes. Conversely, in leaves of mutants in sporophytic PRC2 subunits, trichome differentiation was also affected and expression of RBR and MET1 was reduced, providing evidence for a RBR-PRC2-MET1 regulatory feedback loop involved in sporophyte development. Together, dosage-sensitive RBR function and its genetic interaction with PRC2 genes and MET1 must have been recruited during plant evolution to control distinct generation-specific cell fate, differentiation, and development. PMID:20585548

Johnston, Amal J.; Kirioukhova, Olga; Barrell, Philippa J.; Rutten, Twan; Moore, James M.; Baskar, Ramamurthy; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Gruissem, Wilhelm

2010-01-01

150

The RNA polymerase trigger loop functions in all three phases of the transcription cycle.  

PubMed

The trigger loop (TL) forms a conserved element in the RNA polymerase active centre that functions in the elongation phase of transcription. Here, we show that the TL also functions in transcription initiation and termination. Using recombinant variants of RNA polymerase from Pyrococcus furiosus and a reconstituted transcription system, we demonstrate that the TL is essential for initial RNA synthesis until a complete DNA-RNA hybrid is formed. The archaeal TL is further important for transcription fidelity during nucleotide incorporation, but not for RNA cleavage during proofreading. A conserved glutamine residue in the TL binds the 2'-OH group of the nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) to discriminate NTPs from dNTPs. The TL also prevents aberrant transcription termination at non-terminator sites. PMID:23737452

Fouqueau, Thomas; Zeller, Mirijam E; Cheung, Alan C; Cramer, Patrick; Thomm, Michael

2013-08-01

151

Prognostic value and functional consequences of cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1 loss in medulloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Background The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 functions during normal cerebellar development and has demonstrated tumor suppressor functions in mouse models of medulloblastoma. Because P27 loss is associated with increased proliferation, we assessed whether P27 absence in surgical medulloblastoma specimens correlated with response to therapy in pediatric patients enrolled in two large studies. Additionally, we examined the functional consequence of p27Kip1 loss in the SmoA1 medulloblastoma model to distinguish whether p27Kip1 reduces tumor initiation or slows tumor progression. Findings Analysis of 87 well-characterized patient samples identified a threshold of P27 staining at which significant P27 loss correlated with poor patient outcome. The same criteria, applied to a second test set of tissues from 141 patients showed no difference in survival between patients with minimal P27 staining and others, suggesting that P27 levels alone are not a sufficient prognostic indicator for identifying standard-risk patients that may fail standard therapy. These findings were in contrast to prior experiments completed using a mouse medulloblastoma model. Analysis of cerebellar tumor incidence in compound mutant mice carrying the activated Smoothened (SmoA1) allele that were heterozygous or nullizygous for p27Kip1 revealed that p27Kip1 loss did not alter the frequency of tumor initiation. Tumors haploinsufficient or nullizygous for p27Kip1 were, however, more invasive and displayed a higher proliferative index, suggesting p27Kip1 loss may contribute to SmoA1 medulloblastoma progression. Conclusions These studies revealed P27 loss affects medulloblastoma progression rather than initiation and that this putative biomarker should not be used for stratifying children with medulloblastoma to risk-based therapeutic regimens. PMID:24252239

2013-01-01

152

Effect of Yoga on Autonomic Functions and Psychological Status During Both Phases of Menstrual Cycle in Young Healthy Females  

PubMed Central

Context: Premenstrual stress affects 75% of women of childbearing age and yoga has been found to be beneficial in many psycho-somatic disorders. Aims: To investigate the effect of integrated yoga on autonomic parameters and psychological well-being during both pre and post phases of menstrual cycle in healthy young female subjects. Settings and Design: Present study is a randomized control trial and was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India. Material and Methods: Fifty apparently healthy females in the age group of 18-20 years were randomized into two groups: Group I (n=25) consisted of subjects who practiced yoga 35-40 minutes per day, six times per week for the duration of three menstrual cycles. Training was given by qualified yoga instructor. Group II (n=25) subjects acted as controls. Following parameters were recorded at the beginning and after completion of three menstrual cycles in all the subjects: Height, weight (BW), Resting Heart Rate (HR), Resting Systolic (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), parasympathetic reactivity tests including Expiration-Inspiration Ratio (E: I ratio) and 30:15 ratio, sympathetic reactivity tests including BP changes due to Isometric Hand Grip (IHG) exercise, and Cold Pressor Test (CPT). Assessment of psychological status was done by administering DIPAS (Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences) inventories of Anger self report scale, Trait Anxiety, Sense of well-being and Depression scale. Statistical Analysis: Intra-group comparison of physiological parameters was done by using paired ‘t’ test, whereas intra-group comparison of non-parameteric data such as scores of anxiety, depression, anger and sense of well-being was done by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Inter-group comparison of parameters was done by Students ‘t’ test for parametric tests and Mann-Whitney ‘U’ test for non-parameteric tests. Results: There was significantly higher BW, resting SBP, DBP, sympathetic activity and blunting of parasympathetic reactivity and also, significantly higher scores of anger, depression, anxiety and decreased score of well-being in premenstrual phase as compared to postmenstrual phase in both the groups in initial cycle. There was significantly higher percentage decrease in BW, HR, SBP & DBP in yoga group as compared to control group in both the phases from initial to second and onwards between second and third menstrual cycle. Also, decrease in anger, depression and anxiety and increase in well-being score was significant in yoga group as compared to control group from initial to second and third cycle in premenstrual phase while the change was significant only in depression score in postmenstrual phase. Conclusion: Our study shows that there was significant alteration of autonomic functions and psychological status in premenstrual phase when compared with postmenstrual phase in young healthy females. Also, regular practice of yoga has beneficial effects on both phases of menstrual cycle by bringing parasympathodominance and psychological well-being probably by balancing neuro-endocrinal axis. PMID:24298457

Kanojia, Sarita; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Gandhi, Asha; Kapoor, Raj; Kukreja, Ajay; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar

2013-01-01

153

The tricarboxylic acid cycle in Shewanella oneidensis is independent of Fur and RyhB control  

SciTech Connect

It is well established in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae that strains harboring mutations in the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) are unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) compounds, due to the down-regulation of key TCA cycle enzymes, such as AcnA and SdhABCD. This down-regulation is mediated by a Fur-regulated small regulatory RNA named RyhB. In this study, we showed that a fur deletion mutant of the ?-proteobacterium S. oneidensis could utilize TCA compounds. In addition, expression of the TCA cycle genes acnA and sdhA was not down-regulated in the mutant. To explore this observation further, we identified a ryhB gene in Shewanella species and demonstrated its expression experimentally. Further experiments suggested that RyhB was up-regulated in fur mutant, but that AcnA and SdhA were not controlled by RyhB. This work delineates an important difference of the Fur-RyhB regulatory cycle between S. oneidensis and other ?-proteobacteria.

Yang, Yunfeng; McCue, Lee Ann; Parsons, Andrea B.; Feng, Sheng; Zhou, Jizhong

2010-10-26

154

Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with {sup 31}P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by {sup 13}C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found to be similar in DMEM to those in KRB. And, the correlation of total PC flux with insulin secretion rates in DMEM was found to be congruous with the correlation in KRB. Together, these results suggest that signaling mechanisms associated with both TCA cycle flux and with anaplerotic flux, but not ATP production, may be responsible for the enhanced rates of insulin secretion in more complex, and physiologically-relevant media.

Cline, Gary W., E-mail: gary.cline@yale.edu [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)] [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Papas, Klearchos K. [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)] [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

2011-11-11

155

The evolutionary armistice: attachment bonds moderate the function of ovulatory cycle adaptations.  

PubMed

Natural selection modified the attachment-behavioral system to bond adult mating partners in early members of the genus Homo, thus facilitating increased investment, especially paternal investment, in offspring. Previously existing adaptations that fostered intersexual conflict (e.g., ovulatory adaptations) could have threatened attachment bonds; therefore, the attachment-behavioral system might have evolved the ability to mute or refocus such adaptations for the purpose of strengthening the bond. Two studies offer support for this prediction. Women who were strongly attached to their romantic partner revealed positive associations of fertility with reports of romantic physical intimacy, but these associations were negative among unbonded women. This moderational effect of attachment bond strength was robust beyond dispositional attachment anxiety and avoidance, relationship satisfaction, relationship commitment, and partner physical attractiveness, none of which revealed robust moderational effects. Findings highlight how researchers can use the timeline of hominid evolution (i.e., phylogeny) as a tool to complement functional, adaptationist hypotheses. PMID:21933989

Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

2012-02-01

156

F3-LAYER Seasonal Variations Near the Southern Crest of the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly as a Function of Solar Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of an additional F3-layer has been reported at Brazilian, Indian and Asian sectors by several investigators. In this paper, we report F3-layer seasonal variations carried out at São José dos Campos (23.2 S, 45.0 W; dip latitude 17.6 S), near the southern crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA), Brazil, as a function of solar cycle. The period from September 2000 to August 2001 is used as representative of high solar activity (HSA) and the period from January 2006 to December 2006 as representative of low solar activity (LSA). This investigation shows that the frequency of occurrence of the F3-layer during HSA is 11 times more than during LSA.

Fagundes, P. R.; Klausner, V.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Sahai, Y.; Abalde, J. R.

2011-12-01

157

A functional and morphological approach to evaluate the vertical migration of estuarine intertidal nematodes during a tidal cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested herein the hypothesis that exposure time significantly contributes to the vertical distribution profile of nematodes during a tidal cycle as a function of distinct feeding and locomotion behaviors, conditioned by body morphology. We showed that the vertical distribution profile of the slender with filiform tail, numerically dominant Terschellingia longicaudata is in fact significantly correlated with sediment changes induced by tidal variation. Conversely, none of the other nematode species showed unequivocal evidence of vertical migration. Horizontal spatial heterogeneity also influenced the vertical distribution of nematode associations, probably as a response to varying temperature and desiccation levels at the sediment surface. The resulting vertical profiles for individual or species groups are a trade-off among locomotory and feeding strategies and concordant morphological adaptations.

Brustolin, M. C.; Thomas, M. C.; Lana, P. C.

2013-03-01

158

Multiscale Modeling of Calcium Cycling in Cardiac Ventricular Myocyte: Macroscopic Consequences of Microscopic Dyadic Function  

PubMed Central

In cardiac ventricular myocytes, calcium (Ca) release occurs at distinct structures (dyads) along t-tubules, where L-type Ca channels (LCCs) appose sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca release channels (RyR2s). We developed a model of the cardiac ventricular myocyte that simulates local stochastic Ca release processes. At the local Ca release level, the model reproduces Ca spark properties. At the whole-cell level, the model reproduces the action potential, Ca currents, and Ca transients. Changes in microscopic dyadic properties (e.g., during detubulation in heart failure) affect whole-cell behavior in complex ways, which we investigated by simulating changes in the dyadic volume and number of LCCs/RyR2s in the dyad, and effects of calsequestrin (CSQN) as a Ca buffer (CSQN buffer) or a luminal Ca sensor (CSQN regulator). We obtained the following results: 1), Increased dyadic volume and reduced LCCs/RyR2s decrease excitation-contraction coupling gain and cause asynchrony of SR Ca release, and interdyad coupling partially compensates for the reduced synchrony. 2), Impaired CSQN buffer depresses Ca transients without affecting the synchrony of SR Ca release. 3), When CSQN regulator function is impaired, interdyad coupling augments diastolic Ca release activity to form Ca waves and long-lasting Ca release events. PMID:21689523

Gaur, Namit; Rudy, Yoram

2011-01-01

159

A Functional Analysis of the Influence of ?3-adrenoceptors on the Rat Micturition Cycle  

PubMed Central

Dysfunctions of the lower urinary tract, such as overactive bladder syndrome and incontinence, are the product of storage failure. Spontaneous regional bladder wall movements [nonmicturition contractions (NMCs)] are proposed to generate afferent activity that signals volume status to the central nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system, via activation of ?-adrenoceptors (?-ARs), causes bladder relaxation and promotes urine storage. We hypothesized that ?-AR regulation of micturition is mediated by suppression of NMCs. We used an unanesthetized, decerebrate, artificially perfused rat preparation that allows simultaneous cystometry with external urethral sphincter and pelvic afferent nerve recordings. Systemic isoprenaline (10 nM to 1 µM) increased intervoid interval and bladder compliance accompanied by a decrease in NMC amplitude, voiding pressure, and voiding threshold. Isoprenaline also reduced arterial pressure and increased heart rate. The ?3-AR agonist mirabegron (10–100 nM) increased intervoid interval and bladder compliance and reduced NMC amplitude, yet preserved active voiding function and had no effect on arterial pressure or heart rate. All of these effects of mirabegron were blocked by the selective ?3-AR antagonist N-[[3-[(2S)-2-hydroxy-3-[[2-[4-[(phenylsulfonyl)amino] phenyl]ethyl]amino]propoxy]phenyl]methyl]-acetamide (L748,337), which alone shortened intervoid interval and decreased bladder compliance—suggesting the presence of a basal ?3-AR–mediated sympathetic tone. Similar effects of mirabegron were seen in an acetic acid–sensitized bladder preparation and in preparations after loss of spinobulbar reflex bladder control. The ?3-AR–mediated increase in intervoid interval correlated with increased bladder compliance but not with the decrease in NMC amplitude. These findings indicate that ?3-adrenoceptors have a selective effect that improves urine storage by increasing compliance without affecting the active components of voiding. PMID:24008334

Sadananda, Prajni; Drake, Marcus J.; Paton, Julian F. R.

2013-01-01

160

A functional analysis of the influence of ?3-adrenoceptors on the rat micturition cycle.  

PubMed

Dysfunctions of the lower urinary tract, such as overactive bladder syndrome and incontinence, are the product of storage failure. Spontaneous regional bladder wall movements [nonmicturition contractions (NMCs)] are proposed to generate afferent activity that signals volume status to the central nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system, via activation of ?-adrenoceptors (?-ARs), causes bladder relaxation and promotes urine storage. We hypothesized that ?-AR regulation of micturition is mediated by suppression of NMCs. We used an unanesthetized, decerebrate, artificially perfused rat preparation that allows simultaneous cystometry with external urethral sphincter and pelvic afferent nerve recordings. Systemic isoprenaline (10 nM to 1 µM) increased intervoid interval and bladder compliance accompanied by a decrease in NMC amplitude, voiding pressure, and voiding threshold. Isoprenaline also reduced arterial pressure and increased heart rate. The ?3-AR agonist mirabegron (10-100 nM) increased intervoid interval and bladder compliance and reduced NMC amplitude, yet preserved active voiding function and had no effect on arterial pressure or heart rate. All of these effects of mirabegron were blocked by the selective ?3-AR antagonist N-[[3-[(2S)-2-hydroxy-3-[[2-[4-[(phenylsulfonyl)amino] phenyl]ethyl]amino]propoxy]phenyl]methyl]-acetamide (L748,337), which alone shortened intervoid interval and decreased bladder compliance-suggesting the presence of a basal ?3-AR-mediated sympathetic tone. Similar effects of mirabegron were seen in an acetic acid-sensitized bladder preparation and in preparations after loss of spinobulbar reflex bladder control. The ?3-AR-mediated increase in intervoid interval correlated with increased bladder compliance but not with the decrease in NMC amplitude. These findings indicate that ?3-adrenoceptors have a selective effect that improves urine storage by increasing compliance without affecting the active components of voiding. PMID:24008334

Sadananda, Prajni; Drake, Marcus J; Paton, Julian F R; Pickering, Anthony E

2013-11-01

161

Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 is epigenetically silenced and functions as a tumor suppressor in oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The role of epigenetic inactivation of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) and its functions in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that SFRP2 mRNA was detected in 97.96% of tumor-adjacent normal tissues, while its expression was only detected in 16.33% of the tumor samples. In addition, the loss of SFRP2 expression was associated with hypermethylation of its promoter. As expected, the overexpression of SFRP2 in OSCC cell lines (Tca8113) suppressed cell proliferation and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase. Overexpression of SFRP2 also effectively repressed tumor growth in xenograft animals. Mechanistic investigations revealed that SFRP2 inhibited the development of OSCC in vitro and in vivo through an increase in the expression levels of glycogen synthase kinase-3? and a decrease in the expression level of cyclin D1, a direct read-out gene of active Wnt signaling. In addition, an increase in the expression of ?-catenin was observed in the Tca8113/SFRP2 cells and in the animal models overexpressing SFRP2. Therefore, the results of the present study provide insight into the role of SFRP2 as a functional tumor suppressor in the development of OSCC through inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway. Further studies on the precise mechanisms underlying the inhibition of Wnt signaling by SFRP2 and its association with ?-catenin are required. PMID:25189527

XIAO, CAN; WANG, LILI; ZHU, LIFANG; ZHANG, CHENPING; ZHOU, JIANHUA

2014-01-01

162

Secreted frizzled?related protein 2 is epigenetically silenced and functions as a tumor suppressor in oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The role of epigenetic inactivation of secreted frizzled?related protein 2 (SFRP2) and its functions in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that SFRP2 mRNA was detected in 97.96% of tumor?adjacent normal tissues, while its expression was only detected in 16.33% of the tumor samples. In addition, the loss of SFRP2 expression was associated with hypermethylation of its promoter. As expected, the overexpression of SFRP2 in OSCC cell lines (Tca8113) suppressed cell proliferation and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase. Overexpression of SFRP2 also effectively repressed tumor growth in xenograft animals. Mechanistic investigations revealed that SFRP2 inhibited the development of OSCC in vitro and in vivo through an increase in the expression levels of glycogen synthase kinase?3? and a decrease in the expression level of cyclin D1, a direct read?out gene of active Wnt signaling. In addition, an increase in the expression of ??catenin was observed in the Tca8113/SFRP2 cells and in the animal models overexpressing SFRP2. Therefore, the results of the present study provide insight into the role of SFRP2 as a functional tumor suppressor in the development of OSCC through inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway. Further studies on the precise mechanisms underlying the inhibition of Wnt signaling by SFRP2 and its association with ??catenin are required. PMID:25189527

Xiao, Can; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Lifang; Zhang, Chenping; Zhou, Jianhua

2014-11-01

163

Outcomes of a Home Cycling Program Using Functional Electrical Stimulation or Passive Motion for Children With Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Children with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at risk for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular complications. Stationary cycling using functional electrical stimulation (FES) or passive motion has been suggested to address these complications. The purpose of this case series is to report the outcomes of a 6-month at-home cycling program for 4 children with SCI. Methods: Two children cycled with FES and 2 cycled passively at home for 1 hour, 3 times per week. Outcome Measures: Data collected included bone mineral density of the left femoral neck, distal femur, and proximal tibia; quadriceps and hamstring muscle volume; stimulated quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength; a fasting lipid profile; and heart rate and oxygen consumption during incremental upper extremity ergometry testing. Results: The 2 children cycling with FES and 1 child cycling passively exhibited improved bone mineral density, muscle volume, stimulated quadriceps strength, and lower resting heart rate. For the second child cycling passively, few changes were realized. Overall, the lipid results were inconsistent, with some positive and some negative changes seen. Conclusions: This case series suggests that cycling with or without FES may have positive health benefits and was a practical home exercise option for these children with SCI. PMID:18581671

Johnston, Therese E; Smith, Brian T; Oladeji, Oluwabunmi; Betz, Randal R; Lauer, Richard T

2008-01-01

164

Extra-cell cycle regulatory functions of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and CDK inhibitor proteins contribute to brain development and neurological disorders  

PubMed Central

In developing brains, neural progenitors exhibit cell cycle-dependent nuclear movement within the ventricular zone [interkinetic nuclear migration (INM)] and actively proliferate to produce daughter progenitors and/or neurons, whereas newly generated neurons exit from the cell cycle and begin pial surface-directed migration and maturation. Dysregulation of the balance between the proliferation and the cell cycle exit in neural progenitors is one of the major causes of microcephaly (small brain). Recent studies indicate that cell cycle machinery influences not only the proliferation but also INM in neural progenitors. Furthermore, several cell cycle-related proteins, including p27kip1, p57kip2, Cdk5, and Rb, regulate the migration of neurons in the postmitotic state, suggesting that the growth arrest confers dual functions on cell cycle regulators. Consistently, several types of microcephaly occur in conjunction with neuronal migration disorders, such as periventricular heterotopia and lissencephaly. However, cell cycle re-entry by disturbance of growth arrest in mature neurons is thought to trigger neuronal cell death in Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we introduce the cell cycle protein-mediated regulation of two types of nuclear movement, INM and neuronal migration, during cerebral cortical development, and discuss the roles of growth arrest in cortical development and neurological disorders. PMID:23294285

Kawauchi, Takeshi; Shikanai, Mima; Kosodo, Yoichi

2013-01-01

165

Hair Cycle-Dependent Changes in Skin Immune Functions: Anagen-Associated Depression of Sensitization for Contact Hypersensitivity in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess whether hair follicle cycling influences skin immunity, we examined the association between highly synchronized hair follicle cycling and experimental contact hypersensitivity in C57BL\\/6 mice. Hair cycle synchronization was performed by depilation of hair shafts on the back with telogen skin. Mice were sensitized on the lower back skin with picryl chloride between 0 and 25 d, after anagen

Udo Hofmann; Yoshiki Tokura; Takafumi Nishijima; Masahiro Takigawa; Ralf Paus

1996-01-01

166

Various players in the nitrogen cycle: Diversity and functions of the microorganisms involved in nitrification and denitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms play important roles in the nitrogen cycles of various ecosystems. Research has revealed that a greater diversity of microorganisms is involved in the nitrogen cycle than previously understood. It is becoming clear that denitrifying fungi, nitrifying archaea, anammox bacteria, aerobic denitrifying bacteria and heterotrophic nitrifying microorganisms are key players in the nitrogen cycle. Studies have revealed a major contribution

Masahito Hayatsu; Kanako Tago; Masanori Saito

2008-01-01

167

An Assessment of the Efficacy and Safety of CROSS Technique with 100% TCA in the Management of Ice Pick Acne Scars  

PubMed Central

Background: Chemical reconstruction of skin scars (CROSS) is a technique using high concentrations of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) focally on atrophic acne scars to induce inflammation followed by collagenisation. This can lead to reduction in the appearance of scars and cosmetic improvement. Aims: The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the safety of the CROSS technique, using 100% TCA, for atrophic ice pick acne scars. Settings and Design: Open prospective study. Material and Methods: Twelve patients with predominant atrophic ice pick post acne scars were treated with the CROSS technique, using 100% TCA, applied with a wooden toothpick, at two weekly intervals for four sittings. Efficacy was assessed on the basis of the physician’s clinical assessment, photographic evaluation at each sitting and patient’s feedback after the fourth treatment, and at the three-month and six-month follow-up period, after the last treatment. Results: More than 70% improvement was seen in eight out of ten patients evaluated and good results (50 – 70% improvement) were observed in the remaining two patients. No significant side effects were noted. Transient hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation was observed in one patient each. Physician’s findings were in conformity with the patient’s assessment. Three months after the last treatment, one patient noted a decrease in improvement with no further improvement even at the six-month follow-up period. Conclusion: The CROSS technique with 100% TCA is a safe, efficacious, cost-effective and minimally invasive technique for the management of ice pick acne scars that are otherwise generally difficult to treat. In few patients the improvement may not be sustained, probably due to inadequate or delayed collagenisation. PMID:21031068

Bhardwaj, Deepali; Khunger, Niti

2010-01-01

168

Effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 gene silencing on the proliferation, invasion and migration of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) gene silencing on the proliferation, migration and invasion of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113. RNA interference was used to knock down the expression of ADAM10 in the TCA8113 cell line and the proliferation, migration and invasive ability of the treated cells were observed in vitro. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and E-cadherin in the treated cells were determined by western blot analysis. The proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of cells in the ADAM10 siRNA-treated group were significantly lower than those in the control groups (P<0.05). In addition, compared with the control groups, the expression levels of EGFR and E-cadherin in the ADAM10 siRNA-treated cells were significantly decreased (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.05), respectively. These results suggested that ADAM10 is important in regulating the proliferation, invasion and migration of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113 and that the mechanism may, at least in part, be associated with the upregulation of EGFR and the downregulation of E-cadherin. PMID:25333745

SHAO, YUAN; SHA, XIAO-YING; BAI, YAN-XIA; QUAN, FANG; WU, SHENG-LI

2015-01-01

169

Effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 gene silencing on the proliferation, invasion and migration of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) gene silencing on the proliferation, migration and invasion of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113. RNA interference was used to knock down the expression of ADAM10 in the TCA8113 cell line and the proliferation, migration and invasive ability of the treated cells were observed in vitro. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and E?cadherin in the treated cells were determined by western blot analysis. The proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of cells in the ADAM10 siRNA?treated group were significantly lower than those in the control groups (P<0.05). In addition, compared with the control groups, the expression levels of EGFR and E?cadherin in the ADAM10 siRNA?treated cells were significantly decreased (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.05), respectively. These results suggested that ADAM10 is important in regulating the proliferation, invasion and migra-tion of the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line TCA8113 and that the mechanism may, at least in part, be associated with the upregulation of EGFR and the downregulation of E?cadherin. PMID:25333745

Shao, Yuan; Sha, Xiao-Ying; Bai, Yan-Xia; Quan, Fang; Wu, Sheng-Li

2015-01-01

170

The Functional Organization and Control of Plant Respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The respiratory pathways of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and mitochondrial electron transport chain (miETC) are central features of carbon metabolism and bioenergetics in aerobic organisms. Respiration is essential for growth, maintenance, and carbon balance of all plant cells. Although the majority of respiratory enzymes are common to all organisms, plant respiration has evolved as a complex metabolic network

William C. Plaxton; Florencio E. Podestá

2006-01-01

171

Solar Wind Helium Abundance as a Function of Speed and Heliographic Latitude: Variation through a Solar Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a study of the variation of the relative abundance of helium to hydrogen in the solar wind as a function of solar wind speed and heliographic latitude over the previous solar cycle. The average values of A(sub He), the ratio of helium to hydrogen number densities, are calculated in 25 speed intervals over 27-day Carrington rotations using Faraday Cup observations from the Wind spacecraft between 1995 and 2005. The higher speed and time resolution of this study compared to an earlier work with the Wind observations has led to the discovery of three new aspects of A(sub He), modulation during solar minimum from mid-1995 to mid-1997. First, we find that for solar wind speeds between 350 and 415 km/s, A(sub He), varies with a clear six-month periodicity, with a minimum value at the heliographic equatorial plane and a typical gradient of 0.01 per degree in latitude. For the slow wind this is a 30% effect. We suggest that the latitudinal gradient may be due to an additional dependence of coronal proton flux on coronal field strength or the stability of coronal loops. Second, once the gradient is subtracted, we find that A(sub He), is a remarkably linear function of solar wind speed. Finally, we identify a vanishing speed, at which A(sub He), is zero, is 259 km/s and note that this speed corresponds to the minimum solar wind speed observed at one AU. The vanishing speed may be related to previous theoretical work in which enhancements of coronal helium lead to stagnation of the escaping proton flux. During solar maximum the A(sub He), dependences on speed and latitude disappear, and we interpret this as evidence of two source regions for slow solar wind in the ecliptic plane, one being the solar minimum streamer belt and the other likely being active regions.

Kasper, J. C.; Stenens, M. L.; Stevens, M. L.; Lazarus, A. J.; Steinberg, J. T.; Ogilvie, Keith W.

2006-01-01

172

Effect of Chronic Renal Failure on Cardiac Contractile Function, Calcium Cycling, and Gene Expression of Proteins Important for Calcium Homeostasis in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic renal failure frequently develop cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs are still unclear. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 5\\/6 nephrectomy and studied for their isolated myocyte function, calcium cycling, and gene expression of proteins important in calcium ho- meostasis after 4 wk. Comparable rats subjected to suprarenal aortic banding for

DAVID KENNEDY; EIAD OMRAN; SANKARIDRUG M. PERIYASAMY; JAMES C. WILLEY; DEEPAK MALHOTRA; ZIJIAN XIE; JOSEPH I. SHAPIRO

2003-01-01

173

Simulation of Marine Nitrogen Cycling as Function of Atmospheric Oxygen: Results of a Coupled C,N,P,O,S Biogeochemical Model Including d15N  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioavailable nitrogen is a critical limiting nutrient in the modern marine biosphere. We expect that the rate of denitrification may have been higher in the geologic past due to decreased atmospheric O2 and expanded ocean anoxia. To examine the consequences of this idea, we present numerical simulations of coupled carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, and sulfur cycling as a function of

S. J. Romaniello; L. A. Derry

2008-01-01

174

Color-coded measures of myocardial velocity throughout the cardiac cycle by tissue Doppler imaging to quantify regional left ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

TDI is a new echocardiographic technique that calculates and displays color-coded myocardial velocity on-line. To determine the feasibility of endocardial velocity throughout the cardiac cycle as a means to quantify regional function, 20 normal subjects aged 30 ± 5 years and 12 patients with heart disease aged 62 ± 17 years were studied with a prototype TDI system. TDI M-mode

John Gorcsan; Vijay K. Gulati; William A. Mandarino; William E. Katz

1996-01-01

175

Development of a whole community genome amplification-assisted DNA microarray method to detect functional genes involved in the nitrogen cycle.  

PubMed

A novel DNA microarray analysis targeting key functional genes involved in most nitrogen cycling reactions was developed to comprehensively analyze microbial populations associated with the nitrogen cycle. The developed microarray contained 876 oligonucleotide probes based on the nucleotide sequences of the nif, amo, hao/hzo, nap, nar, nirK, nirS, nrf, cnor, qnor and nos genes. An analytical method combining detection by the designed microarray with whole community genome amplification was then applied to monitor the nitrogen cycling microorganisms in river water and wastewater treatment sludge samples. The developed method revealed that nitrogen cycling microorganisms in river water appeared to become less diverse in response to input of effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Additionally, the nitrogen cycling community associated with anaerobic ammonium oxidation and partial nitrification reactors could be reasonably analyzed by the developed method. However, the results obtained for two activated sludge samples from municipal wastewater treatment plants with almost equivalent wastewater treatment performance differed greatly from each other. These results suggested that the developed method is useful for comprehensive analysis of nitrogen cycling microorganisms, although its applicability to complex samples with abundant untargeted populations should be further examined. PMID:25103865

Inoue, Daisuke; Pang, Junqin; Matsuda, Masami; Sei, Kazunari; Nishida, Kei; Ike, Michihiko

2014-11-01

176

Elementary Flux Modes Analysis of Functional Domain Networks Allows a Better Metabolic Pathway Interpretation  

PubMed Central

Metabolic network analysis is an important step for the functional understanding of biological systems. In these networks, enzymes are made of one or more functional domains often involved in different catalytic activities. Elementary flux mode (EFM) analysis is a method of choice for the topological studies of these enzymatic networks. In this article, we propose to use an EFM approach on networks that encompass available knowledge on structure-function. We introduce a new method that allows to represent the metabolic networks as functional domain networks and provides an application of the algorithm for computing elementary flux modes to analyse them. Any EFM that can be represented using the classical representation can be represented using our functional domain network representation but the fine-grained feature of functional domain networks allows to highlight new connections in EFMs. This methodology is applied to the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) of Bacillus subtilis, and compared to the classical analyses. This new method of analysis of the functional domain network reveals that a specific inhibition on the second domain of the lipoamide dehydrogenase (pdhD) component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex leads to the loss of all fluxes. Such conclusion was not predictable in the classical approach. PMID:24204596

Peres, Sabine; Felicori, Liza; Molina, Franck

2013-01-01

177

Analysis of the Prevalence, Secretion and Function of a Cell Cycle-Inhibiting Factor in the Melioidosis Pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei  

PubMed Central

Enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli express a cell cycle-inhibiting factor (Cif), that is injected into host cells via a Type III secretion system (T3SS) leading to arrest of cell division, delayed apoptosis and cytoskeletal rearrangements. A homologue of Cif has been identified in Burkholderia pseudomallei (CHBP; Cif homologue in B. pseudomallei; BPSS1385), which shares catalytic activity, but its prevalence, secretion and function are ill-defined. Among 43 available B. pseudomallei genome sequences, 33 genomes (76.7%) harbor the gene encoding CHBP. Western blot analysis using antiserum raised to a synthetic CHBP peptide detected CHBP in 46.6% (7/15) of clinical B. pseudomallei isolates from the endemic area. Secretion of CHBP into bacterial culture supernatant could not be detected under conditions where a known effector (BopE) was secreted in a manner dependent on the Bsa T3SS. In contrast, CHBP could be detected in U937 cells infected with B. pseudomallei by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting in a manner dependent on bsaQ. Unlike E. coli Cif, CHBP was localized within the cytoplasm of B. pseudomallei-infected cells. A B. pseudomallei chbP insertion mutant showed a significant reduction in cytotoxicity and plaque formation compared to the wild-type strain that could be restored by plasmid-mediated trans-complementation. However, there was no defect in actin-based motility or multinucleated giant cell formation by the chbP mutant. The data suggest that the level or timing of CHBP secretion differs from a known Bsa-secreted effector and that CHBP is required for selected virulence-associated phenotypes in vitro. PMID:24809950

Pumirat, Pornpan; Broek, Charles Vander; Juntawieng, Niramol; Muangsombut, Veerachat; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Stevens, Joanne M.; Stevens, Mark P.; Korbsrisate, Sunee

2014-01-01

178

Effect of multiple mutations in tricarboxylic acid cycle and one-carbon metabolism pathways on Edwardsiella ictaluri pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen causing enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC). We have shown recently that tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and one-carbon (C1) metabolism are involved in E. ictaluri pathogenesis. However, the effect of multiple mutations in these pathways is unknown. Here, we report four novel E. ictaluri mutants carrying double gene mutations in TCA cycle (Ei?mdh?sdhC, Ei?frdA?sdhC), C1 metabolism (Ei?glyA?gcvP), and both TCA and C1 metabolism pathways (Ei?gcvP?sdhC). In-frame gene deletions were constructed by allelic exchange and mutants' virulence and vaccine efficacy were evaluated using in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) as well as end point mortality counts in catfish fingerlings. Results indicated that all the double gene mutants were attenuated compared to wild-type (wt) E. ictaluri. There was a 1.39-fold average reduction in bioluminescence, and hence bacterial numbers, from all the mutants except for Ei?frdA?sdhC at 144 h post-infection. Vaccination with mutants was very effective in protecting channel catfish against subsequent infection with virulent E. ictaluri 93-146 strain. In particular, immersion vaccination resulted in complete protection. Our results provide further evidence on the importance of TCA and C1 metabolism pathways in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:24418045

Dahal, N; Abdelhamed, H; Lu, J; Karsi, A; Lawrence, M L

2014-02-21

179

Functions of the Membrane-Associated and Cytoplasmic Malate Dehydrogenases in the Citric Acid Cycle of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate in Escherichia coli can be catalyzed by two enzymes: the well-known NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 1.1.1.37) and the membrane-associated malate:quinone-oxidoreductase (MQO; EC 1.1.99.16), encoded by the gene mqo (previously called yojH). Expression of the mqo gene and, consequently, MQO activity are regulated by carbon and energy source for growth. In batch cultures, MQO activity was highest during exponential growth and decreased sharply after onset of the stationary phase. Experiments with the ?-galactosidase reporter fused to the promoter of the mqo gene indicate that its transcription is regulated by the ArcA-ArcB two-component system. In contrast to earlier reports, MDH did not repress mqo expression. On the contrary, MQO and MDH are active at the same time in E. coli. For Corynebacterium glutamicum, it was found that MQO is the principal enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate. These observations justified a reinvestigation of the roles of MDH and MQO in the citric acid cycle of E. coli. In this organism, a defined deletion of the mdh gene led to severely decreased rates of growth on several substrates. Deletion of the mqo gene did not produce a distinguishable effect on the growth rate, nor did it affect the fitness of the organism in competition with the wild type. To investigate whether in an mqo mutant the conversion of malate to oxaloacetate could have been taken over by a bypass route via malic enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate synthase, and phosphenolpyruvate carboxylase, deletion mutants of the malic enzyme genes sfcA and b2463 (coding for EC 1.1.1.38 and EC 1.1.1.40, respectively) and of the phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (EC 2.7.9.2) gene pps were created. They were introduced separately or together with the deletion of mqo. These studies did not reveal a significant role for MQO in malate oxidation in wild-type E. coli. However, comparing growth of the mdh single mutant to that of the double mutant containing mdh and mqo deletions did indicate that MQO partly takes over the function of MDH in an mdh mutant. PMID:11092847

van der Rest, Michel E.; Frank, Christian; Molenaar, Douwe

2000-01-01

180

Linking sediment structure, hydrological functioning and biogeochemical cycling in disturbed coastal saltmarshes and implications for vegetation development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saltmarsh restoration undoubtedly provides environmental enhancement, with vegetation quickly re-establishing following the breach of sea walls and subsequent tidal inundation of previously defended areas. Yet evidence increasingly suggests that the restored saltmarshes do not have the same biological characteristics as their natural counterparts (Mossman et al. 2012) and this may be in part be due to physicochemical parameters at the site including anoxia and poor drainage. Hence, restored saltmarshes may not offer the range and quality of ecosystem services anticipated. These environments will have been 'disturbed' by previous land use and there is little understanding of the impacts of this disturbance on the wider hydrogeomorphic and biogeochemical functioning in restored saltmarshes and the implications for saltmarsh vegetation development. This study examines linkages between physical sediment characteristics, sediment structure (using X-ray microtomography), sub-surface hydrology (using pressure transducers and time series analysis), and sediment and porewater geochemistry (major and trace elements, major anions) in sediment cores collected from undisturbed saltmarshes and those restored by de-embankment. Sub-surface sediments in restored saltmarshes have lower organic matter content, lower moisture content and higher bulk density than undisturbed sites. Using X-ray tomography a clear horizon can be observed which separates relict agricultural soils at depth with less dense and structureless sediments deposited since de-embankment. Ratios of open to closed pore space suggest that while undisturbed saltmarshes have the highest porosity, restored saltmarshes have larger void spaces, but limited pore connectivity. Sub-surface hydrological response to tidal flooding was subdued in the restored compared to the undisturbed site, suggesting that porewater flow may be impeded. Time series analysis indicated that flow pathways differ in restored saltmarsh sediments with preferential horizontal flows. The undisturbed saltmarsh displayed typical vertical geochemical sediment profiles. However, in the restored sites total Fe and Mn are elevated at depth indicating an absence of diagenetic cycling, whilst porewater sulphate and nitrate increased at depth suggesting that vertical solute transport is impeded in restored sites. In surface sediments, though total Hg concentrations are similar, Hg methylation rates are significantly higher than in the undisturbed saltmarsh suggesting that surface anoxia and poor drainage may result in increased mobilization and bioavailability of Hg. These findings have implications for the wider biogeochemical ecosystem services offered by saltmarsh restoration and the water-logged, anoxic conditions produced are unsuitable for seedling germination and plant growth. This highlights the need for integrated understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes.

Spencer, Kate; Harvey, Gemma; James, Tempest; Simon, Carr; Michelle, Morris

2014-05-01

181

Diurnal Changes in Mitochondrial Function Reveal Daily Optimization of Light and Dark Respiratory Metabolism in Arabidopsis*  

PubMed Central

Biomass production by plants is often negatively correlated with respiratory rate, but the value of this rate changes dramatically during diurnal cycles, and hence, biomass is the cumulative result of complex environment-dependent metabolic processes. Mitochondria in photosynthetic plant tissues undertake substantially different metabolic roles during light and dark periods that are dictated by substrate availability and the functional capacity of mitochondria defined by their protein composition. We surveyed the heterogeneity of the mitochondrial proteome and its function during a typical night and day cycle in Arabidopsis shoots. This used a staged, quantitative analysis of the proteome across 10 time points covering 24 h of the life of 3-week-old Arabidopsis shoots grown under 12-h dark and 12-h light conditions. Detailed analysis of enzyme capacities and substrate-dependent respiratory processes of isolated mitochondria were also undertaken during the same time course. Together these data reveal a range of dynamic changes in mitochondrial capacity and uncover day- and night-enhanced protein components. Clear diurnal changes were evident in mitochondrial capacities to drive the TCA cycle and to undertake functions associated with nitrogen and sulfur metabolism, redox poise, and mitochondrial antioxidant defense. These data quantify the nature and nuances of a daily rhythm in Arabidopsis mitochondrial respiratory capacity. PMID:20601493

Lee, Chun Pong; Eubel, Holger; Millar, A. Harvey

2010-01-01

182

Spatial-temporal clustering analysis in functional magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the temporal clustering analysis (TCA) method has been introduced to analyze functional MRI (fMRI) data without prior information about the activation patterns or experimental paradigms. It has been successfully applied to situations under which the timing of events of interest is not known. However, useful information regarding the spatial correlation of activation pixels with their neighbors is not taken into account in the original TCA (OTCA) method. In this study, we propose a new method called 'STCA' (spatial-TCA) which incorporates spatial information with the TCA method to improve the sensitivity in detecting the time window. The spatial information is defined as the correlation coefficient of the time activity curve between each pixel and its neighbors. The inclusion of spatial information can effectively reduce the contribution from noisy pixels and enhance the sensitivity. Both simulated data and in vivo fMRI experiments are employed to verify the method. Preliminary results show that the proposed method has increased the sensitivity significantly for in vivo fMRI data in detecting the activation response time as compared to both OTCA and modified TCA (MTCA). The OTCA/MTCA was applied to spatially smoothed data for various contrast-noise ratios and compared to STCA. The SNR improvements of both OCTA/MTCA are obvious but blurring effects are also visible. The STCA does not have this artifact.

Peng, Shin-Lei; Chuang, Chun-Chao; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Kwan, Wan-Chun; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Sharon C.

2009-12-01

183

Effect of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular functions and endurance performance during prolonged cycling in a 25°C environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the effect of glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) to that of water-induced hyperhydration (WIH) on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory functions and endurance performance (EP) during prolonged cycling in a temperate climate in subjects consuming fluid during exercise. At weekly intervals, 6 trained male subjects ingested, in a randomized, double-blind, counterbalanced fashion, either a glycerol (1.2 g glycerol\\/kg bodyweight (BW) with 26

Eric D. B. Goulet; Robert A. Robergs; Susan Labrecque; Donald Royer; Isabelle J. Dionne

2006-01-01

184

C1 metabolism and the Calvin cycle function simultaneously and independently during HCHO metabolism and detoxification in Arabidopsis thaliana treated with HCHO solutions.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde (HCHO) is suggested to be detoxified through one-carbon (C1) metabolism or assimilated by the Calvin cycle in plants. To further understand the function of the Calvin cycle and C1 metabolism in HCHO metabolism in plants, HCHO elimination and metabolism by Arabidopsis thaliana in HCHO solutions was investigated in this study. Results verified that Arabidopsis could completely eliminate aqueous HCHO from the HCHO solutions. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C-NMR) analysis showed that H(13)CHO absorbed by Arabidopsis was first oxidized to H(13)COOH. Subsequently, a clear increase in [U-(13)C]Gluc peaks accompanied by a strong enhancement in peaks of [2-(13)C]Ser and [3-(13)C]Ser appeared in Arabidopsis. Pretreatment with cyclosporin A or L-carnitine, which might inhibit the transport of (13)C-enriched compounds into chloroplasts and mitochondria, caused a remarkable decline in yields of both [U-(13)C]Gluc and [3-(13)C]Ser in H(13)CHO-treated Arabidopsis. These results suggested that both the Calvin cycle and the C1 metabolism functioned simultaneously during HCHO detoxification. Moreover, both functioned more quickly under high H(13)CHO stress than low H(13)CHO stress. When a photorespiration mutant was treated in 6 mm H(13)CHO solution, formation of [U-(13)C]Gluc and [2-(13)C]Ser was completely inhibited, but generation of [3-(13)C]Ser was not significantly affected. This evidence suggested that the Calvin cycle and C1 metabolism functioned independently in Arabidopsis during HCHO metabolism. PMID:23421623

Song, Zhong-Bang; Xiao, Su-Qin; You, Lan; Wang, Sha-Sha; Tan, Hao; Li, Kun-Zhi; Chen, Li-Mei

2013-08-01

185

Highly selective solid-phase extraction and large volume injection for the robust gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of TCA and TBA in wines.  

PubMed

A reliable solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in wines has been developed. In the proposed procedure 50 mL of wine are extracted in a 1 mL cartridge filled with 50 mg of LiChrolut EN resins. Most wine volatiles are washed up with 12.5 mL of a water:methanol solution (70%, v/v) containing 1% of NaHCO3. Analytes are further eluted with 0.6 mL of dichloromethane. A 40 microL aliquot of this extract is directly injected into a PTV injector operated in the solvent split mode, and analysed by gas chromatography (GC)-ion trap mass spectrometry using the selected ion storage mode. The solid-phase extraction, including sample volume and rinsing and elution solvents, and the large volume GC injection have been carefully evaluated and optimized. The resulting method is precise (RSD (%) < 6% at 100 ng L(-1)), sensitive (LOD were 0.2 and 0.4 ng/L for TCA and TBA, respectively), robust (the absolute recoveries of both analytes are higher than 80% and consistent wine to wine) and friendly to the GC-MS system (the extract is clean, simple and free from non-volatiles). PMID:16130792

Insa, S; Anticó, E; Ferreira, V

2005-09-30

186

Specificity of the transport system for tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in renal brush borders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Uptake studies employing renal brush border membranes were used to examine the structural specificity of the TCA cycle intermediate transport system. The kinetics of reciprocal inhibition between succinate and citrate revealed these compounds to be transported by a common mechanism. The Michaelis constant for succinate (0.11mm) was significantly lower than that of citrate (0.28mm), indicating that the system has

Stephen H. Wright; Ian Kippen; James R. Klinenberg; Ernest M. Wright

1980-01-01

187

Radiolabeled acetate kinetics and tricarboxylic acid cycle flux in the rat heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron-emitting (1-¹¹C)acetate has been proposed as a tracer for noninvasive study of regional myocardial oxidative metabolism in humans with positron emission tomography (PET). To examine the relationship between tissue tracer kinetics and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux, (1-¹⁴C)acetate was administered as a bolus to Langendorf-perfused rat hearts and effluent ¹⁴COâ and labeled metabolites measured. ¹⁴COâ cleared monoexponentially between 5 and

M. Schwaiger; H. R. Schelbert; M. E. Phelps; A. Nguyen; D. B. Buxton

1987-01-01

188

Radiolabelled proteomics to determine differential functioning of Accumulibacter during the anaerobic and aerobic phases of a bioreactor operating for enhanced biological phosphorus removal.  

PubMed

Proteins synthesized by the mixed microbial community of two sequencing batch reactors run for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) during aerobic and anaerobic reactor phases were compared, using mass spectrometry-based proteomics and radiolabelling. Both sludges were dominated by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms belonging to Candidatis Accumulibacter and the majority of proteins identified matched closest to these bacteria. Enzymes from the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway were identified, suggesting this is the major glycolytic pathway for these Accumulibacter populations. Enhanced aerobic synthesis of glyoxylate cycle enzymes suggests this cycle is important during the aerobic phase of EBPR. In one sludge, several TCA cycle enzymes showed enhanced aerobic synthesis, suggesting this cycle is unimportant anaerobically. The second sludge showed enhanced synthesis of TCA cycle enzymes under anaerobic conditions, suggesting full or partial TCA cycle operation anaerobically. A phylogenetic analysis of Accumulibacter polyphosphate kinase genes from each sludge demonstrated different Accumulibacter populations dominated the two sludges. Thus, TCA cycle activity differences may be due to Accumulibacter strain differences. The major fatty acids present in Accumulibacter-dominated sludge include palmitic, hexadecenoic and cis-vaccenic acid and fatty acid content increased by approximately 20% during the anaerobic phase. We hypothesize that this is associated with increased anaerobic phospholipid membrane biosynthesis, to accommodate intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate granules. PMID:19650829

Wexler, Margaret; Richardson, David J; Bond, Philip L

2009-12-01

189

Predicting VO[subscript 2max] in College-Aged Participants Using Cycle Ergometry and Perceived Functional Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict treadmill VO[subscript 2max] scores using both exercise and non-exercise data. One hundred five college-aged participants (53 male, 52 female) successfully completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test and a maximal graded exercise test on a motorized treadmill.…

Nielson, David E.; George, James D.; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ron L.; Webb, Carrie V.

2010-01-01

190

Retinal pigmented epithelial cells obtained from human induced pluripotent stem cells possess functional visual cycle enzymes in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Differentiated retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells have been obtained from human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells. However, the visual (retinoid) cycle in hiPS-RPE cells has not been adequately examined. Here we determined the expression of functional visual cycle enzymes in hiPS-RPE cells compared with that of isolated wild-type mouse primary RPE (mpRPE) cells in vitro and in vivo. hiPS-RPE cells appeared morphologically similar to mpRPE cells. Notably, expression of certain visual cycle proteins was maintained during cell culture of hiPS-RPE cells, whereas expression of these same molecules rapidly decreased in mpRPE cells. Production of the visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal, and retinosome formation also were documented in hiPS-RPE cells in vitro. When mpRPE cells with luciferase activity were transplanted into the subretinal space of mice, bioluminance intensity was preserved for >3 months. Additionally, transplantation of mpRPE into blind Lrat(-/-) and Rpe65(-/-) mice resulted in the recovery of visual function, including increased electrographic signaling and endogenous 11-cis-retinal production. Finally, when hiPS-RPE cells were transplanted into the subretinal space of Lrat(-/-) and Rpe65(-/-) mice, their vision improved as well. Moreover, histological analyses of these eyes displayed replacement of dysfunctional RPE cells by hiPS-RPE cells. Together, our results show that hiPS-RPE cells can exhibit a functional visual cycle in vitro and in vivo. These cells could provide potential treatment options for certain blinding retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:24129572

Maeda, Tadao; Lee, Mee Jee; Palczewska, Grazyna; Marsili, Stefania; Tesar, Paul J; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Takahashi, Masayo; Maeda, Akiko

2013-11-29

191

Hir1p and Hir2p function as transcriptional corepressors to regulate histone gene transcription in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle.  

PubMed Central

The HIR/HPC (histone regulation/histone periodic control) negative regulators play important roles in the transcription of six of the eight core histone genes during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle. The phenotypes of hir1 and hir2 mutants suggested that the wild-type HIR1 and HIR2 genes encode transcriptional repressors that function in the absence of direct DNA binding. When Hir1p and Hir2p were artificially tethered to yeast promoters, each protein repressed transcription, suggesting that they represent a new class of transcriptional corepressors. The two proteins might function as a complex in vivo: Hir2p required both Hir1p and another Hir protein, Hir3p, to repress transcription when it was tethered to an HTA1-lacZ reporter gene, and Hir1p and Hir2p could be coimmunoprecipitated from yeast cell extracts. Tethered Hir1p also directed the periodic transcription of the HTA1 gene and repressed HTA1 transcription in response to two cell cycle regulatory signals. Thus, it represents the first example of a transcriptional corepressor with a direct role in cell cycle-regulated transcription. PMID:9001207

Spector, M S; Raff, A; DeSilva, H; Lee, K; Osley, M A

1997-01-01

192

Changes in sleep time and sleep quality across the ovulatory cycle as a function of fertility and partner attractiveness.  

PubMed

Research suggests that near ovulation women tend to consume fewer calories and engage in more physical activity; they are judged to be more attractive, express greater preferences for masculine and symmetrical men, and experience increases in sexual desire for men other than their primary partners. Some of these cycle phase shifts are moderated by partner attractiveness and interpreted as strategic responses to women's current reproductive context. The present study investigated changes in sleep across the ovulatory cycle, based on the hypothesis that changes in sleep may reflect ancestral strategic shifts of time and energy toward reproductive activities. Participants completed a 32-day daily diary in which they recorded their sleep time and quality for each day, yielding over 1,000 observations of sleep time and quality. Results indicated that, when the probability of conception was high, women partnered with less attractive men slept more, while women with more attractive partners slept less. PMID:24710508

Gentle, Brooke N; Pillsworth, Elizabeth G; Goetz, Aaron T

2014-01-01

193

Self-reports of differentiation of self and marital compatibility as related to family functioning in the third and fourth stages of the family life cycle.  

PubMed

Using Bowen's, Olson's, and general systems frameworks, this investigator tested relationships among individual, marital, and family functioning in the stressed childrearing stages of the family life cycle. Sixty volunteer married couples completed the Level of Differentiation of Self Scale (LDSS), Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (MAT), and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES) III. A significant canonical correlation was found among differentiation of self and marital compatibility as they both relate to family functioning. Subsequent canonical correlations were significant for wives but not for husbands, indicating gender differences in relationships among perceived individual, marital, and family phenomena. The concept of adaptability as proposed by Olson's Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Functioning was not supported. A revised model is proposed. PMID:2595147

Richards, E

1989-01-01

194

Inhibition of akt phosphorylation diminishes mitochondrial biogenesis regulators, tricarboxylic Acid cycle activity and exacerbates recognition memory deficit in rat model of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

3-Methyladenine (3-MA), as a PI3K inhibitor, is widely used for inhibition of autophagy. Inhibition of PI3K class I leads to inhibition of Akt phosphorylation, a central molecule involved in diverse arrays of intracellular cascades in nervous system. Accordingly, in the present study, we aimed to determine the alterations of specific mitochondrial biogenesis markers and mitochondrial function in 3-MA-injected rats following amyloid beta (A?) insult. Our data revealed that inhibition of Akt phosphorylation downregulates master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1?). Our data also showed that decrease in PGC-1? level presumably is due to decrease in the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding and AMP-activated kinase, two upstream activators of PGC-1?. As a consequence, the level of some mitochondrial biogenesis factors including nuclear respiratory factor-1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and Cytochrome c decreased significantly. Also, activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) enzymes such as Aconitase, a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase reduced in the presence of 3-MA with or without A? insult. Decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis factors and TCA enzyme activity in the rats receiving 3-MA and A? were more compared to the rats that received either alone; indicating the additive destructive effects of these two agents. In agreement with our molecular results, data obtained from behavioral test (using novel objective recognition test) indicated that inhibition of Akt phosphorylation with or without A? injection impaired novel recognition (non-spatial) memory. Our results suggest that 3-MA amplified deleterious effects of A? by targeting central molecule Akt. PMID:25135709

Shaerzadeh, Fatemeh; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Khodagholi, Fariba

2014-11-01

195

SOLAR WIND HELIUM ABUNDANCE AS A FUNCTION OF SPEED AND HELIOGRAPHIC LATITUDE: VARIATION THROUGH A SOLAR CYCLE  

E-print Network

SOLAR WIND HELIUM ABUNDANCE AS A FUNCTION OF SPEED AND HELIOGRAPHIC LATITUDE: VARIATION THROUGH of the variation of the relative abundance of helium to hydrogen in the solar wind as a function of solar wind theoretical work in which enhancements of coronal helium lead to stagnation of the escaping proton flux

Richardson, John

196

Carbon and nitrogen cycling in thermally heated sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermally heated sediment environments, such as are found in abundance throughout Yellowstone National Park, host fully functional microbial ecosystems. As with any ecosystem, both sources and sinks of carbon, nitrogen, and a myriad of other nutrients and energy-driving factors must be supplied. While we know microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse, we know little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling. Previous work has shown that carbon cycling in one hot spring in Yellowstone National Park [“Bison Pool”] and its associated runoff channel functions as a complex system. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in sediments and biofilms across a temperature and chemical gradient at this location revealed that the four best studied carbon fixation pathways [Calvin, reverse tricarboxylic acid, acetyl-CoA, 3-hydroxypropionate cycles] may all be functioning in this system, and nitrogen fixation varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [1]. Microcosm experiments using biofilms from this hot spring as inoculae with 13C labeled carbon substrates indicate heterotrophic growth [2]. In addition, metagenomic analysis of environmental DNA has indicated the presence of genes involved in carbon fixation [both phototrophic and autotrophic], and heterotrophy, as well as nitrogen fixation [3]. Studies from other Yellowstone locations have also found genetic evidence for carbon and nitrogen fixation [4, 5]. Of particular interest is the role of individuals in carbon and nitrogen cycling as environmental conditions suitable for chemosynthetic and photosynthetic growth vary. This study explores the diversity of cbbM/cbbL [Calvin cycle], aclB/oor/porA [rTCA cycle], nifH [nitrogen fixation], nirK [nitrite reduction] and amoA [ammonia oxidation] genes across a variety of Yellowstone environments. The transition of genetic diversity within sediments and biofilms is focused on the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone from a variety of hot springs spanning a range of pH and geochemical conditions. By sampling across this ecotone, changes in carbon and nitrogen fixation as a function of changing community structure become apparent. Environmental DNA was extracted from these samples, and the presence/absence of Bacteria and Archaea determined by PCR. In addition, PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of the aforementioned functional genes. Further, comparison across a broad spectrum of environmental conditions supplies context for phylogenetic analysis of diversity. [1] Havig, J.R., 2009. Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Biofilms: Composition of Biofilms in Siliceous Sinter-Deposting Hot Springs. Doctoral Dissertation, Arizona State University. [2] Meyer-Dombard et al., 2007. Microbial Diversity and SIP Investigations of Streamer Biofilm Communities in Yellowstone. Goldschmidt Geochemical Conference. [3] Raymond et al., 2008. EOS Trans AGU. Abstract B14A-03. [4] Hall et al., 2008. AEM 74:4910-4922. [5] Steunou et al., 2006. PNAS 103:2398-2403.

Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Burton, M.; Vennelakanti, S.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

2009-12-01

197

Global Analysis of Host Cell Gene Expression Late during Cytomegalovirus Infection Reveals Extensive Dysregulation of Cell Cycle Gene Expression and Induction of Pseudomitosis Independent of US28 Function†  

PubMed Central

Replication of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) depends on host cell gene products working in conjunction with viral functions and leads to a dramatic dysregulation of cell cycle gene expression. Comprehensive transcriptional profiling was used to identify pathways most dramatically modulated by CMV at late times during infection and to determine the extent to which expression of the viral chemokine receptor US28 contributed to modulating cellular gene expression. Cells infected with the AD169 strain of virus or a fully replication competent US28-deficient derivative (RV101) were profiled throughout the late phase of infection (50, 72, and 98 h postinfection). Although sensitive statistical analysis showed striking global changes in transcript levels in infected cells compared to uninfected cells, the expression of US28 did not contribute to these alterations. CMV infection resulted in lower levels of transcripts encoding cytoskeletal, extracellular matrix, and adhesion proteins, together with small GTPases and apoptosis regulators, and in higher levels of transcripts encoding cell cycle, DNA replication, energy production, and inflammation-related gene products. Surprisingly, a large number of cellular transcripts encoding mitosis-related proteins were upmodulated at late times in infection, and these were associated with the formation of abnormal mitotic spindles and the appearance of pseudomitotic cells. These data extend our understanding of how broadly CMV alters the regulation of host cell cycle gene products and highlight the establishment of a mitosis-like environment in the absence of cellular DNA replication as important for viral replication and maturation. PMID:15479839

Hertel, Laura; Mocarski, Edward S.

2004-01-01

198

Increasing Cycles of Intermittent Ischemia Can Effectively Maintain Liver Function during the Acute Phase of Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Promotion of Bile Flow and Reduction in Bile Salt Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Intermittent ischemia (INT) can improve liver function following inflow occlusion. The aim was to test whether the number of cycles of INT can be increased without impairing liver function. Methods:Liver function in the acute phase of ischemia reperfusion injury was assessed by measuring bile flow in rat livers. Phospholipid and bile salts in bile, liver marker enzymes in blood,

J. Peters; V. B. Nieuwenhuijs; A. Morphett; R. J. Porte; R. T. A. Padbury; G. J. Barritt

2009-01-01

199

The activity of the glyoxylate cycle in peroxisomes of Candida albicans depends on a functional beta-oxidation pathway: evidence for reduced metabolite transport across the peroxisomal membrane.  

PubMed

The glyoxylate cycle, a metabolic pathway required for generating C(4) units from C(2) compounds, is an important factor in virulence, in both animal and plant pathogens. Here, we report the localization of the key enzymes of this cycle, isocitrate lyase (Icl1; EC 4.1.3.1) and malate synthase (Mls1; EC 2.3.3.9), in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Immunocytochemistry in combination with subcellular fractionation showed that both Icl1 and Mls1 are localized to peroxisomes, independent of the carbon source used. Although Icl1 and Mls1 lack a consensus type I peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1), their import into peroxisomes was dependent on the PTS1 receptor Pex5p, suggesting the presence of non-canonical targeting signals in both proteins. Peroxisomal compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle is not essential for proper functioning of this metabolic pathway because a pex5Delta/Delta strain, in which Icl1 and Mls1 were localized to the cytosol, grew equally as well as the wild-type strain on acetate and ethanol. Previously, we reported that a fox2Delta/Delta strain that is completely deficient in fatty acid beta-oxidation, but has no peroxisomal protein import defect, displayed strongly reduced growth on non-fermentable carbon sources such as acetate and ethanol. Here, we show that growth of the fox2Delta/Delta strain on these carbon compounds can be restored when Icl1 and Mls1 are relocated to the cytosol by deleting the PEX5 gene. We hypothesize that the fox2Delta/Delta strain is disturbed in the transport of glyoxylate cycle products and/or acetyl-CoA across the peroxisomal membrane and discuss the possible relationship between such a transport defect and the presence of giant peroxisomes in the fox2Delta/Delta mutant. PMID:18832312

Piekarska, Katarzyna; Hardy, Guy; Mol, Els; van den Burg, Janny; Strijbis, Karin; van Roermund, Carlo; van den Berg, Marlene; Distel, Ben

2008-10-01

200

Biliary lipids, bile acids, and gallbladder function in the human female. Effects of pregnancy and the ovulatory cycle.  

PubMed Central

To study the events that might lead to an increased risk of cholesterol gallstones, we examined biliary lipid composition and secretion and bile acid composition and kinetics at different stages of pregnancy or ovulation in young, nonobese, healthy women. Lipid composition and bile acid distribution were determined in duodenal fluid obtained in the fasting state and after stimulation of the gallbladder. Biliary lipid secretion was measured by the marker-perfusion technique. Bile acid kinetics were determined with cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids labeled with carbon13, by measuring the relative abundance of 13C in duodenal bile acids for 4--5 d. In a subset of patients we measured gallbladder storage and emptying during the kinetic study. The phase of the ovulatory cycle had no effects, but there were significant changes during pregnancy. The lithogenic or cholesterol saturation index of fasting hepatic and gallbladder bile increased during the second and third trimesters. The mean secretion rate of biliary lipids was not altered, but in the last two-thirds of pregnancy, cholesterol secretion increased in relation to bile acid and phospholipid secretion. There was a progressive decrease in the percentage of chenodeoxycholic acid and a similar increase in the percentage of cholic acid. The pool size of each major bile acid increased in the first trimester. Chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid pools, but not cholic acid pools, subsequently decreased. The fractional turnover rate of both primary bile acids was slower during pregnancy. The synthesis rate of chenodeoxycholic but not cholic acid decreased in a linear manner during the first 20 wk of pregnancy. The rate of enterohepatic cycling of the bile acid pool was reduced throughout pregnancy. The volume of the fasting gallbladder and the residual volume after a physiologically stimulated contraction were directly correlated with bile acid pool size. The residual volume was also directly related to total bile acid synthesis. PMID:7298849

Kern, F; Everson, G T; DeMark, B; McKinley, C; Showalter, R; Erfling, W; Braverman, D Z; Szczepanik-van Leeuwen, P; Klein, P D

1981-01-01

201

Rock Cycle: Cycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Rocks SciPack. It explores the variables that contribute to rock transformation and the continuous processes of rock formation that constitute the rock cycle. The rock cycle provides an example of the transfer of energy and mass in the Earth system. Earth is a closed system containing essentially a fixed amount of each element. Movement of matter is driven by the Earth's internal and external sources of energy, and is often accompanied by changes in the physical and chemical properties of the matter. Minerals are made, dissolved, and remade--on the Earth's surface, in the oceans, and in the hot, high-pressure layers beneath the crust. The total amount of material stays the same as its forms change. Learning Outcomes:� Recognize the formation and transformation processes as part of a continuing cycle.� Identify that while the form and location of different rocks change over time, the amount of material and the distribution among the elements remains constant.� Explain the different processes or paths that each type of rock may take in the rock cycle.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

202

Sensory screening for large-format natural corks by "dry soak" testing and its correlation to headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) releasable trichloroanisole (TCA) analysis.  

PubMed

Large-format natural corks were individually screened for trichloroanisole (TCA) taint and other non-characteristic cork odors by smelling the high relative humidity headspace of the jarred closure during expert panel sensory sessions. The method was coined "dry soak sensory screening". Out of a population of 2296 corks, 138 specimens [6% of the total population (TP)] were retained because of unusual odors, ranging from mild to severe. All retained corks were analyzed for releasable TCA (RTCA) by the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. Results indicated that 30 corks (1.3% TP) had concentrations between 1.0 and 5.0 ppt. Most of these corks had non-typical TCA odors described as ashtray, musty, moldy, dirty, and wet cardboard. A total of 13 retained corks (0.57% TP) had RTCA values higher than 5.0 ppt, mostly displaying the typical TCA odor. Dry soak screening has been determined to be a clean, fast, and most importantly, a nondestructive method ideal for screening large-format natural corks with off odors. PMID:19722710

Macku, Carlos; Gonzalez, Lesa; Schleussner, Christiane; Mesquita, Ana Cristina; Herwatt, James W; Kirch, Leonard C; Schwartz, Rob J

2009-09-01

203

Life Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students extend their knowledge of matter and energy cycles in organisms to engineering life cycle assessment of products. They learn about product life cycle assessment and the flow of energy through the cycle, comparing it to the flow of nutrients and energy in the life cycles of organisms.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

204

Serum-dependent transcriptional networks identify distinct functional roles for H-Ras and N-Ras during initial stages of the cell cycle  

PubMed Central

Background Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we compared transcriptional profiles corresponding to the initial cell cycle stages of mouse fibroblasts lacking the small GTPases H-Ras and/or N-Ras with those of matching, wild-type controls. Results Serum-starved wild-type and knockout ras fibroblasts had very similar transcriptional profiles, indicating that H-Ras and N-Ras do not significantly control transcriptional responses to serum deprivation stress. In contrast, genomic disruption of H-ras or N-ras, individually or in combination, determined specific differential gene expression profiles in response to post-starvation stimulation with serum for 1 hour (G0/G1 transition) or 8 hours (mid-G1 progression). The absence of N-Ras caused significantly higher changes than the absence of H-Ras in the wave of transcriptional activation linked to G0/G1 transition. In contrast, the absence of H-Ras affected the profile of the transcriptional wave detected during G1 progression more strongly than did the absence of N-Ras. H-Ras was predominantly functionally associated with growth and proliferation, whereas N-Ras had a closer link to the regulation of development, the cell cycle, immunomodulation and apoptosis. Mechanistic analysis indicated that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) mediates the regulatory effect of N-Ras on defense and immunity, whereas the pro-apoptotic effects of N-Ras are mediated through ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Conclusions Our observations confirm the notion of an absolute requirement for different peaks of Ras activity during the initial stages of the cell cycle and document the functional specificity of H-Ras and N-Ras during those processes. PMID:19895680

2009-01-01

205

Redundant Function of REV-ERB? and ? and Non-Essential Role for Bmal1 Cycling in Transcriptional Regulation of Intracellular Circadian Rhythms  

PubMed Central

The mammalian circadian clockwork is composed of a core PER/CRY feedback loop and additional interlocking loops. In particular, the ROR/REV/Bmal1 loop, consisting of ROR activators and REV-ERB repressors that regulate Bmal1 expression, is thought to “stabilize” core clock function. However, due to functional redundancy and pleiotropic effects of gene deletions, the role of the ROR/REV/Bmal1 loop has not been accurately defined. In this study, we examined cell-autonomous circadian oscillations using combined gene knockout and RNA interference and demonstrated that REV-ERB? and ? are functionally redundant and are required for rhythmic Bmal1 expression. In contrast, the RORs contribute to Bmal1 amplitude but are dispensable for Bmal1 rhythm. We provide direct in vivo genetic evidence that the REV-ERBs also participate in combinatorial regulation of Cry1 and Rorc expression, leading to their phase-delay relative to Rev-erb?. Thus, the REV-ERBs play a more prominent role than the RORs in the basic clock mechanism. The cellular genetic approach permitted testing of the robustness of the intracellular core clock function. We showed that cells deficient in both REV-ERB? and ? function, or those expressing constitutive BMAL1, were still able to generate and maintain normal Per2 rhythmicity. Our findings thus underscore the resilience of the intracellular clock mechanism and provide important insights into the transcriptional topologies underlying the circadian clock. Since REV-ERB function and Bmal1 mRNA/protein cycling are not necessary for basic clock function, we propose that the major role of the ROR/REV/Bmal1 loop and its constituents is to control rhythmic transcription of clock output genes. PMID:18454201

Liu, Andrew C.; Tran, Hien G.; Zhang, Eric E.; Priest, Aaron A.; Welsh, David K.; Kay, Steve A.

2008-01-01

206

The Xanthophyll Cycle in Intermittent Light-Grown Pea Plants (Possible Functions of Chlorophyll a/b-Binding Proteins).  

PubMed Central

The xanthophyll cycle in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Kleine Rheinlanderin) plants has been investigated in vivo. Control plants were compared with those grown under intermittent light (IML plants). IML plants are particularly characterized by the absence of nearly all chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins. The rates of de-epoxidation during 30 min of illumination and their dependence on the incident photon flux density (PFD) have been determined. They were very similar in both types of plants, with the exception that IML plants contained, at any PFD, much higher zeaxanthin concentrations in the steady state (reached after about 15 min of illumination) than control plants. This indicates that the amount of convertible violaxanthin under illumination is dependent on the presence of chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins. The epoxidation rate (examined at a PFD of 15 [mu]E m-2 s-1, after 15 min of preillumination with different PFDs) showed significant differences between the two types of plants. It was about 5-fold slower in IML plants. On the other hand, in both types of plants, the epoxidation rate decreased with increasing PFD during preillumination. Prolonged preillumination at high PFDs resulted in a decrease of the epoxidation rate without a further increase of the zeaxanthin concentration in both continuous light and IML plants. This result argues against a permanent turnover of the xanthophylls under illumination, at least at high PFDs. PMID:12228458

Jahns, P.

1995-01-01

207

Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…

Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer

2012-01-01

208

SYN2 is an autism predisposing gene: loss-of-function mutations alter synaptic vesicle cycling and axon outgrowth.  

PubMed

An increasing number of genes predisposing to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been identified, many of which are implicated in synaptic function. This 'synaptic autism pathway' notably includes disruption of SYN1 that is associated with epilepsy, autism and abnormal behavior in both human and mice models. Synapsins constitute a multigene family of neuron-specific phosphoproteins (SYN1-3) present in the majority of synapses where they are implicated in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. Synapsins I and II, the major Syn isoforms in the adult brain, display partially overlapping functions and defects in both isoforms are associated with epilepsy and autistic-like behavior in mice. In this study, we show that nonsense (A94fs199X) and missense (Y236S and G464R) mutations in SYN2 are associated with ASD in humans. The phenotype is apparent in males. Female carriers of SYN2 mutations are unaffected, suggesting that SYN2 is another example of autosomal sex-limited expression in ASD. When expressed in SYN2 ?knockout neurons, wild-type human Syn II fully rescues the SYN2 knockout phenotype, whereas the nonsense mutant is not expressed and the missense mutants are virtually unable to modify the SYN2 knockout phenotype. These results identify for the first time SYN2 ?as a novel predisposing gene for ASD and strengthen the hypothesis that a disturbance of synaptic homeostasis underlies ASD. PMID:23956174

Corradi, Anna; Fadda, Manuela; Piton, Amélie; Patry, Lysanne; Marte, Antonella; Rossi, Pia; Cadieux-Dion, Maxime; Gauthier, Julie; Lapointe, Line; Mottron, Laurent; Valtorta, Flavia; Rouleau, Guy A; Fassio, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio; Cossette, Patrick

2014-01-01

209

SYN2 is an autism predisposing gene: loss-of-function mutations alter synaptic vesicle cycling and axon outgrowth  

PubMed Central

An increasing number of genes predisposing to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been identified, many of which are implicated in synaptic function. This ‘synaptic autism pathway’ notably includes disruption of SYN1 that is associated with epilepsy, autism and abnormal behavior in both human and mice models. Synapsins constitute a multigene family of neuron-specific phosphoproteins (SYN1-3) present in the majority of synapses where they are implicated in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. Synapsins I and II, the major Syn isoforms in the adult brain, display partially overlapping functions and defects in both isoforms are associated with epilepsy and autistic-like behavior in mice. In this study, we show that nonsense (A94fs199X) and missense (Y236S and G464R) mutations in SYN2 are associated with ASD in humans. The phenotype is apparent in males. Female carriers of SYN2 mutations are unaffected, suggesting that SYN2 is another example of autosomal sex-limited expression in ASD. When expressed in SYN2 ?knockout neurons, wild-type human Syn II fully rescues the SYN2 knockout phenotype, whereas the nonsense mutant is not expressed and the missense mutants are virtually unable to modify the SYN2 knockout phenotype. These results identify for the first time SYN2 ?as a novel predisposing gene for ASD and strengthen the hypothesis that a disturbance of synaptic homeostasis underlies ASD. PMID:23956174

Corradi, Anna; Fadda, Manuela; Piton, Amelie; Patry, Lysanne; Marte, Antonella; Rossi, Pia; Cadieux-Dion, Maxime; Gauthier, Julie; Lapointe, Line; Mottron, Laurent; Valtorta, Flavia; Rouleau, Guy A.; Fassio, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio; Cossette, Patrick

2014-01-01

210

CstF64: Cell Cycle Regulation and Functional Role in 3' End Processing of Replication-Dependent Histone mRNAs.  

PubMed

The 3' end processing of animal replication-dependent histone mRNAs is activated during G1/S-phase transition. The processing site is recognized by stem-loop binding protein and the U7 snRNP, but cleavage additionally requires a heat-labile factor (HLF), composed of cleavage/polyadenylation specificity factor, symplekin, and cleavage stimulation factor 64 (CstF64). Although HLF has been shown to be cell cycle regulated, the mechanism of this regulation is unknown. Here we show that levels of CstF64 increase toward the S phase and its depletion affects histone RNA processing, S-phase progression, and cell proliferation. Moreover, analyses of the interactions between CstF64, symplekin, and the U7 snRNP-associated proteins FLASH and Lsm11 indicate that CstF64 is important for recruiting HLF to histone precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA)-resident proteins. Thus, CstF64 is central to the function of HLF and appears to be at least partly responsible for its cell cycle regulation. Additionally, we show that misprocessed histone transcripts generated upon CstF64 depletion mainly accumulate in the nucleus, where they are targets of the exosome machinery, while a small cytoplasmic fraction is partly associated with polysomes. PMID:25266659

Romeo, Valentina; Griesbach, Esther; Schümperli, Daniel

2014-12-01

211

Functional impact of Aurora A-mediated phosphorylation of HP1? at serine 83 during cell cycle progression  

PubMed Central

Background Previous elegant studies performed in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have identified a requirement for heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) for spindle pole formation and appropriate cell division. In mammalian cells, HP1? has been implicated in both somatic and germ cell proliferation. High levels of HP1? protein associate with enhanced cell proliferation and oncogenesis, while its genetic inactivation results in meiotic and mitotic failure. However, the regulation of HP1? by kinases, critical for supporting mitotic progression, remains to be fully characterized. Results We report for the first time that during mitotic cell division, HP1? colocalizes and is phosphorylated at serine 83 (Ser83) in G2/M phase by Aurora A. Since Aurora A regulates both cell proliferation and mitotic aberrations, we evaluated the role of HP1? in the regulation of these phenomena using siRNA-mediated knockdown, as well as phosphomimetic and nonphosphorylatable site-directed mutants. We found that genetic downregulation of HP1?, which decreases the levels of phosphorylation of HP1? at Ser83 (P-Ser83-HP1?), results in mitotic aberrations that can be rescued by reintroducing wild type HP1?, but not the nonphosphorylatable S83A-HP1? mutant. In addition, proliferation assays showed that the phosphomimetic S83D-HP1? increases 5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation, whereas the nonphosphorylatable S83A-HP1? mutant abrogates this effect. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed that the effects of these mutants on mitotic functions are congruently reflected in G2/M gene expression networks in a manner that mimics the on and off states for P-Ser83-HP1?. Conclusions This is the first description of a mitotic Aurora A-HP1? pathway, whose integrity is necessary for the execution of proper somatic cell division, providing insight into specific types of posttranslational modifications that associate to distinct functional outcomes of this important chromatin protein. PMID:23829974

2013-01-01

212

Numerical simulation of the diurnal cycle of rainfall in SW Amazon basin during the 1999 rainy season: the role of convective trigger function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In continental areas, the maximum rainfall simulated with the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS) occurs around 4 h earlier than the one observed with rain gauges. This work presents the successful implementation of a new convective trigger function (CTF) in the convective parameterization scheme used in BRAMS that corrects this misfit between model and observations. The importance of the CTF formulation on the diurnal cycle of rainfall over the Amazon Basin is reflected by the following numbers: Over Rondonia (SW Amazonia), the original version of BRAMS simulates the maximum rainfall at 1400 UTC (1000 LST), with the new CTF maximum shifting to 1800 UTC (1400 LST), while the S-band radar rainfall maximum is at 1900 UTC (1500 LST). This is attributed to two factors: (1) the new CTF is now coupled to the sensible and latent heat fluxes at surface; (2) during the early morning, the convective available potential energy is reduced.

e Silva, Cláudio Moisés Santos; de Freitas, Saulo Ribeiro; Gielow, Ralf

2012-08-01

213

Carbon Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of energy cycles by learning about the carbon cycle. They learn how carbon atoms travel through the geological (ancient) carbon cycle and the biological/physical carbon cycle. They consider how human activities disturb the carbon cycle by emitting carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. They discuss how engineers and scientists are working to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Lastly, students consider how they can help the world through simple energy conservation measures.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

214

The Function of the Superficial Root Mat in the Biogeochemical Cycles of Nutrients in Congolese Eucalyptus Plantations  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims The importance of superficial root mats inside the forest floor for the nutrition of Amazonian rain forests has been extensively investigated. The present study was aimed at assessing the function of a root mat adherent to decomposing organic material observed in Eucalyptus plantations. • Methods The development of the root mat was studied through micromorphological observations of thin litter sections, and the influence of soil microtopography and soil water repellency on root mat biomass was assessed in situ on an area of 5 m2. In addition, input–output budgets of nutrients within the forest floor were established from measurements of litterfall, dissolved nutrients in gravitational solutions, and forest floor nutrient contents. • Key Findings The amounts of nutrients released during litter decay in this ecosystem during the period of study were, on average, 46, 3, 4, 19 and 17 kg ha–1 year–1 for N, P, K, Ca and Mg, respectively. The simultaneous measurements of the chemical composition of throughfall solutions and leachates beneath the forest floor showed a very quick uptake of nutrients by the root mat during the decomposition processes. Indeed, the solutions did not become noticeably enriched in nutrients during their passage through the holorganic layer, despite large amounts of elements being released during litter decay. The root mat biomass decreased significantly during the dry season, and a preferential development in microdepressions at the soil surface was observed. A strong water repellency observed in these depressions might enhance the ability of the roots to take up water and nutrients during the dry periods. • Conclusions The root mat was active throughout the year to catch the flux of nutrients from the biodegradation of the forest floor, preventing the transfer of dissolved nutrients toward deeper soil horizons. This mechanism is involved in the successful adaptation of this Eucalyptus hybrid in areas covered by ‘climacic’ savannas in Congo. PMID:14749252

LACLAU, JEAN?PAUL; TOUTAIN, FRANÇOIS; M’BOU, ARMEL THONGO; ARNAUD, MICHEL; JOFFRE, RICHARD; RANGER, JACQUES

2004-01-01

215

Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive animation focuses on the carbon cycle and includes embedded videos and captioned images to provide greater clarification and detail of the cycle than would be available by a single static visual alone.

Sciencelearn; Waikato, University O.

216

Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash animation about the rock cycle is suitable for a review or overview in an introductory level Physical Geology class. It includes animations, photos, and descriptions involving rock types and processes in the rock cycle.

Smoothstone; Company, Houghton M.

217

Centrosome structure and function is altered by chloral hydrate and diazepam during the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper explores the mode of action of the tranquillizers chloral hydrate and diazepam during fertilization and mitosis of the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs. Most striking effects of these drugs are the alteration of centrosomal material and the abnormal microtubule configurations during exposure and after recovery from the drugs. This finding is utilized to study the mechanisms of centrosome compaction and decompaction and the dynamic configurational changes of centrosomal material and its interactions with microtubules. When 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam is applied at specific phases during the first cell cycle of sea urchin eggs, expanded centrosomal material compacts at distinct regions and super-compacts into dense spheres while microtubules disassemble. When eggs are treated before pronuclear fusion, centrosomal material aggregates around each of the two pronuclei while microtubules disappear. Upon recovery, atypical asters oftentimes with multiple foci are formed from centrosomal material surrounding the pronuclei which indicates that the drugs have affected centrosomal material and prevent it from functioning normally. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies with antibodies that routinely stain centrosomes in sea urchin eggs (4D2; and Ah-6) depict centrosomal material that is altered when compared to control cells. This centrosomal material is not able to reform normal microtubule patterns upon recovery but will form multiple asters around the two pronuclei. When cells are treated with 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam during mitosis, the bipolar centrosomal material becomes compacted and aggregates into multiple dense spheres while spindle and polar microtubules disassemble. With increased incubation time, the smaller dense centrosome particles aggregate into bigger and fewer spheres. Upon recovery, unusual irregular microtubule configurations are formed from centrosomes that have lost their ability to reform normal mitotic figures. These results indicate that chloral hydrate and diazepam affect centrosome structure which results in the inability to reform normal microtubule formations and causes abnormal fertilization and mitosis.

Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.

1998-01-01

218

Linking N2O emissions from biochar-amended soil to the structure and function of the N-cycling microbial community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes 8% to global greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural sources represent about 60% of anthropogenic N2O emissions. Most agricultural N2O emissions are due to increased fertilizer application. A considerable fraction of nitrogen fertilizers are converted to N2O by microbially-mediated processes. Soil amended with biochar has been demonstrated to reduce N2O emissions in the field and in laboratory experiments. Although N2O emission mitigation following soil biochar amendment has been reported frequently the underlying processes and specific role of the nitrogen cycling microbial community in decreasing soil N2O emissions has not been subject of systematic investigation. To investigate the impact of biochar on the microbial community of nitrogen-transforming microorganisms we performed a microcosm study with arable soil amended with different amounts (0%, 2% and 10% (w/w)) of high-temperature wood derived biochar. By quantifying the abundance and activity of functional marker genes of microbial nitrogen fixation (nifH), nitrification (amoA) and denitrification (nirK, nirS and nosZ) using quantitative real-time PCR we found that biochar addition enhanced microbial nitrous oxide reduction and increased the abundance of microorganisms capable of N2-fixation. Soil biochar amendment increased the relative gene and transcript copy numbers of the nosZ-encoded bacterial N2O reductase, suggesting a mechanistic link to the observed reduction in N2O emissions. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the impact of biochar on the nitrogen cycling microbial community and the consequences of soil biochar amendment for microbial nitrogen transformation processes and N2O emissions from soil.

Harter, Johannes; Krause, Hans-Martin; Schuettler, Stefanie; Ruser, Reiner; Fromme, Markus; Scholten, Thomas; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

2014-05-01

219

In silico assessment of the metabolic capabilities of an engineered functional reversal of the ?-oxidation cycle for the synthesis of longer-chain (C?4) products.  

PubMed

The modularity and versatility of an engineered functional reversal of the ?-oxidation cycle make it a promising platform for the synthesis of longer-chain (C?4) products. While the pathway has recently been exploited for the production of n-alcohols and carboxylic acids, fully capitalizing on its potential for the synthesis of a diverse set of product families requires a system-level assessment of its biosynthetic capabilities. To this end, we utilized a genome scale model of Escherichia coli, in combination with Flux Balance Analysis and Flux Variability Analysis, to determine the key characteristics and constraints of this pathway for the production of a variety of product families under fermentative conditions. This analysis revealed that the production of n-alcohols, alkanes, and fatty acids of lengths C3-C18 could be coupled to cell growth in a strain lacking native fermentative pathways, a characteristic enabling product synthesis at maximum rates, titers, and yields. While energetic and redox constraints limit the production of target compounds from alternative platforms such as the fatty acid biosynthesis and ?-ketoacid pathways, the metabolic efficiency of a ?-oxidation reversal allows the production of a wide range of products of varying length and functionality. The versatility of this platform was investigated through the simulation of various termination pathways for product synthesis along with the use of different priming molecules, demonstrating its potential for the efficient synthesis of a wide variety of functionalized compounds. Overall, specific metabolic manipulations suggested by this systems-level analysis include deletion of native fermentation pathways, the choice of priming molecules and specific routes for their synthesis, proper choice of termination enzymes, control of flux partitioning at the pyruvate node and the pentose phosphate pathway, and the use of an NADH-dependent trans-enoyl-CoA reductase instead of a ferredoxin-dependent enzyme. PMID:24569100

Cintolesi, Angela; Clomburg, James M; Gonzalez, Ramon

2014-05-01

220

Effect of post-exercise protein-leucine feeding on neutrophil function, immunomodulatory plasma metabolites and cortisol during a 6-day block of intense cycling.  

PubMed

Whey protein and leucine ingestion following exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and could influence neutrophil function during recovery from prolonged intense exercise. We examined the effects of whey protein and leucine ingestion post-exercise on neutrophil function and immunomodulators during a period of intense cycling. In a randomized double-blind crossover, 12 male cyclists ingested protein/leucine/carbohydrate/fat (LEUPRO 20/7.5/89/22 g h(-1), respectively) or isocaloric carbohydrate/fat control (CON 119/22 g h(-1)) beverages for 1-3 h post-exercise during 6 days of high-intensity training. Blood was taken pre- and post-exercise on days 1, 2, 4 and 6 for phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated neutrophil superoxide (O2 (-)) production, immune cell counts, amino acid and lipid metabolism via metabolomics, hormones (cortisol, testosterone) and cytokines (interleukin-6, interleukin-10). During recovery on day 1, LEUPRO ingestion increased mean concentrations of plasma amino acids (glycine, arginine, glutamine, leucine) and myristic acid metabolites (acylcarnitines C14, myristoylcarnitine; and C14:1-OH, hydroxymyristoleylcarnitine) with neutrophil priming capacity, and reduced neutrophil O2 production (15-17 mmol O2 (-) cell(-1) ± 90 % confidence limits 20 mmol O2 (-) cell(-1)). On day 2, LEUPRO increased pre-exercise plasma volume (6.6 ± 3.8 %) but haematological effects were trivial. LEUPRO supplementation did not substantially alter neutrophil elastase, testosterone, or cytokine concentrations. By day 6, however, LEUPRO reduced pre-exercise cortisol 21 % (±15 %) and acylcarnitine C16 (palmitoylcarnitine) during exercise, and increased post-exercise neutrophil O2 (-) (33 ± 20 mmol O2 (-) cell(-1)), relative to control. Altered plasma amino acid and acylcarnitine concentrations with protein-leucine feeding might partly explain the acute post-exercise reduction in neutrophil function and increased exercise-stimulated neutrophil oxidative burst on day 6, which could impact neutrophil-dependent processes during recovery from intense training. PMID:23624785

Nelson, Andre R; Jackson, Lara; Clarke, Jim; Stellingwerff, Trent; Broadbent, Suzanne; Rowlands, David S

2013-09-01

221

Metaproteomics Provides Functional Insight into Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Through identification of highly expressed proteins from a mixed culture activated sludge system this study provides functional evidence of microbial transformations important for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Methodology/Principal Findings A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor was successfully operated for different levels of EBPR, removing around 25, 40 and 55 mg/l P. The microbial communities were dominated by the uncultured polyphosphate-accumulating organism “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis”. When EBPR failed, the sludge was dominated by tetrad-forming ?-Proteobacteria. Representative and reproducible 2D gel protein separations were obtained for all sludge samples. 638 protein spots were matched across gels generated from the phosphate removing sludges. 111 of these were excised and 46 proteins were identified using recently available sludge metagenomic sequences. Many of these closely match proteins from “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” and could be directly linked to the EBPR process. They included enzymes involved in energy generation, polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, glyoxylate/TCA cycle, fatty acid ? oxidation, fatty acid synthesis and phosphate transport. Several proteins involved in cellular stress response were detected. Conclusions/Significance Importantly, this study provides direct evidence linking the metabolic activities of “Accumulibacter” to the chemical transformations observed in EBPR. Finally, the results are discussed in relation to current EBPR metabolic models. PMID:18392150

Wilmes, Paul; Wexler, Margaret; Bond, Philip L.

2008-01-01

222

Purple bamboo salt has anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells in vitro and preventive effects on buccal mucosa cancer in mice in vivo.  

PubMed

Bamboo salt is a traditional healthy salt known in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of the salt were evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells. At 1% concentration, the growth inhibitory rate of purple bamboo salt was 61% higher than that of sea salt (27%). Apoptosis analysis of the cancer cells was carried out using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to investigate the mechanism of the anticancer effects in tongue carcinoma cells. Purple bamboo salt induced a stronger apoptotic effect than sea salt. An Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with salt samples. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the group treated with purple bamboo salt were smaller than those from the sea salt treatment and control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that canceration in the purple bamboo salt group was weaker compared with that in the sea salt group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, the purple bamboo salt group demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, compared with the sea salt and control groups. The results demonstrated that purple bamboo salt had improved in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with sea salt in mice. PMID:23403521

Zhao, Xin; Deng, Xiaoxiao; Park, Kun-Young; Qiu, Lihua; Pang, Liang

2013-02-01

223

Purple bamboo salt has anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells in vitro and preventive effects on buccal mucosa cancer in mice in vivo  

PubMed Central

Bamboo salt is a traditional healthy salt known in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of the salt were evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells. At 1% concentration, the growth inhibitory rate of purple bamboo salt was 61% higher than that of sea salt (27%). Apoptosis analysis of the cancer cells was carried out using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to investigate the mechanism of the anticancer effects in tongue carcinoma cells. Purple bamboo salt induced a stronger apoptotic effect than sea salt. An Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with salt samples. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the group treated with purple bamboo salt were smaller than those from the sea salt treatment and control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that canceration in the purple bamboo salt group was weaker compared with that in the sea salt group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, the purple bamboo salt group demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, compared with the sea salt and control groups. The results demonstrated that purple bamboo salt had improved in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with sea salt in mice. PMID:23403521

ZHAO, XIN; DENG, XIAOXIAO; PARK, KUN-YOUNG; QIU, LIHUA; PANG, LIANG

2013-01-01

224

Functional genomics and SNP analysis of human genes encoding proline metabolic enzymes  

PubMed Central

Proline metabolism in mammals involves two other amino acids, glutamate and ornithine, and five enzymatic activities, ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase (P5CR), proline oxidase, P5C dehydrogenase, P5C synthase and ornithine-?-aminotransferase (OAT). With the exception of OAT, which catalyzes a reversible reaction, the other 4 enzymes are unidirectional, suggesting that proline metabolism is purpose-driven, tightly regulated, and compartmentalized. In addition, this tri-amino-acid system also links with three other pivotal metabolic systems, namely the TCA cycle, urea cycle, and pentose phosphate pathway. Abnormalities in proline metabolism are relevant in several diseases: six monogenic inborn errors involving metabolism and/or transport of proline and its immediate metabolites have been described. Recent advances in the Human Genome Project, in silico database mining techniques, and research in dissecting the molecular basis of proline metabolism prompted us to utilize functional genomic approaches to analyze human genes which encode proline metabolic enzymes in the context of gene structure, regulation of gene expression, mRNA variants, protein isoforms, and single nucleotide polymorphisms. PMID:18506409

Williams, D. Bart; Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Khalil, Shadi; Wan, Guanghua; Valle, David

2009-01-01

225

Functional genomics and SNP analysis of human genes encoding proline metabolic enzymes.  

PubMed

Proline metabolism in mammals involves two other amino acids, glutamate and ornithine, and five enzymatic activities, Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase (P5CR), proline oxidase, P5C dehydrogenase, P5C synthase and ornithine-delta-aminotransferase (OAT). With the exception of OAT, which catalyzes a reversible reaction, the other four enzymes are unidirectional, suggesting that proline metabolism is purpose-driven, tightly regulated, and compartmentalized. In addition, this tri-amino-acid system also links with three other pivotal metabolic systems, namely the TCA cycle, urea cycle, and pentose phosphate pathway. Abnormalities in proline metabolism are relevant in several diseases: six monogenic inborn errors involving metabolism and/or transport of proline and its immediate metabolites have been described. Recent advances in the Human Genome Project, in silico database mining techniques, and research in dissecting the molecular basis of proline metabolism prompted us to utilize functional genomic approaches to analyze human genes which encode proline metabolic enzymes in the context of gene structure, regulation of gene expression, mRNA variants, protein isoforms, and single nucleotide polymorphisms. PMID:18506409

Hu, Chien-An A; Bart Williams, D; Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Khalil, Shadi; Wan, Guanghua; Valle, David

2008-11-01

226

[Functional state of a sphingomyeline cycle and free radical lipid oxidation activity of a rat's liver during different phases of starvation].  

PubMed

The functional state of a sphingomyeline cycle and character of its mutual relations with the processes of free radical lipid oxidation during starvation of animals without any restriction of access to drinking water at 1, 2, 3 day (I phase) and 6 day (II phase of starvation) were studied at the liver of rats. The maximal values of the ceramide/sphingomyeline ratio and activity neutral sphingomyelinase and executive caspase-3 were reached in a liver of animals at the 3rd day of starvation. From the 3rd day of starvation the concentration of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha which is one of activators neutral sphingomyelinase was increase in rats blood serum. During the extent of large part of the I phase of starvation the intensity of free radical lipid peroxidation in a liver had almost the same level as in control group--that was a result of the high-grade functioning of antioxidant defense system. After transition the I phase of starvation into the II phase (6 day of experiment) the oxidative stress was developed as result of an exhaustion of system antioxidant defense potential in a liver. The results of this data can testify that during I phase of starvation in a liver the conditions was raised for display of the ceramide-mediated proapoptotic signalling. We assume that ceramide-mediated apoptosis is one of mechanisms of optimization of liver cellular population at the frames of metabolic adaptation. The I phase of starvation in a liver proves by the ceramide-mediated proapoptotic signaling developing. During the II phase of starvation the oxidative stress process were prevailed. PMID:23289297

Kuz'menko, D I; Burov, P G; Serebrov, V Iu; Fa?t, E A; Perevozchikova, T V

2012-01-01

227

Role for a region of helically unstable DNA within the Epstein-Barr virus latent cycle origin of DNA replication oriP in origin function  

SciTech Connect

The minimal replicator of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent cycle origin of DNA replication oriP is composed of two binding sites for the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and flanking inverted repeats that bind the telomere repeat binding factor TRF2. Although not required for minimal replicator activity, additional binding sites for EBNA-1 and TRF2 and one or more auxiliary elements located to the right of the EBNA-1/TRF2 sites are required for the efficient replication of oriP plasmids. Another region of oriP that is predicted to be destabilized by DNA supercoiling is shown here to be an important functional component of oriP. The ability of DNA fragments of unrelated sequence and possessing supercoiled-induced DNA duplex destabilized (SIDD) structures, but not fragments characterized by helically stable DNA, to substitute for this component of oriP demonstrates a role for the SIDD region in the initiation of oriP-plasmid DNA replication.

Polonskaya, Zhanna [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Benham, Craig J. [Department of Mathematics, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hearing, Janet [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)]. E-mail: jhearing@ms.cc.sunysb.edu

2004-10-25

228

Complementation of the function of glycoprotein H of human herpesvirus 6 variant A by glycoprotein H of variant B in the virus life cycle.  

PubMed

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a T-cell-tropic betaherpesvirus. HHV-6 can be classified into two variants, HHV-6 variant A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B, based on genetic, antigenic, and cell tropisms, although the homology of their entire genomic sequences is nearly 90%. The HHV-6A glycoprotein complex gH/gL/gQ1/gQ2 is a viral ligand that binds to the cellular receptor human CD46. Because gH has 94.3% amino acid identity between the variants, here we examined whether gH from one variant could complement its loss in the other. Recently, we successfully reconstituted HHV-6A from its cloned genome in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) (rHHV-6ABAC). Using this system, we constructed HHV-6ABAC DNA containing the HHV-6B gH (BgH) gene instead of the HHV-6A gH (AgH) gene in Escherichia coli. Recombinant HHV-6ABAC expressing BgH (rHHV-6ABAC-BgH) was successfully reconstituted. In addition, a monoclonal antibody that blocks HHV-6B but not HHV-6A infection neutralized rHHV-6ABAC-BgH but not rHHV-6ABAC. These results indicate that HHV-6B gH can complement the function of HHV-6A gH in the viral infectious cycle. PMID:22647694

Oyaizu, Hiroko; Tang, Huamin; Ota, Megumi; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Ozono, Keiichi; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

2012-08-01

229

Electrochemical Gating of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in Electricity-Producing Bacterial Cells of Shewanella  

PubMed Central

Energy-conversion systems mediated by bacterial metabolism have recently attracted much attention, and therefore, demands for tuning of bacterial metabolism are increasing. It is widely recognized that intracellular redox atmosphere which is generally tuned by dissolved oxygen concentration or by appropriate selection of an electron acceptor for respiration is one of the important factors determining the bacterial metabolism. In general, electrochemical approaches are valuable for regulation of redox-active objects. However, the intracellular redox conditions are extremely difficult to control electrochemically because of the presence of insulative phospholipid bilayer membranes. In the present work, the limitation can be overcome by use of the bacterial genus Shewanella, which consists of species that are able to respire via cytochromes abundantly expressed in their outer-membrane with solid-state electron acceptors, including anodes. The electrochemical characterization and the gene expression analysis revealed that the activity of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in Shewanella cells can be reversibly gated simply by changing the anode potential. Importantly, our present results for Shewanella cells cultured in an electrochemical system under poised potential conditions showed the opposite relationship between the current and electron acceptor energy level, and indicate that this unique behavior originates from deactivation of the TCA cycle in the (over-)oxidative region. Our result obtained in this study is the first demonstration of the electrochemical gating of TCA cycle of living cells. And we believe that our findings will contribute to a deeper understanding of redox-dependent regulation systems in living cells, in which the intracellular redox atmosphere is a critical factor determining the regulation of various metabolic and genetic processes. PMID:23977370

Matsuda, Shoichi; Liu, Huan; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakanishi, Shuji

2013-01-01

230

[Effects of oral contraceptives and of the ovarian cycle on auditory performance at 4 and 6 kHz. Demonstration by functional audiometry].  

PubMed

Absolute thresholds at 4 and 6 kHz were tested in 3 sessions before and after 20 min exposure to 105 dB (A) pink noise in 12 young normal cycling females 11 young females under oral contraceptives and 8 young men. Women under oral contraceptives show lower resting thresholds, more important TTS2 and higher recovery rate than normal cycling women and men. In normal cycling females, non parametric analysis of the data provides evidence that absolute thresholds at 4 and 6 kHz tend significantly to be higher at menses and lower during the postovulatory phase of the cycle. PMID:6234968

Petiot, J C; Parrot, J

1984-01-01

231

carbon cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life on earth is based on carbon. Living things acquire carbon from their environment - from air, water, soil, and rock and from other living things - through processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and decomposition. The carbon cycle model is a representation of the movement of carbon from sources to sinks through chemical and physical transfers. The carbon cycle activity allows students to see the effect of fossil fuel burning on the carbon cycle.

School, Maryland V.

232

Transcription factors and glyoxylate cycle genes prominent in the transition of soybean cotyledons to the first functional leaves of the seedling.  

PubMed

During early seedling growth, the cotyledons transition from a storage tissue to become effectively the first leaf-like structures of the plant. In this programmed developmental process, they likely undergo a massive change in gene expression to redirect their metabolism and physiological processes. To define the developmental shifts in gene expression and begin to understand the gene regulatory networks that set this transition in motion, we carried out high-throughput RNA sequencing of cotyledons from seven developmental stages of soybean seedlings. We identified 154 gene models with high expression exclusively in the early seedling stages. A significant number (about 25 %) of those genes with known annotations were involved in carbohydrate metabolism. A detailed examination of glyoxylate cycle genes revealed the upregulation of their expression in the early stages of development. A total of approximately 50 % of the highly expressed genes whose expression peaked in the mid-developmental stages encoded ribosomal family proteins. Our analysis also identified 219 gene models with high expression at late developmental stages. The majority of these genes are involved in photosynthesis, including photosystem I- and II-associated genes. Additionally, the advantage of RNA-Seq to detect genes expressed at low levels revealed approximately 460 transcription factors with notable expression in at least one stage of the developing soybean seedling. Relatively over-represented transcription factor genes encode AP2, zinc finger, NAC, WRKY, and MYB families. These transcription factor genes may lead to the transcriptional reprogramming during the transition of seedling cotyledons from storage tissue to metabolically active organs that serve as the first functional leaves of the plant. PMID:25070765

Shamimuzzaman, Md; Vodkin, Lila

2014-12-01

233

Inflammation-mediating cytokine response to acute handcycling exercise with/without functional electrical stimulation-evoked lower-limb cycling.  

PubMed

This feasibility study compared the plasma inflammation-mediating cytokine response to an acute bout of handcycling (HC) with and without the addition of functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked lower-limb cycling. On two separate occasions, five recreationally active, community-based participants with motor complete paraplegia (thoracic 5- 7) performed 30 min HC and hybrid exercise (HYB) at a fixed power output. Venous blood samples were collected at rest, immediately postexercise, 1 h postexercise (post+1) and 2 h postexercise (post+2). Plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), adrenaline, and cortisol concentrations were determined via enzyme-linked immunoassay. Plasma IL-6 concentrations were significantly (p < 0.04) elevated (~2.5-fold) at post+1 and post+2 in HYB only. A small (0.5-fold), nonsignificant (p > 0.05) increase in IL-6 was observed at post+1 in HC, with concentrations significantly higher in HYB at post+2 (p < 0.02). Plasma IL-1ra was unaffected in both trials. Although not reaching statistical significance (p = 0.15), a ~1-fold increase in IL-10 concentration was seen in HYB at post+2. In contrast, increases in adrenaline (p < 0.04) and cortisol (p = 0.08) were observed immediately postexercise in HC and HYB. Initial findings suggest paralyzed skeletal muscle releases IL-6 in response to FES-evoked contractions. HYB may provide a greater anti-inflammatory potential in individuals with a thoracic spinal cord injury compared with HC alone. PMID:25144177

Paulson, Thomas A W; Bishop, Nicolette C; Smith, Brett M; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

2014-07-01

234

Simulation of Marine Nitrogen Cycling as Function of Atmospheric Oxygen: Results of a Coupled C,N,P,O,S Biogeochemical Model Including d15N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioavailable nitrogen is a critical limiting nutrient in the modern marine biosphere. We expect that the rate of denitrification may have been higher in the geologic past due to decreased atmospheric O2 and expanded ocean anoxia. To examine the consequences of this idea, we present numerical simulations of coupled carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, and sulfur cycling as a function of atmospheric oxygen in an ocean with circulation similar to modern conditions. The model has been specifically developed to function over a wide range of ocean redox conditions and has been successfully tested in simulations of both the modern global ocean and Black Sea. Global rates of nitrogen fixation and pelagic denitrification, which are strongly coupled in our default model, reach maximum rates between 25% and 50% of the present atmospheric level of O2 (PAL O2). At 40% PAL O2, the simulated steady-state pelagic denitrification rate is 82.1 Tmol/yr, and the N- fixation rate is 85.7 Tmol/yr. These rates are 8-15× greater than modern estimates. The maximum simulated rate of N-fixation is determined by the N flux required to entirely support export production. At mid- levels of atmospheric oxygen, large areas of the oceans are characterized by a suboxic to anoxic "oxygen minimum zone" between 100m and 1000m depth which is over- and underlain by oxic water. Under these conditions, denitrification in the upper water column is nearly complete, suppressing the ?15N isotopic signal for this process. To test the impact of limitation of N-fixation (e.g. by trace metals, light, temperature) we imposed a cap on the global N-fixation rate. In these simulations, limitation of N-fixation below 50% PAL O2 results in severe N limitation of primary production and low mean oceanic N:P. Our results imply that N limitation may have been chronic at intermediate levels of atmospheric O2. At the same time, low N:P conditions would create evolutionary pressure for efficient N-fixation pathways and high N use efficiency in non-fixing marine phytoplankton, testing the limits of plasticity in the Redfield ratio. If N-fixation were unable to keep up with high rates of denitrification at intermediate levels of atmospheric O2, intense N limitation of Proterozoic marine primary production may have strongly inhibited any further rise of atmospheric O2, thus stabilizing atmospheric O2 at <25% PAL.

Romaniello, S. J.; Derry, L. A.

2008-12-01

235

Metabolic flux analysis of hepatocyte function in hormone- and amino acid-supplemented plasma.  

PubMed

Understanding the metabolic and regulatory pathways of hepatocytes is important for biotechnological applications involving liver cells. Previous attempts to culture hepatocytes in plasma yielded poor functional results. Recently we reported that hormone (insulin and hydrocortisone) and amino acid supplementation reduces intracellular lipid accumulation and restores liver-specific function in hepatocytes exposed to heparinized human plasma. In the current study, we performed metabolic flux analysis (MFA) using a simplified metabolic network model of cultured hepatocytes to quantitively estimate the changes in lipid metabolism and relevant intracellular pathways in response to hormone and amino acid supplementation. The model accounts for the majority of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and assumes pseudo-steady-state with no metabolic futile cycles. We found that beta-oxidation and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle fluxes were upregulated by both hormone and amino acid supplementation, thus enhancing the rate of lipid oxidation. Concomitantly, hormone and amino acid supplementation increased gluconeogenic fluxes. This, together with an increased rate of glucose clearance, caused an increase in predicted glycogen synthesis. Urea synthesis was primarily derived from ammonia and aspartate generated through transamination reactions, while exogenous ammonia removal accounted for only 3-6% of the urea nitrogen. Amino acid supplementation increased the endogenous synthesis of oxaloacetate, and in turn that of aspartate, a necessary substrate for the urea cycle. These findings from MFA provide cues as to which genes/pathways relevant to fatty acid oxidation, urea production, and gluconeogenesis may be upregulated by plasma supplementation, and are consistent with current knowledge of hepatic amino acid metabolism, which provides further credence to this approach for evaluating the metabolic state of hepatocytes under various environmental conditions. PMID:12749840

Chan, Christina; Berthiaume, François; Lee, Kyongbum; Yarmush, Martin L

2003-01-01

236

Functional analysis of actin-like protein MreB and alternative sigma factor RpoN in chlamydial developmental cycle  

E-print Network

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen of immense public health impact and is responsible for diverse disease states leading to blindness, sterility, atherosclerosis etc. in humans. Its unique biphasic developmental cycle...

Balwalli, Namita Ashwin

2013-05-31

237

Preferences for foods with varying levels of salt and fat differ as a function of dietary restraint and exercise but not menstrual cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women commonly report increased cravings for foods high in sugar, fat, and\\/or salt premenstrually relative to other times during the menstrual cycle. To determine if elevated cravings for foods high in salt and\\/or fat were related to alterations in food preferences across the menstrual cycle, preference and sensory ratings for air-popped popcorn with varying levels of salt (0.0, 1.5, and

Robin B. Kanarek; Michelle Ryu; Jeanne Przypek

1995-01-01

238

Milankovitch Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These animations depict the three major Milankovitch Cycles that impact global climate, visually demonstrating the definitions of eccentricity, obliquity, and precession, and their ranges of variation and timing on Earth.

[http://www.sciencecourseware.org/eec/GlobalWarming/Tutorials/Milankovitch/

239

Natural Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this short video from ClimateCentral, host Jessica Harrop explains what evidence scientists have for claiming that recent global warming is caused by humans and is not just part of a natural cycle.

Central, Climate

240

Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from Moorland School in England, describes the rock cycle. Topics briefly discussed include rock formation, erosion, transportation, and deposition, plus various types of rocks. The page is directed towards a middle-school audience.

School, Moorland

241

Methylcitrate cycle defines the bactericidal essentiality of isocitrate lyase for survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on fatty acids.  

PubMed

Few mutations attenuate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) more profoundly than deletion of its isocitrate lyases (ICLs). However, the basis for this attenuation remains incompletely defined. Mtb's ICLs are catalytically bifunctional isocitrate and methylisocitrate lyases required for growth on even and odd chain fatty acids. Here, we report that Mtb's ICLs are essential for survival on both acetate and propionate because of its methylisocitrate lyase (MCL) activity. Lack of MCL activity converts Mtb's methylcitrate cycle into a "dead end" pathway that sequesters tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates into methylcitrate cycle intermediates, depletes gluconeogenic precursors, and results in defects of membrane potential and intrabacterial pH. Activation of an alternative vitamin B12-dependent pathway of propionate metabolism led to selective corrections of TCA cycle activity, membrane potential, and intrabacterial pH that specifically restored survival, but not growth, of ICL-deficient Mtb metabolizing acetate or propionate. These results thus resolve the biochemical basis of essentiality for Mtb's ICLs and survival on fatty acids. PMID:24639517

Eoh, Hyungjin; Rhee, Kyu Y

2014-04-01

242

Methylcitrate cycle defines the bactericidal essentiality of isocitrate lyase for survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on fatty acids  

PubMed Central

Few mutations attenuate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) more profoundly than deletion of its isocitrate lyases (ICLs). However, the basis for this attenuation remains incompletely defined. Mtb’s ICLs are catalytically bifunctional isocitrate and methylisocitrate lyases required for growth on even and odd chain fatty acids. Here, we report that Mtb’s ICLs are essential for survival on both acetate and propionate because of its methylisocitrate lyase (MCL) activity. Lack of MCL activity converts Mtb’s methylcitrate cycle into a “dead end” pathway that sequesters tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates into methylcitrate cycle intermediates, depletes gluconeogenic precursors, and results in defects of membrane potential and intrabacterial pH. Activation of an alternative vitamin B12-dependent pathway of propionate metabolism led to selective corrections of TCA cycle activity, membrane potential, and intrabacterial pH that specifically restored survival, but not growth, of ICL-deficient Mtb metabolizing acetate or propionate. These results thus resolve the biochemical basis of essentiality for Mtb’s ICLs and survival on fatty acids. PMID:24639517

Eoh, Hyungjin; Rhee, Kyu Y.

2014-01-01

243

Vapor Compression Cycle Design Program (CYCLE_D)  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 49 NIST Vapor Compression Cycle Design Program (CYCLE_D) (PC database for purchase)   The CYCLE_D database package simulates the vapor compression refrigeration cycles. It is fully compatible with REFPROP 9.0 and covers the 62 single-compound refrigerants . Fluids can be used in mixtures comprising up to five components.

244

Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory introduces students to the current scientific understanding of the greenhouse effect and the carbon cycle. The activity leads them through several interactive tasks investigating recent trends in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Students analyze scientific data and use scientific reasoning to determine the causes responsible for these recent trends. By studying carbon cycle science in a visual and interactive manner, the activity provides students with a conceptual framework with which to address the challenges of a changing climate.

Laboratory, Noaa/earth S.

245

Cycle Route  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're an avid cyclist or just a neophyte, you'll find this rather unique app most useful. Cycle Route can assist those with a passion for cycling plan out their route based on topography, elevation, main roads, and a range of other variables. Visitors just need to enter their origin and destination and they will be all set. The app returns a range of routes that users can take advantage of and there's also a mobile version as well. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2013-11-07

246

Eur. J. Biochem. 173,437-443 (1988) A functional five-enzyme complex of chloroplasts involved in the Calvin cycle  

E-print Network

chromatographies on DEAE-Trisacryl, Sephadex G-200 and hydroxyapatite. The homogeneity of the complexhas been between certain enzymes of this cycle [7, 81. We report in this paper that five enzymes, ribose and Sephacryl S-300 from Pharmacia. Deionized water, further

247

Nitrogen Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication provides a variety of resources. Some assist you in your content knowledge, some are actual lessons or activities, some are good graphic representations of both concepts and organisms of the nitrogen cycle, and some provide real data from current issues for you and your students to analyze and interpret.

Lefever, Mary

2007-01-01

248

Sulfur cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even granting our uncertainties about parts of our model of the sulfur cycle, we can draw some conclusions from it. Man is now contributing about one half as much as nature to the total atmospheric burden of sulfur compounds, but by A.D. 2000 he will be contributing about as much, and in the northern hemisphere alone he will be more

W. W. Kellogg; R. D. Cadle; E. R. Allen; A. L. Lazrus; E. A. Martell

1972-01-01

249

Ultrafast thermal cycling of solar panels  

SciTech Connect

Two new cyclers that utilize a novel hybrid approach to perform fast thermal cycling of solar panels have been built and are now operational in the Mechanics and Materials Technology Center at The Aerospace Corporation. These cyclers are part of a continuing effort to minimize solar cell life test durations by accelerating the cycling rates. These fully automated cyclers, which provide continuous unmanned cycling in a gaseous nitrogen atmosphere, can execute 5 min cycles, thus yielding in excess of 100,000 cycles per year. They also have a unique capability of verifying solar panel functionality without interruption of cycling, so that cycling doesn`t continue on nonfunctioning panels.

Wall, T.S.; Valenzuela, P.R.; Sue, C.

1998-08-15

250

Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Elementary students often successfully memorize and repeat back the stages in cycles, with no deep conceptual understanding of the complexities of the processes involved. Their ability to synthesize knowledge of the cycles with a wider breadth of information related to real-world, unresolved environmental issues such as global warming, greenhouse gas emissions or the burning of biomass for fuel is probably less well developed. In order to engage in meaningful discussions of carbon-related environmental issues, students also need an understanding of the changing nature of the earth s atmosphere. The relative proportion of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen, ozone and other gases is neither consistent around the world nor constant over time. What factors contribute to the variability in atmospheric content? Which of the factors should be controlled? What are the possible approaches to controlling them? What are the possible and probable outcomes of such controlling measures?

Lefever, Mary

2007-01-01

251

The Usher 1B protein, MYO7A, is required for normal localization and function of the visual retinoid cycle enzyme, RPE65.  

PubMed

Mutations in the MYO7A gene cause a deaf-blindness disorder, known as Usher syndrome 1B.  In the retina, the majority of MYO7A is in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), where many of the reactions of the visual retinoid cycle take place.  We have observed that the retinas of Myo7a-mutant mice are resistant to acute light damage. In exploring the basis of this resistance, we found that Myo7a-mutant mice have lower levels of RPE65, the RPE isomerase that has a key role in the retinoid cycle.  We show for the first time that RPE65 normally undergoes a light-dependent translocation to become more concentrated in the central region of the RPE cells.  This translocation requires MYO7A, so that, in Myo7a-mutant mice, RPE65 is partly mislocalized in the light.  RPE65 is degraded more quickly in Myo7a-mutant mice, perhaps due to its mislocalization, providing a plausible explanation for its lower levels.  Following a 50-60% photobleach, Myo7a-mutant retinas exhibited increased all-trans-retinyl ester levels during the initial stages of dark recovery, consistent with a deficiency in RPE65 activity.  Lastly, MYO7A and RPE65 were co-immunoprecipitated from RPE cell lysate by antibodies against either of the proteins, and the two proteins were partly colocalized, suggesting a direct or indirect interaction.  Together, the results support a role for MYO7A in the translocation of RPE65, illustrating the involvement of a molecular motor in the spatiotemporal organization of the retinoid cycle in vision. PMID:21493626

Lopes, Vanda S; Gibbs, Daniel; Libby, Richard T; Aleman, Tomas S; Welch, Darcy L; Lillo, Concepción; Jacobson, Samuel G; Radu, Roxana A; Steel, Karen P; Williams, David S

2011-07-01

252

Functional Interactions between BM88/Cend1, Ran-Binding Protein M and Dyrk1B Kinase Affect Cyclin D1 Levels and Cell Cycle Progression/Exit in Mouse Neuroblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

BM88/Cend1 is a neuronal-lineage specific modulator with a pivotal role in coordination of cell cycle exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors. In the current study we identified the signal transduction scaffolding protein Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) as a BM88/Cend1 binding partner and showed that BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1B (Dyrk1B) are expressed in mouse brain as well as in cultured embryonic cortical neurons while RanBPM can form complexes with either of the two other proteins. To elucidate a potential mechanism involving BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and Dyrk1B in cell cycle progression/exit, we transiently co-expressed these proteins in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro 2a cells. We found that the BM88/Cend1-dependent or Dyrk1B-dependent down-regulation of cyclin D1 is reversed following their functional interaction with RanBPM. More specifically, functional interaction of RanBPM with either BM88/Cend1 or Dyrk1B stabilizes cyclin D1 in the nucleus and promotes 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation as a measure of enhanced cell proliferation. However, the RanBPM-dependent Dyrk1B cytosolic retention and degradation is reverted in the presence of Cend1 resulting in cyclin D1 destabilization. Co-expression of RanBPM with either BM88/Cend1 or Dyrk1B also had a negative effect on Neuro 2a cell differentiation. Our results suggest that functional interactions between BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and Dyrk1B affect the balance between cellular proliferation and differentiation in Neuro 2a cells and indicate that a potentially similar mechanism may influence cell cycle progression/exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors. PMID:24312406

Tsioras, Konstantinos; Papastefanaki, Florentia; Politis, Panagiotis K.; Matsas, Rebecca; Gaitanou, Maria

2013-01-01

253

Cloning of the amphibolic Calvin cycle/OPPP enzyme D-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.1) from spinach chloroplasts: functional and evolutionary aspects.  

PubMed

Exploiting the differential expression of genes for Calvin cycle enzymes in bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells of the C4 plant Sorghum bicolor L., we isolated via subtractive hybridization a molecular probe for the Calvin cycle enzyme D-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase (R5P3E)(EC 5.1.3.1), with the help of which several full-size cDNAs were isolated from spinach. Functional identity of the encoded mature subunit was shown by R5P3E activity found in affinity-purified glutatione S-transferase fusions expressed in Escherichia coli and by three-fold increase of R5P3E activity upon induction of E. coli overexpressing the spinach subunit under the control of the bacteriophage T7 promoter, demonstrating that we have cloned the first functional ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase from any eukaryotic source. The chloroplast enzyme from spinach shares about 50% amino acid identity with its homologues from the Calvin cycle operons of the autotrophic purple bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus and Rhodospirillum rubrum. A R5P3E-related eubacterial gene family was identified which arose through ancient duplications in prokaryotic chromosomes, three R5P3E-related genes of yet unknown function have persisted to the present within the E. coli genome. A gene phylogeny reveals that spinach R5P3E is more similar to eubacterial homologues than to the yeast sequence, suggesting a eubacterial origin for this plant nuclear gene. PMID:8616224

Nowitzki, U; Wyrich, R; Westhoff, P; Henze, K; Schnarrenberger, C; Martin, W

1995-12-01

254

The highly efficient holding function of the mollusc 'catch' muscle is not based on decelerated myosin head cross-bridge cycles  

PubMed Central

Certain smooth muscles are able to reduce energy consumption greatly when holding without shortening. For instance, this is the case with muscles surrounding blood vessels used for regulating blood flow and pressure. The phenomenon is most conspicuous in ‘catch’ muscles of molluscs, which have been used as models for investigating this important physiological property of smooth muscle. When the shells of mussels are held closed, the responsible muscles enter the highly energy-efficient state of catch. According to the traditional view, the state of catch is caused by the slowing down of the force-generating cycles of the molecular motors, the myosin heads. Here, we show that catch can still be induced and maintained when the myosin heads are prevented from generating force. This new evidence proves that the long-held explanation of the state of catch being due to the slowing down of force producing myosin head cycles is not valid and that the highly economic holding state is caused by the formation of a rigid network of inter-myofilament connections based on passive molecular structures. PMID:19906664

Galler, Stefan; Litzlbauer, Julia; Kross, Markus; Grassberger, Herbert

2010-01-01

255

The highly efficient holding function of the mollusc 'catch' muscle is not based on decelerated myosin head cross-bridge cycles.  

PubMed

Certain smooth muscles are able to reduce energy consumption greatly when holding without shortening. For instance, this is the case with muscles surrounding blood vessels used for regulating blood flow and pressure. The phenomenon is most conspicuous in 'catch' muscles of molluscs, which have been used as models for investigating this important physiological property of smooth muscle. When the shells of mussels are held closed, the responsible muscles enter the highly energy-efficient state of catch. According to the traditional view, the state of catch is caused by the slowing down of the force-generating cycles of the molecular motors, the myosin heads. Here, we show that catch can still be induced and maintained when the myosin heads are prevented from generating force. This new evidence proves that the long-held explanation of the state of catch being due to the slowing down of force producing myosin head cycles is not valid and that the highly economic holding state is caused by the formation of a rigid network of inter-myofilament connections based on passive molecular structures. PMID:19906664

Galler, Stefan; Litzlbauer, Julia; Kröss, Markus; Grassberger, Herbert

2010-03-01

256

Cyclical Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students model the water cycle using a set of glass bowls, water, salt, clear plastic wrap, and a marble. and observe the process of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation. They observe that water can change from a liquid to a gas, and change back into a liquid. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA SCI Files: The Case of the Phenomenal Weather. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

257

A single transcription factor regulates evolutionarily diverse but functionally linked metabolic pathways in response to nutrient availability  

PubMed Central

During evolution, enzyme-coding genes are acquired and/or replaced through lateral gene transfer and compiled into metabolic pathways. Gene regulatory networks evolve to fine tune biochemical fluxes through such metabolic pathways, enabling organisms to acclimate to nutrient fluctuations in a competitive environment. Here, we demonstrate that a single TrmB family transcription factor in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 globally coordinates functionally linked enzymes of diverse phylogeny in response to changes in carbon source availability. Specifically, during nutritional limitation, TrmB binds a cis-regulatory element to activate or repress 113 promoters of genes encoding enzymes in diverse metabolic pathways. By this mechanism, TrmB coordinates the expression of glycolysis, TCA cycle, and amino-acid biosynthesis pathways with the biosynthesis of their cognate cofactors (e.g. purine and thiamine). Notably, the TrmB-regulated metabolic network includes enzyme-coding genes that are uniquely archaeal as well as those that are conserved across all three domains of life. Simultaneous analysis of metabolic and gene regulatory network architectures suggests an ongoing process of co-evolution in which TrmB integrates the expression of metabolic enzyme-coding genes of diverse origins. PMID:19536205

Schmid, Amy K; Reiss, David J; Pan, Min; Koide, Tie; Baliga, Nitin S

2009-01-01

258

Duty cycle effects on generating unit availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents and discusses unit reliability models and unit failure rates as functions of unit duty cycle. The duty cycle experienced by a generating unit has an important effect on the unit's failure rate and on the probability that the unit is available when needed. Consequently, unit duty cycles should be considered and properly modeled in studies of system

A. D. Patton

1993-01-01

259

Life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging is to ensure the safety functions (i.e. containment of radioactivity, protection against radiation, and criticality safety for fissile contents) during the entire life cycle of the packaging in storage, transportation and disposal. A framework has been developed for life cycle management regarding type B radioactive and fissile materials packaging, drawing

Y. Liu; S. Bellamy; J. Shuler

2007-01-01

260

Retinoblastoma Protein and MyoD Function Together to Effect the Repression of Fra-1 and in Turn Cyclin D1 during Terminal Cell Cycle Arrest Associated with Myogenesis.  

PubMed

The acquisition of skeletal muscle-specific function and terminal cell cycle arrest represent two important features of the myogenic differentiation program. These cellular processes are distinct and can be separated genetically. The lineage-specific transcription factor MyoD and the retinoblastoma protein pRb participate in both of these cellular events. Whether and how MyoD and pRb work together to effect terminal cell cycle arrest is uncertain. To address this question, we focused on cyclin D1, whose stable repression is required for terminal cell cycle arrest and execution of myogenesis. MyoD and pRb are both required for the repression of cyclin D1; their actions, however, were found not to be direct. Rather, they operate to regulate the immediate early gene Fra-1, a critical player in mitogen-dependent induction of cyclin D1. Two conserved MyoD-binding sites were identified in an intronic enhancer of Fra-1 and shown to be required for the stable repression of Fra-1 and, in turn, cyclin D1. Localization of MyoD alone to the intronic enhancer of Fra-1 in the absence of pRb was not sufficient to elicit a block to Fra-1 induction; pRb was also recruited to the intronic enhancer in a MyoD-dependent manner. These observations suggest that MyoD and pRb work together cooperatively at the level of the intronic enhancer of Fra-1 during terminal cell cycle arrest. This work reveals a previously unappreciated link between a lineage-specific transcription factor, a tumor suppressor, and a proto-oncogene in the control of an important facet of myogenic differentiation. PMID:25006242

Rajabi, Hasan N; Takahashi, Chiaki; Ewen, Mark E

2014-08-22

261

The mammalian Cut homeodomain protein functions as a cell-cycle-dependent transcriptional repressor which downmodulates p21WAF1/CIP1/SDI1 in S phase.  

PubMed Central

Cut is a homeodomain transcription factor which has the unusual property of containing several DNA-binding domains: three regions called Cut repeats and the Cut homeodomain. Genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster indicate that cut plays important roles in the determination and maintenance of cell-type specificity. In the present study, we show that mammalian Cut proteins may yet play another biological role, specifically in proliferating cells. We found that the binding of Cut to a consensus binding site varies during the cell cycle. Binding was virtually undetectable in G0 and early G1, but became very strong as cells reached S phase. This was shown to result both from an increase in Cut expression and dephosphorylation of the Cut homeodomain by the Cdc25A phosphatase. We also show that the increase in Cut activity coincides with a decrease in p21WAF1/CIP1/SDI1 mRNAs. In co-transfection experiments, Cut proteins repressed p21WAF1/CIP1/SDI1 gene expression through binding to a sequence that overlaps the TATA box. Moreover, p21WAF1/CIP1/SDI1 expression was repressed equally well by either Cdc25A or Cut. Altogether, these results suggest a model by which Cdc25A activates the Cut repressor which then downregulates transcription of p21WAF1/CIP1/SDI1 in S phase. Thus, in addition to their role during cellular differentiation, Cut proteins also serve as cell-cycle-dependent transcriptional factors in proliferating cells. PMID:9707427

Coqueret, O; Berube, G; Nepveu, A

1998-01-01

262

Large-scale brain functional modularity is reflected in slow electroencephalographic rhythms across the human non-rapid eye movement sleep cycle.  

PubMed

Large-scale brain functional networks (measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) are organized into separated but interacting modules, an architecture supporting the integration of distinct dynamical processes. In this work we study how the aforementioned modular architecture changes with the progressive loss of vigilance occurring in the descent to deep sleep and we examine the relationship between the ensuing slow electroencephalographic rhythms and large-scale network modularity as measured with fMRI. Graph theoretical methods are used to analyze functional connectivity graphs obtained from fifty-five participants at wakefulness, light and deep sleep. Network modularity (a measure of functional segregation) was found to increase during deeper sleep stages but not in light sleep. By endowing functional networks with dynamical properties, we found a direct link between increased electroencephalographic (EEG) delta power (1-4 Hz) and a breakdown of inter-modular connectivity. Both EEG slowing and increased network modularity were found to quickly decrease during awakenings from deep sleep to wakefulness, in a highly coordinated fashion. Studying the modular structure itself by means of a permutation test, we revealed different module memberships when deep sleep was compared to wakefulness. Analysis of node roles in the modular structure revealed an increase in the number of locally well-connected nodes and a decrease in the number of globally well-connected hubs, which hinders interactions between separated functional modules. Our results reveal a well-defined sequence of changes in brain modular organization occurring during the descent to sleep and establish a close parallel between modularity alterations in large-scale functional networks (accessible through whole brain fMRI recordings) and the slowing of scalp oscillations (visible on EEG). The observed re-arrangement of connectivity might play an important role in the processes underlying loss of vigilance and sensory awareness during deep sleep. PMID:23313420

Tagliazucchi, Enzo; von Wegner, Frederic; Morzelewski, Astrid; Brodbeck, Verena; Borisov, Sergey; Jahnke, Kolja; Laufs, Helmut

2013-04-15

263

Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles  

DOEpatents

Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

Dao, Kim (14 Nace Ave., Piedmont, CA 94611)

1990-01-01

264

Bioremediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil by Hansschlegelia sp. strain CHL1 and the changes of indigenous microbial population and N-cycling function genes during the bioremediation process.  

PubMed

Long-term and excessive application of the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl has led to soil degradation and crop rotation barriers. In the current study, we isolated bacterial strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1, which can utilize chlorimuron-ethyl as its sole carbon and energy source, and investigated its application in soil bioremediation. Indigenous microbial populations and N-cycling function in the soil were also investigated during the bioremediation process by monitoring the copy numbers of bacterial and fungal marker genes, as well as N-cycling functional genes (nifH, amoA, nirS, and nirK). Results showed that >95% of chlorimuron-ethyl could be degraded within 45 days in soils inoculated with CHL1. Inoculation at two time points resulted in a higher remediation efficiency and longer survival time than a single inoculation. At the end of the 60-day incubation, the copy numbers of most indicator genes were recovered to the level of the control, even in the single-inoculation soils. A double inoculation was necessary for recovery of nifH. However, the abundance of nirK and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial genes were significantly inhibited regardless of inoculum. The results suggested that CHL1 is effective for the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil, and could partially reduce the toxic effects of chlorimuron-ethyl on soil microorganisms. PMID:24794985

Yang, Liqiang; Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Zhang, Huiwen

2014-06-15

265

Tissue persistence and vaccine efficacy of tricarboxylic acid cycle and one-carbon metabolism mutant strains of Edwardsiella ictaluri.  

PubMed

Edwardsiella ictaluri causes enteric septicemia in fish. Recently, we reported construction of E. ictaluri mutants with single and double gene deletions in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and one-carbon (C-1) metabolism. Here, we report the tissue persistence, virulence, and vaccine efficacy of TCA cycle (Ei?sdhC, Ei?frdA, and Ei?mdh), C-1 metabolism (Ei?gcvP and Ei?glyA), and combination mutants (Ei?frdA?sdhC, Ei?gcvP?sdhC, Ei?mdh?sdhC, and Ei?gcvP?glyA) in channel catfish. The tissue persistence study showed that Ei?sdhC, Ei?frdA, Ei?frdA?sdhC, and Ei?gcvP?sdhC were able to invade catfish and persist until 11 days post-infection. Vaccination of catfish fingerlings with all nine mutants provided significant (P<0.05) protection against subsequent challenge with the virulent parental strain. Vaccinated catfish fingerlings had 100% survival when subsequently challenged by immersion with wild-type E. ictaluri except for Ei?gcvP?glyA and Ei?gcvP. Mutant Ei?gcvP?sdhC was found to be very good at protecting catfish fry, as evidenced by 10-fold higher survival compared to non-vaccinated fish. PMID:24837777

Dahal, Neeti; Abdelhamed, Hossam; Karsi, Attila; Lawrence, Mark L

2014-06-30

266

Metformin and phenformin deplete tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolytic intermediates during cell transformation and NTPs in cancer stem cells.  

PubMed

Metformin, a first-line diabetes drug linked to cancer prevention in retrospective clinical analyses, inhibits cellular transformation and selectively kills breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). Although a few metabolic effects of metformin and the related biguanide phenformin have been investigated in established cancer cell lines, the global metabolic impact of biguanides during the process of neoplastic transformation and in CSCs is unknown. Here, we use LC/MS/MS metabolomics (>200 metabolites) to assess metabolic changes induced by metformin and phenformin in an Src-inducible model of cellular transformation and in mammosphere-derived breast CSCs. Although phenformin is the more potent biguanide in both systems, the metabolic profiles of these drugs are remarkably similar, although not identical. During the process of cellular transformation, biguanide treatment prevents the boost in glycolytic intermediates at a specific stage of the pathway and coordinately decreases tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. In contrast, in breast CSCs, biguanides have a modest effect on glycolytic and TCA cycle intermediates, but they strongly deplete nucleotide triphosphates and may impede nucleotide synthesis. These metabolic profiles are consistent with the idea that biguanides inhibit mitochondrial complex 1, but they indicate that their metabolic effects differ depending on the stage of cellular transformation. PMID:25002509

Janzer, Andreas; German, Natalie J; Gonzalez-Herrera, Karina N; Asara, John M; Haigis, Marcia C; Struhl, Kevin

2014-07-22

267

Reformulation, as a Function of Only Working Temperatures, of Performance Parameters of a Solar Driven Ejector-Absorption Cycle Using Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the absorption thermal systems is too complex because of analytic functions calculating the thermodynamic properties of fluid couples involving the solution of complex differential equations and simulations programs. This article proposes a new approach to performance analysis of solar driven ejector-absorption refrigeration system (EARS) operated aqua\\/ammonia. Use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) has been proposed to

Adnan Sözen; M. Ali Akçayol

2005-01-01

268

Inferring deep biosphere function and diversity through (near) surface biosphere portals (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The consideration of surface expressions of the deep subsurface- such as springs- remains one of the most economically viable means to query the deep biosphere's diversity and function. Hot spring source pools are ideal portals for accessing and inferring the taxonomic and functional diversity of related deep subsurface microbial communities. Consideration of the geochemical composition of deep vs. surface fluids provides context for interpretation of community function. Further, parallel assessment of 16S rRNA data, metagenomic sequencing, and isotopic compositions of biomass in surface springs allows inference of the functional capacities of subsurface ecosystems. Springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), the Philippines, and Turkey are considered here, incorporating near-surface, transition, and surface ecosystems to identify 'legacy' taxa and functions of the deep biosphere. We find that source pools often support functional capacity suited to subsurface ecosystems. For example, in hot ecosystems, source pools are strictly chemosynthetic, and surface environments with measureable dissolved oxygen may contain evidence of community functions more favorable under anaerobic conditions. Metagenomic reads from a YNP ecosystem indicate the genetic capacity for sulfate reduction at high temperature. However, inorganic sulfate reduction is only minimally energy-yielding in these surface environments suggesting the potential that sulfate reduction is a 'legacy' function of deeper biosphere ecosystems. Carbon fixation tactics shift with increased surface exposure of the thermal fluids. Genes related to the rTCA cycle and the acetyl co-A pathway are most prevalent in highest temperature, anaerobic sites. At lower temperature sites, fewer total carbon fixation genes were observed, perhaps indicating an increase in heterotrophic metabolism with increased surface exposure. In hydrogen and methane rich springs in the Philippines and Turkey, methanogenic taxa dominate source spring archaeal communities, however methanogenesis is predicted to not be a viable metabolic function. Bacterial communities dominated by heterotrophic taxa suggest that the inorganic carbon-poor deeper subsurface fluids do not support autotrophic metabolic functions. Transitions in community functional and taxonomic diversity as a result of transitions in environment, for example as a result of fluid cooling/mixing or in response to climate-related stimulus, drive community plasticity and redundancy. Together, these surface-related datasets allow informed reconstruction of biogeochemical processes and microbial community diversity relevant to deep subsurface communities, and along with other recent work broaden our view of community function in deep subsurface hydrothermal ecosystems and the transition to surface environments.

Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Woycheese, K. M.; Swingley, W.; Schubotz, F.; Shock, E.

2013-12-01

269

Functional ability of cytoskeletal ? - actin regulator to drive constitutive and ubiquitous expression of a fluorescent reporter throughout the life cycle of transgenic marine medaka Oryzias dancena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine medaka Oryzias dancena, a candidate model organism, represents many attractive merits as a material for experimental transgenesis and\\/or heterologous\\u000a expression assay particularly in the field of ecotoxicology and developmental biology. In this study, cytoskeletal ?-actin gene was characterized from O. dancena and the functional capability of its promoter to drive constitutive expression of foreign reporter protein was evaluated.\\u000a The

Young Sun Cho; Sang Yoon Lee; Youn Kyoung Kim; Dong Soo Kim; Yoon Kwon Nam

270

In vivo effects of the soluble fraction of light cycle oil on immune functions in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linné).  

PubMed

Hydrocarbons are major contaminants that may affect biota at various trophic levels in estuaries and coastal ecosystems. The effects of accidental pollution by light cycle oil (LCO), a refined product of heavy fuel oil, on bioaccumulation, depuration processes and immune-related parameters in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, were investigated in the laboratory after 7 days of exposure and a 2-week recovery period. Exposure of fish to the soluble fraction of LCO (1600ngL(-1)) for 7 days led to the bioaccumulation of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in muscles: naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene. After 7 days of recovery period, half-elimination of naphthalene was reported in fish muscles due to facilitated diffusive loss by the epithelium and a faster elimination rate proven by the presence of a high level of naphthalene biliary metabolites. The other bioaccumulated molecules displayed a slower depuration rate due to their elimination by the formation of hydrophobic metabolites excreted through bile or urine. Three days after the beginning of the recovery period, each contaminated fish showed severe external lesions (tissue necrosis, suppurative exudates, haemorrhagic area). The hypothesis of a possible link with inflammatory phenomenon was supported by (i) an inversion of the leucocyte sub-population percentage, (ii) a significant up-expression in the spleen of the tumour necrosis factor alpha gene, (iii) a significant increase in ACH(50). Moreover, the lack of C3 gene regulation in the spleen suggested a non-renewal of this component. The reduction of phagocytic activity and lysozyme concentration reflected immune suppression. Finally, LCO toxicity in this fish was clearly demonstrated to be related to inflammatory reaction and immune depletion. PMID:21764455

Bado-Nilles, Anne; Quentel, Claire; Mazurais, David; Zambonino-Infante, José Luis; Auffret, Michel; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Le Floch, Stéphane

2011-10-01

271

The Q-cycle reviewed: how well does a monomeric mechanism of the bc1 complex account for the function of a dimeric complex?  

PubMed Central

Recent progress in understanding the Q-cycle mechanism of the bc1 complex is reviewed. The data strongly support a mechanism in which the Qo-site operates through a reaction in which the first electron transfer from ubiquinol to the oxidized iron-sulfur protein is the rate determining step for the overall process. The reaction involves a proton-coupled electron transfer down a hydrogen bond between the ubiquinol and a histidine ligand of the [2Fe-2S] cluster, in which the unfavorable protonic configuration contributes a substantial part of the activation barrier. The reaction is endergonic, and the products are an unstable ubisemiquinone at the Qo-site, and the reduced iron-sulfur protein, the extrinsic mobile domain of which is now free to dissociate and move away from the site to deliver an electron to cyt c1 and liberate the H+. When oxidation of the semiquinone is prevented, it participates in bypass reactions, including superoxide generation if O2 is available. When the b-heme chain is available as acceptor, the semiquinone is oxidized in a process in which the proton is passed to the glutamate of the conserved –PEWY- sequence, and the semiquinone anion passes its electron to heme bL to form the product ubiquinone. The rate is rapid compared to the limiting reaction, and would require movement of the semiquinone closer to heme bL to enhance the rate constant. The acceptor reactions at the Qi-site are still controversial, but likely involve a “two-electron gate” in which a stable semiquinone stores an electron. Possible mechanisms to explain the cytb150 phenomenon are discussed, and the information from pulsed EPR studies about the structure of the intermediate state is reviewed. The mechanism discussed is applicable to a monomeric bc1 complex. We discuss evidence in the literature that has been interpreted as shown that the dimeric structure participates in a more complicated mechanism involving electron transfer across the dimer interface. We show from myxothiazol titrations and mutational analysis of Tyr-199, which is at the interface between monomers, that no such inter-monomer electron transfer is detected at the level of the bL hemes. We show from analysis of strains with mutations at Asn-221 that there are coulombic interactions between the b-hemes in a monomer. The data can also be interpreted as showing similar coulombic interaction across the dimer interface, and we discuss mechanistic implications. PMID:18501698

Crofts, Antony R.; Holland, J. Todd; Victoria, Doreen; Kolling, Derrick R.J.; Dikanov, Sergei A.; Gilbreth, Ryan; Lhee, Sangmoon; Kuras, Richard; Kuras, Mariana Guergova

2008-01-01

272

A Synthesis of Solar Cycle Prediction Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of techniques currently in use for predicting solar activity on a solar cycle timescale are tested with historical data. Some techniques, e.g., regression and curve fitting, work well as solar activity approaches maximum and provide a month-by-month description of future activity, while others, e.g., geomagnetic precursors, work well near solar minimum but only provide an estimate of the amplitude of the cycle. A synthesis of different techniques is shown to provide a more accurate and useful forecast of solar cycle activity levels. A combination of two uncorrelated geomagnetic precursor techniques provides a more accurate prediction for the amplitude of a solar activity cycle at a time well before activity minimum. This combined precursor method gives a smoothed sunspot number maximum of 154 plus or minus 21 at the 95% level of confidence for the next cycle maximum. A mathematical function dependent on the time of cycle initiation and the cycle amplitude is used to describe the level of solar activity month by month for the next cycle. As the time of cycle maximum approaches a better estimate of the cycle activity is obtained by including the fit between previous activity levels and this function. This Combined Solar Cycle Activity Forecast gives, as of January 1999, a smoothed sunspot maximum of 146 plus or minus 20 at the 95% level of confidence for the next cycle maximum.

Hathaway, David H.; Wilson, Robert M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

1999-01-01

273

A Functional Calvin Cycle Is Not Indispensable for the Light Activation of C4 Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Kinase and Its Target Enzyme in the Maize Mutant bundle sheath defective2-mutable11  

PubMed Central

We used a pale-green maize (Zea mays L.) mutant that fails to accumulate ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) to test the working hypothesis that the regulatory phosphorylation of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) by its Ca2+-insensitive protein-serine/threonine kinase (PEPC kinase) in the C4 mesophyll cytosol depends on cross-talk with a functional Calvin cycle in the bundle sheath. Wild-type (W22) and bundle sheath defective2-mutable1 (bsd2-m1) seeds were grown in a controlled environment chamber at 100 to 130 ?mol m?2 s?1 photosynthetic photon flux density, and leaf tissue was harvested 11 d after sowing, following exposure to various light intensities. Immunoblot analysis showed no major difference in the amount of polypeptide present for several mesophyll- and bundle-sheath-specific photosynthetic enzymes apart from Rubisco, which was either completely absent or very much reduced in the mutant. Similarly, leaf net CO2-exchange analysis and in vitro radiometric Rubisco assays showed that no appreciable carbon fixation was occurring in the mutant. In contrast, the sensitivity of PEPC to malate inhibition in bsd2-m1 leaves decreased significantly with an increase in light intensity, and there was a concomitant increase in PEPC kinase activity, similar to that seen in wild-type leaf tissue. Thus, although bsd2-m1 mutant plants lack an operative Calvin cycle, light activation of PEPC kinase and its target enzyme are not grossly perturbed. PMID:9733538

Smith, Lucy H.; Langdale, Jane A.; Chollet, Raymond

1998-01-01

274

5-AED enhances survival of irradiated mice in a G-CSF-dependent manner, stimulates innate immune cell function, reduces radiation-induced DNA damage and induces genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The steroid androst-5-ene-3ß,17ß-diol (5-androstenediol, 5-AED) elevates circulating granulocytes and platelets in animals and humans, and enhances survival during the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in mice and non-human primates. 5-AED promotes survival of irradiated human hematopoietic progenitors in vitro through induction of Nuclear Factor-?B (NF?B)-dependent Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) expression, and causes elevations of circulating G-CSF and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the in vivo cellular and molecular effects of 5-AED are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action of 5-AED administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to mice 24 h before total body ?- or X-irradiation (TBI). We used neutralizing antibodies, flow cytometric functional assays of circulating innate immune cells, analysis of expression of genes related to cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis, and assessment of DNA strand breaks with halo-comet assays. Neutralization experiments indicated endogenous G-CSF but not IL-6 was involved in survival enhancement by 5-AED. In keeping with known effects of G-CSF on the innate immune system, s.c. 5-AED stimulated phagocytosis in circulating granulocytes and oxidative burst in monocytes. 5-AED induced expression of both bax and bcl-2 in irradiated animals. Cdkn1a and ddb1, but not gadd45a expression, were upregulated by 5-AED in irradiated mice. S.c. 5-AED administration caused decreased DNA strand breaks in splenocytes from irradiated mice. Our results suggest 5-AED survival enhancement is G-CSF-dependent, and that it stimulates innate immune cell function and reduces radiation-induced DNA damage via induction of genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PMID:22843381

Grace, Marcy B.; Singh, Vijay K.; Rhee, Juong G.; Jackson, William E.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Whitnall, Mark H.

2012-01-01

275

Discovering the Water Cycle!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will be learning about what the water cycle is and how it works. Resources! The Hydrologic Cycle: Water's journey through time The Water Cycle Thirstin's Water Cycle Activity Water evaporates from the surface Water Wonders These are a collection of websites that are going to help us in our journey of discovering what the water cycle is. ...

Mortensen, Miss

2009-10-09

276

[Microbial geochemical calcium cycle].  

PubMed

The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites. PMID:11910807

Zavarzin, G A

2002-01-01

277

Operating Regimes of Signaling Cycles: Statics, Dynamics, and Noise Filtering  

E-print Network

Operating Regimes of Signaling Cycles: Statics, Dynamics, and Noise Filtering Carlos Gomez-Uribe,1 characterizing the static and dynamic behavior of this simple cycle, an essential first step in understanding the behavior of interconnections of such cycles. It is known that a signaling cycle can function as a static

Mirny, Leonid

278

Annual Cycle of Surface Longwave Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The annual cycles of upward and downward longwave fluxes at the Earth s surface are investigated by use of the NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget Data Set. Because of the immense difference between the heat capacity of land and ocean, the surface of Earth is partitioned into these two categories. Principal component analysis is used to quantify the annual cycles. Over land, the first principal component describes over 95% of the variance of the annual cycle of the upward and downward longwave fluxes. Over ocean the first term describes more than 87% of these annual cycles. Empirical orthogonal functions show the corresponding geographical distributions of these cycles. Phase plane diagrams of the annual cycles of upward longwave fluxes as a function of net shortwave flux show the thermal inertia of land and ocean.

Mlynczak, Pamela E.; Smith, G. Louis; Wilber, Anne C.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

2011-01-01

279

Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 may be expressed as multiple proteins and have functions that are independent of binding to CCND and RB and occur at the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle  

PubMed Central

Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) is known to be a 33 kD protein that drives G1 phase progression of the cell cycle by binding to a CCND protein to phosphorylate RB proteins. Using different CDK4 antibodies in western blot, we detected 2 groups of proteins around 40 and 33 kD, respectively, in human and mouse cells; each group often appeared as a duplet or triplet of bands. Some CDK4 shRNAs could decrease the 33 kD wild-type (wt) CDK4 but increase some 40 kD proteins, whereas some other shRNAs had the opposite effects. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the existence of CDK4 isoforms smaller than 33 kD but failed to identify CDK4 at 40 kD. We cloned one CDK4 mRNA variant that lacks exon 2 and encodes a 26 kD protein without the first 74 amino acids of the wt CDK4, thus lacking the ATP binding sequence and the PISTVRE domain required for binding to CCND. Co-IP assay confirmed that this ?E2 protein lost CCND1- and RB1-binding ability. Moreover, we found, surprisingly, that the wt CDK4 and the ?E2 could inhibit G1–S progression, accelerate S–G2/M progression, and enhance or delay apoptosis in a cell line-specific manner in a situation where the cells were treated with a CDK4 inhibitor or the cells were serum-starved and then replenished. Hence, CDK4 seems to be expressed as multiple proteins that react differently to different CDK4 antibodies, respond differently to different shRNAs, and, in some situations, have previously unrecognized functions at the S–G2/M phases of the cell cycle via mechanisms independent of binding to CCND and RB. PMID:24091631

Sun, Yuan; Lou, Xiaomin; Yang, Min; Yuan, Chengfu; Ma, Ling; Xie, Bing-Kun; Wu, Jian-min; Yang, Wei; Shen, Steven XJ; Xu, Ningzhi; Liao, D Joshua

2013-01-01

280

Urinary loss of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates as revealed by metabolomics studies: an underlying mechanism to reduce lipid accretion by whey protein ingestion?  

PubMed

Whey protein intake is associated with the modulation of energy metabolism and altered body composition both in human subjects and in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. We fed obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice high-fat diets with either casein (HF casein) or whey (HF whey) for 6 weeks. At equal energy intake and apparent fat and nitrogen digestibility, mice fed HF whey stored less energy as lipids, evident both as lower white adipose tissue mass and as reduced liver lipids, compared with HF-casein-fed mice. Explorative analyses of 48 h urine, both by (1)H NMR and LC-MS metabolomic platforms, demonstrated higher urinary excretion of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citric acid and succinic acid (identified by both platforms), and cis-aconitic acid and isocitric acid (identified by LC-MS platform) in the HF whey, relative to in the HF-casein-fed mice. Targeted LC-MS analyses revealed higher citric acid and cis-aconitic acid concentrations in fed state plasma, but not in liver of HF-whey-fed mice. We propose that enhanced urinary loss of TCA cycle metabolites drain available substrates for anabolic processes, such as lipogenesis, thereby leading to reduced lipid accretion in HF-whey-fed compared to HF-casein-fed mice. PMID:24702026

Lillefosse, Haldis H; Clausen, Morten R; Yde, Christian C; Ditlev, Ditte B; Zhang, Xumin; Du, Zhen-Yu; Bertram, Hanne C; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

2014-05-01

281

The Arabidopsis Cell Division Cycle  

PubMed Central

Plant cells have evolved a complex circuitry to regulate cell division. In many aspects, the plant cell cycle follows a basic strategy similar to other eukaryotes. However, several key issues are unique to plant cells. In this chapter, both the conserved and unique cellular and molecular properties of the plant cell cycle are reviewed. In addition to division of individual cells, the specific characteristic of plant organogenesis and development make that cell proliferation control is of primary importance during development. Therefore, special attention should be given to consider plant cell division control in a developmental context. Proper organogenesis depends on the formation of different cell types. In plants, many of the processes leading to cell differentiation rely on the occurrence of a different cycle, termed the endoreplication cycle, whereby cells undergo repeated full genome duplication events in the absence of mitosis and increase their ploidy. Recent findings are focusing on the relevance of changes in chromatin organization for a correct cell cycle progression and, conversely, in the relevance of a correct functioning of chromatin remodelling complexes to prevent alterations in both the cell cycle and the endocycle. PMID:22303246

Gutierrez, Crisanto

2009-01-01

282

Business Life Cycles and Five Elements Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a five-stage life cycle model to describe business development from birth to death with the five elements theory. A five-stage model, including birth, survival, success, decline, and renewal, is developed in terms of interactions of business functions, which are classified into the Chinese five elements. Each stage of the business life cycle could be characterized by the

Kuang-cheng Wang

283

Mitochondrial metabolism of glucose and glutamine is required for intracellular growth of Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Summary Toxoplasma gondii proliferates within host cell vacuoles where the parasite relies on host carbon and nutrients for replication. To assess how T. gondii utilizes these resources, we mapped the carbon metabolism pathways in intracellular and egressed parasite stages. We determined that intracellular T. gondii stages actively catabolize host glucose via a canonical, oxidative tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, a mitochondrial pathway in which organic molecules are broken down to generate energy. These stages also catabolize glutamine via the TCA cycle and an unanticipated ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, which generates GABA and additional molecules that enter the TCA cycle. Chemically inhibiting the TCA cycle completely prevents intracellular parasite replication. Parasites lacking the GABA shunt exhibit attenuated growth and are unable to sustain motility under nutrient-limited conditions, suggesting that GABA functions as a short-term energy reserve. Thus, T. gondii tachyzoites have metabolic flexibility that likely allows the parasite to infect diverse cell types. PMID:23159057

MacRae, James I.; Sheiner, Lilach; Nahid, Amsha; Tonkin, Christopher; Striepen, Boris; McConville, Malcolm J.

2014-01-01

284

What-a-cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students act as water molecules and travel through parts of the water cycle (ocean, atmosphere, clouds, glaciers, snow, rivers, lakes, ground, aquifer), noting on a hydrological cycle diagram the pathway traveled.

Weather, Jetstream -.; Service, Noaa -.

285

Skyscrapers and business cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

he skyscraper index, created by economist Andrew Lawrence shows a correlation between the construction of the world's tallest building and the business cycle. Is this just a coincidence, or perhaps do skyscrap- ers cause business cycles? A theoretical foundation of \\

Mark Thornton

2005-01-01

286

Cycles in Social Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young and Ziman, writing about Cycles in Social Behaviour1, suggest that ``cycles of personal behaviour ... are partly governed by endogenous biological mechanisms which need to be sustained by food and sleep at more or less regular intervals''.

H. W. Simpson

1971-01-01

287

HIV Life Cycle  

MedlinePLUS

... HIV life cycle. What is the connection between HIV medicines and the HIV life cycle? Without treatment, HIV infection gradually destroys ... the risk of HIV drug resistance . What is HIV drug resistance? Drug resistance is when HIV is ...

288

Water Cycle Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission and its role in studying the water cycle. This webquest provides links to eight websites, allowing middle school students to explore the water cycle and its impacts on Earth's weather and climate. Through online videos and articles, students follow a water molecule through the cycle, discover the connection between the water cycle and global water/heat distribution, examine the role of solar energy, and assess the importance of fresh water.

289

Amazon Water Cycle Roleplay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this creative roleplay activity, learners will explore the various processes of the water cycle using movement, sound, and props to aid in comprehension. Learners will understand that water changes forms throughout the water cycle, and that this cycle runs continuously throughout all the cycles at the same time. This standards-based lesson, which is great for the classroom, camps, or afterschool programs, includes roleplay cards and ideas for props.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

290

mathematics single cycle  

E-print Network

47 mathematics education single cycle master's study programme #12;48 single cycle master's study program in Mathematics Education #12;49 single cycle master's study program in Mathematics Education MATHEMATICS EDUCATION The program is in tune with the principles of the Bologna Declaration. · Academic title

Â?umer, Slobodan

291

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration introduces the concept of water phases and cycling to younger students through observation, drawing, and writing. They will be able to explain how the Earth's water supply is recycled, form a hypothesis as to how/why the water cycle works, and use writing and drawing to explain how the cycle works.

1998-01-01

292

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is a detailed, labeled diagram of the water cycle. Included in the representation are the major concepts of evaporation, precipitation and ground infiltration, as well as more advanced ideas. Above and below the diagram are several paragraphs that provide an introduction to the water cycle, a quick summary of the parts of the water cycle and information about global water distribution.

293

Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis  

E-print Network

& Environmental Engineering Department Columbia University and National Photovoltaic (PV) EHS Research Center Brookhaven National Laboratory www.clca.columbia.edu www.pv.bnl.gov #12;2 The Life Cycle of PVThe Life Cycle Modules Zero emissions under normal conditions (testing in thermal cycles of ­80 C to +80 C) No leaching

294

The Anderson Quin Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to make a more refined evaluation of the Anderson Quin Cycle based on most recent information on the performance of various elements that will be used in the Anderson Quin Cycle. My original estimate of the work plan for evaluating and optimizing the Anderson Quin Cycle called for 7000 man hours of work. Since

J. H. Anderson; W. M. Bilbow

1993-01-01

295

Discover the Water Cycle!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tour of the water cycle allows students to follow a water molecule from a home's plumbing system as it follows different routes through the hydrologic cycle. Students learn about how water is used, treated, and returned to the natural environment where it can cycle through liquid, solid, and gas phases.

296

Solar cycle 23 analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we analyse the solar cycle (SC) 23 behavior and we also make a comparison with some previous cycles and present a few aspects concerning the forecasts made for SC 23 maximum. As regards the following cycle, in accordance to other early predictions, our empirical method, based on observing the flare energy release during the descendant phase of the precedent

Georgeta Maris; Miruna Daniela Popescu; Diana Besliu

2004-01-01

297

The Britalus Brayton cycle engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Britalus engine's Brayton cycle employs piston displacement compression and expansion for high efficiency and, unlike conventional gas turbines, can be scaled to small sizes in virtue of compression and expansion adiabatic efficiencies that are intrinsically higher irrespective of scale. After discussing engine design parameters as they relate to part load performance requirements, a parametrical treatment is presented for the expander inlet temperature, which functions as a power level index, to determine the limitations imposed by heat transfer features.

Decher, R.

1984-06-01

298

Budding yeast protein extraction and purification for the study of function, interactions, and post-translational modifications.  

PubMed

Homogenization by bead beating is a fast and efficient way to release DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites from budding yeast cells, which are notoriously hard to disrupt. Here we describe the use of a bead mill homogenizer for the extraction of proteins into buffers optimized to maintain the functions, interactions and post-translational modifications of proteins. Logarithmically growing cells expressing the protein of interest are grown in a liquid growth media of choice. The growth media may be supplemented with reagents to induce protein expression from inducible promoters (e.g. galactose), synchronize cell cycle stage (e.g. nocodazole), or inhibit proteasome function (e.g. MG132). Cells are then pelleted and resuspended in a suitable buffer containing protease and/or phosphatase inhibitors and are either processed immediately or frozen in liquid nitrogen for later use. Homogenization is accomplished by six cycles of 20 sec bead-beating (5.5 m/sec), each followed by one minute incubation on ice. The resulting homogenate is cleared by centrifugation and small particulates can be removed by filtration. The resulting cleared whole cell extract (WCE) is precipitated using 20% TCA for direct analysis of total proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting. Extracts are also suitable for affinity purification of specific proteins, the detection of post-translational modifications, or the analysis of co-purifying proteins. As is the case for most protein purification protocols, some enzymes and proteins may require unique conditions or buffer compositions for their purification and others may be unstable or insoluble under the conditions stated. In the latter case, the protocol presented may provide a useful starting point to empirically determine the best bead-beating strategy for protein extraction and purification. We show the extraction and purification of an epitope-tagged SUMO E3 ligase, Siz1, a cell cycle regulated protein that becomes both sumoylated and phosphorylated, as well as a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase subunit, Slx5. PMID:24300101

Szymanski, Eva Paige; Kerscher, Oliver

2013-01-01

299

Cycle to Cycle Manufacturing Process Control  

E-print Network

Most manufacturing processes produce parts that can only be correctly measured after the process cycle has been completed. Even if in-process measurement and control is possible, it is often too expensive or complex to ...

Hardt, David E.

300

Use of S-PolKa Particles IDentification and TMI and MADRAS brightness temperatures to characterize the ice microphysics in rain systems as a function of their life cycle.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the French-Indian Megha-Tropiques Mission, a specific campaign was dedicated to ice microphysics studies during the CYNDIE-DYNAMO experiment. This contribution consisted in deploying the French Falcon 20 from mid-November to mid-December in Gan and perform about 40 hours of microphysics flights. The Falcon was equipped with a up- and downward looking W-Band Doppler Radar (RASTA) and a series of microphysics probes in order to characterize the ice particles in terms of density. This information is of dramatic importance to the microwave-based rain retrieval algorithms and more specifically the operational algorithm used in Megha-Tropiques known as BRAIN (Viltard et al 2006, Viltard et al 2012). This algorithm uses a retrieval database to reduce the number of possible solutions to those actually physical. This requires the computation of microwave brightness temperatures through a radiative transfer model in which the ice microphysics properties are parameterized. This parametrization is key for all brightness temperature simulation above roughly 30 GHz and strongly affects the quality of the rain retrieval. For the limited number of cases when the Falcon flew, we have a rather detailed description of the ice microphysics properties but this happens to be insufficient to build a robust statistics of the ice as a function of rain system life cycle. Hence the use of particles identification (PID) obtained from the ground-based polarimetric data from NCAR SPol-Ka. This dataset covers almost 5 month within a 200 km radius centered on Gan. We will briefly present our contribution in the CYNDIE-DYNAMO campaign and interpret in terms of microphysical properties the comparisons between these PIDs and the brightness temperatures measured by two passive microwave radiometers: TMI on TRMM and MADRAS on Megha-Tropiques.

Martini, Audrey; Viltard, Nicolas

2013-04-01

301

Animating the Carbon Cycle Oswald J. Schmitz,1  

E-print Network

Animating the Carbon Cycle Oswald J. Schmitz,1 * Peter A. Raymond,1 James A. Estes,2 Werner A. Kurz, USA ABSTRACT Understanding the biogeochemical processes reg- ulating carbon cycling is central'' the carbon cycle requires broader consideration of the functional role of animals in mediating biogeochemical

Wilmers, Chris

302

Web-o-Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Called the "Web-o-Cycles," groups of students are each assigned a different matter cycle to become deeply familiar with not only the internal components and interactions, but also possible connections to other cycles. For example, volcanic activity in the rock cycle also discharges sulfur into the atmosphere, which turn interacts with the water cycle in cloud formation. Connections such as these are made between posters of the cycles using colored yard, hooked on the appropriate nodes on each cycle and labeled by the nature of the interaction with the note cards hung on the yarn. In a short period of time, the classroom is a web of yarn, connecting each cycle to the others. The next element of this activity attempts to capture elements of complex Earth systems, especially the concepts of equilibrium, hysteresis, power law relationships, and sensitive dependence. All lines connecting the cycles are held taut, representing an equilibrium condition. Small shifts in one cycle are compensated for by consequent shifts in other cycles. Selecting one of the interconnecting strands, tension is in introduced, first in small pulls which accumulate to imbalance and shift the cycles slightly. A single large pull in one strand, to the point of breaking the yarn, causes some lines to slacken, perhaps to the point that they cannot be easily restored to tautness without dramatic shifts in the connected cycles. Re-tightening the connections causes a shift in the cycles, which takes place quickly and assumes a slightly different but at least familiar pattern. Having students then share their observations of the process of pattern description-imbalances-shifts-new equilibrium allows them to recognize the dynamic nature of Earth systems interactions as well as to seek deeper understanding of hidden elements within the Earth system. Materials needed: At least four posters depicting detailed graphical representations of matter cycles, such as water, carbon, rock, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, mounted on cardboard or another rigid material. Students should have available to them information on each cycle, depicting relative volumes of material in each cycle phase, residence times of the material in those phases, and the processes that drive changes from one phase to another; At least one ball of yarn, in a different color, for each poster; Note cards on which students will write a description of the individual processes used to link cycles; Paper clips to hang the note cards on these connective strands.

Pyle, Eric

303

Thermal cycling graphite-polyimide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of repetitive thermal cycling on the temperature-thermal deformation relation of graphite-polyimide were determined. The bending and axial strains, measured with strain gages, of unsymmetric 0 deg sub 2/90 deg sub 2 and 0 deg sub 4/90 deg sub 4 laminates were used as an indication of thermal deformation. The strains were measured as a function of temperature and two temperature ranges were used, room temperature to 180 C and room temperature to 315 C. Five cycles were run in each temperature range and the cycling was done in quasistatic fashion. The response of a flat 0 deg sub 8 laminate was measured as were the effects of repetitive cycling on the strain gages themselves. A piece-wise linear theory, based on classical lamination theory and using the variation of mechanical and thermal expansion properties with temperature, was compared with the experimental results. The correlation between theoretical predictions and experimental results for the thinner laminate was poor.

Hyer, M. W.; Hagaman, J. A.

1979-01-01

304

Low cycle fatigue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers contained in this volume focus on various aspects of low cycle fatigue, including cyclic deformation, crack propagation, high-temperature low cycle fatigue, microstructural defects, multiaxial and variable amplitude loading, and life prediction. Papers are presented on the low cycle fatigue of some aluminum alloys, prediction of crack growth under creep-fatigue loading conditions, high-temperature low cycle fatigue behavior and lifetime prediction of a nickel-base ODS alloy, and an integrated approach to creep-fatigue life prediction. Other topics discussed include thermal fatigue testing of coated monocrystalline superalloys, low cycle fatigue of Al-Mg-Si alloys, and the effect of superimposed stresses at high frequency on low cycle fatigue.

Solomon, H. D. (editor); Kaisand, L. R. (editor); Halford, G. R. (editor); Leis, B. N. (editor)

1988-01-01

305

Product development cycle time reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are facing here today the key issues that face us in the competitive environment. North American companies are struggling to compete in the global marketplace. Gone are the days when presence ensured success. Then, sales and earnings were guaranteed. Today the competition is intense. Many manufacturing and service companies are no longer competitive. Traditionally, manufacturing companies have created the most wealth for the community and economy. Losing this ability to create wealth is tragic and unnecessary. A company can only be successful by focusing on customer satisfaction at competitive costs. Revenue growth and earnings growth require a continuous stream of products that anticipate the customers' needs, result from shorter and shorter innovation cycles, continually improve in quality, and are produced at improved costs on each cycle. The best opportunities for increased quality and decreased costs are with new products. Sure, work on quality and costs everyday. The biggest changes, however, will come through the new product development cycle. We must improve our development processes to provide leadership products which result in high levels of customer satisfaction. This is a prerequisite for business success. When presence in the marketplace was a virtual guarantee of success for a North American company, technology tended to drive the products, and the customers bought virtually everything that was produced. Functional excellence was stressed within companies ... and that was enough. Effective planning processes were not a prerequisite for success. Today success demands highly developed business research and planning processes, and functional excellence combined with organizational capabilities that ensure commercialization excellence.

Farran, Robin

1992-05-01

306

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson was developed to give participants an understanding of Earth's water cycle. In this one-hour long activity, students participate in a webquest to learn about the water cycle, and then build a mini-model of the water cycle to observe how water moves through Earth's four systems. The activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

307

THE WATER CYCLE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Understand the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation as they relate to the water cycle. Water Cycle Diagram DATES: You can begin this activity on October 16. You should complete it by October 20. OBJECTIVE: You have been learning about the water cycle in class. This activity gives you the chance to review some important vocabulary: evaporation condensation precipitation collection You will watch a short video and complete a water ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-02-18

308

Carbon Cycle Roleplay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this creative roleplay activity, learners will explore the various processes of the carbon cycle using movement and props to aid in comprehension. Learners will understand that carbon changes forms throughout the carbon cycle, and that carbon is continuously moving throughout all the cycles at the same time. This standards-based lesson, which is great for the classroom, camps, or afterschool programs, includes roleplay cards and ideas for props.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

309

Robust heteroclinic cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  One phenomenon in the dynamics of differential equations which does not typically occur in systems without symmetry is heteroclinic\\u000a cycles. In symmetric systems, cycles can be robust for symmetry-preserving perturbations and stable. Cycles have been observed\\u000a in a number of simulations and experiments, for example in rotating convection between two plates and for turbulent flows\\u000a in a boundary layer. Theoretically

M. Krupa

1997-01-01

310

Seeing the Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The most important biochemical reactions for life in the ocean and on Earth are cellular respiration and photosynthesis. These two reactions play a central role in the carbon cycle. The ocean-based carbon cycle is highly relevant to today's students because of its key role in global warming. This experiment allows middle school students to observe the influence of the carbon cycle on algae growth, explore experimental design, collect data, and draw a conclusion.

Cramer, Catherine; Engle-Belknap, Cheryl A.; Repeta, Daniel; Welty, David J.; Frashure, Kim; Drouin, Pamela

2006-01-01

311

Life Cycle of Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the life cycle of plants? First, look at pictures of Apple seeds , A Peach Seed , and Corn Seeds . Second, look at pictures of a Tomato Seedling , a Coconut Seedling , and Lettuce Seedlings . Third, look at pictures of Adult Palm Trees , Adult Rice Plants , and an Adult Grape Vine . Next, read about Seed Growth and How Seeds Start to Grow. After doing so, watch the Plant Life Cycle Video and fill out the Plant Life Cycle Organizer . ...

Johnson, Miss

2011-04-07

312

The Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Earth Observatory site contains detailed information on the carbon cycle of the Earth. It provides an explanation of the role of carbon in the geologic carbon cycle followed by a discussion of carbon in the life process, including photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon sinks on land and in the ocean are covered next, followed by the human role in the cycle. Lastly, the activity of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, (NASA), and that of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA) in the exploration of the connection of the carbon cycle to weather and climate is covered.

2011-04-27

313

The Hydrologic Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

View the five processes of the hydrologic cycle in this interactive resource adapted from NASA in which animations illustrate condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff, and evapotranspiration.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

314

Nuclear fuel cycle costs  

SciTech Connect

The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

1982-02-01

315

Session 2: cell cycle and cell death.  

PubMed

The second session of the 5th CFN symposium in Stockholm 1997 on effects of toxicants on gene expression and intracellular signalling, was entitled "Cell cycle and cell death". Five scientists were invited to give talks about cell cycle and cancer (Anders Zetterberg), regulation of p53-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (Klas Wiman), calcium signalling and protease activation in apoptosis (Sten Orrenius), signalling alterations and apoptosis in neurodegeneration (Pierluigi Nicotera) and neurotoxicity and neuroinvasion of prions (Adriano Aguzzi). 12 short communications from the poster session were also presented. The posters were about methodological development, studies of xenobiotics effects on specific cellular functions and gene regulation. PMID:20654436

Forsby, A

1998-10-01

316

The Cycle of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The growing of rapid cycling Brassica rapa, Rbr, through a life cycle from seed to seed can provide the basis for learning many aspects of biology that are relevant to the students understanding of themselves as individual organisms among themany others inhabiting the Earth.

Program, The W.

317

Seeing the Carbon Cycle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a classroom experiment that was developed to introduce middle school learners to the carbon cycle. The experiment deals with transfer of CO[subscript 2] between liquid reservoirs and the effect CO[subscript 2] has on algae growth. It allows students to observe the influence of the carbon cycle on algae growth,…

Drouin, Pamela; Welty, David J.; Repeta, Daniel; Engle-Belknap, Cheryl A.; Cramer, Catherine; Frashure, Kim; Chen, Robert

2006-01-01

318

The Oxygen Cycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Produced for primary grades, this booklet provides study of the oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle in nature. Line drawings, a minimum amount of narrative, and a glossary of terms make up its content. The booklet is designed to be used as reading material, a coloring book, or for dramatic arts with students acting out parts of the cycle. This work was…

Swant, Gary D.

319

The Hydrologic Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This explanation of the hydrologic cycle discusses evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, runoff, percolation, groundwater, and the water table. There is a diagram and a description of each as well as a discussion of the dynamics of the cycle, which powered by the Sun. In addition there are links that lead to all parts of the Properties of Water menu.

320

Earth's anthrobiogeochemical copper cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An “anthrobiogeochemical” copper cycle, from Earth's core to the Moon, combining natural biogeochemical and human anthropogenic stocks and flows is derived for the mid-1990s. Although some aspects of the quantification have moderate to high uncertainty, the anthropogenic mining, manufacturing, and use flows (on the order of 104 Gg Cu\\/yr) clearly dominate the cycle. In contrast, the natural repositories of Earth's

J. N. Rauch; T. E. Graedel

2007-01-01

321

The Cell Cycle Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During development from stem to fully differentiated, cells in the body alternately divide (mitosis) and "appear" to be resting (interphase). This sequence of activities exhibited by cells is called the cell cycle. Watch this animation to learn more about each of the stages in the cell cycle: interphase, gap 0, gap 1, S Phase, gap 2, and M phase.

2010-01-01

322

Exploring the Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn about the water cycle and how energy from the sun and the force of gravity drive this cycle. The emphasis in this lesson will be on having students understand the processes that take place in moving water through Earthâs system.

323

International Real Business Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors ask whether a two-country business cycle model can account simultaneously for domestic and international aspects of business cycles. With this question in mind, the authors document a number of discrepancies between theory and data. The most striking discrepancy concerns the correlations of consumption and output across countries. In this data, outputs are generally more highly correlated across countries

David K. Backus; Patrick J. Kehoe; Finn E. Kydland

1992-01-01

324

Understanding the Hydrologic Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module helps students gain a basic understanding of the elements of the hydrologic cycle. Making use of illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module examines the basic concepts of the hydrologic cycle including water distribution, atmospheric water, surface water, groundwater, and snowpack/snowmelt.

Comet

2005-11-07

325

The carbon cycle revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussions during the Global Change Institute indicated a need to present, in some detail and as accurately as possible, our present knowledge about the carbon cycle, the uncertainties in this knowledge, and the reasons for these uncertainties. We discuss basic issues of internal consistency within the carbon cycle, and end by summarizing the key unknowns.

Bolin, Bert; Fung, Inez

1992-01-01

326

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will work with interactive internet resources to learn all about the water cycle. Fourth Grade Science Standard 1 Objective 2: Describe the water cycle. Locate examples of evaporation and condensation in the water cycle (e.g., water evaporates when heated and clouds or dew forms when vapor is cooled). Describe the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation as they relate to the water cycle. Identify locations that hold water as it passes through the water cycle (e.g., oceans, atmosphere, fresh surface water, snow, ice, and ground water). Construct a model or diagram to show how water continuously moves through the water cycle over time. Describe how the water cycle relates to the water supply in your community. Web Quest Links Introduction Task Resources Evaluation Conclusion Teacher Guide Introduction Have you ever wondered how water gets from oceans, lakes, streams, or clouds into your glass? Check out the following links to learn more about it! TASK Start out by learning the concepts in this song from Bill Nye! Bill Nye the Science Guy- Water Cycle Jump Look ...

Lish, Ms.

2009-04-06

327

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

2012-07-01

328

Structure–function relationship for saponin effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the human 1547 osteosarcoma cells: a molecular modelling approach of natural molecules structurally close to diosgenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, eight natural molecules structurally close to diosgenin (five saponins: diosgenin, hecogenin, tigogenin, sarsasapogenin, smilagenin; two steroidal alkaloids: solasodine, solanidine; one sterol: stigmasterol) have been tested for their biological activities on human 1547 osteosarcoma cells. Differences in activity were studied in term of proliferation rate, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction. By using molecular modelling, two structural characteristics

Patrick Trouillas; Cécile Corbière; Bertrand Liagre; Jean-Luc Duroux; Jean-Louis Beneytout

2005-01-01

329

The Anderson Quin Cycle  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to make a more refined evaluation of the Anderson Quin Cycle based on most recent information on the performance of various elements that will be used in the Anderson Quin Cycle. My original estimate of the work plan for evaluating and optimizing the Anderson Quin Cycle called for 7000 man hours of work. Since this grant was limited to 2150 man hours, we could not expect to achieve all the objectives within the allotted period of work. However, the most relevant program objectives have been completed as reported here. The analysis generally confirms the results originally estimated in my paper on the subject. (Ref. 2) Further optimizations should show even higher efficiencies. The Anderson Quin Cycle (US Patent applied for) basically consists of 5 elements in the power cycle: A refrigeration system to cool and clean the inlet air before it enters the compressor that supplies air for the gas turbine; a gas turbine consisting of a compressor, combustor, and turbine; a steam boiler and steam turbine system using the heat from the exhaust gas out of the gas turbine; a vapor turbine cycle, which utilizes the condensed heat from the exhaust of the steam turbine and the exhaust gas heat leaving the steam boiler to operate a vapor turbine cycle which utilizes another fluid than water, in this case isobutane; and the fifth element consists of a gas cooler and heat pump system, which removes the heat from the exhaust gas to lower its temperature essentially to atmospheric temperature, and at the same time permits treatment of the exhaust gas to remove acid components such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Current industry accepted component characteristics were incorporated in the performance analysis of the overall cycle, ensuring accurate and meaningful operating predictions. The characteristics and performance of each of the elements are described. The thermal efficiency of the optimized calculated Anderson Quin Cycle is 62 percent.

Anderson, J.H.; Bilbow, W.M.

1993-03-18

330

Appearance and quantitative characteristics of 11-year solar cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approximation of the 11-year solar cycles by a function with five fitting parameters is proposed. Three parameters are determined individually for each cycle. Their values correspond to the date of the cycle onset, its amplitude and duration of the rise in activity. The combination of two other parameters is unique for all cycles and it is chosen in advance. By varying the values of these dimensionless parameters, a good approximation can be achieved. It can be used in estimating quantitative characteristics of the cycle.

Roshchina, E. M.; Sarychev, A. P.

2014-11-01

331

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Did you know that the water we use today is the same water found on Earth millions of years ago? The Earth constantly uses and recycles water in a process called the water cycle. In this lesson, learners explore the four phases of the water cycle. In the investigation Rain in a Jar, learners use hot water and ice to create condensation and a tiny cloud. In Making a Terrarium, learners create an ecosystem and water cycle by growing plants in a closed environment. Investigation spans several days.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

332

CQ4. Ecosystem Function and Diversity How do species, functional type, and biodiversity composition  

E-print Network

CQ4. Ecosystem Function and Diversity How do species, functional type, and biodiversity composition within ecosystems influence the energy, water and biogeochemical cycles under varying climatic conditions

Christian, Eric

333

Natural and Urban "Stormwater" Water Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through an overview of the components of the hydrologic cycle and the important roles they play in the design of engineered systems, students' awareness of the world's limited fresh water resources is heightened. The hydrologic cycle affects everyone and is the single most critical component to life on Earth. Students examine in detail the water cycle components and phase transitions, and then learn how water moves through the human-made urban environment. This urban "stormwater" water cycle is influenced by the pervasive existence of impervious surfaces that limit the amount of infiltration, resulting in high levels of stormwater runoff, limited groundwater replenishment and reduced groundwater flow. Students show their understanding of the process by writing a description of the path of a water droplet through the urban water cycle, from the droplet's point of view. The lesson lays the groundwork for rest of the unit, so students can begin to think about what they might do to modify the urban "stormwater" water cycle so that it functions more like the natural water cycle. A PowerPoint® presentation and handout are provided.

Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

334

Cilia and cell cycle re-entry  

PubMed Central

With the exception of the final stages of spermatogenesis in butterfly and some unicellular ciliates and flagellates, ciliated cells undergo cell division without cilia. This reciprocal relationship between cilia formation and cell division has prompted investigators to propose that ciliogenesis and cell cycle progression are mutually exclusive processes. Early work in fibroblasts showed that deciliation occurs in two waves, as cells depart from quiescence. The first wave of deciliation occurs before entry into S, while the second wave occurs between S and mitosis. Since then, it has remained a mystery whether and how (de)ciliation is coupled to the cell cycle and further, whether ciliation can affect cell cycle progression. Several recent publications provide evidence for a causative role of ciliary resorption in influencing the duration of the G1 phase of the cell cycle impacting on several developmental processes, including left-right patterning, kidney, skeletal and brain development. This body of work argues for the existence of a molecular crosstalk between ciliary factors and regulators of the cell cycle. Here, we review the evidence connecting primary cilia and the cell cycle and evaluate the idea that the primary cilium may function as a physical checkpoint in cell cycle re-entry. PMID:21814045

Kim, Sehyun

2011-01-01

335

Trophic Interaction Cycles in Tundra Ecosystems and the Impact of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

While population cycles are geographically widespread, it is on arctic tundra that such cycles appear to be most influential for the functioning of the whole ecosystem. We give an overview of tundra species that exhibit population cycles and describe what are currently believed to be the causal mechanisms. Population cycles most likely originate from trophic interactions within the plant-based tundra

ROLF A. IMS; EVA FUGLEI

2005-01-01

336

Genome-wide survey of protein kinases required for cell cycle progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cycles of protein phosphorylation are fundamental in regulating the progression of the eukaryotic cell through its division cycle. Here we test the complement of Drosophila protein kinases (kinome) for cell cycle functions after gene silencing by RNA-mediated interference. We observed cell cycle dysfunction upon downregulation of 80 out of 228 protein kinases, including most kinases that are known to regulate

M. Bettencourt-Dias; R. Giet; R. Sinka; A. Mazumdar; W. G. Lock; F. Balloux; P. J. Zafiropoulos; S. Yamaguchi; S. Winter; R. W. Carthew; M. Cooper; D. Jones; L. Frenz; D. M. Glover

2004-01-01

337

Cerebral glucose metabolism and the glutamine cycle as detected by in vivo and in vitro 13C NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We review briefly 13C NMR studies of cerebral glucose metabolism with an emphasis on the roles of glial energetics and the glutamine cycle. Mathematical modeling analysis of in vivo 13C turnover experiments from the C4 carbons of glutamate and glutamine are consistent with: (i) the glutamine cycle being the major cerebral metabolic route supporting glutamatergic neurotransmission, (ii) glial glutamine synthesis being stoichiometrically coupled to glycolytic ATP production, (iii) glutamine serving as the main precursor of neurotransmitter glutamate and (iv) glutamatergic neurotransmission being supported by lactate oxidation in the neurons in a process accounting for 60-80% of the energy derived from glucose catabolism. However, more recent experimental approaches using inhibitors of the glial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (trifluoroacetic acid, TFA) or of glutamine synthase (methionine sulfoximine, MSO) reveal that a considerable portion of the energy required to support glutamine synthesis is derived from the oxidative metabolism of glucose in the astroglia and that a significant amount of the neurotransmitter glutamate is produced from neuronal glucose or lactate rather than from glial glutamine. Moreover, a redox switch has been proposed that allows the neurons to use either glucose or lactate as substrates for oxidation, depending on the relative availability of these fuels under resting or activation conditions, respectively. Together, these results suggest that the coupling mechanisms between neuronal and glial metabolism are more complex than initially envisioned. PMID:15145545

García-Espinosa, María A; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Sierra, Alejandra; Benito, Marina; Fonseca, Carla; Gray, Heather L; Bartnik, Brenda L; García-Martín, María L; Ballesteros, Paloma; Cerdán, Sebastián

2004-01-01

338

The Rock Cycle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

1977-01-01

339

Transmission Cycles of Plague  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image contains the transmission sylvatic and urban cycles of plague (Yersinia pestis)in the United States. It also shows some of the differences in transmission between bubonic and pneumonic plague.

American Society For Microbiology;

2004-08-27

340

Frog life cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The life cycle of a frog includes the egg stage, tadpole stage, froglet stage, and adult frog stage. Tadpoles live in water and use gills to breathe. They develop lungs as they mature into frogs and live on land.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-23

341

The Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Satellite Geodesy describes the rock cycle, and quantitative ways to estimate how long geological features took to form. Popcorn is used to demonstrate half-life and radio-active decay, which is used to date rocks.

Tauxe, Lisa; Geodesy, Satellite

342

The Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This narrated slide presentation shows the carbon cycle, looking at various parts of this biogeochemical sequence by examining carbon reservoirs and how carbon is exchanged among them and the atmosphere.

Thinkport; Television, Maryland P.

343

Understanding the Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students use Internet resources, slide presentations, and modeling to explain how understanding the carbon cycle helps scientists understand and prepare for global climate change, what might happen if sources of carbon produced more than sinks could remove, and what might happen if sinks absorbed more than sources produced. They should understand how the carbon cycle affects various life forms and the role that carbon plays in their lives. Procedures, a glossary, assessments, and scoring rubrics are provided.

344

Life Cycle of Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will understand the life cycle of plants such as growth of plants and reproduction of plants. KWL chart First, I want you to fill out out a KWL chart. I want you to fill in what you already know about the life cycle of plants. Keep your KWL chart throughout the lesson to fill it back in when you find out more on plants. Movie Next, I want you ...

Carly, Ms.

2011-11-02

345

The Real Biofuel Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes energy efficiency of the industrial corn-ethanol cycle and brackets energy efficiency of the switchgrass-cellulosic ethanol cycle. In particular, it critically evaluates the publications by Farrell et al. (2006a; 2006b) and Shapouri, Wang, et al. (Wang, 2001; Shapouri et al., 2002; Shapouri et al., 2003; Shapouri and McAloon, 2004). It is demonstrated that in a net-energy analysis of

Tad W. Patzek

346

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are about to enter into the world of science and discover many new things about the water cycle. Introduction Below is a list of websites I have created for you to go and do certain activities. I will give you directions of things I would like for you to do at each website. All About The Water Cycle Here is a game you can play. ...

Jenny

2008-11-17

347

FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S. (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated. (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass. (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

Carter, J.

2011-01-03

348

FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S; (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated; (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass; and (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

Jones, R.; Carter, J.

2010-10-13

349

How do muscles contribute to cycling?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative assessment of muscular activity during cycling could improve the under- standing of the occurrence and alternance of muscular synergies during prolonged exercise. A good comprehension of the functional behavior of either single or cooperating muscles, and the analysis of their relation with the force exerted during pedaling, allow the evaluation of the athletes' per- formance. The purpose of this

DANIELE BIBBO; SILVIA CONFORTO; CLAUDIO GALLOZZI; TOMMASO D'ALESSIO

2006-01-01

350

Teaching Real Business Cycles to Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review the graphical approach to teaching the real business cycle model introduced in Barro. They then look at where this approach cuts corners and suggest refinements. Finally, they compare graphical and exact models by means of impulse-response functions. The graphical models yield reliable qualitative results. Sizable quantitative…

Brevik, Frode; Gartner, Manfred

2007-01-01

351

The brain-computer interface cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have attracted much attention recently, triggered by new scientific progress in understanding brain function and by impressive applications. The aim of this review is to give ail overview of the various steps in the BCI cycle, i.e., the loop from the measurement of brain activity, classification of data, feedback to the subject and the effect of feedback

M. van Gerven; J. D. R. Farquhar; R. S. Schaefer; R. J. Vlek; J. Geuze; A. Nijholt; N. F. Ramsey; W. F. G. Haselager; L. G. Vuurpijl; S. C. A. M. Gielen; P. W. M. Desain

2009-01-01

352

The Brain-Computer Interface Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) have attracted much attention recently, triggered by new scientific progress in understanding brain function and by impressive applications. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the various steps in the BCI cycle, i.e., the loop from the measurement of brain activity, classification of data, feedback to the subject and the effect of feedback

Marcel Gerven; Jason Farquhar; Rebecca Schaefer; Rutger Vlek; Jeroen Geuze; Anton Nijholt; Nick Ramsay; Pim Haselager; Louis Vuurpijl; Stan Gielen; Peter Desain

2009-01-01

353

Models for predicting the performance of Brayton-cycle engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas turbine performance is the result of choices of type of cycle, cycle temperature ratio, pressure ratio, cooling flows, and component losses. The output is usually given as efficiency (thermal, propulsive, specific thrust, overall efficiency) versus specific power. This paper presents a set of computer programs for the performance prediction of shaft-power and jet-propulsion cycles: simple, regenerative, intercooled-regenerative, turbojet, and turbofan. Each cycle is constructed using individual component modules. Realistic assumptions are specified for component efficiencies as functions of pressure ratio, cooling mass-flow rate as a function of cooling technology levels, and various other cycle losses. The programs can be used to predict design point and off-design point operation using appropriate component efficiencies. The effects of various cycle choices on overall performance are discussed.

Korakianitis, T.; Wilson, D. G.

1994-04-01

354

Fatal cycling injuries.  

PubMed

Cycling accidents are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality, especially in boys under the age of 16. While most cycling injuries result from simple falls from the bicycle, the majority of fatalities are caused by head injuries resulting from accidents involving motor vehicles. It is estimated that up to 85% of all cycling fatalities caused by head injuries could be prevented by the use of an appropriate cycling helmet. Although the majority of adult cyclists wear helmets the reverse is true for children, who comprise the greatest proportion of all cyclists. Intensive educational programmes increase the number of cycling helmets that are sold, but have a lesser effect on the number used while cycling. Legislation, compassionately enforced on minors, i.e. with an understanding attitude towards their developmental stage, is the only proven technique that substantially improves rates of helmet use by young cyclists. Such legislation reduces their morbidity and mortality from head injuries. This article reviews the epidemiological factors associated with traumatic cycling injuries and the nature of these injuries. Special attention is paid to head injuries and the evidence that these are largely preventable with the use of appropriate 3-layered cycling helmets, the features of which are detailed. Factors promoting or discouraging helmet use by children are reviewed. These include the following factors: age, since helmet use is highest in mature cyclists and lowest in children because of negative peer pressure; parental example, including an attitude of safety consciousness and parental concern; higher levels of education; access to discounted helmets; public campaigns to promote helmet use; and, most importantly, appropriate legislation. But it is clear that appropriate legislation making helmet use compulsory for all cyclists is the only effective method for increasing helmet use, especially by young cyclist. Such legislation would reduce a mortality rate among young cyclists that has been equated to the mortality caused by some childhood infections in the pre-vaccination era. Some argue that physicians have a particular responsibility for promoting effective legislation for mandatory helmet use so that young children can be 'vaccinated' against the risk of the modern childhood epidemic; fatal head injury while cycling. PMID:8571008

Noakes, T D

1995-11-01

355

Helium process cycle  

DOEpatents

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

2007-10-09

356

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1992-12-22

357

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

1992-01-01

358

The global sulfur cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the planetary biology microbial ecology's 1984 Summer Research Program, which examined various aspects of the global sulfur cycle are summarized. Ways in which sulfur flows through the many living and chemical species that inhabit the surface of the Earth were investigated. Major topics studied include: (1) sulfur cycling and metabolism of phototropic and filamentous sulfur bacteria; (2) sulfur reduction in sediments of marine and evaporite environments; (3) recent cyanobacterial mats; (4) microanalysis of community metabolism in proximity to the photic zone in potential stromatolites; and (5) formation and activity of microbial biofilms on metal sulfides and other mineral surfaces. Relationships between the global sulfur cycle and the understanding of the early evolution of the Earth and biosphere and current processes that affect global habitability are stressed.

Sagan, D. (editor)

1985-01-01

359

Cell cycle control and seed development  

PubMed Central

Seed development is a complex process that requires coordinated integration of many genetic, metabolic, and physiological pathways and environmental cues. Different cell cycle types, such as asymmetric cell division, acytokinetic mitosis, mitotic cell division, and endoreduplication, frequently occur in sequential yet overlapping manner during the development of the embryo and the endosperm, seed structures that are both products of double fertilization. Asymmetric cell divisions in the embryo generate polarized daughter cells with different cell fates. While nuclear and cell division cycles play a key role in determining final seed cell numbers, endoreduplication is often associated with processes such as cell enlargement and accumulation of storage metabolites that underlie cell differentiation and growth of the different seed compartments. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of different cell cycle mechanisms operating during seed development and their impact on the growth, development, and function of seed tissues. Particularly, the roles of core cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin-dependent-kinases and their inhibitors, the Retinoblastoma-Related/E2F pathway and the proteasome-ubiquitin system, are discussed in the contexts of different cell cycle types that characterize seed development. The contributions of nuclear and cellular proliferative cycles and endoreduplication to cereal endosperm development are also discussed.

Dante, Ricardo A.; Larkins, Brian A.; Sabelli, Paolo A.

2014-01-01

360

Credit-based Indoor Cycling 2 -Advanced Credit/Hours Class Title Lead Instructor email  

E-print Network

and intensities, muscles and exercises necessary for improved cycling form and function, transition from indoor/Fail Course Content o Review of ACT 165 (cycling techniques, bike set up, RPE, anatomy). o Intensity

Maxwell, Bruce D.

361

The Carbon Cycle Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners take on the role of a carbon atom and record which reservoirs in the carbon cycle they visit. Learners will compare and contrast their trip with those of other learners to discover information about sources and sinks, and residence times of the different reservoirs. Ocean processes are highlighted to allow the educator to define the biological pump and explain its importance to climate. Helping learners understand the carbon cycle is essential to their understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change.

Now, Cosee

2012-01-01

362

Carbon Cycle and Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners explore the steps in the carbon cycle and draw conclusions about the importance of the carbon cycle in the planetary temperature system. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson six in the Astro-Venture Geology Training Unit that was developed to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

363

Soil Biogeochemical Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This group activity charges students with teaching their colleagues about the biogeochemical cycle of one key soil element (e.g., either C, N, S, P, Ca, or Fe). Students are given a single class period to summarize their knowledge and to develop a lesson that includes (1) an organized, 5-8 minute oral presentation, (2) a graphical, conceptual model of their assigned element's soil-biogeochemical cycle, and (3) a list of discussion questions with which to engage their colleagues on the other teams. A second class session is used to refine and to expand upon the submitted models as necessary.

Robins, Colin

364

Breaking a vicious cycle.  

PubMed

Despite prodigious advances in tumor biology research, few tumor-biomarker tests have been adopted as standard clinical practice. This lack of reliable tests stems from a vicious cycle of undervaluation, resulting from inconsistent regulatory standards and reimbursement, as well as insufficient investment in research and development, scrutiny of biomarker publications by journals, and evidence of analytical validity and clinical utility. We offer recommendations designed to serve as a roadmap to break this vicious cycle and call for a national dialogue, as changes in regulation, reimbursement, investment, peer review, and guidelines development require the participation of all stakeholders. PMID:23903752

Hayes, Daniel F; Allen, Jeff; Compton, Carolyn; Gustavsen, Gary; Leonard, Debra G B; McCormack, Robert; Newcomer, Lee; Pothier, Kristin; Ransohoff, David; Schilsky, Richard L; Sigal, Ellen; Taube, Sheila E; Tunis, Sean R

2013-07-31

365

Dynamic simulation of FES-cycling: influence of individual parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cycling by means of functional electrical simulation (FES) is an attractive training method for spinal cord injured (SCI) subjects. FES-cycling performance is influenced by a number of parameters like seating position, physiological parameters, conditions of surface stimulation, and pedaling rate. The objective of this paper was the determination of the influence of the most important parameters on optimal muscle stimulation

Margit Gföhler; Peter Lugner

2004-01-01

366

Nitrogen cycling in Hot Spring Sediments and Biofilms (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several decades, gene-targeted analyses have revealed that microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse. However, we know shockingly little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling or community shifts over time, or environmental parameters such as growth criteria. Previous work has shown that carbon cycling in one hot spring in Yellowstone National

D. R. Meyer-Dombard; M. S. Burton; J. R. Havig; E. Shock

2010-01-01

367

Annual Cycles of Steroid Hormone Production, Gonad Development, and Reproductive  

E-print Network

Annual Cycles of Steroid Hormone Production, Gonad Development, and Reproductive Behavior and ultimate function of this extended preovulatory mating are un- known. Annual cycles of the gonadal steroids their choice of mates. This estuary sample population shows higher ab- solute steroid levels and distinct

Tricas, Timothy C.

368

The impact of reliability requirements on development life cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will discuss the importance of defining reliability and availability requirements upfront and its role in product development life cycle. In addition, it will review how to trace the requirements throughout the product life cycle. In designing a new product, much time and effort is spent defining time to market and functional requirements. In the mean time there is

N. Bidokhti

2008-01-01

369

Functional potential of P2P-R: a role in the cell cycle and cell differentiation related to its interactions with proteins that bind to matrix associated regions of DNA?  

PubMed

P2P-R is the alternately spliced product of the P2P-R/PACT gene in that P2P-R lacks one exon encoding 34 amino acids. The 250 kDa P2P-R protein is the predominate product expressed in multiple murine cell lines. It is a highly basic protein that contains multiple domains including an N-terminal RING type zinc finger, a proline rich domain, an RS region, and a C-terminal lysine-rich domain. P2P-R binds the p53 and the Rb1 tumor suppressors and is phosphorylated by the cdc2 and SRPK1a protein kinases. P2P-R also interacts with scaffold attachment factor-B (SAF-B), a well characterized MARs (for matrix attachment regions) binding factor, and may interact with nucleolin, another MARs binding factor. In addition, P2P-R binds single strand DNA (ssDNA). The expression of P2P-R is regulated by differentiation and cell cycle events. P2P-R mRNA is markedly repressed during differentiation, whereas immunoreactive P2P-R protein levels are >10-fold higher in mitotic than in G(0) cells. The localization of P2P-R also is modulated during the cell cycle. During interphase, P2P-R is present primarily in nucleoli and nuclear speckles whereas during mitosis, P2P-R associates with the periphery of chromosomes. Overexpression of near full length P2P-R induces mitotic arrest in prometaphase and mitotic apoptosis, and overexpression of selected P2P-R segments also can promote apoptosis. This compendium of data supports the possibility that P2P-R may form complexes with the Rb1 and/or p53 tumor suppressors and MARs-related factors, in a cell cycle and cell differentiation-dependent manner, to influence gene transcription/expression and nuclear organization. PMID:12938151

Scott, Robert E; Giannakouros, Thomas; Gao, Sizhi; Peidis, Philippos

2003-09-01

370

Carbon Cycle Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This diagram illustrates some of the most abundant stores of carbon and identifies some of the pathways in the carbon cycle along which carbon is transferred from one form to another. Long-term sinks of carbon are labelled in black; shorter-term fluxes are labelled in purple. Amounts are in billions of tons.

2011-07-12

371

Disengaging from Conflict Cycles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth in pain often show self-defeating and destructive patterns of behavior which should be seen as calls for help and positive support. Instead, deep-seated brain programs and cultural beliefs about discipline can trigger angry or avoidant behavior by adults who deal with these young people. This brief introduction to the Conflict Cycle…

Long, Nicholas J.

2014-01-01

372

Stellar magnetic cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is hope for understanding the solar magnetic cycle to be found in stars? Observations of stars with significant sub-surface convective zones -- masses smaller than about 1.5 solar masses on the lower main sequence and many types of cool, post-main-sequence stars -- indicate the presence of surface and atmospheric inhomogeneities analogous to solar magnetic features, making stellar magnetic activity a cosmically widespread phenomenon. Observations have been made primarily in visible wavelengths, and important information has also been derived from the ultraviolet and x-ray spectrum regions. Interannual to interdecadal variability of spectrum indicators of stellar magnetic features is common, and in some cases similar in appearance to the 11-year sunspot cycle. Successful models of the physical processes responsible for stellar magnetic cycles, typically cast as a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo, require advances in understanding not only convection but also the magnetic field's interaction with it. The observed facts that underpin the hope for models will be summarized. Properties of stellar magnetic cycles will be compared and contrasted with those of the sun, including inferences from paleo-environmental reservoirs that contain information on solar century- to millennial-scale magnetic variability. Partial support of this research came from NASA NAG5-7635, NRC COBASE, CRDF 322, MIT-MSG 5710001241, JPL 1236821, AF 49620-02-1-0194, Richard Lounsberry Foundation, Langley-Abbot, Rollins, Scholarly Studies and James Arthur Funds (Smithsonian Institution) and several generous individuals.

Baliunas, S. L.

2004-05-01

373

Annual cycle energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, operation, and performance of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) which provides space heating and cooling and hot water for an experimental house in Knoxville, TN are described. ACES is basically an assisted heat pump with energy storage in an ice-water bin. Solar panels are used to replenish the stored energy. The bin must be large enough to

Minturn

1979-01-01

374

Annual cycle energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual cycle energy system (ACES) program which incorporates in a practical system the outstanding energy conservation potential that exists when the unidirectional heat pump and the interseasonal storage of energy are combined to provide heating, cooling, and domestic hot water to buildings is described. Information on the system, its applicability to different geographic areas, and the methodology for designing

R. E. Minturn

1981-01-01

375

The Performance Cycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A causal model of a cycle of student performance is proposed. Two investigations were conducted in Australia, studying individuals and classrooms. Attitudes toward, and achievement in, mathematics and science were measured. The roles of attentiveness and teachers' use of time were also studied. (GDC)

Keeves, John P.

1986-01-01

376

The Global Nitrogen Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once upon a time nitrogen did not exist. Today it does. In the intervening time the universe was formed, nitrogen was created, the Earth came into existence, and its atmosphere and oceans were formed! In this analysis of the Earth's nitrogen cycle, I start with an overview of these important events relative to nitrogen and then move on to the

J. N. Galloway

2003-01-01

377

Science of Cycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interested in cycling? Then you'll want to check out this site. Here you'll find Real Video clips of top mountain biker, Ruthie Matthes. Learn about frames and materials from a custom bike maker, then try to calculate braking distances and energy consumption.Note: You'll need Real Player.

Exploratorium

378

Assisted Cycling Tours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses Assisted Cycling Tours (ACT), a Westminster, Colorado based 501(c)3, non-profit that is offering the joy of bicycle tours in breathtaking, scenic locations to children and adults with developmental and physical disabilities and their families. ACT was founded by Bob Matter and his son David with a goal of opening up the…

Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

2008-01-01

379

GLOBAL TERRESTRIAL CARBON CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

There is great uncertainty with regard to the future role of the terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, arising from both an inadequate understanding of current pools and fluxes as well as the potential effects of rising atmospheric concentrations of CO, on natural eco...

380

Ecosystem element cycling Introduction  

E-print Network

Ecosystem element cycling Introduction An ecosystem consists of all the biological organisms and the physical environments they occupy together within a defined area [1]. The actual boundaries of an ecosystem are generally defined by researchers studying the ecosystem, who are usually interested in understanding

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

381

Carbon Cycle Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive, regionally-relevant carbon cycle game, students are challenged to understand the role of carbon in global climate change. They imagine that they are carbon molecules and travel via different processes through carbon reservoirs on the Colorado Plateau (the Four Corners area of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah). This game can be adapted to other regions.

Partnership, Colorado P.; Northern Arizona University; Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

382

Metabolite and isotopomer balancing in the analysis of metabolic cycles. 2: Applications  

SciTech Connect

In a previous paper, the authors presented a model for the analysis of isotopomer distributions of the TCA cycle intermediates resulting from {sup 13}C (or {sup 14}C) labeling experiments. Results allow the rigorous determination of the degree of enrichment at specific carbon atoms of metabolites, of the molecular weight distribution of metabolite isotopomers, as well as of the fine structure of NMR spectra in terms of a small number of metabolic fluxes. In this paper the authors validate the model by comparing model predictions with experimental data and then apply it to the analysis of metabolic networks that have been investigated in previous studies. The results have allowed them to conclude that: (1) there is no evidence of propionyl-CoA carboxylase pathway in Escherichia coli; and (2) the possibility that acetone utilization in mammals occurs solely via the lactate/methyl-glyoxal pathway is consistent with available labeling data. The presented modeling framework provides additional constraints that must be satisfied by experimental data in a biochemical network structure and therefore enhances the power of labeling methods for resolving in vivo metabolic fluxes.

Park, S.M.; Klapa, M.I.; Sinskey, A.J.; Stephanopoulos, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1999-02-20

383

The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and therefore strengthened the greenhouse effect by pressure broadening the absorption of greenhouse gases. In addition,the behaviour of N is dependent on redox conditions in the ocean, which have not been constant over time.

Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

2013-12-01

384

Water Cycle Missions for the Next Decade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global water cycle describes the circulation of water as a vital and dynamic substance in its liquid, solid, and vapor phases as it moves through the atmosphere, oceans and land. Life in its many forms exists because of water, and modern civilization depends on learning how to live within the constraints imposed by the availability of water. The scientific challenge posed by the need to observe the global water cycle is to integrate in situ and space-borne observations to quantify the key water-cycle state variables and fluxes. The vision to address that challenge is a series of Earth observation missions that will measure the states, stocks, flows, and residence times of water on regional to global scales followed by a series of coordinated missions that will address the processes, on a global scale, that underlie variability and changes in water in all its three phases. The accompanying societal challenge is to foster the improved use of water data and information as a basis for enlightened management of water resources, to protect life and property from effects of extremes in the water cycle. A major change in thinking about water science that goes beyond its physics to include its role in ecosystems and society is also required. Better water-cycle observations, especially on the continental and global scales, will be essential. Water-cycle predictions need to be readily available globally to reduce loss of life and property caused by water-related natural hazards. Building on the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space , and the 2012 Chapman Conference on Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle, a workshop was held in April 2013 to gather wisdom and determine how to prepare for the next generation of water cycle missions in support of the second Earth Science Decadal Survey. This talk will present the outcomes of the workshop including the intersection between science questions, technology readiness and satellite design optimization. A series of next-generation water cycle mission working groups were proposed and white papers, designed to identify capacity gaps and inform NASA were developed. The workshop identified several visions for the next decade of water cycle satellite observations, and developed a roadmap and action plan for developing the foundation for these missions. Achieving this outcome will result in optimized community investments and better functionality of these future missions, and will help to foster broader range of scientists and professionals engaged in water cycle observation planning and development around the country, and the world.

Houser, P. R.

2013-12-01

385

Follicular populations and luteal function in dairy heifers treated with a controlled internal drug release insert for 14 days as a method to synchronize the estrous cycle before prostaglandin F?? treatment and artificial insemination.  

PubMed

Progesterone-containing controlled internal drug release (CIDR) inserts are used to synchronize the estrous cycle before PGF2? is administered for timed AI (14dCIDR-PGF2? program). The program, initially designed for beef cattle, was recently shown to be efficacious in dairy heifers. We hypothesized that the 14-d CIDR treatment would synchronize the estrous cycle in dairy heifers and result in a uniformly sized corpus luteum (CL) and largest follicle (LF) at the time of PGF2? treatment. Holstein (n=110) or Holstein × Guernsey (n=4) dairy heifers were assigned to 2 treatments: (1) 14dCIDR-PGF2? [CIDR in for 14 d, CIDR out for 16d, PGF2? and AI after observed estrus (n=57)] or (2) control [PGF2? and AI after observed estrus (n=57)]. Regardless of treatment, additional PGF2? injections were administered at 14-d intervals to heifers that were not seen in estrus. Ovarian ultrasonography and blood sampling were done on d 0 (CIDR administered), 14 (day CIDR removed), 19 (5d after CIDR removed), 30 (PGF2? administered), and 44 (second PGF2? dose administered to heifers that were not detected in estrus after the first PGF2?). Compared with control (untreated), more CIDR-treated heifers were categorized as having a small CL (? 9.9 mm) and large LF (15.0-19.9 mm) on d 14 (CIDR removal) and, as expected, a greater percentage of CIDR-treated heifers were in estrus during the 5d after the CIDR removal compared with control heifers (75.4 vs. 22.8%, respectively). On d 19, the CIDR-treated heifers had apparently ovulated based on disappearance of LF and appearance of small CL. On d 30 (PGF2? administration), 89% of 14dCIDR-PGF2? heifers had CL that were ? 20 mm in diameter compared with 55% for control. Presence of larger CL on d 30 was associated with greater concentrations of plasma progesterone in 14dCIDR-PGF2? compared with control (10.5 ± 0.5 vs. 5.0 ± 0.6 ng/mL, respectively). The percentages of heifers with LF in the smallest category (? 9.9 mm) tended to be less (5.3 vs. 16.6%) and the percentage of heifers with LF in the medium-size category (10.0 to 14.9 mm) tended to be greater (84.2 vs. 69.1%) for 14dCIDR-PGF2? versus control, respectively, on d 30. More heifers were detected in estrus within 5d after the first PGF2? (86.0 vs. 56.1%) and conception rate to AI using sexed semen tended to be greater (61.2% vs. 40.6%) for 14dCIDR-PGF2? compared with control (respectively). Treating dairy heifers with a CIDR for 14 d was an effective method to synchronize an estrous cycle before PGF2? was administered. PMID:23587375

Escalante, R C; Poock, S E; Lucy, M C

2013-06-01

386

Life Cycle of a Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will learn the basic cycle of a butterfly's life, starting with an egg and ending as a butterfly. Choose one of the following web pages to visit and learn about the life cycle of a butterfly: This link shows real pictures- Butterfly Life Cycle -OR- This link shows cartoon pictures- Life Cycle (clip art images) Now that you have knowledge about the butterfly, Test what you have learned with this fun life cycle activity! Life Cycle Activity When caterpillars change to butterflies, this is ...

Integratingtechlauryn

2012-02-07

387

Metabolic cycling without cell division cycling in respiring yeast  

E-print Network

Despite rapid progress in characterizing the yeast metabolic cycle, its connection to the cell division cycle (CDC) has remained unclear. We discovered that a prototrophic batch culture of budding yeast, growing in a ...

Slavov, Nikolai G.

388

CANDU fuel cycle flexibility  

SciTech Connect

High neutron economy, on-power refuelling, and a simple bundle design provide a high degree of flexibility that enables CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium; registered trademark) reactors to be fuelled with a wide variety of fuel types. Near-term applications include the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU), and recovered uranium (RU) from reprocessed spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel. Plutonium and other actinides arising from various sources, including spent LWR fuel, can be accommodated, and weapons-origin plutonium could be destroyed by burning in CANDU. In the DUPIC fuel cycle, a dry processing method would convert spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel to CANDU fuel. The thorium cycle remains of strategic interest in CANDU to ensure long-term resource availability, and would be of specific interest to those countries possessing large thorium reserves, but limited uranium resources.

Torgerson, D.F.; Boczar, P.G. [Chalk River Lab., Ontario (Canada); Dastur, A.R. [AECL CANDU, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1994-12-31

389

Rock Cycle Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many people might know about the life cycle of a rock, but it can be a process that is hard to understand without a handy visual aid. Just such a series of aids can be found right here, courtesy of Mark Francek of Central Michigan University. These rock cycle animations display some of the most common rock-forming processes, including the crystallization of magma to form igneous rock, rock erosion to create sediment, and several others. That's not all, as visitors can also examine a comprehensive Flash animation which contains three separate movies, each of which looks at the formation of igneous rocks in environments that include a deep magma chamber and rocks forming from a pyroclastic flow. The site is rounded out by an interactive igneous rocks classification chart, arranged by texture and chemical composition.

390

Rock Cycle Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, sudents write a series of three stories that explain and/or illustrate rock-forming processes. As an alternative, they may write a single story that addresses the rock cycle. Describing these processes at a level appropriate for their target audience (second graders) requires an adequate understanding of the geologic processes involved and can reveal problems or misconceptions in the students' ideas of how rocks are formed. Teacher's notes and rubrics for teacher and peer review are provided.

Ebert, James

391

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation features a detailed six minute animated lesson about the major processes that move water between land, the ocean and the atmosphere, and convert water between states. This brief clip, (6:05-6:20 beginning with diagram of water cycle and ending with narration Âover and over againÂ), reinforces the idea that water continually moves between Earth's atmosphere and its land and water.

392

The carbon dioxide cycle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

James, P.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Titus, T.N.

2005-01-01

393

The Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since living things extract carbon from their nonliving environment, for life to continue carbon must be recycled. This site tells us that the cycle is not in balance and explores the possibilities of where the missing carbon might be found. The site also explains the greenhouse effect and global warming and also covers the other greenhouse gases such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). It also features diagrams, a graph, and links to other sites for more detailed information.

Kimball, John

394

The Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online lab exercise focuses on the processes involved in the Carbon cycle and the influences of human activity on those processes- especially as they relate to Earth's weather and climate. The fourth in a 10-part lab series on weather and climate, this lab exercise is designed for first and second year college geoscience students (majors and non-majors) as well as pre-service STEM teachers.

395

Science of Cycling: Aerodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from the Exploratorium, reviews the aerodynamics of cycling. Wind resistance is often one of the biggest challenges that professional and amateur cyclists face. This site has a form that lets you "Calculate the Aerodynamic Drag and Propulsive Power of a Bicyclist". Use the form to calculate resistance using different inclines, velocity, weight or wind velocity. At the bottom of the page, you can find useful information and tips on reducing resistance. Check it out before your next bike ride!

2007-12-26

396

Borders and business cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document that business cycles of U.S. Census regions are substantially more synchronized than those of European countries. Data from regions within European countries confirm a European border effect — within-country correlations are substantially larger than cross-country correlations. These results continue to hold after controlling for exogenous factors such as distance and size. We consider the role of four factors

Todd E. Clark; Eric van Wincoop

2001-01-01

397

USGS Carbon Cycle Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to information on United States Geological Survey (USGS) research activities conducted in support of the U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program (CCSP). This research includes carbon sequestration in sediments, landscape dynamics and vegetation change, fate of carbon in cold region forests, exchanges of greenhouse gases, water vapor, and heat at the Earth's surface, and other topics. Each topic heading features links to reports or program webpages.

398

Carbon Cycle Poster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners gain knowledge about how carbon moves through all four of the Earthâs major spheres (biosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere), and understand how humans influence the carbon cycle and contribute to global climate change. Learners work in groups to create a diagram to show how the Earth's major spheres are connected by diffusion, respiration, burial, and weathering. This detailed lesson plan includes key vocabulary words, discussion questions, resources for educators, and is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

399

Protein tyrosine nitration in the cell cycle  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Enrichment of 3-nitrotyrosine containing proteins from cells synchronized in different phases of the cell cycle. {yields} Identification of 76 tyrosine nitrated proteins that change expression during the cell cycle. {yields} Nineteen identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins is associated with cell response to oxidative/nitrosative stress. Tyrosine nitration is relatively low abundant post-translational modification that may affect protein functions. Little is known about the extent of protein tyrosine nitration in cells during progression through the cell cycle. Here we report identification of proteins enriched for tyrosine nitration in cells synchronized in G0/G1, S or G2/M phases of the cell cycle. We identified 27 proteins in cells synchronized in G0/G1 phase, 37 proteins in S phase synchronized cells, and 12 proteins related to G2/M phase. Nineteen of the identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. Thus, our data indicate which tyrosine nitrated proteins may affect regulation of the cell cycle.

Jia, Min, E-mail: min.jia@ki.se [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Mateoiu, Claudia; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

2011-09-23

400

Rock Cycle: Earth's Autobiography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Rocks SciPack. It investigates how geologists have used rocks to help determine the approximate age of the Earth and provide a timeline of how the Earth's surface and environments have changed over time. Scientists have tools to estimate the ages of rock and the overall time scale of the rock cycle. Some processes happen quickly and some happen slowly, but the oldest rocks indicate that the rock cycle has been recycling Earth's material continuously for roughly 4 billion years. The same processes have been at work throughout Earth's history, and therefore scientists can use the present to interpret the past. Observations of rock (textures, minerals, and fossils found within it) provides evidence of the environment and processes through which it formed, including the pressures, temperatures, and forces that created it.Learning Outcomes:� State the amount of time over which the rock cycle has been in operation (4 billion years rather than 40 million or 400 million).� Recognize that the processes at work in the present are the same as those at work in the distant past.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

401

Differential Mechanism of Escherichia coli Inactivation by (+)-Limonene as a Function of Cell Physiological State and Drug's Concentration  

PubMed Central

(+)-limonene is a lipophilic antimicrobial compound, extracted from citrus fruits' essential oils, that is used as a flavouring agent and organic solvent by the food industry. A recent study has proposed a common and controversial mechanism of cell death for bactericidal antibiotics, in which hydroxyl radicals ultimately inactivated cells. Our objective was to determine whether the mechanism of Escherichia coli MG1655 inactivation by (+)-limonene follows that of bactericidal antibiotics. A treatment with 2,000 ?L/L (+)-limonene inactivated 4 log10 cycles of exponentially growing E. coli cells in 3 hours. On one hand, an increase of cell survival in the ?acnB mutant (deficient in a TCA cycle enzyme), or in the presence of 2,2?-dipyridyl (inhibitor of Fenton reaction by iron chelation), thiourea, or cysteamine (hydroxyl radical scavengers) was observed. Moreover, the ?recA mutant (deficient in an enzyme involved in SOS response to DNA damage) was more sensitive to (+)-limonene. Thus, this indirect evidence indicates that the mechanism of exponentially growing E. coli cells inactivation by 2,000 ?L/L (+)-limonene is due to the TCA cycle and Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical formation that caused oxidative DNA damage, as observed for bactericidal drugs. However, several differences have been observed between the proposed mechanism for bactericidal drugs and for (+)-limonene. In this regard, our results demonstrated that E. coli inactivation was influenced by its physiological state and the drug's concentration: experiments with stationary-phase cells or 4,000 ?L/L (+)-limonene uncovered a different mechanism of cell death, likely unrelated to hydroxyl radicals. Our research has also shown that drug's concentration is an important factor influencing the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by antibiotics, such as kanamycin. These results might help in improving and spreading the use of (+)-limonene as an antimicrobial compound, and in clarifying the controversy about the mechanism of inactivation by bactericidal antibiotics. PMID:24705541

Chueca, Beatriz; Pagan, Rafael; Garcia-Gonzalo, Diego

2014-01-01

402

Assessment of the Potential Role of Tryptophan as the Precursor of Serotonin and Melatonin for the Aged Sleep-wake Cycle and Immune Function: Streptopelia Risoria as a Model  

PubMed Central

In the present review we summarize the relationship between the amino acid, tryptophan, the neurotransmitter, serotonin, and the indole, melatonin, with the rhythms of sleep/wake and the immune response along with the possible connections between the alterations in these rhythms due to aging and the so-called “serotonin and melatonin deficiency state.” The decrease associated with aging of the brain and circulating levels of serotonin and melatonin seemingly contributes to the alterations of both the sleep/wake cycle and the immune response that typically accompany old age. The supplemental administration of tryptophan, e.g. the inclusion of tryptophan-enriched food in the diet, might help to remediate these age-related alterations due to its capacity of raise the serotonin and melatonin levels in the brain and blood. Herein, we also summarize a set of studies related to the potential role that tryptophan, and its derived product melatonin, may play in the restoration of the aged circadian rhythms of sleep/wake and immune response, taking the ringdove (Streptopelia risoria) as a suitable model. PMID:22084580

Paredes, Sergio D.; Barriga, Carmen; Reiter, Russel J.; Rodriguez, Ana B.

2009-01-01

403

Phosphatidylcholine and the CDP-Choline Cycle  

PubMed Central

The CDP-choline pathway of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) biosynthesis was first described more than 50 years ago. Investigation of the CDP-choline pathway in yeast provides a basis for understanding the CDP-choline pathway in mammals. PtdCho is considered as an intermediate in a cycle of synthesis and degradation, and the activity of a CDP-choline cycle is linked to subcellular membrane lipid movement. The components of the mammalian CDP-choline pathway include choline transport, choline kinase, phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, and choline phosphotransferase activities. The protein isoforms and biochemical mechanisms of regulation of the pathway enzymes are related to their cell and tissue-specific functions. Regulated PtdCho turnover mediated by phospholipases or neuropathy target esterase participates in the mammalian CDP-choline cycle. Knockout mouse models define the biological functions of the CDP-choline cycle in mammalian cells and tissues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. PMID:23010477

Fagone, Paolo; Jackowski, Suzanne

2012-01-01

404

External Resource: Rock Cycle Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This cutaway view of Earth shows where some common rock-forming processes occur. Embedded animations will illustrate the path of a rock moving through the rock cycle. Topics include: rock cycle, magma chamber, magma, igneous rock, sedimentary rock, erosio

1900-01-01

405

American business cycles and innovation  

E-print Network

introduces the concepts of innovation and invention. The second section discusses the business cycles and highlights general causes of business cycles. The final section details the history of the iron, steel, aluminum, and pharmaceutical industries...

Hood, Michael

2013-02-22

406

The Water Cycle: Water Storage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive, animated graphic helps explain the water cycle to younger students. The animation, with sound, explains the various parts of the water cycle and show how water moves from one part to another.

407

Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... may be rapid, ultra-rapid or ultradian cycling. Biological rhythm disturbances: This theory proposes that people with rapid cycling have daily biological rhythms that are out of sync with typical “ ...

408

Review Article Hepatic response to aluminum toxicity: Dyslipidemia and  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2232 Al disrupts the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aerobic respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2232 Anaerobic metabolism: Al promotes anaerobic respiration

Appanna, Vasu

409

On optimal velocity during cycling.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the solution of two problems related to cycling. One is to determine the velocity as a function of distance which minimizes the cyclist's energy expenditure in covering a given distance in a set time. The other is to determine the velocity as a function of the distance which minimizes time for fixed energy expenditure. To solve these problems, an equation of motion for the cyclist riding over arbitrary terrain is written using Newton's second law. This equation is used to evaluate either energy expenditure or time, and the minimization problems are solved using an optimal control formulation in conjunction with the method of Miele [Optimization Techniques with Applications to Aerospace Systems, pp. 69-98 (1962) Academic Press, New York]. Solutions to both optimal control problems are the same. The solutions are illustrated through two examples. In one example where the relative wind velocity is zero, the optimal cruising velocity is constant regardless of terrain. In the second, where the relative wind velocity fluctuates, the optimal cruising velocity varies. PMID:8132689

Maro?ski, R

1994-02-01

410

On the Importance of Cycle Minimum in Sunspot Cycle Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the minima between sunspot cycles are found to provide important information for predicting the amplitude and timing of the following cycle. For example, the time of the occurrence of sunspot minimum sets the length of the previous cycle, which is correlated by the amplitude-period effect to the amplitude of the next cycle, with cycles of shorter (longer) than average length usually being followed by cycles of larger (smaller) than average size (true for 16 of 21 sunspot cycles). Likewise, the size of the minimum at cycle onset is correlated with the size of the cycle's maximum amplitude, with cycles of larger (smaller) than average size minima usually being associated with larger (smaller) than average size maxima (true for 16 of 22 sunspot cycles). Also, it was found that the size of the previous cycle's minimum and maximum relates to the size of the following cycle's minimum and maximum with an even-odd cycle number dependency. The latter effect suggests that cycle 23 will have a minimum and maximum amplitude probably larger than average in size (in particular, minimum smoothed sunspot number Rm = 12.3 +/- 7.5 and maximum smoothed sunspot number RM = 198.8 +/- 36.5, at the 95-percent level of confidence), further suggesting (by the Waldmeier effect) that it will have a faster than average rise to maximum (fast-rising cycles have ascent durations of about 41 +/- 7 months). Thus, if, as expected, onset for cycle 23 will be December 1996 +/- 3 months, based on smoothed sunspot number, then the length of cycle 22 will be about 123 +/- 3 months, inferring that it is a short-period cycle and that cycle 23 maximum amplitude probably will be larger than average in size (from the amplitude-period effect), having an RM of about 133 +/- 39 (based on the usual +/- 30 percent spread that has been seen between observed and predicted values), with maximum amplitude occurrence likely sometime between July 1999 and October 2000.

Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

1996-01-01

411

Growth During the Cell Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the cell cycle, major bulk parameters such as volume, dry mass, total protein, and total RNA double and such growth is a fundamental property of the cell cycle. The patterns of growth in volume and total protein or RNA provide an “envelope” that contains and may restrict the gear wheels. The main parameters of cell cycle growth were established

J. M. Mitchison

2003-01-01

412

Kondratieff's Long-Wave Cycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The legendary Soviet economist's classic work, "Long-Wave Cycle," has been republished. Admirers believe that it explains how the world's economy works. According to Kondratieff, the world economy follows cycles lasting from 48 to 55 years. His cycle theory is discussed. (Author/RM)

Volland, Craig S.

1985-01-01

413

Nutrient cycling and foodwebs in Dutch estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review several aspects of the functioning of the Dutch estuaries (Ems-Dollard, Wadden Sea, Oosterschelde, Westerschelde,\\u000a Grevelingen and Veerse Meer) have been compared. A number of large European rivers (especially Rhine) have a prevailing influence\\u000a on the nutrient cycling of most Dutch estuaries. Owing to the increased loading of the estuaries with nitrogen and phosphorus\\u000a compounds, effects of eutrophication

P. H. Nienhuis

1993-01-01

414

Internal cycle modeling and environmental assessment of multiple cycle consumer products  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic flow models are presented for remanufactured, reused or recycled products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early loss and stochastic return are included for fast and slow cycling products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reuse-to-input flow ratio (Internal Cycle Factor, ICF) is determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cycle rate, which is increasing with the ICF, monitors eco-performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early internal cycle losses diminish the ICF, the cycle rate and performance. - Abstract: Dynamic annual flow models incorporating consumer discard and usage loss and featuring deterministic and stochastic end-of-cycle (EOC) return by the consumer are developed for reused or remanufactured products (multiple cycle products, MCPs), including fast and slow cycling, short and long-lived products. It is shown that internal flows (reuse and overall consumption) increase pro