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Sample records for tce perchloroethylene pce

  1. Insights into dechlorination of PCE and TCE from carbon isotope fractionation by vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, G.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Lesage, S.; Brown, S.

    2003-04-01

    Reductive dechlorination of perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) by vitamin B12 is both a potential remediation technique and an analogue of the microbial reductive dechlorination reaction. Stable carbon isotopic analysis, an effective and powerful tool for the investigation and monitoring of contaminant remediation, was used to characterize the isotopic effects of reductive dechlorination of PCE and TCE by vitamin B12 in laboratory microcosms. 10 mg/L vitamin B12 degraded greater than 90% of an initial concentration of PCE of 20 mg/L. TCE, the primary product of PCE degradation, accounted for between 64 - 72% of the PCE degraded. In experiments with TCE, 147 mg/L vitamin B12 degraded greater than 90% of an initial concentration of TCE of 20 mg/L. Cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), the primary product of TCE degradation, accounted for between 30 - 35% of the TCE degraded. Degradation of both PCE and TCE exhibited first order kinetics. Strong isotopic fractionation of the reactant PCE and of the reactant TCE was observed over the course of degradation. This fractionation could be described by a Rayleigh model with enrichment factors between -16.5 ppm and -15.8 ppm for PCE, and -17.2 ppm and -16.6 ppm for TCE. Fractionation was similar in all four experiments, with a mean enrichment factor of -16.5 +/- 0.6 ppm. These large enrichment factors indicate that isotopic analysis can be used to assess the occurrence of dechlorination of PCE and TCE by vitamin B12 in remediation situations. Significantly, the Rayleigh model could be used to predict the isotopic compositions of the major products of the reaction as well as the reactant, notwithstanding the lack of complete mass balance observed between product and reactant. This evidence suggests that isotopic fractionation is taking place during complexation of the chlorinated ethenes to vitamin B12, as has been suggested for reductive dechlorination by zero valent iron. The differences between e for this reaction and

  2. PCE/TCE DEGRADATION USING MULCH BIOWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A passive reactive barrier (Biowall) was installed at the OU-1 site at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma to treat TCE contamination in ground water from a landfill. Depth to ground water varies from 1.8 to 2.4 meters below land surface. To intercept and treat the plume of contamin...

  3. Novel Chemical Detection Strategies for TCE and PCE

    SciTech Connect

    Pipino, Andrew C.R.

    2003-09-10

    Results describing two new applications of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) will be discussed: (1) detection of TCE and PCE by refractive-index change using surface-plasmon-resonance (SPR)-enhanced CRDS, and (2) C-H overtone detection of TCE by evanescent wave CRDS (EW -CRDS) with a determination of absolute adsorbate surface coverage. The SPR-enhanced CRDS measurements show a minimum detectable concentration of 70 nanomol/L and 20 nanomo l/L for TCE and PCE, respectively, based on a one minute response time at 555 nm. The EW-CRDS measurements use the first C-H overtone of TCE occurring around 1640 nm. Spectra for both surface and gas -phase species are obtained in the evanescent wave. Employing the absolute absorption cross section for the C-H overtone of TCE obtained from gas-phase CRDS measurements, the adsorbate spectrum and corresponding absolute surface number density are determined. The requisite measure of molecular orientation is provided by the polarization dependence of the surface spectrum.

  4. Soil Vapor Extraction of PCE/TCE Contaminated Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.M.; Morgenstern, M.R.

    1998-08-01

    The A/M Area of the Savannah River Site soil and groundwater is contaminated with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). Contamination is the result of previous waste disposal practices, once considered state-of-the-art. Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) units have been installed to remediate the A/M Area vadose zone. SVE is a proven in-situ method for removing volatile organics from a soil matrix with minimal site disturbance. SVE alleviates the infiltration of contaminants into the groundwater and reduces the total time required for groundwater remediation. Lessons learned and optimization of the SVE units are also discussed.

  5. COMPLETE NATURAL ATTENUATION OF PCE AND TCE WITHOUT VINYL CHLORIDE AND ETHENE ACCUMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A shallow aquifer at the Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant (TCAAP) was contaminated with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). Cisdichloroethylene (cis-DCE) is found in ground water at the site, indicating that reductive dehalogenation of PCE and TCE is occurrin...

  6. REPORT ON THE GEOELECTRICAL DETECTION OF SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION OF PCE: PROPERTY CHANGES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS DUE TO SURFACTANT TREATMENT OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE: IMPLICATIONS TO GEOPHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Select physicochemical properties of nine surfactants which are conventionally used in the remediation of perchloroethylene (PCE, a.k.a. tetrachloroethene) were evaluated with varying concentrations of PCE and indicator dyes in aqueous solutions using a response surface quadrati...

  7. Air purification from TCE and PCE contamination in a hybrid bioreactors and biofilter integrated system.

    PubMed

    Tabernacka, Agnieszka; Zborowska, Ewa; Lebkowska, Maria; Borawski, Maciej

    2014-01-15

    A two-stage waste air treatment system, consisting of hybrid bioreactors (modified bioscrubbers) and a biofilter, was used to treat waste air containing chlorinated ethenes - trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The bioreactor was operated with loadings in the range 0.46-5.50gm(-3)h(-1) for TCE and 2.16-9.02gm(-3)h(-1) for PCE. The biofilter loadings were in the range 0.1-0.97gm(-3)h(-1) for TCE and 0.2-2.12gm(-3)h(-1) for PCE. Under low pollutant loadings, the efficiency of TCE elimination was 23-25% in the bioreactor and 54-70% in the biofilter. The efficiency of PCE elimination was 44-60% in the bioreactor and 50-75% in the biofilter. The best results for the bioreactor were observed one week after the pollutant loading was increased. However, the process did not stabilize. In the next seven days contaminant removal efficiency, enzymatic activity and biomass content were all diminished. PMID:24316808

  8. BINARY DESORPTION ISOTHERMS OF TCE AND PCE FROM SILICA GEL AND NATURAL SOLIDS. (R822626)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Binary solute desorption isotherms of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) at 100% relative humidity from silica gel and two well-characterized natural solids were investigated. Results indicated that the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) was able to descr...

  9. COMPLETE NATURAL ATTENUATION OF A PCE AND TCE PLUME AFTER SOURCE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disposal of the chlorinated solvents PCE and TCE at the Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant (TCAAP) resulted in the contamination of groundwater in a shallow, unconsolidated sand aquifer. The resulting plume had moved over 1000 feet from the disposal source area and had impacted p...

  10. Bubbleless dissolution of methane and hydrogen for the biodegradation of TCE and PCE

    SciTech Connect

    Semmens, M.J. . Dept. of Civil and Mineral Engineering); Gantzer, C.J.

    1993-10-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are two chlorinated aliphatic compounds commonly found in contaminated ground water. The use of methane in the biodegradation of TCE and the use of hydrogen in the biotransformation of PCE offer substantial cost advantages. TCE can be oxidized by several different groups of aerobic bacteria including those that use phenol, toluene, and methane as electron donors. A bulk cost comparison of these three substrates indicates that per electron equivalent phenol is 500 times and toluene is 13 times more expensive than methane. Anaerobic enrichment cultures grown on methanol, acetate, or hydrogen have the capacity to transform PCE all the way to ethylene via reductive dechlorination. A comparison of bulk costs of these three substrates per electron equivalent transferred to methyl reductase indicates that methanol is 13 times and acetate is 6 times more expensive than hydrogen. Because both gases are slightly soluble in water, the in situ and on-site bioreclamation of ground water contaminated with TCE or PCE can be limited by the ability to dissolve the gases into water.

  11. Effect of biosurfactants on the aqueous solubility of PCE and TCE.

    PubMed

    Albino, John D; Nambi, Indumathi M

    2009-12-01

    The effect of biosurfactants on the solubility of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) was studied in batch experiments pertaining to their use for solubilization and mobilization of such contaminants in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation. Biosurfactants, rhamnolipid and surfactin used in solubility studies were synthesized in our laboratory by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 2297) and Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 2423), respectively. The efficiency of the biosurfactants in solubilizing the chlorinated solvents was compared to that of synthetic surfactants. The Weight Solubilization Ratio (WSR) values for solubilization of PCE and TCE by biosurfactants were very high compared to the values obtained for synthetic surfactants. Surfactin proved to be a better surfactant over rhamnolipid. The WSR of surfactin on solubilization of PCE and TCE were 3.83 and 12.5, respectively, whereas the values obtained for rhamnolipid were 2.06 and 8.36. The solubility of the chlorinated solvents by biosurfactants was considerably affected by the changes in pH. The aqueous solubility of PCE and TCE increased tremendously with decrease in pH. The solubility of biosurfactants was observed to decrease with the pH, favoring partitioning of surfactants into the chlorinated solvents in significant amounts at lower pH. The excessive accumulation of biosurfactants at the interface facilitated interfacial tension reductions resulting in higher solubility of the chlorinated solvents at pH less than 7. PMID:20183515

  12. FY00 Phytoremediation of Trichloroethylene and Perchloroethylene in the Southern Sector of SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.

    2000-12-15

    This treatability study addresses the fate of volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) in an experiment that simulates a vegetated seepline supplied with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) -contaminated groundwater. The primary objective is to determine how the trees uptake TCE and PCE, accumulate it, and/or transform it.

  13. Groundwater contamination by PCE and TCE: ATSDR's approach to evaluating public health hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, B.K.; Susten, A.S.

    1999-07-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducts public health assessments and consultations that evaluate the potential health impacts from human exposure to hazardous substances and recommend appropriate actions needed to mitigate or prevent exposures. ATSDR has conducted health evaluations for more than 80 federal facilities. Eighteen sites involve human exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) or trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. ATSDR uses a two-tiered approach to evaluate health hazard or risk from exposure. The first tier of analysis is described as a rote algorithmic determination of risk (RAD) and is used to screen exposure conditions that do not pose a health hazard under conservative assumptions of exposure. The second tier is a weight-of-evidence analysis that incorporates the traditional elements of risk assessment within the broader context of professional and biomedical health hazard for exposure pathways involving groundwater contamination at federal facilities.

  14. Transformation efficiency and formation of transformation products during photochemical degradation of TCE and PCE at micromolar concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene are the most common pollutants in groundwater and two of the priority pollutants listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In previous studies on TCE and PCE photolysis and photochemical degradation, concentration ranges exceeding environmental levels by far with millimolar concentrations of TCE and PCE have been used, and it is not clear if the obtained results can be used to explain the degradation of these contaminants at more realistic environmental concentration levels. Methods Experiments with micromolar concentrations of TCE and PCE in aqueous solution using direct photolysis and UV/H2O2 have been conducted and product formation as well as transformation efficiency have been investigated. SPME/GC/MS, HPLC/UV and ion chromatography with conductivity detection have been used to determine intermediates of degradation. Results The results showed that chloride was a major end product in both TCE and PCE photodegradation. Several intermediates such as formic acid, dichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetaldehyede, chloroform, formaldehyde and glyoxylic acid were formed during both, UV and UV/H2O2 treatment of TCE. However chloroacetaldehyde and chloroacetic acid were only detected during direct UV photolysis of TCE and oxalic acid was only formed during the UV/H2O2 process. For PCE photodegradation, formic acid, di- and trichloroacetic acids were detected in both UV and UV/H2O2 systems, but formaldehyde and glyoxylic acid were only detected during direct UV photolysis. Conclusions For water treatment UV/H2O2 seems to be favorable over direct UV photolysis because of its higher degradation efficiency and lower risk for the formation of harmful intermediates. PMID:24401763

  15. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M.; Ruch, R.R.; Kruse, C.W.; Chaven, C.; Hackley, K.C.; Hughes, R.E.; Harvey, R.D.; Frost, J.K.; Buchanan, D.H.; Stucki, J.W.; Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E.

    1993-12-31

    The Midwest Ore Processing Co. (MWOPC) has reported a precombustion coal desulfurization process using perchloroethylene (PCE) at 120 C to remove up to 70% of the organic sulfur. The purposes of this research were to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE desulfurization and to verify the ASTM forms-of-sulfur determination for evaluation of the process. An additional goal was to develop a dechlorination procedure to remove excess PCE from the PCE-treated coal. A laboratory scale operation of the MWOPC PCE desulfurization process was demonstrated, and a dechlorination procedure to remove excess PCE from the PCE-treated coal was developed. The authors have determined that PCE desulfurization removed mainly elemental sulfur from coal. The higher the level of coal oxidization, the larger the amount of elemental sulfur that is removed by PCE extraction. The increased elemental sulfur during short-term preoxidation is found to be pH dependent and is attributed to coal pyrite oxidation under acidic (pH < 2) conditions. The non-ASTM sulfur analyses confirmed the hypothesis that the elemental sulfur produced by oxidation of pyrite complicates the interpretation of analytical data for PCE process evaluations when only the ASTM forms-of-sulfur is used. When the ASTM method is used alone, the elemental sulfur removed during PCE desulfurization is counted as organic sulfur. A study using model compounds suggests that mild preoxidation treatment of coal described by MWOPC for removal of organic sulfur does not produce enough oxidized organic sulfur to account for the amounts of sulfur removal reported. Furthermore, when oxidation of coal-like organosulfur compounds does occur, the products are inconsistent with production of elemental sulfur, the product reported by MWOPC. Overall, it is demonstrated that the PCE process is not suitable for organic sulfur removal.

  16. Identification of TCE and PCE sorption and biodegradation parameters in a sandy aquifer for fate and transport modelling: batch and column studies.

    PubMed

    Kret, E; Kiecak, A; Malina, G; Nijenhuis, I; Postawa, A

    2015-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the sorption and biodegradation parameters of trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE) as input data required for their fate and transport modelling in a Quaternary sandy aquifer. Sorption was determined based on batch and column experiments, while biodegradation was investigated using the compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). The aquifer materials medium (soil 1) to fine (soil 2) sands and groundwater samples came from the representative profile of the contaminated site (south-east Poland). The sorption isotherms were approximately linear (TCE, soil 1, K d = 0.0016; PCE, soil 1, K d = 0.0051; PCE, soil 2, K d = 0.0069) except for one case in which the best fitting was for the Langmuir isotherm (TCE, soil 2, K f = 0.6493 and S max = 0.0145). The results indicate low retardation coefficients (R) of TCE and PCE; however, somewhat lower values were obtained in batch compared to column experiments. In the column experiments with the presence of both contaminants, TCE influenced sorption of PCE, so that the R values for both compounds were almost two times higher. Non-significant differences in isotope compositions of TCE and PCE measured in the observation points (δ(13)C values within the range of -23.6 ÷ -24.3‰ and -26.3 ÷-27.7‰, respectively) indicate that biodegradation apparently is not an important process contributing to the natural attenuation of these contaminants in the studied sandy aquifer. PMID:25647491

  17. Understanding pH Effects on Trichloroethylene and Perchloroethylene Adsorption to Iron in Permeable Reactive Barriers for Groundwater Remediation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Farrell, James

    2013-01-01

    Metallic iron filings are becoming increasing used in permeable reactive barriers for remediating groundwater contaminated by chlorinated solvents. Understanding solution pH effects on rates of reductive dechlorination in permeable reactive barriers is essential for designing remediation systems that can meet treatment objectives under conditions of varying groundwater properties. The objective of this research was to investigate how the solution pH value affects adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) on metallic iron surfaces. Because adsorption is first required before reductive dechlorination can occur, pH effects on halocarbon adsorption energies may explain pH effects on dechlorination rates. Adsorption energies for TCE and PCE were calculated via molecular mechanics simulations using the Universal force field and a self-consistent reaction field charge equilibration scheme. A range in solution pH values was simulated by varying the amount of atomic hydrogen adsorbed on the iron. The potential energies associated TCE and PCE complexes were dominated by electrostatic interactions, and complex formation with the surface was found to result in significant electron transfer from the iron to the adsorbed halocarbons. Adsorbed atomic hydrogen was found to lower the energies of TCE complexes more than those for PCE. Attractions between atomic hydrogen and iron atoms were more favorable when TCE versus PCE was adsorbed to the iron surface. These two findings are consistent with the experimental observation that changes in solution pH affect TCE reaction rates more than those for PCE. PMID:23626602

  18. Understanding pH Effects on Trichloroethylene and Perchloroethylene Adsorption to Iron in Permeable Reactive Barriers for Groundwater Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing; Farrell, James

    2013-01-01

    Metallic iron filings are becoming increasing used in permeable reactive barriers for remediating groundwater contaminated by chlorinated solvents. Understanding solution pH effects on rates of reductive dechlorination in permeable reactive barriers is essential for designing remediation systems that can meet treatment objectives under conditions of varying groundwater properties. The objective of this research was to investigate how the solution pH value affects adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) on metallic iron surfaces. Because adsorption is first required before reductive dechlorination can occur, pH effects on halocarbon adsorption energies may explain pH effects on dechlorination rates. Adsorption energies for TCE and PCE were calculated via molecular mechanics simulations using the Universal force field and a self-consistent reaction field charge equilibration scheme. A range in solution pH values was simulated by varying the amount of atomic hydrogen adsorbed on the iron. The potential energies associated TCE and PCE complexes were dominated by electrostatic interactions, and complex formation with the surface was found to result in significant electron transfer from the iron to the adsorbed halocarbons. Adsorbed atomic hydrogen was found to lower the energies of TCE complexes more than those for PCE. Attractions between atomic hydrogen and iron atoms were more favorable when TCE versus PCE was adsorbed to the iron surface. These two findings are consistent with the experimental observation that changes in solution pH affect TCE reaction rates more than those for PCE. PMID:23626602

  19. PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchloroethylene (PCE), a solvent used in dry cleaning, has been suspected of contributing significantly to photochemical ozone/oxidant (O3/Ox) problems in urban atmospheres. Past evidence, however, was neither complete nor consistent. To interpret more conclusively the past evi...

  20. Potential waste minimization of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene via aerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Cutright, Teresa J

    2005-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) are two of the most frequently detected chlorinated organics found in groundwater. Biodegradation with a new aerobic consortium was used to ascertain the viability of bioremediation for waste minimization applications. After 1 week of treatment, the degradation rate constants, k, were between 0.004 and 0.012 d(-1) for initial concentrations of 54-664 microM TCE. When PCE was used as the sole contaminant, the k values were approximately 0.01 d(-1) regardless of the initial concentration. The addition of 0.2 microM toluene or phenol as an inducer dramatically increased TCE degradation. For instance, at 200 microM TCE the k value when toluene was added (0.03 d(-1)) was 2.2 times higher than without inducers (0.009 d(-1)). The addition of 0.2 microM phenol increased the rate constant by 58%. However, PCE degradation rates were not changed significantly. PMID:15991724

  1. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.I.M.; Buchanan, D.H.; Stucki, J.W.

    1993-09-01

    The purposes of this project are: to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE process developed by the Midwest Ore Processing Co. (MWOPC), to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for evaluation of the PCE process, and to develop a dechlorination procedure to remove excess PCE from the PCE-treated coal. The objectives for the second year are: to verify the possible effects of PCE treatment on coal-derived FeS{sub 2}, FeSO{sub 4}, and Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} on ASTM coal analysis, to investigate the behavior of sulfur during oxidation and PCE desulfurization using the isotopically signatured coal sample, to investigate the effects of conditions and/or reagents on the oxidation of the organic-sulfur-model compounds, to evaluate the extended oxidation condition on the organic sulfur removal by PCE desulfurization, and to study other innovative pretreatment processes for the removal of organic sulfur from coal under mild conditions.

  2. Sorption of PCE in a reactive zero-valent iron system

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, T.J.; Burris, D.R.

    1995-12-01

    The degradation of the chlorinated solvents perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) by reduction on the surface of zero-valent iron has emerged in recent years as a potentially viable approach to the remediation of chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwaters. The sorption of PCE in a batch reactive zero-valent iron system was examined in this study. Aqueous PCE concentrations and total system PCE masses were determined in batch time-series experiments used to ascertain degradation kinetics. Sorbed concentrations were calculated using the difference between the aqueous phase and total system masses. The results showed Langmuir isotherm behavior which is consistent with a model of a finite number of available sorption sites. The kinetics of sorption could not be determined since degradation was also occurring. Knowledge of sorption to reactive and non-reactive sites is of importance in gaining a thorough understanding of the performance-behavior of the flow-through reactive systems envisioned for remediation technologies.

  3. Effects of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene on wild rodents at Edwards Air Force Base, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spring, S.E.; Miles, A.K.; Anderson, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of inhalation of volatilized trichloroethylene (TCE) or perchloroethylene (PCE) were assessed based on the health and population size of wild, burrowing mammals at Edwards Air Force Base (CA, USA). Organic soil-vapor concentrations were measured at three sites with aquifer contamination of TCE or PCE of 5.5 to 77 mg/L and at two uncontaminated reference sites. Population estimates of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami and D. panamintinus) as well as hematology, blood chemistry, and histopathology of kangaroo rats and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were compared between contaminated and uncontaminated populations. Maximum soil-gas concentrations associated with groundwater contamination were less than 1.5 ??l/L of TCE and 0.07 ??l/L of PCE. Population estimates of kangaroo rats were similar at contaminated and reference sites. Hematology, blood chemistry, and histopathology of kangaroo rats and deer mice indicated no evidence of health effects caused by exposure. Trichloroethylene or PCE in groundwater and in related soil gas did not appear to reduce the size of small mammal populations or impair the health of individuals.

  4. Effects of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene on wild rodents at Edwards Air Force Base, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Spring, Sarah E; Miles, A Keith; Anderson, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Effects of inhalation of volatilized trichloroethylene (TCE) or perchloroethylene (PCE) were assessed based on the health and population size of wild, burrowing mammals at Edwards Air Force Base (CA, USA). Organic soil-vapor concentrations were measured at three sites with aquifer contamination of TCE or PCE of 5.5 to 77 mg/L and at two uncontaminated reference sites. Population estimates of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami and D. panamintinus) as well as hematology, blood chemistry, and histopathology of kangaroo rats and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were compared between contaminated and uncontaminated populations. Maximum soil-gas concentrations associated with groundwater contamination were less than 1.5 microl/L of TCE and 0.07 microl/L of PCE. Population estimates of kangaroo rats were similar at contaminated and reference sites. Hematology, blood chemistry, and histopathology of kangaroo rats and deer mice indicated no evidence of health effects caused by exposure. Trichloroethylene or PCE in groundwater and in related soil gas did not appear to reduce the size of small mammal populations or impair the health of individuals. PMID:15378993

  5. A critical review of epidemiology studies of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene and risk of renal-cell cancer.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, J K; Blot, W J

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiology studies of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) as they relate to risk of renal-cell cancer are critically reviewed. The studies fall into two basic groups: cohort studies of workers who use TCE or PCE and community-based case-control studies. Issues of bias, confounding, and chance are examined in relation to the studies. There is little evidence of an increased risk of renal-cell cancer and exposure to TCE or PCE. The few studies with elevations in risk suffer from important methodologic shortcomings. Although it is virtually impossible using epidemiology data to rule out conclusively a small increase in risk of renal-cell cancer, the totality of epidemiologic evidence clearly does not support a causal association with TCE or PCE. Future studies of these chemicals must include quantitative evidence of exposure and proper methodologic design, be large-scale in nature to detect small increases in risk, and provide a coherent interpretation of all epidemiology data on these solvents and risk of renal-cell cancer. PMID:9342621

  6. Characterization of the effects of inhaled perchloroethylene on sustained attention in rats performing a visual signal detection task.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Wendy M; Krantz, Q Todd; Bushnell, Philip J

    2008-01-01

    The aliphatic hydrocarbon perchloroethylene (PCE) has been associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction including reduced attention in humans. The current study sought to assess the effects of inhaled PCE on sustained attention in rats performing a visual signal detection task (SDT). Due to its similarities in physiological effect to toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE), two other commonly used volatile organic compounds (VOCs) known to reduce attention in rats, we hypothesized (1) that acute inhalation of PCE (0, 500, 1000, 1500 ppm) would disrupt performance of the SDT in rats; (2) that impaired accuracy would result from changes in attention to the visual signal; and (3) that these acute effects would diminish upon repetition of exposure. PCE impaired performance of the sustained attention task as evidenced by reduced accuracy [P(correct): 500 to 1500 ppm], elevated response time [RT: 1000 and 1500 ppm] and reduced number of trials completed [1500 ppm]. These effects were concentration-related and either increased (RT and trial completions) or remained constant [P(correct)] across the 60-min test session. The PCE-induced reduction in accuracy was primarily due to an increase in false alarms, a pattern consistent with reduced attention to the signal. A repeat of the exposures resulted in smaller effects on these performance measures. Thus, like toluene and TCE, inhaled PCE acutely impaired sustained attention in rats, and its potency weakened upon repetition of the exposure. PMID:18299185

  7. A shift in pathway of iron-mediated perchloroethylene reduction in the presence of sorbed surfactant--a column study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaohui; Willms, Cari; Alley, Jeff; Zhang, Pengfei; Bowman, Robert S

    2006-12-01

    Surface modification of zero-valent iron (ZVI) to enhance its reduction rates for chlorinated ethanes and ethenes has recently attracted great attention. In this research, the enhancement of perchloroethylene (PCE) reduction by ZVI in the presence of sorbed micelles of the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) was examined in a series of laboratory column tests with varying flow rates and input PCE concentrations. Model simulations using HYDRUS-1D showed that the overall pseudo first-order rate constants for PCE reduction by ZVI increased by a factor of four in the presence of sorbed HDTMA admicelles. The increase in reduction rate was attributed to a higher distribution coefficient (K(d)) for contaminant sorption on surfactant-modified ZVI (SM-ZVI) compared to untreated ZVI. Modeling results also showed that in the presence of HDTMA admicelles 58-100% of PCE reduction occurred via hydrogenolysis. In contrast, only 12-25% PCE underwent hydrogenolysis when HDTMA was absent. The significant increase in TCE production during PCE reduction by SM-ZVI verified a shift in reaction pathway previously observed in batch studies, most likely from beta-elimination to hydrogenolysis. Although this shift in reaction pathway resulted in a higher accumulation of TCE, the combined concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the effluent were 1.5-5 times lower when SM-ZVI rather than unmodified ZVI was used. PMID:17055029

  8. PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE: A NEW APPRAISAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchloroethylene (PCE), a solvent used in dry cleaning, has been suspected of contributing significantly to photochemical ozone/oxidant (O3/O(x)) problems in urban atmospheres. Past evidence, however, was neither complete nor consistent. To interpret more conclusively the past e...

  9. Dechlorination of perchloroethylene using zero-valent metal and microbial community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Changwen; Wu, Yanqing

    2008-07-01

    This research evaluates an integrated technique for the degradation of perchloroethylene (PCE) using a combination of zero-valent metal and an anaerobic microbial community. The microbial community was obtained from river sediment through a series of cultivation and enrichment processes, and was able to successfully convert PCE to ethylene. The degradation tests were carried out in five groups of reactors, i.e. Zn (zero-valent zinc), Fe (zero-valent iron), MB (a microbial community), ZnMB (zinc and a microbial community) and FeMB (iron and a microbial community). The results suggested that the FeMB system had the highest efficiency in removing PCE (about 99.9% after 24 days), followed by Zn (98.5%), ZnMB (84.8%), Fe (76.9%) and MB (49.6%). The degradation kinetics of PCE could be described by a pseudo-first-order reaction; the apparent reaction rate constants were 0.231, 0.187, 0.135, 0.076, 0.031 days-1 for the Zn, FeMB, ZnMB, Fe, and MB systems, respectively. Much more Cl- was detected as a by-product in the degradation tests using FeMB or ZnMB than using Fe or Zn. The results implied that not only PCE, but also the reaction intermediates, e.g., trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichloroethylenes (DCE isomers) may have been dechlorinated in the FeMB and ZnMB systems. Results suggest that the presence of the microbial community in the FeMB and ZnMB systems may not only affect the removal efficiency of PCE, but can also change the reaction pathways in the dechlorination process. The integrated technique combining the iron and the microbial community showed better degradation efficiency than the others; it may be viewed as an environmentally desirable remediation.

  10. Confronting workplace exposure to chemicals with LCA: examples of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene in metal degreasing and dry cleaning.

    PubMed

    Hellweg, Stefanie; Demou, Evangelia; Scheringer, Martin; McKone, Thomas E; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2005-10-01

    Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) aims to assess all environmental impacts "from cradle to grave". Nevertheless, existing methods for Life-Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) generally do not consider impacts from chemical exposure at the workplace. This is a severe drawback, because neglecting occupational health effects may result in product or process optimizations at the expense of workers' health. We adapt an existing LCIA method to consider occupational health effects from the use of perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in dry cleaning and metal degreasing. The results show that, in applications such as metal degreasing and dry cleaning, long-term (steady-state) concentrations at the workplace are up to 6 orders of magnitude higher than ambient air levels. Legal threshold values may be exceeded, depending on machine technology, size, and surrounding working conditions. The impact from workplace exposure to the total human-toxicity potential of the complete life cycle of PCE and TCE (including use, production, and disposal) is accordingly high. We therefore conclude that occupational health effects need to be considered in LCA to prevent overlooking key environmental-health impacts in LCA. PMID:16245853

  11. PHASE BEHAVIOR OF WATER/PERCHLOROETHYLENE/ANIONIC SURFACTANT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winsor Type I (o/w), Type II (w/o), and Type III (middle phase) microemulsions have been generated for water and perchloroethylene (PCE) in combination with anionic surfactants and the appropriate electrolyte concentration. The surfactant formulation was a combination of sodium d...

  12. Sonochemical degradation of perchloroethylene: the influence of ultrasonic variables, and the identification of products.

    PubMed

    Sáez, V; Esclapez, M D; Bonete, P; Walton, D J; Rehorek, A; Louisnard, O; González-García, J

    2011-01-01

    Sonochemistry is a technique that offers promise for pollutant degradation, but earlier studies on various chlorinated substrates do not give a definitive view of the effectiveness of this methodology. We now report a thorough study of ultrasonic operational variables upon perchloroethylene (PCE) degradation in water (variables include ultrasonic frequency, power and system geometry as well as substrate concentration) and we attempt to close the mass balance where feasible. We obtained fractional conversions of >97% showing very effective loss of pollutant starting material, and give mechanistic proposals for the reaction pathway based on cavitational phenomena inducing pyrolytic and free radical processes. We note major products of Cl(-) and CO(2)/CO, and also trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichloroethylene (DCE) at ppm concentrations as reported earlier. The formation at very low (ppb) concentration of small halocompounds (CHCl(3), CCl(4)) and also of higher-mass species, such as pentachloropropene, hexachloroethane, is noteworthy. But of particular importance in our work is the discovery of significant quantities of chloroacetate derivatives at ppm concentrations. Although these compounds have been described as by-products with other techniques such as radiolysis or photochemistry, this is the first time that these products have been identified in the sonochemical treatment of PCE; this allows a much more effective account of the mass balance and may explain earlier inconsistencies. This reaction system is now better identified, but a corollary is that, because these haloacetates are themselves species of some toxicity, the use of ultrasound here may not sufficiently diminish wastewater toxicity. PMID:20403718

  13. Effect of temperature on perchloroethylene dechlorination by a methanogenic consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J.; Skeen, R.S.; Hooker, B.S.

    1995-04-01

    The effect of temperature on the kinetics of growth, substrate metabolism, and perchloroethylene (PCE) dechlorination by a methanogenic consortium is reported. In all cases, a simple kinetic model accurately reflected experimental data. Values for the substrate and methane yield coefficients, and the maximum specific growth rate are fairly consistent at each temperature. Also, the substrate and methane yield coefficients show little temperature sensitivity. In contrast, both the maximum specific growth rate and the PCE dechlorination yield coefficient (Y{sub PCE}) are temperature dependent.

  14. Interaction of Perchloroethylene with Cerium Oxide in Three-Way Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Erik C.; Betterton, Eric A.; Arnold, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    The role of cerium oxide on direct oxidation of perchloroethylene (PCE) by a three-way catalyst was explored. In the absence of an external oxidizing agent, PCE was oxidized over an alumina supported Pt/Rh three-way catalyst. We hypothesize that the chlorine atoms in the adsorbed PCE interact with oxygen in CeO2, reducing the cerium to create CeCl3. PMID:21218178

  15. Contamination of ground water by PCE - A national perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, M.J.; Delzer, G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Perchloroethylene (PCE) has physical and chemical properties that make it likely to persist in groundwater if released to the environment. The US Geological Survey has collected or compiled data on the occurrence of PCE in groundwater from major aquifers around the US. These data represent the occurrence of PCE in the groundwater resource as a whole and not occurrence at specific release sites. PCE was detected at measurable concentrations in nearly one in 10 wells in major aquifers throughout the country. Trichloroethylene was found most commonly with PCE and its presence may be due, in part, to reductive dechlorination of PCE. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in Ground Water: Prevention, Assessment, and Remediation Conference (Houston, TX 11/6-7/2006).

  16. Reductive Dechlorination of PCE DNAPL Source Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, B. E.; Edwards, E. A.

    2006-12-01

    A numerical modeling study was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of reductive dechlorination on enhancement of dissolution of source zones of perchloroethylene (PCE) dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). The model included three-phase (water-gas-NAPL) flow and transport with interphase mass transfer. Reductive dechlorination of PCE to ethene was simulated with Monod kinetics with hydrogen as the direct electron donor. Hydrogen was produced from the transformation of ethanol to propionate and acetate. The model also included growth of dechlorinators, fermenters and methanogens, with methane generation from hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogenesis. The model was applied to the simulation of a two-dimensional bench scale study of reductive dechlorination of a PCE DNAPL source with biostimulation and bioaugmentation with a known PCE dechlorinating culture. In the bench scale study spatial and temporal variation of dissolved concentrations of chlorinated ethenes, electron donors were monitored. Quantitative PCR was also used to track the spatial and temporal variation of the dechlorinators. In this bench scale study, the maximum enhancement of PCE dissolution was approximately threefold. However, this enhancement was not sustained over the entire study, and apparent rates of PCE dissolution, as indicated by maximum dissolved concentrations of total ethenes, declined with time and increasing extent of source removal. The model was used to examine the impact on enhanced dissolution of reduction in source zone size, repartitioning of transformation products, and gas blockage from methane generation. Reductions in source zone size, coupled with a heterogeneous flow field, led to significant reductions in maximum concentrations measured in the bench scale study. Repartitioning of transformation products led to reductions in the maximum dissolved concentrations of PCE transformation products, leading to an apparent reduction in the enhancement of PCE

  17. ACUTE NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF INHALED PERCHLOROETHYLENE ON PATTERN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS AS A FUNCTION OF EXPOSURE AND ESTIMATED BLOOD AND BRAIN CONCENTRATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experiments have shown the effects of acute inhalation exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene are related to the target tissue concentration at the time of testing. The current studies examined exposure to another volatile organic compound, perchloroethylene (P...

  18. Solubilization and mobilization of perchloroethylene by cosolvents in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Van Valkenburg, M.E.

    1999-07-28

    Batch equilibrium studies conducted for perchloroethylene (PCE)/cosolvent systems determined that the log-linear solubility relationship is not a completely accurate method to predict solubility of PCE in cosolvent mixtures over an entire range of volume fractions. Batch studies resulted in cosolvency powers of 3.73 and 4.13 for ethanol and isopropanol, respectively. However, log-linear predictions may be adequate for estimations necessary for remediation efforts. The use of the Extended Hildebrand model is recommended. The interfacial tension (IFT) resulting from cosolvent mixtures when compared to the initial volume fraction of cosolvent showed a relationship, similar to the log-linear model. An ``IFT reduction power`` was determined for ethanol to be {minus}3.60, and isopropyl alcohol, {minus}5.80, describing the ability of cosolvents to reduce IFT with increasing volume fraction. IFT values are accurately estimated by PCE solubility in regimes conducive to cosolvent flushing.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR PERCHLOROETHYLENE USING TISSUE CONCENTRATION-TIME DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The tissue disposition of perchloroethylene (PCE) was characterized experimentally in rats in order to: 1) btain input parameters from in vivo data for the development of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model; and 2) use the PBPK model to predict the deposition of ...

  20. PROPERTY CHANGES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS DUE TO SURFACTANT TREATMENT OF PCE: IMPLICATIONS TO GEOPHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Select physicochemical properties of aqueous solutions composed of surfactants, dye, and

    perchloroethylene (PCE) were evaluated through a response surface quadratic design

    model of experiment. Nine surfactants, which are conventionally used in the

    remediation...

  1. Catalytic Dechlorination of Gas-phase Perchloroethylene under Mixed Redox Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Orbay, Özer; Gao, Song; Barbaris, Brian; Rupp, Erik; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Arnold, Robert G.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    The validity of a new method to destroy gas-phase perchloroethylene (PCE) is demonstrated at bench scale using a fixed-bed reactor that contains a Pt/Rh catalyst. Hydrogen and oxygen were simultaneously fed to the reactor together with PCE. The conversion efficiencies of PCE were sensitive to H2/O2 ratio and reactor temperature. When the temperature was ≥ 400 °C and H2/O2 was ≥ 2.15, PCE conversion efficiency was maintained at ≥ 90%. No catalyst deactivation was observed for over two years, using only mild, convenient regeneration procedures. It is likely that PCE reduction steps precede oxidation reactions and that the importance of oxidation lies in its elimination of intermediates that would otherwise lead to catalyst poisoning. In practice, this catalytic dechlorination method holds potential for low-cost, large-scale field operation. PMID:19234593

  2. A mass balance study of the phytoremediation of perchloroethylene-contaminated groundwater

    PubMed Central

    James, C. Andrew; Xin, Gang; Doty, Sharon L.; Muiznieks, Indulis; Newman, Lee; Strand, Stuart E.

    2010-01-01

    A mass balance study was performed under controlled field conditions to investigate the phytoremediation of perchloroethylene (PCE) by hybrid poplar trees. Water containing 7–14 mg L−1 PCE was added to the test bed. Perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and cis-dichloroethylene were detected in the effluent at an average of 0.12 mg L−1, 3.9 mg L−1, and 1.9 mg L−1, respectively. The total mass of chlorinated ethenes in the water was reduced by 99%. Over 95% of the recovered chlorine was as free chloride in the soil, indicating near-complete dehalogenation of the PCE. Transpiration, volatilization, and accumulation in the trees were all found to be minor loss mechanisms. In contrast, 98% of PCE applied to an unplanted soil chamber was recovered as PCE in the effluent water or volatilized into the air. These results suggest that phytoremediation can be an effective method for treating PCE-contaminated groundwater in field applications. PMID:19345455

  3. ACUTE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF INHALED PERCHLOROETHYLENE IN RATS ARE DIRECTLY RELATED TO ITS CONCENTRATION IN THE BRAIN.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a volatile organic compound (VOC), frequently used in dry cleaning processes, that is currently being assessed by EPA for its risk to human health. Many VOCs are acutely neurotoxic and have been shown to affect attentional processes in humans and animal...

  4. Electrochemical degradation of perchloroethylene in aqueous media: an approach to different strategies.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Verónica; Esclapez Vicente, M D; Frías-Ferrer, Angel J; Bonete, Pedro; González-García, José

    2009-05-01

    An approaching study to the electrochemical degradation of perchloroethylene (PCE) in water has been carried out using controlled current density degradation electrolyses. The different electrochemical strategies to degrade perchloroethylene in aqueous media (i.e. cathodic, anodic and dual treatments) have been checked using divided and undivided configurations. The influence of the initial concentration, pH and current density on the general behavior of the system has been studied, and special attention was paid to the nature of the byproducts formed and to the analysis of the closed mass balance at the end of the reaction. Results from several analytical techniques have been compared. Undivided configuration provides the best results in these experimental conditions, with degradation percentages higher than 50% and with only 6% of the initial perchloroethylene concentration remaining in the system. PMID:19303130

  5. Studies on the use of perchloroethylene as a heavy medium for the removal of pyrites from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thome, T.L.; Fullerton, K.L.; Lee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Previous studies have shown that perchloroethylene (PCE) shows promise for use as a heavy medium for the removal of pyrites from fine coal. The studies are continued here, as the coal cleaning effectiveness of mixtures of PCE and kerosene are investigated. Float/sink experiments are run for different medium densities obtained by varying the proportions of PCE and kerosene. The effectiveness of the cleaning process is judged by data taken from a long tube sampling apparatus. Among the variables investigated are medium density, residence time, and solvent-to-coal ratio. The data is used to support scale-up predictions for a plant apparatus.

  6. Cometabolic degradation of TCE and DCE without intermediate toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bielefeldt, A.R.; Stensel, H.D.; Strand, S.E.

    1995-11-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE) cometabolic degradation by a filamentous, phenol-oxidizing enrichment from a surface-water source were investigated in batch tests. No intermediate toxicity effects were evident during TCE or DCE degradation for loadings up to 0.5 mg TCE/mg VSS or 0.26 mg DCE/mg VSS. Phenol addition up to 40 mg/L did not inhibit TCE or DCE degradation. TCE specific degradation rates ranged from 0.28 to 0.51 g TCE/g VSS-d with phenol present, versus an average endogenous rate of 0.18 g TCE/g VSS-d. DCE specific degradation rates ranged from 0.79 to 2.92 g DCE/g VSS-d with phenol present, versus 0.27 to 1.5 g DCE/g VSS-d for endogenous conditions. There was no inhibition of DCE degradation rates at concentrations as high as 83 mg/L. TCE degradation rates declined between 40 and 130 mg/L TCE. Perchloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chloroform were not degraded.

  7. EMISSIONS OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE FROM DRY CLEANED FABRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to evaluate the emissions of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from dry cleaned fabrics to determine: (a) how the introduction of fresh dry cleaning into a home affects the indoor concentration of perchloroethylene, and (b) the effectiveness of ‘airing...

  8. Thermocatalytic Destruction of Gas-Phase Perchloroethylene Using Propane as a Hydrogen Source

    PubMed Central

    Willinger, Marty; Rupp, Erik; Barbaris, Brian; Gao, Song; Arnolda, Robert; Betterton, Eric; Sáez, A. Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The use of propane in combination with oxygen to promote the destruction of perchloroethylene (PCE) over a platinum (Pt)/rhodium (Rh) catalyst on a cerium/zirconium oxide washcoat supported on an alumina monolith was explored. Conversions of PCE were measured in a continuous flow reactor with residence times less than 0.5 s and temperatures ranging from 200 to 600°C. The presence of propane was shown to increase significantly the conversion of PCE over oxygen-only conditions. Conversions close to 100% were observed at temperatures lower than 450°C with 20% oxygen and 2% propane in the feed, which makes this process attractive from a practical standpoint. In the absence of oxygen, PCE conversion is even higher, but the catalyst suffers significant deactivation in less than an hour. Even though results show that oxygen competes with reactants for active sites on the catalyst, the long-term stability that oxygen confers to the catalyst makes the process an efficient alternative to PCE oxidation. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood competitive adsorption model is proposed to quantify PCE conversion. PMID:19217713

  9. Industrial-hygiene report, perchloroethylene at Key Club Cleaners, Skokie, Illinois, July 18, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.R.

    1980-08-13

    An on site visit was made to the Key Club Cleaners located in Skokie, Illinois as part of an industrywide mortality and industrial hygiene study of the exposure of dry cleaning workers to perchloroethylene (PCE). Current exposure levels of PCE were determined at the facility using battery operated pumps and charcoal tubes. The company used PCE as a dry cleaning solvent since cleaning began at the site in October of 1978. The facility was housed in a one story building with dimensions of about 40 feet by 100 feet. About 90 gallons of PCE were consumed each month during dry cleaning and about 1800 pounds of clothing were dry cleaned each week. The work force numbered nine persons. The time weighted average exposures to PCE of the dry cleaner/spotter and the presser were 49 and 8.5 parts per million (ppm), respectively. The 5 minute peak exposures to the dry cleaner measured during garment transfer ranged from 316 to 447ppm PCE. While the time weighted average exposures were within recommended guidelines, the peak samples during transfer exceeded all recommended levels. The author recommends measures to lower the exposure level.

  10. Unraveling the Mechanism and Regioselectivity of the B12-Dependent Reductive Dehalogenase PceA.

    PubMed

    Liao, Rong-Zhen; Chen, Shi-Lu; Siegbahn, Per E M

    2016-08-22

    PceA is a cobalamin-dependent reductive dehalogenase that catalyzes the dechlorination of perchloroethylene to trichloroethylene and then to cis-dichloroethylene as the sole final product. The reaction mechanism and the regioselectivity of this enzyme are investigated by using density functional calculations. Four different substrates, namely, perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, cis-dichloroethylene, and chlorotheylene, have been considered and were found to follow the same reaction mechanism pattern. The reaction starts with the reduction of Co(II) to Co(I) through a proton-coupled electron transfer process, with the proton delivered to a Tyr246 anion. This is followed by concerted C-Cl bond heterolytic cleavage and proton transfer from Tyr246 to the substrate carbon atom, generating a Co(III) -Cl intermediate. Subsequently, a one-electron transfer leads to the formation of the Co(II) -Cl product, from which the chloride and the dehalogenated product can be released from the active site. The substrate reactivity follows the trend perchloroethylene>trichloroethylene≫cis-dichloroethylene≫chlorotheylene. The barriers for the latter two substrates are significantly higher compared with those for perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene, implying that PceA does not catalyze their degradation. In addition, the formation of cis-dichloroethylene has a lower barrier by 3.8 kcal mol(-1) than the formation of trans-dichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene, reproducing the regioselectivity. These results agree quite well with the experimental findings, which show cis-dichloroethylene as the sole product in the PceA-catalyzed dechlorination of perchloethylene and trichloroethylene. PMID:27459105

  11. Influence of different electron donors and acceptors on dehalorespiration of tetrachloroethene by Desulfitobacterium frappieri TCE1

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritse, J.; Drzyzga, O.; Kloetstra, G.; Keijmel, M.; Wiersum, L.P.; Hutson, R.; Collins, M.D.; Gottschal, J.C.

    1999-12-01

    Strain TCE1, a strictly anaerobic bacterium that can grow by reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethane (TCE), was isolated by selective enrichment from a PCE-dechlorinating chemostat mixed culture. Strain TCE1 is a gram-positive, motile, curved rod-shaped organism that is 2 to 4 by 0.6 to 0.8 {micro}m and has approximately six lateral flagella. The pH and temperature optima for growth are 7.2 and 35 C, respectively. On the basis of a comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis, this bacterium was identified as a new strain of Desulfitobacterium frappieri, because it exhibited 99.7% relatedness to the D. frappieri type strain, strain PCP-1. Growth with H{sub 2}, format, L-lactate, butyrate, crotonate, or ethanol as the electron donor depends on the availability of an external electron acceptor. Pyruvate and serine can also be used fermentatively. Electron donors (except format and H{sub 2}) are oxidized to acetate and CO{sub 2}. when L-lactate is the growth substrate, strain TCE1 can use the following electron acceptors: PCE and TCE (to produce cis-1,2-dichloroethene), sulfite and thiosulfate (to produce sulfide), nitrate (to produce nitrite), and fumarate (to produce succinate). Strain TCE1 is not able to reductively dechlorinate 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetate. The growth yields of the newly isolated bacterium when PCE is the electron acceptor are similar to those obtained for other dehalorespiring anaerobes (e.g., Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE1 and Desulfitobacterium hafniense) and the maximum specific reductive dechlorination rates are 4 to 16 times higher. Dechlorination of PCE and TCE is an inducible process. In PCE-limited chemostat cultures of strain TCE1, dechlorination is strongly inhibited by sulfite but not by other alternative electron acceptors, such as fumate or nitrate.

  12. In situ biodegradation of perchloroethylene in constructed wetland mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Hoylman, A.M.; Rosensteel, B.A.; Trettin, C.C.

    1994-12-31

    Anaerobic reductive dehalogenation initiates degradation of highly chlorinated organic compounds. Subsequent intermediate chlorinated compounds are in turn more readily degraded in aerobic environments. Thus, complete degradation of chlorinated compounds to nontoxic end products requires both anaerobic and aerobic environments. These environments are provided by constructed wetland bioremediation systems, which through the interaction of vegetation, microbial, chemical, and physical processes, result in waste water renovation. The authors integrated the ecological engineering technology of constructed wetland systems with developments in plant-rhizosphere degradation of organic contaminants to examine the effectiveness of constructed wetland systems for in situ bioremediation of waste water contaminated with a chlorinated hydrocarbon, perchloroethylene (PCE) and an aromatic hydrocarbon, toluene. A mesocosm was designed to provide sequential anaerobic and vegetated-aerobic cells with complete control of water and gas flux and to emulate wetland properties such as hydric soil composition, physicochemical parameters, and the presence of wetland vegetation (Eleocharis acicularis). Treatments included contaminated and non-contaminated wetland cells and sterile controls. The fate and transport of PCE, toluene, and metabolic by-products were determined in effluent and chamber headspace, and extracts of soil and plant tissue. These analyses provide the basis for evaluating contaminant fate in wetland systems. Manipulation of aeration and hydrologic regimes in the wetland cells will facilitate testing conditions that affect degradation processes. The experimental apparatus is a innovative design for experimentation on the degradation of volatile organic compounds in plant-soil systems.

  13. Removal of perchloroethylene from a layered soil system by steam flushing

    SciTech Connect

    She, H.Y.; Sleep, B.E.

    1999-10-01

    Steam flushing experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional chamber containing two layers of F75 silica sand separated by a layer of finer F110 silica sand. Perchloroethylene (PCE), which had spilled into the chamber under water-saturated conditions, formed a pool on the F110 sand layer. Steam was injected above the F110 sand layer. Temperatures, moisture content, and PCE concentrations in the chamber were monitored. Samples, taken from the various locations in the sand chamber, indicated that complete removal of PCE from the steam zone was achieved, with an 84% overall recovery. Some downward displacement of PCE-contaminated water through the F110 sand layer was observed and a small amount of gravity override occurred. Channeling of steam was minimal. The experiment indicates that steam flushing may be used successfully for removal of PCE from relatively homogeneous soils. Issues of gravity override and downward mobilization of contaminants must be considered in applying steam flushing at the field scale.

  14. Alternatives to perchloroethylene-based garment care: Assessing the viability of professional wet cleaning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, R.; Sinsheimer, P.; Goodheart, J.; Tranby, C.; Bechtel, L.

    1997-12-01

    The report analyzes the viability of Cleaner by Nature, a 100% professional wet cleaner, and whether professional wet cleaning represents a viable pollution prevention approach in eliminating perchloroethylene (PCE), a chemical solvent used in dry cleaning. The analysis includes a comprehensive plant level case study, and comparative performance, financial, and environmental assessments of wet cleaning and PCE-based dry cleaning. The major issues associated with the viability analyses were identified and specific information was collected in relation to how the clothes were cleaned (a customer garment profile, a problem garment analysis, a technical evaluation or repeat clean test, a wearer survey, and customer satisfaction surveys); how wet cleaning did financially (a start-up cost analysis and a profit/loss analysis); what environmental impacts were identified (water, energy, and chemical inputs and outputs); and what contributing factors (technology changes, garment manufacturing and labeling, and regulator or legislative actions) influence the viability of professional wet cleaning.

  15. Gas-phase photocatalytic degradation of perchloroethylene on glass pellets immobilized with TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, C.H.; Yuan, C.S.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this research was to study gas-phase photocatalytic degradation of perchloroethylene (PCE) under illumination of four 10-W near-ultraviolet (UV) light lamps. Experiments were performed in a photocatalytic reactor packed with Degussa P-25 TiO{sub 2}-coated glass pellets. Anatase TiO{sub 2} was applied as the photocatalyst in the investigation. The effects of reaction parameters including influent PCE concentrations (10 to 50 ppm), water vapor content (0 to 100 % relative humidity), oxygen concentrations (0.31 to 21%), reactor space times (0.55 to 1.83 seconds), and irradiated light intensity (0.4 to 1.0 mW/cm{sup 2}) were investigated in the study. Experimental results indicated that fast photocatalytic degradation of PCE took place in the presence of TiO2 illuminated with near-UV light. Experimental results also showed that the highest degradation rate and quantum efficiency of PCE were 0.523 m mol/secgm and 5.2 %, respectively. The highest conversion ratio of PCE of 99.8 % was achieved in the study. Greater conversation ratios of PCE were observed for longer reaction time. Increase in the reaction rates of PCE by increasing influent PCE and oxygen concentrations were presented. Higher reaction rates of PCE under stronger illumination light intensity were detected. The degradation rates of PCE were proportional to light intensity with the power order of 1.2. On the other hand, the inhibited degradation of PCE was observed in the presence of water vapor. Lower reaction rates of PCE were detected when water vapor was present in the reaction. A modified Langmuir-Hishelwood kinetic was applied to model photocatalytic degradation of PCE. Two different adsorption sites on irradiated TiO2{sub 2} surfaces for the adsorption of PCE and oxygen molecules respectively were assumed in the model. The assumption of water vapor competing with PCE for reactive sites was considered in the reaction.

  16. Regeneration of surfactant-modified zeolite after saturation with chromate and perchloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Bowman, R S

    2001-01-01

    Surfactant-modified zeolites (SMZ) have drawn recent attention as sorbents due to their removal of multiple types of contaminants and low material cost. However, like most sorbents, SMZ has a finite sorption capacity for different contaminants. The potential applications, economics, and efficiency of SMZ as a sorbent are related to the ability to regenerate the material. This paper reports several methods to regenerate chromate- and perchloroethylene-saturated SMZ. Regeneration of chromate-saturated SMZ was achieved by flushing with a sodium carbonate/sodium hydroxide solution. However, this high-pH solution increased the counterion competition for chromate sorption sites and decreased the chromate sorption capacity of the regenerated SMZ. As an alternative regeneration method, chromate sorbed to SMZ was reduced to Cr(III) in situ using sodium dithionite solution. Although reduction with dithionite restored the chromate sorption maximum, the chromate sorption intensity was lowered, possibly due to the competition by sulfate (generated from oxidation of dithionite) for chromate sorption sites. Carbonate-regenerated SMZ showed no loss of sorption affinity for perchloroethylene (PCE) compared to virgin SMZ. Air sparging of PCE-saturated SMZ fully regenerated the SMZ. The results show that it is possible to regenerate and re-use SMZ following saturation with anionic or nonpolar organic contaminants. PMID:11257888

  17. Factors controlling the carbon isotope fractionation of tetra- and trichloroethene during reductive dechlorination by Sulfurospirillum ssp. and Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE-S.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Danuta; Siegert, Michael; Imfeld, Gwenaël; Andert, Janet; Beck, Kirsten; Diekert, Gabriele; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nijenhuis, Ivonne

    2007-10-01

    Carbon stable isotope fractionation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) was investigated during reductive dechlorination. Growing cells of Sulfurospirillum multivorans, Sulfurospirillum halorespirans, or Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE-S, the respective crude extracts and the abiotic reaction with cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12)) were used. Fractionation of TCE (alphaC=1.0132-1.0187) by S. multivorans was more than one order of magnitude higher than values previously observed for tetrachloroethene (PCE) (alphaC=1.00042-1.0017). Similar differences in fractionation were observed during reductive dehalogenation by the close relative S. halorespirans with alphaC=1.0046-1.032 and alphaC=1.0187-1.0229 for PCE and TCE respectively. TCE carbon isotope fractionation (alphaC=1.0150) by the purified PCE-reductive dehalogenase from S. multivorans was more than one order of magnitude higher than fractionation of PCE (alphaC=1.0017). Carbon isotope fractionation of TCE by Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE-S (alphaC=1.0109-1.0122) as well as during the abiotic reaction with cyanocobalamin (alphaC=1.0154) was in a similar range to previously reported values for fractionation by mixed microbial cultures. In contrast with previous results with PCE, no effects due to rate limitations, uptake or transport of the substrate to the reactive site could be observed during TCE dechlorination. Our results show that prior to a mechanistic interpretation of stable isotope fractionation factors it has to be carefully verified how other factors such as uptake or transport affect the isotope fractionation during degradation experiments with microbial cultures. PMID:17908097

  18. NEUROTOXICITY OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE): DISCUSSION PAPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper is a background document for a meeting of neurotoxicity experts to discuss the central nervous system effects of exposure to perchloroethylene (perc). The document reviews the literature on neurological testing of people exposed to perc occupationally in dry cleanin...

  19. MEASUREMENT OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchloroethylene (i.e., tetrachloroethylene) is an organic solvent widely used in dry cleaning and industrial metal degreasing operations. Short-term field studies were conducted in each of three major metropolitan areas which were selected on the basis of the number, density an...

  20. Nature's Helpers: Using Microorganisms to Remove Trichloroethene (TCE) from Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A. G.; Krajmlanik-Brown, R.; Fajardo-Williams, D.; Halloum, I.

    2015-12-01

    Organic chlorinated solvents, such as perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), are toxic pollutants threatening ground water quality worldwide and present at many superfund sites. Bioremediation using microorganisms is a promising, green, efficient, and sustainable approach to remove PCE and TCE contamination from soil and groundwater. Under anaerobic conditions, specialized microorganisms (dechlorinators) can reduce these chlorinated ethenes to ethene, an innocuous product, and gain energy for growth by a process known as reductive dechlorination. Dechlorinators are most often present in the environment and in dechlorinating cultures alongside other microbes such as fermenters, methanogens, and acetogens. Fermenters, methanogens, and acetogens syntrophically provide essential nutrients and growth factors to dechlorinators, most specifically to the only members able to reduce TCE all the way to ethene: Dehalococcoides; unfortunately, they also compete with dechlorinators for electron donors. My laboratory devises reductive chlorination platforms to study competition and syntrophy among Dehalococcoides, and other microbes to optimize remediation reactions and transport in the subsurface. We look at competing processes present as part of the natural soil chemistry and microbiology and address these challenges through a combination of enrichment techniques, molecular microbial ecology (deep sequencing), water chemistry, and electron balances. We have applied knowledge gathered in my laboratory to: 1) enrich microbial dechlorinating cultures capable of some of the fastest rates of TCE to ethene dechlorination ever reported, and 2) successfully design and operate three different continuous dechlorinating reactor types. We attribute our successful reactor operations to our multidisciplinary approach which links microbiology and engineering. Our reactors produce robust dechlorinating cultures used for in-situ bioaugmentation of PCE and TCE at contaminated sites

  1. The PACSAT Communications Experiment (PCE)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-12

    While VITA (Volunteers in Technical Assistance) is the recognized world leader in low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite technology (below 1 GHz), its involvement in communications technologies is to facilitate renewable energy technology transfer to developing countries. A communications payload was incorporated into the UoSat 2 satellite (Surrey Univ., UK), launched in 1984; a prototype satellite (PCE) was also launched Jan 1990. US DOE awarded a second grant to VITA to design and test the prototype ground stations (command and field), install field ground stations in several developing country sites, pursue the operational licensing process, and transfer the evaluation results to the design of an operating system. This report covers the principal tasks of this grant.

  2. 40 CFR 63.471 - Facility-wide standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... total emissions of perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and methylene chloride (MC) used at... TCE only 14,100 23,500 MC only 60,000 100,000 Multiple solvents—Calculate the MC-weighted emissions..., the facility emissions of PCE and TCE are weighted according to their carcinogenic potency relative...

  3. 40 CFR 63.471 - Facility-wide standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... total emissions of perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and methylene chloride (MC) used at... TCE only 14,100 23,500 MC only 60,000 100,000 Multiple solvents—Calculate the MC-weighted emissions..., the facility emissions of PCE and TCE are weighted according to their carcinogenic potency relative...

  4. 40 CFR 63.471 - Facility-wide standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... total emissions of perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and methylene chloride (MC) used at... TCE only 14,100 23,500 MC only 60,000 100,000 Multiple solvents—Calculate the MC-weighted emissions..., the facility emissions of PCE and TCE are weighted according to their carcinogenic potency relative...

  5. 40 CFR 63.471 - Facility-wide standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... total emissions of perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and methylene chloride (MC) used at... TCE only 14,100 23,500 MC only 60,000 100,000 Multiple solvents—Calculate the MC-weighted emissions..., the facility emissions of PCE and TCE are weighted according to their carcinogenic potency relative...

  6. A study of the effect of perchloroethylene exposure on semen quality in dry cleaning workers

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Fenster, L.; Katz, D.F.; Sadler, M.; Lee, J.; Hudes, M.; Rempel, D.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of perchloroethylene (PCE) exposure on human semen quality. We compared the semen quality of 34 dry cleaners with that of 48 laundry workers. We examined the relationships of 17 semen parameters to expired air levels of PCE and to an index of exposure based on job tasks in the last three months. The average sperm concentration was over 80 million for both dry cleaners and laundry workers, but approximately one-quarter of each group was oligospermic. The overall percentage of abnormal forms was similar for the two groups; however, sperm of dry cleaners were significantly more likely to be round (t = -3.29, p = 0.002) and less likely to be narrow (t = 2.35, p = 0.02) than the sperm of laundry workers. These effects were dose-related to expired air levels and to the exposure index after controlling for potential confounders (e.g., heat exposure). The average percent motile sperm for both groups was slightly over 60%; however, sperm of dry cleaners tended to swim with greater amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) than those of laundry workers (t = -1.73, p = 0.09), and level of PCE in expired air was a significant predictor of ALH in the multiple regression model (t = 2.00, p = 0.05). In addition, exposure index was a significant negative predictor of the sperm linearity parameter (t = -2.57, p = 0.01). These results suggest that occupational exposures to PCE can have subtle effects on sperm quality. Additional analyses are required to determine whether these effects are associated with changes in fertility.

  7. TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE) ISSUE PAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    These issue papers are a part of EPA's effort to develop a trichloroethylene (TCE) human health risk assessment. These issue papers were developed by EPA to provide scientific and technical information to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) for use in developing their advice ...

  8. HORIZONTAL LASAGNA TO BIOREMEDIATE TCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Removal of TCE from these tight clay soils has been technically difficult and expensive. However, the LASAGNATM technique allows movement of the TCE into treatment zones for biodegradation or dechlorination in place, lessening the costs and exposure to TCE. Electroosmosis was c...

  9. Chlorine isotope effects from isotope ratio mass spectrometry suggest intramolecular C-Cl bond competition in trichloroethene (TCE) reductive dehalogenation.

    PubMed

    Cretnik, Stefan; Bernstein, Anat; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Löffler, Frank; Elsner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated ethenes are prevalent groundwater contaminants. To better constrain (bio)chemical reaction mechanisms of reductive dechlorination, the position-specificity of reductive trichloroethene (TCE) dehalogenation was investigated. Selective biotransformation reactions (i) of tetrachloroethene (PCE) to TCE in cultures of Desulfitobacterium sp. strain Viet1; and (ii) of TCE to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) in cultures of Geobacter lovleyi strain SZ were investigated. Compound-average carbon isotope effects were -19.0‰ ± 0.9‰ (PCE) and -12.2‰ ± 1.0‰ (TCE) (95% confidence intervals). Using instrumental advances in chlorine isotope analysis by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry, compound-average chorine isotope effects were measured for PCE (-5.0‰ ± 0.1‰) and TCE (-3.6‰ ± 0.2‰). In addition, position-specific kinetic chlorine isotope effects were determined from fits of reactant and product isotope ratios. In PCE biodegradation, primary chlorine isotope effects were substantially larger (by -16.3‰ ± 1.4‰ (standard error)) than secondary. In TCE biodegradation, in contrast, the product cis-DCE reflected an average isotope effect of -2.4‰ ± 0.3‰ and the product chloride an isotope effect of -6.5‰ ± 2.5‰, in the original positions of TCE from which the products were formed (95% confidence intervals). A greater difference would be expected for a position-specific reaction (chloride would exclusively reflect a primary isotope effect). These results therefore suggest that both vicinal chlorine substituents of TCE were reactive (intramolecular competition). This finding puts new constraints on mechanistic scenarios and favours either nucleophilic addition by Co(I) or single electron transfer as reductive dehalogenation mechanisms. PMID:24853618

  10. FTIR quantification of industrial hydraulic fluids in perchloroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Narinder K.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this summer research project was to investigate whether perchloroethylene can be used as a solvent for the quantitative analysis of industrial hydraulic fluids by infrared spectroscopy employing Beer's law. Standard calibration curves using carbon-hydrogen stretching (generic) and ester absorption peaks were prepared for a series of standard dilutions at low ppm levels of concentration of seven hydraulic fluids in perchloroethylene. The absorbance spectras were recorded with 1.5-10 mm fixed and variable path length sample cells made of potassium bromide. The results indicate that using ester infrared spectral peak, it is possible to detect about 20 ppm of the hydraulic fluid in perchloroethylene.

  11. A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal by HPLC analysis of perchloroethylene extracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.J.; Murphy, P.M.; Chaven, C.

    1993-01-01

    A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal is described. Elemental sulfur is extracted from the coal with hot perchloroethylene (PCE) (tetrachloroethene, C2Cl4) and quantitatively determined by HPLC analysis on a C18 reverse-phase column using UV detection. Calibration solutions were prepared from sublimed sulfur. Results of quantitative HPLC analyses agreed with those of a chemical/spectroscopic analysis. The HPLC method was found to be linear over the concentration range of 6 ?? 10-4 to 2 ?? 10-2 g/L. The lower detection limit was 4 ?? 10-4 g/L, which for a coal sample of 20 g is equivalent to 0.0006% by weight of coal. Since elemental sulfur is known to react slowly with hydrocarbons at the temperature of boiling PCE, standard solutions of sulfur in PCE were heated with coals from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample program. Pseudo-first-order uptake of sulfur by the coals was observed over several weeks of heating. For the Illinois No. 6 premium coal, the rate constant for sulfur uptake was 9.7 ?? 10-7 s-1, too small for retrograde reactions between solubilized sulfur and coal to cause a significant loss in elemental sulfur isolated during the analytical extraction. No elemental sulfur was produced when the following pure compounds were heated to reflux in PCE for up to 1 week: benzyl sulfide, octyl sulfide, thiane, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, sulfuric acid, or ferrous sulfate. A sluury of mineral pyrite in PCE contained elemental sulfur which increased in concentration with heating time. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  12. Effect of dechlorinating bacteria on the longevity and composition of PCE-containing nonaqueous phase liquids under equilibrium dissolution conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, C.S.; Garg, S.; Hughes, J.B.

    2000-03-15

    The influence of dechlorinating microorganisms on PCE and its reduced end products in the presence of a PCE-containing nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) was investigated. Experiments were conducted in continuous-flow stirred-tank reactors (CFSTRs) containing a mixed PCE dechlorinating culture and a model NAPL consisting of PCE and tridecane. Comparisons between biotic and abiotic CFSTRs demonstrated that dechlorination resulted in a factor of 14 increase in PCE removal rates from the NAPL. The formation of dechlorination daughter products trichloroethene and cis-dichloroethene were observed, and cis-dichloroethene was not dechlorinated further. Partitioning of daughter products between phases caused temporal changes in the chlorinated ethenes distribution within the NAPL. The combined effects of dissolution and dechlorination on the removal of chlorinated ethenes from the NAPL were described using a mathematical model that approximated dechlorination as a pseudo-first-order process. Pseudo-first-order dechlorination rate coefficients for PCE and TCE were determined and were 0.18 and 0.27 h{sup {minus}1}, respectively. It was determined that total chlorinated ethenes removal from the NAPL would be achieved in 13 days in biotic CFSTRs, as compared to 77 days in the abiotic CFSTRs--corresponding to an 83% reduction in longevity of the chlorinated ethenes component of the NAPL.

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Des Moines TCE, Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa, July 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-21

    The Des Moines TCE site includes the underground infiltration gallery used by the Des Moines Water Works (DMWW) as a source of the public water supply. The site was discovered in 1984 after trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected in the city's public water supply. The Dico Company disposed of an unknown quantity of oily waste sludge containing TCE onto their parking lot for dust control and into a drainage ditch on their property. The primary contaminants of concern include: TCE, PCE, 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride. The selected remedial action for this site includes: extraction wells to collect the contaminated ground water; isolation of the northern-most section of the north gallery; treatment of the ground water through air stripping to remove 96% of the TCE; discharge of the treated water to the Raccoon River; operation of the west extraction wells until established effluent levels are achieved for four consecutive months.

  14. Tetrachloroethene Dehalorespiration and Growth of Desulfitobacterium frappieri TCE1 in Strict Dependence on the Activity of Desulfovibrio fructosivorans

    PubMed Central

    Drzyzga, Oliver; Gottschal, Jan C.

    2002-01-01

    Tetrachloroethene (PCE) dehalorespiration was investigated in a continuous coculture of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio fructosivorans and the dehalorespiring Desulfitobacterium frappieri TCE1 at different sulfate concentrations and in the absence of sulfate. Fructose (2.5 mM) was the single electron donor, which could be used only by the sulfate reducer. With 2.5 mM sulfate, the dehalogenating strain was outnumbered by the sulfate-reducing bacterium, sulfate reduction was the dominating process, and only trace amounts of PCE were dehalogenated by strain TCE1. With 1 mM sulfate in the medium, complete sulfate reduction and complete PCE dehalogenation to cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) occurred. In the absence of sulfate, PCE was also completely dehalogenated to cis-DCE, and the population size of strain TCE1 increased significantly. The results presented here describe for the first time dehalogenation of PCE by a dehalorespiring anaerobe in strict dependence on the activity of a sulfate-reducing bacterium with a substrate that is exclusively used by the sulfate reducer. This interaction was studied under strictly controlled and quantifiable conditions in continuous culture and shown to depend on interspecies hydrogen transfer under sulfate-depleted conditions. Interspecies hydrogen transfer was demonstrated by direct H2 measurements of the gas phase and by the production of methane after the addition of a third organism, Methanobacterium formicicum. PMID:11823202

  15. Combined C and Cl isotope effects indicate differences between corrinoids and enzyme (Sulfurospirillum multivorans PceA) in reductive dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene, but not trichloroethene.

    PubMed

    Renpenning, Julian; Keller, Sebastian; Cretnik, Stefan; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Elsner, Martin; Schubert, Torsten; Nijenhuis, Ivonne

    2014-10-21

    The role of the corrinoid cofactor in reductive dehalogenation catalysis by tetrachloroethene reductive dehalogenase (PceA) of Sulfurospirillum multivorans was investigated using isotope analysis of carbon and chlorine. Crude extracts containing PceA--harboring either a native norpseudo-B12 or the alternative nor-B12 cofactor--were applied for dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) or trichloroethene (TCE), and compared to abiotic dehalogenation with the respective purified corrinoids (norpseudovitamin B12 and norvitamin B12), as well as several commercially available cobalamins and cobinamide. Dehalogenation of TCE resulted in a similar extent of C and Cl isotope fractionation, and in similar dual-element isotope slopes (εC/εCl) of 5.0-5.3 for PceA enzyme and 3.7-4.5 for the corrinoids. Both observations support an identical reaction mechanism. For PCE, in contrast, observed C and Cl isotope fractionation was smaller in enzymatic dehalogenation, and dual-element isotope slopes (2.2-2.8) were distinctly different compared to dehalogenation mediated by corrinoids (4.6-7.0). Remarkably, εC/εCl of PCE depended in addition on the corrinoid type: εC/εCl values of 4.6 and 5.0 for vitamin B12 and norvitamin B12 were significantly different compared to values of 6.9 and 7.0 for norpseudovitamin B12 and dicyanocobinamide. Our results therefore suggest mechanistic and/or kinetic differences in catalytic PCE dehalogenation by enzymes and different corrinoids, whereas such differences were not observed for TCE. PMID:25216120

  16. Enhanced reduction of chromate and PCE by pelletized surfactant-modified zeolite/zerovalent iron

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Jones, H.K.; Bowman, R.S.; Helferich, R.

    1999-12-01

    The current research focuses on enhanced removal of chromate and perchloroethylene from contaminated water by a combination of a reduction material (represented by zerovalent iron, ZVI) and a sorption material (represented by surfactant-modified zeolite, SMZ). Natural zeolite and ZVI were homogenized and pelletized to maintain favorable hydraulic properties while minimizing material segregation due to bulk density differences. The zeolite/ZVI pellets were modified with the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide to increase contaminant sorption and, thus, the contaminant concentration on the solid surface. Results of chromate sorption/reduction indicate that the chromate sorption capacity of pelletized SMZ/ZVI is at least 1 order of magnitude higher than that of zeolite/ZVI pellets. Compared to SMZ pellets, the chromate removal capacity of SMZ/ZVI pellets in a 24-h period is about 80% higher, due to the combined effects o sorption by SMZ and reduction by ZVI. The chromate and PCE degradation rates with and without surfactant modification were determined separately. The pseudo-first-order reduction constant increased by a factor of 3 for PCE and by a factor of 9 for chromate following surfactant modification. The enhanced contaminant reduction capacity of SMZ/ZVI pellets may lead to a decrease in the amount of material required to achieve a given level of contaminant removal.

  17. PHASE-TRANSFER-CATALYST APPLIED TO THE OXIDATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorinated ethylenes such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) are common contaminants (Plumb 1991; Westrick et al., 1984). They opccur in the subsurface as zones of residual saturation or occasionally as free products. Because of their inherently low solubil...

  18. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE EMISSION OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE FROM DRY CLEANED FABRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses an evaluation of the emission of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from freshly dry cleaned fabrics using small environment test chambers. he temperature dependence of the release of perchloroethylene was evaluated over a temperature range of 20 to 45 ...

  19. TCE treatment pasta-bilities.

    PubMed Central

    Holton, W C

    1999-01-01

    Monsanto's "Lasagna" process uses layers of treatment zones spaced between buried electrodes to remove trichloroethylene (TCE) from contaminated soil and groundwater. TCE is used primarily as a metal degreaser as well as in products such as dyes, printing ink, and paint. TCE can eventually make its way into the environment and is prevalent in the water and soil of industrialized nations. Although TCE breaks down in a few days when released into the atmosphere, it degrades much more slowly in soil, taking months or years. Moreover, it is often broken down by microbes into toxic substances such as vinylidene chloride (a suspected human carcinogen) and vinyl chloride (a known human carcinogen). The Lasagna process is based on the principle of electro-osmosis, in which an electric current draws water from low--permeability soils such as clays, silts, and fine sands. To remove TCE from contaminated soils, Monsanto scientists added layers of filtering media, which attack the contaminant as it is pulled from electrode to electrode. The technology has been tested at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky, where it removed over 98% of TCE from contaminated soil. PMID:10464086

  20. TCE treatment pasta-bilities.

    PubMed

    Holton, W C

    1999-09-01

    Monsanto's "Lasagna" process uses layers of treatment zones spaced between buried electrodes to remove trichloroethylene (TCE) from contaminated soil and groundwater. TCE is used primarily as a metal degreaser as well as in products such as dyes, printing ink, and paint. TCE can eventually make its way into the environment and is prevalent in the water and soil of industrialized nations. Although TCE breaks down in a few days when released into the atmosphere, it degrades much more slowly in soil, taking months or years. Moreover, it is often broken down by microbes into toxic substances such as vinylidene chloride (a suspected human carcinogen) and vinyl chloride (a known human carcinogen). The Lasagna process is based on the principle of electro-osmosis, in which an electric current draws water from low--permeability soils such as clays, silts, and fine sands. To remove TCE from contaminated soils, Monsanto scientists added layers of filtering media, which attack the contaminant as it is pulled from electrode to electrode. The technology has been tested at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky, where it removed over 98% of TCE from contaminated soil. PMID:10464086

  1. Urban/industrial pollution for the New York City-Washington, D. C., corridor, 1996-1998: 1. Providing independent verification of CO and PCE emissions inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Diana H.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Fehlau, Brian P.; Gottlieb, Elaine W.; Elkins, James W.; Dutton, Geoffrey S.; Montzka, Stephen A.

    2003-03-01

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO) and perchloroethylene (PCE, C2Cl4) were measured above the canopy at Harvard forest, MA every half-hour for 3 years starting in January 1996. Pollution enhancements are strongly correlated with winds from the southwest, the direction of the New York City-Washington, D. C., corridor, as compared to background levels observed during northwest winds traveling from Canada. We establish the ratio of CO to PCE pollution enhancements by wind direction, by season, and by year and use these results to test the quality of county-level and national source emission inventories for these two gases. The EPA carbon monoxide emission county-level inventories and the McCulloch and Midgley sales-based national-level PCE release estimates are found to be in accord with our independent observations of urban/industrial releases. For the New York City-Washington, D. C., corridor the inventory-based COI/PCEI emissions ratio of 584 (kg/kg) for 1996 falls well within the range of observationally-based ΔCO/ΔPCE pollution plume ratios of 388 to 706 (kg/kg) and is only 11% higher than the observed mean of 521 ± 90 (kg/kg). On the basis of this agreement, PCE emission estimates for 1997 and 1998 are derived from the CO inventory emissions values and the observed ΔCO/ΔPCE ratios in pollution plumes for those years; despite the call for voluntary cutbacks, urban/industrial emissions of PCE appear to be on the rise.

  2. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE) (INTERAGENCY SCIENCE DISCUSSION DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment...

  3. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE ON HUMAN NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchloroethylene (PERC) is a volatile organic solvent with a variety of industrial uses. PERC exposure has been shown to cause adverse neurological effects including deficits in vision and memory in exposed individuals. Despite knowledge of these effects, the mechanisms by whi...

  4. HORIZONTAL LASAGNA^TM TO BIOREMEDIATE TCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Removal of TCE from these tight clay soils has been technically difficult and expensive. However, the LASAGNA technique allows movement of the TCE into treatment zones for biodegradation or dechlorination in place, lessening the costs and exposure to TCE.

    Electroosmosis wa...

  5. Simulating Metabolic Reductive Decholorination with Multiple Cultures during Bioenhanced PCE-NAPL Dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Abriola, L.; Christ, J.; Amos, B. K.; Suchomel, E. J.; Pennell, K. D.; Loeffler, F.

    2009-12-01

    A recently conducted laboratory experiment investigating metabolic reductive dechlorination in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones demonstrated enhanced DNAPL dissolution by increasing the driving force for mass transfer due to reductions in the aqueous phase. Tetrachloroethene (PCE) was degraded sequentially to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) through trichloroethylene (TCE) and to ethene via vinyl chloride (VC) by Geobacter and Dehalococcoides, respectively. Significant PCE dechlorination led to bioenhanced DNAPL dissolution, with a 5-fold increase in dissolution observed relative to an abiotic system. A multiphase, compositional simulator, the Michigan Subsurface Environmental Simulator (MISER), was modified to model 9 chemical constituents and 3 microbial populations (a fermentor and two dechlorinators) within the column. Monod kinetics, including electron donor thresholds, electron acceptor competition, and competitive inhibition, were used to model contaminant dechlorination and biomass growth. The model was calibrated to the experimental data using effluent concentrations. Model results were compared to analyses of side port samples collected along the column length to determine the ability of the model to reproduce the biomass growth and reductive dechlorination occurring within the column. Results suggest that the model as formulated is capable of capturing the general trends observed in the column. Work is on-going to investigate the influence of initial biomass distribution, DNAPL source zone distribution, and applied boundary conditions on bioenhanced dissolution predictions. This model is expected to provide valuable insights for future experimental design and identification of conditions that may govern bioenhanced dissolution in the field.

  6. Application of solid phase microextraction and needle trap device with silica composite of carbon nanotubes for determination of perchloroethylene in laboratory and field.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mahmoud; Attari, Seyed Ghavameddin; Rafieiemam, Maryam

    2016-04-28

    In this paper solid phase microextraction (SPME) and needle trap device (NTD) as two in-progress air monitoring techniques was applied with silylated composite of carbon nanotubes for sampling and analysis of perchloroethylene in air. Application of SPME and NTD with proposed nano-structured sorbent was investigated under different laboratory and experimental parameters and compared to the SPME and NTD with CAR/PDMS. Finally the two samplers contained nano-sorbent used as a field sampler for sampling and analysis of perchloroethylene in dry cleaning. Results revealed that silica composite form of CNTs showed better performance for adsorbent of perchloroethylene. SPME and NTD with proposed sorbent was demonstrated better responses in lower levels of temperature and relative humidity. For 5 days from sampling the relative responses were more than 97% and 94% for NTD and SPME, respectively. LOD were 0.023 and 0.014 ng mL(-1) for SPME coated CNTs/SC and CAR/PDMS, and 0.014 and 0.011 ng mL(-1) for NTD packed with CNTs/SC and CAR/PDMS, respectively. And for consecutive analysis RSD were 3.9-6.7% in laboratory and 4.43-6.4% in the field. In the field study, NTD was successfully applied for determining of the PCE in dry cleaning. The results show that the NTD packed with nanomaterial is a reliable and effective approach for the sampling and analysis of volatile compounds in air. PMID:27046209

  7. Potential of the TCE-degrading endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to improve plant growth and reduce TCE phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration in poplar cuttings

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Truyens, S.; Dupae, J.; Newman, L.; Taghavi, S.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2010-09-01

    The TCE-degrading poplar endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE was inoculated in poplar cuttings, exposed to 0, 200 and 400 mg l{sup -1} TCE, that were grown in two different experimental setups. During a short-term experiment, plants were grown hydroponically in half strength Hoagland nutrient solution and exposed to TCE for 3 days. Inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE promoted plant growth, reduced TCE phytotoxicity and reduced the amount of TCE present in the leaves. During a mid-term experiment, plants were grown in potting soil and exposed to TCE for 3 weeks. Here, inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE had a less pronounced positive effect on plant growth and TCE phytotoxicity, but resulted in strongly reduced amounts of TCE in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 400 mg l{sup -1} TCE, accompanied by a lowered evapotranspiration of TCE. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), which are known intermediates of TCE degradation, were not detected. The endophyte P. putida W619-TCE degrades TCE during its transport through the xylem, leading to reduced TCE concentrations in poplar, and decreased TCE evapotranspiration.

  8. A Continuous Flow Column Study of Anaerobic PCE Transformation With the Evanite Culture and Hanford Aquifer Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprini, L.; Behrens, S.; Azizian, M.; Sabalowsky, A.; Dolan, M.; Ruiz-Hass, P.; Ingle, J.; Spormann, A.

    2005-12-01

    Anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichoroethene (TCE) is a promising technology for the in situ treatment of high concentration source zones in contaminated aquifers. Continuous flow column studies were performed where a mixed dehalogenating culture (Evanite culture) that contains Dehalococcides-like microorganisms was bioaugmented into aquifer solids from the Hanford DOE site. Studies conducted prior to bioaugmentation showed PCE transport was retarded due to sorption onto the aquifer solids. Upon bioaugmentation and with continuous lactate addition, PCE (10 mg/L) was transformed to cis-dichloroethene ( cis-DCE), and enhanced transformation of sorbed PCE was observed. Prolonged production of cis-DCE was associated with iron reducing conditions, while eventual vinyl chloride (VC) reduction to ethene was associated with sulfate reducing conditions. Microbial processes included lactate fermentation to acetate and propionate, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and reductive dehalogenation, with reductive dehalogenation utilizing 2 to 3% of the electron donor addition. PCE was completely transformed to ethene within a hydraulic residence time of one day. Upon competition of the column tests spatial samples of aquifer solids were analyzed using molecular methods and solids were used in batch microcosm activity tests. Dehalococcoides sp. 16S rRNA gene copy numbers dropped from ~ 74% of total Eubacterial 16S rRNA genes in the original inoculum, to about 0.5 to 4% through out the column, consistent with the estimates of electron donor utilization for dehalogenation reactions. Microcosm tests showed most of PCE transformation activity at the entrance of the column, consistent with the Dehalococcoides sp. 16S rRNA gene copy numbers being highest in that area. Roughly 20% of the Dehalococcoides sp. population in the column possessed a vcrA gene for the respiration of VC to ethene. The vcrA-positive subpopulation decreases to about 5% towards

  9. Modeling perchloroethylene degradation under ultrasonic irradiation and photochemical oxidation in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sonolysis and photochemical degradation of different compounds such as chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons are among the recent advanced oxidation processes. Perchloroethylene is one of these compounds that has been mainly used as a solvent and degreaser. In this work, elimination of perchloroethylene in aqueous solution by ultrasonic irradiation, andphotochemical oxidation by ultra violet ray and hydrogen peroxide were investigated. Three different initial concentrations of perchloroethylene at different pH values, detention periods, and concentrations of hydrogen peroxide were investigated. Head space gas chromatography with FID detector was used for analyses of perchloroethylene. This research was performed in 9 months from April through December 2011. Results showed that perchloroethylene could be effectively and rapidly degraded by ultrasonic irradiation, photochemical oxidation by ultra violet ray, hydrogen peroxide and a combination of these methods. Kinetics of perchloroethylene was strongly influenced by time, initial concentration and pH value. Degradation of Perchloroethylene increased with decrease in the initial concentration of perchloroethylene from 0.3 to 10 mg/L at all initial pH. The results showed an optimum degradation condition achieved at pH = 5 but did not affect significantly the perchloroethylene destruction in the various pH values. Kinetic modeling applied for the obtained results showed that the degradation of perchloroethylene by ultrasound and photo-oxidation followed first order and second order model. The percentage of removal in the hybrids reactor was higher than each of the reactors alone, the reason being the role of hydroxyl radical induced by ultrasound and photochemical reaction. PMID:23369271

  10. Selection of trichloroethene (TCE) degrading bacteria that resist inactivation by TCE.

    PubMed

    Ewers, J; Freier-Schröder, D; Knackmuss, H J

    1990-01-01

    Two isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) utilizing bacteria, Alcaligenes denitrificans ssp. xylosoxidans JE 75 and Rhodococcus erythropolis JE 77, were identified as highly efficient cooxidizers of TCE, cis- and trans-dichloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethene and vinyl-chloride. Isoprene grown cells eliminate chloride from TCE in stoichiometric amounts and tolerate high concentrations of TCE. PMID:2244792

  11. Sulfur cement production using by products of the perchloroethylene coal cleaning process and the FC4-1 cleaned soil

    SciTech Connect

    Bassam Masri, K.L.; Fullerton, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    An introductory set of experiments to show the feasibility of making sulfur cement were carried out at the University of Akron according to Parrett and Currett`s patent which requires the use of sulfur, a filler, a plasticizer, and a vulcanization accelerator. Small blocks of cement were made using byproducts of the perchloroethylene coal cleaning process. Extracted elemental and organic sulfur, ash and mineral matters from the float sink portion of the PCE process, and FC4-1 cleaned soil were used as substitutes for sulfur and filler needed for the production of sulfur cement. Leaching tests in different solutions and under different conditions were conducted on the sulfur blocks. Other tests such as strength, durability, resistance to high or low temperatures will be conducted in the future. Sulfur cement can be used as a sealing agent at a joint, roofing purposes, forming ornamental figures, and coating of exposed surfaces of iron or steel. When mixed with an aggregate, sulfur concrete is formed. This concrete can be used for structural members, curbings, guthers, slabs, and can be precast or cast at the job site. An advantage of sulfur cement over Portland cement is that it reaches its design strength in two to three hours after processing and it can be remelted and recast.

  12. Influence of sediment reduction on TCE degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Evans, J. C.; Sklarew, Deborah S.

    2000-12-01

    A field-scale remediation technique for TCE and chromate is currently being implemented which uses a chemical treatment to reduce existing iron(III) in sediments. While reduction of some contaminants is well established, TCE data show that dechlorination is more complex, and the role of iron oxides to catalyze the reaction is not well understood. The purpose of this laboratory-scale study was to investigate the influence of temperature and partial sediment reduction on TCE dechlorination. Fully reduced sediments can degrade TCE at sufficiently fast rates (1.2 to 19 h) during static and transport experiments over 2oC to 25oC that a successful barrier could be made at the field scale. In contrast, partially reduced sediment resulted in up to a 3 order of magnitude decrease in the TCE dechlorination rate. While minimally reduced sediment had nearly no TCE reactivity, > 40% reduced sediment had considerably faster dechlorination rates. The second-order dependence of the TCE dechlorination rate on the fraction of reduced iron demonstrates the significant role of the iron oxide surface (as a catalyst or for surface coordination) for TCE dechlorination. Based on these results, the field-scale reduction was designed with specific reagent concen-trations, temperature, and flow rates to efficiently create a reductive barrier.

  13. REMEDIATION OF SITES CONTAMINATED WITH TCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread use of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the U.S. has resulted in its frequent detection in soil and groundwater. TCE can become a health hazard after being processed in the human liver; or reductive dehalogenation in the environment may result in production of vinyl chloride...

  14. BIODEGRADATION OF PCE AND TCE IN LANDFILL, LEACHATE PREDICTED FROM CONCENTRATIONS OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Refuse Hideaway Landfill (23-acre) was designed as a "natural attenuation" landfill and no provision was made to collect and treat contaminated water. Natural biological degradation through sequential reductive dechlorination had been an important mechanism for natural atten...

  15. Potential of the TCE-degrading endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to improve plant growth and reduce TCE phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration in poplar cuttings.

    PubMed

    Weyens, Nele; Truyens, Sascha; Dupae, Joke; Newman, Lee; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2010-09-01

    The TCE-degrading poplar endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE was inoculated in poplar cuttings, exposed to 0, 200 and 400 mg l(-1) TCE, that were grown in two different experimental setups. During a short-term experiment, plants were grown hydroponically in half strength Hoagland nutrient solution and exposed to TCE for 3 days. Inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE promoted plant growth, reduced TCE phytotoxicity and reduced the amount of TCE present in the leaves. During a mid-term experiment, plants were grown in potting soil and exposed to TCE for 3 weeks. Here, inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE had a less pronounced positive effect on plant growth and TCE phytotoxicity, but resulted in strongly reduced amounts of TCE in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 400 mg l(-1) TCE, accompanied by a lowered evapotranspiration of TCE. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), which are known intermediates of TCE degradation, were not detected. PMID:20598789

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Croyden TCE Spill, PA. (First Remedial Action), December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-28

    The Croyden TCE Spill site is located in Bristol Township, Buck County, Pennsylvania. VOC contamination in the ground water was detected over a 3.5-square mile area, predominantly residential, with an estimated 3,000 residents. The study area is bordered on the south by the Delaware River. Neshaminy Creek, which borders the study area to the west, and Hog Run Creek which flows through the focused area of investigation, both discharge to the river. Although the source of contamination has not been identified, the contaminant plume appears to be flowing south-southeast into the East Branch of Hog Run Creek and probably into the Delaware River. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are TCE and PCE. The selected remedial action for the site includes connecting approximately 13 residences to the public water supply system via the construction of new water services lines, mains, hydrants, and valves; and ground water monitoring to ensure that homes located outside of the TCE-contaminated zone will not be at risk from the migrating plume.

  17. Phytoremediation of trichloroethene (TCE) using cottonwood trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, S.A.; Lee, R.W.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of cottonwood trees for phytoremediation was studied on aerobic shallow groundwater containing TCE. Cottonwood trees were planted over a 0.2-ha area at the Naval Air Station at Fort Worth, TX, in April 1996. Two years later, groundwater chemistry in the terrace alluvial aquifer was changing locally. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations declined at the southern end of the whip plantings while total iron concentration increased. Groundwater chemistry near a mature cottonwood tree ~ 60 m from the caliper trees was different from that observed elsewhere. Anaerobic conditions near the mature cottonwood tree were evident. Reductive dechlorination of TCE occurred in the aquifer near the mature tree, as demonstrated by very small concentration of TCE in groundwater, a small median ratio of TCE to the degradation product cis-1,2-DCE and the presence of vinyl chloride.

  18. Monitoring Anaerobic TCE Degradation by Evanite Cultre in Column Packed with TCE-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, J.; Han, K.; Ahn, G.; Park, S.; Kim, N.; Ahn, H.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a long-term common groundwater pollutant because the compound with high density is slowly released into groundwater. Physical and chemical remediation processes have been used to clean-up the contaminant, but novel remediation technology is required to overcome a low efficiency of the traditional treatment process. Many researchers focused on biological process using an anaerobic TCE degrading culture, dehalococcoides spp., but it still needs to evaluate whether the process can be applied into field scale under aerobic condition. Therefore, in this work we examined two different types (i.e., Natural attenuation and bioaugmentation) of biological remediation process in anaerobic column packed with TCE-contaminated soil. A TCE degradation by indigenous microorganisms was confirmed by monitoring TCE and the metabolites (c-DCE, VC, ETH). However, TCE was transformed and stoichiometry amount of c-DCE was produced, and VC and ETH was not detected. To test bioaugmentation of Evanite culture containing dehalococcoides spp., Evanite culture was injected into the column and TCE degradation to c-DCE, VC, ETH was monitored. We are evaluating the transport of the Evanite culture in the column by measuring TCE and VC reductases. In the result, the TCE was completely degraded to ETH using hydrogen as electron donor generate by hydrogen-production fermentation from formate.

  19. Biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by methanotrophic community.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Awadhesh K; Vishwakarma, Pranjali; Upadhyay, S N; Tripathi, Anil K; Prasana, H C; Dubey, Suresh K

    2009-05-01

    Laboratory incubation experiments were carried out to assess the potential of methanotrophic culture for degrading TCE. Measurements of the growth rate and TCE degradation showed that the methanotrophs not only grew in presence of TCE but also degraded TCE. The rate of TCE degradation was found to be 0.19 ppm h(-1). The reverse transcriptase-PCR test was conducted to quantify expression of pmoA and mmoX genes. RT-PCR revealed expression of pmoA gene only. This observation provides evidence that the pmoA gene was functionally active for pMMO enzyme during the study. The diversity of the methanotrophs involved in TCE degradation was assessed by PCR amplification, cloning, restriction fragment length polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis of pmoA genes. Results suggested the occurrence of nine different phylotypes belonging to Type II methanotrophs in the enriched cultures. Out of the nine, five clustered with, genera Methylocystis and rest got clustered in to a separate group. PMID:19157866

  20. Public health assessment for Malvern Tce Site, Malvern, Chester County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. Cerclis No. PAD014353445. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Chemclene (Malvern TCE) site is a National Priorities List (NPL) site in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 5.5 miles south of Phoenixville. Over the years, careless waste handling and waste burial have contaminated soil and groundwater with trichloroethene (TCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), and tetrachloroethene (PCE). Based upon the information reviewed, the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry have concluded that this site is a public health hazard because past exposures through the use of contaminated well water were at levels of public health concern. Human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may still be occurring through the use of private well water, and the potential for exposure from the nearby public well exists should the contaminant plume reach that well.

  1. Removal of TCE from water with enhanced hybrid aluminas

    SciTech Connect

    Moskovitz, M.; Kepner, B.; Mitchell, M.

    1996-10-01

    TCE is ubiquitous as a hazardous contaminant in ground water which needs to be removed. We have examined the removal of TCE from water with enhanced hybrid aluminas (EHAs) over the range of TCE concentrations: 5 ppb to 50 ppm. Removal efficiencies of 99+% have been achieved. In some cases TCE levels have been reduced to below 0.1 ppb. The capacity and kinetics of EHAs for TCE removal will be discussed. The ultimate fate of the TCE along with the possibility of catalytic destruction of TCE in water EHAs will be discussed. The removal of TCE as a function of the surface area, pore area, and pore diameter will be described. In addition, the results from infrared studies on of the gas phase sorption of TCE with EHAs will be described.

  2. Effect of trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene concentrations on TCE and toluene biodegradation and the population density of TCE and toluene degraders in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, D.Y.; Scow, K.M.

    1994-07-01

    Toluene is one of several cosubstrates able to support the cometabolism of trichloroethylene (TCE) by soil microbial communities. Indigenous microbial populations in soil degraded TCE in the presence, but not the absence, of toluene after a 60- to 80-h lag period. Initial populations of toluene and TCE degraders ranged from 0.2 x 10{sup 3} to 4 x 10{sup 3} cells per g of soil and increased by more than 4 orders of magnitude after the addition of 20 {mu}g of toluene and 1 {mu}g of TCE per mol of soil solution. The numbers of TCE and toluene degraders and the percent removal of TCE increased with an increase in initial toluene concentration. As the initial TCE concentration was increased from 1 to 20 {mu}g/ml, the numbers of toluene and TCE degraders and the rate of toluene degradation decreased, and no TCE degradation occurred. No toluene or TCE degradation occurred at a TCE concentration of 50 {mu}g/ml. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Anaerobic dehalogenation of TCE in continuous flow systems

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, N. |; Jaffe, P.; Maier, W.

    1995-12-31

    This study focuses on the effect of various factors on trichloroethene (TCE) degradation in batch and continuous flow systems, develops mathematical models to describe the dehalogenation of TCE, and provides results of simulations conducted using these models to determine the conditions necessary for maximizing the degradation of TCE. Batch parameters were shown to underpredict substrate and TCE degradation in continuous flow systems. The active biomass concentration had the most significant effect on TCE degradation. TCE degradation may be enhanced in the field by changing the substrate injection pattern to result in a more uniform distribution of the substrate. Gas production under anaerobic conditions needs to be included in any model describing TCE degradation in the field; ignoring this effect can result in gross overpredictions of TCE degradation by the model.

  4. Comparison of pulsed and continuous addition of H2 gas via membranes for stimulating PCE biodegradation in soil columns.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Novak, Paige J; Semmens, Michael J; Clapp, Lee W; Hozalski, Raymond M

    2006-03-01

    Column experiments were performed to investigate a technology for remediating aquifers contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The technology involves installation of hollow-fiber membranes in the subsurface to supply hydrogen gas (H2) to groundwater to support biological reductive dechlorination in situ. Three laboratory-scale columns [control (N2 only), continuous H2, and pulsed H2] were packed with aquifer material from a trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated wetland in Minnesota and supplied with perchloroethene (PCE)-contaminated synthetic groundwater. The main goals of the research were: (1) evaluate the long-term performance of the H2 supply system and (2) compare the effects of pulsed (4 h on, 20 h off) versus continuous H2 supply (lumen partial pressure approximately 1.2 atm) on PCE dechlorination and production of by-products (i.e. methane and acetate). The silicone-coated fiberglass membranes employed in these experiments were robust, delivering H2 steadily over the entire 349-day experiment. Methane production decreased when H2 was added in a pulsed manner. Nevertheless, the percentage of added H2 used to support methanogenesis was similar in both H2-fed columns (92-93%). For much of the experiment, PCE dechlorination (observed end product = dichloroethene) in the continuous and pulsed H2 columns was comparable, and enhanced in comparison to the natural attenuation observed in the control column. Dechlorination began to decline in the pulsed H2 column after 210 days, however, while dechlorination in the continuous H2 column was sustained. Acetate was detected only in the continuous H2 column, at concentrations of up to 36 microM. The results of this research suggest that in situ stimulation of PCE dechlorination by direct H2 addition requires the continuous application of H2 at high partial pressures, favoring the production of bioavailable organic matter such as acetate to provide a carbon source, electron donor, or both for dechlorinators. Unfortunately

  5. Complex electrical resistance tomography of a subsurface PCE plume

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W,; LeBrecque, D.

    1996-01-01

    A controlled experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of complex electrical resistivity tomography (CERT) for detecting and delineating free product dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in the subsurface. One hundred ninety liters of PCE were released at a rate of 2 liters per hour from a point 0.5 m below ground surface. The spill was conducted within a double walled tank where saturated layers of sand, bentonite and a sand/bentonite mixture were installed. Complex electrical resistance measurements were performed. Data were taken before the release, several times during, and then after the PCE was released. Magnitude and phase were measured at 1 and 64 Hz. Data from before the release were compared with those during the release for the purpose of imaging the changes in conductivity resulting from the plume. Conductivity difference tomographs showed a decrease in electrical conductivity as the DNAPL penetrated the soil. A pancake-shaped anomaly developed on the top of a bentonite layer at 2 m depth. The anomaly grew in magnitude and extent during the release and borehole television surveys data confirmed the anomaly to be free-product PCE whose downward migration was stopped by the low permeability clay. The tomographs clearly delineated the plume as a resistive anomaly.

  6. Monitoring TCE Degradation by In-situ Bioremediation in TCE-Contaminated site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K.; Hong, U.; Ahn, G.; Jiang, H.; Yoo, H.; Park, S.; Kim, N.; Ahn, H.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a long-term common groundwater pollutant because the compound with high density is slowly released into groundwater. Physical and chemical remediation processes have been used to clean-up the contaminant, but novel remediation technology is required to overcome a low efficiency of the traditional treatment process. Many researchers focused on biological process using an anaerobic TCE degrading culture, but it still needs to evaluate whether the process can be applied into field scale under aerobic condition. Therefore, in this work we investigated two different tests (i.e., biostimulation and bioaugmentation) of biological remediation through the Well-to-Well test (injection well to extraction well) in TCE-contaminated site. Also solutions (Electron donor & acceptor, tracer) were injected into the aquifer using a liquid coupled with nitrogen gas sparging. In biostimulation, we use 3 phases to monitoring biological remediation. Phase 1: we inject formate solution to get electron donor hydrogen (hydrogen can be generated from fermentation of formate). We also inject bromide as tracer. Phase 2: we made injection solution by formate, bromide and sulfate. The reason why we inject sulfate is that as a kind of electron accepter, sulfate reduction process is helpful to create anaerobic condition. Phase 3: we inject mixed solution made by formate, sulfate, fumarate, and bromide. The degradation of fumarate has the same mechanism and condition with TCE degradation, so we added fumarate to make sure that if the anaerobic TCE degradation by indigenous microorganisms started up (Because low TCE concentration by gas sparging). In the bioaugmentation test, we inject the Evanite culture (containing dehalococcoides spp) and TCE degradation to c-DCE, VC, ETH was monitored. We are evaluating the transport of the Evanite culture in the field by measuring TCE and VC reductases.

  7. SOURCES, EMISSION AND EXPOSURE TO TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE) AND RELATED CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the sources, emission, environmental fate and exposures for TCE, some of its metabolites, and some other chemicals known to produce identical metabolites. The major findings for TCE are:


    1. The primary sources releasing TCE to the environment ...

    2. Molecular Biomarker-Based Biokinetic Modeling of a PCE-Dechlorinating and Methanogenic Mixed Culture

      SciTech Connect

      Heavner, Gretchen L. W.; Rowe, Annette R.; Mansfeldt, Cresten B.; Pan, Ju Khuan; Gossett, James M.; Richardson, Ruth E.

      2013-04-16

      Bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes via anaerobic reductive dechlorination relies upon the activity of specific microbial population-most notably Dehalococcoides (DHC) strains. In the lab and field Dehalococcoides grow most robustly in mixed communities which usually contain both fermenters and methanogens. Recently, researchers have been developing quantitative molecular biomarkers to aid in field site diagnostics and it is hoped that these biomarkers could aid in the modeling of anaerobic reductive dechlorination. A comprehensive biokinetic model of a community containing Dehalococcoides mccartyi (formerly D. ethenogenes) was updated to describe continuously fed reactors with specific biomass levels based on quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based population data (DNA and RNA). The model was calibrated and validated with subsets of chemical and molecular biological data from various continuous feed experiments (n = 24) with different loading rates of the electron acceptor (1.5 to 482 μeeq/L-h), types of electron acceptor (PCE, TCE, cis-DCE) and electron donor to electron acceptor ratios. The resulting model predicted the sum of dechlorination products vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene (ETH) well. However, VC alone was under-predicted and ETH was over predicted. Consequently, competitive inhibition among chlorinated ethenes was examined and then added to the model. Additionally, as 16S rRNA gene copy numbers did not provide accurate model fits in all cases, we examined whether an improved fit could be obtained if mRNA levels for key functional enzymes could be used to infer respiration rates. The resulting empirically derived mRNA “adjustment factors” were added to the model for both DHC and the main methanogen in the culture (a Methanosaeta species) to provide a more nuanced prediction of activity. Results of this study suggest that at higher feeding rates competitive inhibition is important and mRNA provides a more accurate indicator of a population’s instantaneous

    3. Molecular biomarker-based biokinetic modeling of a PCE-dechlorinating and methanogenic mixed culture.

      PubMed

      Heavner, Gretchen L W; Rowe, Annette R; Mansfeldt, Cresten B; Pan, Ju Khuan; Gossett, James M; Richardson, Ruth E

      2013-04-16

      Bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes via anaerobic reductive dechlorination relies upon the activity of specific microbial populations--most notably Dehalococcoides (DHC) strains. In the lab and field Dehalococcoides grow most robustly in mixed communities which usually contain both fermenters and methanogens. Recently, researchers have been developing quantitative molecular biomarkers to aid in field site diagnostics and it is hoped that these biomarkers could aid in the modeling of anaerobic reductive dechlorination. A comprehensive biokinetic model of a community containing Dehalococcoides mccartyi (formerly D. ethenogenes) was updated to describe continuously fed reactors with specific biomass levels based on quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based population data (DNA and RNA). The model was calibrated and validated with subsets of chemical and molecular biological data from various continuous feed experiments (n = 24) with different loading rates of the electron acceptor (1.5 to 482 μeeq/L-h), types of electron acceptor (PCE, TCE, cis-DCE) and electron donor to electron acceptor ratios. The resulting model predicted the sum of dechlorination products vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene (ETH) well. However, VC alone was under-predicted and ETH was over predicted. Consequently, competitive inhibition among chlorinated ethenes was examined and then added to the model. Additionally, as 16S rRNA gene copy numbers did not provide accurate model fits in all cases, we examined whether an improved fit could be obtained if mRNA levels for key functional enzymes could be used to infer respiration rates. The resulting empirically derived mRNA "adjustment factors" were added to the model for both DHC and the main methanogen in the culture (a Methanosaeta species) to provide a more nuanced prediction of activity. Results of this study suggest that at higher feeding rates competitive inhibition is important and mRNA provides a more accurate indicator of a population's instantaneous

    4. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: TRICHLOROETHANE, TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND PERCHLOROETHYLENE. (R826694C633)

      EPA Science Inventory

      The effective destruction of trichloroethane, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene by steam reforming with a commercial nickel catalyst has been demonstrated. Conversion levels of up to 0.99999 were attained in both laboratory and semi-pilot experiments, with the products c...

    5. PERCHLOROETHYLENE (PERC) INHIBITS FUNCTION OF VOLTAGE-GATED CALCIUM CHANNELS IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELLS.

      EPA Science Inventory

      The industrial solvent perchloroethylene (PERC) is listed as a hazardous air pollutant in the 1990 Ammendments to Clean Air Act and is a known neurotoxicant. However, the mechanisms by which PERC alters nervous system function are poorly understood. In recent years, it has been d...

    6. Carbon isotope fractionation during abiotic reductive dehalogenation of trichloroethene (TCE).

      PubMed

      Bill, M; Schüth, C; Barth, J A; Kalin, R M

      2001-08-01

      Dehalogenation of trichloroethene (TCE) in the aqueous phase, either on palladium catalysts with hydrogen as the reductant or on metallic iron, was associated with strong changes in delta13C. In general, the delta13C of product phases were more negative than those of the parent compound and were enriched with time and fraction of TCE remaining. For dehalogenation with iron, the delta13C of TCE and products varied from -42/1000 to +5/1000. For the palladium experiments, the final product, ethane, reached the initial delta13C of TCE at completion of the dehalogenation reaction. During dehalogenation, the carbon isotope fractionation between TCE and product phases was not constant. The variation in delta13C of TCE and products offers a new monitoring tool that operates independently of the initial concentration of pollutants for abiotic degradation processes of TCE in the subsurface, and may be useful for evaluation of remediation efficiency. PMID:11513419

    7. Inter-Domain Redundancy Path Computation Methods Based on PCE

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hayashi, Rie; Oki, Eiji; Shiomoto, Kohei

      This paper evaluates three inter-domain redundancy path computation methods based on PCE (Path Computation Element). Some inter-domain paths carry traffic that must be assured of high quality and high reliability transfer such as telephony over IP and premium virtual private networks (VPNs). It is, therefore, important to set inter-domain redundancy paths, i. e. primary and secondary paths. The first scheme utilizes an existing protocol and the basic PCE implementation. It does not need any extension or modification. In the second scheme, PCEs make a virtual shortest path tree (VSPT) considering the candidates of primary paths that have corresponding secondary paths. The goal is to reduce blocking probability; corresponding secondary paths may be found more often after a primary path is decided; no protocol extension is necessary. In the third scheme, PCEs make a VSPT considering all candidates of primary and secondary paths. Blocking probability is further decreased since all possible candidates are located, and the sum of primary and secondary path cost is reduced by choosing the pair with minimum cost among all path pairs. Numerical evaluations show that the second and third schemes offer only a few percent reduction in blocking probability and path pair total cost, while the overheads imposed by protocol revision and increase of the amount of calculation and information to be exchanged are large. This suggests that the first scheme, the most basic and simple one, is the best choice.

    8. Long-term perchloroethylene exposure: a limited meta-analysis of neurobehavorial deficits in occupationally and residentially exposed groups

      EPA Science Inventory

      The literature concerning the neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects of long-term exposure to perchloroethylene (PERC) in humans was meta-analyzed to provide a quantitative review and synthesis. The useable data base from this literature comprised studies reporting effec...

    9. Status of groundwater pollution in the San Gabriel Valley, California

      SciTech Connect

      Earley, J.D.

      1987-07-01

      Contamination of groundwater in the San Gabriel Valley of California has been identified as a potential health hazard from industrial sources. Sampling has revealed the presence of trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CTC); therefore, water purveyors are using a variety of means to alleviate the contamination and the use of contaminated water.

    10. Biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene (TCE) in compost packed biofilters

      SciTech Connect

      Sukesan, S.; Watwood, M.E.

      1996-10-01

      Batch and column scale biofiltration experiments were performed to measure biodegradation of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE) in finished compost. Compost was amended with hydrocarbon gas (methane or propane) as primary substrate to support microorganisms capable of cometabolic TCE degradation. In column biofilter experiments hydrocarbon utilization was observed within 10-15 days; gaseous TCE (50 ppmv) was then introduced continuously into the biofilter at approximately 1 L min{sup -1}. Columns supplied with 0.5% v/v methane removed 73% TCE after 8 days of continuous column operation, whereas amendment with 0.25% v/v methane corresponded with TCE removal of 93%, which was observed after 1.5 h of column operation. Similar results were obtained for propane amendment. Biofilters without hydrocarbon amendment exhibited no TCE biodegradation over 35 days. These results, analyzed together with those obtained in batch experiments, indicate that hydrocarbon identity and concentration and other related parameters influence the extent of ICE breakdown.

    11. Methanotrophic TCE biodegradation in a multi-stage bioreactor

      SciTech Connect

      Tschantz, M.L.F.; Bowman, J.P.; Bienkowski, P.R.; Sayler, G.S.; Donaldson, T.L.; Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; Herbes, S.E.

      1995-08-01

      A two-stage bioreactor system was continuously fed a solution of TCE (concentrations ranging between 0.2 and 20 mg L{sup -1}) at 2 mL min{sup -1}; the system utilized a mutant (PP358) of the methane oxidizing bacterium Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b for the fortuitous cooxidation of TCE by the enzyme-soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO). A methane-free environment was maintained in the TCE treatment portion of the reactor (plug-flow columns), minimizing the effects of competitive inhibition between TCE and methane for the sMMO. The reactor was operated in two separate flow configurations, single-pass and cross-flow, with TCE removal percentages exceeding 78% (for a TCE feed concentration of 20 mg L{sup -1}) and 93% (for a TCE feed concentration of 10 mg L{sup -1}), respectively. A r{sub max} of 109.4 mg of TCE (g of VS){sup -1} d{sup -1} for a TCE feed concentration of 20 mg L{sup -1} was obtained, suggesting that high rates of degradation occurred within the reactor. TCE-induced toxicity effects occurred at TCE feed concentrations of 10 mg L{sup -1} and greater, resulting in declines of the biomass concentrations and the enzyme activities. A model describing the rate of TCE degradation in the plug-flow columns was proposed by Alvarez-Cohen et al. and was modified to incorporate the suboptimal activities of sMMO. 29 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

    12. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EFFECTS OF INHALED PERCHLOROETHYLENE ON SUSTAINED ATTENTION IN RATS PERFORMING A VISUAL SIGNAL DETECTION TASK

      EPA Science Inventory

      The aliphatic hydrocarbon perchloroethyelene (PCE) has been associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction including reduced attention in humans. The current study sought to assess the effects of inhaled PCE on sustained attention in rats performing a visual signal detection task (S...

    13. Laboratory and field evaluation of a SAW microsensor array for measuring perchloroethylene in breath.

      PubMed

      Groves, William A; Achutan, Chandran

      2004-12-01

      This article describes the laboratory and field performance evaluation of a small prototype instrument employing an array of six polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors and a thermal desorption preconcentration unit for rapid analysis of perchloroethylene in breath. Laboratory calibrations were performed using breath samples spiked with perchloroethylene to prepare calibration standards spanning a concentration range of 0.1-10 ppm. A sample volume of 250 mL was preconcentrated on 40 mg of Tenax GR at a flow rate of 100 mL/min, followed by a dry air purge and thermal desorption at a temperature of 200 degrees C. The resulting pulse of vapor was passed over the sensor array at a flow rate of 20 mL/min and sensor responses were recorded and displayed using a laptop computer. The total time per analysis was 4.5 min. SAW sensor responses were linear, and the instrument's limit of detection was estimated to be 50 ppb based on the criterion that four of the six sensors show a detectable response. Field performance was evaluated at a commercial dry-cleaning operation by comparing prototype instrument results for breath samples with those of a portable gas chromatograph (NIOSH 3704). Four breath samples were collected from a single subject over the course of the workday and analyzed using the portable gas chromatograph (GC) and SAW instruments. An additional seven spiked breath samples were prepared and analyzed so that a broader range of perchloroethylene concentrations could be examined. Linear regression analysis showed excellent agreement between prototype instrument and portable GC breath sample results with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 and a slope of 1.04. The average error for the prototype instrument over a perchloroethylene breath concentration range of 0.9-7.2 ppm was 2.6% relative to the portable GC. These results demonstrate the field capabilities of SAW microsensor arrays for rapid analysis of organic vapors in breath. PMID:15742707

    14. Draft genome sequence and characterization of Desulfitobacterium hafniense PCE-S

      PubMed Central

      2015-01-01

      This genome report describes the draft genome and the physiological characteristics of Desulfitobacterium hafniense PCE-S, a Gram-positive bacterium known to dechlorinate tetrachloroethene (PCE) to dichloroethene by a PCE reductive dehalogenase. The draft genome has a size of 5,666,696 bp with a G + C content of 47.3%. The genome is very similar to the already sequenced Desulfitobacterium hafniense Y51 and the type strain DCB-2. We identified two complete reductive dehalogenase (rdh) genes in the genome of D. hafniense PCE-S, one of which encodes PceA, the PCE reductive dehalogenase, and is located on a transposon. Interestingly, this transposon structure differs from the PceA-containing transposon of D. hafniense Y51. The second rdh encodes an unknown reductive dehalogenase, highly similar to rdhA 7 found in D. hafniense DCB-2, in which the corresponding gene is disrupted. This reductive dehalogenase might be responsible for the reductive dechlorination of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, which is mediated by D. hafniense PCE-S in addition to the reductive dechlorination of PCE. PMID:26203328

  1. Treatment of trichloroethene (TCE) with a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Foeller, J.R.; Segar, R.L. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBBR`s) offer a promising alternative to existing treatment technologies for the treatment of water contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The objective of this research was to test a laboratory-scale FBBR for removal of trichloroethene (TCE) from groundwater and to study the FBBR kinetic behavior so that field-scale treatment systems could be designed. Phenol was selected as the growth substrate for biofilm-forming microorganisms enriched from activated-sludge because phenol induces enzymes capable of cometabolizing TCE and lesser chlorinated ethenes. The biofilm forming microorganisms were identified as Pseudomonas putida, a common soil bacterium. Experiments with a conventional, single-pass FBBR addressed TCE removal as effected by changes in TCE loading, phenol loading, and media type. In this study, TCE removal using quartz filter sand and garnet filter sand as the biofilm attachment media was measured. Removal ranged from 20 to 60% and was not affected by the media type. Also, removal was not affected by inlet TCE concentration over the range of 100 to 500 {micro}g/L provided the phenol loading was decreased with increasing TCE loading. The FBBR was capable of complete phenol removal at an inlet concentration of 20 to 25 mg/L and an empty-bed contact time of 2.7 minutes. However, the empty-bed contact time was insufficient to sustain greater than 40 to 50% removal of TCE in a nutrient-amended groundwater.

  2. Cometabolic degradation kinetics of TCE and phenol by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Min; Lin, Tsair-Fuh; Huang, Chih; Lin, Jui-Che

    2008-08-01

    Modeling of cometabolic kinetics is important for better understanding of degradation reaction and in situ application of bio-remediation. In this study, a model incorporated cell growth and decay, loss of transformation activity, competitive inhibition between growth substrate and non-growth substrate and self-inhibition of non-growth substrate was proposed to simulate the degradation kinetics of phenol and trichloroethylene (TCE) by Pseudomonas putida. All the intrinsic parameters employed in this study were measured independently, and were then used for predicting the batch experimental data. The model predictions conformed well to the observed data at different phenol and TCE concentrations. At low TCE concentrations (<2 mg l(-1)), the models with or without self-inhibition of non-growth substrate both simulated the experimental data well. However, at higher TCE concentrations (>6 mg l(-1)), only the model considering self-inhibition can describe the experimental data, suggesting that a self-inhibition of TCE was present in the system. The proposed model was also employed in predicting the experimental data conducted in a repeated batch reactor, and good agreements were observed between model predictions and experimental data. The results also indicated that the biomass loss in the degradation of TCE below 2 mg l(-1) can be totally recovered in the absence of TCE for the next cycle, and it could be used for the next batch experiment for the degradation of phenol and TCE. However, for higher concentration of TCE (>6 mg l(-1)), the recovery of biomass may not be as good as that at lower TCE concentrations. PMID:18586301

  3. EVALUATION OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF SUBSURFACE TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PCE) IN CONTROLLED SPILL EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tetrachloroethylene (PCE), typically used as a dry cleaning solvent, is a predominant contaminant in the subsurface at Superfund Sites. PCE is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) that migrates downward into the earth, leaving behind areas of residual saturation and free prod...

  4. Fate and Transport of TCE Solvents Through Saturated Karst Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Carmona, M.; Anaya, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) are a group of organic compounds that have been a serious problem for groundwater pollution in karst. The industrial production and utilization of these chemicals spread since 1940, and are present at tens of thousands of contaminated sites worldwide. The physic-chemical properties of DNAPLs in conjunction with the hydraulic properties of the karst systems create the perfect condition for DNAPLs to penetrate the epikarst, reach the groundwater, and more within the karst system to zones of potential exposure, such as wells, streams and wetlands. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is the most common DNPAL found in the subsurface environment. This research studies the fate and transport of TCE DNAPL in a karstified limestone physical model (KLPM). Experiments are carried out in KLPM. The KLPM is an enclosed stainless steel tank packed with a rectangular limestone block (15cm x 15cm x 76cm) that simulates a saturated confine karst aquifer. DNAPL experiment involve the injection of 40 ml of pure TCE into steady groundwater flow at the upstream boundary of the KLPM model, while sampling spatially and temporally along the block. Samples are analyzed for TCE on the pure and dissolved phase. Pure TCE is analyzed volumetrically and dissolved phase concentrations are analyze using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). TCE data is used to construct temporal distributions curves (TDCs) at different spatial locations. Results show that pure TCE volumes are collected at the beginnings of the experiment in sampling ports located near the injection port and along preferential flow paths. TCE concentration TDCs show spatial variations related to the limestone block heterogeneously. Rapid response to TCE concentrations is associated with preferential flow paths. Slow response and long tailing of TCE of TCE concentration are associated with diffusive transport in rock matrix and mass transport rates limitations. Bimodal distributions are

  5. Decontamination of TCE- and U-rich waters by granular iron: Role of sorbed Fe(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Charlet, L.; Liger, E.; Gerasimo, P.

    1998-01-01

    Uranium (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) and chlorinated aliphatics [tetrachloroethane (PCE) and trichloroethane (TCE)] can be reduced and thus immobilized or degraded, respectively, by the same abiotic mechanism. In this mechanism the reduction reaction is coupled to the oxidation of Fe(II) sorbed on iron corrosion products such as hematite. This is indicated by the equilibrium E{sub h} values measured during uranium immobilization and PCE degradation reactions of zerovalent iron. These values fit closely with those measured in the Fe(II)-{alpha}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O system (in the absence of U or PCE), not those of the Fe(o)/Fe(II) or H{sub 2}(g)/H{sub 2}O couples. Because iron (II) is very unstable in environments that are not strictly anaerobic, Fe(o) serves as a source of Fe(II). The reduction kinetic rate, analyzed in detail for the reduction of U(VI), is found to be a function of the concentration of OH{sup {minus}}, Fe{sup 2+} and reactive surface sites, and is given in terms of sorbed species concentrations by {l_brace}d[U(VI)]{sub ads}{r_brace}/dt = {l_brace}{minus}k{prime}[{triple_bond}FeOFeOH{sup 0}][U(VI)]{sub ads}{r_brace}. This rate law applies to organic pollutants as well, as long as they can be reduced by surface Fe(II): {l_brace}d[Pollutant]{r_brace}/dt = {l_brace}{minus}k{prime}[{triple_bond}FeOFeOH{sup 0}][Pollutant]{r_brace}. This mechanism suggests new possibilities for the improvement of low-cost decontamination techniques for U- and chlorinated aliphatic-rich waters.

  6. Coupling Surfactant Flushing and Bioaugmentation for PCE-DNAPL Source Zone Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cápiro, N. L.; Granbery, E. K.; Amos, B. K.; Löffler, F. E.; Pennell, K. D.

    2008-12-01

    Enhanced solubilization flushing using a biodegradable surfactant (Tween 80) was combined with bioaugmentation to initiate microbial reductive dechlorination and detoxify residual tetrachloroethene (PCE)- dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). Dechlorination activity, spatial distribution of Dehalococcoides spp., and down-gradient plume development were monitored in a 2-D aquifer cell equipped with eighteen sampling ports. Saturation distributions of the PCE-DNAPL source zone were quantified using a light transmission system to determine the ganglia-to-pool (GTP) volume ratio, which was approximately 1.5 (i.e., 60% ganglia and 40% pools) prior to surfactant flushing. Flushing with three pore volumes (PVs) of 4% (w/w) Tween 80 solution recovered approximately 55% of the original PCE mass and reduced PCE effluent concentration from saturation (200 mg/L) to less than 50 mg/L. Following the introduction of reduced basal salts medium amended with 10 mM lactate, nine side ports located upstream and within the initial PCE- DNAPL source zone were augmented with Bio-Dechlor INOCULUM (BDI), a PCE-to-ethene dechlorinating consortium. Flux-averaged measurements of aqueous effluent samples revealed the conversion of PCE to cis-dichloroethene (DCE) with minimal lag time (7 days, approx. 1 PV), and vinyl chloride and ethene were detected within 10 PVs after bioaugmentation. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting Dehalococcoides spp. demonstrated growth once aqueous PCE concentrations decreased below inhibitory levels (~540 mM), with significant growth (2 to 4-orders of magnitude) near the remaining source zone. These results demonstrate the successful colonization of a pool-dominated (NAPL saturation >0.13) PCE- DNAPL source zone by a dechlorinating consortium following partial mass removal, and the potential for locally bioenhanced DNAPL dissolution.

  7. TCE adsorption by GAC preloaded with humic substances

    SciTech Connect

    Kilduff, J.E.; Karanfil, T.; Weber, W.J. Jr.

    1998-05-01

    Adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) by activated carbon preloaded with humic and fulvic acids was studied under several conditions in completely mixed batch systems. The authors investigated how molecular weight and molecular-weight distribution of preloaded humic substances affected subsequent adsorption of TCE. The capacity of carbon to adsorb TCE was most greatly reduced in carbon that was preloaded with humic acid components having molecular weights less than about 1,400 g/mol as polystyrene sulfonate. The adsorption capacity was greatly reduced in carbon that was preloaded with whole humic mixtures in which lower molecular weights predominated. The energy distributions of adsorbent indicate that preloaded compounds preferentially occupy high-energy sites, making them inaccessible to subsequently encountered TCE.

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroethylene (TCE) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Trichloroethylene (TCE) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  9. TCE degradation by methanotrophic bacteria in a water-saturated sand column

    SciTech Connect

    Fayolle, F.; Le Roux, F.; Treboul, C.; Ballerini, D.

    1995-12-31

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation in a polluted aquifer was simulated using water-saturated sand columns with alternative injection of aqueous TCE/salt solution and CH{sub 4}/air mixture. Experiments were performed with two columns. The first under abiotic conditions to determine the TCE stripped fraction and the second seeded with a methanotrophic strain to quantify TCE biodegradation. Preliminary tests were performed in flasks to optimize CH{sub 4}/air injection. Stripping of TCE increased with increasing influent TCE concentration and residence time inside the column. TCE losses in gaseous effluent varied between 34% and 67% of the TCE injected. Under nonlimiting oxygen and mineral nutrient conditions, 50% of the TCE was biodegraded immediately after seeding the column, this value finally stabilizing at 20 to 30% of residual TCE after stripping.

  10. Coupling Surfactants with Permanganate for PCE DNAPL Removal: Coinjection or Sequential Application as Delivery Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, P. J.; Siegrist, R. L.; Crimi, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Batch experiments and two-dimensional (2-D) flow-through cell experiments were conducted to investigate coupling surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of tetrachloroethene (PCE) dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) for PCE mass destruction. Previous batch screening tests were performed on surfactants and cosolvents in the presence of the oxidant potassium permanganate, to assess compatibility for coupling with permanganate. The anionic surfactants sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT), and sodium hexadecyl diphenyl oxide disulfonate (Dowfax 8390) were compatible and selected for use. Two delivery methods were investigated: (1) coinjection of 0.66 pore volumes (PVs) of 1.0-wt% Aerosol-OT, 0.5-wt% Dowfax 8390, 0.35-wt% CaBr2, and 0.75-wt% NaBr, (for enhanced PCE solubilization) with 0.5-wt% permanganate(for DNAPL mass destruction), and (2) sequential application of 0.66 PVs of the same surfactant solution followed by 0.66 PVs of 0.5-wt% permanganate flush. The 2-D cell packing configuration consisted of a fine-grained silica sand matrix with an embedded medium- grained sand lens, which allowed for the development of a high saturation PCE DNAPL source zone (~9-11% v/v) within the lens of each cell. For both experiments the flushing solutions were delivered at a linear velocity of 52 cm/day. Water quality samples were collected from eight point sampling ports, as well as the cell effluent. Samples were analyzed for PCE, chloride, and permanganate. At the conclusion of the experiments, the mass of PCE removed was quantified by destructively analyzing the cell. Results indicate complete mass removal using sequential application as a delivery method. In the coinjection experiment, cores extracted at the conclusion revealed that 99.8% of PCE DNAPL mass was removed. However, it was not possible to close a mass balance between the initial PCE added and the PCE removed. It is hypothesized this result was due to incomplete

  11. The Potential of the Ni-Resistant TCE-Degrading Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to Reduce Phytotoxicity and Improve Phytoremediation Efficiency of Poplar Cuttings on A Ni-TCE Co-Contamination.

    PubMed

    Weyens, Nele; Beckers, Bram; Schellingen, Kerim; Ceulemans, Reinhart; van der Lelie, Daniel; Newman, Lee; Taghavi, Safiyh; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    To examine the potential of Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE to improve phytoremediation of Ni-TCE co-contamination, the effects of inoculation of a Ni-resistant, TCE-degrading root endophyte on Ni-TCE phytotoxicity, Ni uptake and trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation of Ni-TCE-exposed poplar cuttings are evaluated. After inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE, root weight of non-exposed poplar cuttings significantly increased. Further, inoculation induced a mitigation of the Ni-TCE phytotoxicity, which was illustrated by a diminished exposure-induced increase in activity of antioxidative enzymes. Considering phytoremediation efficiency, inoculation with P. putida W619-TCE resulted in a 45% increased Ni uptake in roots as well as a slightly significant reduction in TCE concentration in leaves and TCE evapotranspiration to the atmosphere. These results indicate that endophytes equipped with the appropriate characteristics can assist their host plant to deal with co-contamination of toxic metals and organic contaminants during phytoremediation. Furthermore, as poplar is an excellent plant for biomass production as well as for phytoremediation, the obtained results can be exploited to produce biomass for energy and industrial feedstock applications in a highly productive manner on contaminated land that is not suited for normal agriculture. Exploiting this land for biomass production could contribute to diminish the conflict between food and bioenergy production. PMID:25174423

  12. Isolation of a methanogenic bacterium, Methanosarcina sp. strain FR, for its ability to degrade high concentration of perchloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Cabirol, N; Villemur, R; Perrier, J; Jacob, F; Fouillet, B; Chambon, P

    1998-12-01

    Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is a toxic compound essentially used as a degreasing and dry-cleaning solvent. A methanogenic and sulfate-reducing consortium that dechlorinates and mineralizes high concentrations of PCE was derived from anaerobically digested sludge obtained from a waste water treatment plant (Bourg-en-Bresse, France). A methanogenic bacterium, strain FR, was isolated from this acclimated consortium. On the basis of morphological and physiological characteristics, strain FR was classified in the genus of Methanosarcina. Phylogeny analysis with the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain FR is highly related to Methanosarcina mazei and Methanosarcina frisia (99.6 and 99.5% identity, respectively). High concentrations (50-87 microM) of PCE were completely dechlorinated by strain FR cultures at the rate of 76 nM-mg protein(-1).day(-1). PCE dechlorination produced a nonidentified compound. The tracer experiments with [13C]PCE revealed that the product was nonchlorinated. Dechlorination of PCE to trichloroethylene was still active in the presence of boiled cell extract of the strain FR. However, no further dechlorination was observed. This result suggests that a cofactor rather than an enzymatic system is responsible for the first dechlorination of PCE. Dechlorination-active fractions purified from cell extracts on a XAD-4 column revealed the presence of F(420), F(430), and cobamides cofactors. This is the first report of the isolation of a methanogenic bacterium with the ability to dechlorinate high concentrations of PCE to a nonchlorinated product. PMID:10383226

  13. Drip Irrigation Aided Phytoremediation for Removal of TCE from Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2003-04-24

    Groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and by-products resulting from discharges of this organic solvent during past disposal practices. This contaminated groundwater occurs primarily at depths of 9 meters to 15 meters below ground surface, well below the depths that are typically penetrated by plant roots. The process investigated in this study involved pumping water from the contaminated aquifer and discharging the water into overlying test plots two inches below the surface using drip irrigation. The field treatability study was conducted from 8/31/00 to 4/18/02 using six 0.08 hectare test plots, two each containing pines, cottonwoods, and no vegetation (controls). The primary objective was to determine the overall effectiveness of the process for TCE removal and to determine the principal biotic and abiotic pathways for its removal. Results demonstrated that the process provides a viable method to remove TCE-contaminated groundwater. The data clearly showed that the presence of trees reduced volatilization of TCE from the drip irrigation system to the atmosphere. Influent groundwater TCE concentrations averaging 89 mg/L were reduced to non-detectable levels (less than 5 mg/L) within the upper two feet of soil (rhizosphere).

  14. The effect of Fe(0) on electrokinetic remediation of clay contaminated with perchloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C

    2006-01-01

    The present paper was to investigate the effect of Fe(0) reaction barrier position and Fe(0) quantity on the remediation efficiency and electrokinetic performances of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contaminated clay under potential gradient of 2 V/cm for 5 days. The Fe(0) reaction barrier was composed of 2 to approximately 16 g of Fe(0) mixed with Ottawa sand in a ratio of 1: 2. Its positions were respectively located at the anode, the middle, and the cathode end of the electrokinetic cell. Results showed that a relatively higher remediation of 66% of PCE was found as the Fe(0) reaction barrier located at the cathode side, which corresponded to a factor 2.4 times greater than that in the EK system alone (27.0%). As the Fe(0) quantity increased to 16 g, a highest remediation efficiency of 90.7% was found. It was concluded that the PCE removal in the EK/Fe(0) system was dominated by Fe(0) quantity rather than the Fe(0) reaction barrier position. As more Fe(0) existed in the EK system, a higher electroosmosis flow, higher permeability, and lower soil pH after treatment were found. The cost analyses were also investigated in this research. PMID:16749444

  15. Field and laboratory evaluation of a diffusive emitter for semipassive release of PCE to an aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Arildskov, N.P.; Devlin, J.F.

    2000-02-01

    In controlled field experiments or model aquifers, it is sometimes desirable to introduce solutes below the water table without perturbing the flow system. Diffusive emitters offer a means of achieving that goal. In this study, two laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate nylon tubing as a diffusive emitter for tetrachloroethene (PCE). The initial approach was to pump a saturated aqueous PCE solution through a piece of nylon tubing immersed in a flow-through contractor vessel. Millipore water was pumped through the contractor vessel at a constant rate. Due to PCE diffusion through the nylon, a steady-state concentration in the contractor vessel eventually developed. The process was well described by a computer model that accounted for retarded diffusion through the nylon. In a second experiment, pieces of nylon tubing were exposed to a relatively low concentration of PCE in water for 10 days in gently rotated hypovials. With the aid of a second diffusion model, the bulk diffusion coefficient was obtained from the concentration history of the solution. With the different experimental conditions taken into account, there was reasonably good agreement between the bulk diffusion coefficients in the two experiments. The results were used in the field design of a semipassive release system. Evaluation of this system showed a lower than expected steady-state concentration of PCE inside the releasing wells. The difference is likely due to lower temperature, variable PCE concentrations in the nylon tubing, and nonideal mixing in the wells. The work has shown that laboratory derived diffusion coefficients for polymeric materials are likely to be larger than, but within an order of magnitude of, the effective diffusion coefficients exhibited by emitters in the field. Nevertheless, with temperature corrections taken into account and proper well development, these values could be used to design emitters that would suit most practical applications.

  16. TCE REMEDIATION: REVIEW OF TECHNOLOGIES AND COMPARISON OF COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information will be compiled to compare the cost and performance of conventional technologies used to remediate dissolved TCE plumes in groundwater with the cost and performance of innovative and/or emerging technologies. The conditions at Elizabeth City, NC (site of an ongoing f...

  17. In Situ Dechlorination of TCE During Aquifer Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Powell, Thomas; Lynch, Kira P.

    2007-04-01

    Laboratory and field efforts were undertaken to examine trichloroethene (TCE) dechlorination as a function of temperature as an aquifer is heated to temperatures approaching boiling. Experiments were conducted using sediment samples during electrical resistance heating (ERH) treatment at the Fort Lewis East Gate Disposal Yard, which contains non-aqueous phase TCE and hydrocarbon contamination. Laboratory microcosms with these sediments showed TCE dechlorination at 70oC with measured products of acetylene, ethene, and ethane, indicating an abiotic component of the degradation. In contrast, TCE was dechlorinated to cis-1,2-dichloroethene in experiments at 10oC, likely by biological reductive dechlorination. The observed products at 70oC suggest dechlorination catalyzed by reduced sediment iron. Indications of in situ dechlorination were observed in periodic groundwater samples collected during field-scale electrical resistance heating from an average ambient temperature of about 19oC to near boiling. Dechlorination indicators included an increase in chloride concentration at the onset of heating and observation of acetylene, ethene, and methane at elevated temperatures. The data collected in this study suggest that dechlorination can occur during ERH. The overall cost-effectiveness of ERH may be enhanced by fortuitous in situ dechlorination and, potentially, can be further enhanced by specifically designing and operating ERH to maximize in situ dechlorination.

  18. FRACTIONATION OF STABLE CARBON ISOTOPES DURING ABIOTIC TRANSFORMATION OF TCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    At a Superfund Site in Minnesota, ground water is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) with the contaminant plume stretching over five miles long. The ground water is iron and manganese reducing, and the complete absence of dichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and ethene in th...

  19. The Impact of FeS Mineralogy on TCE Degradation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron- and sulfate-reducing conditions are often encountered in permeable reactive barrier (PRB) systems that are constructed to remove TCE from groundwater, which usually leads to the accumulation of FeS mineral phases in the matrix of the PRB. Poorly crystalline mackinawite (Fe...

  20. Impact of FeS Mineralogy on TCE Degradation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron- and sulfate-reducing conditions are often encountered in permeable reactive barrier (PRB) systems that are constructed to remove TCE from groundwater, which usually leads to the accumulation of FeS mineral phases in the matrix of the PRB. Poorly crystalline mackinawite (Fe...

  1. KINETICS AND MECHANISMS FOR TCE OXIDATION BY PERMANGANATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by permanganate was studied via a series of kinetic experiments. The goal in product identificationa dn parameterization of the oxidation kinetics was to assess the utility of this reaction as the basis for the in-situ remediation of grou...

  2. Transpiration and metabolisation of TCE by willow plants - a pot experiment.

    PubMed

    Schöftner, Philipp; Watzinger, Andrea; Holzknecht, Philipp; Wimmer, Bernhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G

    2016-07-01

    Willows were grown in glass cylinders filled with compost above water-saturated quartz sand, to trace the fate of TCE in water and plant biomass. The experiment was repeated once with the same plants in two consecutive years. TCE was added in nominal concentrations of 0, 144, 288, and 721 mg l(-1). Unplanted cylinders were set-up and spiked with nominal concentrations of 721 mg l(-1) TCE in the second year. Additionally, (13)C-enriched TCE solution (δ(13)C = 110.3 ‰) was used. Periodically, TCE content and metabolites were analyzed in water and plant biomass. The presence of TCE-degrading microorganisms was monitored via the measurement of the isotopic ratio of carbon ((13)C/(12)C) in TCE, and the abundance of (13)C-labeled microbial PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids). More than 98% of TCE was lost via evapotranspiration from the planted pots within one month after adding TCE. Transpiration accounted to 94 to 78% of the total evapotranspiration loss. Almost 1% of TCE was metabolized in the shoots, whereby trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) were dominant metabolites; less trichloroethanol (TCOH) and TCE accumulated in plant tissues. Microbial degradation was ruled out by δ(13)C measurements of water and PLFAs. TCE had no detected influence on plant stress status as determined by chlorophyll-fluorescence and gas exchange. PMID:26684839

  3. FIELD MEASUREMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION RATES AT A PCE SITE (ABSTRACT ONLY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was performed to evaluate vapor intrusion (VI) of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and other chlorinated solvents at a commercial retail site in Dallas, TX. The building is approximately 40 years old and once housed a dry cleaning operation. Results from an initial site ch...

  4. Hydration of alumina cement containing ferrotitanium slag with polycarboxylate-ethers (PCE) additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechkalov, Denis; Chernogorlov, Sergey; Abyzov, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The paper is discussing results of study of alumina binder containing aluminous cement and ferrotitanium slag from aluminothermic process by Kliuchevskoi Ferroalloys corp. with various additives containing polycarboxylate-ethers (PCE). Selecting ferrotitanium slag as additive is based on the fact that its content of alumina and phase composition is closest to the alumina cement. The composition of the ferrotitanium slag is displayed. In order to compensate the decrease in strength caused by addition of ferrotitanium slag having low activity, PCE additives were added. As PCE additives were used Melflux 1641F, Melflux 2651F and Melflux PP200F by BASF. The effect of additives on the hydration of the binder, depending on the amount and time of additives hardening is shown. The composition of the hydration products in the cement was studied by physico-chemical analysis: derivatography and X-ray analysis. It is found that in the early stages of hardening PCE additives have inhibitory effect on hydration processes and promote new phase amorphization. The optimal content of additives was investigated. The basic properties of the binders have been tested. It was observed that the modified binders meet the requirements of Russian National State Standard GOST 969 to the alumina cement.

  5. Sewer Gas: An Indoor Air Source of PCE to Consider During Vapor Intrusion Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, Kelly G.; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; McClean, Michael D.; Ames, Jennifer; Weldon, Brittany; Friguglietti, Leigh; Suuberg, Eric M.; Shen, Rui; Indeglia, Paul A.; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is finalizing its vapor intrusion guidelines. One of the important issues related to vapor intrusion is background concentrations of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in indoor air, typically attributed to consumer products and building materials. Background concentrations can exist even in the absence of vapor intrusion and are an important consideration when conducting site assessments. In addition, the development of accurate conceptual models that depict pathways for vapor entry into buildings is important during vapor intrusion site assessments. Sewer gas, either as a contributor to background concentrations or as part of the site conceptual model, is not routinely evaluated during vapor intrusion site assessments. The research described herein identifies an instance where vapors emanating directly from a sanitary sewer pipe within a residence were determined to be a source of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) detected in indoor air. Concentrations of PCE in the bathroom range from 2.1 to 190 ug/m3 and exceed typical indoor air concentrations by orders of magnitude resulting in human health risk classified as an “Imminent Hazard” condition. The results suggest that infiltration of sewer gas resulted in PCE concentrations in indoor air that were nearly two-orders of magnitude higher as compared to when infiltration of sewer gas was not known to be occurring. This previously understudied pathway whereby sewers serve as sources of PCE (and potentially other VOC) vapors is highlighted. Implications for vapor intrusion investigations are also discussed. PMID:23950637

  6. Au Nanocluster assisted PCE improvement in PEDOT: PSS - Si Hybrid Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manisha; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Ayon, Arturo A.

    2015-03-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), a P-type organic polymer is frequently employed in the fabrication of heterojunction p-n solar cell devices due to its proper HOMO-LUMO band gap as well as its tunable conductivity. In this report we describe the incorporation of gold (Au) nanoclusters in the PEDOT:PSS blend and its influence on the power-conversion-efficiency (PCE) on planar silicon (Si) hybrid heterojunction solar cell devices. Specifically, the reference samples without the aforementioned nanoclusters, were measured to exhibit a 6.10% PCE, value that increased to 7.55% upon the addition of the Au nanoclusters. The observed increase in the PCE is attributed to the enhanced electrical conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS films due to the incorporation of the nanoclusters, which is directly reflected in their improved fill factor. It is further theorized that the presence of Au nanoclusters in the insulating PSS layer in the PEDOT:PSS blend have a positive influence in the charge collection effectiveness of the devices produced. Considering that the Au nanoparticles involved in this research exercise had an average size of only 4 nm, it is considered that plasmonic effects did not play a relevant role in the observed PCE improvement.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the pneumococcal teichoic acid phosphorylcholine esterase Pce

    SciTech Connect

    Lagartera, Laura; González, Ana; Stelter, Meike; García, Pedro; Kahn, Richard; Menéndez, Margarita; Hermoso, Juan A.

    2005-02-01

    The modular choline-binding protein Pce, the phosphorylcholine esterase from S. pneumoniae, has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A SAD data set from a derivative with a gadolinium complex has been collected to 2.7 Å resolution.

  8. PCE/K-10 Activities for Career Education, Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Area II Office.

    The Portland (Oregon) Public School Project Career Education (PCE) Activities for grades 4-6 is based on the city's overall Area 2 program goals for career education which proposed that children completing school should have sufficient knowledge and competencies to enter into a field of employment or an advanced training program in that field.…

  9. Adult Neuropsychological Performance Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

  10. Effects of pure and dyed PCE on physical and interfacial properties of remedial solutions.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung-Woo; Wood, A Lynn; Lee, Tony R

    2002-11-11

    Hydrophobic dyes have been used to visually distinguish dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminants from background aqueous phases and soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a dyed DNAPL, 0.5 g Oil-Red-O/l of PCE, on the physical properties of remedial solutions: water, co-solvents (50, 70, and 90% (v/v) ethanol), and surfactants (4% (w) sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate). This study compared the densities, viscosities, and interfacial tensions (IFTs) of the remedial solutions in contact with both dyed and undyed PCE. The presence of the dye in PCE substantially alters the IFTs of water and ethanol solutions, while there is no apparent difference in IFTs of surfactant solutions. The remedial solutions saturated with PCE showed higher viscosities and densities than pure remedial solutions. Solutions with high ethanol content exhibited the largest increases in liquid density. Because physical properties affect the flow of the remedial solutions in porous media, experiments using dyed DNAPLs should assess the influence of dyes on fluid and interfacial properties prior to remediation process analysis. PMID:12409243

  11. Characterization of Microbial Communities in TCE-Contaminated Seep Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    ROBIN, BRIGMON

    2005-03-07

    Hundreds of sites across the United States contain trichloroethene (TCE) contamination, including the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. Previous studies have indicated that microorganisms are capable of efficiently degrading TCE to nonhazardous end products. In this project, molecular and growth based methods were used for microbial characterization of a TCE impacted seepzone where TCE degradation is naturally occurring. The results from this work provide clear evidence that the SRB may play a significant role in TCE degradation along the Twin Lakes seepline.

  12. DEPENDENCE OF A HIGH-RATE, PCE-DECHLORINATING ENRICHMENT CULTURE ON METHANOGENIC ACTIVITY. (R825549C053)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role served by the presence of methanogenic activity within a tetrachloroethene (PCE)-dechlorinating culture was investigated through a series of supplementation experiments. An acclimated lactate-enrichment culture (LEC 1) capable of rapidly converting PCE to ethene was s...

  13. Use of enrichments and nucleic acid probes in monitoring bioremediation of a deep trichloroethylene plume

    SciTech Connect

    Brockman, F.; Payne, W.; Workman, D.; Soong, A.; Manley, S.; Sun, W.; Ogram, A.

    1994-12-31

    The field site was manipulated with injection of air (control experiment), 1% methane (in air), pulsing of air only and 4% methane, and pulsing of 4% methane supplemented with gaseous forms of nitrogen and phosphorus. Gases were injected through a horizontal well into the aquifer and a vacuum was established in a second horizontal well in the vadose zone. Following each injection regime, sediment samples from the contaminated region were analyzed. Analyses included most-probable-number enrichments for physiological groups known or suspected to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE) and per-chloroethylene (PCE), TCE and PCE removal from enrichments, and DNA extraction and hybridization with various gene probes corresponding to enzymes known to degrade TCE or TCE metabolites.

  14. Quantification of potassium permanganate consumption and PCE oxidation in subsurface materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hønning, J.; Broholm, M. M.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2007-03-01

    A series of laboratory scale batch slurry experiments were conducted in order to establish a data set for oxidant demand by sandy and clayey subsurface materials as well as to identify the reaction kinetic rates of permanganate (MnO 4-) consumption and PCE oxidation as a function of the MnO 4- concentration. The laboratory experiments were carried out with 31 sandy and clayey subsurface sediments from 12 Danish sites. The results show that the consumption of MnO 4- by reaction with the sediment, termed the natural oxidant demand (NOD), is the primary reaction with regards to quantification of MnO 4- consumption. Dissolved PCE in concentrations up to 100 mg/l in the sediments investigated is not a significant factor in the total MnO 4- consumption. Consumption of MnO 4- increases with an increasing initial MnO 4- concentration. The sediment type is also important as NOD is (generally) higher in clayey than in sandy sediments for a given MnO 4- concentration. For the different sediment types the typical NOD values are 0.5-2 g MnO 4-/kg dry weight (dw) for glacial meltwater sand, 1-8 g MnO 4-/kg dw for sandy till and 5-20 g MnO 4-/kg dw for clayey till. The long term consumption of MnO 4- and oxidation of PCE can not be described with a single rate constant, as the total MnO 4- reduction is comprised of several different reactions with individual rates. During the initial hours of reaction, first order kinetics can be applied, where the short term first order rate constants for consumption of MnO 4- and oxidation of PCE are 0.05-0.5 h - 1 and 0.5-4.5 h - 1 , respectively. The sediment does not act as an instantaneous sink for MnO 4-. The consumption of MnO 4- by reaction with the reactive species in the sediment is the result of several parallel reactions, during which the reaction between the contaminant and MnO 4- also takes place. Hence, application of low MnO 4- concentrations can cause partly oxidation of PCE, as the oxidant demand of the sediment does not need

  15. Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination of TCE in a Basalt Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    K. S. Sorenson; L. N. Peterson; R. Ely

    1999-04-01

    A field evaluation of enhanced reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater has been in progress since November 1998 to determine whether in situ biodegradation can be significantly enhanced through the addition of an electron donor (lactate). An in situ treatment cell was established in the residual source area of a large TCE plume in a fractured basalt aquifer utilizing continuous ground water extraction approximately 150 meters downgradient of the injection location. After a 1-month tracer test and baseline sampling period, the pulsed injection of lactate was begun. Ground water samples were collected from 11 sampling points on a biweekly basis and in situ water quality parameters were recorded every 4 hours at two locations. Within 2 weeks after the initial lactate injection, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were observed to decrease substantially at all sampling locations within 40 m of the injection well. Decreases in nitrate and sulfate concentrations were also observed. Both quantitative in situ rate estimation methods and qualitative measures such as changes in redox conditions, decreases in chlorine number, and changes in biomass indicator parameters are being used throughout the test to evaluate the extent to which biodegradation of TCE is enhanced.

  16. Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination of TCE in a Basalt Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, Kent Soren; Peterson, Lance Nutting; Ely, R. L.

    1999-04-01

    A field evaluation of enhanced reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in ground water has been in progress since November 1998 to determine whether in situ biodegradation can be significantly enhanced through the addition of an electron donor (lactate). An in situ treatment cell was established in the residual source area of a large TCE plume in a fractured basalt aquifer utilizing continuous ground water extraction approximately 150 meters downgradient of the injection location. After a 1-month tracer test and baseline sampling period, the pulsed injection of lactate was begun. Ground water samples were collected from 11 sampling points on a biweekly basis and in situ water quality parameters were recorded every 4 hours at two locations. Within 2 weeks after the initial lactate injection, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were observed to decrease substantially at all sampling locations within 40 m of the injection well. Decreases in nitrate and sulfate concentrations were also observed. Both quantitative in situ rate estimation methods and qualitative measures such as changes in redox conditions, decreases in chlorine number, and changes in biomass indicator parameters are being used throughout the test to evaluate the extent to which biodegradation of TCE is enhanced.

  17. A Planet Hunters Search of the Kepler TCE Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwamb, Meg; Lintott, Chris; Fischer, Debra; Smith, Arfon; Boyajian, Tabetha; Brewer, John; Giguere, Matt; Lynn, Stuart; Schawinski, Kevin; Simpson, Rob; Wang, Ji

    2013-07-01

    NASA's Kepler spacecraft has spent the past 4 years monitoring ~160,000 stars for the signatures of transiting exoplanets. Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org), part of the Zooniverse (http://www.zooniverse.org) collection of citizen science projects, uses the power of human pattern recognition via the World Wide Web to identify transits in the Kepler public data. We have demonstrated the success of a citizen science approach with the project's discoveries including PH1 b, a transiting circumbinary planet in a four star system., and over 20 previously unknown planet candidates. The Kepler team has released the list of 18,406 potential transit signals or threshold-crossing events (TCEs) identified in Quarters 1-12 (~1000 days) by their automated Transit Planet Search (TPS) algorithm. The majority of these detections found by TPS are triggered by transient events and are not valid planet candidates. To identify planetary candidates from the detected TCEs, a human review of the validation reports, generated by the Kepler pipeline for each TCE, is performed by several Kepler team members. We have undertaken an independent crowd-sourced effort to perform a systematic search of the Kepler Q1-12 TCE list. With the Internet we can obtain multiple assessments of each TCE's data validation report. Planet Hunters volunteers evaluate whether a transit is visible in the Kepler light curve folded on the expected period identified by TPS. We present the first results of this analysis.

  18. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Malvern TCE Superfund Site, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    The Malvern TCE Superfund Site, a former solvent recycling facility that now stores and sells solvents, consists of a plant and disposal area, which are approximately 1,900 ft (feet) apart. The site is underlain by an unconfined carbonate bedrock aquifer in which permeability has been enhanced in places by solution. Water levels respond quickly to precipitation and show a similar seasonal variation, response to precipitation, and range of fluctuation. The altitude of water levels in wells at the disposal area is nearly identical because of the small hydraulic gradient. A comparison of water-table maps for 1983, 1993, and 1994 shows that the general shape of the water table and hydraulic gradients in the area have remained the same through time and for different climatic conditions. The plant area is underlain by dolomite of the Elbrook Formation. The dolomite at the plant area does not yield as much water as the dolomite at the disposal area because it is less fractured, and wells penetrate few water-bearing fractures. Yields of nine wells at the plant area range from 1 to 200 gal/min (gallons per minute); the median yield is 6 gal/min. Specific capacities range from 0.08 to 2 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot). Aquifer tests were conducted in two wells; median transmissivities estimated from the aquifer-test data ranged from 528 to 839 feet squared per day. Maximum concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in ground water at the plant area in 1996 were 53,900 ug/L (micrograms per liter) for trichloroethylene (TCE), 7,110 ug/L for tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and 17,700 ug/L for 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). A ground-water divide is located between the plant area and the disposal area. Ground-water withdrawal for dewatering the Catanach quarry has caused a cone of depression in the water-table surface that reaches to the plant area. From the plant area, ground water flows 1.2 miles to the northeast and discharges to the Catanach quarry. The regional

  19. Bacteria associated with oak and ash on a TCE-contaminated site: Characterization of isolates with potential to avoid evapotranspiration of TCE

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Barac, T.; Boulet, J.; Artois, T.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-11-01

    Along transects under a mixed woodland of English Oak (Quercus robur) and Common Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) growing on a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater plume, sharp decreases in TCE concentrations were observed, while transects outside the planted area did not show this remarkable decrease. This suggested a possibly active role of the trees and their associated bacteria in the remediation process. Therefore, the cultivable bacterial communities associated with both tree species growing on this TCE-contaminated groundwater plume were investigated in order to assess the possibilities and practical aspects of using these common native tree species and their associated bacteria for phytoremediation. In this study, only the cultivable bacteria were characterized because the final aim was to isolate TCE-degrading, heavy metal resistant bacteria that might be used as traceable inocula to enhance bioremediation. Cultivable bacteria isolated from bulk soil, rhizosphere, root, stem, and leaf were genotypically characterized by amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) of their 16S rRNA gene and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacteria that displayed distinct ARDRA patterns were screened for heavy metal resistance, as well as TCE tolerance and degradation, as preparation for possible future in situ inoculation experiments. Furthermore, in situ evapotranspiration measurements were performed to investigate if the degradation capacity of the associated bacteria is enough to prevent TCE evapotranspiration to the air. Between both tree species, the associated populations of cultivable bacteria clearly differed in composition. In English Oak, more species-specific, most likely obligate endophytes were found. The majority of the isolated bacteria showed increased tolerance to TCE, and TCE degradation capacity was observed in some of the strains. However, in situ evapotranspiration measurements revealed that a significant amount of TCE and its metabolites

  20. Experimental Results on the Destruction of PCE using a Photo-Chemical Remediation Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. J.; Lee, K. Y.; Stencel, J. R.; Khinast, J.

    2001-12-01

    A vapor-phase tetrachloroethylene (PCE) destruction experiment using a newly constructed photo-chemical remediation (PCR) reactor is performed. One of the applications for the PCR reactor is subsurface remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ultraviolet (UV) light, when emitted at an effective absorption frequency (primary wavelengths of 185 and 254 nm), cleaves a VOC's carbon-chlorine bond thus reducing harmful contaminants to harmless products. The PCR reactor consists of a stainless steel tubular vessel with internal dimensions 0.32 m in diameter and 1.05 m in length. Sixteen Suprasil glass sleeves (Heraeus Inc.) with external dimensions of 25 mm in diameter and 1.1 m in length are inserted along the length of the reactor. The Suprasil sleeves are positioned in a geometrical pattern to provide maximum UV exposure. An amalgam UV lamp (Heraeus Inc. NIQ 200/110) is placed inside every Suprasil sleeve. Each UV lamp has its own igniter and ballast for versatile power control. The Suprasil sleeves provide barrier protection between the UV lamps and the vapor-phase contaminant, and at the same time allow transmission of UV light to the interior of the PCR reactor. A gas heater is installed to increase the influent vapor-phase temperature and the PCR reactor is insulated to minimize heat loss. However, the PCE destruction experiment is presently being performed without the aid of the gas heater. During the experiment, the PCR reactor temperature reached in excess of 200 degrees Celsius from heat generated from the UV lamps. Vapor-phase samples are collected at the influent and effluent reactor sampling ports prior and after UV lamp ignitions. Preliminary results show good PCE destruction efficiency for the range of influent PCE concentrations considered in this study.

  1. Abiotic dechlorination in rock matrices impacted by long-term exposure to TCE.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Charles E; Towne, Rachael M; Lippincott, David R; Lacombe, Pierre J; Bishop, Michael E; Dong, Hailiang

    2015-01-01

    Field and laboratory tests were performed to evaluate the abiotic reaction of trichloroethene (TCE) in sedimentary rock matrices. Hydraulically conductive fractures, and the rock directly adjacent to the hydraulically conductive fractures, within a historically contaminated TCE bedrock aquifer were used as the basis for this study. These results were compared to previous work using rock that had not been exposed to TCE (Schaefer et al., 2013) to assess the impact of long-term TCE exposure on the abiotic dechlorination reaction, as the longevity of these reactions after long-term exposure to TCE was hitherto unknown. Results showed that potential abiotic TCE degradation products, including ethane, ethene, and acetylene, were present in the conductive fractures. Using minimally disturbed slices of rock core at and near the fracture faces, laboratory testing on the rocks confirmed that abiotic dechlorination reactions between the rock matrix and TCE were occurring. Abiotic daughter products measured in the laboratory under controlled conditions were consistent with those measured in the conductive fractures, except that propane also was observed as a daughter product. TCE degradation measured in the laboratory was well described by a first order rate constant through the 118-d study. Observed bulk first-order TCE degradation rate constants within the rock matrix were 1.3×10(-8) s(-1). These results clearly show that abiotic dechlorination of TCE is occurring within the rock matrix, despite decades of exposure to TCE. Furthermore, these observed rates of TCE dechlorination are expected to have a substantial impact on TCE migration and uptake/release from rock matrices. PMID:25192648

  2. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-083-1705, Summit Finishing Company, Inc. , Mooresville, Indiana. [Perchloroethylene concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, W.J.; Kramkowski, R.S.

    1986-06-01

    An evaluation of employee exposures to chemicals used in electroplating operations was made. At the time of the study there were 67 employees, about 26 of whom were involved directly in the production operations. Airborne concentrations of perchloroethylene did not exceed OSHA standards, but they did exceed the NIOSH recommended exposure level on both a ceiling and time weighted average basis. Environmental samples collected for cyanides, inorganic acids, metals, and formaldehyde were below their respective evaluation criteria at the time of the survey. The authors conclude that a potential health hazard existed from exposures to perchloroethlyene. A significant number of employees reported acute mucous membrane irritation. The authors made recommendations.

  3. Spatial and temporal distributions of Geobacter lovleyi and Dehalococcoides spp. during bioenhanced PCE-NAPL dissolution.

    PubMed

    Amos, Benjamin K; Suchomel, Eric J; Pennell, Kurt D; Löffler, Frank E

    2009-03-15

    The spatial and temporal distributions of multiple reductively dechlorinating bacteria were simultaneously assessed in a one-dimensional sand column containing a tetrachloroethene (PCE) nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source and associated plume zones. The column was uniformly inoculated with a PCE-to-ethene dechlorinating microbial consortium that contained Dehalococcoides spp., Dehalobacter spp., and Geobacter lovleyi strain SZ. Geobacter and Dehalococcoides populations grew and colonized the column material, including the mixed-NAPL (0.25 mol/mol PCE in hexadecane) source zone. In contrast, Dehalobacter cells did not colonize the porous column material, and planktonic Dehalobacter cell titers remained below the detection limit of ca. 2.6 x 10(2) cells/mL throughout the experiment. Significant PCE dechlorination was observed and resulted in bioenhanced NAPL dissolution up to 21-fold (maximum) and 5.2-fold (cumulative) relative to abiotic dissolution. cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (cis-DCE) wasthe primary dechlorination product although vinyl chloride (VC) was also formed throughout the experiment. Ethene production occurred after significant depletion of PCE from the NAPL and when cis-DCE concentrations dropped below 6 microM. Data obtained after increasing the column residence time from 1.1 to 2.8 days and introducing a VC pulse to the column indicated that both the residence time and cis-DCE inhibition limited significant VC and ethene production. Although both Geobacter and Dehalococcoides cells were present and active in the mixed-NAPL source zone and plume region, Geobacter cell numbers were typically more than 1 order of magnitude higher than Dehalococcoides cell numbers, which is consistent with the production of predominantly cis-DCE. Analysis of both liquid- and solid-phase samples indicated that Geobacter cells grew and remained attached to the porous medium within the source zone but were largely planktonic in the plume region. In contrast Dehalococcoides cell

  4. Innovative treatment for TCE-contaminated saturated clay soils

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Cameron, P.A.; Smuin, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the evaluation of mixed region vapor stripping (MRVS) coupled with calcium oxide conditioning for removing trichloroethylene (TCE) for a site underlain by saturated clay soils. Volatile organic compound removal during MRVS with and without calcium oxide conditioning were simulated using a previously developed model. The results of the modeling were compared with laboratory MRVS tests on undisturbed soil cores taken from the study site. The modeling results were consistent with laboratory simulations of MRVS on field-contaminated soils from the study site, and showed that calcium oxide conditioning is an effective method for enhancing VOC removal efficiencies in saturated clay soils.

  5. Steam and air co-injection in removing residual TCE in unsaturated layered sandy porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Sheng; Wang, Ning; Chen, Jiajun

    2013-10-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a promising technique for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminant remediation in heterogeneous porous media. In this study, removal of trichloroethene (TCE) with steam-air co-injection was investigated through a series of 2D sandbox experiments with different layered sand structures, and through numerical simulations. The results show that a layered structure with coarse sand, in which steam and air convection are relatively rapid, resulted in a higher removal rate and a larger removal ratio than those observed in an experiment using finer sand; however, the difference was not significant, and the removal ratios from three experiments ranged from 85% to 94%. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed for Experiment 1 (TCE initially in a fine sand zone encased in a coarse sand), while no such movement was observed for Experiment 2 (TCE initially in two fine sand layers encased in a coarse sand) or 3 (TCE initially in a silty sand zone encased in a coarse sand). Simulations show accumulation of TCE at the interface of the layered sands, which indicates a capillary barrier effect in restraining the downward movement of TCE. This effect is illustrated further by a numerical experiment with homogeneous coarse sand, in which continuous downward TCE movement to the bottom of the sandbox was simulated. Another numerical experiment with higher water saturation was also conducted. The results illustrate a complicated influence of water saturation on TCE removal in a layered sand structure.

  6. Steam and air co-injection in removing residual TCE in unsaturated layered sandy porous media.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sheng; Wang, Ning; Chen, Jiajun

    2013-10-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a promising technique for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminant remediation in heterogeneous porous media. In this study, removal of trichloroethene (TCE) with steam-air co-injection was investigated through a series of 2D sandbox experiments with different layered sand structures, and through numerical simulations. The results show that a layered structure with coarse sand, in which steam and air convection are relatively rapid, resulted in a higher removal rate and a larger removal ratio than those observed in an experiment using finer sand; however, the difference was not significant, and the removal ratios from three experiments ranged from 85% to 94%. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed for Experiment 1 (TCE initially in a fine sand zone encased in a coarse sand), while no such movement was observed for Experiment 2 (TCE initially in two fine sand layers encased in a coarse sand) or 3 (TCE initially in a silty sand zone encased in a coarse sand). Simulations show accumulation of TCE at the interface of the layered sands, which indicates a capillary barrier effect in restraining the downward movement of TCE. This effect is illustrated further by a numerical experiment with homogeneous coarse sand, in which continuous downward TCE movement to the bottom of the sandbox was simulated. Another numerical experiment with higher water saturation was also conducted. The results illustrate a complicated influence of water saturation on TCE removal in a layered sand structure. PMID:23962760

  7. Characterization of TCE DNAPL and Dissolved Phase Transport in Karst Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, M.; Padilla, I. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated sites are a threat to the environment and human health. Of particular concerns is the contamination of karst groundwater systems (KGWSs). Their heterogeneous character, rapid flow through conduits, high permeability zones, and strong storage capacity in the rock porous-matrix pose a high risk of exposure over large areas and temporal scales. To achieve effective remedial actions for TCE removal, it is important to understand and quantify the fate and transport process of trichloroethylene in these systems. This research studies the fate, transport, and distribution of TCE Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) and associated dissolved species in KGWSs. Experiments are conducted in a karstified limestone physical model, a limestone rock mimicking a saturated confined karst aquifer. After injecting TCE solvent into a steady groundwater flow field, samples are taken spatially and temporally and analyzed for TCE NAPL and dissolved phases. Data analysis shows the rapid detection of TCE NAPL and high aqueous concentrations along preferential pathway, even at distances far away from the injection point. Temporal distribution curves exhibit spatial variations related to the limestone rock heterogeneity. Rapid response to TCE concentrations is associated with preferential flow paths. Slow response with long tailing indicates rate-limited diffusive transport in the rock matrix. Overall, results indicate that karstified limestone has a high capacity to rapidly transport pure and dissolved TCE along preferential flow paths, and to store and slowly release TCE over long periods of time.

  8. Surfactant foam/bioaugmentation technology for in situ treatment of TCE-DNAPLs.

    SciTech Connect

    Rothmel, R. K.; Peters, R. W.; St. Martin, E.; Deflaun, M. F.; Energy Systems; Envirogen, Inc.

    1998-06-01

    Chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE) are prevalent aquifer contaminants. Depending on the degree of contamination, their physical properties may cause them to occur as dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) making them difficult to remediate by pump-and-treat methods. Successful in situ bioremediation requires mobilization and dispersion of DNAPLs in order to reduce sediment concentrations to levels nontoxic to degradative bacteria. A bench-scale study was conducted to evaluate a novel remediation technology that utilized surfactant foam for mobilizing and dispersing TCE-DNAPLs combined with a bioaugmentation technology to remediate TCE in situ. Results using the anionic surfactant Steol CS-330 showed that foam injected into TCE-DNAPL-contaminated sand columns enhanced mobilization of TCE-DNAPLs. Mobilization was maximized when the foam was injected in a pulsed operation. Injection of foam followed by artificial groundwater (AGW) and then by foam again resulted in flushing 75% of the initial TCE-DNAPL through an 8-in. column (884 cm3 of sand). The residual TCE was dispersed within the column at concentration levels compatible with biodegradation (<500 {micro}g/g). Adding the TCE-degrading bacterial strain ENV 435 simultaneously with the second pulse of foam resulted in 95-99% degradation of the residual TCE. This level of remediation was achieved with a total of 3 pore volumes (foam/AGW/foam + bacteria) and an aqueous column retention time of 1 h.

  9. Laboratory study of air sparging of TCE-contaminated saturated soils and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.A.; Reddy, K.R.

    1999-06-30

    Air sparging has proven to be an effective remediation technique for treating saturated soils and ground water contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Since little is known about the system variables and mass transfer mechanisms important to air sparging, several researchers have recently performed laboratory investigations to study such issues. This paper presents the results of column experiments performed to investigate the behavior of dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), specifically trichloroethylene (TCE), during air sparging. The specific objectives of the study were (1) to compare the removal of dissolved TCE with the removal of dissolved light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs), such as benzene or toluene; (2) to determine the effect of injected air-flow rate on dissolved TCE removal; (3) to determine the effect of initial dissolved TCE concentration on removal efficiency; and (4) to determine the differences in removal between dissolved and pure-chase TCE. The test results showed that (1) the removal of dissolved TCE was similar to that of dissolved LNAPL; (2) increased air-injection rates led to increased TCE removal at lower ranges of air injection, but further increases at higher ranges of air injection did not increase the rate of removal, indicating a threshold removal rate had been reached; (3) increased initial concentration of dissolved TCE resulted in similar rates of removal; and (4) the removal pf pure-phase TCE was difficult using a low air-injection rate, but higher air-injection rates led to easier removal.

  10. Biodegradation of high concentrations of tetrachloroethene in a continuous flow column system

    SciTech Connect

    Isalou, M; Sleep, B.E.; Liss, S.N.

    1998-11-15

    A long-term (2.5 years) study of the anaerobic biodegradation of high concentrations of perchloroethylene (PCE) was carried out in a continuously operated laboratory column filled with sand which was inoculated with biomass from an anaerobic digester. Concentrations of PCE fed to the column were increased from 12 {micro}M to over 600 {micro}M over 21 months, with methanol added as electron donor. Vinyl chloride (VC) was the terminal product of PCE dechlorination for the first 21 months at which point significant conversion of VC to ethylene (ETH) was detected. The onset of ETH production coincided with acetogenesis becoming the primary pathway for methanol metabolism. ETH production occurred in the column in the presence of PCE and TCE. Varying methanol:PCE molar ratios from 1.4 to 7.5 had little effect on the transformation of PCE and TCE to VC. The degradation of VC to ETH was much more sensitive, and VC accumulated when the methanol:PCE molar ratio dropped below 5.0. Withdrawal of PCE from the system for a 5 month period and maintenance of the column on methanol alone did not result in the loss of PCE degradation capability of the consortium.

  11. Inter-layer traffic engineering with hierarchical-PCE in MPLS-TP over wavelength switched optical networks.

    PubMed

    Casellas, R; Martinez, R; Muñoz, R; Liu, L; Tsuritani, T; Morita, I

    2012-12-31

    We present the implementation and validation of an Inter-layer Traffic Engineering (TE) architecture based on a hierarchical path computation element (PCE), where the parent PCE is notified of established optical layer Label Switched Paths that induce packet traffic engineering (TE) links, thus not requiring full topology visibility. We summarize the architecture, the control plane extensions and its experimental evaluation in a control plane testbed. PMID:23388738

  12. MICROFRACTURE SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY AND ADHERENT MICROBIAL POPULATION METABOLISM IN TCE-CONTAMINATED COMPETENT BEDROCK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A TCE-contaminated competent bedrock site in Portsmouth, NH was used to determine if a relation existed between microfracture (MF) surface geochemistry and the ecology and metabolic activity of attached microbes relative to terminal electron accepting processes (TEAPs) and TCE bi...

  13. 77 FR 6863 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for VITA/TCE Program Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for VITA/TCE Program Forms AGENCY: Internal...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning VITA/TCE Program Forms 14310, 8653... 20224, or through the Internet, at Allan.M.Hopkins@irs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title:...

  14. 75 FR 22437 - Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) Program Availability of Application Packages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... were published in the Federal Register at 44 FR 72113 on December 13, 1979. Section 163 gives the IRS... Internal Revenue Service Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) Program Availability of Application Packages... of the availability of Application Packages for the 2011 Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE)...

  15. Functional Analysis of Esterase TCE2 Gene from Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) involved in Acaricide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Li; Wei, Peng; Wang, Xiangzun; Shen, Guangmao; Zhang, Jiao; Xiao, Wei; Xu, Zhifeng; Xu, Qiang; He, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus is an important pest of crops and vegetables worldwide, and it has the ability to develop resistance against acaricides rapidly. Our previous study identified an esterase gene (designated TCE2) over-expressed in resistant mites. To investigate this gene’s function in resistance, the expression levels of TCE2 in susceptible, abamectin-, fenpropathrin-, and cyflumetofen-resistant strains were knocked down (65.02%, 63.14%, 57.82%, and 63.99%, respectively) via RNA interference. The bioassay data showed that the resistant levels to three acaricides were significantly decreased after the down-regulation of TCE2, indicating a correlation between the expression of TCE2 and the acaricide-resistance in T. cinnabarinus. TCE2 gene was then re-engineered for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The recombinant TCE2 exhibited α-naphthyl acetate activity (483.3 ± 71.8 nmol/mg pro. min−1), and the activity of this enzyme could be inhibited by abamectin, fenpropathrin, and cyflumetofen, respectively. HPLC and GC results showed that 10 μg of the recombinant TCE2 could effectively decompose 21.23% fenpropathrin and 49.70% cyflumetofen within 2 hours. This is the first report of a successful heterologous expression of an esterase gene from mites. This study provides direct evidence that TCE2 is a functional gene involved in acaricide resistance in T. cinnabarinus. PMID:26725309

  16. PCE dechlorination by non-Dehalococcoides in a microbial electrochemical system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jaecheul; Park, Younghyun; Nguyen, Van Khanh; Lee, Taeho

    2016-08-01

    The bioremediation of tetrachloroethene (perchloroethene; PCE) contaminated sites generally requires a supply of some fermentable organic substrates as an electron donor. On the other hand, organic substrates can induce the massive growth of microorganisms around the injection wells, which can foul the contaminated subsurface environment. In this study, PCE dechlorination to ethene was performed in a microbial electrochemical system (MES) using the electrode (a cathode polarized at -500 mV vs. standard hydrogen electrode) as the electron donor. Denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and pyrosequencing revealed a variety of non-Dehalococcoides bacteria dominant in MES, such as Acinetobacter sp. (25.7 % for AS1 in suspension of M3), Rhodopseudomonas sp. (10.5 % for AE1 and 10.1 % for AE2 in anodic biofilm of M3), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.4 % for BS1 in suspension of M4), and Enterobacter sp. (21.7 % for BE1 in anodic biofilm of M4) which are capable of electron transfer, hydrogen production and dechlorination. The Dehalococcoides group, however, was not detected in this system. Therefore, these results suggest that a range of bacterial species outside the Dehalococcoides can play an important role in the microbial electrochemical dechlorination process, which may lead to innovative bioremediation technology. PMID:27271246

  17. Surfactant-enhanced remediation of a trichloroethene-contaminated aquifer. 2. Transport of TCE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sahoo, D.; Smith, J.A.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.; Mclellan, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Field studies were conducted under an induced gradient in a trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated aquifer at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, to study (a) the rate-limited desorption of TCE from aquifer sediments to water and (b) the effect of a surfactant (Triton X-100) on the desorption and transport of TCE. Clean water was injected into the contaminated aquifer for 206 day. Triton X-100 was added for a 36-day period (days 36-71 from the start of clean water injection). The effect of Triton X-100 on the desorption and transport of TCE in the field was examined by observing the concentrations of these two solutes in four monitoring wells 3-9 m from the injection wells. These data show a small but discernible increase in the TCE concentration in two of the wells corresponding approximately to the time when surfactant reaches the wells; in the other two monitoring wells, the increase in TCE concentration is negligible. A solute transport model that assumes local sorption equilibrium and used a laboratory-derived distribution coefficient could not adequately describe TCE desorption and transport observed in the aquifer. Two model formulations that accounted for rate-limited sorption - two-site and multisite models - fit the data well. TCE concentrations after surfactant injection were underpredicted by the models unless mass transfer rate was increased to account for the effect of surfactant on the rate of TCE desorption. The concentration data from the two wells and the model analysis suggest that the rate of TCE desorption is increased (by approximately 30%) as a result of Triton X-100 injection.Field studies were conducted under an induced gradient in a trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated aquifer at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, to study (a) the rate-limited desorption of TCE from aquifer sediments to water and (b) the effect of a surfactant (Triton X-100) on the desorption and transport of TCE. Clean water was injected into the contaminated aquifer for 206 day. Triton X-100 was added

  18. Health assessment for Keystone Hydraulics/J. W. Rex Company, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980926976. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-04

    The Keystone Hydraulics/J. W. Rex Company Site has been listed on the National Priorities List. A metal heat-treating facility operated there from the 1940s until 1950. The Allied Paint Company then conducted operations until 1979. The site has been a construction equipment storage area since 1979. Identified contaminants of concern on-site include trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE), and vinyl chloride in well water. Identified soil contaminants include DCE, TCE, PCE, and vinyl chloride. Off-site contamination of groundwater by TCE and vinyl chloride has been found. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater and soil.

  19. Tetrachloroethene metabolism of Dehalospirillum multivorans.

    PubMed

    Neumann, A; Scholz-Muramatsu, H; Diekert, G

    1994-01-01

    Dehalospirillum multivorans is a strictly anaerobic bacterium that is able to dechlorinate tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylene; PCE) via trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) as part of its energy metabolism. The present communication describes some features of the dechlorination reaction in growing cultures, cell suspensions, and cell extracts of D. multivorans. Cell suspensions catalyzed the reductive dechlorination of PCE with pyruvate as electron donor at specific rates of up to 150 nmol (chloride released) min-1 (mg cell protein)-1 (300 microM PCE initially, pH 7.5, 25 degrees C). The rate of dechlorination depended on the PCE concentration; concentrations higher than 300 microM inhibited dehalogenation. The temperature optimum was between 25 and 30 degrees C; the pH optimum at about 7.5. Dehalogenation was sensitive to potential alternative electron acceptors such as fumarate or sulfur; nitrate or sulfate had no significant effect on PCE reduction. Propyl iodide (50 microM) almost completely inhibited the dehalogenation of PCE in cell suspensions. Cell extracts mediated the dehalogenation of PCE and of TCE with reduced methyl viologen as the electron donor at specific rates of up to 0.5 mumol (chloride released) min-1 (mg protein).-1 An abiotic reductive dehalogenation could be excluded since cell extracts heated for 10 min at 95 degrees C were inactive. The PCE dehalogenase was recovered in the soluble cell fraction after ultracentrifugation. The enzyme was not inactivated by oxygen. PMID:7802545

  20. Characterization of uranium surfaces machined with aqueous propylene glycol-borax or perchloroethylene-mineral oil coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, S.S.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.; Dillon, J.J.; Richards, H.L.; Seals, R.D.; Byrd, V.R.

    1986-12-31

    The use of perchloroethylene (perc) as an ingredient in coolants for machining enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been discontinued because of environmental concerns. A new coolant was substituted in December 1985, which consists of an aqueous solution of propylene glycol with borax (sodium tetraborate) added as a nuclear poison and with a nitrite added as a corrosion inhibitor. Uranium surfaces machined using the two coolants were compared with respects to residual contamination, corrosion or corrosion potential, and with the aqueous propylene glycol-borax coolant was found to be better than that of enriched uranium machined with the perc-mineral oil coolant. The boron residues on the final-finished parts machined with the borax-containing coolant were not sufficient to cause problems in further processing. All evidence indicated that the enriched uranium surfaces machined with the borax-containing coolant will be as satisfactory as those machined with the perc coolant.

  1. A study of the effect of perchloroethylene exposure on the reproductive outcomes of wives of dry-cleaning workers

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Fenster, L.; Hudes, M.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Katz, D.F.; Gerson, J.; Rempel, D.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the reproductive outcomes of wives of men exposed to perchloroethylene in the dry-cleaning industry compared to those of wives of laundry workers. Seventeen female partners of dry cleaners and 32 partners of laundry workers were interviewed. The number of pregnancies and the standardized fertility ratios were similar between the two groups. Wives of dry cleaners did not have higher rates of spontaneous abortions. However, wives of dry cleaners were more than twice as likely to have a history of attempting to become pregnant for more than 12 months or to have sought care for an infertility problem. Cox proportional hazards models indicated that dry-cleaners' wives had half of the per-cycle pregnancy rate of wives of laundry workers, when controlling for other potential confounders (estimated rate ratio of 0.54, 95% C.I. = 0.23, 1.27).

  2. Acetylene fuels reductive dechlorination of TCE by Dehalococcoides/Pelobacter-containing microbial consortia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oremland, R. S.; Mao, X.; Mahandra, C.; Baesman, S. M.; Gushgari, S.; Alvarez-Cohen, L.; Liu, T.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater contamination by trichloroethene (TCE) poses a threat to health and leads to the generation of vinyl chloride (VC), a carcinogen. Dehalococcoides mccartyi is the only bacterium that can completely dechlorinate TCE to ethene (C2H4). Acetylene (C2H2) occurs in TCE-contaminated sites as a consequence of chemical degradation of TCE. Yet acetylene inhibits a variety of microbial processes including methanogesis and reductive dechlorination. Pelobacter acetylenicus and related species can metabolize acetylene via acetylene hydratase and acetaldehyde dismutatse thereby generating acetate and H2 as endproducts, which could serve as electron donor and carbon source for growth of D. mccartyi. We found that 1mM acetylene (aqueous) inhibits growth of D. mccartyi strain 195 on 0.3 mM TCE, but that the inhibition was removed after 12 days with the addition of an acetylene-utilizing isolate from San Francisco Bay, Pelobacter strain SFB93. TCE did not inhibit the growth of this Pelobacter at the concentrations tested (0.1-0.5 mM) and TCE was not consumed by strain SFB93. Co-cultures of strain 195 with strain SFB93 at 5% inoculation were established in 120 mL serum bottles containing 40 mL defined medium. TCE was supplied at a liquid concentration of 0.1 mM, with 0.1 mM acetylene and N2/CO2 (90:10 v/v) headspace at 34 °C. Co-cultures were subsequently transferred (5% vol/vol inoculation) to generate subcultures after 20 μmol TCE was reduced to VC and 36 μmol acetylene was depleted. Aqueous H2 ranged from 114 to 217 nM during TCE-dechlorination, and the cell yield of strain 195 was 3.7 ±0.3 × 107 cells μmol-1 Cl- released. In a D. mccartyi-containing enrichment culture (ANAS) under the same conditions as above, it was found that inhibition of dechlorination by acetylene was reversed after 19 days by adding SFB93. Thus we showed that a co-culture of Pelobacter SFB93 and D. mccartyi 195 could be maintained with C2H2 as the electron donor and carbon source while TCE

  3. A collision-aware backward recursive PCE-based computation algorithm in multi-domain optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jianchao; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yongli; Cao, Xuping; Wang, Dajiang; Gu, Wanyi

    2011-12-01

    The traditional approach for inter-domain Traffic Engineering Label Switching Path (TE-LSP) computation like BRPC could provide a shortest inter-domain constrained TE-LSP, but under wavelength continuity constraint, it couldn't guarantee the success of the resources reservation for the shortest path. In this paper, a Collision-aware Backward Recursive PCE-based Computation Algorithm (CA-BRPC) in multi-domain optical networks under wavelength continuity constraint is proposed, which is implemented based on Hierarchical PCE (H-PCE) architecture, could provide an optimal inter-domain TE-LSP and avoid resources reservation conflict. Numeric results show that the CA-BRPC could reduce the blocking probability of entire network.

  4. The PACSAT Communications Experiment (PCE). Final report, August 13, 1990--February 12, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-12

    While VITA (Volunteers in Technical Assistance) is the recognized world leader in low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite technology (below 1 GHz), its involvement in communications technologies is to facilitate renewable energy technology transfer to developing countries. A communications payload was incorporated into the UoSat 2 satellite (Surrey Univ., UK), launched in 1984; a prototype satellite (PCE) was also launched Jan 1990. US DOE awarded a second grant to VITA to design and test the prototype ground stations (command and field), install field ground stations in several developing country sites, pursue the operational licensing process, and transfer the evaluation results to the design of an operating system. This report covers the principal tasks of this grant.

  5. Impacts of Residual Surfactant on Tetrachloroethene (PCE) Degradation Following Pilot-Scale SEAR Treatment at a Chloroethene-Impacted Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsburg, C. A.; Abriola, L. M.; Pennell, K. D.; Löffler, F. E.; Gamache, M.; Petrovskis, E. A.

    2003-04-01

    A pilot-scale surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) demonstration was completed during the summer of 2000 at the Bachman Road site (Oscoda, MI USA). For this test, an aqueous solution of 60 g/L Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate) was used to recover tetrachloroethene (PCE) from a suspected source zone, located underneath a former dry-cleaning facility. Tween 80 was selected for use based upon its demonstrated capacity to solubilize PCE, “food-grade” status, and biodegradative potential. Hydraulic control was maintained throughout the test, with 95% of the injected surfactant mass recovered by a single extraction well. Source-zone monitoring conducted 15 months after SEAR treatment revealed the presence of previously undetected volatile fatty acids (acetate and formate) and PCE degradation products (trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, trans-1,2-dichlorethene, and vinyl chloride), in conjunction with PCE concentration reductions of approximately two orders-of-magnitude. The detection of volatile fatty acids is relevant, as they are likely fermentation products of residual Tween 80. Microbial reductive dechlorination is limited by available electron donors, and microcosm studies demonstrated that both acetate and formate support reductively dechlorinating populations present at the oligotrophic Bachman Road site aquifer. Surfactant transport simulations, using a regional flow model developed for the site, were employed to determine appropriate down-gradient monitoring locations. Drive point samples taken 15 months post-treatment in the vicinity of the simulated residual surfactant plume, contained elevated concentrations of acetate and PCE daughter products. Ongoing efforts include continued site-monitoring, and microcosm studies to corroborate a causal relationship between Tween 80 fermentation and PCE dechlorination.

  6. A search for residual behavioral effects of trichloroethylene (TCE) in rats exposed as young adults.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Wendy M; Krantz, Q Todd; Bushnell, Philip J

    2004-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an organic solvent with robust acute effects on the nervous system, but poorly documented long-term effects. This study employed a signal detection task (SDT) to assess the persistence of effects of repeated daily inhalation of TCE on sustained attention in rats. Adult male Long-Evans rats inhaled TCE at 0, 1600, or 2400 ppm, 6 h/day for 20 days (n=8/group) and began learning the SDT 3 weeks later. Rats earned food by pressing one retractable response lever in a signal trial and a second lever in a blank (no signal) trial. TCE did not affect acquisition of the response rule or performance of the SDT after the intertrial interval (ITI) was changed from a constant value to a variable one. Increasing the trial presentation rate reduced accuracy equivalently in all groups. Injections of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg ip) and d-amphetamine (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/kg sc) systematically impaired performance as functions of drug dose. d-Amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) reduced P(hit) more in the 2400-ppm TCE group than in the other groups. All rats required remedial training to learn a reversal of the response contingencies, which TCE did not interfere with. Thus, a history of exposure to TCE did not significantly alter learning or sustained attention in the absence of drugs. Although ethanol did not differentially affect the TCE groups, the effect of d-amphetamine is consistent with solvent-induced changes in dopaminergic functions in the CNS. Calculations indicated power values of 0.5 to 0.8 to detect main effects of TCE for the three primary endpoints. PMID:15019957

  7. Factors Influencing TCE Anaerobic Dechlorination Investigated via Simulations of Microcosm Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, X.; Harkness, M.; Lee, M. D.; Mack, E. E.; Dworatzek, S.; Acheson, C.; McCarty, P.; Barry, D. A.; Gerhard, J. I.

    2006-12-01

    SABRE (Source Area BioREmediation) is a public-private consortium whose charter is to determine if enhanced anaerobic bioremediation can result in effective and quantifiable treatment of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. The focus of this 4-year, $5.7 million research project is a field site in the United Kingdom containing a TCE DNAPL source area. In preparation, a microcosm study was performed to determine the optimal combination of factors to support reductive dechlorination of TCE in site soil and groundwater. The study consisted of 168 bottles distributed between four laboratories (Dupont, GE, SiREM, and Terra Systems) and tested the impact of six carbon substrates (lactate, acetate, methanol, SRS (soybean oil), hexanol, butyl acetate), bioaugmentation with KB-1 bacterial culture, three TCE levels (100 mg/L, 400 mg/L, and 800 mg/L) and two sulphate levels (200 mg/L, >500 mg/L) on TCE dechlorination. This research presents a numerical model designed to simulate the main processes occurring in the microcosms, including substrate fermentation, sequential dechlorination, toxic inhibition, and the influence of sulphate concentration. In calibrating the model to over 60 of the microcosm experiments, lumped parameters were employed to quantify the effect of key factors on the conversion rate of each chlorinated ethene in the TCE degradation sequence. Results quantify the benefit (i.e., increased stepwise dechlorination rate) due to both bioaugmentation and the presence of higher sulphate concentrations. Competitive inhibition is found to increase in significance as TCE concentrations increase; however, inclusion of Haldane inhibition is not supported. Over a wide range of experimental conditions and dechlorination steps, SRS appears to induce relatively little hydrogen limitation, thereby facilitating relatively quick conversion of TCE to ethene. In general, hydrogen limitation is found to increase with increasing TCE concentration and with bioaugmentation, and

  8. Use of emulsified vegetable oil to support bioremediation of TCE DNAPL in soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, Mark; Fisher, Angela

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) was observed using two soil columns and subsequent reductive dechlorination of TCE was monitored over a three year period. Dyed TCE DNAPL (~ 75 g) was emplaced in one column (DNAPL column), while the second was DNAPL-free (plume column). EVO was added to both columns and partitioning of the EVO into the TCE DNAPL was measured and quantified. TCE (1.9 mM) was added to the influent of the plume column to simulate conditions down gradient of a DNAPL source area and the columns were operated independently for more than one year, after which they were connected in series. Initially limited dechlorination of TCE to cDCE was observed in the DNAPL column, while the plume column supported complete reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene. Upon connection and reamendment of the plume column with EVO, near saturation levels of TCE from the effluent of the DNAPL column were rapidly dechlorinated to c-DCE and VC in the plume column; however, this high rate dechlorination produced hydrochloric acid which overwhelmed the buffering capacity of the system and caused the pH to drop below 6.0. Dechlorination efficiency in the columns subsequently deteriorated, as measured by the chloride production and Dehalococcoides counts, but was restored by adding sodium bicarbonate buffer to the influent groundwater. Robust dechlorination was eventually observed in the DNAPL column, such that the TCE DNAPL was largely removed by the end of the study. Partitioning of the EVO into the DNAPL provided significant operational benefits to the remediation system both in terms of electron donor placement and longevity.

  9. Improving the treatment of non-aqueous phase TCE in low permeability zones with permanganate.

    PubMed

    Chokejaroenrat, Chanat; Comfort, Steve; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Dvorak, Bruce

    2014-03-15

    Treating dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) embedded in low permeability zones (LPZs) is a particularly challenging issue for injection-based remedial treatments. Our objective was to improve the sweeping efficiency of permanganate (MnO4(-)) into LPZs to treat high concentrations of TCE. This was accomplished by conducting transport experiments that quantified the penetration of various permanganate flooding solutions into a LPZ that was spiked with non-aqueous phase (14)C-TCE. The treatments we evaluated included permanganate paired with: (i) a shear-thinning polymer (xanthan); (ii) stabilization aids that minimized MnO2 rind formation and (iii) a phase-transfer catalyst. In addition, we quantified the ability of these flooding solutions to improve TCE destruction under batch conditions by developing miniature LPZ cylinders that were spiked with (14)C-TCE. Transport experiments showed that MnO4(-) alone was inefficient in penetrating the LPZ and reacting with non-aqueous phase TCE, due to a distinct and large MnO2 rind that inhibited the TCE from further oxidant contact. By including xanthan with MnO4(-), the sweeping efficiency increased (90%) but rind formation was still evident. By including the stabilization aid, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) with xanthan, permanganate penetrated 100% of the LPZ, no rind was observed, and the percentage of TCE oxidized increased. Batch experiments using LPZ cylinders allowed longer contact times between the flooding solutions and the DNAPL and results showed that SHMP+MnO4(-) improved TCE destruction by ∼16% over MnO4(-) alone (56.5% vs. 40.1%). These results support combining permanganate with SHMP or SHMP and xanthan as a means of treating high concentrations of TCE in low permeable zones. PMID:24491441

  10. Microbial community changes associated with a shift from reductive dechlorination of PCE to reductive dechlorination of cis-DCE and VC

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, S.J.; Loeffler, F.E.; Tiedje, J.M.

    2000-03-15

    Subcultures that reductively dechlorinate cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) or vinyl chloride (VC) were derived from three independent enrichments that completely dechlorinated tetrachloroethene (PCE) to ethene in order to study the reductive dechlorination of the lesser chlorinated ethenes. These subcultures completely dechlorinated cis-DCE and VC and could be transferred indefinitely in basal salts minimal medium with H{sub 2} as the electron donor. After 10 transfers (1% V/V) the cis-DCE and VC-dechlorinating subcultures from two of the PCE enrichments failed to dechlorinate PCE, but the subcultures from the third PCE enrichment maintained the ability to dechlorinate PCE. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes from these enrichments by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated shifts in the community composition of the subcultures that had lost the PCE-dechlorinating activity but not in the subcultures that maintained the PCE-dechlorinating activity. Analysis of the changes in community composition of the different enrichments suggested that at least two populations were responsible for the sequential dechlorination of PCE to ethene in these cultures and that consortia can cooperate in the complete dechlorination of PCE.

  11. Solubilities of Toluene, Benzene and TCE in High-Biomass Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, John W.; Vodraska, Christopher D; Flanary, Sandie A.; Davison, Brian H

    2008-01-01

    We report measurements of solubility limits for benzene, toluene, and TCE in systems that contain varying levels of biomass up to 0.13 g/mL. The solubility limit increased from 20 to 48 mM when biomass (in the form of yeast) was added to aqueous batch systems containing benzene. The toluene solubility limit increased from 4.9 to greater than 20 mM. For TCE, the solubility increased from 8 mM to more than 1000 mM. Solubility for TCE was most heavily impacted by biomass levels, changing by two orders of magnitude.

  12. Health assessment for Whitehall Wells, Whitehall, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980701254. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-14

    The Whitehall Wells (WW) are listed on the National Priorities List. Tap water in Whitehall City was found to contain 4 ppb of perchloroethylene (PCE). Two of the city's five production wells contained up to 6 ppb PCE, and nearby monitor wells contained up to 5 ppb 1,1-dichloroethane, 68 ppb trichloroethylene (TCE), 28 ppb chloroform, and 474 ppb cis-1,2-dichloroethylene. Analysis of soil, surface water, and especially ground water within the City of Whitehall clearly demonstrate the presence of chemical contaminants in the environment. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health that could result from possible exposure to hazardous substances at levels that may result in adverse health effects over time; human exposure to perchloroethylene has occurred via ground water.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of a two-stage treatment system for TCE cometabolism by a methane-oxidizing mixed culture

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; McCarty, P.L.

    1997-08-20

    The objective of this research was to evaluate several factors affecting the performance of a two-stage treatment system employing methane-oxidizing bacteria for trichloroethylene (TCE) biodegradation. The system consists of a completely mixed growth reactor and a plug-flow transformation reactor in which the TCE is cometabolized. Laboratory studies were conducted with continuous growth reactors and batch experiments simulating transformation reactor conditions. Performance was characterized in terms of TCE transformation capacity (T{sub C}, g TCE/g cells), transformation yield (T{sub Y}, g TCE/g CH{sub 4}), and the rate coefficient ratio k{sub TCE}/K{sub S,TCE} (L/mg-d). The growth reactor variables studied were solids retention time (SRT) and nutrient nitrogen (N) concentration. Formate and methane were evaluated as potential transformation reactor amendments.

  14. Highly organic natural media as permeable reactive barriers: TCE partitioning and anaerobic degradation profile in eucalyptus mulch and compost.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Zuhal; Tansel, Berrin; Katsenovich, Yelena; Sukop, Michael; Laha, Shonali

    2012-10-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted with eucalyptus mulch and commercial compost to evaluate suitability of highly organic natural media to support anaerobic decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. Experimental data for TCE and its dechlorination byproducts were analyzed with Hydrus-1D model to estimate the partitioning and kinetic parameters for the sequential dechlorination reactions during TCE decomposition. The highly organic natural media allowed development of a bioactive zone capable of decomposing TCE under anaerobic conditions. The first order TCE biodecomposition reaction rates were 0.23 and 1.2d(-1) in eucalyptus mulch and compost media, respectively. The retardation factors in the eucalyptus mulch and compost columns for TCE were 35 and 301, respectively. The results showed that natural organic soil amendments can effectively support the anaerobic bioactive zone for remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater. The natural organic media are effective environmentally sustainable materials for use in permeable reactive barriers. PMID:22795070

  15. In-situ bioremediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, B.J.; Rosenberg, N.D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A barrier to wider use of in situ bioremediation technology is that results are often variable and difficult to predict. In situ bioremediation has shown some very notable and well publicized successes, but implementation of the technology is complex. An incomplete understanding of the effects of variable site characteristics and the lack of adequate tools to predict and measure success have made the design, control and validation of bioremediation more empirical than desired. The long-term objective of this project is to improve computational tools used to assess and optimize the expected performance of bioremediation at a site. An important component of the approach is the explicit inclusion of uncertainties and their effect on the end result. The authors have extended their biokinetics model to include microbial competition and predation processes. Predator species can feed on the microbial species that degrade contaminants, and the simulation studies show that species interactions must be considered when designing in situ bioremediation systems. In particular, the results for TCE indicate that protozoan grazing could reduce the amount of biodegradation by about 20%. These studies also indicate that the behavior of barrier systems can become complex due to predator grazing.

  16. Field testing solar photocatalytic detoxification on TCE-contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Mehos, M.S.; Turchi, C.S. )

    1993-08-01

    The Solar Detoxification Field Experiment was designed to investigate the photocatalytic decomposition of organic contaminants in groundwater at a Superfund site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The process uses ultraviolet (UV) energy available in sunlight in conjunction with a photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, to decompose organic chemicals into nontoxic compounds. The destruction mechanism, as in many other advanced oxidation processes, involves hydroxyl radicals. The field experiment was developed by three federal laboratories: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The United States Department of Energy funded the experiment. Groundwater at the test site was contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE). A factorial test series examined four separate process variables: pH, catalyst loading, flow velocity, and solar intensity. Lowering the pH from pH 7 to pH 5 had the largest single effect, presumably by minimizing interference by bicarbonate. The catalyst was found to operate more efficiently at low, e.g. ambient sunlight, UV light levels. Information from these field tests suggest that treatment costs for the solar process would be similar to those for more conventional technologies. 8 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF CHLOROMETHANE FROMATION PATHS DURING ELECTROCHEMICAL DECHLORINATION OF TCE USING GRAPHITE ELECTRODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the formation of chloromethane during TCE dechlorination in a mixed electrochemical reactor using graphite electrodes. Chloromethane was the major chlorinated organic compound detected in previous dechlorination experiments. In order...

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF CHLOROMETHANE FORMATION PATHS DURING ELECTROCHEMICAL DECHLORINATION OF TCE USING GRAPHITE ELECTRODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the formation of chloromethane during TCE dechlorination in a mixed electrochemical reactor using graphite electrodes. Chloromethane was the major chlorinated organic compound detected in previous dechlorination experiments. In order...

  19. Comparison of TCeMA and TDMA for Inter-Satellite Communications using OPNET Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hain, Regina Rosales; Ramanathan, Ram; Bergamo, Marcos; Wallett, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    A robust data link protocol, enabling unique physical and MAC layer technologies and sub-network level protocols, is needed in order to take advantage of the full potential of using both TDMA and CDMA in a satellite communication network. A novel MAC layer protocol, TDMA with CDMA-encoding multiple access (TCeMA) integrated with null-steered digital beam-forming spatial multiplexing, is investigated to support flexible spacecraft communications. Abstract models of the TCeMA and TDMA processes are developed in OPNFiT and a comparison of the performances of TCeMA and TDMA in a satellite network simulation are made. TCeMA provides the better connectivity and capacity with respect to TDMA for satellite communication traffic.

  20. UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS OF TCE USING THE DOSE EXPOSURE ESTIMATING MODEL (DEEM) IN ACSL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ACSL-based Dose Exposure Estimating Model(DEEM) under development by EPA is used to perform art uncertainty analysis of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PSPK) model of trichloroethylene (TCE). This model involves several circulating metabolites such as trichloroacet...

  1. Comparative phylogenetic microarray analysis of microbial communities in TCE-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Nemir, Audra; David, Maude M; Perrussel, Ronan; Sapkota, Amy; Simonet, Pascal; Monier, Jean-Michel; Vogel, Timothy M

    2010-07-01

    The arrival of chemicals in a soil or groundwater ecosystem could upset the natural balance of the microbial community. Since soil microorganisms are the first to be exposed to the chemicals released into the soil environment, we evaluated the use of a phylogenetic microarray as a bio-indicator of community perturbations due to the exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE). The phylogenetic microarray, which measures the presence of different members of the soil community, was used to evaluate unpolluted soils exposed to TCE as well as to samples from historically TCE polluted sites. We were able to determine an apparent threshold at which the microbial community structure was significantly affected (about 1ppm). In addition, the members of the microbial community most affected were identified. This approach could be useful for assessing environmental impact of chemicals on the biosphere as well as important members of the microbial community involved in TCE degradation. PMID:20444493

  2. [Steam and air co-injection in removing TCE in 2D-sand box].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Peng, Sheng; Chen, Jia-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a newly developed and promising soil remediation technique for non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in vadose zone. In this study, in order to investigate the mechanism of the remediation process, trichloroethylene (TCE) removal using steam and air co-injection was carried out in a 2-dimensional sandbox with different layered sand structures. The results showed that co-injection perfectly improved the "tailing" effect compared to soil vapor extraction (SVE), and the remediation process of steam and air co-injection could be divided into SVE stage, steam strengthening stage and heat penetration stage. Removal ratio of the experiment with scattered contaminant area was higher and removal speed was faster. The removal ratios from the two experiments were 93.5% and 88.2%, and the removal periods were 83.9 min and 90.6 min, respectively. Steam strengthened the heat penetration stage. The temperature transition region was wider in the scattered NAPLs distribution experiment, which reduced the accumulation of TCE. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed in the experiment with TCE initially distributed in a fine sand zone. And such downward movement of TCE reduced the TCE removal ratio. PMID:25244869

  3. Modeling the uptake and transpiration of TCE using phreatophytic trees. Master`s Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.P.

    1997-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a recent addition to the numerous methods used today to remediate ground water contaminants. It is proving more effective and efficient compared to existing remediation techniques. The use of phreatophytes, or water seeking trees, has great potential for phytoremediation. These trees are fast growing, long lived, grow their roots down to the ground water table, transpire large amounts of water, and are proven to actively remove contaminants from the soil horizon. The purpose of this research is to develop quantitative concepts for understanding the dynamics of TCE uptake and transpiration by phreatophytic trees over a short rotation woody crop time frame. This will he done by constructing a system dynamics model of this process and running it over a wide range of conditions. This research will offer managers a tool to simulate long-term uptake and transpiration of TCE at potential sites. The results of this study indicate that TCE is actively removed from the soil horizon by phreatophytic trees and a significant proportion of this TCE is then transpired. Changes in soil horizon parameters, xylem flow rates, and variables in the uptake equation greatly influence TCE uptake rates as well as transpiration. Also, parameters used in equations representing flows in and out of the leaf greatly influence transpiration. Better understanding of these processes is essential for managers to accurately predict the amount of TCE removed and transpired during potential phytoremediation projects.

  4. Endophytic bacteria improve phytoremediation of Ni and TCE co-contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Croes, S.; Dupae, J.; Newman, L.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate if engineered endophytes can improve phytoremediation of co-contaminations by organic pollutants and toxic metals. As a model system, yellow lupine was inoculated with the endophyte Burkholderia cepacia VM1468 possessing (a) the pTOM-Bu61 plasmid, coding for constitutive trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation, and (b) the ncc-nre Ni resistance/sequestration system. Plants were exposed to Ni and TCE and (a) Ni and TCE phytotoxicity, (b) TCE degradation and evapotranspiration, and (c) Ni concentrations in the roots and shoots were determined. Inoculation with B. cepacia VM1468 resulted in decreased Ni and TCE phytotoxicity, as measured by 30% increased root biomass and up to 50% decreased activities of enzymes involved in anti-oxidative defence in the roots. In addition, TCE evapotranspiration showed a decreasing trend and a 5 times higher Ni uptake was observed after inoculation. Engineered endophytes can improve phytoremediation of mixed contaminations via enhanced degradation of organic contaminants and improved metal uptake and translocation.

  5. Effects of a nutrient-surfactant compound on solubilization rates of TCE

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.T.; Strong-Gunderson, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    BioTreat{trademark}, a commercially available nutrient-surfactant compound, was investigated for its ability to solubilize TCE. Potential mechanisms for enhancing biodegradation rates by the use of nutrient-surfactant mixtures are: increased solubilization of TCE into the aqueous phase, and increased nutrients for the bacteria and greater numbers of colony forming units (CFUs). In aqueous systems, no measured solubilization of 0.1 and 1.0 ppm TCE from the headspace into the liquid phase was observed with BioTreat added at concentrations <0.5%. However, at BioTreat concentrations in excess of the CMC (>0.5%), increased solubilization of TCE was measured. A second question was the nutrient effect of BioTreat on the growth of the TCE-degrading bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia G4 PR1{sub 301}. The added nutrients provided by BioTreat was evident and lead to increased cell numbers. The effect of BioTreat on the expression of ortho-monooxgenase, the enzyme necessary for TCE degradation by B. cepacia was also investigated. Enzyme expression as detected by a calorimetric assay was inhibited for BioTreat concentrations >0.05%. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Degradation of TCE using sequential anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Babu, G. R. V.; Baresi, Larry; Trunzo, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) were isolated from contaminated wastewaters and soil sites. The aerobic cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four species) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The optimal conditions for the growth of aerobic cultures were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of TCE for Pseudomonas sps. were also determined. The aerobic cells were immobilized in calcium alginate in the form of beads. Degradation of TCE by the anaerobic and dichloroethylene (DCE) by aerobic cultures was studied using dual reactors - anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor. The minimal mineral salt (MMS) medium saturated with TCE was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the anaerobic reactor. The MMS medium saturated with DCE and supplemented with xylenes and toluene (3 ppm each) was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the fluidized air-uplift-type reactor containing the immobilized aerobic cells. The concentrations of TCE and DCE and the metabolites formed during their degradation by the anaerobic and aerobic cultures were monitored by GC. The preliminary study suggests that the anaerobic and aerobic cultures of our isolates can degrade TCE and DCE.

  7. INFLUENCE OF HYDRAULIC RETENTION TIME ON EXTENT OF PCE DECHLORINATION AND PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ENRICHMENT CULTURE. (R826694C703)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extent of tetrachloroethene (PCE) dechlorination in two chemostats was evaluated as a function of hydraulic retention time (HRT). The inoculum of these chemostats was from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor that rapidly converts PCE to vinyl chloride (VC) an...

  8. Optimizing binary phase and amplitude filters for PCE, SNR, and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1992-01-01

    Binary phase-only filters (BPOFs) have generated much study because of their implementation on currently available spatial light modulator devices. On polarization-rotating devices such as the magneto-optic spatial light modulator (SLM), it is also possible to encode binary amplitude information into two SLM transmission states, in addition to the binary phase information. This is done by varying the rotation angle of the polarization analyzer following the SLM in the optical train. Through this parameter, a continuum of filters may be designed that span the space of binary phase and amplitude filters (BPAFs) between BPOFs and binary amplitude filters. In this study, we investigate the design of optimal BPAFs for the key correlation characteristics of peak sharpness (through the peak-to-correlation energy (PCE) metric), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and discrimination between in-class and out-of-class images. We present simulation results illustrating improvements obtained over conventional BPOFs, and trade-offs between the different performance criteria in terms of the filter design parameter.

  9. Application of electrolysis to stimulate microbial reductive PCE dechlorination and oxidative VC biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Lohner, Svenja T; Tiehm, Andreas

    2009-09-15

    A novel approach was applied to stimulate biodegradation of chloroethenes bya coupled bioelectro-process. In a flow-through column system, microbial dechlorination of tetrachloroethene to cis-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, and ethene was stimulated by hydrogen produced by water electrolysis. Dechlorinating bacteria (Dehalococcoides spp. and Desulfitobacterium spp.) and also methanogens and homoacetogens were detected in the anaerobic column. Simultaneously, oxidative biodegradation of lower chlorinated metabolites (vinyl chloride) was stimulated by electrolytic oxygen formation in the corresponding aerobic column. The process was stable for more than 100 days and an average removal of approximately 23 micromol/d PCE and 72 micromo/d vinyl chloride was obtained with a current density of 0.05 mA/cm2. Abiotic electrochemical degradation of the contaminants was not observed. Microbial dechlorination correlated with the current densities in the applied range of 0.01-0.05 mA/cm2. The results are promising for environmental applications, since with electrolysis hydrogen and oxygen can be supplied continuously to chloroethene degrading microorganisms, and the supply rates can be easily controlled by adjusting the electric current. PMID:19806748

  10. Chemostat Studies of TCE-Dehalogenating Anaerobic Consortia under Excess and Limited Electron Donor Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M.; Green, J.; Mayer-Blackwell, K.; Spormann, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Two cultures - the Victoria Strain (VS) and the Evanite Strain (EV), enriched with the organohalide respiring bacteria Dehalococcoides mccartyi - were grown in chemostats for more than 4 years at a mean cell residence time of 50 days. The slow doubling rate represents growth likely experienced in the subsurface. The chemostats were fed formate as an electron donor and trichloroethene (TCE) as the terminal electron acceptor. Under excess formate conditions, stable operation was observed with respect to TCE transformation, steady-state hydrogen (H2) concentrations (40 nM), and the structure of the dehalogenating community. Both cultures completely transformed TCE to ethene, with minor amounts of vinyl chloride (VC) observed, along with acetate formation. When formate was limited, TCE was transformed incompletely to ethene (40-60%) and VC (60- 40%), and H2 concentrations ranged from 1 to 3 nM. The acetate concentration dropped below detection. Batch kinetic studies of TCE transformation with chemostat harvested cells found transformation rates of c-DCE and VC were greatly reduced when the cells were grown with limited formate. Upon increasing formate addition to the chemostats, from limited to excess, essentially complete transformation of TCE to ethene was achieved. The increase in formate was associated with an increase in H2 concentration and the production of acetate. Results of batch kinetic tests showed increases in transformation rates for TCE and c-DCE by factors of 3.5 and 2.5, respectively, while VC rates increased by factors of 33 to 500, over a six month period. Molecular analysis of chemostat samples is being performed to quantify the changes in copy numbers of reductase genes and to determine whether shifts in the strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi where responsible for the observed rate increases. The results demonstrate the importance of electron donor supply for successful in-situ remediation.

  11. Degradation of TCE with iron: The role of competing chromate and nitrate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Schlicker, O.; Ebert, M.; Fruth, M.; Weidner, M.; Wuest, W.; Dahmke, A.

    2000-06-01

    This study evaluates the potential of using granular iron metal for the abiotic removal of the organic ground water pollutant trichloroethene (TCE) in the presence of the common inorganic co-contaminants chromate and nitrate, respectively. Their long-term column experiments indicate a competitive process between TCE dechlorination and reductive transformation of chromate and nitrate, which is reflected in a significantly delayed onset of TCE dechlorination. Delay times and therefore the ranges of the nonreactive flowpaths increased with increasing experimental duration, resulting in a migration of the contaminants through the iron metal treatment zone. The present investigation also indicates that the calculated migration rates of TCE and the added cocontaminants chromate and nitrate are linearly related to the initial content of the cocontaminants. With an average pore water velocity of 0.6 m/d and a surface area concentration of 0.55 m{sup 2}/mL in the column, the calculated migration rates varied between 0.10 cm/d and 5.86 cm/d. The particular similarity between the values of TCE migration and the migration of the strong oxidants chromate and nitrate and the long-term steady state of the TCE dechlorination in the absence of the chromate and nitrate indicates that these competitive transformations are the driving force for the gradual passivation of the granular iron due to the buildup of an electrically insulating Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide. Based on these passivation processes, general formulae were developed that allow a simplified approximation of breakthrough times for the contaminants TCE, chromate, and nitrate.

  12. Results of the Lasagna{trademark} Phase IIa field demonstration for the remediation of TCE in clay soils

    SciTech Connect

    Athmer, C.J.; Ho, S.V.; Hughes, B.M.; Clausen, J.L.; Johnstone, F.; Hines, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    The Lasagna{trademark} technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electrokinetics is utilized to move the contaminants through those zones until the treatment is completed. The Phase IIa demonstration was the second field demonstration at a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site in Paducah, Ky. The first demonstration, Phase I, proved that TCE could be mobilized and captured using Lasagna{trademark}. This second demonstration measured 30 feet by 21 feet by 45 feet deep and showed for the first time TCE, including pure phase residual TCE, could be mobilized in tight soils using electrokinetics and degraded in-situ using iron filings. Over 95% removal of TCE was observed in areas of the demonstration site including pure phase residual TCE regions.

  13. A novel PCE-based algorithm for P2MP inter-domain traffic engineering in optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Koubo; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yongli; Yu, Ziyan; Gu, Wanyi; Wang, Dajiang; Cao, Xuping

    2011-12-01

    Point-to-Multipoint (P2MP) services in optical networks are more and more important for high-capacity applications. Steiner tree algorithms have been investigated to compute minimum-cost multicast tree. However, it is difficult to compute an optimal P2MP tree in multi-domain networks because of isolation of each domain. There are several algorithms based on Path Computation Element (PCE) for computing multi-domain Point-to-point path, but computing P2MP Traffic Engineering Label Switched Path (TE-LSP) in a multi-domain networks is still a challenge. In this paper, three PCE-based schemes for P2MP inter-domain LSP computation are compared in full splitting capability networks, and a novel Multi-Domain Minimum-cost Path Heuristic (MDMPH) algorithm is proposed. Simulation results proved that the MDMPH algorithm computes P2MP tree with less cost than the other three schemes.

  14. The Effect of FeS Mineral Transformation on TCE Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y. T.; Wilson, J. T.; Wilkin, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Iron- and sulfate-reducing conditions are often encountered in permeable reactive barrier (PRB) systems that are constructed to remove TCE from groundwater, which usually leads to the accumulation of FeS mineral phases in the matrix of the PRB. Poorly crystalline mackinawite (FeS) has been shown to play an important role in the removal of TCE in these engineered systems. In a column experiment simulating conditions in a PRB at Altus AFB in Oklahoma, USA, abiotic reaction of TCE with FeS could account for up to 50% of TCE removal in the PRB. However, the rate constant obtained in the column experiment with biogenic FeS was an order of magnitude higher than rates reported in the literature for TCE reaction with chemically synthesized FeS. The experiments reported in the literature used freeze drying as part of its preparation for synthesized FeS. To resolve the discrepancy between our results from biogenic FeS and the reports in the literature, we conducted batch experiments with FeS that was chemically synthesized under conditions that corresponded to the geochemical conditions in the column experiment (final free sulfide concentrations ~5 mg/L). All operations were carried out in an oxygen free glove box. One set of experiments were conducted with chemically synthesized FeS kept in suspension throughout the experiment, and a second set of experiments were conducted using FeS that had been freeze dried, then resuspended in water. The pH and free sulfide concentrations were adjusted to equal the conditions in the first set of experiments. The results show that 13C labeled TCE is readily degraded by FeS to acetylene and CO2. TCE degradation rate by FeS kept in suspension is 20-40 times faster than the freeze dried FeS. The effect of pH on TCE degradation is also investigated in this study. Mineralogical characterization by XRD and XAS show FeS in suspension remains as mackinawite (FeS) through out the experiment duration (56d), while freeze dried FeS changes over time

  15. Characterization of an Enriched Anaerobic Culture Having Ability to Dechlorinate TCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ise, K.; Suto, K.; Inoue, C.

    2007-03-01

    An anaerobic mixed microbial culture was enriched from soil and groundwater taken from a site contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE). This enrichment culture could dechlorinate TCE sequentially to cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), and ethene rapidly within 2 weeks. This enrichment culture could utilize various organic compounds, such as methanol, ethanol, and sodium acetate and so on, as electron donor. This culture had maintained high ability of TCE dechlorination for about 3 years since the start of enrichment cultivation. The optimum pH value for the dechlorination activity of this culture, which reacts from TCE to ethene, was 6.7. However above the pH value 7.1, it lost the dechlorination ability of cis-DCE and VC. So cis-DCE was remained at that pH conditions. From the DNA sequencing analysis of 16SrRNA gene, this enrichment culture includes Dehalococcoides sp. which has the ability to dechlorinate TCE to VC completely with hydrogen. It suggested that this Dehalococcoides sp. takes part in the dechlorination of chloroethenes.

  16. Retardation of volatile organic compounds in ground water in low organic carbon sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.

    1995-04-01

    It is postulated that adsorption onto aquifer matrix surfaces is only one of the processes that retard contaminants in ground water in unconsolidated sediments; others include hydrodynamic dispersion, abiotic/biotic degradation, matrix diffusion, partitioning to organic carbon, diffusion into and retention in dead-end pores, etc. This work aims at these processes in defining the K{sub d} of VOCs in sediments with low organic carbon content. Experiments performed include an initial column experiment for VOC (TCE and perchloroethylene(PCE)) retardation tests on geological materials, PCE and TCE data from LLNL sediments, and a preliminary multilayer sampler experiment. The VOC K{sub d}s in low organic carbon permeable aquifer materials are dependent on the VOC composition and independent of aquifer grain size, indicating that sorption was not operative and that the primary retarding factors are diffusion controlled. The program of future experiments is described.

  17. Health hazard evaluation determination report HE-80-71-703, Bear Creek Uranium Company, Douglas, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, B.J.

    1980-06-01

    An environmental survey was conducted in February 1980 to evaluate exposure to CRC, a cleaning solvent containing perchloroethylene (127184), (PCE) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (71556) (TCE) at Bear Creek Uranium Company (SIC-1094) in Wyoming. The survey was requested by the company safety engineer. Breathing zone and general room air samples were collected and analyzed. One mine electrician was exposed to 6,500 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/cu m) (PCE recommended OSHA limit is 690mg/cu m). Of the 7 samples of TCE, none exceeded the OSHA standard of 1900mg/cu m. Overexposure did occur when workers used the solvent in confined areas. The authors concluded that a health hazard existed when the solvent was used on confined spaces, and they recommend improved work practices.

  18. Phytoremediation of chlorinated ethenes in seepline sediments: tree selection.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, Andrine; Berry, Christopher J; Brigmon, Robin L

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation of chlorinated ethene (CE)-contaminated water was investigated at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC, USA. Perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are present where CE-contaminated groundwater currently outcrops in seepline soils. Results of constructed and planted test cells, filled with soil from a noncontaminated seepline area and supplied with CE-contaminated groundwater (48 ppb) in the field for one season are presented. These test cells were planted with loblolly pines, hybrid poplars, coyote willow, and sweet gum. Cis-dichloroethylene (cDCE), a byproduct from rhizosphere microbial activity, was detected in the soils as well as some tree tissues. All trees tested were found to uptake both PCE and TCE (5-50 pbb/gm dry wt). PMID:19260231

  19. Development and evaluation of a harmonized physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for perchloroethylene toxicokinetics in mice, rats, and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Ginsberg, Gary L.

    2011-06-15

    This article reports on the development of a 'harmonized' PBPK model for the toxicokinetics of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene or perc) in mice, rats, and humans that includes both oxidation and glutathione (GSH) conjugation of perc, the internal kinetics of the oxidative metabolite trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and the urinary excretion kinetics of the GSH conjugation metabolites N-Acetylated trichlorovinyl cysteine and dichloroacetic acid. The model utilizes a wider range of in vitro and in vivo data than any previous analysis alone, with in vitro data used for initial, or 'baseline,' parameter estimates, and in vivo datasets separated into those used for 'calibration' and those used for 'evaluation.' Parameter calibration utilizes a limited Bayesian analysis involving flat priors and making inferences only using posterior modes obtained via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). As expected, the major route of elimination of absorbed perc is predicted to be exhalation as parent compound, with metabolism accounting for less than 20% of intake except in the case of mice exposed orally, in which metabolism is predicted to be slightly over 50% at lower exposures. In all three species, the concentration of perc in blood, the extent of perc oxidation, and the amount of TCA production is well-estimated, with residual uncertainties of {approx} 2-fold. However, the resulting range of estimates for the amount of GSH conjugation is quite wide in humans ({approx} 3000-fold) and mice ({approx} 60-fold). While even high-end estimates of GSH conjugation in mice are lower than estimates of oxidation, in humans the estimated rates range from much lower to much higher than rates for perc oxidation. It is unclear to what extent this range reflects uncertainty, variability, or a combination. Importantly, by separating total perc metabolism into separate oxidative and conjugative pathways, an approach also recommended in a recent National Research Council review, this analysis

  20. Effects of different electron donor feeding patterns on TCE reductive dechlorination performance.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakis, I; Antoniou, K; Mamais, D; Pantazidou, M

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates how the feeding pattern of e(-) donors might affect the efficiency of enhanced in situ bioremediation in TCE-contaminated aquifers. A series of lab-scale batch experiments were conducted using butyrate or hydrogen gas (H2) as e(-) donor and a TCE-dechlorinating microbial consortium dominated by Dehalococcoides spp. The results of these experiments demonstrate that butyrate is similarly efficient for TCE dechlorination whether it is injected once or in doses. Moreover, the present work indicates that the addition of butyrate in great excess cannot be avoided, since it most likely provide, even indirectly, significant part of the H2 required. Furthermore, methanogenesis appears to be the major ultimate e(-) accepting process in all experiments, regardless the e(-) donor used and the feeding pattern. Finally, the timing of injection of H2 seems to significantly affect dechlorination performance, since the injection during the early stages improves VC-to-ETH dechlorination and reduce methanogenic activity. PMID:25613854

  1. In situ, subsurface monitoring of vapor-phase TCE using fiber optics

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.; Colston, B. Jr.; Brown, S.; Milanovich, F.; Lee, L.T. Jr.

    1993-03-05

    A vapor-phase, reagent-based, fiber optic trichloroethylene (TCE) sensor developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in two configurations. The first incorporated the sensor into a down-well instrument bounded by two inflatable packers capable of sealing an area for discrete depth analysis. The second involved an integration of the sensor into the probe tip of the Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) cone penetrometry system. Discrete depth measurements of vapor-phase concentrations of TCE in the vadose zone were successfully made using both configurations. These measurements demonstrate the first successful in situ sensing (as opposed to sampling) of TCE at a field site.

  2. Spatial and temporal dynamics of organohalide-respiring bacteria in a heterogeneous PCE-DNAPL source zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cápiro, Natalie L.; Löffler, Frank E.; Pennell, Kurt D.

    2015-11-01

    Effective treatment of sites contaminated with dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) requires detailed understanding of the microbial community responses to changes in source zone strength and architecture. Changes in the spatial and temporal distributions of the organohalide-respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi (Dhc) strains and Geobacter lovleyi strain SZ (GeoSZ) were examined in a heterogeneous tetrachloroethene- (PCE-) DNAPL source zone within a two-dimensional laboratory-scale aquifer flow cell. As part of a combined remedy approach, flushing with 2.3 pore volumes (PVs) of 4% (w/w) solution of the nonionic, biodegradable surfactant Tween® 80 removed 55% of the initial contaminant mass, and resulted in a PCE-DNAPL distribution that contained 51% discrete ganglia and 49% pools (ganglia-to-pool ratio of 1.06). Subsequent bioaugmentation with the PCE-to-ethene-dechlorinating consortium BDI-SZ resulted in cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) formation after 1 PV (ca. 7 days), while vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene were detected 10 PVs after bioaugmentation. Maximum ethene yields (ca. 90 μM) within DNAPL pool and ganglia regions coincided with the detection of the vcrA reductive dehalogenase (RDase) gene that exceeded the Dhc 16S rRNA genes by 2.0 ± 1.3 and 4.0 ± 1.7 fold in the pool and ganglia regions, respectively. Dhc and GeoSZ cell abundance increased by up to 4 orders-of-magnitude after 28 PVs of steady-state operation, with 1 to 2 orders-of-magnitude increases observed in close proximity to residual PCE-DNAPL. These observations suggest the involvement of these dechlorinators the in observed PCE dissolution enhancements of up to 2.3 and 6.0-fold within pool and ganglia regions, respectively. Analysis of the solid and aqueous samples at the conclusion of the experiment revealed that the highest VC (≥ 155 μM) and ethene (≥ 65 μM) concentrations were measured in zones where Dhc and GeoSZ were predominately attached to the solids. These findings demonstrate

  3. Visualization of TCE recovery mechanisms using surfactant polymer solutions in a two-dimensional heterogeneous sand model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Thomas; Martel, Richard; Conrad, Stephen H.; Lefebvre, René; Gabriel, Uta

    2006-06-01

    This research focused on the optimization of TCE dissolution in a physical two-dimensional model providing a realistic representation of a heterogeneous granular aquifer. TCE was infiltrated in the sand pack where it resided both in pools and in zones of residual saturation. Surfactant was initially injected at low concentration to minimize TCE remobilization at first contact but was incrementally increased later during the experiment. Xanthan gum was added to the injected surfactant solution to optimize the sweep efficiency through the heterogeneous medium. Photographs and digital image analysis illustrated the interactions between TCE and the injected fluids. During the polymer flood, the effects of heterogeneities inside the sand pack were greatly reduced by the increased fluid viscosity and the shear-thinning effects of the polymer. The polymer also improved the contact between the TCE ganglia and the surfactant-polymer solution, thereby promoting dissolution. Surfactants interacted with the polymer reducing the overall viscosity of the solution. At first contact with a 0.5% mass surfactant solution, the TCE pools drained and some remobilization occurred. However, no TCE bank was formed and TCE did not penetrate into any previously uncontaminated areas. As a result, TCE surface area was increased. Subsequent surfactant floods at higher surfactant concentrations did not trigger more remobilization. TCE was mainly dissolved by the solution with the highest surfactant concentration. Plugging from bacterial growth or microgel formation associated to the polymer at the inflow screen prevented the full completion of the experiment. However, more than 90% of TCE was recovered with the circulation of less than 6 pore volumes of surfactant-polymer solution.

  4. Visualization of TCE recovery mechanisms using surfactant-polymer solutions in a two-dimensional heterogeneous sand model.

    PubMed

    Robert, Thomas; Martel, Richard; Conrad, Stephen H; Lefebvre, René; Gabriel, Uta

    2006-06-30

    This research focused on the optimization of TCE dissolution in a physical two-dimensional model providing a realistic representation of a heterogeneous granular aquifer. TCE was infiltrated in the sand pack where it resided both in pools and in zones of residual saturation. Surfactant was initially injected at low concentration to minimize TCE remobilization at first contact but was incrementally increased later during the experiment. Xanthan gum was added to the injected surfactant solution to optimize the sweep efficiency through the heterogeneous medium. Photographs and digital image analysis illustrated the interactions between TCE and the injected fluids. During the polymer flood, the effects of heterogeneities inside the sand pack were greatly reduced by the increased fluid viscosity and the shear-thinning effects of the polymer. The polymer also improved the contact between the TCE ganglia and the surfactant-polymer solution, thereby promoting dissolution. Surfactants interacted with the polymer reducing the overall viscosity of the solution. At first contact with a 0.5%(mass) surfactant solution, the TCE pools drained and some remobilization occurred. However, no TCE bank was formed and TCE did not penetrate into any previously uncontaminated areas. As a result, TCE surface area was increased. Subsequent surfactant floods at higher surfactant concentrations did not trigger more remobilization. TCE was mainly dissolved by the solution with the highest surfactant concentration. Plugging from bacterial growth or microgel formation associated to the polymer at the inflow screen prevented the full completion of the experiment. However, more than 90% of TCE was recovered with the circulation of less than 6 pore volumes of surfactant-polymer solution. PMID:16624443

  5. Gene regulation in Drosophila spermatogenesis: analysis of protein binding at the translational control element TCE.

    PubMed

    Kempe, E; Muhs, B; Schäfer, M

    1993-01-01

    We have previously identified a 12 nucleotide long sequence element, the TCE, that was demonstrated to be necessary for translational control of expression in the male germ line of Drosophila melanogaster (Schäfer et al., 1990). It is conserved among all seven members of the Mst(3)CGP gene family, that encode structural proteins of the sperm tail. The TCE is invariably located in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) at position +28 relative to the transcription start site. In this paper we analyse the mode of action of this element. We show that protein binding occurs at the TCE after incubation with testis protein extracts from Drosophila melanogaster. While several proteins are associated with the translational control element in the RNA, only one of these proteins directly crosslinks to the sequence element. The binding activity is exclusively observed with testis protein extracts but can be demonstrated with testis extracts from other Drosophila species as well, indicating that regulatory proteins involved in translational regulation in the male germ line are conserved. Although binding to the TCE can occur independent of its position relative to the transcription start site of the in vitro transcripts, its function in vivo is not exerted when shifted further downstream within the 5' UTR of a fusion gene. In addition to being a translational control element the TCE also functions as a transcriptional regulator. Consequently, a DNA-protein complex is also formed at the TCE. In contrast to the RNA-protein complexes we find DNA-protein complexes with protein extracts of several tissues of Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:8111973

  6. Hydrodechlorination of TCE in a circulated electrolytic column at high flow rate.

    PubMed

    Fallahpour, Noushin; Yuan, Songhu; Rajic, Ljiljana; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2016-02-01

    Palladium-catalytic hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) by cathodic H2 produced from water electrolysis has been tested. For a field in-well application, the flow rate is generally high. In this study, the performance of Pd-catalytic hydrodechlorination of TCE using cathodic H2 is evaluated under high flow rate (1 L min(-1)) in a circulated column system, as expected to occur in practice. An iron anode supports reduction conditions and it is used to enhance TCE hydrodechlorination. However, the precipitation occurs and high flow rate was evaluated to minimize its adverse effects on the process (electrode coverage, clogging, etc.). Under the conditions of 1 L min(-1) flow, 500 mA current, and 5 mg L(-1) initial TCE concentration, removal efficacy using iron anodes (96%) is significantly higher than by mixed metal oxide (MMO) anodes (66%). Two types of cathodes (MMO and copper foam) in the presence of Pd/Al2O3 catalyst under various currents (250, 125, and 62 mA) were used to evaluate the effect of cathode materials on TCE removal efficacy. The similar removal efficiencies were achieved for both cathodes, but more precipitation generated with copper foam cathode (based on the experiments done by authors). In addition to the well-known parameters such as current density, electrode materials, and initial TCE concentration, the high velocities of groundwater flow can have important implications, practically in relation to the flush out of precipitates. For potential field application, a cost-effective and sustainable in situ electrochemical process using a solar panel as power supply is being evaluated. PMID:26344148

  7. System for In-Situ Detection of Plant Exposure to Trichloroethylene (TCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Mark D. (Inventor); Anderson, Daniel J. (Inventor); Newman, Lee A. (Inventor); Keith, Amy G. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A system detects a plant's exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) through plant leaf imaging. White light impinging upon a plant's leaf interacts therewith to produce interacted light. A detector is positioned to detect at least one spectral band of the interacted light. A processor coupled to the detector performs comparisons between photonic energy of the interacted light at the one or more spectral bands thereof and reference data defining spectral responses indicative of leaf exposure to TCE. An output device coupled to the processor provides indications of the comparisons.

  8. CIS-DCE AND VC MICROBIAL COMMUNITY CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH A SHIFT FROM REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF PCE TO REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subcultures that reductively dechlorinate cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) or vinyl chloride (VC) were derived from three independent enrichments that completely dechlorinated tetrachloroethene (PCE) to ethene in order to study the reductive dechlorination of the lesser chlorinated e...

  9. PD-CATALYZED TCE DECHLORINATION IN GROUNDWATER: SOLUTE EFFECTS, BIOLOGICAL CONTROL, AND OXIDATIVE CATALYST REGENERATION. (R825421)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of a Pd-on-src="/ncer/pubs/images/gamma.gif">-Al2O3 catalyst for
    dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) was evaluated in synthetic and real
    groundwater. Low initial TCE conversions were used to provide maximum ...

  10. Use Of Statistical Tools To Evaluate The Reductive Dechlorination Of High Levels Of TCE In Microcosm Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large, multi-laboratory microcosm study was performed to select amendments for supporting reductive dechlorination of high levels of trichloroethylene (TCE) found at an industrial site in the United Kingdom (UK) containing dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE. The study ...

  11. High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells with PCE of 10.42% via Al-Doped ZnO Cathode Interlayer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Yaru; Song, Changjian; Zhu, Liping; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Hai-Qiao; Fang, Junfeng

    2016-09-01

    High-performance polymer solar cells incorporating a low-temperature-processed aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode interlayer are constructed with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.42% based on PTB7-Th:PC71 BM blends (insensitive to the AZO thickness). Moreover, flexible devices on poly(ethylene terephthalate)/indium tin oxide substrates with PCE of 8.93% are also obtained, and welldistributed efficiency and good device stability are demonstrated as well. PMID:27309840

  12. Stable Isotope Fractionation of Tetrachloroethene during Reductive Dechlorination by Sulfurospirillum multivorans and Desulfitobacterium sp. Strain PCE-S and Abiotic Reactions with Cyanocobalamin

    PubMed Central

    Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Andert, Janet; Beck, Kirsten; Kästner, Matthias; Diekert, Gabriele; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Carbon stable isotope fractionation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) during reductive dechlorination by whole cells and crude extracts of Sulfurospirillum multivorans and Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE-S and the abiotic reaction with cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) was studied. Fractionation was largest during the reaction with cyanocobalamin with αC = 1.0132. Stable isotope fractionation was lower but still in a similar order of magnitude for Desulfitobacterium sp. PCE-S (αC = 1.0052 to 1.0098). The isotope fractionation of PCE during dehalogenation by S. multivorans was lower by 1 order of magnitude (αC = 1.00042 to 1.0017). Additionally, an increase in isotope fractionation was observed with a decrease in cell integrity for both strains. For Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE-S, the carbon stable isotope fractionation factors were 1.0052 and 1.0089 for growing cells and crude extracts, respectively. For S. multivorans, αC values were 1.00042, 1.00097, and 1.0017 for growing cells, crude extracts, and the purified PCE reductive dehalogenase, respectively. For the field application of stable isotope fractionation, care is needed as fractionation may vary by more than an order of magnitude depending on the bacteria present, responsible for degradation. PMID:16000743

  13. Validation and application of pharmacokinetic models for interspecies extrapolations in toxicity risk assessments of volatile organics. Annual report No. 2, 1 July 1988-30 June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Dallas, C.E.; Bruckner, J.V.; Gallo, J.; Ramanathan, R.; Muralidhara, S.

    1989-07-21

    In pursuit of the goal of establishing a scientific basis for the interspecies extrapolation of pharmacokinetic data in health-risk assessments, a series of studies were conducted involving pharmacokinetic determinations in rats to several aliphatic halocarbons (with parallel studies initiated in the dog). Direct measurements of the uptake and elimination of halocarbon in rats were completed during the following inhalation exposures and following oral administration of dichloroethylene (DCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). An assay for the measurement of halocarbons in the tissues of exposed animals has been successfully developed, and tissue-concentration profiles in the liver, kidney, lung, fat, brain, muscle, and heart were completed for oral and intraarterial administrations of PCE. The utility of the physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for the accurate computer simulations of the pharmacokinetics of three halocarbons with wide variation in physicochemical properties (TRI, TCE, and PCE) has been demonstrated.

  14. Preliminary technology report for Southern Sector bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; White, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Jones, D.; Berry, C.

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to demonstrate the potential of intrinsic bioremediation and phytoremediation in the Southern Sector of the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site. A subsurface plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) is present in the Lost Lake aquifer upgradient of the study site and is predicted to impact the area at some point in the future. The surface area along the Lost lake aquifer seep line where the plume is estimated to emerge was identified. Ten sites along the seep line were selected for biological, chemical, and contaminant treatability analyses. A survey was undertaken in this area to to quantify the microbial and plant population known to be capable of remediating TCE and PCE. The current groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient of the zone of influence was determined. No TCE or PCE was found in the soils or surface water from the area tested at this time. A TCE biodegradation treatability test was done on soil from the 10 selected locations. From an initial exposure of 25 ppm of TCE, eight of the samples biodegraded up to 99.9 percent of all the compound within 6 weeks. This biodegradation of TCE appears to be combination of aerobic and anaerobic microbial activity as intermediates that were detected in the treatability test include vinyl chloride (VC) and the dichloroethenes (DCE) 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene. The TCE biological treatability studies were combines with microbiological and chemical analyses. The soils were found through immunological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis to have a microbial population of methanotrophic bacteria that utilize the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) and cometabolize TCE.

  15. Diversity of Pristine Methanotrophic Communities in a Basalt Aquifer: Implications for Natural Attenuation of TCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. W.; Newby, D. T.; Delwiche, M. E.; Igoe, A.; McKinley, J. P.; Roberto, F. F.; Colwell, F. S.

    2001-12-01

    Natural attenuation of a large trichloroethylene (TCE) plume within the oxic Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA) appears to be occurring by aerobic co-metabolism. Methanotrophs are some of the key TCE degraders known to inhabit the aquifer. To better understand the role methanotrophs may have in TCE degradation and the relationship of methanotrophs to dissolved methane concentrations, groundwater collected from wells in the SRPA was analyzed for geochemical properties and methanotroph diversity. Microorganisms removed from groundwater by filtration were used as inocula for enrichments or were frozen and subsequently extracted for DNA. Primers that target Type I and Type II methanotroph 16S rDNA or genes that code for soluble (mmoX) and particulate (pmoA) methane monooxygenase subunits were used to characterize the indigenous methanotrophs via PCR, cloning, and sequencing. Groundwater had dissolved methane concentrations that ranged from 1 to >1000 nM. Analysis of sequencing results suggest that the group Methylocystaceae is a predominant Type II methanotroph in each sample. Methanotrophs can be detected and enriched from groundwater containing even low methane concentrations. Analysis of gene sequences provides assessments of methanotroph abundance and diversity with respect to the aquifer methane concentrations, imparting greater insight into the genetic potential of the microbial community capable of degrading TCE. This research will continue to focus on the evaluation of natural attenuation by methanotrophs.

  16. Formulation design for target delivery of iron nanoparticles to TCE zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziheng; Acosta, Edgar

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (NZVI) are effective reducing agents for some dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, target delivery of iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones in the aquifer remains an elusive feature for NZVI technologies. This work discusses three strategies to deliver iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones. To this end, iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleate (OL) ions were used as stable analogs for NZVI. The OL-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are rendered lipophilic via (a) the addition of CaCl2, (b) acidification, or (c) the addition of a cationic surfactant, benzethonium chloride (BC). Mixtures of OL and BC show promise as a target delivery strategy due to the high stability of the nanoparticles in water, and their preferential partition into TCE in batch experiments. Column tests show that while the OL-BC coated iron oxide nanoparticles remain largely mobile in TCE-free columns, a large fraction of these particles are retained in TCE-contaminated columns, confirming the effectiveness of this target delivery strategy.

  17. Modeling of TCE diffusion to the atmosphere and distribution in plant stems.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingmao; Burken, Joel

    2004-09-01

    Fate of chlorinated solvents in phytoremediation has been delineated by many discoveries made in recent years. Plant uptake, metabolism, rhizosphere degradation, accumulation, and volatilization were shown to occur to differing degrees for many organic contaminants including chlorinated solvents. Among these mechanistic findings, recent research confirmed that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) volatilize from stems and that the resulting diffusive flux to the atmosphere is related to exposure concentration and to height up the stem. A comprehensive model was developed based upon all identified fate and transport mechanisms for VOCs, including translocation in the xylem flow and diffusion. The dispersion and diffusion in the radial direction were considered as one process (effective diffusion) as the two could not be investigated individually. The mechanism-based model mathematically indicates an exponential decrease of concentrations with height. While an analytic solution for the comprehensive model was not attained, it can serve as a starting point for other modeling efforts. The comprehensive model was simplified in this work for practical application to experimentally obtained data on trichloroethylene (TCE) fate. Model output correlated well with experimental results, and effective diffusivities for TCE in plant tissues were obtained through the model calibrations. The simplified model approximated TCE concentrations in the transpiration stream as well as TCE volatilization to the atmosphere. Xylem transport, including advection, dispersion, and diffusion through cell walls with subsequent volatilization to the atmosphere, is a major fate for VOCs in phytoremediation. PMID:15461166

  18. A SEARCH FOR RESIDUAL BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE) IN RATS EXPOSED AS YOUNG ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a solvent of concern to the EPA due to its extensive use in industry, its prevalence in urban air, and its appearance in water supplies. Human clinical studies have associated short and long-termsolvent exposures with cognitive dysfunction including att...

  19. RATE OF TCE DEGRADATION IN A PLANT MULCH PASSIVE REACTIVE BARRIER (BIOWALL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A passive reactive barrier was installed at the OU-1 site at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma to treat TCE contamination in ground water from a landfill. Depth to ground water varies from 1.8 to 2.4 meters below land surface. To intercept and treat the plume of contaminated groun...

  20. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL OF TCE IN A LABORATORY MODEL OF A PRB CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water contaminated with TCE is commonly treated with a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) constructed with zero-valence iron. The cost of iron as the reactive matrix has driven a search for less costly alternatives, and composted plant mulch has been used as an alternative ...

  1. FIELD SCALE EVALUATION OF TREATMENT OF TCE IN A BIOWALL AT THE OU-1 SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A passive reactive barrier (Biowall) was installed at the OU-1 site at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma to treat TCE contamination in ground water from a landfill. Depth to ground water varies from 1.8 to 2.4 meters below land surface. To intercept and treat the plume of contamin...

  2. LESSONS LEARNED FROM IN-SITU RESISTIVE HEATING OF TCE AT FORT LEWIS, WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EGDY is the source of a potentially expanding, three mile long TCE plume in a sole source drinking water aquifer. Thermal remediation is being employed to reduce source mass loading to the dissolved phase aquifer plume and reduce the time to reach site cleanup goals. This i...

  3. 76 FR 30243 - Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) Program Availability of Application Packages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ..., or private delivery service; or electronically through Grants.gov by the deadline date. ADDRESSES.... Regulations were published in the Federal Register at 44 FR 72113 on December 13, 1979. Section 163 gives the... Internal Revenue Service Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) Program Availability of Application...

  4. Abiotic and Biotic Transformation of TCE under Sulfate Reducing Conditions: the Role of Spatial Heterogeneity

    EPA Science Inventory

    At a number of sites in the USA, passive reactive barriers built with shredded plant mulch have been constructed to treat ground water contaminated with TCE. These barriers are called biowalls because anaerobic biodegradation of the plant mulch is expected to provide substrates...

  5. REMEDIATION OF TCE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER BY A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FILLED WITH PLANT MULCH (BIOWALL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale permeable reactive barrier filled with plant mulch was installed at Altus Air Force Base (in Oklahoma, USA) to treat trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination in ground water emanating from a landfill. The barrier was constructed in June 2002. It was 139 meters long, 7 ...

  6. Betula pendula: A Promising Candidate for Phytoremediation of TCE in Northern Climates.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Qvarfort, Ulf; Sjöström, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Betula pendula (Silver birch) trees growing on two contaminated sites were evaluated to assess their capacity to phytoscreen and phytoremediate chlorinated aliphatic compounds and heavy metals. Both locations are industrially-contaminated properties in central Sweden. The first was the site of a trichloroethylene (TCE) spill in the 1980s while the second was polluted with heavy metals by burning industrial wastes. In both cases, sap and sapwood from Silver birch trees were collected and analyzed for either chlorinated aliphatic compounds or heavy metals. These results were compared to analyses of the surface soil, vadose zone pore air and groundwater. Silver birch demonstrated the potential to phytoscreen and possibly phytoremediate TCE and related compounds, but it did not demonstrate the ability to effectively phytoextract heavy metals when compared with hyperaccumulator plants. The capacity of Silver birch to phytoremediate TCE appears comparable to tree species that have been employed in field-scale TCE phytoremediation efforts, such as Populus spp. and Eucalyptus sideroxylon rosea. PMID:25174420

  7. Decision Tree based Prediction and Rule Induction for Groundwater Trichloroethene (TCE) Pollution Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Yoo, K.

    2013-12-01

    For groundwater resource conservation, it is important to accurately assess groundwater pollution sensitivity or vulnerability. In this work, we attempted to use data mining approach to assess groundwater pollution vulnerability in a TCE (trichloroethylene) contaminated Korean industrial site. The conventional DRASTIC method failed to describe TCE sensitivity data with a poor correlation with hydrogeological properties. Among the different data mining methods such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR), Case Base Reasoning (CBR), and Decision Tree (DT), the accuracy and consistency of Decision Tree (DT) was the best. According to the following tree analyses with the optimal DT model, the failure of the conventional DRASTIC method in fitting with TCE sensitivity data may be due to the use of inaccurate weight values of hydrogeological parameters for the study site. These findings provide a proof of concept that DT based data mining approach can be used in predicting and rule induction of groundwater TCE sensitivity without pre-existing information on weights of hydrogeological properties.

  8. Fingerprinting TCE in a bedrock aquifer using compound-specific isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Lojkasek-Lima, Paulo; Aravena, Ramon; Parker, Beth L; Cherry, John A

    2012-01-01

    A dual isotope approach based on compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of carbon (C) and chlorine (Cl) was used to identify sources of persistent trichloroethylene (TCE) that caused the shut-down in 1994 of a municipal well in an extensive fractured dolostone aquifer beneath Guelph, Ontario. Several nearby industrial properties have known subsurface TCE contamination; however, only one has created a comprehensive monitoring network in the bedrock. The impacted municipal well and many monitoring wells were sampled for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), inorganic parameters, and CSIA. A wide range in isotope values was observed at the study site. The TCE varies between -35.6‰ and -21.8‰ and from 1.6‰ to 3.2‰ for δ(13) C and δ(37) Cl, respectively. In case of cis-1,2-dichloroethene, the isotope values range between -36.3‰ and -18.9‰ and from 2.4‰ to 4.7‰ for δ(13) C and δ(37) Cl, respectively. The dual isotope approach represented by a plot of δ(13) C vs. δ(37) Cl shows the municipal well samples grouped in a domain clearly separate from all other samples from the property with the comprehensive well network. The CSIA results collected under non-pumping and short-term pumping conditions thus indicate that this particular property, which has been studied intensively for several years, is not a substantial contributor of the TCE presently in the municipal well under non-pumping conditions. This case study demonstrates that CSIA signatures would have been useful much earlier in the quest to examine sources of the TCE in the municipal well if bedrock monitoring wells had been located at several depths beneath each of the potential TCE-contributing properties. Moreover, the CSIA results show that microbial reductive dechlorination of TCE occurs in some parts of the bedrock aquifer. At this site, the use of CSIA for C and Cl in combination with analyses of VOC and redox parameters proved to be important due to the complexity introduced by

  9. Initial Results of ISCO for a Large TCE DNAPL Source Area

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, S.L.; Cross, P.E.

    2008-07-01

    This paper will describe the results of an in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) remedial action currently in progress to address subsurface contamination by trichloroethene (TCE) dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for the cleanup of environmental media at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in southern Ohio. The X-701B Solid Waste Management Unit is an unlined surface impoundment at PORTS which was operated from 1954 to 1988. A TCE plume in groundwater emanates from the unit and is approximately 2,200 feet in length. Metals, radioactive inorganics, and other organic chemicals are also present at lower concentrations in the groundwater. An ongoing 1.6-acre TCE DNAPL source area for the plume is believed to exist up-gradient in the vicinity of the X-701B pond. The extent of the source area is inferred from actual recovery of DNAPL in production wells and from detection of TCE concentrations between 100 and 1,000 mg/L in monitoring wells. Previous remedial activities at X-701B have included a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure and a technology demonstration that recirculated permanganate solutions between two horizontal wells. Results of sampling after these remedial activities showed that the permanganate effectively destroyed TCE in portions of the aquifer where adequate contact was achieved, but that uniform distribution by the recirculation system was problematic. As a result, the TCE concentration in the groundwater eventually rebounded after the treatment. To overcome distribution issues and to more aggressively remediate the source, a new remediation approach is being implemented for the unit. The new approach involves the injection of Modified Fenton's Reagent directly into the source area using temporary direct push injection points. This new approach provides the ability to overcome limitations imposed by heterogeneities in the subsurface by injecting relatively small quantities of

  10. Remediation of TCE contaminated soils by in situ EK-Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Yang, G C; Liu, C Y

    2001-08-17

    The treatment performance and cost analysis of in situ electrokinetic (EK)-Fenton process for oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in soils were evaluated in this work. In all experiments, an electric gradient of 1V/cm, de-ionized water as the cathode reservoir fluid and a treatment time of 10 days were employed. Treatment efficiencies of TCE were evaluated in terms of the electrode material, soil type, catalyst type, and catalyst dosage and granular size if applicable. Test results show that graphite electrodes are superior to stainless steel electrodes. It was found that the soil with a higher content of organic matter would result in a lower treatment efficiency (e.g. a sandy loam is less efficient than a loamy sand). Experimental results show that the type of catalyst and its dosage would markedly affect the reaction mechanisms (i.e. "destruction" and "removal") and the treatment efficiency. Aside from FeSO4, scrap iron powder (SIP) in the form of a permeable reactive wall was also found to be an effective catalyst for Fenton reaction to oxidize TCE. In general, the smaller the granular size of SIP, the lower the overall treatment efficiency and the greater the destruction efficiency. When a greater quantity of SIP was used, a decrease of the overall treatment efficiency and an increase of percent destruction of TCE were found. Experimental results have shown that the quantity of electro-osmotic (EO) flow decreased as the quantity of SIP increased. It has been verified that the treatment performances are closely related to the corresponding EO permeability. Results of the cost analysis have indicated that the EK-Fenton process employed in this work is very cost-effective with respect to TCE destruction. PMID:11489531

  11. Radiation induced dechlorination of some chlorinated hydrocarbons in aqueous suspensions of various solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Múčka, V.; Buňata, M.; Čuba, V.; Silber, R.; Juha, L.

    2015-07-01

    Radiation induced dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in aqueous solutions containing the active carbon (AC) or cupric oxide (CuO) as the modifiers was studied. The obtained results were compared to the previously studied dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Both modifiers were found to decrease the efficiency of dechlorination. The AC modifier acts mainly via adsorption of the aliphatic (unlike the aromatic) hydrocarbons and the CuO oxide mainly inhibits the mineralization of the perchloroethylene. The results presented in this paper will be also helpful for the studies of the impact of chlorinated hydrocarbons on the membrane permeability of living cells.

  12. Health assessment for Watkins-Johnson Facility, Scotts Valley, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD980893234. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-30

    The Watkins-Johnson facility is on the National Priorities List. The facility manufactures electronic components. The environmental sampling conducted to date indicates that the contaminants of concern at the site are predominantly VOCs present in ground water, surface water, and soil. The VOCs present in one or more environmental media include trichloroethylene (TCE); 1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE); tetrachloroethylene perchloroethylene (PCE); vinyl chloride; methylene chloride; 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA); and Freon 113. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via ingestion of contaminated ground water.

  13. Laboratory and pilot field-scale testing of surfactants for environmental restoration of chlorinated solvent DNAPLs

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.E.; Fountain, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This project is composed of two phases and has the objective of demonstrating surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) as a practical remediation technology at DOE sites with ground water contaminated by dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), in particular, chlorinated solvents. The first phase of this project, Laboratory and Pilot Field Scale Testing, which is the subject of the work so far, involves (1) laboratory experiments to examine the solubilization of multiple component DNAPLs, e.g., solvents such as perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), by dilute surfactant solutions, and (2) a field test to demonstrate SEAR technology on a small scale and in an existing well.

  14. Pilot-scale demonstration of surfactant-enhanced PCE solubilization at the Bachman Road site. 1. Site characterization and test design.

    PubMed

    Abriola, Linda M; Drummond, Chad D; Hahn, Ernest J; Hayes, Kim F; Kibbey, Tohren C G; Lemke, Lawrence D; Pennell, Kurt D; Petrovskis, Erik A; Ramsburg, C Andrew; Rathfelder, Klaus M

    2005-03-15

    A pilot-scale demonstration of surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) was conducted to recover dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) tetrachloroethene (PCE) from a sandy glacial outwash aquifer underlying a former dry cleaning facility at the Bachman Road site in Oscoda, MI. Part one of this two-part paper describes site characterization efforts and a comprehensive approach to SEAR test design, effectively integrating laboratory and modeling studies. Aquifer coring and drive point sampling suggested the presence of PCE-DNAPL in a zone beneath an occupied building. A narrow PCE plume emanating from the vicinity of this building discharges into Lake Huron. The shallow unconfined aquifer, characterized by relatively homogeneous fine-medium sand deposits, an underlying clay layer, and the absence of significant PCE transformation products, was judged suitable for the demonstration of SEAR. Tween 80 was selected for application based upon its favorable solubilization performance in batch and two-dimensional sand tank treatability studies, biodegradation potential, and regulatory acceptance. Three-dimensional flow and transport models were employed to develop a robust design for surfactant delivery and recovery. Physical and fiscal constraints led to an unusual hydraulic design, in which surfactant was flushed across the regional groundwater gradient, facilitating the delivery of concentrations of Tween 80 exceeding 1% (wt) throughout the treatment zone. The potential influence of small-scale heterogeneity on PCE-DNAPL distribution and SEAR performance was assessed through numerical simulations incorporating geostatistical permeability fields based upon available core data. For the examined conditions simulated PCE recoveries ranged from 94to 99%. The effluent treatment system design consisted of low-profile air strippers coupled with carbon adsorption to trap off-gas PCE and discharge of treated aqueous effluent to a local wastewater treatment plant. The

  15. Change of pH and Iron Ion Concentration During Photodegradation of TCE with Ferrioxalate/UVvis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hareyama, Wataru; Suto, Koichi; Inoue, Chihiro; Chida, Tadashi; Nakazawa, Hiroshi

    2006-05-15

    Recently, some studies show various organic compounds such as pesticides and dyes degraded with the irradiation of ultraviolet light and visible light in the presence of oxalic acid and ferric ion (ferrioxalate/UVvis process). The process has much advance than other technologies because it can utilize the wavelength of 300{approx}450nm and also under the condition of neutral pH. Chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethene (TCE), which have caused ground water pollution on a lot of sites, have never been applied by photodegradation with this process. In this study, we showed the degradation of TCE in the presence of oxalic acid and iron ion and the change of pH, ferric and ferrous ion concentration during the photodegradation of TCE with ferrioxalate/UV-vis process. TCE was degraded in the presence of oxalic acid and iron ion. In the reactions, the equilibrium of oxalate ion and iron ion is important since it determines the amount of ferrioxalate complex which absorbs light and induces the reactions of the degradation of TCE. Thus, the pH value and iron ion concentration are the important factors which determine the amount of ferrioxalate complex. The pH is nearly constant during the photodegradation of TCE. The ferrous ion concentration was decreased as soon as beginning photodegradation of TCE, and then the ferrous ion concentration and ferric ion concentration became constant.

  16. Translating the IHE Teaching File and Clinical Trial Export (TCE) profile document templates into functional DICOM structured report objects.

    PubMed

    Kamauu, Aaron W C; DuVall, Scott L; Liimatta, Andrew P; Wiggins, Richard H; Avrin, David E

    2008-12-01

    The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Teaching File and Clinical Trial Export (TCE) integration profile describes a standard workflow for exporting key images from an image manager/archive to a teaching file, clinical trial, or electronic publication application. Two specific digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) structured reports (SR) reference the key images and contain associated case information. This paper presents step-by-step instructions for translating the TCE document templates into functional and complete DICOM SR objects. Others will benefit from these instructions in developing TCE compliant applications. PMID:17805930

  17. Modeling of TCE and Toluene Toxicity to Pseudomonas putida F1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Olson, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Prediction of viable bacterial distribution with respect to contaminants is important for efficient bioremediation of contaminated ground-water aquifers, particularly those contaminated with residual NAPLs. While bacterial motility and chemotaxis may help situate bacteria close to high concentrations of contaminant thereby enhancing bioremediation, prolonged exposure to high concentrations of contaminates is toxic to contaminant-degrading bacteria. The purpose of this work is to model the toxicity of trichloroethylene and toluene to Pseudomonas putida F1. The Live/Dead® bacterial viability assay was used to determine the toxic effect of chemical contaminants on the viability of P. putida F1 in a sealed zero head-space experimental environment. Samples of bacterial suspensions were exposed to common ground-water pollutants, TCE and toluene, for different durations. Changes in live and dead cell populations were monitored over the course of experiments using fluorescence microscopy. Data obtained from these toxicity experiments were fit to simple linear and exponential bacterial decay models using non-linear regression to describe loss of bacterial viability. TCE toxicity to P. putida F1 was best described with an exponential decay model (Figure 1a), with a decay constant kTCE = 0.025 h-4.95 (r2 = 0.956). Toluene toxicity showed a marginally better fit to the linear decay model (Figure 1b) (r2 = 0.971), with a decay constant ktoluene = 0.204 h-1. Best-fit model parameters obtained for both TCE and toluene were used to predict bacterial viability in toxicity experiments with higher contaminant concentrations and matched well with experimental data. Results from this study can be used to predict bacterial accumulation and viability near NAPL sources, and thus may be helpful in improving bioremediation performance assessment of contaminated sites. Figure 1: Survival ratios (S = N/No) of P. putida F1 in TCE- (a) and toluene- (b) stressed samples (observed (

  18. Health assessment for Sturgis Municipal Wells, St. Joseph County, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980703011. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-10

    The Sturgis Municipal Wells are listed on the National Priorities List. Routine sampling in June 1982 revealed that two of the four municipal water supply wells serving the City of Sturgis (pop. 10,000) were contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). TCE concentrations ranging from 11-74 ppb were detected in both wells. Twenty-eight water samples were taken from existing wells (monitoring, test and production wells) in fall 1987. An industrial process well at Ross Laboratories contained 219 ppb TCE. Soil gas sampling, also performed in fall 1987, revealed several hot spots throughout the city. The following compounds were detected (maximum concentrations in ng/l): TCE, 47,200; PCE, 290,000; 1,1-dichloroethane, 2,040; 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,092; 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 23,600; and toluene; 3,680. The site is of public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by probable human exposure to hazardous substances at levels that may result in adverse human health effects over time. Human exposure to TCE has and is probably occurring via contaminated ground water, and potentially through surface water, soils, and air.

  19. Impact of turbidity on TCE and degradation products in ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, C.J.; Puls, R.W.

    1997-06-01

    Elevated particulate concentrations in ground water samples can bias contaminant concentration data. This has been particularly problematic for metal analyses where artificially increased turbidity levels can affect metals concentrations and confound interpretation of the data. However, few studies have been conducted to determine the impact of particulates on trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), and vinyl chloride concentrations. Laboratory batch studies and field investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of suspended solids on VOC concentrations in ground water samples analyzed by purge-and-trap gas chromatography. Three different solids were used to assess the effects of suspended particulates. The solids were aquifer material from a field site in North Carolina and two reference clay minerals (kaolinite and Na-montmorillonite). During the laboratory portion of this study, the solids were used to determine effects on TCE concentrations under controlled laboratory conditions. The same solids were used in a field study to compare the laboratory results with field results.

  20. [Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with Transcanalicular Endoillumination (TCE) of the Saccus Lacrimalis].

    PubMed

    Hefner, J; Klask, J; Gerding, H

    2016-04-01

    Endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) has been established as a standard procedure of lacrimal surgery, since it causes much less tissue damage than ab externo procedures. Diffiulties in visualization of the target area has been a limitation to the transnasal approach. An improvement of the classical endonasal DCR was achieved by the introduction of a transcanalicular endoillumination (TCE) of the lacrimal sac using a 23-Gauge vitreoretinal light probe, which can easily be intubated into the cannaliculi and advanced into the the lacrimal sac. Illumination of the lacrimal sac guides the endonasal approach and facilitates the creation of a lacrimal bypass. In our standard procedure a bicanalicular silicone intubation through the osteotomy is finally placed. Due to the introduction of TCE of the lacrimal sac, the surgical procedure of endonasal DCR became less traumatic and needed a significantly reduced operating time. PMID:27116496

  1. Retaining and recovering enzyme activity during degradation of TCE by methanotrophs

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, A.V.; Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Carroll, S.

    1997-12-31

    To determine if compounds added during trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation could reduce the loss of enzyme activity or increase enzyme recovery, different compounds serving as energy and carbon sources, pH buffers, or free radical scavengers were tested. Formate and formic acid (reducing power and a carbon source), as well as ascorbic acid and citric acid (free radical scavengers) were added during TCE degradation at a concentration of 2 mM. A saturated solution of calcium carbonate was also tested to address pH concerns. In the presence of formate and methane, only calcium carbonate and formic acid had a beneficial effect on enzyme recovery. The calcium carbonate and formic acid both reduced the loss of enzyme activity and resulted in the highest levels of enzyme activity after recovery. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Electrochemically induced dual reactive barriers for transformation of TCE and mixture of contaminants in groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xuhui; Yuan, Songhu; Fallahpour, Noushin; Ciblak, Ali; Howard, Joniqua; Padilla, Ingrid; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2012-01-01

    A novel reactive electrochemical flow system consisting of iron anode and porous cathode is proposed for the remediation of mixture of contaminants in groundwater. The system consists of a series of sequentially arranged electrodes, a perforated iron anode, a porous copper cathode followed by a mesh-type mixed metal oxide anode. The iron anode generates ferrous species and a chemically reducing environment, the porous cathode provides a reactive electrochemically reducing barrier, and the inert anode provides proton and oxygen to neutralize the system. The redox conditions of the electrolyte flowing through this system can be regulated by controlling the distribution of the electric current. Column experiments are conducted to evaluate the process and study the variables. The electrochemical reduction on a copper foam cathode produced an electrode-based reductive potential capable of reducing TCE and nitrate. Rational electrodes arrangement, longer residence time of electrolytes and higher surface area of foam electrode improve the reductive transformation of TCE. More than 82.2% TCE removal efficiency is achieved for the case of low influent concentration (< 7.5 mg/L) and high current (> 45 mA). The ferrous species produced from the iron anode not only enhance the transformation of TCE on the cathode, but also facilitates transformation of other contaminants including dichromate, selenate and arsenite. Removal efficiencies greater than 80% are achieved for these contaminants from flowing contaminated water. The overall system, comprising the electrode-based and electrolyte-based barriers, can be engineered as a versatile and integrated remedial method for a relatively wide spectrum of contaminants and their mixtures. PMID:23067023

  3. [Preparation of Coated CMC-Fe0 Using Rheological Phase Reaction Method and Research on Degradation of TCE in Water].

    PubMed

    Fan, Wen-jing; Cheng, Yue; Yu, Shu-zhen; Fan, Xiao-feng

    2015-06-01

    The coated nanoscale zero-valent iron (coated CMC-Fe0) was synthesized with cheap and environment friendly CMC as the coating agent using rheological phase reaction. The sample was characterized by means of XRD, SEM, TEM and N2 adsorption-stripping and used to study reductive dechlorination of TCE. The experimental results indicated that the removal rate of TCE was about 100% when the CMC-Fe0 dosage was 6 g x L(-1), the initial TCE concentration was 5 mg x L(-1) and the reaction time was 40 h. The TCE degradation reaction of coated CMC-Fe0 followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Finally, the product could be simply recovered. PMID:26387321

  4. In Situ Redox Manipulation of Subsurface Sediments from Fort Lewis, Washington: Iron Reduction and TCE Dechlorination Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Sklarew, Deborah S.; Evans, John C.

    2000-03-17

    The feasibility of chemically treating sediments from the Ft. Lewis, Washington, Logistics Center to develop a permeable barrier for dechlorination of TCE was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments.

  5. Experimental demonstration of an OpenFlow/PCE integrated control plane for IP over translucent WSON with the assistance of a per-request-based dynamic topology server.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Casellas, Ramon; Tsuritani, Takehiro; Morita, Itsuro; Martínez, Ricardo; Muñoz, Raül

    2013-02-25

    To mitigate the potential scalability issues of an OpenFlow-based control plane, a seamless OpenFlow and Path Computation Element (PCE) integrated control plane is proposed, by means of an architecture in which the path computation function is formally decoupled from the controller so the controller can off-load the task to one or more dedicated PCEs using an open and standard interface and protocol, and where the PCE obtains its topology database by means of a dedicated dynamic topology server, which is accessed by the PCE on a per-request basis. The overall feasibility and performance metrics of this integrated control plane are experimentally verified and quantitatively evaluated on a real IP over translucent Wavelength Switched Optical Network (WSON) testbed. PMID:23481952

  6. 20 kHz sonoelectrochemical degradation of perchloroethylene in sodium sulfate aqueous media: influence of the operational variables in batch mode.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Verónica; Esclapez, María Deseada; Tudela, Ignacio; Bonete, Pedro; Louisnard, Olivier; González-García, José

    2010-11-15

    A preliminary study of the 20 kHz sonoelectrochemical degradation of perchloroethylene in aqueous sodium sulfate has been carried out using controlled current density degradation sonoelectrolyses in batch mode. An important improvement in the viability of the sonochemical process is achieved when the electrochemistry is implemented, but the improvement of the electrochemical treatment is lower when the 20 kHz ultrasound field is simultaneously used. A fractional conversion of 100% and degradation efficiency around 55% are obtained independently of the ultrasound power used. The current efficiency is also enhanced compared to the electrochemical treatment and a higher speciation is also detected; the main volatile compounds produced in the electrochemical and sonochemical treatment, trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene, are not only totally degraded, but also at shorter times than in the sonochemical or electrochemical treatments. PMID:20705391

  7. Evaluation of areas of contribution and water quality at receptors related to TCE plumes in a valley fill aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, R.; Ouellon, T.; Blais, V.; Ballard, J.; Brunet, P.

    2009-05-01

    The Val-Belair sector is located within Quebec City, about 20 km from downtown. Potential source zones and TCE plumes in groundwater are found at the western limit of the sector. At the center of the sector, four municipal water supply wells pump groundwater from an aquifer in surficial sediments where dissolved TCE is found. Private residential wells are also found in the sector. The Nelson River and its tributaries drain the sector and flows from west to east. New characterization results and available data were used to develop a numerical model of groundwater flow and mass transport to 1) define geological and hydrogeological contexts, 2) delineate the distribution of TCE and identify its migration paths and 3) evaluate the effect of TCE on the water quality of receptors (Nelson River, municipal and residential wells). In the sector, 30 to 40 m of sediments filling a buried valley form two aquifers separated by an aquitard: an unconfined deltaic aquifer at surface, an underlying silty prodeltaic aquitard and a semi-confined aquifer of deltaic sands and diamictons. Groundwater exchanges between the aquifers are generally downward through the aquitard, but near the Nelson River there is upward flow. Monitoring has led to sparse TCE detections in the Nelson River, regular detections at a mean value of 0.62 μg/L at one municipal well, occasional detections at another well and no detection at the other two wells. No TCE was detected in private wells, which are located outside the migration paths of TCE plumes. The context and numerical modeling with particle tracking and mass transport show the relationships between the two source zones, three TCE plumes and three receptors. Municipal wells pump in the semi-confined aquifer at a level appearing sustainable, but use most of the recharge in the sub-watershed. Areas of contribution to the wells thus cover almost all the study area with a complex pattern. These wells compete with the effect of the Nelson River to drain

  8. Electrolytic Manipulation of Persulfate Reactivity by Iron Electrodes for TCE Degradation in Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Songhu; Liao, Peng; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2014-01-01

    Activated persulfate oxidation is an effective in situ chemical oxidation process for groundwater remediation. However, reactivity of persulfate is difficult to manipulate or control in the subsurface causing activation before reaching the contaminated zone and leading to a loss of chemicals. Furthermore, mobilization of heavy metals by the process is a potential risk. An effective approach using iron electrodes is thus developed to manipulate the reactivity of persulfate in situ for trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation in groundwater, and to limit heavy metals mobilization. TCE degradation is quantitatively accelerated or inhibited by adjusting the current applied to the iron electrode, following k1 = 0.00053•Iv + 0.059 (−122 A/m3 ≤ Iv ≤ 244 A/m3) where k1 and Iv are the pseudo first-order rate constant (min−1) and volume normalized current (A/m3), respectively. Persulfate is mainly decomposed by Fe2+ produced from the electrochemical and chemical corrosion of iron followed by the regeneration via Fe3+ reduction on the cathode. SO4•− and •OH co-contribute to TCE degradation, but •OH contribution is more significant. Groundwater pH and oxidation-reduction potential can be restored to natural levels by the continuation of electrolysis after the disappearance of contaminants and persulfate, thus decreasing adverse impacts such as the mobility of heavy metals in the subsurface. PMID:24328192

  9. The role of microbial reductive dechlorination of TCE at a phytoremediation site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godsy, E.M.; Warren, E.; Paganelli, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    In April 1996, a phytoremediation field demonstration site at the Naval Air Station, Fort Worth, Texas, was developed to remediate shallow oxic ground water (< 3.7 m deep) contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Microbial populations were sampled in February and June 1998. The populations under the newly planted cottonwood trees had not yet matured to an anaerobic community that could dechlorinate trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE); however, the microbial population under a mature (???22-year-old) cottonwood tree about 30 m southwest of the plantings had a mature anaerobic population capable of dechlorinating TCE to DCE, and DCE to vinyl chloride (VC). Oxygen-free sediment incubations with contaminated groundwater also demonstrated that resident microorganisms were capable of the dechlorination of TCE to DCE. This suggests that a sufficient amount of organic material is present for microbial dechlorination in aquifer microniches where dissolved O2 concentrations are low. Phenol, benzoic acid, acetic acid, and a cyclic hydrocarbon, compounds consistent with the degradation of root exudates and complex aromatic compounds, were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in sediment samples under the mature cottonwood tree. Elsewhere at the site, transpiration and degradation by the cottonwood trees appears to be responsible for loss of chlorinated ethenes.

  10. Implementing heterogeneous catalytic dechlorination technology for remediating TCE-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Davie, Matthew G; Cheng, Hefa; Hopkins, Gary D; Lebron, Carmen A; Reinhard, Martin

    2008-12-01

    To transition catalytic reductive dechlorination (CRD) into practice, it is necessary to demonstrate the effectiveness, robustness, and economic competitiveness of CRD-based treatment systems. A CRD system scaled up from previous laboratory studies was tested for remediating groundwater contaminated with 500-1200 microg L(-1) trichloroethylene (TCE) at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), California. Groundwater was pumped from a treatment well at 2 gal min(-1), amended with hydrogen to 0.35 mg L(-1) and contacted for 2.3 min with 20 kg eggshell-coated Pd on alumina beads (2% Pd by wt) packed in a fixed-bed reactor, and then returned to the aquifer. Operation was continuous for 23 h followed a 1 h regeneration cycle. After regeneration, TCE removal was 99.8% for 4 to 9 h and then declined to 98.3% due to catalyst deactivation. The observed catalyst deactivation was tentatively attributed to formation of sulfidic compounds; modeling of catalyst deactivation kinetics suggests the presence of sulfidic species equivalent to 2-4 mg L(-1) hydrogen sulfide in the reactor water. Over the more than 100 day demonstration period, TCE concentrations in the treated groundwater were reduced by >99% to an average concentration of 4.1 microg L(-1). The results demonstrate CRD as a viable treatment alternative technically and economically competitive with activated carbon adsorption and other conventional physicochemical treatmenttechnologies. PMID:19192817

  11. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.

    2004-10-06

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites.

  12. In situ detection of organic molecules: Optrodes for TCE (trichloroethylene) and CHCl sub 3

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, S. M.; Langry, K. C.; Ridley, M. N.

    1990-05-01

    We have developed new absorption-based chemical indicators for detecting chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) and trichloroethylene (TCE). These indicators were used to make very sensitive optical chemical sensors (optrodes) for each of these two contaminants. Concentrations below 10 ppb can be accurately measured using these sensors. Furthermore, they are selective and do not response to similar contaminants commonly found with TCE and CHCl{sub 3} in contaminated groundwater. In addition, the sensor response is linearly proportional to the chemical concentration. In this report, we describe the details of this optrode and the putative reaction sequences of the indicator chemistries with CHCl{sub 3} and TCE and present an analysis of the spectral data obtained from the reaction products. A key part of the development of this optrode was designing a simple readout device. The readout is a dual-channel fiber-optic fluorimeter modified to measure transmission or absorption of light. The system is controlled by a lap-top microcomputer and is fully field portable. In addition to describing the final absorption optrode, details of the chemical indicator reactions are presented for both absorption- (colorimetric) and fluorescence-based optrodes. Finally, we report on the syntheses of several compounds used to evaluate the indicator chemical reactions that led to the development of the absorption optrode. 23 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Halocarbon adsorption in nanoporous materials: A combined calorimetric and Monte Carlo study of trichloroethylene (TCE) in faujasite-type zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Mellot, C.F.; Cheetham, A.K. |; Harms, S.; Savitz, S.; Gorte, R.J.; Myers, A.L.

    1998-11-10

    Isosteric heats of adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) in a series of faujasite-type zeolites, siliceous faujasite, NaY (Si:Al = 2.6), and NaX (Si:Al = 1.2), have been studied by the combination of calorimetry and (N,V,T) Monte Carlo simulations, varying the sorbate loading up to {approximately}35 molecules per unit-cell. Excellent agreement is obtained between observed and calculated heats, confirming the applicability of the force field to the realm of unsaturated halocarbons for a large range of Si:Al ratio, cation content, and sorbate loading. The relative contributions of short-range and long-range interactions to the heat of adsorption are discussed, and the host/guest pair distribution functions (PDFs) from the MC simulations are analyzed in detail. At fixed loading, TCE heats of adsorption increase in the sequence of host basicity and cation content: siliceous faujasite: {approximately}40 kJ/mol < NaY: {approximately}55 kJ/mol < NaX: {approximately}80 kJ/mol (extrapolated to zero loading). Such a correlation is further elucidated from the host/guest PDFs by the enhancement of H{sub TCE}{hor_ellipsis}O{sub ZEO} hydrogen bonding and Cl{sub TCE}{hor_ellipsis}Na{sub ZEO} electrostatic interactions from the siliceous faujasite to NaY and NaX. An increase in TCE loading gives rise to a systematic increase in adsorption heats (>10 kJ/mol); this is identified as of a predominantly dispersive nature arising from Cl{sub TCE}{hor_ellipsis} and H{sub TCE}{hor_ellipsis}Cl{sub TCE} intermolecular interactions.

  14. Intercalation of TCE by Sediment-Associated Clay Minerals and Implications for Low-Concentration Elution Tailing and Back Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthieu, D. E.; Brusseau, M. L.; Bowden, M. E.; Johnson, G. R.; Artiola, J. F.; Curry, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Pump-and-treat systems are widely used to remediate hazardous waste sites wherein groundwater is contaminated by compounds such as TCE (trichloroethene). It is well known that removal of contaminant mass by pump and treat becomes less effective over time, with a persistent mass discharge causing greatly extended operational periods. One mechanism potentially responsible for this persistent mass discharge is "back diffusion", wherein dissolved contaminant stored in lower-permeability layers diffuses into the higher-permeability zones that are more readily swept via pump and treat. Because the lower-permeability layers typically contain high fractions of clay minerals, a question of great interest is whether contaminant-clay interactions may influence the back-diffusion process. For example, intercalation of TCE into the interlayer spaces of clay minerals could potentially exacerbate diffusive mass-transfer limitations. The primary objectives of this research were to evaluate the long-term elution of TCE from aquifer sediments, and to examine the potential for TCE intercalation. Sediment samples were collected from a TCE-contaminated field site in Tucson, AZ. A widely used Na- Montmorillonite specimen clay was used as a control. Miscible-displacement experiments were conducted to characterize TCE elution behavior. X-ray diffraction, conducted with a controlled environment chamber, was used to characterize smectite interlayer d-spacing for three treatments (bulk dry sample, sample mixed with synthetic groundwater, sample mixed with TCE-saturated synthetic groundwater). Extensive elution tailing was observed for the column experiments. Results of the XRD analysis indicate a greater d-spacing for the samples treated with TCE-saturated synthetic groundwater for all field samples as well as the specimen clay.

  15. Surfactant properties and tetrachloroethene (PCE) solubilisation ability of humic acid-like substances extracted from maize plant and from organic wastes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Adani, Fabrizio; Tambone, Fulvia; Davoli, Enrico; Scaglia, Barbara

    2010-02-01

    Humic acid-like substance (HA-like substance) extracted from maize plant residue at an yield of 81.1+/-4.9gkg(-1) of dry matter (dm) was tested for surfactant properties and ability to solubilise tetrachloroethene (PCE). Critical micelle concentration (CMC) of HA-like substance was detected to be 1986mgL(-1). Both, HA-like substance composition and average molecular weight [MW] affected CMC and a multiple linear regression model was proposed: CMC=12246-56.19 alkyl-C - 0.532MW (R(2)=0.90; P<0.01, n=7) where CMC was given in mgL(-1), alkyl-C was the percentage of total C, and MW was given in Da. Maize-HA-like substance solubilised PCE at the rate of 0.05g of PCE for each gram of maize-HA-like substance, which was 3.6-9.6 times lower than the data obtained in our earlier work using HA extracted from organic wastes, but was higher than that obtained with commercial HA from leonardite. Taking into consideration the two-site model of solubilisation of PCE in surfactant (i.e., solute partitioning into the micellar hydrophobic core and dissolution and/or binding into the hydrophilic non-ionic shell) and macromolecular composition of HA-like substance, the non-ionic hydrophile-alkyl lipophile balance was expected to control PCE solubilisation as the good multiple linear regression indicated: logK(dom)=-1.37+0.062 alkyl-C +0.055 O-alkyl-C (R(2)=0.93, P<0.05, n=6), where logK(dom) represents the micelle-water partitioning of PCE (mLg(-1)) and alkyl-C and O-alkyl-C represent the content of these two kinds of C detected by CP MAS (13)C NMR (as % of the total C). PMID:20044126

  16. Lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind the Gata3 Tce1 enhancer to mediate lineage-specific programs

    PubMed Central

    Ohmura, Sakie; Mizuno, Seiya; Oishi, Hisashi; Ku, Chia-Jui; Hermann, Mary; Hosoya, Tomonori; Takahashi, Satoru; Engel, James Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor GATA3 is essential for the genesis and maturation of the T cell lineage, and GATA3 dysregulation has pathological consequences. Previous studies have shown that GATA3 function in T cell development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and that the Notch nuclear effector, RBP-J, binds specifically to the Gata3 promoter. We previously identified a T cell–specific Gata3 enhancer (Tce1) lying 280 kb downstream from the structural gene and demonstrated in transgenic mice that Tce1 promoted T lymphocyte–specific transcription of reporter genes throughout T cell development; however, it was not clear if Tce1 is required for Gata3 transcription in vivo. Here, we determined that the canonical Gata3 promoter is insufficient for Gata3 transcriptional activation in T cells in vivo, precluding the possibility that promoter binding by a host of previously implicated transcription factors alone is responsible for Gata3 expression in T cells. Instead, we demonstrated that multiple lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind to Tce1 and that this enhancer confers T lymphocyte–specific Gata3 activation in vivo, as targeted deletion of Tce1 in a mouse model abrogated critical functions of this T cell–regulatory element. Together, our data show that Tce1 is both necessary and sufficient for critical aspects of Gata3 T cell–specific transcriptional activity. PMID:26808502

  17. Electrocatalytic activity of Pd-loaded Ti/TiO2 nanotubes cathode for TCE reduction in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenjing; Yuan, Songhu; Mao, Xuhui; Hu, Wei; Liao, Peng; Tong, Man; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2013-07-01

    A novel cathode, Pd loaded Ti/TiO2 nanotubes (Pd-Ti/TiO2NTs), is synthesized for the electrocatalytic reduction of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. Pd nanoparticles are successfully loaded on TiO2 nanotubes which grow on Ti plate via anodization. Using Pd-Ti/TiO2NTs as the cathode in an undivided electrolytic cell, TCE is efficiently and quantitatively transformed to ethane. Under conditions of 100 mA and pH 7, the removal efficiency of TCE (21 mg/L) is up to 91% within 120 min, following pseudo-first-order kinetics with the rate constant of 0.019 min(-1). Reduction rates increase from 0.007 to 0.019 min(-1) with increasing the current from 20 to 100 mA, slightly decrease in the presence of 10 mM chloride or bicarbonate, and decline with increasing the concentrations of sulfite or sulfide. O2 generated at the anode slightly influences TCE reduction. At low currents, TCE is mainly reduced by direct electron transfer on the Pd-Ti/TiO2NT cathode. However, the contribution of Pd-catalytic hydrodechlorination, an indirect reduction mechanism, becomes significant with increasing the current. Compared with other common cathodes, i.e., Ti-based mixed metal oxides, graphite and Pd/Ti, Pd-Ti/TiO2NTs cathode shows superior performance for TCE reduction. PMID:23726693

  18. Lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind the Gata3 Tce1 enhancer to mediate lineage-specific programs.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Sakie; Mizuno, Seiya; Oishi, Hisashi; Ku, Chia-Jui; Hermann, Mary; Hosoya, Tomonori; Takahashi, Satoru; Engel, James Douglas

    2016-03-01

    The transcription factor GATA3 is essential for the genesis and maturation of the T cell lineage, and GATA3 dysregulation has pathological consequences. Previous studies have shown that GATA3 function in T cell development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and that the Notch nuclear effector, RBP-J, binds specifically to the Gata3 promoter. We previously identified a T cell-specific Gata3 enhancer (Tce1) lying 280 kb downstream from the structural gene and demonstrated in transgenic mice that Tce1 promoted T lymphocyte-specific transcription of reporter genes throughout T cell development; however, it was not clear if Tce1 is required for Gata3 transcription in vivo. Here, we determined that the canonical Gata3 promoter is insufficient for Gata3 transcriptional activation in T cells in vivo, precluding the possibility that promoter binding by a host of previously implicated transcription factors alone is responsible for Gata3 expression in T cells. Instead, we demonstrated that multiple lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind to Tce1 and that this enhancer confers T lymphocyte-specific Gata3 activation in vivo, as targeted deletion of Tce1 in a mouse model abrogated critical functions of this T cell-regulatory element. Together, our data show that Tce1 is both necessary and sufficient for critical aspects of Gata3 T cell-specific transcriptional activity. PMID:26808502

  19. Analysis of TCE Fate and Transport in Karst Groundwater Systems Using Statistical Mixed Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaya, A. A.; Padilla, I. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Karst groundwater systems are highly productive and provide an important fresh water resource for human development and ecological integrity. Their high productivity is often associated with conduit flow and high matrix permeability. The same characteristics that make these aquifers productive also make them highly vulnerable to contamination and a likely for contaminant exposure. Of particular interest are trichloroethylene, (TCE) and Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). These chemicals have been identified as potential precursors of pre-term birth, a leading cause of neonatal complications with a significant health and societal cost. Both of these contaminants have been found in the karst groundwater formations in this area of the island. The general objectives of this work are to: (1) develop fundamental knowledge and determine the processes controlling the release, mobility, persistence, and possible pathways of contaminants in karst groundwater systems, and (2) characterize transport processes in conduit and diffusion-dominated flow under base flow and storm flow conditions. The work presented herein focuses on the use of geo-hydro statistical tools to characterize flow and transport processes under different flow regimes, and their application in the analysis of fate and transport of TCE. Multidimensional, laboratory-scale Geo-Hydrobed models (GHM) were used for this purpose. The models consist of stainless-steel tanks containing karstified limestone blocks collected from the karst aquifer formation of northern Puerto Rico. The models integrates a network of sampling wells to monitor flow, pressure, and solute concentrations temporally and spatially. Experimental work entails injecting dissolved CaCl2 tracers and TCE in the upstream boundary of the GHM while monitoring TCE and tracer concentrations spatially and temporally in the limestone under different groundwater flow regimes. Analysis of the temporal and spatial concentration distributions of solutes

  20. Remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater using zero valent iron and direct current: experimental results and electron competition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Ji-Won; Moon, Hi-Soo; Kim, Heonki; Roh, Yul

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of this study are to design an optimal electro-enhanced permeable reactive barrier (E2PRB) system for the remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated water using zero valent iron (ZVI) and direct current (DC) and to investigate the mechanisms responsible for TCE degradation in different ZVI-DC configurations. A series of column experiments was conducted to evaluate the effect of different arrangements of electrodes and ZVI barriers in the column on the TCE removal capacity (RC). In twelve different combinations of ZVI and/or DC application in the test columns, the rate of reductive dechlorination of TCE was improved up to six times with simultaneous application of ZVI and DC compared to that using ZVI only. The most effective arrangement of electrode and ZVI for TCE removal was the column set with ZVI and a cathode installed at the down gradient. Based on the electrokinetic study for the column systems with only DC input, single acid front movement could explain different RCs. An enhanced dechlorination rate of TCE using E2PRB systems, compared to a conventional PRB system, was observed, and is considered to be attributed to more electron sources: (1) external DC, (2) electrolysis of water, (3) oxidation of ZVI, (4) oxidation of dissolved Fe2+, (5) oxidation of molecular hydrogen at the cathode, and (6) oxidation of Fe2+ in mineral precipitates. Each of these electron sources was evaluated for their potential influencing the TCE RC through the electron competition model and energy consumption. A strong correlation between the quantity of electrons generated, RC, and the energy-effectiveness was found.

  1. Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET) that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Results Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR) for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1). Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation and early childhood

  2. Public health assessment for Newton County Wells (a/k/a Silver Creek TCE), Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri, Region 7: CERCLIS number MOD985798339. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-19

    The Newton County TCE site contains an uncontrolled groundwater plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination. The source of contamination is believed to be FAG Bearings. From 1973 to 1982, FAG Bearings produced ball bearings using TCE as a commercial degreaser. It is alleged that improper disposal and leaks of an alleged closed system of TCE led to the contamination of soil at the industrial site, the groundwater aquifer, and subsequently, 82 private water wells. Exposure pathways at the site consist of inhalation of, ingestion of, and dermal contact with TCE-contaminated groundwater and surface water. Because completed and potential exposure pathways exist, the Newton County TCE site has been classified as a Public Health Hazard.

  3. Microbially enhanced dissolution and reductive dechlorination of PCE by a mixed culture: model validation and sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingjie; Abriola, Linda M; Amos, Benjamin K; Suchomel, Eric J; Pennell, Kurt D; Löffler, Frank E; Christ, John A

    2013-08-01

    Reductive dechlorination catalyzed by organohalide-respiring bacteria is often considered for remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zones due to cost savings, ease of implementation, regulatory acceptance, and sustainability. Despite knowledge of the key dechlorinators, an understanding of the processes and factors that control NAPL dissolution rates and detoxification (i.e., ethene formation) is lacking. A recent column study demonstrated a 5-fold cumulative enhancement in tetrachloroethene (PCE) dissolution and ethene formation (Amos et al., 2009). Spatial and temporal monitoring of key geochemical and microbial (i.e., Geobacter lovleyi and Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains) parameters in the column generated a data set used herein as the basis for refinement and testing of a multiphase, compositional transport model. The refined model is capable of simulating the reactive transport of multiple chemical constituents produced and consumed by organohalide-respiring bacteria and accounts for substrate limitations and competitive inhibition. Parameter estimation techniques were used to optimize the values of sensitive microbial kinetic parameters, including maximum utilization rates, biomass yield coefficients, and endogenous decay rates. Comparison and calibration of model simulations with the experimental data demonstrate that the model is able to accurately reproduce measured effluent concentrations, while delineating trends in dechlorinator growth and reductive dechlorination kinetics along the column. Sensitivity analyses performed on the optimized model parameters indicate that the rates of PCE and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) transformation and Dehalococcoides growth govern bioenhanced dissolution, as long as electron donor (i.e., hydrogen flux) is not limiting. Dissolution enhancements were shown to be independent of cis-DCE accumulation; however, accumulation of cis-DCE, as well as column length and flow rate (i.e., column residence time

  4. Microbially enhanced dissolution and reductive dechlorination of PCE by a mixed culture: Model validation and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingjie; Abriola, Linda M.; Amos, Benjamin K.; Suchomel, Eric J.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Löffler, Frank E.; Christ, John A.

    2013-08-01

    Reductive dechlorination catalyzed by organohalide-respiring bacteria is often considered for remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zones due to cost savings, ease of implementation, regulatory acceptance, and sustainability. Despite knowledge of the key dechlorinators, an understanding of the processes and factors that control NAPL dissolution rates and detoxification (i.e., ethene formation) is lacking. A recent column study demonstrated a 5-fold cumulative enhancement in tetrachloroethene (PCE) dissolution and ethene formation (Amos et al., 2009). Spatial and temporal monitoring of key geochemical and microbial (i.e., Geobacter lovleyi and Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains) parameters in the column generated a data set used herein as the basis for refinement and testing of a multiphase, compositional transport model. The refined model is capable of simulating the reactive transport of multiple chemical constituents produced and consumed by organohalide-respiring bacteria and accounts for substrate limitations and competitive inhibition. Parameter estimation techniques were used to optimize the values of sensitive microbial kinetic parameters, including maximum utilization rates, biomass yield coefficients, and endogenous decay rates. Comparison and calibration of model simulations with the experimental data demonstrate that the model is able to accurately reproduce measured effluent concentrations, while delineating trends in dechlorinator growth and reductive dechlorination kinetics along the column. Sensitivity analyses performed on the optimized model parameters indicate that the rates of PCE and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) transformation and Dehalococcoides growth govern bioenhanced dissolution, as long as electron donor (i.e., hydrogen flux) is not limiting. Dissolution enhancements were shown to be independent of cis-DCE accumulation; however, accumulation of cis-DCE, as well as column length and flow rate (i.e., column residence time

  5. Potential for Methanotroph-Mediated Natural Attenuation of TCE in a Basalt Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colwell, F. S.; Newby, D. T.; Reed, D. W.; Igoe, A.; Petzke, L.; Delwiche, M. E.; McKinley, J. P.; Roberto, F. F.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    Methanotrophic bacteria are one of the microbial communities believed to be responsible for natural attenuation of a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in the Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA). To better understand the role that indigenous methanotrophs may have in TCE degradation in the aquifer, groundwater was collected from four SRPA wells and analyzed for geochemical properties and methanotroph diversity. Dissolved methane concentrations in the aquifer ranged from 1 to >1000 nM. Stable carbon isotope ratios for dissolved methane suggest a microbial source for the methane (del 13C values of ca. -61 per mil in three wells). The combination of 13C enriched methane and 13C depleted-dissolved inorganic carbon in one of the wells suggests that microbial oxidation of methane occurs. Filtered groundwater yielded microorganisms that were used as inocula for enrichments or were frozen and subsequently extracted for DNA. Primers that target taxonomic (type I and type II 16S rDNA) or functional (mmoX and pmoA methane monooxygenase subunits) genes were used to characterize the indigenous methanotrophs via PCR, cloning, and sequencing. DNA sequencing and alignment results suggest that clones with sequences most similar to Methylocystis sp. (a type II methanotroph) and Methylobacter sp. (a type I methanotroph) are frequently present in filtered groundwater with the former often represented in enrichment cultures as well. Methanotroph genes are detected in the aquifer even in wells having methane concentrations as low as 1 nM. Methanotroph presence and a microbial origin for the dissolved methane indicate that microbial cycling of this key gas may play a role in the destruction of TCE in the aquifer.

  6. A scrutiny of heterogeneity at the TCE Source Area BioREmediation (SABRE) test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivett, M.; Wealthall, G. P.; Mcmillan, L. A.; Zeeb, P.

    2015-12-01

    A scrutiny of heterogeneity at the UK's Source Area BioREmediation (SABRE) test site is presented to better understand how spatial heterogeneity in subsurface properties and process occurrence may constrain performance of enhanced in-situ bioremediation (EISB). The industrial site contained a 25 to 45 year old trichloroethene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) that was exceptionally well monitored via a network of multilevel samplers and high resolution core sampling. Moreover, monitoring was conducted within a 3-sided sheet-pile cell that allowed a controlled streamtube of flow to be drawn through the source zone by an extraction well. We primarily focus on the longitudinal transect of monitoring along the length of the cell that provides a 200 groundwater point sample slice along the streamtube of flow through the DNAPL source zone. TCE dechlorination is shown to be significant throughout the cell domain, but spatially heterogeneous in occurrence and progress of dechlorination to lesser chlorinated ethenes - it is this heterogeneity in dechlorination that we primarily scrutinise. We illustrate the diagnostic use of the relative occurrence of TCE parent and daughter compounds to confirm: dechlorination in close proximity to DNAPL and enhanced during the bioremediation; persistent layers of DNAPL into which gradients of dechlorination products are evident; fast flowpaths through the source zone where dechlorination is less evident; and, the importance of underpinning flow regime understanding on EISB performance. Still, even with such spatial detail, there remains uncertainty over the dataset interpretation. These includes poor closure of mass balance along the cell length for the multilevel sampler based monitoring and points to needs to still understand lateral flows (even in the constrained cell), even greater spatial resolution of point monitoring and potentially, not easily proven, ethene degradation loss.

  7. Groundwater-surface water interaction and its role on TCE groundwater plume attenuation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Steven W; Parker, Beth L; Cherry, John A; Aravena, Ramon; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2007-05-14

    A field investigation of a TCE plume in a surficial sand aquifer shows that groundwater-surface water interactions strongly influence apparent plume attenuation. At the site, a former industrial facility in Connecticut, depth-discrete monitoring along three cross-sections (transects) perpendicular to groundwater flow shows a persistent VOC plume extending 700 m from the DNAPL source zone to a mid-size river. Maximum TCE concentrations along a transect 280 m from the source were in the 1000s of microg/L with minimal degradation products. Beyond this, the land surface drops abruptly to a lower terrace where a shallow pond and small streams occur. Two transects along the lower terrace, one midway between the facility and river just downgradient of the pond and one along the edge of the river, give the appearance that the plume has strongly attenuated. At the river, maximum TCE concentrations in the 10s of microg/L and similar levels of its degradation product cis-DCE show direct plume discharge from groundwater to the river is negligible. Although degradation plays a role in the strong plume attenuation, the major attenuation factor is partial groundwater plume discharge to surface water (i.e. the pond and small streams), where some mass loss occurs via water-air exchange. Groundwater and stream mass discharge estimates show that more than half of the plume mass discharge crossing the first transect, before surface water interactions occur, reaches the river directly via streamflow, although river concentrations were below detection due to dilution. This study shows that groundwater and surface water concentration measurements together provide greater confidence in identifying and quantifying natural attenuation processes at this site, rather than groundwater measurements alone. PMID:17182152

  8. Simulating the fate and transport of TCE from groundwater to indoor air.

    PubMed

    Yu, Soonyoung; Unger, Andre J A; Parker, Beth

    2009-07-21

    This work provides an exploratory analysis on the relative importance of various factors controlling the fate and transport of volatile organic contaminants (in this case, TCE) from a DNAPL source zone located below the water table and into the indoor air. The analysis is conducted using the multi-phase compositional model CompFlow Bio, with the base scenario problem geometry reminiscent of a field experiment conducted by Rivett [Rivett, M.O., (1995), Soil-gas signatures from volatile chlorinated solvents: Borden field experiments. Groundwater, 33(1), 84-98.] at the Borden aquifer where groundwater was observed to transport a contaminant plume a substantial distance without vertical mass transport of the contaminant across the capillary fringe and into the vadose zone. Results for the base scenario model indicate that the structure of the permeability field was largely responsible for deflecting the groundwater plume upward towards the capillary fringe, permitting aqueous phase diffusion to transport the TCE into the vadose zone. Alternative permeability realizations, generated as part of a Monte Carlo simulation process, at times deflected the groundwater plume downwards causing the extended thickness of the saturated zone to insulate the vadose zone from exposure to the TCE by upward diffusive transport. Comparison of attenuation coefficients calculated using the CompFlow Bio and Johnson and Ettinger [Johnson, P.C. and Ettinger, R.A., (1991), Heuristic model for predicting the intrusion rate of contaminant vapors into buildings. Environmental Science and Technology, 25, 1445-1452.] heuristic model exhibited fortuitous agreement for the base scenario problem geometry, with this agreement diverging for the alternative permeability realizations as well as when parameters such as the foundation slab fracture aperture, the indoor air pressure drop, the capillary fringe thickness, and the infiltration rate were varied over typical ranges. PMID:19525028

  9. Survey of hazardous organic compounds in the groundwater, air and wastewater effluents near the Tehran automobile industry.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Mahdi; Nadafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Nasseri, Simin; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Rastkari, Noushin

    2013-02-01

    Potential of wastewater treatment in car industry and groundwater contamination by volatile organic compounds include perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichloromethane (DCM) near car industry was conducted in this study. Samples were collected in September through December 2011 from automobile industry. Head-space Gas chromatography with FID detector is used for analysis. Mean PCE levels in groundwater ranged from 0 to 63.56 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 89.1 μg L(-1). Mean TCE from 0 to 76.63 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 112 μg L(-1). Due to the data obtained from pre treatment of car staining site and conventional wastewater treatment in car factory, the most of TCE, PCE and DCM removed by pre aeration. Therefor this materials entry from liquid phase to air phase and by precipitation leak out to the groundwater. As a consequence these pollutants have a many negative health effect on the workers by air and groundwater. PMID:23160750

  10. The influence of different geotechnically relevant amendments on the reductive degradation of TCE by nZVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Peter; Schöftner, Philipp; Waldner, Georg; Reichenauer, Thomas G.; Nickel, Claudia; Spitz, Marcus; Dietzel, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) was widely used as a cleaning and degreasing agent. Companies needing these agents were often situated in or close to built up areas, so spillage led to contaminated sites which now can only be remediated using in situ techniques. The situation is compounded by the fact that TCE tends to seep through ground water bodies forming pools at the bottom of the aquifer. When reacting with TCE, nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) is known to reduce it into non-toxic substances. The difficulty is to bring it in contact with the pollutant. Attempts using passive insertion into the groundwater via wells yielded mixed results. Reasons for this are that ZVI tends to coagulate, to sediment and to adsorb on the matrix of the aquifer. Also, in inhomogeneous aquifers a passive application of nZVI can be difficult and might not bring the desired results, due to existence of preferential flow paths. A possible solution to this problem is the physical in situ mixing of ZVI into the contaminant source. This can, in principle, be done by adapting jet grouting - a method that uses a high pressure slurry jet, consisting of water and geotechnical additives ("binders"), to mix and compact zones ("columns") in soil. These columns are commonly used to solve foundation problems but can also be used to solve the problem of delivering nZVI to TCE source zones. This paper examines the influence binders have on the degradation reaction between TCE and nZVI. The necessity of these binders is explained by the fact that the subsoil structure is rearranged during the jetting process leading to subsidence on the surface. These subsidences could result in damage to neighbouring structures. A series of batch experiments was conducted in this study. Contaminated groundwater was brought into contact with samples of slurries commonly used in geotechnical applications. We tested the effects of concresole, bentonite, zeolithe, fly ash, slag sand and cement on the kinetics of TCE

  11. Effects of Aqueous Film-Forming Foams (AFFFs) on Trichloroethene (TCE) Dechlorination by a Dehalococcoides mccartyi-Containing Microbial Community.

    PubMed

    Harding-Marjanovic, Katie C; Yi, Shan; Weathers, Tess S; Sharp, Jonathan O; Sedlak, David L; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    The application of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) to extinguish chlorinated solvent-fueled fires has led to the co-contamination of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater and soil. Although reductive dechlorination of TCE by Dehalococcoides mccartyi is a frequently used remediation strategy, the effects of AFFF and PFASs on TCE dechlorination are not well-understood. Various AFFF formulations, PFASs, and ethylene glycols were amended to the growth medium of a D. mccartyi-containing enrichment culture to determine the impact on dechlorination, fermentation, and methanogenesis. The community was capable of fermenting organics (e.g., diethylene glycol butyl ether) in all AFFF formulations to hydrogen and acetate, but the product concentrations varied significantly according to formulation. TCE was dechlorinated in the presence of an AFFF formulation manufactured by 3M but was not dechlorinated in the presence of formulations from two other manufacturers. Experiments amended with AFFF-derived PFASs and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) indicated that dechlorination could be inhibited by PFASs but that the inhibition depends on surfactant concentration and structure. This study revealed that the fermentable components of AFFF can stimulate TCE dechlorination, while some of the fluorinated compounds in certain AFFF formulations can inhibit dechlorination. PMID:26894610

  12. Competitive sorption of cis-DCE and TCE in silica gel as a model porous mineral solid.

    PubMed

    Avila, Manuel Alejandro Salaices; Breiter, Roman

    2008-08-01

    The competitive sorption of 1,2-cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) was investigated by means of column experiments using a model porous mineral solid represented by silica gel. The experimental isotherms were obtained by employing a chromatographic method. The competitive sorption isotherms were modelled with the extended Freundlich and extended Langmuir isotherms, using the parameters from single-solute experiments. The breakthrough curves were modelled with the advection-dispersion transport equation coupled with the lumped pore diffusion model. The best results were obtained when the extended Freundlich isotherm was employed. The competitive sorption was revealed with the presence of an overshoot in the breakthrough curve of cis-DCE and a decrease in the degree of sorption of cis-DCE (20%) and TCE (12%). A linear dependency of the overshoot with an increase in the concentration of cis-DCE at a fixed concentration of TCE was observed, between 16% and 20%, and at least at concentrations <6 mg L(-1) in the liquid phase. The displaced molecules of cis-DCE by TCE were accumulated through the column causing its overshoot; thus short columns may hinder its observation. Thermodynamic analysis shows an exothermic adsorption process of -34 to -41 kJ mol(-1), which is enhanced by sorption in micropores. The Gibbs free energy is positive for cis-DCE in the multi-component case, due to its displacement by TCE. PMID:18541287

  13. The in-situ decontamination of sand and gravel aquifers by chemically enhanced solubilization of multiple-compound DNAPLs with surfactant solutions: Phase 1 -- Laboratory and pilot field-scale testing and Phase 2 -- Solubilization test and partitioning and interwell tracer tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-24

    Laboratory, numerical simulation, and field studies have been conducted to assess the potential use of micellar-surfactant solutions to solubilize chlorinated solvents contaminating sand and gravel aquifers. Ninety-nine surfactants were screened for their ability to solubilize trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CTET). The field test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer which is located 20 to 30 meters beneath a vapor degreasing operation at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. This aquifer has become contaminated with TCE due to leakage of perhaps 40,000 liters of TCE, which has generated a plume of dissolved TCE extending throughout an area of approximately 3 km{sup 2} in the aquifer. Most of the TCE is believed to be present in the overlying lacustrine deposits and in the aquifer itself as a dense, non-aqueous phase liquid, or DNAPL. The objective of the field test was to assess the efficacy of the surfactant for in situ TCE solubilization. Although the test demonstrated that sorbitan monooleate was unsuitable as a solubilizer in this aquifer, the single-well test was demonstrated to be a viable method for the in situ testing of surfactants or cosolvents prior to proceeding to full-scale remediation.

  14. Anaerobic biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons: Ugly duckling to beautiful swan

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, G.F.

    1999-10-01

    For many years anaerobic biological processes were reputed to be more sensitive than aerobic processes to toxic substances such as chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAH) and thus a poor choice for treating water containing these compounds. This was especially true for water containing perchloroethylene (PCE) or trichloroethylene (TCE) because vinyl chloride, a human carcinogen, is produced when these two compounds are degraded anaerobically. Aerobic treatment with organisms containing oxygenase enzyme systems, which could fortuitously degrade a wide variety of chlorinated aliphatics (but not PCE), was favored. Recently, however, several enrichments and organisms have been isolated that will convert PCE and TCE into ethene and ethane, as shown by field data. Because of this evidence, anaerobic processes are now considered a significant alternative treatment for CAH contamination. Recent work at the University of Iowa, Iowa City, has focused on the effect of mixtures of CAHs on biotransformation of individual organic compounds and the potential for a combined methanogen-iron (Fe(0)) system to improve CAH bioremediation. At the concentration ranges tested, the presence of a mixture of CAHs seems to decrease rate of transformation of individual organics. However, there are important exceptions; in some cases a mixture of CAHs seems to facilitate transformation of an individual organic compound. Combination of an active methanogenic population with Fe(0) increases the rate and extent of transformation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. Results with PCE and 1,1,1-trichloroethane are less clear.

  15. In Situ Chemical Reduction of Aquifer Sediments: Enhancement of Reactive Iron Phases and TCE Dechlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Sklarew, Debbie S.

    2004-07-29

    In situ chemical reduction of aquifer sediments is currently being used for chromate and TCE remediation by forming a permeable reactive barrier. The chemical and physical processes that occur during abiotic reduction of natural sediments by sodium dithionite were investigated. In different aquifer sediments, 15 to 25% of Fe{sup III} -oxides were dissolved/reduced, which produces primarily adsorbed Fe{sup II}, and some siderite. The sediment reduction rate ({approx} 5h) was the chemically controlled (58 kJ/mole) reduction of a minor phase (<20%). It was necessary to maintain neutral to high pH to maintain reduction efficiency and prevent iron mobilization, as reduction generated H{sup +}. Sequential extractions on reduced sediment showed that adsorbed ferrous iron and iron oxides on the clay size fraction controlled TCE reactivity, and not structural ferrous iron in clay. The mass and rate of field-scale reduction of aquifer sediments were generally predicted with laboratory data using a single reduction reaction.

  16. Moffett Field Funnel and Gate TCE Treatment System: Interpretation of Field Performance using Reactive Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Sass, B. M.

    2001-06-30

    A multicomponent reactive transport simulator was used to understand the behavior of chemical components, including TCE and cis-1,2-DCE, in groundwater transported through the pilot-scale funnel and gate chemical treatment system at Moffett Field, California. Field observations indicated that zero-valent iron emplaced in the gate to effect the destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons also resulted in increases in pH and hydrocarbons, as well as decreases in EH, alkalinity, dissolved O2 and CO2, and major ions (i.e., Ca, Mg, Cl, sulfate, nitrate). Of concern are chemical transformations that may reduce the effectiveness or longevity of the iron cell and/or create secondary contaminants. A coupled model of transport and reaction processes was developed to account for mobile and immobile components undergoing equilibrium and kinetic reactions including TCE degradation, parallel iron dissolution reactions, precipitation of secondary minerals, and complexation reactions. The model reproduced solution chemistry observed in the iron cell using reaction parameters from the literature and laboratory studies. Mineral precipitation in the iron zone, which is critical to correctly predicting the aqueous concentrations, was predicted to account for up to 3 percent additional mineral volume annually. Interplay between rates of transport and rates of reaction in the field was key to understanding system behavior.

  17. Phylogenetic microarray analysis of a microbial community performing reductive dechlorination at a TCE-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Lee, Patrick K H; Warnecke, F; Brodie, Eoin L; Macbeth, Tamzen W; Conrad, Mark E; Andersen, Gary L; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2012-01-17

    A high-density phylogenetic microarray (PhyloChip) was applied to track bacterial and archaeal populations through different phases of remediation at Ft. Lewis, WA, a trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater site. Biostimulation with whey, and bioaugmentation with a Dehalococcoides-containing enrichment culture were strategies implemented to enhance dechlorination. As a measure of species richness, over 1300 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in DNA from groundwater samples extracted during different stages of treatment and in the bioaugmentation culture. In order to determine active members within the community, 16S rRNA from samples were analyzed by microarray and ∼600 OTUs identified. A cDNA clone library of the expressed 16S rRNA corroborated the observed diversity and activity of some of the phyla. Principle component analysis of the treatment plot samples revealed that the microbial populations were constantly changing during the course of the study. Dynamic analysis of the archaeal population showed significant increases in methanogens at the later stages of treatment that correlated with increases in methane concentrations of over 2 orders of magnitude. Overall, the PhyloChip analyses in this study have provided insights into the microbial ecology and population dynamics at the TCE-contaminated field site useful for understanding the in situ reductive dechlorination processes. PMID:22091783

  18. Phylogenetic Microarray Analysis of a Microbial Community Performing Reductive Dechlorination at a TCE-contaminated Site

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick K. H.; Warnecke, F.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Macbeth, Tamzen W.; Conrad, Mark E.; Andersen, Gary L.; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A high-density phylogenetic microarray (PhyloChip) was applied to track bacterial and archaeal populations through different phases of remediation at Ft. Lewis, WA, a trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater site. Biostimulation with whey, and bioaugmentation with a Dehalococcoides-containing enrichment culture were strategies implemented to enhance dechlorination. As a measure of species richness, over 1300 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in DNA from groundwater samples extracted during different stages of treatment and in the bioaugmentation culture. In order to determine active members within the community, 16S rRNA from samples were analyzed by microarray and ~600 OTUs identified. A cDNA clone library of the expressed 16S rRNA corroborated the observed diversity and activity of some of the phyla. Principle component analysis of the treatment plot samples revealed that the microbial populations were constantly changing during the course of the study. Dynamic analysis of the archaeal population showed significant increases in methanogens at the later stages of treatment that correlated with increases in methane concentrations of over two orders of magnitude. Overall, the PhyloChip analyses in this study have provided insights into the microbial ecology and population dynamics at the TCE-contaminated field site useful for understanding the in situ reductive dechlorination processes. PMID:22091783

  19. Molecular- and cultural-based monitoring of bioremediation at a TCE-contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Brockman, F.J.; Payne, W.; Soong, A.; Manley, S.; Workman, D.; Sun, W.; Ogram, A.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment samples from a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated zone 30 to 47 m below ground surface were analyzed after various nutrient addition strategies, including injection of air, 1% methane (in air), 4% methane (in air) pulsed with air, and multiple nutrients. Methanotroph most probable number (MPN) values in samples taken after the N/P/pulsed 4% methane campaign increased approximately two orders of magnitude compared to before-methane samples. The frequency of TCE biodegradative potential in methanotroph enrichments from samples taken after the N/P/pulsed 4% methane campaign was orders of magnitude greater than in all previous campaigns, indicating that in situ microbial activity was very strongly affected by adding nitrogen and phosphorus. The frequency of detection of the soluble methane monooxygenase and methanol dehydrogenase sequences was highest in sediment samples taken after the 1% methane campaign. Comparing the culture-dependent method with the culture-independent gene probe method showed that the culture method greatly underestimated the methanotrophic biomass in sediments throughout the demonstration.

  20. Public health assessment for Grand Traverse Overall Supply Company, Greilickville, Leelanau County, Michigan, Region 5. Cerclis No. MID017418559. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-21

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) placed the Grand Traverse Overall Supply site on the National Priorities List (NPL) on September 8, 1983. From 1953 through 1977, GTOS disposed of waste water from the process in a dry well and four lagoons on their property. Since 1977, they have used the township sewer system. In 1978, tetrachloroethylene (also known as perchloroethylene or PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) were found in the water in wells serving a school adjacent to GTOS and several nearby residences. The soil around the dry well was excavated and taken off-site for disposal. The lagoons were filled in, and covered with gravel or grass. The site currently poses no apparent public health hazard. Trace amounts of PCE in well water have been detected in the most recent testing, however, the amounts are below the level of public health concern.

  1. Acute Exposure to Perchlorethylene alters Rat Visual Evoked Potentials in Relation to Brain Concentration

    EPA Science Inventory

    These experiments sought to establish a dose-effect relationship between the concentration of perchloroethylene (PCE) in brain tissue and concurrent changes in visual function. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was implemented to predict concentrations of PCE ...

  2. Use of gene probes to assess the impact and effectiveness of aerobic in situ bioremediation of TCE

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.; Chakraborty, Romy; Fleming, James M.; Gregory, Ingrid R.; Bowman, John P.; Jimenez, Luis; Zhang, Dai; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Brockman, Fred J.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2009-03-15

    Gene probe hybridization was used to determine distribution and expression of co-metabolic genes at a contaminated site as it underwent in situ methanotrophic bioremediation of trichloroethylene (TCE). The bioremediation strategies tested included a series of air, air:methane, and air:methane:nutrient pulses of the test plot using horizontal injection wells. During the test period, the levels of TCE reduced drastically in almost all test samples. Sediment core samples (n = 367) taken from 0 m (surface)-43 m depth were probed for gene coding for methanotrophic soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and heterotrophic toluene dioxygenase (TOD), which are known to co-metabolize TCE. The same sediment samples were also probed for genes coding for methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) (catalyzing the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde) to assess specifically changes in methylotrophic bacterial populations in the site. Gene hybridization results showed that the frequency of detection of sMMO genes were stimulated approximately 250% following 1% methane:air (v/v) injection. Subsequent injection of 4% methane:air (v/v) resulted in an 85% decline probably due to nutrient limitations, since addition of nutrients (gaseous nitrogen and phosphorus) thereafter caused an increase in the frequency of detection of sMMO genes. Detection of TOD genes declined during the process, and eventually they were non-detectable by the final treatment, suggesting that methanotrophs displaced the TOD gene containing heterotrophs. Active transcription of sMMO and TOD was evidenced by hybridization to mRNA. These analyses combined with results showing the concomitant decline in TCE concentrations, increases in chloride concentration and increases in methanotroph viable counts, provide multiple lines of evidence that TCE remediation was caused specifically by methanotrophs. Our results suggest that sMMO genes are responsible for most, if not all, of the observed biodegradation of TCE. This study

  3. Development of KMnO(4)-releasing composites for in situ chemical oxidation of TCE-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Liang, S H; Chen, K F; Wu, C S; Lin, Y H; Kao, C M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a controlled-oxidant-release technology combining in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) and permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concepts to remediate trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater. In this study, a potassium permanganate (KMnO4)-releasing composite (PRC) was designed for KMnO4 release. The components of this PRC included polycaprolactone (PCL), KMnO4, and starch with a weight ratio of 1.14:2:0.96. Approximately 64% (w/w) of the KMnO4 was released from the PRC after 76 days of operation in a batch system. The results indicate that the released KMnO4 could oxidize TCE effectively. The results from a column study show that the KMnO4 released from 200 g of PRC could effectively remediate 101 pore volumes (PV) of TCE-contaminated groundwater (initial TCE concentration = 0.5 mg/L) and achieve up to 95% TCE removal. The effectiveness of the PRC system was verified by the following characteristics of the effluents collected after the PRC columns (barrier): (1) decreased TCE concentrations, (2) increased ORP and pH values, and (3) increased MnO2 and KMnO4 concentrations. The results of environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) analysis show that the PCL and starch completely filled up the pore spaces of the PRC, creating a composite with low porosity. Secondary micro-scale capillary permeability causes the KMnO4 release, mainly through a reaction-diffusion mechanism. The PRC developed could be used as an ISCO-based passive barrier system for plume control, and it has the potential to become a cost-effective alternative for the remediation of chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater. PMID:24568784

  4. Use of gene probes to assess the impact and effectiveness of aerobic In situ bioremediation of TCE.

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.; Chakraborty, Romy; Fleming, James M.; Gregory, Ingrid R.; Bowman, John P.; Jimenez, Luis; Zhang, Dai; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Brockman, Fred J.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2009-03-01

    Gene probe hybridization was used to determine distribution and expression of co-metabolic genes at a contaminated site as it underwent in situ methanotrophic bioremediation of trichloroethylene (TCE). The bioremediation strategies tested consisted of a series of air, air:methane, and air:methane:nutrient pulses using a horizontal injection well. Sediment core samples (n=367) taken from 0 (surface)-43m depth were probed for genes coding for soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and toluene dioxygenase (TOD), which are known to cometabolize TCE. The same samples were also probed for genes coding for methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) to access changes in methylotrophic bacterial populations. Hybridization results showed that the frequency of detection of sMMO genes were stimulated approximately 250% following 1% methane:air (v/v) injection. Subsequent 4% methane:air (v/v) injection resulted in an 85% decline probably due to nutrient limitations, since subsequent addition of nutrients (gaseous nitrogen and phosphorus) caused an increase in the frequency of detection of sMMO genes. Detection of TOD genes declined during the process becoming non-detectable by the final treatment. These patterns indicate methanotrophs displaced heterotrophs containing TOD genes. Active transcription of sMMO and TOD was evidenced by hybridization to mRNA. These analyses combined with studies showing the concomitant decline in TCE concentrations, increases in methanotroph viable counts, increased mineralization rates of TCE, and increases in chloride inventories provide multiple lines of evidence that TCE remediation was caused specifically by methanotrophs. This work suggests that sMMO genes are responsible for most, if not all, of the biodegradation of TCE observed. This study demonstrated that the use of nucleic acid analytical methods provided a gene specific assessment of the effects of in situ treatment technologies.

  5. Changes in concentrations of a TCE plume in near- stream zones of a DNAPL contaminated area adjacent to a stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Hyun, Y.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    A field investigation of a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume originating at an industrial complex and its discharges to a stream nearby showed that apparent plume attenuation occurred in the near-stream zone of a DNAPL contaminated area adjacent to a stream prior to discharging to the stream. The concentrations of TCE and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) in groundwater, hyporheic water, stream water and streambed, and hydrogeology were characterized using mini-piezometers, monitoring wells, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys, and soil coring. In the near stream zones temporal and spatial TCE plume concentration changes and mass fluxes were investigated along the flowpath of groundwater discharging to the stream. It is evident that observed concentrations of contaminants (TCE and cis-DCE) were reduced in the near-stream zone, resulting that TCE and cis-DCE were not detected in the streambed and stream water. Ground GPR surveys done in the near stream zone found that wire and water treatment pipe conduits were buried under the ground next to the stream, which could lead groundwater flow field distortion in this zone. At streambed, the GPR survey and soil coring indicated the presence of low permeable zones consisting of rotten material deposits at the top of 0.3 m ~ 0.8 m underlain by silty sands. These hydrogeological features can also attribute to no detection of contaminants in the streambed and stream water because low permeable zone is an obstacle to effective interactions between groundwater and stream water. More investigations will be carried out for comprehensive understanding of hydrological and biogeochemical processes associated with TCE plume attenuation in near stream zones and streambed in the site.

  6. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remove TCE from a low permeable aquifer at a former landfill.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Mark D; Kambhu, Ann; Comfort, Steve D

    2012-10-01

    Past disposal of industrial solvents into unregulated landfills is a significant source of groundwater contamination. In 2009, we began investigating a former unregulated landfill with known trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. Our objective was to pinpoint the location of the plume and treat the TCE using in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). We accomplished this by using electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to survey the landfill and map the subsurface lithology. We then used the ERI survey maps to guide direct push groundwater sampling. A TCE plume (100-600 μg L(-1)) was identified in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer (K(h)=0.5 md(-1)) that was within 6m of ground surface. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate candles (SRPCs) that were 91.4 cm long and either 5. cm or 7.6 cm in dia. For comparison, we inserted equal masses of SRPCs (7.6-cm versus 5.1-cm dia) into the low permeable aquifer in staggered rows that intersected the TCE plume. The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted using direct push rods while the 7.6-cm SRPCs were placed in 10 permanent wells. Pneumatic circulators that emitted small air bubbles were placed below the 7.6-cm SRPCs in the second year. Results 15 months after installation showed significant TCE reductions in the 7.6-cm candle treatment zone (67-85%) and between 10% and 66% decrease in wells impacted by the direct push candles. These results support using slow-release permanganate candles as a means of treating chlorinated solvents in low permeable aquifers. PMID:22784864

  7. Health assessment for Malvern Trichloroethylene, Malvern, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD014353445. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-19

    The Malvern Trichloroethylene (TCE) Site (MTS) is in Malvern(Chester County) Pennsylvania. From 1952 to 1976 drums containing various wastes including volatile organic compounds and PCBs were dumped on-site. Preliminary on-site groundwater sampling results have identified TCE (ND to 1,330 ppm), perchloroethylene (PCE) (7 to 1,170 ppm), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) (12 to 2,230 ppm), and tetrachloroethylene (ND to 22,000 ppb). In addition, PCBs were identified in soil (1,350 ppm) and in drums. The site is considered to be of public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of human exposure to hazardous substances.

  8. Hydrostratigraphic mapping of the Milford-Souhegan glacial drift aquifer, and effects of hydrostratigraphy on transport of PCE, Operable Unit 1, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2010-01-01

    The Savage Municipal Well Superfund site in the Town of Milford, New Hampshire, was underlain by a 0.5-square mile plume (as mapped in 1994) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), most of which consisted of tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The plume occurs mostly within highly transmissive stratified-drift deposits but also extends into underlying till and bedrock. The plume has been divided into two areas called Operable Unit 1 (OU1), which contains the primary source area, and Operable Unit 2 (OU2), which is defined as the extended plume area outside of OU1. The OU1 remedial system includes a low-permeability barrier wall that encircles the highest detected concentrations of PCE and a series of injection and extraction wells to contain and remove contaminants. The barrier wall likely penetrates the full thickness of the sand and gravel; in many places, it also penetrates the full thickness of the underlying basal till and sits atop bedrock.From 1998 to 2004, PCE concentrations decreased by an average of 80 percent at most wells outside the barrier wall. However, inside the barrier, PCE concentrations greater than 10,000 micrograms per liter (μg/L) still exist (2008). The remediation of these areas of recalcitrant PCE presents challenges to successful remediation.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Region 1, is studying the solute transport of VOCs (primarily PCE) in contaminated groundwater in the unconsolidated sediments (overburden) of the Savage site and specifically assisting in the evaluation of the effectiveness of remedial operations in the OU1 area. As part of this effort, the USGS analyzed the subsurface stratigraphy to help understand hydrostratigraphic controls on remediation.A combination of lithologic, borehole natural gamma-ray and electromagnetic (EM) induction logging, and test drilling has identified 11 primary

  9. The influence of precipitate formation on the chemical oxidation of TCE DNAPL with potassium permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Michael R.; Grant, Gavin P.; Gerhard, Jason I.; Kueper, Bernard H.

    2008-02-01

    A three-dimensional two-phase flow model is coupled to a non-linear reactive transport model to study the efficacy of potassium permanganate treatment on dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source removal in porous media. A linear relationship between the soil permeability ( k) and concentration of manganese dioxide precipitate ([MnO 2(s)]), k = ko + Srind [MnO 2(s)], is utilized to simulate nodal permeability reductions due to precipitate formation. Using published experimental column studies, an Srind = -5.5 × 10 -16 m 2 L/mg was determined for trichloroethylene (TCE) DNAPL. This Srind was then applied to treatment simulations on three-dimensional TCE DNAPL source zones comprising either DNAPL at residual saturations, or DNAPL at pooled saturations. DNAPL dissolution without oxidation treatment, simulated using equilibrium and the Nambi and Powers [Nambi I, Powers S. Mass transfer correlations for non-aqueous phase liquid dissolution from regions with high initial saturations. Water Resour Res 2003;39(2):1-11, SBH 4] mass transfer expression, required 31 and 36 years, respectively, to eliminate the residual source zone. For equilibrium dissolution with continuous treatment and no precipitate influence ( Srind = 0 m 2 L/mg), the residual source zone was removed after 11 years. However, when considering the precipitate influence (i.e., Srind = -5.5 × 10 -16 m 2 L/mg), 21 years of treatment were necessary to remove the DNAPL. When considering pulse treatments of 1 and 2 years duration followed by only dissolution, approximately 36 and 38 years, respectively, were required before the source zone was depleted, suggesting that there is no benefit to pulse treatment. Similar trends were observed when allowing 10 years of dissolution prior to treatment initiation. The treatment behaviour of the pooled TCE source, while slightly more efficient than the residual saturation source, was similar. Based on simulation findings, the precipitate (rind) formation

  10. Metal mobility during in situ chemical oxidation of TCE by KMnO4.

    PubMed

    Al, Tom A; Banks, Vernon; Loomer, Diana; Parker, Beth L; Ulrich Mayer, K

    2006-11-20

    The potential for trace-metal contamination of aquifers as a side effect of In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) of chlorinated solvent contamination by KMnO(4) is investigated with column experiments. The experiments investigate metal mobility during in situ chemical oxidation of TCE by KMnO(4) under conditions where pH, flow rate, KMnO(4), TCE, and trace-metal concentrations were controlled. During ISCO, the injection of MnO(4) creates oxidizing conditions, and acidity released by the reactions causes a tendency toward low pH in aquifers. In order to evaluate the role of pH buffering on metal mobility, duplicate columns were constructed, one packed with pure silica sand, and one with a mixture of silica sand and calcite. Aqueous solutions of TCE and KMnO(4) (with 1 mg/L Cu, Pb, Zn, Mo, Ni, and Cr(VI)) were allowed to mix at the inlet to the columns. After the completion of the experiments, samples of Mn oxide were removed from the columns and analyzed by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In order to relate the results of the laboratory experiments to field settings, the analyses of Mn-oxide samples from the lab experiments were compared to samples of Mn oxide collected from a field-scale chemical-oxidation experiment that were also analyzed by analytical electron microscopy as well as time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectroscopy. The pH ranged from 2.40 in the silica sand column to 6.25 in the calcite-containing column. The data indicate that aqueous Mo, Pb, Cu and Ni concentrations are attenuated almost completely within the columns. In contrast, Zn concentrations are not significantly attenuated and Cr(VI) is transported conservatively. The results indicate that within the range 2.40 to 6.25, metal mobility is not affected by pH. Comparison of analyses of Mn-oxide from the lab and field demonstrate that a variety of metals are sequestered from solution by Mn oxide. PMID:16876907

  11. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an adult cohort following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on the measures of white matter hypointensities (β: 127.5mm(3), 95% CI: -259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: β: 21230.0mm(3), 95% CI: -4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: β: 11976.0mm(3), 95% CI: -13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied. PMID:23571160

  12. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Adult Cohort Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on measures of white matter hypointensities (β: 127.5 mm3, 95% CI: −259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: β: 21230.0 mm3, 95% CI: −4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: β: 11976.0 mm3, 95% CI: −13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied. PMID:23571160

  13. Biobased surfactant-like molecules from organic wastes: the effect of waste composition and composting process on surfactant properties and on the ability to solubilize Tetrachloroethene (PCE).

    PubMed

    Quadri, Giorgia; Chen, Xiaosong; Jawitz, James W; Tambone, Fulvia; Genevini, Pierluigi; Faoro, Franco; Adani, Fabrizio

    2008-04-01

    In this work, four surfactant-like humic acids (HAs) obtained from garden lignocellulose wastes and kitchen food wastes mixed with garden-lignocellulose wastes, both before and after composting, were tested for surfactant properties and the ability to solubilize tetrachloroethene (PCE). The waste-derived HAs showed good surfactant properties, lowering the water surface tension from 74 mN m(-1) to 45.4 +/- 4.4 mN m(-1), with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 1.54 +/- 1.68 g L(-1), which is lower than many synthetic ionic surfactants. CMC was affected by both waste origin and composting processes. The addition of food waste and composting reduced CMC by adding alkyl-C (measured by CP MAS 13C NMR) and N- and S-HA contents (amide molecules), so that a multistep regression was found [CMC = 24.6 - 0.189 alkyl C - 2.64 (N + S); R2 = 0.77, P < 0.10, n = 6]. The four HAs solubilized PCE at the rate of 0.18-0.47 g PCE/g aqueous biosurfactant. These results were much higher than those reported in the literature for a commercial HA (0.026 g/g), but they were in line with those measured in this work for nonionic surfactants such as Tween-80 (0.69 g/g) and Triton X-100 (1.08 g/g). PMID:18505006

  14. Adverse Birth Outcomes and Maternal Exposure to Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene through Soil Vapor Intrusion in New York State

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Michl, Elizabeth L.; Gomez, Marta I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Industrial spills of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Endicott, New York (USA), have led to contamination of groundwater, soil, and soil gas. Previous studies have reported an increase in adverse birth outcomes among women exposed to VOCs in drinking water. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes among mothers exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene [or perchloroethylene (PCE)] in indoor air contaminated through soil vapor intrusion. Methods: We examined low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, and birth defects among births to women in Endicott who were exposed to VOCs, compared with births statewide. We used Poisson regression to analyze births and malformations to estimate the association between maternal exposure to VOCs adjusting for sex, mother’s age, race, education, parity, and prenatal care. Two exposure areas were identified based on environmental sampling data: one area was primarily contaminated with TCE, and the other with PCE. Results: In the TCE-contaminated area, adjusted rate ratios (RRs) were significantly elevated for LBW [RR = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.73; n = 76], small for gestational age (RR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.48; n = 117), term LBW (RR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.34; n = 37), cardiac defects (RR = 2.15; 95% CI: 1.27, 3.62; n = 15), and conotruncal defects (RR = 4.91; 95% CI: 1.58, 15.24; n = 3). In the PCE-contaminated area, RRs for cardiac defects (five births) were elevated but not significantly. Residual socioeconomic confounding may have contributed to elevations of LBW outcomes. Conclusions: Maternal residence in both areas was associated with cardiac defects. Residence in the TCE area, but not the PCE area, was associated with LBW and fetal growth restriction. PMID:22142966

  15. An Approach Using Gas Monitoring to Find the Residual TCE Location in the Unsaturated Zone of Woosan Industrial Complex (WIC), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Y.; Lee, S.; Yang, J.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    An area accommodating various industrial facilities has fairly high probability of groundwater contamination with multiple chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), and chloroform (CF). Source tracing of chlorinated solvents in the unsaturated zone is an essential procedure for the management and remediation of contaminated area. From the previous study on seasonal variations in hydrological stresses and spatial variations in geologic conditions on a TCE plume, the existence of residual DNAPLs at or above the water table has proved. Since TCE is one of the frequently detected VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) in groundwater, residual TCE can be detected by gas monitoring. Therefore, monitoring of temporal and spatial variations in the gas phase TCE contaminant at an industrial complex in Wonju, Korea, were used to find the residual TCE locations. As pilot tests, TCE gas samples collected in the unsaturated zone at 4 different wells were analyzed using SPME (Solid Phase MicroExtraction) fiber and Gas Chromatography (GC). The results indicated that detecting TCE in gas phase was successful from these wells and TCE analysis on gas samples, collected from the unsaturated zone, will be useful for source area characterization. However, some values were too high to doubt the accuracy of the current method, which needs a preliminary lab test with known concentrations. The modified experiment setups using packer at different depths are in process to find residual TCE locations in the unsaturated zone. Meanwhile, several PVD (polyethylene-membrane Passive Vapor Diffusion) samplers were placed under water table to detect VOCs by equilibrium between air in the vial and VOCs in pore water.

  16. Hydraulic Containment of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, A.C.; Rieske, D.P.G.; Baird, D.R.P.E.

    2008-07-01

    This paper will describe the progress of a groundwater remedial action at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility that enriched uranium from the early 1950's until 2000. The X-749 southern boundary hydraulic containment system, combining a four-well extraction system with a previously constructed subsurface barrier wall, has been employed at PORTS. The hydraulic containment project has been implemented as part of containment and remediation of the X-749/X-120 area trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminant. The X-749/X-120 groundwater contaminant plume is located in the south central section (Quadrant I) of the PORTS facility. The plume is associated with the former X-120 Goodyear Training Facility and a landfill known as the X-749 Contaminated Materials Disposal Facility. The principal contaminants of concern are chlorinated solvents (primarily TCE) and technetium-99 (Tc-99). A subsurface barrier wall (X-749 South Barrier Wall) was completed in 1994 at the PORTS southern reservation boundary as an interim remedial measure to slow the advancement of the leading edge of the contaminated groundwater plume or to prevent the plume from migrating off DOE property. Remedial measures identified by Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) included installation of a barrier wall around the eastern and southern portions of the X-749 landfill to provide source control and installation of a phyto-remediation system to help contain groundwater flow and remove volatile organic compounds. Previous remedial measures that were implemented as elements of 'closures' on the X-749 landfill included a multimedia cap, barrier walls, and a groundwater collection system. Despite these measures, the X-749/X-120 groundwater plume has migrated beyond the southern DOE property boundary. Current TCE concentrations in off-site groundwater monitoring wells are below the preliminary remediation goal and drinking water maximum contaminant level for TCE

  17. Application of fluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for TCE and PAH degrading bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; Franck, M.; Brey, J.; Scott, D.; Lanclos, K.; Fliermans, C.

    1996-07-01

    Historically, methods used to identify methanotrophic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon-degrading (PAH) bacteria in environmental samples have been inadequate because isolation and identification procedures are time-consuming and often fail to separate specific bacteria from other environmental microorganisms. Methanotrophic bacteria have been isolated and characterized from TCE-contaminated soils (Bowman et al. 1993; Fliermans et al., 1988). Fliermans et al., (1988) and others demonstrated that cultures enriched with methane and propane could cometabolically degrade a wide variety of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons including ethylene; 1,2-cisdichloroethylene (c-DCE); 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene (t-DCE); vinyl chloride (VC); toluene; phenol and cresol. Characterization of select microorganisms in the natural setting is important for the evaluation of bioremediation potential and its effectiveness. This realization has necessitated techniques that are selective, sensitive and easily applicable to soils, sediments, and groundwater (Fliermans, et al., 1994). Additionally these techniques can identify and quantify microbial types in situ in real time

  18. Content Instruction through a Foreign Language. A Report on the 1992-1993 TCE Programme. Research and Fieldwork No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasanen, Anne, Ed.; Marsh, David, Ed.

    This volume of articles is a report from the national teacher in-service development program in teaching content through a foreign language at the Continuing Education Centre of the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. This publication is mainly in English, because of the basic rationale of the Teaching Content through English (TCE) programme, and…

  19. Abiotic Removal of TCE and cis-DCE by Magnetite under Aerobic Conditions in Ground Water (Maryland)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The former Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant (TCAAP) is located just north of St. Paul, Minnesota. Disposal of chlorinated solvents at the Building102 site on the TCAAP contaminated groundwater in the shallow, unconsolidated sand aquifer with TCE and cis-DCE. Concentrations of ...

  20. Abiotic and Biotic Transformation of TCE under Sulfate Reducing Conditions: the Role of Spatial Heterogeneity (Monterey, CA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    At a number of sites in the USA, passive reactive barriers built with shredded plant mulch have been constructed to treat ground water contaminated with TCE. These barriers are called biowalls because anaerobic biodegradation of the plant mulch is expected to provide substrates ...

  1. Carbon isotope fractionation during reductive dechlorination of TCE in batch experiments with iron samples from reactive barriers.

    PubMed

    Schüth, Christoph; Bill, Markus; Barth, Johannes A C; Slater, Gregory F; Kalin, Robert M

    2003-10-01

    Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) by zero-valent iron produces a systematic enrichment of 13C in the remaining substrate that can be described using a Rayleigh model. In this study, fractionation factors for TCE dechlorination with iron samples from two permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) were established in batch experiments. Samples included original unused iron as well as material from a barrier in Belfast after almost 4 years of operation. Despite the variety of samples, carbon isotope fractionations of TCE were remarkably similar and seemed to be independent of iron origin, reaction rate, and formation of precipitates on the iron surfaces. The average enrichment factor for all experiments was -10.1 per thousand (+/- 0.4 per thousand). These results indicate that the enrichment factor provides a powerful tool to monitor the reaction progress, and thus the performance, of an iron-reactive barrier over time. The strong fractionation observed may also serve as a tool to distinguish between insufficient residence time in the wall and a possible bypassing of the wall by the plume, which should result in an unchanged isotopic signature of the TCE. Although further work is necessary to apply this stable isotope method in the field, it has potential to serve as a unique monitoring tool for PRBs based on zero-valent iron. PMID:14516939

  2. Effects of pyrolysis temperature on soybean stover- and peanut shell-derived biochar properties and TCE adsorption in water.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Lee, Sang Soo; Dou, Xiaomin; Mohan, Dinesh; Sung, Jwa-Kyung; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-08-01

    Conversion of crop residues into biochars (BCs) via pyrolysis is beneficial to environment compared to their direct combustion in agricultural field. Biochars developed from soybean stover at 300 and 700 °C (S-BC300 and S-BC700, respectively) and peanut shells at 300 and 700 °C (P-BC300 and P-BC700, respectively) were used for the removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. Batch adsorption experiments showed that the TCE adsorption was strongly dependent on the BCs properties. Linear relationships were obtained between sorption parameters (K(M) and S(M)) and molar elemental ratios as well as surface area of the BCs. The high adsorption capacity of BCs produced at 700 °C was attributed to their high aromaticity and low polarity. The efficacy of S-BC700 and P-BC700 for removing TCE from water was comparable to that of activated carbon (AC). Pyrolysis temperature influencing the BC properties was a critical factor to assess the removal efficiency of TCE from water. PMID:22721877

  3. National exposure registry: Tichloroethylene (TCE) subregistry (on CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The 1994 National Exposure Registry: Trichloroethylene (TCE) Subregistry' contains data on approximately 4,000 persons and is the first CD-ROM product released in the National Exposure Registry Series. This CD-ROM is composed of three files: Demographics and Health, Mortality, and Environmental. The CD-ROM includes access software, the Statistical Export and Tabulation System (SETS). The TCE subregistry is one of three (dioxin and benzene subregistries are the other two). The National Exposure Registry was created in response to a mandate given in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) to create a registry of persons exposed to hazardous substances. This mandate was reiterated in the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The National Exposure Registry is a database composed of names of persons, along with additional information on these persons, with documented exposure to specific chemicals. The purpose of the Registry is to aid in assessing the long-term health consequences of low-level, long-term exposure to environmental contaminants. One of the goals is to establish a database that will furnish the information needed to generate appropriate and valid hypotheses for future activities such as epidemiological studies. When supplemented with additional data, the combined file can then be used to carry out hypothesis-testing epidemiological investigations. The data collected for each member of the Registry include environmental levels, demographic information, smoking and occupational history, and self-reported responses to 25 general health status questions. The files for each chemical-specific subregistry are established at the time baseline data are collected and are updated and maintained by ATSDR on an ongoing basis (annually the first year, biennially thereafter).

  4. Copper:molybdenum sub-oxide blend as transparent conductive electrode (TCE) indium free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hssein, Mehdi; Cattin, Linda; Morsli, Mustapha; Addou, Mohammed; Bernède, Jean-Christian

    2016-05-01

    Oxide/metal/oxide structures have been shown to be promising alternatives to ITO. In such structures, in order to decrease the high light reflection of the metal film it is embedded between two metal oxides dielectric. MoO3-x is often used as oxide due to its capacity to be a performing anode buffer layer in organic solar cells, while silver is the metal the most often used [1]. Some attempts to use cheaper metal such as copper have been done. However it was shown that Cu diffuses strongly into MoO3-x [2]. Here we used this property to grow simple new transparent conductive oxide (TCE), i.e., Cu: MoO3-x blend. After the deposition of a thin Cu layer, a film of MoO3-x is deposited by sublimation. An XPS study shows more than 50% of Cu is present at the surface of the structure. In order to limit the Cu diffusion an ultra-thin Al layer is deposited onto MoO3-x. Then, in order to obtain a good hole collecting contact with the electron donor of the organic solar cells, a second MoO3-x layer is deposited. After optimization of the thickness of the different layers, the optimum structure is as follow: Cu (12 nm) : MoO3-x (20 nm)/Al (0.5 nm)/ MoO3-x (10 nm). The sheet resistance of this structure is Rsq = 5.2 Ω/sq. and its transmittance is Tmax = 65%. The factor of merit ϕM = T10/Rsq. = 2.41 × 10-3 Ω-1, which made this new TCE promising as anode in organic solar cells. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage (ICOME 2015) - Elected submissions", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  5. Consideration of Treatment Performance Assessment Metrics for a TCE Source Area Bioremediation (SABRe project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Z.; Wilson, R. D.

    2009-05-01

    Techniques for optimizing the removal of NAPL mass in source zones have advanced at a more rapid rate than strategies to assess treatment performance. Informed selection of remediation approaches would be easier if measurements of performance were more directly transferable. We developed a number of methods based on data generated from multilevel sampler (MLS) transects to assess the effectiveness of a bioaugmentation/biostimulation trial in a TCE source residing in a terrace gravel aquifer in the East Midlands, UK. In this spatially complex aquifer, treatment inferred from long screen monitoring well data was not as reliable as that from consideration of mass flux changes across transects installed in and downgradient of the source. Falling head tests were conducted in the MLS ports to generate the necessary hydraulic conductivity (K) data. Combining K with concentration provides a mass flux map that allows calculation of mass turnover and an assessment of where in the complex geology the greatest turnover occurred. Five snapshots over a 600-day period indicate a marked reduction in TCE flux, suggesting a significant reduction in DNAPL mass over that expected due to natural processes. However, persistence of daughter products suggested that complete dechlorination did not occur. The MLS fence data also revealed that delivery of both carbon source and pH buffer were not uniform across the test zone. This may have lead to the generation of niches of iron(III) and sulphate reduction as well as methanogenesis, which impacted on dechlorination processes. In the absence of this spatial data, it is difficult to reconcile apparent treatment as indicated in monitoring well data to on-going processes.

  6. Electro-enhanced Permeable Reactive Barrier : Optimal Design of PRB System With External Current for Effective TCE Removal From Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, J.; Moon, H.; Roh, Y.; Kim, H.; Song, Y.

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to design an optimal electro-enhanced permeable reactive barrier (E2PRB) system for remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated water using zero valent iron (ZVI) and direct current (DC). A series of column experiments were conducted to evaluate the location of Fe0 permeable reactive barrier (PRB) and the effects of electrode arrangement in the column on the TCE removal efficiency and iron corrosion processes. In twelve different combinations of ZVI and/or DC application in the test columns, the rate of reductive dechlorination of TCE was improved with simultaneous application of both ZVI and DC compared to that used ZVI only to evaluate the synergistic effect (SE). The most effective arrangement of electrode and ZVI for TCE removal from simulated groundwater was a column set with ZVI and cathode installed at the down gradient (outlet side). Based on the electrochemical study in the E2PRB system, application of direct current provided external electrons to the system so that the system did not depend entirely on the oxidation of the medium for the reductive dechlorination of TCE. The enhanced dechlorination rate of TCE in ZVI-DC systems is considered to attributed to more generation and fast formation kinetic of electron by following reactions: (1) direct supply of electrons from external DC source (2) the electrolysis of water generating additional electrons at the vicinity of the anode (3) the electro-reduction of the compound by released electrons on the ZVI surfaces by oxidation (4) released electron through oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron, and (5) oxidation of atomic hydrogen at the cathode. The competition between five different electron sources generated from five sources evidently influenced on the TCE removal efficiency, valid lifetime of E2PRB system, and reduction of energy expenditure in both of electrochemical and electrokinetic aspects. The results from a series of experiments with twelve columns showed a

  7. Numerical simulations of the impact of seasonal heat storage on source zone emission in a TCE contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    In urban regions, with high population densities and heat demand, seasonal high temperature heat storage in the shallow subsurface represents an attractive and efficient option for a sustainable heat supply. In fact, the major fraction of energy consumed in German households is used for room heating and hot water production. Especially in urbanized areas, however, the installation of high temperature heat storage systems is currently restricted due to concerns on negative influences on groundwater quality caused e.g. by possible interactions between heat storages and subsurface contaminants, which are a common problem in the urban subsurface. Detailed studies on the overall impact of the operation of high temperature heat storages on groundwater quality are scarce. Therefore, this work investigates possible interactions between groundwater temperature changes induced by heat storage via borehole heat exchangers and subsurface contaminations by numerical scenario analysis. For the simulation of non-isothermal groundwater flow, and reactive transport processes the OpenGeoSys code is used. A 2D horizontal cross section of a shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed in the simulated scenario, consisting of a sandy sediment typical for Northern Germany. Within the aquifer a residual trichloroethene (TCE) contaminant source zone is present. Temperature changes are induced by a seasonal heat storage placed within the aquifer with scenarios of maximum temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C, respectively, during heat injection and minimum temperatures of 2°C during heat extraction. In the scenario analysis also the location of the heat storage relative to the TCE source zone and plume was modified. Simulations were performed in a homogeneous aquifer as well as in a set of heterogeneous aquifers with hydraulic conductivity as spatially correlated random fields. In both cases, results show that the temperature increase in the heat plume and the consequential reduction of water

  8. Analysis of sources of bulk conductivity change in saturated silica sand after unbuffered TCE oxidation by permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hort, Ryan D.; Revil, André; Munakata-Marr, Junko

    2014-09-01

    Time lapse resistivity surveys could potentially improve monitoring of permanganate-based in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of organic contaminants such as trichloroethene (TCE) by tracking changes in subsurface conductivity that result from injection of permanganate and oxidation of the contaminant. Bulk conductivity and pore fluid conductivity changes during unbuffered TCE oxidation using permanganate are examined through laboratory measurements and conductivity modeling using PHREEQC in fluid samples and porous media samples containing silica sand. In fluid samples, oxidation of one TCE molecule produces three chloride ions and one proton, resulting in an increase in fluid electrical conductivity despite the loss of two permanganate ions in the reaction. However, in saturated sand samples in which up to 8 mM TCE was oxidized, at least 94% of the fluid conductivity associated with the presence of protons was removed within 3 h of sand contact, most likely through protonation of silanol groups found on the surface of the sand grains. Minor conductivity effects most likely associated with pH-dependent reductive dissolution of manganese dioxide were also observed but not accounted for in pore-fluid conductivity modeling. Unaccounted conductivity effects resulted in an under-calculation of post-reaction pore fluid conductivity of 2.1% to 5.5%. Although small increases in the porous media formation factor resulting from precipitation of manganese dioxide were detected (about 3%), these increases could not be confirmed to be statistically significant. Both injection of permanganate and oxidation of TCE cause increases in bulk conductivity that would be detectable through time-lapse resistivity surveys in field conditions.

  9. Development of an updated PBPK model for trichloroethylene and metabolites in mice, and its application to discern the role of oxidative metabolism in TCE-induced hepatomegaly

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.V. Chiu, W.A.; Okino, M.S.; Caldwell, J.C.

    2009-05-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a lipophilic solvent rapidly absorbed and metabolized via oxidation and conjugation to a variety of metabolites that cause toxicity to several internal targets. Increases in liver weight (hepatomegaly) have been reported to occur quickly in rodents after TCE exposure, with liver tumor induction reported in mice after long-term exposure. An integrated dataset for gavage and inhalation TCE exposure and oral data for exposure to two of its oxidative metabolites (TCA and DCA) was used, in combination with an updated and more accurate physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, to examine the question as to whether the presence of TCA in the liver is responsible for TCE-induced hepatomegaly in mice. The updated PBPK model was used to help discern the quantitative contribution of metabolites to this effect. The update of the model was based on a detailed evaluation of predictions from previously published models and additional preliminary analyses based on gas uptake inhalation data in mice. The parameters of the updated model were calibrated using Bayesian methods with an expanded pharmacokinetic database consisting of oral, inhalation, and iv studies of TCE administration as well as studies of TCE metabolites in mice. The dose-response relationships for hepatomegaly derived from the multi-study database showed that the proportionality of dose to response for TCE- and DCA-induced hepatomegaly is not observed for administered doses of TCA in the studied range. The updated PBPK model was used to make a quantitative comparison of internal dose of metabolized and administered TCA. While the internal dose of TCA predicted by modeling of TCE exposure (i.e., mg TCA/kg-d) showed a linear relationship with hepatomegaly, the slope of the relationship was much greater than that for directly administered TCA. Thus, the degree of hepatomegaly induced per unit of TCA produced through TCE oxidation is greater than that expected per unit of TCA

  10. Modulation of Hepatic and Renal Metabolism and Toxicity of Trichloroethylene and Perchloroethylene by Alterations in Status of Cytochrome P450 and Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Lash, Lawrence H.; Putt, David A.; Huang, Paul; Hueni, Sarah E.; Parker, Jean C.

    2007-01-01

    The relative importance of metabolism of trichloroethylene (Tri) and perchloroethylene (Perc) by the cytochrome P450 (P450) and glutathione (GSH) conjugation pathways in their acute renal and hepatic toxicity was studied in isolated cells and microsomes from rat kidney and liver after various treatments to modulate P450 activity/expression or GSH status. Inhibitors of P450 stimulated GSH conjugation of Tri and, to a lesser extent, Perc, in both kidney cells and hepatocytes. Perc was a more potent, acute cytotoxic agent in isolated kidney cells than Tri but Perc-induced toxicity was less responsive than Tri-induced toxicity to modulation of P450 status. These observations are consistent with P450-dependent bioactivation being more important for Tri than for Perc. Incubation of isolated rat hepatocytes with Tri produced no acute cytotoxicity in isolated hepatocytes while Perc produced comparable cytotoxicity as in kidney cells. Modulation of P450 status in hepatocytes produced larger changes in Tri- and Perc-induced cytotoxicity than in kidney cells, with non-selective P450 inhibitors increasing toxicity. Induction of CYP2E1 with pyridine also markedly increased sensitivity of hepatocytes to Tri but had little effect on Perc-induced cytotoxicity. Increases in cellular GSH concentrations increased Tri- and Perc-induced cytotoxicity in kidney cells but not in hepatocytes, consistent with the role of GSH conjugation in Tri- and Perc-induced nephrotoxicity. In contrast, depletion of cellular GSH concentrations moderately decreased Tri- and Perc-induced cytotoxicity in kidney cells but increased cytotoxicity in hepatocytes, again pointing to the importance of different bioactivation pathways and modes of action in kidney and liver. PMID:17433522

  11. Degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by Fe and Fe-Pd bimetals in the presence of surfactants and cosolvents

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, B.; Liang, L.; West, O.R.; Cameron, P.; Davenport, D.

    1997-02-01

    Surfactants and cosolvents are being used to enhance the removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) from contaminated soils. However, the waste surfactant solution containing TCE and PCBs must be treated before it can be disposed. This study evaluated the use of zero-valence iron and palladized iron fillings on the dechlorination of TCE and a PCB congener in a dihexylsulfosuccinate surfactant solution. Batch experimental results indicated that TCE can be rapidly degraded by palladized iron filings with a half-life of 27.4 min. PCB was degraded at a slower rate than TCE with a half-life ranging from 100 min to 500 min as the concentration of surfactant increased. In column flow-through experiments, both TCE and PCBs degrade at an enhanced rate with a half-life about 1.5 and 6 min because of an increased solid to solution ratio in the column than in the batch experiments. Results of this work suggest that Fe-Pd filings may be potentially applicable for ex-situ treatment of TCE and PCBs in the surfactant solutions that are generated during surfactant washing of the contaminated soils.

  12. Use of gene probes to assess the impact and effectiveness of aerobic in situ bioremediation of TCE.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Terry C; Chakraborty, Romy; Fleming, James M; Gregory, Ingrid R; Bowman, John P; Jimenez, Luis; Zhang, Dai; Pfiffner, Susan M; Brockman, Fred J; Sayler, Gary S

    2009-03-01

    Gene probe hybridization was used to determine distribution and expression of co-metabolic genes at a contaminated site as it underwent in situ methanotrophic bioremediation of trichloroethylene (TCE). The bioremediation strategies tested included a series of air, air:methane, and air:methane:nutrient pulses of the test plot using horizontal injection wells. During the test period, the levels of TCE reduced drastically in almost all test samples. Sediment core samples (n=367) taken from 0 m (surface)-43 m depth were probed for gene coding for methanotrophic soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and heterotrophic toluene dioxygenase (TOD), which are known to co-metabolize TCE. The same sediment samples were also probed for genes coding for methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) (catalyzing the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde) to assess specifically changes in methylotrophic bacterial populations in the site. Gene hybridization results showed that the frequency of detection of sMMO genes were stimulated approximately 250% following 1% methane:air (v/v) injection. Subsequent injection of 4% methane:air (v/v) resulted in an 85% decline probably due to nutrient limitations, since addition of nutrients (gaseous nitrogen and phosphorus) thereafter caused an increase in the frequency of detection of sMMO genes. Detection of TOD genes declined during the process, and eventually they were non-detectable by the final treatment, suggesting that methanotrophs displaced the TOD gene containing heterotrophs. Active transcription of sMMO and TOD was evidenced by hybridization to mRNA. These analyses combined with results showing the concomitant decline in TCE concentrations, increases in chloride concentration and increases in methanotroph viable counts, provide multiple lines of evidence that TCE remediation was caused specifically by methanotrophs. Our results suggest that sMMO genes are responsible for most, if not all, of the observed biodegradation of TCE. This study demonstrates

  13. Competing TCE and cis-DCE degradation kinetics by zero-valent iron-experimental results and numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Dirk; Köber, Ralf; Dahmke, Andreas

    2003-09-01

    The successful dechlorination of mixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons with zero-valent metals requires information concerning the kinetics of simultaneous degradation of different contaminants. This includes intraspecies competitive effects (loading of the reactive iron surface by a single contaminant) as well as interspecies competition of several contaminants for the reactive sites available. In columns packed with zero-valent iron, the degradation behaviour of trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (DCE) and mixtures of both was measured in order to investigate interspecies competition. Although a decreasing rate of dechlorination is to be expected, when several degradable substances compete for the reactive sites on the iron surface, TCE degradation is nearly unaffected by the presence of cis-DCE. In contrast, cis-DCE degradation rates decrease significantly when TCE is added. A new modelling approach is developed in order to identify and quantify the observed competitive effects. The numerical model TBC (Transport, Biochemistry and Chemistry, Schäfer et al., 1998a) is used to describe adsorption, desorption and dechlorination in a mechanistic way. Adsorption and degradation of a contaminant based on a limited number of reactive sites leads to a combined zero- and first-order degradation kinetics for high and low concentrations, respectively. The adsorption of several contaminants with different sorption parameters to a limited reactive surface causes interspecies competition. The reaction scheme and the parameters required are successfully transferred from Arnold and Roberts (2000b) to the model TBC. The degradation behaviour of the mixed contamination observed in the column experiments can be related to the adsorption properties of TCE and cis-DCE. By predicting the degradation of the single substances TCE and cis-DCE as well as mixtures of both, the calibrated model is used to investigate the effects of interspecies competition on the design of

  14. Competing TCE and cis-DCE degradation kinetics by zero-valent iron—experimental results and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Dirk; Köber, Ralf; Dahmke, Andreas

    2003-09-01

    The successful dechlorination of mixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons with zero-valent metals requires information concerning the kinetics of simultaneous degradation of different contaminants. This includes intraspecies competitive effects (loading of the reactive iron surface by a single contaminant) as well as interspecies competition of several contaminants for the reactive sites available. In columns packed with zero-valent iron, the degradation behaviour of trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (DCE) and mixtures of both was measured in order to investigate interspecies competition. Although a decreasing rate of dechlorination is to be expected, when several degradable substances compete for the reactive sites on the iron surface, TCE degradation is nearly unaffected by the presence of cis-DCE. In contrast, cis-DCE degradation rates decrease significantly when TCE is added. A new modelling approach is developed in order to identify and quantify the observed competitive effects. The numerical model TBC (Transport, Biochemistry and Chemistry, Schäfer et al., 1998a) is used to describe adsorption, desorption and dechlorination in a mechanistic way. Adsorption and degradation of a contaminant based on a limited number of reactive sites leads to a combined zero- and first-order degradation kinetics for high and low concentrations, respectively. The adsorption of several contaminants with different sorption parameters to a limited reactive surface causes interspecies competition. The reaction scheme and the parameters required are successfully transferred from Arnold and Roberts (2000b) to the model TBC. The degradation behaviour of the mixed contamination observed in the column experiments can be related to the adsorption properties of TCE and cis-DCE. By predicting the degradation of the single substances TCE and cis-DCE as well as mixtures of both, the calibrated model is used to investigate the effects of interspecies competition on the design of

  15. Occurrence of mental illness following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While many studies of adults with solvent exposure have shown increased risks of anxiety and depressive disorders, there is little information on the impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the subsequent risk of mental illness. This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods A total of 1,512 subjects born between 1969 and 1983 were studied, including 831 subjects with both prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on mental illnesses, demographic and medical characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure originating from the vinyl-liner of water distribution pipes was assessed using water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a leaching and transport algorithm. Results No meaningful increases in risk ratios (RR) for depression were observed among subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure (RR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4). However, subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure had a 1.8-fold increased risk of bipolar disorder (N = 36 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4), a 1.5-fold increased risk post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 47 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-2.5), and a 2.1-fold increased risk of schizophrenia (N = 3 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.2-20.0). Further increases in the risk ratio were observed for bipolar disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR; 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-5.6) and post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) among subjects with the highest exposure levels. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence against an impact of early life exposure to PCE on the risk of depression. In contrast, the

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Charlevoix Site, Michigan (second remedial action), September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-30

    The City of Charlevoix is located on the shores of Lake Michigan in Charlevoix County. The City's single municipal well supplies potable water to a year-round population of 3500 which increases to approximately 5,000 during the summer tourist season. In September 1981, while conducting tests for trihalogenated methane compounds, the Michigan Department of Public Health (MDPH) detected trichloroethylene (TCE) ranging in concentrations from 13 to 30 ppb in the Charlevoix water supply. Data from the monitoring program showed gradually rising levels of TCE and perchloroethylene (PCE) in the raw water. In June 1984, a Record of Decision was signed which approved an initial remedial measure (IRM) for an alternative water supply to replace the contaminated municipal well. The selected IRM consisted of a Lake Michigan water intake structure and a water filtration/flocculation treatment plant. The selected remedial action involves discharging the TCE and PCE plumes, under natural flow conditions, to Lake Michigan. The aquifer would be useable after 50 years. During that 50-year purging period, institutional restrictions on the installation of private wells in the contaminated aquifer will be enforced by local health officials. In addition, long-term monitoring of the plumes will continue. The estimated annual OandM costs for monitoring are $17,000.

  17. Public health assessment for Sturgis Municipal Wells, Sturgis, St. Joseph County, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980703011. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Sturgis Municipal Wells site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Priorities List (NPL) in September 1984. In 1982, two of the four wells supplying the City of Sturgis municipal water system were found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE). Traces of TCE were also found in food products prepared in a plant whose wells were contaminated. Tetrachloroethylene (also called perchloroethylene or PCE) also was found in the original contaminated municipal wells. The contamination in the groundwater has been linked to two source areas: the site of a former woodworking and furniture manufacturing facility and a manufacturer of automotive electrical equipment. TCE, PCE, and other volatile organic compounds have been found in groundwater from monitoring wells within the city, and in soil and soil gas from the source areas. The site currently poses an indeterminate public health hazard. Although there are no indications that exposure to contaminants is occurring at levels of health concern, there is no information available on air concentrations either in the open or in basements.

  18. Using trees to remediate groundwaters contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, M.P.; Newman, L.A.; Strand, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    'Metabolism of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Laboratory and field tests with poplar in tissue culture, bioreactors, and field sites have shown that, unlike bacteria, these plants are able to carry out complete degradation of fully chlorinated alkanes and alkenes to carbon dioxide and chloride. Carbon dioxide was produced as a product of the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), and perchloroethylene (PCE) when axenic tissue cultures of poplar cells were exposed to radiolabelled compounds. The apparent degradation of PCE and CT, fully chlorinated hydrocarbons, in these aerobic plants is remarkable when contrasted to the lack of comparable aerobic degradation by bacteria. Oxidized metabolites, such as trichloroethanol, and di- and trichloroacetic acid, were detected in cell cultures exposed to TCE, suggesting the involvement of cytochrome P450s or other monooxygenase activities. Mass balance experiments with small poplar plants in laboratory reactors showed that significant TCE and CT was volatilized from the leaves, while a similar fraction of radiolabeled carbon from these chlorinated solvents was retained in the plant tissue.'

  19. Simulating an exclusion zone for vapour intrusion of TCE from groundwater into indoor air.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomin; Unger, Andre J A; Parker, Beth L

    2012-10-01

    This paper is an extension of the work by Yu et al. (2009) to examine exposure pathways of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from a NAPL source zone located below the water table, and their potential impact on multiple residential dwellings down-gradient of the source zone. The three-dimensional problem geometry is based on the Rivett (1995) field experiment in the Borden aquifer, and contains houses located both above and adjacent to the groundwater plume in order to define an exclusion zone. Simulation results using the numerical model CompFlow Bio indicate that houses which are laterally offset from the groundwater plume are less affected by vapour intrusion than those located directly above the plume due to limited transverse horizontal flux of TCE within the groundwater plume, in agreement with the ASTM (2008) guidance. Uncertainty in the simulated indoor air concentration is sensitive to heterogeneity in the permeability structure of a stratigraphically continuous aquifer, with uncertainty defined as the probability of simulated indoor air concentrations exceeding the NYSDOH (2005) regulatory limit. Within this uncertainty framework, this work shows that the Johnson and Ettinger (1991), ASTM (2008) and CompFlow Bio models all delineate an identical exclusion zone at a 99.9% confidence interval of indoor air concentrations based on the probability of exceedence. PMID:23026643

  20. Simulating an exclusion zone for vapour intrusion of TCE from groundwater into indoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaomin; Unger, Andre J. A.; Parker, Beth L.

    2012-10-01

    This paper is an extension of the work by Yu et al. (2009) to examine exposure pathways of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from a NAPL source zone located below the water table, and their potential impact on multiple residential dwellings down-gradient of the source zone. The three-dimensional problem geometry is based on the Rivett (1995) field experiment in the Borden aquifer, and contains houses located both above and adjacent to the groundwater plume in order to define an exclusion zone. Simulation results using the numerical model CompFlow Bio indicate that houses which are laterally offset from the groundwater plume are less affected by vapour intrusion than those located directly above the plume due to limited transverse horizontal flux of TCE within the groundwater plume, in agreement with the ASTM (2008) guidance. Uncertainty in the simulated indoor air concentration is sensitive to heterogeneity in the permeability structure of a stratigraphically continuous aquifer, with uncertainty defined as the probability of simulated indoor air concentrations exceeding the NYSDOH (2005) regulatory limit. Within this uncertainty framework, this work shows that the Johnson and Ettinger (1991), ASTM (2008) and CompFlow Bio models all delineate an identical exclusion zone at a 99.9% confidence interval of indoor air concentrations based on the probability of exceedence.

  1. Field performance of air-sparging system for removing TCE from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Rabideau, A.J.; Blayden, J.M.; Ganguly, C.

    1999-01-01

    The removal of volatile organic compounds from groundwater by air sparging (AS) is well-established, although reliable methods for predicting the time required to reach site closure have not been established. To develop and improved understanding of mass transfer processes that limit AS performance, two extended controlled shutdowns of an operating AS system were performed. Monitoring of TCE concentrations in source zone groundwater indicated tailing and rebound behavior similar to that observed for pump-and-treat systems. A simple two-compartment model provided a reasonable description of the 3-year AS history, using parameters calibrated from data collected during the first shutdown period. Comparison of the calibrated rate constants with parameters estimated from laboratory soil columns suggest that, for the study site, aqueous diffusion to discrete air channels has a stronger influence on system performance than rate-limited desorption. Predictions based on the calibrated model indicated that restoration of the source zone to drinking water standards would require approximately 1 decade for the current AS system.

  2. Combined removal of a BTEX, TCE, and cis-DCE mixture using Pseudomonas sp. immobilized on scrap tyres.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qihong; de Toledo, Renata Alves; Xie, Fei; Li, Junhui; Shim, Hojae

    2015-09-01

    The simultaneous aerobic removal of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o,m,p-xylene (BTEX); cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE); and trichloroethylene (TCE) from the artificially contaminated water using an indigenous bacterial isolate identified as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida immobilized on waste scrap tyres was investigated. Suspended and immobilized conditions were compared for the removal of these volatile organic compounds. For the immobilized system, toluene, benzene, and ethylbenzene were completely removed, while the highest removal efficiencies of 99.0 ± 0.1, 96.8 ± 0.3, 73.6 ± 2.5, and 61.6 ± 0.9% were obtained for o-xylene, m,p-xylene, TCE, and cis-DCE, respectively. The sorption kinetics of contaminants towards tyre surface was also evaluated, and the sorption capacity generally followed the order of toluene > benzene > m,p-xylene > o-xylene > ethylbenzene > TCE > cis-DCE. Scrap tyres showed a good capability for the simultaneous sorption and bioremoval of BTEX/cis-DCE/TCE mixture, implying a promising waste material for the removal of contaminant mixture from industrial wastewater or contaminated groundwater. PMID:25956516

  3. Analysis of flow processes during TCE infiltration in heterogeneous soils at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1992-06-01

    Contamination of soils and groundwater from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as organic solvents and hydrocarbon fuels, is a problem at many industrial facilities. Key to successfully characterizing, containing, and eventually remediating the contamination is a thorough understanding, based on sound scientific principles, of the complex interplay of physical, chemical, and biological processes in geologic media, which affect the migration and distribution of the contaminants, and their response to remediation operations. This report focusses on physical mechanisms that affect contaminant behavior under the conditions encountered at the Savannah River site (SRS). Although other contaminants are present at the site, for the purpose of this discussion we will restrict ourselves to the processes following a spill and infiltration of trichloroethylene (TCE), which is the main contaminant at the location of the Integrated Demonstration Project. We begin by briefly describing the main physical processes following release of TCE into the subsurface. Subsequently we will present simple engineering models that can help to evaluate contaminant migration processes in a semi-quantitative way. Finally, we will discuss results of detailed numerical simulations of TCE infiltration into a heterogeneous medium consisting of sands and clays. These simulations attempt to shed light on the initial distribution of contaminants at the site prior to the start of remediation operations. We also point out limitations of present numerical modeling capabilities, and identify issues that require further research in order that a realistic description of contaminant behavior in the subsurface may be achieved.

  4. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA.

    PubMed

    Harte, Philip T; Smith, Thor E; Williams, John H; Degnan, James R

    2012-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment. PMID:22459605

  5. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.; Smith, Thor E.; Williams, John H.; Degnan, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

  6. Effects of Reduced Sulfur Compounds on Pd-catalytic Hydrodechlorination of TCE in Groundwater by Cathodic H2 under Electrochemically-induced Oxidizing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Songhu; Chen, Mingjie; Mao, Xuhui; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) poison Pd catalysts for catalytic hydrodechlorination of contaminants in anoxic groundwater. This study investigates the effects of RSCs on Pd-catalytic hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in oxic groundwater. Water electrolysis in an undivided electrolytic cell is used to produce H2 for TCE hydrodechlorination under oxidizing conditions. TCE is efficiently hydrodechlorinated to ethane, with significant accumulation of H2O2 under acidic conditions. Presence of sulfide at concentrations less than 93.8 μM moderately inhibits TCE hydrodechlorination and H2O2 production. Presence of sulfite at low concentrations (≤ 1 mM) significantly enhances TCE decay, while at high concentration (3 mM) inhibits initially and enhances afterwards when sulfite concentration declines to less than 1 mM. Using radical scavenging experiments and electron spin resonance assay, SO3•− which is generated from sulfite under oxidizing conditions is validated as the new reactive species contributing to the enhancement. This study reveals a distinct mechanism of effect of sulfite on TCE hydrodechlorination by Pd and H2 in oxic groundwater and presents an alternative approach to increasing resistance of Pd to RSCs poisoning. PMID:23962132

  7. Heterogeneous carbonaceous matter in sedimentary rock lithocomponents causes significant trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption in a low organic carbon content aquifer/aquitard system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choung, Sungwook; Zimmerman, Lisa R.; Allen-King, Richelle M.; Ligouis, Bertrand; Feenstra, Stanley

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of heterogeneous thermally altered carbonaceous matter (CM) on trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption for a low fraction organic carbon content (foc) alluvial sedimentary aquifer and aquitard system (foc = 0.046-0.105%). The equilibrium TCE sorption isotherms were highly nonlinear with Freundlich exponents of 0.46-0.58. Kerogen + black carbon was the dominant CM fraction extracted from the sediments and accounted for > 60% and 99% of the total in the sands and silt, respectively. Organic petrological examination determined that the kerogen included abundant amorphous organic matter (bituminite), likely of marine origin. The dark calcareous siltstone exhibited the greatest TCE sorption among aquifer lithocomponents and accounted for most sorption in the aquifer. The results suggest that the source of the thermally altered CM, which causes nonlinear sorption, was derived from parent Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks that outcrop throughout much of New York State. A synthetic aquifer-aquitard unit system (10% aquitard) was used to illustrate the effect of the observed nonlinear sorption on mass storage potential at equilibrium. The calculation showed that > 80% of TCE mass contained in the aquifer was sorbed on the aquifer sediment at aqueous concentration < 1000 μg L- 1. These results show that sorption is likely a significant contributor to the persistence of a TCE groundwater plume in the aquifer studied. It is implied that sorption may similarly contribute to TCE persistence in other glacial alluvial aquifers with similar geologic characteristics, i.e., comprised of sedimentary rock lithocomponents that contain thermally altered CM.

  8. Heterogeneous hyporheic zone dechlorination of a TCE groundwater plume discharging to an urban river reach.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Juliana G; Rivett, Michael O; Roche, Rachel S; Durrant Neé Cleverly, Megan; Walker, Caroline; Tellam, John H

    2015-02-01

    The typically elevated natural attenuation capacity of riverbed-hyporheic zones is expected to decrease chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) groundwater plume discharges to river receptors through dechlorination reactions. The aim of this study was to assess physico-chemical processes controlling field-scale variation in riverbed-hyporheic zone dechlorination of a TCE groundwater plume discharge to an urban river reach. The 50-m long pool-riffle-glide reach of the River Tame in Birmingham (UK) studied is a heterogeneous high energy river environment. The shallow riverbed was instrumented with a detailed network of multilevel samplers. Freeze coring revealed a geologically heterogeneous and poorly sorted riverbed. A chlorine number reduction approach provided a quantitative indicator of CHC dechlorination. Three sub-reaches of contrasting behaviour were identified. Greatest dechlorination occurred in the riffle sub-reach that was characterised by hyporheic zone flows, moderate sulphate concentrations and pH, anaerobic conditions, low iron, but elevated manganese concentrations with evidence of sulphate reduction. Transient hyporheic zone flows allowing input to varying riverbed depths of organic matter are anticipated to be a key control. The glide sub-reach displayed negligible dechlorination attributed to the predominant groundwater baseflow discharge condition, absence of hyporheic zone, transition to more oxic conditions and elevated sulphate concentrations expected to locally inhibit dechlorination. The tail-of-pool-riffle sub-reach exhibited patchy dechlorination that was attributed to sub-reach complexities including significant flow bypass of a low permeability, high organic matter, silty unit of high dechlorination potential. A process-based conceptual model of reach-scale dechlorination variability was developed. Key findings of practitioner relevance were: riverbed-hyporheic zone CHC dechlorination may provide only a partial, somewhat patchy barrier to CHC

  9. Assessment of potential positive effects of nZVI surface modification and concentration levels on TCE dechlorination in the presence of competing strong oxidants, using an experimental design.

    PubMed

    Kaifas, Delphine; Malleret, Laure; Kumar, Naresh; Fétimi, Wafa; Claeys-Bruno, Magalie; Sergent, Michelle; Doumenq, Pierre

    2014-05-15

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles are efficient for the remediation of aquifers polluted by trichloroethylene (TCE). But for on-site applications, their reactivity can be affected by the presence of common inorganic co-pollutants, which are equally reduced by nZVI particles. The aim of this study was to assess the potential positive effects of nZVI surface modification and concentration level on TCE removal in the concomitant presence of two strong oxidants, i.e., Cr(VI) and NO3(-). A design of experiments, testing four factors (i.e. nZVI concentration, nZVI surface modification, Cr(VI) concentration and NO3(-) concentration), was used to select the best trials for the identification of the main effects of the factors and of the factors interactions. The effects of these factors were studied by measuring the following responses: TCE removal rates at different times, degradation kinetic rates, and the transformation products formed. As expected, TCE degradation was delayed or inhibited in most of the experiments, due to the presence of inorganics. The negative effects of co-pollutants can be palliated by combining surface modification with a slight increase in nZVI concentration. Encouragingly, complete TCE removal was achieved for some given experimental conditions. Noteworthily, nZVI surface modification was found to promote the efficient degradation of TCE. When degradation occurred, TCE was mainly transformed into innocuous non-chlorinated transformation products, while hazardous chlorinated transformation products accounted for a small percentage of the mass-balance. PMID:24607397

  10. Drinking Water Contamination and the Incidence of Leukemia and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, P; Klotz, J; Bove, F; Berkowitz, M; Fagliano, J

    1994-01-01

    >A study of drinking water contamination and leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) incidence (1979-1987) was conducted in a 75-town study area. Comparing incidence in towns in the highest trichloroethylene (TCE) stratum (>5 microg/l) to towns without detectable TCE yielded an age-adjusted rate ratio (RR) for total leukemia among females of 1.43 (95% CI 1.07-1.90). For females under 20 years old, the RR for acute lymphocytic leukemia was 3.26 (95% CI 1.27-8.15). Elevated RRs were observed for chronic myelogenous leukemia among females and for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among males and females. NHL incidence among women was also associated with the highest TCE stratum (RR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.08-1.70). For diffuse large cell NHL and non-Burkitt's high-grade NHL among females, the RRs were 1.66 (95% CI 1.07-2.59) and 3.17 (95% CI 1.23-8.18), respectively, and 1.59 (95% CI 1.04-2.43) and 1.92 (95% CI 0.54-6.81), respectively, among males. Perchloroethylene (PCE) was associated with incidence of non-Burkitt's high-grade NHL among females, but collinearity with TCE made it difficult to assess relative influences. The results suggest a link between TCE/PCE and leukemia/ NHL incidence. However, the conclusions are limited by potential misclassification of exposure due to lack of individual information on long-term residence, water consumption, and inhalation of volatilized compounds. PMID:9679115

  11. Drinking Water Contamination and the Incidence of Leukemia and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Cohn; Klotz; Bove; Berkowitz; Fagliano

    1994-06-01

    >A study of drinking water contamination and leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) incidence (1979-1987) was conducted in a 75-town study area. Comparing incidence in towns in the highest trichloroethylene (TCE) stratum (>5 microg/l) to towns without detectable TCE yielded an age-adjusted rate ratio (RR) for total leukemia among females of 1.43 (95% CI 1.07-1.90). For females under 20 years old, the RR for acute lymphocytic leukemia was 3.26 (95% CI 1.27-8.15). Elevated RRs were observed for chronic myelogenous leukemia among females and for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among males and females. NHL incidence among women was also associated with the highest TCE stratum (RR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.08-1.70). For diffuse large cell NHL and non-Burkitt's high-grade NHL among females, the RRs were 1.66 (95% CI 1.07-2.59) and 3.17 (95% CI 1.23-8.18), respectively, and 1.59 (95% CI 1.04-2.43) and 1.92 (95% CI 0.54-6.81), respectively, among males. Perchloroethylene (PCE) was associated with incidence of non-Burkitt's high-grade NHL among females, but collinearity with TCE made it difficult to assess relative influences. The results suggest a link between TCE/PCE and leukemia/ NHL incidence. However, the conclusions are limited by potential misclassification of exposure due to lack of individual information on long-term residence, water consumption, and inhalation of volatilized compounds. PMID:9679115

  12. Investigation of mechanisms contributing to slow desorption of hydrophobic organic compounds from mineral solids

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, J.; Grassian, D.; Jones, M.

    1999-04-15

    Predicting the transport and fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants in underground aquifers requires a mechanistic understanding of sediment-contaminant interactions. This research investigates the mechanisms contributing to the slow desorption of hydrophobic organic compounds from water-saturated mineral solids. The mechanisms investigated were adsorption-retarded aqueous diffusion, micropore diffusion, high-energy micropore adsorption, and micropore blockage by precipitated minerals. To reduce the potential confounding effects of adsorbent heterogeneity, a set of homogeneous silica gel and glass bead adsorbents were used in the investigation. Desorption rates for the slow-desorbing fractions of chloroform (CF), trichloroethylene (TCE), and perchloroethylene (PCE) from silica gel did not conform to the pore-diffusion model for adsorption-retarded aqueous diffusion. This indicated that diffusion through adsorbent mesopores was not responsible for slow desorption from silica gel. Micropore-diffusion modeling of TCE desorption from three silica gels and microporous glass beads indicated that pores less than 2 nm in diameter were responsible for slow desorption. Desorption rates of CF, TCE, and PCE from silica gel were also measured in methanol solutions. Under methanol extraction conditions, desorption rates for all three compounds were 1--2 orders of magnitude less than under water-saturated conditions. The activation energy for TCE desorption from water-saturated silica gel was measured using temperature-programmed desorption. The TCE desorption activation energy of 15 kJ/mol was close to the dissolution enthalpy for silica gel of 13 kJ/mol. This supported the hypothesis that micropore blockage by precipitated minerals may be limiting contaminant desorption rates under water-saturated conditions.

  13. A Dechlorinating Community Resulting From In Situ Biostimulation of a TCE-contaminated Deep Fracture Basalt Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    T. Wood; D. E. Cummings

    2004-12-01

    Sodium lactate additions to a trichloroethene (TCE) residual source area in deep, fractured basalt at a U.S. Department of Energy site have resulted in the enrichment of the indigenous microbial community, the complete dechlorination of nearly all aqueous-phase TCE to ethene, and the continued depletion of the residual source since 1999. The bacterial and archaeal consortia in groundwater obtained from the residual source were assessed by using PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. A clone library of bacterial amplicons was predominated by those from members of the class Clostridia (57 of 93 clones), of which a phylotype most similar to that of the homoacetogen Acetobacterium sp. strain HAAP-1 was most abundant (32 of 93 clones). The remaining Bacteria consisted of phylotypes affiliated with Sphingobacteria, Bacteroides, Spirochaetes, Mollicutes, and Proteobacteria and candidate divisions OP11 and OP3. The two proteobacterial phylotypes were most similar to those of the known dechlorinators Trichlorobacter thiogenes and Sulfurospirillum multivorans. Although not represented by the bacterial clones generated with broad-specificity bacterial primers, a Dehalococcoides-like phylotype was identified with genus-specific primers. Only four distinct phylotypes were detected in the groundwater archaeal library, including predominantly a clone affiliated with the strictly acetoclastic methanogen Methanosaeta concilii (24 of 43 clones). A mixed culture that completely dechlorinates TCE to ethene was enriched from this groundwater, and both communities were characterized by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). According to T-RFLP, the laboratory enrichment community was less diverse overall than the groundwater community, with 22 unique phylotypes as opposed to 43 and a higher percentage of Clostridia, including the Acetobacterium population. Bioreactor archaeal structure was very similar to that of the groundwater community, suggesting that methane is

  14. Comparison Of A Laboratory Consortium That Dechlorinates TCE To Ethene To The Field Community From Which It Was Derived

    SciTech Connect

    T. Wood; K. S. Sorenson; D. E. Cummings

    2004-12-01

    Sodium lactate additions to a trichloroethene (TCE) residual source area in deep, fractured basalt at a U.S. Department of Energy site have resulted in the enrichment of the indigenous microbial community, the complete dechlorination of nearly all aqueous-phase TCE to ethene, and the continued depletion of the residual source since 1999. The bacterial and archaeal consortia in groundwater obtained from the residual source were assessed by using PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. A clone library of bacterial amplicons was predominated by those from members of the class Clostridia (57 of 93 clones), of which a phylotype most similar to that of the homoacetogen Acetobacterium sp. strain HAAP-1 was most abundant (32 of 93 clones). The remaining Bacteria consisted of phylotypes affiliated with Sphingobacteria, Bacteroides, Spirochaetes, Mollicutes, and Proteobacteria and candidate divisions OP11 and OP3. The two proteobacterial phylotypes were most similar to those of the known dechlorinators Trichlorobacter thiogenes and Sulfurospirillum multivorans. Although not represented by the bacterial clones generated with broad-specificity bacterial primers, a Dehalococcoides-like phylotype was identified with genus-specific primers. Only four distinct phylotypes were detected in the groundwater archaeal library, including predominantly a clone affiliated with the strictly acetoclastic methanogen Methanosaeta concilii (24 of 43 clones). A mixed culture that completely dechlorinates TCE to ethene was enriched from this groundwater, and both communities were characterized by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). According to T-RFLP, the laboratory enrichment community was less diverse overall than the groundwater community, with 22 unique phylotypes as opposed to 43 and a higher percentage of Clostridia, including the Acetobacterium population. Bioreactor archaeal structure was very similar to that of the groundwater community, suggesting that methane is

  15. Determination of rate constants and branching ratios for TCE degradation by zero-valent iron using a chain decay multispecies model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyoun-Tae; Jeen, Sung-Wook; Sudicky, Edward A.; Illman, Walter A.

    2015-06-01

    The applicability of a newly-developed chain-decay multispecies model (CMM) was validated by obtaining kinetic rate constants and branching ratios along the reaction pathways of trichloroethene (TCE) reduction by zero-valent iron (ZVI) from column experiments. Changes in rate constants and branching ratios for individual reactions for degradation products over time for two columns under different geochemical conditions were examined to provide ranges of those parameters expected over the long-term. As compared to the column receiving deionized water, the column receiving dissolved CaCO3 showed higher mean degradation rates for TCE and all of its degradation products. However, the column experienced faster reactivity loss toward TCE degradation due to precipitation of secondary carbonate minerals, as indicated by a higher value for the ratio of maximum to minimum TCE degradation rate observed over time. From the calculated branching ratios, it was found that TCE and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) were dominantly dechlorinated to chloroacetylene and acetylene, respectively, through reductive elimination for both columns. The CMM model, validated by the column test data in this study, provides a convenient tool to determine simultaneously the critical design parameters for permeable reactive barriers and natural attenuation such as rate constants and branching ratios.

  16. In situ redox manipulation of subsurface sediments from Fort Lewis, Washington: Iron reduction and TCE dechlorination mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    JE Szecsody; JS Fruchter; DS Sklarew; JC Evans

    2000-03-21

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a bench-scale study to determine how effective chemically treated Ft. Lewis sediments can degrade trichloroethylene (TCE). The objectives of this experimental study were to quantify: (1) sediment reduction and oxidation reactions, (2) TCE degradation reactions, and (3) other significant geochemical changes that occurred. Sediment reduction and oxidation were investigated to determine the mass of reducible iron in the Ft. Lewis sediments and the rate of this reduction and subsequent oxidation at different temperatures. The temperature dependence was needed to be able to predict field-scale reduction in the relatively cold ({approximately}11 C) Ft. Lewis aquifer. Results of these experiments were used in conjunction with other geochemical and hydraulic characterization to design the field-scale injection experiment and predict barrier longevity. For example, the sediment reduction rate controls the amount of time required for the dithionite solution to fully react with sediments. Sediment oxidation experiments were additionally conducted to determine the oxidation rate and provide a separate measure of the mass of reduced iron. Laboratory experiments that were used to meet these objectives included: (1) sediment reduction in batch (static) systems, (2) sediment reduction in 1-D columns, and (3) sediment oxidation in 1-D columns. Multiple reaction modeling was conducted to quantify the reactant masses and reaction rates.

  17. ORNL/MMES research into remedial applications of zero-valence metals. 3. Removal of TCE, cis-1,2-DCE, vinyl choride, and technetium

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, J.L.; Richards, W.L.; Korte, N.E.

    1995-12-01

    Technetium-99, trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) were removed from contaminated groundwater with zero-valent iron. Batch and field column tests suggest no synergistic or antagonistic effects between {sup 99}Tc and the chlorinated hydrocarbons. Batch studies indicate 50% removal of {sup 99}Tc in less than one hour, with initial activity of 2,500 pCi/L. Removal efficiency was greatest for TCE followed by DCE and VC. A column experiment with a residence time of less than one hour resulted in complete removal of {sup 99}Tc and TCE from the effluent. No accumulation of DCE or VC was evident in the effluent; in contrast, ethene, ethane, and chloride levels increased. The pH within the column increased from 6.2 and stabilized at 8.7.

  18. Sorption of TCE by humic-preloaded activated carbon: Incorporating size-exclusion and pore blockage phenomenon in a competitive adsorption model

    SciTech Connect

    Kilduff, J.E.; Wigton, A.

    1999-01-15

    Naturally occurring, macromolecular dissolved organic matter (NOM) is known to foul activated carbon adsorbents, reducing the ability of fixed-bed adsorbers to efficiently remove targeted synthetic organic contaminants (SOCs). An accurate description of the effects of NOM competition on SOC adsorption equilibria is required to develop dynamic models, which have application to process design and analysis. A model was developed, using an approach based on the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST), to predict trichloroethylene (TCE) adsorption by activated carbon preloaded with humic acid. The IAST model was formulated for a bisolute system in which TCE and humic acid single-solute uptakes were described by the Langmuir-Freundlich and Freundlich isotherms, respectively. The humic mixture was modeled as a single component based on previous studies that identified the low-molecular-weight hydrophobic fraction as the most reactive with regard to preloading effects. Isotherms for this fraction, isolated from whole humic acid using ultrafiltration, were measured, and molar concentrations were computed based on an average molecular weight determined using size-exclusion chromatography. The IAST model was modified to reflect the hypothesis that TCE molecules can access adsorption sites which humic molecules cannot and that no competition can occur on these sites. The model was calibrated with data for TCE uptake by carbon preloaded with the low-molecular-weight humic acid fraction and was verified by predicting TCE uptake by carbon preloaded with whole humic acid. Further improvement to the model was possible by accounting for pore blockage as a mechanism which can reduce the effective surface area available in TCE.

  19. Heterogeneous carbonaceous matter in sedimentary rock lithocomponents causes significant trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption in a low organic carbon content aquifer/aquitard system.

    PubMed

    Choung, Sungwook; Zimmerman, Lisa R; Allen-King, Richelle M; Ligouis, Bertrand; Feenstra, Stanley

    2014-10-15

    This study evaluated the effects of heterogeneous thermally altered carbonaceous matter (CM) on trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption for a low fraction organic carbon content (foc) alluvial sedimentary aquifer and aquitard system (foc=0.046-0.105%). The equilibrium TCE sorption isotherms were highly nonlinear with Freundlich exponents of 0.46-0.58. Kerogen+black carbon was the dominant CM fraction extracted from the sediments and accounted for >60% and 99% of the total in the sands and silt, respectively. Organic petrological examination determined that the kerogen included abundant amorphous organic matter (bituminite), likely of marine origin. The dark calcareous siltstone exhibited the greatest TCE sorption among aquifer lithocomponents and accounted for most sorption in the aquifer. The results suggest that the source of the thermally altered CM, which causes nonlinear sorption, was derived from parent Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks that outcrop throughout much of New York State. A synthetic aquifer-aquitard unit system (10% aquitard) was used to illustrate the effect of the observed nonlinear sorption on mass storage potential at equilibrium. The calculation showed that >80% of TCE mass contained in the aquifer was sorbed on the aquifer sediment at aqueous concentration <1000 μgL(-1). These results show that sorption is likely a significant contributor to the persistence of a TCE groundwater plume in the aquifer studied. It is implied that sorption may similarly contribute to TCE persistence in other glacial alluvial aquifers with similar geologic characteristics, i.e., comprised of sedimentary rock lithocomponents that contain thermally altered CM. PMID:25168960

  20. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Des Moines TCE Site, Operable Unit 3, Des Moines, IA. (Second remedial action), September 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-18

    The Des Moines TCE site is located southwest of downtown Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa. Land use in the area is predominantly industrial and commercial, and part of the site lies within the floodplain of the Raccoon River. Water from the Des Moines Water Works north infiltration gallery was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroethylene (DCE), and vinyl chloride at levels above accepted drinking water standards. The ROD addresses OU3, which encompasses potential sources of ground water contamination in an area north of the Raccoon River. The selected remedial action for OU3 includes no action with periodic groundwater monitoring.

  1. Concentration of 1,4-Dioxane in Wells Sampled During 2002-2009 in the Vicinity of the Tucson International Airport Area Superfund Site, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D

    2010-01-01

    Extensive groundwater contamination resulting from industrial activities led to the listing of the Tucson International Airport Area as a Superfund Site in 1983. Early investigations revealed elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including the chlorinated solvents trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) in wells in the area. Several responsible parties were identified and cleanup activities were begun in the late 1980s using technology designed for removal of VOCs. In 2002, the compound 1,4-dioxane was discovered in wells in the Tucson Airport Remediation Project (TARP) area. Since then, 1,4-dioxane has been detected throughout the TARP area, in some cases exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water advisory level of 3 ?g/L.

  2. Health assessment for Islip Sanitary Landfill, Suffolk County, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD980506901. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-29

    The Islip Sanitary landfill 40-acre site has been in operation since 1927, accepting municipal and industrial wastes. The site continues to operate. The site is unlined, and only partially capped. Environmental sampling conducted to date indicates that the contaminants of immediate concern are predominately volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in ground water and perhaps air. The VOCs present in one or more environmental media include trichloroethylene (TCE); tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene (PCE)); trichloroethane (TCA); vinyl chloride; and methylene chloride. Contaminated or potentially contaminated environmental pathways associated with the site which are of greatest public health importance are on-site and off-site ground water, and possibly air. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances. While it does not appear that a human population is currently exposed to site contaminants, the potential for such exposure remains and should be carefully monitored.

  3. Kinetics of chlorinated ethylene dehalogenation under methanogenic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, R.S.; Gao, J.; Hooker, B.S.

    1995-12-20

    Kinetics were determined for methanogenic activity and chlorinated ethylene dehalogenation by a methanol-enriched, anaerobic sediment consortium. The culture reductively dechlorinated perchloroethylene (PCE) to trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), vinylchloride (VC), and ethylene and ethane. The absence of methanol or the addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid in the presence of methanol suppressed both methanogenic activity and dechlorination. In contrast, acetate production continued in the presence of 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that dechlorination was strongly linked to methane formation and not to acetate production. A kinetic model, developed to describe both methanogenesis and dechlorination, successfully predicted experimentally measured concentrations of biomass, methane, substrate, and chlorinated ethylenes. The average maximum specific dehalogenation rates for PCE, TCE, 1,1-DCE, and VC were 0.9 {+-} 0.6, 0.4 {+-} 0.1, 12 {+-} 0.1, and 2.5 {+-} 1.7 {micro}mol contaminant/g {center_dot} DW/day, respectively. This pattern for dechlorination rates is distinctly different than that reported for transition metal cofactors, where rates drop by approximately one order of magnitude as each successive chlorine is removed. The experimental results and kinetic analysis suggest that it will be impractical to targeting methanol consuming methanogenic organisms for in-situ groundwater restoration.

  4. Six-phase soil heating for enhanced removal of contaminants: Volatile organic compounds in non-arid soils integrated demonstration, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Bergsman, T.M.; Caley, S.M.

    1994-10-01

    In November 1993, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel conducted a demonstration of six-phase soil heating (SPSH) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The demonstration was part of the Volatile Organic Compounds in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration being conducted near the M-Area operations at the SRS, along a corridor that once contained a process sewer leading to the M-Area seepage basin. In the early 1980s, this sewer line was discovered to be leaking process wastes into the subsurface and contributing to groundwater contamination in the vicinity of M-Area seepage basin. Although use of the sewer line has been discontinued, the slow release of chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) from the heterogeneous vadose zone soil continues to be a source of potential groundwater contamination. A significant portion of the VOCs at the demonstration site are retained in low-permeability clay zones. Previous studies have shown that the rate of conventional SVE remediation of the SRS clays is quite slow. The permeability of the clay is of order 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 2}, which makes this a particularly difficult interval to remediate. Thus, the challenge for SPSH is to effectively remediate this clay zone by accelerating the removal of TCE and PCE.

  5. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  6. Investigation of the potential source area, contamination pathway, and probable release history of chlorinated-solvent-contaminated groundwater at the Capital City Plume Site, Montgomery, Alabama, 2008-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, James E.; Miller, Scott; Campbell, Bruce G.; Vroblesky, Don A.; Gill, Amy C.; Clark, Athena P.

    2011-01-01

    Detection of the organic solvent perchloroethylene (PCE) in a shallow public-supply well in 1991 and exposure of workers in 1993 to solvent vapors during excavation activities to depths near the water table provided evidence that the shallow aquifer beneath the capital city of Montgomery, Alabama, was contaminated. Investigations conducted from 1993 to 1999 by State and Federal agencies confirmed the detection of PCE in the shallow aquifer, as well as the detection of the organic solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) and various inorganic compounds, but the source of the groundwater contamination was not determined. In May 2000 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed that the site, called the Capital City Plume (CCP) Site, be a candidate for the National Priorities List. Between 2000 and 2007, numerous site-investigation activities also did not determine the source of the groundwater contamination. In 2008, additional assessments were conducted at the CCP Site to investigate the potential source area, contamination pathway, and the probable release history of the chlorinated-solvent-contaminated groundwater. The assessments included the collection of (1) pore water in 2008 from the hyporheic zone of a creek using passive-diffusion bag samplers; (2) tissue samples in 2008 and 2009 from trees growing in areas of downtown Montgomery characterized by groundwater contamination and from trees growing in riparian zones along the Alabama River and Cypress Creek; and (3) groundwater samples in 2009 and 2010. The data collected were used to investigate the potential source area of contaminants detected in groundwater, the pathway of groundwater contamination, and constraints on the probable contaminant-release history. The data collected between 2008 and 2010 indicate that the PCE and TCE contamination of the shallow aquifer beneath the CCP Site most likely resulted from the past use and disposal of industrial wastewater from printing operations containing chlorinated

  7. A Three-electrode Column for Pd-Catalytic Oxidation of TCE in Groundwater with Automatic pH-regulation and Resistance to Reduced Sulfur Compound Foiling

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Songhu; Chen, Mingjie; Mao, Xuhui; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid electrolysis and Pd-catalytic oxidation process is evaluated for degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. A three-electrode, one anode and two cathodes, column is employed to automatically develop a low pH condition in the Pd vicinity and a neutral effluent. Simulated groundwater containing up to 5 mM bicarbonate can be acidified to below pH 4 in the Pd vicinity using a total of 60 mA with 20 mA passing through the third electrode. By packing 2 g of Pd/Al2O3 pellets in the developed acidic region, the column efficiency for TCE oxidation in simulated groundwater (5.3 mg/L TCE) increases from 44 to 59 and 68% with increasing Fe(II) concentration from 0 to 5 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Different from Pd-catalytic hydrodechlorination under reducing conditions, this hybrid electrolysis and Pd-catalytic oxidation process is advantageous in controlling the fouling caused by reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) because the in situ generated reactive oxidizing species, i.e., O2, H2O2 and •OH, can oxidize RSCs to some extent. In particular, sulfite at concentrations less than 1 mM even greatly increases TCE oxidation by the production of SO4•−, a strong oxidizing radical, and more •OH. PMID:23121896

  8. The in-situ decontamination of sand and gravel aquifers by chemically enhanced solubilization of multiple-component DNAPLS with surfactant solutions. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory, numerical simulation, and field studies have been conducted to assess the potential use of micellar-surfactant solutions to solubilize chlorinated solvents contaminating sand and gravel aquifers. Laboratory studies were conducted at the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY) while numerical simulation and field work were undertaken by INTERA Inc. in collaboration with Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc. at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Kentucky. Ninety-nine surfactants were screened for their ability to solubilize trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CTET). Ten of these were capable of solubilizing TCE to concentrations greater than 15,000 mg/L, compared to its aqueous solubility of 1,100 mg/L. Four surfactants were identified as good solubilizers of all three chlorinated solvents. Of these, a secondary alcohol ethoxylate was the first choice for in situ testing because of its excellent solubilizing ability and its low propensity to sorb. However, this surfactant did not meet the Commonwealth of Kentucky`s acceptance criteria. Consequently, it was decided to use a surfactant approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration as a food-grade additive. As a 1% micellar-surfactant solution, this sorbitan monooleate has a solubilization capacity of 16,000 mg TCE/L, but has a higher propensity to sorb to clays than has the alcohol ethoxylate.

  9. MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF ENHANCED DNAPL REMOVAL BY COSOLVENT-AIR FLOODING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The simultaneous injection of cosolvent and air has been suggested to improve sweep efficiency of cosolvent flooding for dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) remediation. Glass micromodel experiments were conducted to investigate the factors that influence perchloroethylene (PCE...

  10. 40 CFR 63.321 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... December 9, 1991. PCE gas analyzer means a flame ionization detector, photoionization detector, or infrared... perchloroethylene; (2) Visual observation, such as pools or droplets of liquid; or (3) The detection of gas flow...

  11. 40 CFR 63.321 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... December 9, 1991. PCE gas analyzer means a flame ionization detector, photoionization detector, or infrared... perchloroethylene; (2) Visual observation, such as pools or droplets of liquid; or (3) The detection of gas flow...

  12. 40 CFR 63.321 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... December 9, 1991. PCE gas analyzer means a flame ionization detector, photoionization detector, or infrared... perchloroethylene; (2) Visual observation, such as pools or droplets of liquid; or (3) The detection of gas flow...

  13. 40 CFR 63.321 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... December 9, 1991. PCE gas analyzer means a flame ionization detector, photoionization detector, or infrared... perchloroethylene; (2) Visual observation, such as pools or droplets of liquid; or (3) The detection of gas flow...

  14. Use of poly-beta-hydroxy-butyrate as a slow-release electron donor for the microbial reductive dechlorination of TCE.

    PubMed

    Aulenta, F; Fuoco, M; Canosa, A; Petrangeli Papini, M; Majone, M

    2008-01-01

    In situ anaerobic reductive dechlorination, using slow-release electron donors, is emerging as an effective and sustainable (low-cost and low-maintenance) technology to remediate aquifers contaminated by chloroethenes. In the present study, we investigated the use of poly-beta-hydroxy-butyrate (PHB), a fully biodegradable polymer, as a slow-release source of hydrogen and acetate for the reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE). Results of this study indicated that TCE dechlorination in PHB-amended microcosms was 2.3-times higher than in non-amended controls. This higher activity was explained by a higher H(2) level in PHB-amended microcosms. As usual, acetate was the major sink (approximately 90%) of reducing equivalents available from PHB degradation, whereas no acetotrophic dechlorination was observed. PMID:18413954

  15. Spectroscopic fingerprints for charge localization in the organic semiconductor (DOEO)4[HgBr4]·TCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koplak, Oksana V.; Chernenkaya, Alisa; Medjanik, Katerina; Brambilla, Alberto; Gloskovskii, Andrei; Calloni, Alberto; Elmers, Hans-Joachim; Schönhense, Gerd; Ciccacci, Franco; Morgunov, Roman B.

    2015-05-01

    Changes of the electronic structure accompanied by charge localization and a transition to an antiferromagnetic ground state were observed in the organic semiconductor (DOEO)4[HgBr4]·TCE. Localization starts in the temperature region of about 150 K and the antiferromagnetic state occurs below 60 K. The magnetic moment of the crystal contains contributions of inclusions (droplets), and individual paramagnetic centers formed by localized holes and free charge carriers at 2 K. Two types of inclusions of 100-400 nm and 2-5 nm sizes were revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Studying the temperature- and angular dependence of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra revealed fingerprints of antiferromagnetic contributions as well as paramagnetic resonance spectra of individual localized charge carriers. The results point on coexistence of antiferromagnetic long and short range order as evident from a second ESR line. Photoelectron spectroscopy in the VUV, soft and hard X-ray range shows temperature-dependent effects upon crossing the critical temperatures around 60 K and 150 K. The substantially different probing depths of soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy yield information on the surface termination. The combined investigation using complementary methods at the same sample reveals the close relation of changes in the transport properties and in the energy distribution of electronic states.

  16. Interactions of water contaminants. I. Plasma enzyme activity and response surface methodology following gavage administration of CCl4 and CHCl3 or TCE singly and in combination in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Borzelleca, J.F.; O'Hara, T.M.; Gennings, C.; Granger, R.H.; Sheppard, M.A.; Condie, L.W. Jr. )

    1990-04-01

    The joint hepatotoxicity of CCl4 and CHCl3 or TCE in male CD rats following simultaneous oral administration has been investigated. Rats with chronic indwelling arterial cannulas were administered a single oral dose of CCl4 and CHCl3 or CCl4 and TCE in 5% Emulphor at doses of 0 to 700 mg/kg. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by measuring the activity of AST, ALT, and SDH in plasma at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hr postgavage. Response data were analyzed for interaction using response surface methodology. CCl4 alone displayed dose-dependent toxicity. TCE demonstrated little evidence of hepatotoxicity. In combination, both CCl4/CHCl3 and CCl4/TCE displayed a synergistic (supraadditive) response for peak plasma enzyme activity.

  17. Evaluating the potential for quantitative monitoring of in situ chemical oxidation of aqueous-phase TCE using in-phase and quadrature electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hort, R. D.; Revil, A.; Munakata-Marr, J.; Mao, D.

    2015-07-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements can potentially be used to remotely monitor fate and transport of ionic oxidants such as permanganate (MnO4-) during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of contaminants like trichloroethene (TCE). Time-lapse two-dimensional bulk conductivity and induced polarization surveys conducted during a sand tank ISCO simulation demonstrated that MnO4- plume movement could be monitored in a qualitative manner using bulk conductivity tomograms, although chargeability was below sensitivity limits. We also examined changes to in-phase and quadrature electrical conductivity resulting from ion injection, MnO2 and Cl- production, and pH change during TCE and humate oxidation by MnO4- in homogeneous aqueous solutions and saturated porous media samples. Data from the homogeneous samples demonstrated that inversion of the sand tank resistivity data using a common Tikhonov regularization approach was insufficient to recover an accurate conductivity distribution within the tank. While changes to in-phase conductivity could be successfully modeled, quadrature conductivity values could not be directly related to TCE oxidation product or MnO4- concentrations at frequencies consistent with field induced polarization surveys, limiting the utility of quadrature conductivity for monitoring ISCO.

  18. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 9. Part I. TCE degradation using nonbiological methods, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.P.; Sivavec, T.M.; Baghel, S.S.

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low-permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge for in situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low-permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is used to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The present Draft Topical Report for Task No. 9 summarizes laboratory investigations into TCE degradation using nonbiological methods. These studies were conducted by the General Electric Company. The report concentrates on zero valent iron as the reducing agent and presents data on TCE and daughter product degradation rates in batch experiments, column studies, and electroosmotic cells. It is shown that zero valent iron effectively degrades TCE in electroosmotic experiments. Daughter product degradation and gas generation are shown to be important factors in designing field scale treatment zones for the Lasagna{trademark} process.

  19. Tc of 11K Identified for the Third Polymorph of the (BEDT-TTF)(BEDT-TTF){<_2}Ag(CF{<_3}){<_4}(TCE) Organic Superconductor.

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamoto, T.; Mori, T.; Nakao, A.; Murakami, Y.; Schlueter, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of the third polymorph of the organic superconductor (BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Ag(CF{sub 3}){sub 4}(TCE), where BEDT-TTF is bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene and TCE is 1,1,2-trichloroethane, has been investigated. The crystal consists of alternating stacks of two types of donor sheets, {Kappa}- and {alpha}-types. Although this structure is similar to the previously solved two-layered high-T{sub c} phase of (BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Ag(CF{sub 3}){sub 4}(TCE), the axis perpendicular to the conducting layer of the unit cell of the new phase is twice as large as that of the two-layered phase; thus, four layers form the repeating unit. Superconductivity is attributed to the {Kappa}-type conducting layer, because the {alpha}-type conducting layer is in an acentric charge-ordered state. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are approximately 11.0 and 9.5 K for the four-layered and two-layered phases, respectively.

  20. Efficient Degradation of TCE in Groundwater Using Pd and Electro-generated H2 and O2: A Shift in Pathway from Hydrodechlorination to Oxidation in the Presence of Ferrous Ions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Songhu; Mao, Xuhui; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2012-01-01

    Degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in simulated groundwater by Pd and electro-generated H2 and O2 is investigated in the absence and presence of Fe(II). In the absence of Fe(II), hydrodechlorination dominates TCE degradation, with accumulation of H2O2 up to 17 mg/L. Under weak acidity, low concentrations of oxidizing •OH radical are detected due to decomposition of H2O2, slightly contributing to TCE degradation via oxidation. In the presence of Fe(II), the degradation efficiency of TCE at 396 μM improves to 94.9% within 80 min. The product distribution proves that the degradation pathway shifts from 79% hydrodechlorination in the absence of Fe(II) to 84% •OH oxidation in the presence of Fe(II). TCE degradation follows zeroth-order kinetics with rate constants increasing from 2.0 to 4.6 μM/min with increasing initial Fe(II) concentration from 0 to 27.3 mg/L at pH 4. A good correlation between TCE degradation rate constants and •OH generation rate constants confirms that •OH is the predominant reactive species for TCE oxidation. Presence of 10 mM Na2SO4, NaCl, NaNO3, NaHCO3, K2SO4, CaSO4 and MgSO4 does not significantly influence degradation, but sulfite and sulfide greatly enhance and slightly suppresses degradation, respectively. A novel Pd-based electrochemical process is proposed for groundwater remediation. PMID:22315993

  1. Reductive dechlorination of TCE by chemical model systems in comparison to dehalogenating bacteria: insights from dual element isotope analysis (13C/12C, 37Cl/35Cl).

    PubMed

    Cretnik, Stefan; Thoreson, Kristen A; Bernstein, Anat; Ebert, Karin; Buchner, Daniel; Laskov, Christine; Haderlein, Stefan; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Kliegman, Sarah; McNeill, Kristopher; Elsner, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Chloroethenes like trichloroethene (TCE) are prevalent environmental contaminants, which may be degraded through reductive dechlorination. Chemical models such as cobalamine (vitamin B12) and its simplified analogue cobaloxime have served to mimic microbial reductive dechlorination. To test whether in vitro and in vivo mechanisms agree, we combined carbon and chlorine isotope measurements of TCE. Degradation-associated enrichment factors ε(carbon) and ε(chlorine) (i.e., molecular-average isotope effects) were -12.2‰ ± 0.5‰ and -3.6‰ ± 0.1‰ with Geobacter lovleyi strain SZ; -9.1‰ ± 0.6‰ and -2.7‰ ± 0.6‰ with Desulfitobacterium hafniense Y51; -16.1‰ ± 0.9‰ and -4.0‰ ± 0.2‰ with the enzymatic cofactor cobalamin; -21.3‰ ± 0.5‰ and -3.5‰ ± 0.1‰ with cobaloxime. Dual element isotope slopes m = Δδ(13)C/ Δδ(37)Cl ≈ ε(carbon)/ε(chlorine) of TCE showed strong agreement between biotransformations (3.4 to 3.8) and cobalamin (3.9), but differed markedly for cobaloxime (6.1). These results (i) suggest a similar biodegradation mechanism despite different microbial strains, (ii) indicate that transformation with isolated cobalamin resembles in vivo transformation and (iii) suggest a different mechanism with cobaloxime. This model reactant should therefore be used with caution. Our results demonstrate the power of two-dimensional isotope analyses to characterize and distinguish between reaction mechanisms in whole cell experiments and in vitro model systems. PMID:23627862

  2. 1992 toxic hazards research unit annual report. Annual report, 1 October 1991-30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, H.G.; Dodd, D.E.; Vinegar, A.; Schneider, M.G.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a review of the activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period 1 October 1991 through 30 September 1992. The THRU conducts descriptive, mechanistic, and predictive toxicology research and toxicological risk assessments to provide data to predict health hazards and to assess health risks associated with human exposure to chemicals and materials associated with military systems and operational environments. The report includes summaries of ongoing or completed research activities for the individual toxicology research requirements of the U.S. Air Force, Army, and Navy; highlights of the research support elements and conference activities of the THRU; and appendices that describe the THRU organization and its publications and presentations. 1,3,3-Trinitroazetidine (TNAZ), 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene (TNB), Carboxylic acid metabolite, Chlorofluorocarbon, Chloroform, Delayed neurotoxicity, Halon replacement, Hydraulic fluid, Hydrazine, Inhalation, Jet engine oil, Lactational transfer, Methylene chloride, MIL-H-19457C, Neurotoxic Esterase (NTE), OTTO Fuel II, Perchloroethylene (PCE), Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling, Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (pCTFE), Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR), Reproductive, Risk assessment, Smoke, Tetrachloroethylene (PCE), Toxic dust, Vinyl Chloride (VC) and Trichloroethylene (TCE) mixture.

  3. Evaluating chlorine isotope effects from isotope ratios and mass spectra of polychlorinated molecules.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Martin; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2008-06-15

    Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis receives much interest to assess the fate of chlorinated hydrocarbons in contaminated environments. This paper provides a theoretical basis to calculate isotope ratios and quantify isotope fractionation from ion-current ratios of molecular- and fragment-ion multiplets. Because both (35)Cl and (37)Cl are of high abundance, polychlorinated hydrocarbons consist of molecules containing different numbers of (37)Cl denoted as isotopologues. We show that, during reactions, the changes in isotopologue ratios are proportional to changes in the isotope ratio assuming a nonselective isotope distribution in the initial compound. This proportionality extents even to fragments formed in the ion source of a mass spectrometer such as C 2Cl 2 (double dechlorinated fragment of perchloroethylene, PCE). Fractionation factors and kinetic isotope effects (KIE) may, therefore, be evaluated from isotope, isotopologue or even fragment ratios according to conventional simple equations. The proportionality is exact with symmetric molecules such as dichloroethylene (DCE) and PCE, whereas it is approximately true with molecules containing nonreactive positions such as trichloroethylene (TCE). If in the latter case isotope ratios are derived from dechlorinated fragments, e.g., C 2HCl 2, it is important that fragmentation in the ion source affect all molecular positions alike, as otherwise isotopic changes in reactive positions may be underrepresented. PMID:18484745

  4. Managing risks of noncancer health effects at hazardous waste sites: A case study using the Reference Concentration (RfC) of trichloroethylene (TCE).

    PubMed

    Dourson, Michael L; Gadagbui, Bernard K; Thompson, Rod B; Pfau, Edward J; Lowe, John

    2016-10-01

    A method for determining a safety range for non-cancer risks is proposed, similar in concept to the range used for cancer in the management of waste sites. This safety range brings transparency to the chemical specific Reference Dose or Concentration by replacing their "order of magnitude" definitions with a scientifically-based range. EPA's multiple RfCs for trichloroethylene (TCE) were evaluated as a case study. For TCE, a multi-endpoint safety range was judged to be 3 μg/m(3) to 30 μg/m,(3) based on a review of kidney effects found in NTP (1988), thymus effects found in Keil et al. (2009) and cardiac effects found in the Johnson et al. (2003) study. This multi-endpoint safety range is derived from studies for which the appropriate averaging time corresponds to different exposure durations, and, therefore, can be applied to both long- and short-term exposures with appropriate consideration of exposure averaging times. For shorter-term exposures, averaging time should be based on the time of cardiac development in humans during fetal growth, an average of approximately 20-25 days. PMID:27346665

  5. On the preparation of TiO2-sepiolite hybrid materials for the photocatalytic degradation of TCE: influence of TiO2 distribution in the mineralization.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Silvia; Coronado, Juan M; Portela, Raquel; Martín, Juan Carlos; Yates, Malcolm; Avila, Pedro; Sánchez, Benigno

    2008-08-15

    Hybrid structured photocatalysts based on sepiolite, an adsorbent, and TiO2 were prepared by extrusion of ceramic dough and conformed as plates. The influence of the photocatalyst configuration was studied either by including TiO2 in the extrusion process (incorporated materials) or by coating the sepiolite plates with a TiO2 film (coated materials). The influence of the OH- surface concentration in the photocatalytic performance was studied by treating the ceramic plates at different temperatures. The samples were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, MIP, SEM, XRD, and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy and tested in the photocatalytic degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) as a target VOC molecule. Most of the catalysts presented high photoactivity, but considerable differences were observed when the CO2 selectivity was analyzed. The results demonstrate that there is a significant effect of the catalyst configuration on the selectivity of the process. An intimate contact between the sepiolite fibers and TiO2 particles for incorporated materials with a corncob-like structure favored the migration of nondesirable reaction products such as COCl2 and dichloroacetyl chloride (DCAC) to the adsorbent, reacting with OH- groups of the adsorbent and favoring the TCE mimeralization. PMID:18767641

  6. Airlift recirculation well test results -- Southern sector

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.; Hiergesell, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Chlorinated solvents used in the A and M-Areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952--1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. A plume of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) in the Lost Lake aquifer is moving generally southward with the natural flow of groundwater. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, a series of wells is being installed to contain and treat the plume. Airlift Recirculation Wells (ARW) are a new and innovative technology with potential for more cost effective implementation than conventional pump and treat systems. Two Airlift Recirculation Wells have been installed and tested to quantify performance parameters needed to locate a line of these wells along the leading edge of the contaminant plume. The wells proved to be very sensitive to proper development, but after this requirement was met, performance was very good. The Zone of Capture has been estimated to be within a radius of 130--160 ft. around the wells. Thus a line of wells spaced at 250 ft. intervals could intercept the contaminant plume. At SSR-012, TCE was stripped from the groundwater at approximately 1.2 lb./day. The longer term effect of the recirculation wells upon the plume and the degree of recirculation within the aquifer itself will require additional data over a longer time period for an accurate review. Data collection is ongoing.

  7. Depression of calcium dynamics in cardiac myocytes--a common mechanism of halogenated hydrocarbon anesthetics and solvents.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, P; Heinroth, K; Richards, D; Plews, P; Toraason, M

    1994-05-01

    Individual halogenated hydrocarbons (HC) have recently been demonstrated to depress Ca2+ dynamics in cardiomyocytes during excitation-contraction coupling. In the present study, eight widely used HC were systematically compared for their effects on Ca2+ dynamics in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes by means of spectrofluorometric analysis of fura-2-Ca(2+)-binding. Cells were exposed to dichloromethane (DCM), dichloroethane (DCE), 1,1,2-trichloroethane (112-TCE), trichloroethylene (TRI), halothane (HAL), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (111-TCE), perchloroethylene (PER), or pentachlorethane (PCE) in an environmentally controlled chamber. All HC tested decreased the height of electrically induced cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) transients in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner (IC50 0.15-18.06 mM) without significant effects on diastolic [Ca2+]i. The increase in [Ca2+]i induced by depolarization with 90 mM KCl was inhibited to a lesser degree. Investigations with thapsigargin (100 nM) and ryanodine (1 microM)-inhibitors of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum-provided evidence that the tonic Ca2+ response after KCl depolarization depends mainly on sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx. The potency of the eight HC to inhibit Ca2+ dynamics in cardiomyocytes correlated with their octanol/water partition coefficients. Results support the hypothesis that alteration of Ca2+ dynamics in cardiomyocytes is a common mechanism of cardiotoxic HC actions. PMID:8072012

  8. Assessing in situ mineralization of recalcitrant organic compounds in vadose zone sediments using delta13C and 14C measurements.

    PubMed

    Kirtland, Brian C; Aelion, C Marjorie; Stone, Peter A

    2005-01-01

    Few techniques exist to measure the biodegradation of recalcitrant organic compounds such as chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) in situ, yet predictions of biodegradation rates are needed for assessing monitored natural attenuation. Traditional techniques measuring O2, CO2, or chemical concentrations (in situ respiration, metabolite and soil air monitoring) may not be sufficiently sensitive to estimate biodegradation rates for these compounds. This study combined isotopic measurements (14C and delta13C of CO2 and delta13C of CHCs) in conjunction with traditional methods to assess in situ biodegradation of perchloroethylene (PCE) and its metabolites in PCE-contaminated vadose zone sediments. CHC, ethene, ethane, methane, O2, and CO2 concentrations were measured over 56 days using gas chromatography (GC). delta13C of PCE, trichloroethylene (TCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE), delta13C and 14C of vadose zone CO2 and sediment organic matter, and delta13C, 14C, and deltaD of methane were measured using a GC-isotope ratio mass spectrometer or accelerator mass spectrometer. PCE metabolites accounted for 0.2% to 18% of CHC concentration suggesting limited reductive dechlorination. Metabolites TCE and DCE were significantly enriched in (13)C with respect to PCE indicating metabolite biodegradation. Average delta13C-CO2 in source area wells (-23.5 per thousand) was significantly lower compared to background wells (-18.4 per thousand) indicating CHC mineralization. Calculated CHC mineralization rates were 0.003 to 0.01 mg DCE/kg soil/day based on lower 14C values of CO2 in the contaminated wells (63% to 107% modern carbon (pMC)) relative to the control well (117 pMC). Approximately 74% of the methane was calculated to be derived from in situ CHC biodegradation based on the 14C measurement of methane (29 pMC). 14C-CO2 analyses was a sensitive measurement for quantifying in situ recalcitrant organic compound mineralization in vadose zone sediments for which limited

  9. Kinetics of the transformation of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene by iron sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, E.C.; Hayes, K.F. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    1999-06-15

    The transformation of trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and 1,1-dichloroethylene FeS in aqueous solution at pH 8.3 was studied in batch experiments. TCE and PCE were transformed by FeS with pseudo-first-order rate constants, corrected for partitioning to the sample headspace, of (1.49 [+-] 0.14) [times] 10[sup [minus]3] h[sup [minus]1] (TCE) and (5.7 [+-] 1.0) [times] 10[sup [minus]4] h[sup [minus]1] (PCE). A 17% decrease in the concentration of 1,3-DCE was observed over 120 days; however, no reaction products were detected. TCE and PCE transformation data were fit to a rate law assuming transformation of TCE via parallel reaction pathways to acetylene and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) and transformation of PCE via parallel reaction pathways to acetylene and TCE. Acetylene was the major reaction product for both TCE and PCE. Determination of rate constants for each reaction pathway indicated that TCE was transformed to acetylene 11.8 [+-] 1.1 times faster than to cis-DCE and that PCE was transformed to acetylene 8.2 [+-] 1.8 times faster than to TCE. Additional minor reaction products were vinyl chloride (VC) for TCE and cis-DCE for PCE. Detection of acetylene as the major product of both TCE and PCE transformation by FeS contrasts with the sequential hydrogenolysis products typically observed in the microbial transformation of these compounds, making acetylene a potential indicator of abiotic transformation of TCE and PCE by FeS in natural systems.

  10. Role of layer packing for the electronic properties of the organic superconductor (BEDT-TTF ) 2Ag (CF3)4(TCE )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmeyer, Michaela; Valentí, Roser; Jeschke, Harald O.

    2015-06-01

    The charge-transfer compound (BEDT-TTF ) 2Ag (CF3)4(TCE ) crystallizes in three polymorphs with different alternating layers: While a phase with a κ packing motif has a low superconducting transition temperature of Tc=2.6 K , two phases with higher Tc of 9.5 and 11 K are multilayered structures consisting of α' and κ layers. We investigate these three systems within density functional theory and find that the α' layer shows different degrees of charge order for the two κ -α' systems and directly influences the electronic behavior of the conducting κ layer. We discuss the origin of the distinct behavior of the three polymorphs and propose a minimal tight-binding Hamiltonian for the description of these systems based on projective molecular Wannier functions.

  11. Competitive Sorption and Desorption of Chlorinated Organic Solvents (DNAPLs) in Engineered Natural Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jixin; Weber, Walter J., Jr.

    2004-03-31

    The effects of artificially accelerated geochemical condensation and maturation of natural organic matter on the sorption and desorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were studied. The sorption and desorption of TCE in the presence and absence of the competing PCE and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) were also examined. A sphagnum peat comprising geologically young organic matter was artificially ''aged'' using superheated water, thus increasing the aromaticity and the degree of condensation of its associated organic matter. The sorption of all solutes tested were increased remarkably and their respective desorptions reduced, by the aged peat. The sorption capacities and isotherm nonlinearities of the peat for both TCE and PCE were found to increase as treatment temperature increased. In the competitive sorption studies, both PCE and DCB were found to depress TCE sorption, with PCE having greater effects than DCB, presumably because the molecular structure o f the former is more similar to that of TCE.

  12. Field assessment of carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized iron nanoparticles for in situ destruction of chlorinated solvents in source zones.

    PubMed

    He, Feng; Zhao, Dongye; Paul, Chris

    2010-04-01

    This study pilot-tested carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized zero-valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles (with a trace amount of Pd catalyst) for in situ destruction of chlorinated ethenes such as perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that had been in groundwater for decades. The test site was located in a well-characterized secondary source zone of PCBs and chlorinated ethenes. Four test wells were installed along the groundwater flow direction (spaced 5 ft apart), including one injection well (IW), one up-gradient monitoring well (MW-3) and two down-gradient monitoring wells (MW-1 and MW-2). Stabilized nanoparticle suspension was prepared on-site and injected into the 50-ft deep, unconfined aquifer. Approximately 150 gallons of 0.2 g/L Fe-Pd (CMC = 0.1 wt%, Pd/Fe = 0.1 wt%) was gravity-fed through IW-1 over a 4-h period (Injection #1). One month later, another 150 gallons of 1.0 g/L Fe-Pd (CMC = 0.6 wt%, Pd/Fe = 0.1 wt%) was injected into IW-1 at an injection pressure <5 psi (Injection #2). When benchmarked against the tracer, approximately 37.4% and 70.0% of the injected Fe was detected in MW-1 during injection #1 and #2, respectively, confirming the soil mobility of the nanoparticles through the aquifer, and higher mobility of the particles was observed when the injection was performed under higher pressure. Rapid degradation of PCE and TCE was observed in both MW-1 and MW-2 following each injection, with the maximum degradation being observed during the first week of the injections. The chlorinated ethenes concentrations gradually returned to their pre-injection levels after approximately 2 weeks, indicating exhaustion of the ZVI's reducing power. However, the injection of CMC-stabilized nanoparticle and the abiotic reductive dechlorination process appeared to have boosted a long-term in situ biological dechlorination thereafter, which was evidenced by the fact that PCE and TCE concentrations showed further

  13. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis potential tce impact to the drinking water supply, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action to address potential trichloroethene (TCE) impact to drinking water supply wells, located in the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST009, otherwise known as the West Unit, at Galena Airport, Alaska. The information fron the RI Report is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives, in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  14. Development of an integrated in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 11 entitled: Evaluation of TCE contamination before and after the field experiment, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, B.M.; Athmer, C.J.; Sheridan, P.W.

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The present Topical Report for Task No. 11 summarizes the results of TCE analysis in soil and carbon before and after conducting the field experiment. In addition, a discussion of the TCE material balance demonstrates that the Lasagna{trademark} process is effective in moving TCE from the contaminated soil into carbon treatment zones in the field experiment at DOE`s Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky.

  15. Initial field test of High-Energy Corona process for treating a contaminated soil-offgas stream

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, R R; Garcia, R E; Jeffs, J T; Virden, J W; Heath, W O

    1995-04-01

    The High-Energy Corona (HEC) technology for treating process offgases has been under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) since 1991. The HEC process uses high-voltage electrical discharges in air to ionize the air, forming a low-temperature plasma that would be expected to destroy a wide variety of organic compounds in air. The plasma contains strong oxidants, possibly including hydroxyl radicals, hydroperoxy radicals, superoxide radicals, various excited as well as ionized forms of oxygen, high-energy electrons, and ultraviolet (UV) light. Because the high-voltage plasma is produced near ambient temperatures and pressures, yet exhibits extremely rapid destruction kinetics with relatively low power requirements, the HEC technique appears promising as a low-cost treatment technique (Virden et al. 1992). As part of the Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Nonarid Integrated Demonstration (ID) at the DOE Savannah River Site, research activities were initiated in December 1991 to develop a prototype HEC process for a small-scale field demonstration to treat a soil-offgas stream contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) at varying concentrations. Over an 18-month period, the HEC technology was developed on a fast track, through bench and pilot scales into a trailer-mounted system that was tested at the Nonarid ID. Other national laboratories, universities, and private companies have also participated at the Nonarid ID to demonstrate a number of conventional, emerging and innovative approaches for treating the same soil-offgas stream.

  16. Halocarbons in the environment: Estimates of thermodynamic properties for aqueous chloroethylene species and their stabilities in natural settings

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J.R.; Shock, E.L.

    1999-10-01

    Standard partial molal thermodynamic parameters for the aqueous chlorinated-ethylene species, perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-1,2-DCE), trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (trans-1,2-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) have been estimated by using experimental gas-solubility data and correlation algorithms. The provided thermodynamic values may be used to calculate properties of reactions involving the aqueous chloroethylene species at a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Estimated values for the chloroethylenes were used, along with published values for minerals, gases, aqueous ions, and aqueous neutral organic species, to calculate the stability of chloroethylene species in equilibrium with the minerals magnetite, hematite, pyrite, and pyrrhotite in the subsurface. Estimated values for the aqueous chloroethylenes were also used to calculate reduction potentials for microbially-mediated reductive dechlorination half-reactions at elevated temperatures. Calculations indicate that all aqueous chloroethylene species are energetically favored to decompose to ethylene(aq) under a wide range of conditions in the subsurface, by both abiotic and biotic pathways. Anaerobic microbially mediated degradation is especially favored under conditions at least sufficiently reducing to promote sulfate-reduction, but not under conditions sufficient for microbial denitrification, pyrolusite reduction, or ferric-iron reduction.

  17. Computer-aided analysis of a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Qualheim, B.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The groundwater investigation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was initiated in 1983 after perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) were detected in the groundwater. Since that time, more than 300 monitor wells have been completed, logged, sampled, and hydraulically tested. In 1987, the Livermore site was placed on the Environmental Protection Agency's National Priority List (Superfund). The Livermore valley is relatively flat, underlain by a complex alluvial sedimentary basin drained by two intermittent streams. The subsurface consists of unconsolidated sand, gravel, silt, and clay with multiple water-bearing zones of relatively high permeability. The hydrogeologic system is characterized as leaky, with horizontal hydraulic communication of up to 800 ft and vertical communication between aquifers of up to 50 ft. Computer-based analysis of the site stratigraphy was used to analyze and characterize the subsurface. The authors used a computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) system to create two-dimensional slices of the subsurface. The slice program takes a subsurface slice at any specified depositional gradient and at any slice thickness. A slice displays the lithology type, unit thickness, depth of slice, and chemical analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The lateral continuity of subsurface channels was mapped for each depth slice. By stacking these maps, the authors interpreted a pseudo-three-dimensional representation of probably pathways for VOC movement in the subsurface. An enhanced computer graphics system was also used to map the movement of VOCs in the subsurface.

  18. Estimation of pollutant partition in sandy soils with different water contents.

    PubMed

    Albergaria, José Tomás; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M; Delerue-Matos, Maria Cristina F

    2010-12-01

    The objectives of this work were: (1) to identify an isotherm model to relate the contaminant contents in the gas phase with those in the solid and non-aqueous liquid phases; (2) to develop a methodology for the estimation of the contaminant distribution in the different phases of the soil; and (3) to evaluate the influence of soil water content on the contaminant distribution in soil. For sandy soils with negligible contents of clay and natural organic matter, contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trichloroethylene (TCE), and perchloroethylene (PCE), it was concluded that: (1) Freundlich's model showed to be adequate to relate the contaminant contents in the gas phase with those in the solid and non-aqueous liquid phases; (2) the distribution of the contaminants in the different phases present in the soil could be estimated with differences lower than 10% for 83% of the cases; and (3) an increase of the soil water content led to a decrease of the amount of contaminant in the solid and non-aqueous liquid phases, increasing the amount in the other phases. PMID:20069453

  19. The state of permanganate with relation to in situ chemical oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Veronda, Brenda; Dingens, Matthew

    2007-07-01

    In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate had its beginnings over 10 years ago. Since that time, many sites have been successfully treated for organic compounds including chlorinated ethenes (perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, etc.) phenols, explosives such as RDX, and many other organics. The successful application of ISCO with permanganate requires the integration of many site-specific factors into the remedial design. ISCO with permanganate is an effective technology, not only for its oxidative properties and persistence, but also for its application flexibility to remediate soil and groundwater. The merits of any type of treatment technology can be assessed in terms of effectiveness, ease of use, reaction rate, and cost. The use of permanganate for in situ chemical oxidation results in the complete mineralization of TCE and PCE and can result in treatment levels below detection limits. Permanganate is a single component oxidizer, which is easily handled, mixed and distributed to the subsurface. Permanganate is also inexpensive to design and implement as compared to other technologies. This presentation will provide a general overview of the application and safety aspects of ISCO with permanganate. This paper will discuss the advantages and limitations of this technology, typical cost ranges, site evaluation and application technologies. (authors)

  20. Decontamination systems information and research program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    It is estimated that over 3700 hazardous waste sites are under the jurisdiction of the Department of Energy (DOE). These sites were primarily generated from 45 years worth of environmental pollution from the design and manufacture of nuclear materials and weapons, and contain numerous types of wastes including: (1) volatile, low-volatile and nonvolatile organics, (2) radionuclides (e.g., uranium, plutonium and cesium), (3) nonradioactive heavy metals (e.g., chromium, nickel, and lead), and (4) toxic chemicals. These contaminants affect several media including soils (saturated and unsaturated), groundwater, vegetation, and air. Numerous and diverse DOE hazardous waste sites can be enumerated from soils contaminated by organics such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) at the Savannah River site to biota and vegetation contaminated by radionuclides such as radiocesium and radiostrontium at the Oak Ridge site. Over the next 30 years, the Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to bringing all its facilities into compliance with applicable Federal, State, and local environmental laws and regulations. This clean-up task is quite complex involving numerous sites containing various radioactive, organic and inorganic contaminants. To perform this clean-up effort in the most efficient manner at each site will require that DOE managers have access to all available information on pertinent technologies; i.e., to aid in maximum technology transfer. The purpose of this effort is to systematically develop a databast of those currently available and emerging clean-up technologies.

  1. Decontamination systems information and research program. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    It is estimated that over 3700 hazardous waste sites are under the jurisdiction of the Department of Energy (DOE). These sites were primarily generated from 45 years worth of environmental pollution from the design and manufacture of nuclear materials and weapons, and contain numerous types of wastes including: (1) volatile, low-volatile and nonvolatile organics, (2) radionuclides (e.g., uranium, plutonium and cesium), (3) nonradioactive heavy metals (e.g., chromium, nickel, and lead), and (4) toxic chemicals. These contaminants affect several media including soils (saturated and unsaturated), groundwater, vegetation, and air. Numerous and diverse DOE hazardous waste sites can be enumerated from soils contaminated by organics such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) at the Savannah River site to biota and vegetation contaminated by radionuclides such as radiocesium and radiostrontium at the Oak Ridge site. Over the next 30 years, the Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to bringing all its facilities into compliance with applicable Federal, State, and local environmental laws and regulations. This clean-up task is quite complex involving numerous sites containing various radioactive, organic and inorganic contaminants. To perform this clean-up effort in the most efficient manner at each site will require that DOE managers have access to all available information on pertinent technologies; i.e., to aid in maximum technology transfer. The purpose of this effort is to systematically develop a databast of those currently available and emerging clean-up technologies.

  2. Interim report on testing of off-gas treatment technologies for abatement of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.; Jarosch, T.R.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.; Lombard, K.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results to date of the off-gas treatment program for atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program is part of the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development`s Integrated Demonstration for Treatment of Organics in Soil and Water at a Non-Arid Site. The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed. That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment program would complement the Integrated Demonstration not only because off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the US to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate systematic and unbiased evaluation of the emerging technologies.

  3. Halocarbons in the environment: estimates of thermodynamic properties for aqueous chloroethylene species and their stabilities in natural settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Johnson R.; Shock, Everett L.

    1999-10-01

    Standard partial molal thermodynamic parameters for the aqueous chlorinated-ethylene species, perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-1,2-DCE), trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (trans-1,2,-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) have been estimated by using experimental gas-solubility data and correlation algorithms. The provided thermodynamic values may be used to calculate properties of reactions involving the aqueous chloroethylene species at a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Estimated values for the chloroethylenes were used, along with published values for minerals, gases, aqueous ions, and aqueous neutral organic species, to calculate the stability of chloroethylene species in equilibrium with the minerals magnetite, hematite, pyrite, and pyrrhotite in the subsurface. Estimated values for the aqueous chloroethylenes were also used to calculate reduction potentials for microbially-mediated reductive dechlorination half-reactions at elevated temperatures. Calculations indicate that all aqueous chloroethylene species are energetically favored to decompose to ethylene(aq) under a wide range of conditions in the subsurface, by both abiotic and biotic pathways. Anaerobic microbially mediated degradation is especially favored under conditions at least sufficiently reducing to promote sulfate-reduction, but not under conditions sufficient for microbial denitrification, pyrolusite reduction, or ferric-iron reduction.

  4. SRS Data Report for Lynntech Soil Ozone Treatment Demonstration Adjacent to the 321-M Solvent Storage Tank Pad

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K.M.

    2000-08-29

    At large industrial sites like the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), undissolved dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in soil and groundwater is the most significant barrier to successful clean up. DNAPL acts as a reservoir that will continue to generate contaminant levels far above remediation concentration goals well into the future. In an effort to achieve remediation goals and reduce future costs, the SRS DNAPL program is evaluating technologies that will recycle or destroy DNAPL. In situ oxidation is one class of DNAPL destruction technologies. A demonstration of this class of technologies was conducted at SRS in the winter of 1999 and spring of 2000 employing ozone as the oxidant. Lynntech Inc. through a Small Business Innovative Research grant partnered with the Savannah River Site to demonstrate their soil ozone treatment technology. The Savannah River Site provided the demonstration location and field support of the test. This demonstration involved treating a small vadose zone DNAPL plume in the A/M Area over a 29 day period. Approximately 2000 pounds of DNAPL (perchloroethylene [PCE] and trichloroethylene [TCE]) were removed through the soil vapor extraction unit (SVEU). Soil core data indicate that approximately 300 pounds of DNAPL were removed from the test site. This report documents the data collected by SRS personnel during the demonstration of Lynntech's Soil Ozone Treatment Technology.

  5. Sensitive and Specific In-Situ Sensor for Monitoring Contaminated Water

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Yongzhai; Watson, David B; Whitten, William B; Li, Haiyang; Nazarov, Erkinjun; Xu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a high-sensitivity and high-specificity sensor, combining membrane extraction, pre-concentration, and gas-chromatographic differential mobility spectrometry (GC/DMS), for in situ detection of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water. Direct in-situ detection was achieved by membrane conversion of aqueous analyte to vapor, followed by vapor spectroscopy using GC/DMS analyzer. The limit of detection (LOD) reaches 0.37 parts per billion in volume (ppbv), or 0.54 ug/L, for aqueous trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1.6 ug/L for perchloroethylene (PCE) by incorporating a preconcentrator between the membrane extraction and GC/DMS detection systems. The high specificity was achieved using two-dimensional separation parameters of GC retention time and DMS compensation voltage. The presence of co-contaminants and foreign contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, CCl4, and CHCl3 did not interfere with the identification of chlorinated hydrocarbons. This highly-sensitive and -specific sensor paves the way for developing field-deployable sensors for in-situ and real-time monitoring of chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater and surface water.

  6. Field test of six-phase soil heating at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Roberts, J.S.; Bergsman, T.M.

    1994-11-01

    Six-Phase Soil Heating (SPSH) was demonstrated as a viable technology for heating low permeability soils containing volatile organic contaminants as part of the Volatile Organic Compounds in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VOC Non-Arid ID) at the Savannah River Site. The soil at the integrated demonstration site is contaminated with perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE); the highest soil contamination occurs in clay rich zones that are ineffectively treated by conventional soil vapor extraction due to the very low permeability of the clay. The SPSH demonstration sought to heat the clay zone and enhance the performance of conventional soil vapor extraction. Thermocouples at 30 locations quantified the areal and vertical heating within the treated zone. Results show successful heating of the targeted clay zone that contained the higher levels of soil contamination. The clay-zone temperatures increased to 1,000 C after 8 days of heating and were maintained near 1,000 C for 17 days. Electrical heating removed 17,000 gal of water from the soil as steam, with peak removal rate of 1,500 gpd of condensed steam.

  7. Variations of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in ambient air at industrial areas in Niigata

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, K.; Mukai, H.; Tanabe, H.; Yasuhara, A.

    1996-07-01

    Typical volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform, MCF), and trichloroethane (trichloroethylene, TCE) are used as degreasers or cleaners at electrical plants and metalworks; tetrachloroethane (perchloroethylene, PCE) as well as MCF is representative solve-its for dry cleaning. Tetrachloromethane (perchloromethane, PCM) utilized as material for chemicals. Some amounts of VCHs are lost in the process and are introduced to the environment by some routes. In particular, direct exhaust of VCHs into air is one of the most serious routes; 60 to 90 percents of the VCHs used at some metalworks and relative factories were estimated to be emitted into air. Previously reported were the concentration levels of the VCHs in ambient air at some areas the atmospheric VCH concentrations at industrial areas were affected with some factories which used the VCHs, whereas those at a suburban area were lower than those at industrial regions. Furthermore, they were higher in winter season than in summer season, which might be caused by -meteorological factors. In this paper, aerial variations of VCH concentrations during two to five years at three individual industrial areas (i.e., a metalware and houseware manufacturing area, a textile and dyeing industrial area and a chemical engineering area) are presented. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Chlorinated degreasing solvents: Physical-chemical properties affecting aquifer contamination and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.E.; Dwarakanath, V.

    1999-09-30

    Chlorinated degreasing solvents are multicomponent liquids containing not only the chlorinated hydrocarbons with which their name is associated (e.g., trichloroethylene or [TCE], perchloroethylene or [PCE], 1,1,1-trichloroethane [TCA]) but also a number of organic additives included as corrosion inhibitors and antioxidants. The additives, such as 1,4-dioxane, are likely to be of significant public-health importance as ground water contaminants due to their toxicity, solubility, and mobility. Following their use in vapor degreasing systems by industry, chlorinated degreasing solvents will also contain about 25% solubilized oil and grease. A number of physical-chemical properties become especially important in the light of the multicomponent nature of these solvents. First, the higher aqueous solubility and lower sorption of the additives makes it reasonable to expect that faster moving plumes of these solvent additives will precede plumes of the chlorinated hydrocarbons. Second, due to high losses of chlorinated hydrocarbons by volatilization from vapor degreasers during years in the middle of the century, it is probable that background concentrations of these hydrocarbons are present in ground water flow systems due to their downwind washout. Finally, the solubilized oil and grease may cause profound changes to the wettability of aquifer materials contacted by the solvents during their subsurface migration. It is argued, therefore, that the wettability of aquifer materials contaminated by chlorinated degreasing solvents needs to be experimentally determined before remediation of DNAPL at each site, rather than being simply assumed as water wet.

  9. Estimating risk during showering exposure to VOCs of workers in a metal-degreasing facility.

    PubMed

    Franco, Amaya; Costoya, Miguel Angel; Roca, Enrique

    2007-04-01

    The incremental risk of workers in a metal-degreasing facility exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the water supply during showering was estimated. A probabilistic and worst-case approach using specific-site concentration data and a generalized multipathway exposure model was applied. Estimates of hazard index and lifetime cancer risk were analyzed for each chemical and each route of exposure (inhalation and dermal absorption). The results showed that dermal exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) represented the main contribution to total risk. Although the inhalation route did not produce significant exposure, it was mainly influenced by the liquid flow rate of the shower. Lower values of this parameter during showering resulted in a significant reduction of both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risk, while decreasing water temperature produced a minimal effect on exposure by this pathway. The results obtained in the present study indicated that significant exposures of workers may be produced during showering in metal degreasing installations where releases to water of VOCs occur. A sensitivity analysis was developed for investigating the effect of scenario parameters on exposure. Although site-specific data were employed, the exposure of workers was assessed in a model scenario and thus the quantification of risk is associated with uncertainty. Considering that occupational exposure to organic solvents of workers in metal-degreasing facilities may also be significant, risk assessment must be included in the planning of this kind of industrial installation. PMID:17365617

  10. Desorption Behavior of Trichloroethene and Tetrachloroethene in U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site Unconfined Aquifer Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert G.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2006-06-21

    The DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating the potential applicability of the monitored natural attenuation (MNA) process as a contributor to the understanding of the restoration of its unconfined groundwater aquifer known to be contaminated with the chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). This report discusses the results from aqueous desorption experiments on SRS aquifer sediments from two different locations at the SRS (A/M Area; P-Area) with the objective of providing technically defensible TCE/PCE distribution coefficient (Kd) data and data on TCE/PCE reversible and irreversible sorption behavior needed for further MNA evaluation.

  11. Mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers

    PubMed Central

    Boice, J. D.; Marano, D. E.; Fryzek, J. P.; Sadler, C. J.; McLaughlin, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing and potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and mixed solvents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of workers employed for at least 1 year at a large aircraft manufacturing facility in California on or after 1 January 1960. The mortality experience of these workers was determined by examination of national, state, and company records to the end of 1996. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were evaluated comparing the observed numbers of deaths among workers with those expected in the general population adjusting for age, sex, race, and calendar year. The SMRs for 40 cause of death categories were computed for the total cohort and for subgroups defined by sex, race, position in the factory, work duration, year of first employment, latency, and broad occupational groups. Factory job titles were classified as to likely use of chemicals, and internal Poisson regression analyses were used to compute mortality risk ratios for categories of years of exposure to chromate, TCE, PCE, and mixed solvents, with unexposed factory workers serving as referents. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 77,965 workers who accrued nearly 1.9 million person-years of follow up (mean 24.2 years). Mortality follow up, estimated as 99% complete, showed that 20,236 workers had died by 31 December 1996, with cause of death obtained for 98%. Workers experienced low overall mortality (all causes of death SMR 0.83) and low cancer mortality (SMR 0.90). No significant increases in risk were found for any of the 40 specific cause of death categories, whereas for several causes the numbers of deaths were significantly below expectation. Analyses by occupational group and specific job titles showed no remarkable mortality patterns. Factory workers estimated to have been routinely exposed to chromate were

  12. RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIOLOGY OF CHLORINATED ETHENE CONTAMINATED SOILS: EFFECTS ON PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID CONTENT

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R. L.; Stanhopc, A.; Franck, M. M.; McKinsey, P. C.; Berry, C. J.

    2005-05-26

    Microbial degradation of chlorinated ethenes (CE) in rhizosphere soils was investigated at seepline areas impacted by CE plumes. Successful bioremediation of CE in rhizosphere soils is dependent on microbial activity, soil types, plant species, and groundwater CE concentrations. Seepline soils were exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) in the 10-50 ppb range. Greenhouse soils were exposed to 2-10 ppm TCE. Plants at the seepline were poplar and pine while the greenhouse contained sweet gum, willow, pine, and poplar. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses were performed to assess the microbial activity in rhizosphere soils. Biomass content was lowest in the nonvegetated control soil and highest in the Sweet Gum soil. Bacterial rhizhosphere densities, as measured by PLFA, were similar in different vegetated soils while fungi biomass was highly variable. The PLFA soil profiles showed diverse microbial communities primarily composed of Gram-negative bacteria. Adaptation of the microbial community to CE was determined by the ratio of {omega}7t/{omega}7c fatty acids. Ratios (16:1{omega}7v16:1{omega}7c and 18:l{omega}7t/18:1{omega}7c) greater than 0.1 were demonstrated in soils exposed to higher CE concentrations (10-50 ppm), indicating an adaptation to CE resulting in decreased membrane permeability. Ratios of cyclopropyl fatty acids showed that the vegetated control soil sample contained the fastest microbial turnover rate and least amount of environmental stress. PLFA results provide evidence that sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are active in these soils. Microcosm studies with these soils showed CE dechlorinating activity was occurring. This study demonstrates microbial adaptation to environmental contamination and supports the application of natural soil rhizosphere activity as a remedial strategy.

  13. Green remediation: enhanced reductive dechlorination using recycled rinse water as bioremediation substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Gaynor; McKeon, Tom

    2007-07-01

    Enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) has rapidly become a remedy of choice for use on chlorinated solvent contamination when site conditions allow. With this approach, solutions of an organic substrate are injected into the affected aquifer to stimulate biological growth and the resultant production of reducing conditions in the target zone. Under the reducing conditions, hydrogen is produced and ultimately replaces chlorine atoms on the contaminant molecule causing sequential dechlorination. Under suitable conditions the process continues until the parent hydrocarbon precursor is produced, such as the complete dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) to ethene. The process is optimized by use of a substrate that maximizes hydrogen production per unit cost. When natural biota are not present to promote the desired degradation, inoculates can be added with the substrate. The in-situ method both reduces cost and accelerates cleanup. Successful applications have been extended from the most common chlorinated compounds perchloroethylene (PCE) and TCE and related products of degradation, to perchlorate, and even explosives such as RDX and trinitrotoluene on which nitrates are attacked in lieu of chloride. In recent work, the process has been further improved through use of beverage industry wastewaters that are available at little or no cost. With material cost removed from the equation, applications can maximize the substrate loading without significantly increasing total cost. The extra substrate loading both accelerates reaction rates and extends the period of time over which reducing conditions are maintained. In some cases, the presence of other organic matter in addition to simple sugars provides for longer performance times of individual injections, thereby working in a fashion similar to emulsified vegetable oil. The paper discusses results of applications at three different sites contaminated with chlorinated ethylenes. The applications have included

  14. Innovative Technologies And Vadose Zone Treatment Of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds - Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    NOONKESTER, JAY V.; NICHOLS, RALPH L.; DIXON, KENETH L.

    2005-08-02

    Over the last 10 years a mix of innovative and conventional characterization techniques has been used to assess the contamination of vadose zone sediments beneath the pilot-scale test facility known as TNX at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. Shallow soils and groundwater beneath the TNX facility are contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), perchloroethylene (PCE), and chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}). An interim pump and treat remediation system was placed in operation in 1996 to provide hydraulic containment of groundwater containing greater than 500 ug/L dissolved TCE. In 1994, a vadose zone study was initiated to determine the degree and extent of CVOC contamination above the contaminated groundwater. Headspace sampling and analysis, acoustic infrared spectroscopy, cone penetrometry, and vadose zone pumping tests were used to determine contaminant concentrations and physical properties related to soil vapor extraction. In 2001, soil vapor extraction (SVE), a presumptive remedy for CVOCs in soils similar to those present beneath TNX, was selected to treat the CVOC contamination. Cone Penetrometer Testing (CPT) with soil vapor sampling provided a detailed understanding of the subsurface geology and CVOC distribution which was essential for proper well design and placement. Twelve SVE wells were installed using direct push technology (DPT) and were tested to determine specific capacity and CVOC concentrations. This information was then used to develop a strategy for operating the SVE system. Based on the results of the baseline testing and previous studies, sets of 2 to 3 extraction wells will be treated using SVE at one month intervals. This will allow continuous operation of the SVE system and give individual wells up to 3 months for rebound between treatments. This method of operation is intended to maximize contaminant recovery from individual wells and reduce the

  15. Transformation and carbon isotope fractionation of tetra- and trichloroethene to trans-dichloroethene by Dehalococcoides sp. strain CBDB1.

    PubMed

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Adrian, Lorenz

    2011-02-15

    Dehalococcoides sp. strain CBDB1 reductively dechlorinated perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) to predominantly trans-1,2-dichloroethene (trans-DCE). Cell counting by direct microscopy showed that strain CBDB1 used PCE and TCE as electron acceptors for respiratory growth obtaining a growth yield of 3.9 × 10(12) cells per mol of chloride released in both cases. PCE and TCE were dechlorinated to trans- and cis-DCE at an average constant ratio of 3.4 (±0.2):1, which is consistent with the ratios found in several trans-DCE-producing sediments and soils containing uncultured Dehalococcoides-like species. Significant carbon isotope fractionation was observed during PCE and TCE reductive dehalogenation. The enrichment factor of TCE (εC = -11.2) was within the range of previously reported values for TCE dechlorination by other Dehalococcoides species although the tceA gene responsible for ethene generation in the latter cultures was absent in strain CBDB1. On the contrary, the enrichment factor of PCE (εC = -1.6) was 3.8-times lower than that obtained for Dehalococcoides sp. strain 195 although both strains shared a high similarity in the pceA gene responsible for PCE dechlorination in strain 195. In addition, the product-related enrichment factors for TCE dehalogenation were calculated based on product isotope signature of the two accumulated products cis-DCE (εC TCE→cis-DCE = -11.0) and trans-DCE (εC TCE→trans-DCE = -15.9). These results are of particular interest since strain CBDB1 constitutes, together with the recent isolated strain MB, the unique Dehalococcoides species unable to dechlorinate PCE and TCE beyond DCE. PMID:21214238

  16. Variability in microbial carbon isotope fractionation of tetra- and trichloroethene upon reductive dechlorination.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Danuta; Imfeld, Gwenaël; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nijenhuis, Ivonne

    2008-03-01

    The variability of stable carbon isotope fractionation upon reductive dechlorination of tetra- and trichloroethene by several microbial strains was investigated to examine the uncertainties related to the in situ application of compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of chlorinated ethenes. Carbon isotope fractionation was investigated with a set of microorganisms representative for the currently known diversity of dehalorespirers: Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195, Desulfitobacterium sp. strain Viet1, Desulfuromonas michiganensis and Geobacter lovleyi sp. strain SZ and compared to the previous reports using Sulfurospirillum spp. and Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE-S. Carbon isotope fractionation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichlorethene (TCE) was highly variable ranging from the absence of significant fractionation to carbon isotope fractionation (epsilonC) of 16.7 and 3.5-18.9 for PCE and TCE, respectively. Fractionation of both compounds by D. ethenogenes strain 195 (PCE: epsilonC=6.0; TCE: epsilonC=13.7) was similar to the literature data for mixed cultures containing Dehalococcoides spp. D. michiganensis (PCE: no significant fractionation; TCE: epsilonC=3.5) and G. lovleyi sp. strain SZ (PCE no significant fractionation; TCE: epsilonC=8.5) generated the lowest fractionation of all studied strains. Desulfitobacterium sp. strain Viet1 (PCE: epsilonC=16.7) gave the highest enrichment factor for PCE. PMID:18155126

  17. Degradation of Environmental Contaminants with Water-Soluble Cobalt Catalysts: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Alexandra L.; Messersmith, Reid E.; Green, David B.; Fritsch, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    We present an integrative laboratory investigation incorporating skills from inorganic chemistry, analytical instrumentation, and physical chemistry applied to a laboratory-scale model of the environmental problem of chlorinated ethylenes in groundwater. Perchloroethylene (C[subscript 2]Cl[subscript 4], PCE) a common dry cleaning solvent,…

  18. CONTROLLED RELEASE, BLIND TEST OF DNAPL REMEDIATION BY ETHANOL FLUSHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone was established within a sheet-pile
    isolated cell through a controlled release of perchloroethylene (PCE) to evaluate DNAPL
    remediation by in-situ cosolvent flushing. Ethanol was used as the cosolvent, and the main remedia...

  19. 40 CFR 63.323 - Test methods and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods and monitoring. 63.323... Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities § 63.323 Test methods and monitoring. (a) When... exhaust of the carbon adsorber weekly with a colorimetric detector tube or PCE gas analyzer....

  20. 40 CFR 63.323 - Test methods and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods and monitoring. 63.323... Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities § 63.323 Test methods and monitoring. (a) When... exhaust of the carbon adsorber weekly with a colorimetric detector tube or PCE gas analyzer....

  1. EFFECTS OF FOUR TRIHALOMETHANES ON DNA STRAND BREAKS, RENAL HYALINE DROPLET FORMATION AND SERUM TESTOSTERONE IN MALE F-344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    All four possible trihalomethanes (THMs) containing bromine and chlorine, as well as perchloroethylene (PCE), were evaluated for their ability to produce DNA strand breaks, a2u-globulin rich renal deposits, and testosterone changes in male F-344 rats. Rats received daily equimola...

  2. IN-PLACE REGENERATION OF SVE LOADED GAC USING FENTON'S REAGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten out of the 25 most frequently detected groundwater contaminants at hazardous waste sites are chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 1. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are among the top three 1. Granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption is widel...

  3. IN-PLACE REGENERATION OF SVE LOADED GAC USING FENTON'S REAGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten out of the 25 most frequently detected groundwater contaminants at hazardous waste sites are chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 1 . Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are among the top three 1 . Granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption is w...

  4. MICROEMULSION OF MIXED CHLORINATED SOLVENTS USING FOOD GRADE (EDIBLE) SURFACTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water contamination frequently consists of mixed chlorinated solvents [e.g., tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and trans-1,2- dichloroethylene (DCE)]. In this research, mixtures of the food grade (edible) surfactants bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinat...

  5. BIODEGRADATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS: REACTIONS NEAR DNAPL AND ENZYME FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorinated solvents are among the most common organic chemical groundwater contaminants at DOE sites, as well as at DOD and industrial facilities. Included are the solvents trichloroethene (TCE), tetrachloroethene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CT). Commonly these contaminan...

  6. Applications of Monitored Natural Attenuation in the USA (Abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is widely applied in the USA to control the risk associated with ground water contamination from chlorinated solvents such a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). MNA relies on the natural processes of degradation, sorption an...

  7. Applications of Monitored Natural Attenuation in the USA (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is widely applied in the USA to control the risk associated with ground water contamination from chlorinated solvents such a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). MNA relies on the natural processes of degradation, sorption an...

  8. MICROBIAL UTILIZATION OF VADOSE ZONE ORGANIC CARBON FOR REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF TETRACHLOROETHENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aqueous extracts from a calcareous spodosol were used as the primary substrate to study the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE). A comparison was made between extracts obtained using pure water and water saturated with trichloroethene (TCE). The latter solutions w...

  9. DETERMINATION OF CHLOROETHENES IN ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH SOLID PHASE MICRO EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method has been developed to determine the chloroethene series, tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE),cisdichloroethene (cis-DCE) andtransdichloroethene (trans-DCE) in environmental biotreatment studies using gas chromatography coupled with a solid phase mi...

  10. Health assessment for Grand Traverse Overall Supply Company, Leelanau County, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID017418559. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-10

    The Grand Traverse Overall Supply Company (GTOS) is on the National Priorities List. GTOS is a commercial laundering facility. GTOS has been identified as the generator of PCE and TCE contamination in the ground water, soil, and surface waters. Residential wells showed a maximum of 860 parts per billion (ppb) PCE and 705 ppb TCE. Levels of PCE and TCE have also been found in the soil. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health that could result from possible exposure to hazardous substances at levels that may result in adverse health effects over time. Human exposure to PCE and TCE may have occurred primarily via ingestion of contaminated ground water.

  11. MECHANISMS, CHEMISTRY, AND KINECTICS OF ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF CIS-DICHLOROETHENE AND VINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chlorinated solvents, trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE) have been widelyused by industry, the Department of Defense, and the Department of Energy for cleaning engines, clothes, and electronic components. Through leakage and improper disposal practices,these ...

  12. Promising Emerging Mechanisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most applications of enhanced in situ bioremediation are based on biological reductive dechlorination. Anaerobic metabolism can also produce reactive minerals that allow for in situ biogeochemical transformation of chlorinated organic contaminants such as PCE, TCE, and cis-DCE. ...

  13. ENHANCED SOURCE REMOVAL OF NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUID CONTAMINANTS BY CHEMICAL-BASED FLOODING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as gasoline and halogenated solvents (trichloroethylene (TCE) and teterachloroethylene (PCE), etc) enter the subsurface after a spill, or from leaking underground storage tanks. The presence of residual dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) ...

  14. Contributions of Fe Minerals to Abiotic Dechlorination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most applications of enhanced in situ bioremediation are based on biological reductive dechlorination. Anaerobic metabolism can also produce reactive minerals that allow for in situ biogeochemical transformation of chlorinated organic contaminants such as PCE, TCE, and cis-DCE. ...

  15. In-situ biodegradation of tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene in contaminated aquifers monitored by stable isotope fractionation.

    PubMed

    Vieth, A; Müller, J; Strauch, G; Kästner, M; Gehre, M; Meckenstock, R U; Richnow, H H

    2003-06-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) was applied to evaluatenatural attenuation processes in the upper Quaternary and lower Tertiary aquifer in the area of a former dry-cleaning plant located in Leipzig, Germany. Groundwater samples were taken during one monitoring campaign in 2001. The 13C enrichment in contaminants along the water flow path suggested that both, PCE and TCE were degraded in the Quaternary aquifer. The enrichment of 13C in the residual PCE fraction and an isotope fractionation factor from laboratory experiments were used to calculate the extent of biodegradation in the Quatemary aquifer. These calculations indicated that a major portion of PCE was biodegraded in the course of the plume. In the Tertiary aquifer the carbon isotope ratios of PCE and TCE indicated that the decreasing concentrations of these contaminants were probably not caused by microbial processes. PMID:12872803

  16. Transformation of tetrachloroethylene to trichloroethylene by homoacetogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Terzenbach, D P; Blaut, M

    1994-10-15

    Eight homoacetogenic strains of the genera Acetobacterium, Clostridium and Sporomusa were tested for their ability to dechlorinate tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethene, PCE). Of the organisms tested only Sporomusa ovata was able to reductively dechlorinate PCE with methanol as an electron donor. Resting cells of S. ovata reductively dechlorinated PCE at a rate of 9.8 nmol h-1 (mg protein)-1 to trichloroethylene (TCE) as the sole product. The dechlorination activity depended on concomitant acetogenesis from methanol and CO2. Cell-free extracts of S. ovata, Clostridium formicoaceticum, Acetobacterium woodii, and the methanogenic bacterium Methanolobus tindarius transformed PCE to TCE with Ti(III) or carbon monoxide as electron donors. Corrinoids were shown in S. ovata to be involved in the dechlorination reaction of PCE to TCE as evident from the reversible inhibition with propyl iodide. Rates of dechlorination followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic. PMID:7988892

  17. Anaerobic biotransformation of trichlorofluoroethene in groundwater microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Vancheeswaran, S.; Semprini, L. . Dept. of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering); Hyman, M.R. . Dept. of Microbiology)

    1999-06-15

    The biological reduction of trichlorofluoroethene (TCFE) was investigated in anaerobic groundwater microcosms. TCFE was reductively dehalogenated by microorganisms to produce three dichlorofluoroethene isomers, with cis-1,2-dichlorofluoroethene (c-DCFE) being the main isomer formed. Further sequential biological transformation of these compounds to mono-chlorofluoroethene isomers was incomplete and occurred at much slower rates. The rates of TCFE reduction were compared to the rates of reduction of two common chlorinated solvents, perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), when present at similar concentrations. Aqueous concentrations ranged from 7.0 to 14.0 mg/L for TCFE and from 7.5 to 15.0 mg/L for PCE and TCE. Similar rates of PCE and TCE transformation relative to TCFE were observed in single-compound tests (PCE, TCE, and TCFE in separate microcosms) and when the contaminants were present together as mixtures in the microcosms. The close similarities between the time course and kinetics of TCFE degradation and the degradation of both PCE and TCE, when present at comparable initial concentrations, suggest that TCFE could potentially be used as a benign reactive tracer to measure in-situ rates of PCE and TCE transformation in contaminated environments.

  18. Monitoring the decontamination of a site polluted by DNAPLs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audí-Miró, C.; Espinola, R.; Torrentó, C.; Otero, N.; Rossi, A.; Palau, J.; Soler, A.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to monitor the decontamination of a site polluted by DNAPLs coming from an automotive industry. The contamination was caused by the poor management of the waste generated by the industrial activity, which was discharged into a seepage pit. As a result, soil contamination was produced in the seepage pit area and a plume of DNAPLs-contaminated groundwater was generated. To recover the original environmental quality, a dual action was proposed: in the first place, the removal of the source of contamination and in the second one, the treatment of the DNAPLs plume. The elimination of the source of contamination consisted on a selective excavation of the seepage pit and an offsite management of the contaminated land. To restore the groundwater quality, a passive treatment system using a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) of zero valent iron (ZVI) was implemented. In order to determine the efficiency of the remediation actions, a chemical, isotopic and hydrogeological control of the main solvents detected in groundwater (perchloroethylene -PCE-, trichloroethene -TCE- and cis-dichloroethylene -cis-DCE-) has been established. Results show a decrease in PCE concentration that has been attributed to the removal of the source more than to a degradation process. However, the presence of PCE by-products, TCE and cis-DCE, might indicate a possible PCE biotic degradation. δ13CPCE values analyzed upstream and downstream of the barrier don't show isotopic changes associated to the PRB (values are around -20‰ in all the sampling points). TCE might have experienced a natural advanced degradation process according to the high concentration of cis-DCE found prior the installation of the PRB and the isotopic enrichment in δ13CTCE in some specific areas of the plume (-19.9‰ in the source and -16‰ before the barrier). Slight isotopic changes have been observed in the water flow in a far distance after the barrier (-15.4‰). δ13Ccis-DCE experienced an

  19. Methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage sites. Semiannual progress report, April 1, 1988--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hadden, C.T.; Benson, S.B.; Osborne, T.R.; Revis, N.W.

    1988-12-31

    Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a persistent environmental contaminant whose chemical stability and hydrophobicity have made it difficult to remove from contaminated groundwater. PCE is also toxic and has been implicated as a carcinogen. This study was aimed at assessing methods for biological degradation of PCE. As a part of the study, the authors have characterized possible products of the degradation of PCE, and have determined the effects of detergents and solvents on the water solubility of PCE and on the toxic effects of PCE on bacteria. The authors have also isolated PCE-resistant microorganisms from monitoring wells at Y-12. To date all of the PCE-resistant bacteria isolated from the monitoring wells have been of the genus Bacillus. One of these isolates appears to be able to degrade PCE, as indicated by the disappearance of PCE from cultures of growing cells. The organism does not grow on PCE as the sole carbon source, so degradation of the solvent must occur by cometabolism.

  20. Charge to the Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) Neurotoxicity Expert Panel

    EPA Science Inventory

    Today NCEA is posting the charge which will be discussed at the expert panel meeting on neurotoxicity issues associated with exposure to tetrachlroroethylene. This charge is to be the main agenda topic for the meeting. The time and place of the meeting will be announced in a fu...

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of tetrachloroethylene that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that science is used credibly and ...

  2. 77 FR 40318 - Availability of Addendum to Documentation Supporting the Proposal of the Leeds Metal Site to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... at proposal (see 76 FR 57702, September 16, 2011). Background on TCE and PCE Benchmarks and Toxicity... data review by the EPA at the time of proposal (76 FR 57702, September 16, 2011). The targets factor... trichloroethylene (TCE) attributable to waste piles and contaminated soil at the Leeds Metal facility resulting in...

  3. Demonstration and evaluation of the pulsed ultraviolet-irradiation gas-treatment system, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.; Wilkey, M.; Peters, R.; Tomczyk, N.; Friedlund, J.; Farber, P.; Mass, B.; Haag, W.

    1994-10-01

    Argonne National Laboratory was asked to demonstrate and evaluate a pulsed ultraviolet-irradiation system developed by Purus, Inc., at the Volatile Organic Compounds Non-Arid Integrated Demonstration at the Savannah River Site near aiken, South Carolina. The Purus system consists of four reactor chambers, each containing a xenon flash lamp. During the two weeks of testing, samples were taken and analyzed from the inlet and outlet sides of the Purus system. The contaminants of concern on the inlet were tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA); the contaminants of concern on the outlet were PCE, TCE, TCA, carbon tetrachloride (CT), and chloroform. The evaluation of the Purus system included an examination of the reduction of both TCE and PCE and a search for any change in the concentrations. (Operating conditions included flow rates, ranging from 25 to 100 standard cubic feet per minute; inlet concentration of PCE, ranging from 360 to 10,700 parts per million volume; and flash lamp rates, ranging from 1 to 30 hertz.) The Purus system was quite efficient at reducing the concentrations of both PCE and TCE. The potential by-products, TCA, CT, and chloroform, showed no significant increases throughout the range of the various operating parameters. Overall, the Purus system appears to be a cost-efficient means of reducing the concentrations of PCE and TCE, while the removal of the initial photo-oxidation products and TCA is slower and needs further evaluation.

  4. Characterization of Hydrogenase and Reductive Dehalogenase Activities of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes Strain 195

    PubMed Central

    Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Zinder, Stephen H.

    2005-01-01

    Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 reductively dechlorinates tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) to vinyl chloride and ethene using H2 as an electron donor. PCE- and TCE-reductive dehalogenase (RD) activities were mainly membrane associated, whereas only about 20% of the hydrogenase activity was membrane associated. Experiments with methyl viologen (MV) were consistent with a periplasmic location for the RDs or a component feeding electrons to them. The protonophore uncoupler tetrachlorosalicylanilide did not inhibit reductive dechlorination in cells incubated with H2 and PCE and partially restored activity in cells incubated with the ATPase inhibitor N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Benzyl viologen or diquat (Eo′ ≈ −360 mV) supported reductive dechlorination of PCE or TCE at rates comparable to MV (−450 mV) in cell extracts. PMID:15746376

  5. DNAPLs at DOE sites: Background and assessment of characterization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Junk, G.A.; Haas, W.J. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    The Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program (CMST-IP) within the Office of Technology Development (OTD) has responsibility for identification, evaluation, and delivery of technologies needed for the work of the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. This report addresses part of that responsibility by providing summary information on DNAPL site characterization. A dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) is a source of contamination that can persist in the subsurface for decades before dissipating completely into the vapor phase and groundwater. The DNAPL chemicals of particular concern to the DOE are chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl VOCS) such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), trichloroethylene (TCE), and perchloroethylene (PCE). These Cl VOCs were used in multiple ton quantities at DOE sites and were often released to the subsurface. The predicted fate of released Cl VOC liquid is downward movement through the soil under the force of gravity. As it moves, some of the Cl VOC liquid becomes trapped in the soil pores as residual saturation. The liquid also moves rapidly downward if small fractures are present. This migration continues until an impermeable or semi-permeable layer is encountered. Then lateral movement or spreading occurs. The downward and lateral migration in the subsurface leads to DNAPL pools, lenses, and residual saturation that can cause long-term contamination of groundwater at levels well above drinking water standards. Although Cl VOCs have been detected as dissolved components in the groundwater and as vapor in the soil gas at several DOE sites, direct evidence of their presence as DNAPL is sparse and no measurements of the amounts of DNAPL present within a given volume of subsurface have been made. Consequently, unresolved DNAPL issues exist at DOE sites.

  6. Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.E.; Londergan, J.T.; Pickens, J.F.

    1995-10-01

    Many DOE facilities are situated in areas of sand and gravel which have become polluted with dense, non-aqueous phase liquids or DNAPLs, such as chlorinated solvents, from the various industrial operations at these facilities. The presence of such DNAPLs in sand and gravel aquifers is now recognized as the principal factor in the failure of standard ground-water remediation methods. The principal objective of this study, as stated in the Statement of Work of the contract (DE-AC21-92MC29111), is to demonstrate that multi-component DNAPLs can be readily solubilized in sand and gravel aquifers by dilute surfactant solutions. The specific objectives of the contract are: to identify dilute surfactants or blends of surfactants in the laboratory that will efficiently extract multi-component DNAPLs from sand and gravel aquifers by micellar solubilization (Phase 1); 2. to test the efficacy of the identified surfactants or blends of surfactants to solubilize in situ perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) DNAPLs by the injection and the subsequent extraction through an existing well or wells at a government-owned contaminated site (Phase 1); and 3. to demonstrate the full-scale operation of this remedial technology at a government-owned contaminated site (Phase 2). Specific objective number 1 has been completed and reported to DOE. However, the results of the test referred to in specific objective number 2, conducted at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in 1994, were inconclusive. Following this first test, it was decided by DOE and INTERA to move the test site elsewhere due to difficulties with obtaining core samples of the sand and gravel aquifer containing the DNAPL and with ascertaining the location of the DNAPL relative to the injection well. The solubilization test at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) will constitute the second test of Phase 1 of this contract.

  7. Removing hexavalent chromium from subsurface waters with anion-exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Some subsurface waters at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is also present in the ground water; however, the source of the Cr(VI) may be natural. The Cr(VI) still must be treated if brought to the surface because its concentration exceeds discharge standards. We are planning facilities for removing the VOCs and Cr(VI) to a level below the discharge standards. The planned treatment includes the following steps: (1) Pumping the water to the surface facility. (2) Purging the VOCs with air and absorbing them on activated carbon. The VOCs in LLNL`s subsurface waters are primarily chlorinated organic solvents, such as dichloroethylene (DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}). Contamination levels range from tens to thousands of parts per billion. (3) Filtering the water. (4) Passing the water through anion-exchange resin to remove the Cr. The Cr in LLNL subsurface waters occurs almost entirely as Cr(VI), which exists as the chromate anion, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, at environmental pH. Cr levels range from tens to hundreds of parts per billion. (5) Discharging the treated water into the local arroyos. The relevant discharge criteria are 5 ppb total VOCs, 11 ppb Cr(VI), and pH between 6.5 and 8.5, inclusive. This report describes laboratory experiments undertaken to learn how the proposed treatment facility can be expected to operate. The laboratory results are expected to supply vendors with the detailed performance specifications needed to prepare bids on the Cr removal portion of the treatment facility. The treatment facility is expected to process 60 gallons per minute (gpm) of water by stripping VOCs with 720 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) of air and removing Cr(VI) with 60 ft{sup 3} of resin.

  8. Development of compound-specific isotope analysis of stable chlorine in sub-µmol quantities of chlorinated organic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmstrand, H.; Andersson, P.; Gustafsson, O.

    2003-04-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons is a common class of substances known to be of high ecotoxicity largely due to their persistence and strongly lipophilic properties. This group of chemicals include the semivolatile compounds dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which, together with solvents like trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE), are globally present at detectable levels in all natural environments. Recent reports on the possibility of enzymatic synthesis of chlorinated dioxins and furans, illustrate the need for means to distinguish the naturally produced contribution from anthropogenic input to the environment. Shifts in the chlorine isotope composition due to degradation, or synthesis, of a compound are in the order of a few per mil of the initial isotope ratio. The cause of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) arises from differences in preferential phase distribution of isotopic species. Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of stable chlorine should accordingly provide knowledge relevant to degradation rates, distribution patterns and reaction pathways for organochlorines. Isotope analysis of chlorine, derived from chlorinated hydrocarbons, can be performed using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) with positive ions. This lowers the limit of determination from about 30 μmol Cl for conventional electron ionisation mass spectrometry (EIMS), to less than 0.3 μmol Cl with a precision of 0.25 ppm (1s) for TIMS. Such a decrease by a factor 100 in the requirements of sample size will enable CSIA of sediment samples collected away from the immediate vicinity of strongly contaminated areas. The aim of this study is to develop a functioning sequence for i) sealed tube combustion with CuO of solid phase chlorinated hydrocarbons equivalent to <0.7 μmol Cl, ii) conversion of formed chloride to CsCl by ion exchange chromatography and iii) analysis of chlorine isotopes in TIMS. The described method can open new

  9. Zone of capture analysis for the A/M area of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.; Beaudoin, C.M.; Schreuder, P.J.

    1991-12-01

    The groundwater of the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) as the result of the past use and disposal of these solvents. For the purpose of remediating this contamination, the A/M Area of the SRS has been divided into three sectors termed the central, northern (or SRL), and southern sectors. The central portion of the A/M Area has had an active remediation system of eleven recovery wells since 1985 and its effectiveness has been evaluated through groundwater modeling. Remediation will soon begin at the northern or SRL sector with a pump and treat system of six wells distributed at four different locations with total pumping of approximately 250 gallons per minute (gpm). The locations and effectiveness of the capture system for each sector has been estimated through groundwater modeling without full consideration of the central recovery system. This report will provide an estimate of the number of recovery wells required for the southern sector and also consider the effects of the current and planned recovery systems for the northern and central plumes. The southern sector contamination (which is defined as the area south of the M-Area basin) has been initially characterized and one recovery well (RWM-16) has been installed, for which an aquifer test was performed. However, to date a recovery well system has not been designed for the southern sector nor has a comprehensive evaluation of the recovery systems for all three sectors been completed. The purpose of this groundwater modeling study is to: (1) determine the location and number of recovery wells necessary to contain or remediate the southern sector, and (2) complete an analysis of the combined central, northern and estimated southern sector remediation so that the interactions of the systems can be determined.

  10. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Draft topical report for task No. 9. Part II. Entitled: TCE degradation using non-biological methods, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.G.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The use of zero valence iron for reductive dechlorination of aliphatic chlorinated hydrocarbons is currently under investigation by a number of research groups as a potential method of in-situ treatment of contaminated ground water. The reaction appears to involve the transfer of electrons to chloro-aliphatic compounds by the oxidation of zero valence iron to ferrous iron (Fe{sup +2}). Our studies have indicated that this reaction is consistent with those of corrosion, and as such, can be influenced or increased by the presence of small amounts of metals (5% by weight) such as copper, tin, silver, gold and palladium coated on the iron surface. Incomplete coverage of the iron surface with a more electropositive metal results in an open galvanic cell, which increases the oxidation of iron and facilitates and increases the concurrent reduction of trichloroethylene and other chlorinated aliphatic compounds to the corresponding alkenes and alkanes. Our results show that plating more electropositive metals onto certain iron surfaces results in approximately a factor of ten increase in the dechlorination rate of small organochlorine compounds such as TCE.

  11. PCE/K-10 Activities for Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Area II Office.

    Intended for use by Marshall High School faculty as they integrate career education into their curriculum, the project notebook is based on the (Portland, Oregon) overall Area 2 program goals for career education which proposes that all children completing school should have sufficient knowledge and competencies to enter into a field of employment…

  12. CONCURRENT INJECTION OF COSOLVENT AND AIR FOR ENHANCED PCE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to use preferential flow of air to improve the dynamics of cosolvent displacement in order to enhance DNAPL displacement and dissolution. The concurrent injection of cosolvent and air was evaluated in a glass micromodel for a DNAPL remediation technolog...

  13. Compound-specific isotope analysis: Questioning the origins of a trichloroethene plume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberts, S.M.; Braun, C.; Jones, S.

    2008-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2- dichloroethene, and trans-1,2-dichloroethene were determined by use of gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectroscopy to determine whether compound-specific stable carbon isotopes could be used to help understand the origin and history of a TCE groundwater plume in Fort Worth, TX. Calculated ??13C values for total chlorinated ethenes in groundwater samples, which can approximate the ??13C of a spilled solvent if all degradation products are accounted for, were useful for determining whether separate lobes of the plume resulted from different sources. Most notably, values for one lobe, where tetrachloroethene (PCE) has been detected periodically, were outside the range for manufactured TCE but within the range for manufactured PCE, whereas values for a separate lobe, which is downgradient of reported TCE spills, were within the range for manufactured TCE. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  14. SORPTION OF NONIONIC SURFACTANT OLIGOMERS TO SEDIMENT AND PCE DNAPL: EFFECTS ON PCE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN WATER AND SEDIMENT. (R826650)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction of surfactant mixtures to the subsurface for the purpose of
    surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation requires consideration of the effects of
    surfactant sorption to sediment and nonaqueous phase liquids. These effects
    include alteration of the solubiliz...

  15. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOEpatents

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1997-04-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from various effluents or contaminated soil containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. 10 figs.

  16. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOEpatents

    Fernando, Quintus; Muftikian, Rosy; Korte, Nic

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds.

  17. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOEpatents

    Fernando, Quintus; Muftikian, Rosy; Korte, Nic

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds.

  18. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOEpatents

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1998-06-02

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds. 10 figs.

  19. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOEpatents

    Fernando, Quintus; Muftikian, Rosy; Korte, Nic

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from various effluents or contaminated soil containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products.

  20. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOEpatents

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1997-03-18

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds. 10 figs.

  1. Bubbleless gas transfer technology for the in situ remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.R.; Kurz, M.D.

    1999-10-31

    The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate the ability of hydrogen to supply reducing equivalents for the reductive dehalogenation of perchloroethylene (PCE). This objective will be accomplished by two types of activities. First, laboratory experiments will compare the kinetics of hydrogen-mediated dehalogenation with natural routes of loss (hydrolysis and natural attenuation). Secondly, bench-scale column experiments will be performed to demonstrate hydrogen-mediated reductive dehalogenation in aquifer sediments.

  2. The change of microbial community from chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater after biostimulation using the metagenome analysis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chih-Ming; Liao, Hung-Yu; Chien, Chih-Ching; Tseng, Yi-Kuan; Tang, Petrus; Lin, Chih-En; Chen, Ssu-Ching

    2016-01-25

    The compositions of bacterial community in one site contaminated with PCE/TCE after the slow polycolloid-releasing substrate (SPRS) (contained vegetable oil, cane molasses, and surfactants) addition were analyzed. Results show that SPRS caused a rapid enhancement of reductive dechlorination of TCE. The transformation of PCE/TCE into ethene was observed after 20 days of operation. To compare the change of bacterial communities before and after SPRS addition, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing using the metagenome analysis was performed. Results demonstrated the detection of the increased amounts of Dehalogenimonas by 2.2-fold, Pseudomonas by 3.4-fold and Sulfuricurvum by 4-fold with the analysis of the ribosomal database project (RDP). Metagenomic DNA was extracted from PCE/TCE-contaminated groundwater after SPRS addition, and subjected to sequencing. Results obtained from metagenomic sequencing indicate that genes from Dehalococcoides mccartyi was ranked as the second abundant bacteria among all of the detected bacteria via the analysis of the lowest common ancestor (LCA). Abundance of these bacterial groups, as shown above suggests their role in TCE biodegradation. Functional analysis of the metagenome, with the specific reference to chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation, revealed the presence of some genes responsible for TCE biodegradation. Overall, results of this study provided new insights for a better understanding of the potential of biostimulation on TCE-contaminated sites. PMID:26474376

  3. Human Health Effects of Tetrachloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Karen A.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Cooper, Glinda S.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Kopylev, Leonid; Barone, Stanley; Makris, Susan L.; Glenn, Barbara; Subramaniam, Ravi P.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) in February 2012 in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Objectives: We reviewed key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of PCE described in the U.S. EPA’s Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene). Methods: The updated assessment of PCE synthesized and characterized a substantial database of epidemiological, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies. Key scientific issues were addressed through modeling of PCE toxicokinetics, synthesis of evidence from neurological studies, and analyses of toxicokinetic, mechanistic, and other factors (tumor latency, severity, and background rate) in interpreting experimental animal cancer findings. Considerations in evaluating epidemiological studies included the quality (e.g., specificity) of the exposure assessment methods and other essential design features, and the potential for alternative explanations for observed associations (e.g., bias or confounding). Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites that contribute to PCE toxicity. The exposure assessment approach—a key evaluation factor for epidemiological studies of bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma—provided suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity. Bioassay data provided conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Neurotoxicity was identified as a sensitive noncancer health effect, occurring at low exposures: a conclusion supported by multiple studies. Evidence was integrated from human, experimental animal, and mechanistic data sets in assessing adverse health effects of PCE. Conclusions: PCE is likely to be carcinogenic to humans. Neurotoxicity is a sensitive adverse health effect of PCE. Citation: Guyton KZ, Hogan KA, Scott CS, Cooper GS, Bale AS

  4. Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethene DNAPLs by a culture enriched from contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, R.B.; Keasling, J.D.

    1999-01-20

    A microbial culture enriched from a trichloroethene-contaminated groundwater aquifer reductively dechlorinated trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE) to ethene. Initial PCE dechlorination rate studies indicated a first-order dependence with respect to substrate at low PCE concentrations, and a zero-order dependence at high concentrations. Studies of TCE and vinyl chloride (VC) dechlorination indicated a first-order dependence at all substrate concentrations. VC had little or no effect on the initial rate of TCE dechlorination. With subsaturating concentrations of chlorinated ethenes, nearly stoichiometric amounts of the toxic intermediate vinyl chloride accumulated prior to its dechlorination to ethene. In contrast, under saturating conditions, in which a dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid existed in equilibrium with the aqueous phase, the chlorinated ethene was dechlorinated to ethene, at a rapid rate, with the accumulation of relatively small amounts of chlorinated intermediates.

  5. Health assessment for Charlevoix Municipal Well National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Charlevoix, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980794390. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-10

    The Charlevoix Municipal Well National Priorities List Site is located in Charlevoix County, Michigan. The City of Charlevoix's single municipal well was found to be contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE), the sources of which are still undetermined. Potential human-exposure pathways from ground water contamination are ingestion, dermal absorption of contaminants, and inhalation of volatilized TCE and PCE from ground water. The United States Environmental Protection Agency selected in an Initial Remedial Alternative Selection Record of Decision, an alternative to construct a surface-water intake and a water-treatment plant to replace the contaminated Charlevoix municipal well. Upon implementation, this alternative is intended to greatly reduce human exposure to TCE and PCE.

  6. Investigation of the potential relationship between chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a perched aquifer and a regional aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, K.; Stellar, J.R.; Sohn, M.D. )

    1993-10-01

    Beneath an industrial site in Los Angeles County, CA, chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been discovered in a shallow perched and a regional aquifer. VOCs detected in the perched aquifer include tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE), and vinyl chloride. The aromatics benzene, toluene, and xylene have also been detected. Comparison of analytical results collected between 1986 and 1993 indicate the concentrations of VOCs in the perched aquifer have steadily decreased over time, with the exception of PCE and TCE. VOCs in the regional aquifer include PCE, TCE, cis-1,2-DCE, and chloroform. Analytical results from 1987 through 1993 indicate the concentrations of VOCs in the Exposition-Gage Aquifer beneath the site have steadily increased. However, upgradient ground-water quality analysis indicates only a trace level (2 ppb) of toluene present.

  7. Identification of a reductive tetrachloroethene dehalogenase in Shewanella sediminis

    PubMed Central

    Lohner, Svenja T.; Spormann, Alfred M.

    2013-01-01

    The genome sequence of psychrophilic Shewanella sediminis revealed the presence of five putative reductive dehalogenases (Rdhs). We found that cell extracts of pyruvate/fumarate-grown S. sediminis cells catalysed reduced methyl viologen-dependent reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE) to trichloroethene (TCE) at a specific activity of approximately 1 nmol TCE min−1 (mg protein)−1. Dechlorination of PCE followed Michaelis–Menten kinetics with an apparent Km of 120 μM PCE. No PCE dechlorination was observed with heat-denatured extract or when cyanocobalamin was omitted from the growth medium; however, the presence of PCE in the growth medium increased PCE transformation rates. Analysis of mutants carrying in-frame deletions of all five Rdhs encoding genes showed that only deletion of Ssed_3769 resulted in the loss of PCE dechlorination activity suggesting that Ssed_3769 is a functional Rdh. This is the first study to show reductive dechlorination activity of PCE in a sediment-dwelling Shewanella species that may be important for linking the flux of organohalogens to organic carbon via reductive dehalogenation in marine sediments. PMID:23479755

  8. Comparison of Chlorinated Ethenes DNAPL Reductive Dechlorination by Indigenous and Evanite culture with Surfactant Tween-80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, S.; Hong, S.; Kim, R.; Kim, N.; Ahn, H.; Lee, S.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Although many innovative technologies have been developed to enhance remediation of chlorinated ethenes(e.g. tetrachloroethene[PCE], trichloroethene[TCE])DNAPL source zones, they have been ineffective in reducing contaminant concentration to regulatory end points. Thus, combination of surfactant flushing process that removes significant contaminant mass with microbial reductive dechlorination, posttreatment "polishing step" to control the remaining DNAPL that may serve as a source of reducing equivalents and stimulate the dechlorinating bacterial communities may be an attractive remediation process alternatively. Microcosm studies were conducted to explore chlorinated ethenes, PCE/TCE of 3 ~ 30 mg/L dechlorination by indigenous microbial communities from TCE DNAPL source zones of Korea and Evanite culture in the presence of Tween-80 of 10 ~ 5,000 mg/L. In the microcosms for indigenous microbial communities, by-products(e.g. c-DCE, vinyl chloride) of reductive dechlorination of PCE/TCE were not detected. This results suggest dechlorinating bacteria might be not exist or high concentration of chlorinated ethenes inhibit activity of dechlorinating bacteria in indigenous microbial communities. But VFAs like acetate, methane and hydrogen gas from fermentation of Tween-80 were detected. So Tween-80 might estimated to serve as a source of reducing equivalents. To evaluate the dechlorinating ability of Evanite-culture, we added Evanite-culture to the microcosms for indigenous bacteria and monitored by-products of reductive dechlorination of PCE/TCE and VFAs and hydrogen gas.

  9. Resiliency of Stable Isotope Fractionation (δ(13)C and δ(37)Cl) of Trichloroethene to Bacterial Growth Physiology and Expression of Key Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Daniel; Behrens, Sebastian; Laskov, Christine; Haderlein, Stefan B

    2015-11-17

    Quantification of in situ (bio)degradation using compound-specific isotope analysis requires a known and constant isotope enrichment factor (ε). Because reported isotope enrichment factors for microbial dehalogenation of chlorinated ethenes vary considerably we studied the potential effects of metabolic adaptation to TCE respiration on isotope fractionation (δ(13)C and δ(37)Cl) using a model organism (Desulfitobacterium hafniesne Y51), which only has one reductive dehalogenase (PceA). Cells grown on TCE for the first time showed exponential growth until 10(9) cells/mL. During exponential growth, the cell-normalized amount of PceA enzyme increased steadily in the presence of TCE (up to 21 pceA transcripts per cell) but not with alternative substrates (<1 pceA transcript per cell). Cultures initially transferred or subcultivated on TCE showed very similar isotope fractionation, both for carbon (εcarbon: -8.6‰ ± 0.3‰ or -8.8‰ ± 0.2‰) and chlorine (εchlorine: -2.7‰ ± 0.3‰) with little variation (0.7‰) for the different experimental conditions. Thus, TCE isotope fractionation by D. hafniense strain Y51 was affected by neither growth phase, pceA transcription, or translation, nor by PceA content per cell, suggesting that transport limitations did not affect isotope fractionation. Previously reported variable ε values for other organohalide-respiring bacteria might thus be attributed to different expression levels of their multiple reductive dehalogenases. PMID:26505909

  10. Electrical impedance tomography of the 1995 OGI perchloroethelyne release

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, W.; Ramirez, A.

    1996-10-01

    Goal is to determine if electrical impedance tomography (EIT) might be useful to map free product DNAPL (dense nonaqueous phase liquids) contamination. EIT was used to image the plume resulting from a release of 189 liters (50 gallons) of perchloroethylene (PCE) into a saturated aquifer constructed of sand with two layers of bentonite. Images were made in 4 planes, before, during, and after the release, to generate a detailed picture of the spatial and temporal development of the plume. Information of the EI (both in phase and out of phase voltages) was used at several different frequencies to produce images. Some frequency dispersion was observed in the images before and after the PCE release. Laboratory measurements of organic contamination in soil indicate detectable dispersion. A search for this effect in EIT images reveals weak evidence, the signal appearing just above the measurement uncertainty, of a change in the reactance in the soil because of the PCE.

  11. Solvent extraction of elemental sulfur from coal and a determination of its source using stable sulfur isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Keith C.; Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.; Chaven, C.; Kruse, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Hot tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylene, PCE) extracts significant amounts of elemental sulfur (So) from weathered coals but not from pristine coals. The objective of this study was to determine whether So extracted by PCE is an oxidation product of pyrite or whether it originates in some way from unstable, organically-bound sulfur. The isotopic composition of the PCE-extracted So was compared to the isotopic compositions of the pyritic and the organic sulfur in a coal. The So was shown to have an isotopic signature similar to the pyritic sulfur. Additionally, the isotopic differences observed between the pyritic, So and sulfatic sulfur were consistent with bacterial mediated oxidation of sulfide sulfur (pyrite) as the source of both the sulfatic and elemental sulfur. ?? 1990.

  12. Using ²²²Rn as a naturally occurring tracer to estimate NAPL contamination in an aquifer.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Koh, Dong Chan; Lee, Kil Yong; Cho, Soo Young; Yang, Jae Ha; Lee, Kang Kun

    2013-11-01

    The naturally occurring radioisotope (222)Rn was used as a partitioning tracer to evaluate the presence and amount of a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in an aquifer. The batch experiment results of a diesel contaminated soil showed that the emanation rate of (222)Rn decreased to 31%, relative to a background rate. Batch experiment results of water contaminated by gasoline, diesel, PCE and TCE were similar. A field study to examine TCE contamination was conducted using 54 groundwater samples in Wonju city, Republic of Korea. Estimates of TCE contamination ranged from <0.001 mg/L to 14.3mg/L, and (222)Rn concentrations ranged from 1.89 Bq/L to 444. Results of (222)Rn analysis showed that TCE contamination was mainly restricted to an asphalt laboratory area and that the (222)Rn values of a NAPL-contaminated aquifer were correlated with TCE analytical results. PMID:23602707

  13. Substrate hydrophobicity and cell composition influence the extent of rate limitation and masking of isotope fractionation during microbial reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated ethenes.

    PubMed

    Renpenning, Julian; Rapp, Insa; Nijenhuis, Ivonne

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of intracellular microscale mass transfer on microbial carbon isotope fractionation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Significantly stronger isotope fractionation was observed for crude extracts vs intact cells of Sulfurospirillum multivorans, Geobacter lovleyi, Desulfuromonas michiganensis, Desulfitobacterium hafniense strain PCE-S, and Dehalobacter restrictus. Furthermore, carbon stable isotope fractionation was stronger for microorganisms with a Gram-positive cell envelope compared to those with a Gram-negative cell envelope. Significant differences were observed between model organisms in cellular sorption capacity for PCE (S. multivorans-K(d-PCE) = 0.42-0.51 L g(-1); D. hafniense-K(d-PCE) = 0.13 L g(-1)), as well as in envelope hydrophobicity (S. multivorans 33.0° to 72.2°; D. hafniense 59.1° to 60.8°) when previously cultivated with fumarate or PCE as electron acceptor, but not for TCE. Cell envelope properties and the tetrachloroethene reductive dehalogenase (PceA-RDase) localization did not result in significant effects on observed isotope fractionation of TCE. For PCE, however, systematic masking of isotope effects as a result of microscale mass transfer limitation at microbial membranes was observed, with carbon isotope enrichment factors of -2.2‰, -1.5 to -1.6‰, and -1.0‰ (CI95% < ± 0.2‰) for no membrane, hydrophilic outer membrane, and outer + cytoplasmic membrane, respectively. Conclusively, rate-limiting mass transfer barriers were (a) the outer membrane or cell wall and (b) the cytoplasmic membrane in case of a cytoplasmic location of the RDase enzyme. Overall, our results indicate that masking of isotope fractionation is determined by (1) hydrophobicity of the degraded compound, (2) properties of the cell envelope, and (3) the localization of the reacting enzyme. PMID:25734359

  14. Degradation of Perchloroethene by zero-valent iron evaluated by carbon isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Simon; Watzinger, Andrea; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2014-05-01

    Perchloroethene (PCE) is a widely spread groundwater contaminant in formally used industrial sites. Zero valent iron (ZVI) is used for in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) of PCE contaminants in the groundwater. A key factor in the application of in situ remediation technologies is a proper monitoring of contaminant reduction. The measurement of the stable isotope ratio is a promising method that is already used for quantifying microbial degradation of chlorinated contaminants. The carbon isotope ratio of PCE, measured by - isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled to a gas chromatograph via a combustion interface (GC-C-IRMS), increases during degradation of PCE and can be directly related to the degree of degradation. It can be used to directly quantify chemical degradation and thus serves as a useful monitoring tool for groundwater remediation. An experiment to determine the carbon isotopic fractionation factor was performed as a lab experiment using Nanofer Star (NANOIRON). Two different PCE concentrations (c1: 220mgL-1, c2: 110mgL-1) mixed with 0.5 g of ZVI were sealed under deoxygenated conditions in 250 ml glas bottles locked with mininert caps. The bottles were incubated on a shaker for 865 h. Samples were taken weekly to measure the change in the carbon isotopic ratio of PCE as well as its concentration. Results showed a strong increase in the carbon isotope ratio (δ-value) of PCE (start: -27 o end: -4 ), which indicates a significant dechlorination process of PCE. Beside PCE also one degradation product (Trichloroethylene - TCE) was measured. TCE was further dechlorinated as indicated by the δ-value change of TCE from -26 o to -4 oȦn unexpected intermediate value of -45 o for TCE was observed in the experiment. This fluctuation could be induced by the time depending concentration due to degradation and conversation processes. Furthermore, it seems that the progress of the δ-value is affected by the starting concentration of PCE (δ-value of c1 < c2) as

  15. EFFECT OF FENTON'S REAGENT ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIOLOGY AND BIODEGRADATION CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcosm studies were conducted to determine the effect of Fenton's reagent on subsurface microbiology and biodegradation capacity in a DNAPL (PCE/TCE) contaminated aquifer previously treated with the reagent. Groundwater pH declined from 5 to 2.4 immediately after the treatmen...

  16. A comparison of the dechlorination mechanisms and Ni release styles of chloroalkane and chloroalkene removal using nickel/iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Jia, Nan; Han, Xiaolin; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lv, Shuguang; Lin, Kuangfei; Ying, Weichi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we compared the removal kinetics and Ni release styles of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethene (PCE) that result from the use of Ni/Fe nanoparticles in water. Compared to TCE and PCE, 1,1,1-TCA was more readily removed, and the concentration profiles of the three chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) during the reduction processes fit pseudo-first-order reaction rate models well. The surface area-normalized rate constants show that the 11% Ni Ni/Fe nanoparticles, which has the largest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, has the highest capacity for 1,1,1-TCA removal per unit surface area and that the 6% Ni sample was the best for removing TCE and PCE. The observed by-products suggested that hydrogenolysis was responsible for the dechlorination of CAHs in the presence of Ni/Fe nanoparticles. More Ni2+ was released during the degradation of 1,1,1-TCA than that of TCE and PCE because Ni will reduce the CAHs directly as a zerovalent metal does when hydrogen atoms in the Ni lattice are not sufficient due to the rapid incomplete dechlorination of 1,1,1-TCA. The different modes of adsorption of chloroalkane and chloroalkene onto the surfaces of Ni/Fe particles might play an important role in their dechlorination process. PMID:26776083

  17. Chloroethene degradation and expression of Dehalococcoides dehalogenase genes in cultures originating from Yangtze sediments.

    PubMed

    Kranzioch, Irene; Ganz, Selina; Tiehm, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    The anaerobic Dehalococcoides spp. is the only microorganism known to completely dechlorinate the hazardous compounds tetrachloroethene (PCE) or trichloroethene (TCE) via dichloroethene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) to the terminal product, ethene. In this study, growth of Dehalococcoides spp. (DHC) and the expression of DHC dehalogenase genes were demonstrated for Yangtze enrichment cultures. Reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes occurred in Yangtze sediment without the addition of any external auxiliary substrates. All Yangtze enrichment cultures completely dechlorinated PCE and cis-DCE to ethene. To investigate expression of the dehalogenase genes pceA, tceA, vcrA, and bvcA, a protocol for messenger RNA (mRNA) extraction followed by reverse transcription and quantitative PCR analysis was established. During dechlorination, an increase in gene copy numbers of pceA, tceA, and vcrA was observed. However, temporary formation of mRNA was only measured in the case of the dehalogenase genes tceA and vcrA. Comparison of DHC dehalogenase patterns indicated that the Yangtze DHC community does not match any of the previously published enrichment cultures that were obtained from contaminated areas in the USA or Europe. PMID:25233916

  18. PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED TOXICOKINETIC MODELING OF THREE WATERBORNE CHLOROETHANES IN CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically-based toxicokinetic model for fish was used to describe the uptake and disposition of three chlorinated ethanes in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). atfish were simultaneously exposed to 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE), pentachloroethane (PCE), and hexachlo...

  19. Health assessment for Long Prairie ground water contamination site, Long Prairie, Minnesota, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MND980904072. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-27

    The ground-water contamination in Long Prairie, Minnesota is listed on the National Priorities List. At the site, two municipal wells and many private wells are contaminated with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and its degradative by-products trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE) and vinyl chloride. The source of the contamination is a dry-cleaning establishment located in the center of town. Maximum contaminant concentrations found in ground water in the municipal wells are 280 micro g/l PCE, 11 micro g/l TCE and micro g/l DCE. The maximum concentrations found in the private well are 1000 micro g/l PCE, 110 micro g/l TCE and 250 micro g/l DCE. Monitoring wells contain as much as 22,000 micro g/l PCE, 45 micro g/l TCE and 40 micro g/l DCE. The site is considered to be of public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the likelihood of exposure to hazardous substances.

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GEOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND THE OCCURRENCE OF DEHALOCOCCOIDES DNA IN CONTAMINATED AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stains of Dehalococcoides are the only microbes known that can completely dechlorinate PCE, TCE, cis-DCE and vinyl chloride to ethylene. Either naturally-occurring strains or bioaugmentation cultures of Dehalococcoides are widely used for in situ bioremediation ...

  1. SIMULATING THE IN-SITU OXIDATIVE TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ETHYLENES BY POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, MnO{sub}4 oxidation of chlorinated ethylenes (PCE, TCE, and DCE) has emerged as a potentially useful approach for destroying these componds in water. Recently, more applied studies have looked at whether KMnO{sub}4 could be used in remediating sites contaminated ...

  2. Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents and Fuel Components (BTEX and MTBE) in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation is widely used in the USA to deal with ground water contamination from fuel components such as the BTEX compounds or MTBE or TBA and from chlorinated solvents such as PCE, TCE, and TCA. This presentation reviews the theory and practice of MNA in the...

  3. Induction of toluene oxidation activity in pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 by chlorinated solvents and alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    McClay, K.; Streger, S.H.; Steffan, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    Toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 was induced by trichloroethylene (TCE), and induction was followed by the degradation of TCE. Higher levels of toluene oxidation activity were achieved in the presence of a supplemental growth substrate such as glutamate, with levels of activity of up to 86% of that observed with toluene-induced cells. Activity in P. mendocina KR1 was also induced by cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, chloroethane, hexane, pentane, and octane, but not by trans-1,2-dichloroethylene. Toluene oxidation was not induced by TCE in Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4, P. putida F1, Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV110, or Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV113. 22 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Partition behavior of surfactants, butanol, and salt during application of density-modified displacement of dense non-aqueous phase liquids.

    PubMed

    Damrongsiri, S; Tongcumpou, C; Sabatini, D A

    2013-03-15

    Density-modified displacement (DMD) is a recent approach for removal of trapped dense NAPL (DNAPL). In this study, butanol and surfactant are contacted with the DNAPL to both reduce the density as well as release the trapped DNAPL (perchloroethylene: PCE). The objective of the study was to determine the distribution of each component (e.g., butanol, surfactant, water, PCE) between the original aqueous and PCE phases during the application of DMD. The results indicated that the presence of the surfactant increased the amount of n-butanol required to make the NAPL phase reach its desired density. In addition, water and anionic surfactant were found to partition along with the BuOH into the PCE phase. The water also found partitioned to reverse micelles in the modified phase. Addition of salt was seen to increase partitioning of surfactant to BuOH containing PCE phase. Subsequently, a large amount of water was solubilized into reverse micelles which lead to significantly increase in volume of the PCE phase. This work thus demonstrates the role of each component and the implications for the operation design of an aquifer treatment using the DMD technique. PMID:23385206

  5. SURFACE-ALTERED ZEOLITES AS PERMEABLE BARRIERS FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Bowman; Pengfei Zhang; Xian Tao

    2002-03-01

    This report summarizes experiments to develop and test surfactant-modified zeolite/zero-valent iron (SMZ/ZVI) pellets for permeable reactive barriers to treat groundwater contamination. Coating a glass foam core with a mixture of hexadecyltrimethylammonium surfactant, zeolite, and ZVI produced a high hydraulic conductivity, mechanically stable pellet. Laboratory experiments showed that the pellets completely removed soluble chromate from aqueous solution, and reduced perchloroethylene (PCE) concentrations more than pellets that lacked surfactant. Based upon the laboratory results, they predicted a 1-m-wide SMZ/ZVI barrier that would reduce PCE concentrations by four orders of magnitude. Thirteen cubic meters (470 cubic feet) of SMZ/ZVI pellets were manufactured and emplaced in a permeable barrier test facility. A controlled plume of chromate and PCE was allowed to contact the barrier for four weeks. The entire plume was captured by the barrier. No chromate was detected downgradient of the barrier. The PCE broke through the barrier after four weeks, and downgradient concentrations ultimately exceeded 10% of the influent PCE. The less-than-expected PCE reduction was attributed to insufficient surfactant content, the large size, and pH-altering characteristics of the bulk-produced pellets. The pellets developed here can be improved to yield a performance- and cost-competitive permeable barrier material.

  6. Metal loaded zeolitic media for the storage and oxidative destruction of chlorinated VOCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintawar, Prashant Shiodas

    Industrial solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), etc. are suspected carcinogens and are linked to atmospheric and groundwater pollution. Therefore, the destruction and/or safe disposal of these chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) is an immediate national need. The objective of this dissertation was to study transition metal (TM) loaded zeolites for adsorption (storage) and subsequent catalytic destruction of CVOCs present in humid air streams. In this study, zeolite Y, ZSM-5 and ETS-10 were modified by introduction of a TM cation to make them suitable as dual function sorbent/catalyst (S/C) media. In order to develop these S/C media, five investigations were carried out. In the first investigation, the activity and selectivity of three catalysts viz., Cr-Y, Co-Y, Co/Alsb2Osb3, was compared for the destruction of CVOCs. Cr-Y was the most promising catalyst with its activity decreasing with an increase in the chlorine content of the CVOC molecule. In the second investigation, in order to elucidate the pathways involved in the destruction of CVOCs, in situ FT-IR studies were carried out on active Cr-Y surfaces at 25, 100 (or 130) and 300sp°C which showed that CVOC destruction proceeded through the formation of oxygenated intermediates (carbonyl, carboxylate, etc.). These investigations showed the necessity of chromium for destruction of CVOCs. However, chromium residues in the spent catalysts are an environmental concern. Therefore, in the third investigation, attempts were made to stabilize low levels of chromium on ZSM-5 zeolites. Thus, Cr-ZSM-5 media of varying SiOsb2/Alsb2Osb3 ratio were evaluated for sorption and destruction of TCE. This investigation led to the development of a Cr-ZSM-5 (SiOsb2/Alsb2Osb3=80,\\ {˜}0.5 wt% chromium) as an efficient S/C medium for TCE destruction. In the fourth investigation, deactivation experiments were carried out on four Cr-ZSM-5 catalysts. Under the conditions used, all the catalysts

  7. Structural basis for organohalide respiration.

    PubMed

    Bommer, Martin; Kunze, Cindy; Fesseler, Jochen; Schubert, Torsten; Diekert, Gabriele; Dobbek, Holger

    2014-10-24

    Organohalide-respiring microorganisms can use a variety of persistent pollutants, including trichloroethene (TCE), as terminal electron acceptors. The final two-electron transfer step in organohalide respiration is catalyzed by reductive dehalogenases. Here we report the x-ray crystal structure of PceA, an archetypal dehalogenase from Sulfurospirillum multivorans, as well as structures of PceA in complex with TCE and product analogs. The active site harbors a deeply buried norpseudo-B12 cofactor within a nitroreductase fold, also found in a mammalian B12 chaperone. The structures of PceA reveal how a cobalamin supports a reductive haloelimination exploiting a conserved B12-binding scaffold capped by a highly variable substrate-capturing region. PMID:25278505

  8. Estimates of anthropogenic halocarbon emissions based on its measured ratios relative to CO in the Pearl River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, M.; Huang, D. K.; Gu, D. S.; Lu, S. H.; Chang, C. C.; Wang, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    Using a GC/FID/MS system, we analyzed the mixing ratio levels of 16 halocarbon species in more than 100 air samples collected in 2004 from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of southern China. The results revealed elevated regional mixing ratios for most halocarbons, especially for HClC = CCl2 (trichloroethylene, TCE), CH2Cl2 (dichloromethane, DCM), CH3Br (bromomethane), HCFC-22, CHCl3 (trichloromethane), CCl4 (tetrachloromethane), Cl2C = CCl2 (perchloroethylene, PCE), CH3CCl3 (methyl chloroform, MCF), and CFC-12. Comparisons were done with the data from TRACE-P and ALE/GAGE/AGAGE experiments, we found that the large variability in concentrations (relative standard deviation ranged from 9.31% to 96.55%) of the halocarbons suggested substantial local emissions from the PRD region in 2004. Correlations between the mixing ratio of each species and carbon monoxide (CO) were examined, and then each emission of halocarbon was quantified based on scaling the optimized CO emission inventory with the slope of the regression line fitted to each species relative to CO. The calculated results revealed that mass of CH2Cl2 (7.0 Gg), CH3CCl3 (6.7 Gg), and Cl2C = CCl2 (2.3 Gg) accounted for about 62.9% of total emissions, suggesting a significant contribution to halocarbon emissions from solvent use in the PRD region. Emissions of HCFC-22 (3.5 Gg), an alternative refrigerant to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), were about 2.3 times greater than those of CFC-12 (1.6 Gg). CFC-12 and HCFC-22 accounted for 21.5% of total emissions of halocarbons, so that the refrigerant would be the second largest source of halocarbons. However, the ratio approach found only minor emissions of other CFCs, such as CFC-11, and levels of CFC-114 and CFC-113 were close to zero. Emissions of other anthropogenic halocarbons, such as CCl4, CHCl3, CH3Br, and CH3Cl, were also estimated. Where possible, the emissions estimated from the measured ratios were compared with results from source inventory techniques, we

  9. Estimate of anthropogenic halocarbon emission based on measured ratio relative to CO in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, M.; Huang, D.; Gu, D.; Lu, S.; Chang, C.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-01

    Using a GC/FID/MS system, we analyzed the mixing ratio of 16 halocarbon species in more than 100 air samples collected in 2004 from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of southern China. The results revealed that there are elevated mixing ratios for most of halocarbons, especially for HClC = CCl2 (trichloroethylene, TCE), CH2Cl2 (dichloromethane, DCM), CH3 Br (bromomethane), HCFC-22, CHCl3 (trichloromethane), CCl4 (tetrachloromethane), Cl2C = CCl2 (perchloroethylene, PCE), CH3CCl3 (methyl chloroform, MCF), and CFC-12. Comparisons were done with the data from TRACE-P and ALE/GAGE/AGAGE experiments, we found that the large variability in mixing ratios (relative standard deviation ranged from 9.31 % to 96.55 %) of the halocarbons suggested substantial local emissions from the PRD region in 2004. Correlations between the mixing ratio of each species and carbon monoxide (CO) was examined, and then the emission of each halocarbon was quantified based on scaling the optimized CO emission inventory with the slope of the regression line fitted to each species relative to CO. The calculated results revealed that mass of CH2Cl2 (7.0 Gg), CH3CCl3 (6.7 Gg), and Cl2C = CCl2 (2.3 Gg) accounted for about 62.9 % of total halocarbon emissions, it suggested a significant contribution from solvent use in the PRD region. Emissions of HCFC-22 (3.5 Gg), an alternative refrigerant to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), were about 2.3 times greater than those of CFC-12 (1.6 Gg). CFC-12 and HCFC-22 accounted for 21.5 % of total emissions of halocarbons, so that the refrigerant would be the second largest source of halocarbons. However, the ratio approach found only minor emissions of CFCs, such as CFC-11, and the emission of CFC-114 and CFC-113 were close to zero. Emissions of other anthropogenic halocarbons, such as CCl4, CHCl3, CH3Br, and CH3Cl, were also estimated. Where possible, the emissions estimated from the measured ratios were compared with results from source inventory techniques, we

  10. Interplay between subsurface structural heterogeneity and multi-species reactive transport in human health risk predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henri, C.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.; de Barros, F.

    2013-12-01

    The increasing presence of toxic chemicals released in the subsurface has led to a rapid growth of social concerns and to the need to develop and employ models that can predict the impact of groundwater contamination in human health under uncertainty. Monitored natural attenuation is a common remediation action in many contamination cases and represents an attractive decontamination method. However, natural attenuation can lead to the production of subspecies of distinct toxicity that may pose challenges in pollution management strategies. The actual threat that these contaminants pose to human health and ecosystems greatly depends on the interplay between the complexity of the geological system and the toxicity of the pollutants and their byproducts. In this work, we examine the interplay between multispecies reactive transport and the heterogeneous structure of the contaminated aquifer on human health risk predictions. The structure and organization of hydraulic properties of the aquifer can lead to preferential flow channels and fast contamination pathways. Early travel times, associated to channeling effects, are intuitively perceived as an indicator for high risk. However, in the case of multi-species systems, early travel times may also lead a limited production of daughter species that may contain higher toxicity as in the case of chlorinated compounds. In this work, we model a Perchloroethylene (PCE) contamination problem followed by the sequential first-order production/biodegradation of its daughter species Trichloroethylene (TCE), Dichloroethylene (DCE) and Vinyl Chlorine (VC). For this specific case, VC is known to be a highly toxic contaminant. By performing numerical experiments, we evaluate transport for two distinct three-dimensional aquifer structures. First, a multi-Gaussian hydraulic conductivity field and secondly, a geostatistically equivalent connected field. These two heterogeneity structures will provide two distinct ranges of mean travel

  11. Translational research to develop a human PBPK models tool kit-volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, M Moiz; Ray, Meredith; Crowell, Susan R; Keys, Deborah; Fisher, Jeffrey; Ruiz, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity and exposure evaluations remain the two of the key components of human health assessment. While improvement in exposure assessment relies on a better understanding of human behavior patterns, toxicity assessment still relies to a great extent on animal toxicity testing and human epidemiological studies. Recent advances in computer modeling of the dose-response relationship and distribution of xenobiotics in humans to important target tissues have advanced our abilities to assess toxicity. In particular, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are among the tools than can enhance toxicity assessment accuracy. Many PBPK models are available to the health assessor, but most are so difficult to use that health assessors rarely use them. To encourage their use these models need to have transparent and user-friendly formats. To this end the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is using translational research to increase PBPK model accessibility, understandability, and use in the site-specific health assessment arena. The agency has initiated development of a human PBPK tool-kit for certain high priority pollutants. The tool kit comprises a series of suitable models. The models are recoded in a single computer simulation language and evaluated for use by health assessors. While not necessarily being state-of-the-art code for each chemical, the models will be sufficiently accurate to use for screening purposes. This article presents a generic, seven-compartment PBPK model for six priority volatile organic compounds (VOCs): benzene (BEN), carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), dichloromethane (DCM), perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and vinyl chloride (VC). Limited comparisons of the generic and original model predictions to published kinetic data were conducted. A goodness of fit was determined by calculating the means of the sum of the squared differences (MSSDs) for simulation vs. experimental kinetic data using the

  12. The proton/electron ration of the menaquinone-dependent electron transport from dihydrogen to tetrachloroethene in "Dehalobacter restrictus".

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, W; Holliger, C

    1996-01-01

    In the anaerobic respiration chain of "Dehalobacter restrictus," dihydrogen functioned as the electron donor and tetrachloroethene (PCE) functioned as the electron acceptor. The hydrogenase faced the periplasm, and the PCE reductase faced the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. Both activities were associated with the cytoplasmic membrane. UV spectroscopy showed that membrane-bound menaquinone (MQ) was reduced by oxidation of H2 and reoxidized by reduction of PCE, indicating that MQ functions as an electron mediator. Fast proton liberation (t1/2 = 6 +/- 2 s) during electron transport from H2 to PCE and to trichloroethene (TCE) after addition of either PCE or TCE to H2-saturated cells resulted in an extrapolated H+/e- ratio of 1.25 +/- 0.2. This ratio indicated that besides the formation of protons upon oxidation of H2, vectorial translocation of protons from the inside to the outside could also occur. Proton liberation was inhibited by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HOQNO), and CuCl2. Fast proton liberation with an H+/e- ratio of 0.65 +/- 0.1 was obtained after addition of the MQ analog 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMN) as an oxidant pulse. This acidification was also inhibited by CCCP, HOQNO, and CuCl2. Oxidation of reduced DMN by PCE was not associated with fast acidification. The results with DMN indicate that the consumption and release of protons associated with redox reactions of MQ during electron transfer from H2 to PCE both occurred at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. The PCE reductase was photoreversibly inactivated by 1-iodopropane, indicating that a corrinoid was involved in the PCE reduction. PMID:8636034

  13. Permanganate oxidation of DNAPL in a large 3-D flow tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Seol, Y.; Fang, Y. C.; Schwartz, F. W.

    2002-05-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4), as a metal-oxo reagent, can attack a double carbon-carbon bond and therefore oxidize common chlorinated ethylenes, such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). This feature of metal-oxo reagents facilitates the use of permanganate to remediation of chlorinated solvents in soil and groundwater. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of TCE removal by permanganate oxidation in large three-dimensional flooding schemes. We constructed a large 3-D flow tank (L x W x D = 180 cm x 60 cm x 90 cm) where TCE source zone was installed in a saturated porous sandy medium. The tank was flushed at a flow rate of 51 L/day with permanganate solution (1,250 mg/L) for 63 days. Using chemical, electrical, and optical monitoring techniques we estimated temporal and areal variations in TCE, permanganate, MnO2 precipitates, conductivity, and chloride concentrations. TCE emplaced as DNAPL in a upstream source zone gradually moved downstream forming a TCE plume of about 120 cm long, 30 cm wide, and 55 cm deep. This TCE plume diminished considerably over time due to the in situ oxidation of the DNAPL. However, TCE was not completely destroyed and TCE concentration remained high (63 to 228 mg/L) in the shrunken TCE plume downstream after 63 days of permanganate flushing. Mass balance calculation indicated about 28% of TCE still remained in the system. This was attributed to the precipitation of low-permeability reaction by-product, i.e., MnO2, which caused flushing to become less efficient with time. Findings of this study are useful for developing a practical technique for enhancing the efficacy of the oxidative treatment of TCE using permanganate in the field conditions.

  14. Effect of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene on methane oxidation and community structure of methanotrophic consortium.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-Ah; Lee, Eun-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2013-01-01

    The methane oxidation rate and community structure of a methanotrophic consortium were analyzed to determine the effects of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on methane oxidation. The maximum methane oxidation rate (Vmax ) of the consortium was 326.8 μmol·g-dry biomass(-1)·h(-1), and it had a half-saturation constant (Km ) of 143.8 μM. The addition of TCE or PCE resulted in decreased methane oxidation rates, which were decreased from 101.73 to 5.47-24.64 μmol·g-dry biomass(-1)·h(-1) with an increase in the TCE-to-methane ratio, and to 61.95-67.43 μmol·g-dry biomass(-1)·h(-1) with an increase in the PCE-to-methane ratio. TCE and PCE were non-competitive inhibitors for methane oxidation, and their inhibition constants (Ki ) were 33.4 and 132.0 μM, respectively. When the methanotrophic community was analyzed based on pmoA using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), the pmoA gene copy numbers were shown to decrease from 7.3 ± 0.7 × 10(8) to 2.1-5.0 × 10(7) pmoA gene copy number · g-dry biomass(-1) with an increase in the TCE-to-methane ratio and to 2.5-7.0 × 10(7) pmoA gene copy number · g-dry biomass(-1) with an increase in the PCE-to-methane ratio. Community analysis by microarray demonstrated that Methylocystis (type II methanotrophs) were the most abundant in the methanotrophic community composition in the presence of TCE. These results suggest that toxic effects caused by TCE and PCE change not only methane oxidation rates but also the community structure of the methanotrophic consortium. PMID:23947712

  15. Prenatal and Early Childhood Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene and Adult Vision

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Kelly D.; Janulewicz, Patricia A.; Rowe, Susannah; Weinberg, Janice M.; Winter, Michael R.; Martin, Brett R.; Vieira, Veronica M.; White, Roberta F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tetrachloroethylene (PCE; or perchloroethylene) has been implicated in visual impairments among adults with occupational and environmental exposures as well as children born to women with occupational exposure during pregnancy. Objectives: Using a population-based retrospective cohort study, we examined the association between prenatal and early childhood exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and deficits in adult color vision and contrast sensitivity. Methods: We estimated the amount of PCE that was delivered to the family residence from participants’ gestation through 5 years of age. We administered to this now adult study population vision tests to assess acuity, contrast sensitivity, and color discrimination. Results: Participants exposed to higher PCE levels exhibited lower contrast sensitivity at intermediate and high spatial frequencies compared with unexposed participants, although the differences were generally not statistically significant. Exposed participants also exhibited poorer color discrimination than unexposed participants. The difference in mean color confusion indices (CCI) was statistically significant for the Farnsworth test but not Lanthony’s D-15d test [Farnsworth CCI mean difference = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.003, 0.10; Lanthony CCI mean difference = 0.07, 95% CI: –0.02, 0.15]. Conclusions: Prenatal and early childhood exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water may be associated with long-term subclinical visual dysfunction in adulthood, particularly with respect to color discrimination. Further investigation of this association in similarly exposed populations is necessary. PMID:22784657

  16. Mixed Redox Catalytic Destruction of Chlorinated Solvents in Soils and Groundwater: From the Laboratory to the Field

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Song; Rupp, Erik; Bell, Suzanne; Willinger, Martin; Foley, Theresa; Barbaris, Brian; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Arnold, Robert G.; Betterton, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A new thermocatalytic method to destroy chlorinated solvents has been developed in the laboratory and tested in a pilot field study. The method employs a conventional Pt/Rh catalyst on a ceramic honeycomb. Reactions proceed at moderate temperatures in the simultaneous presence of oxygen and a reductant (mixed redox conditions) to minimize catalyst deactivation. In the laboratory, stable operation with high conversions (above 90% at residence times shorter than 1 s) for perchloroethylene (PCE) is achieved using hydrogen as the reductant. A molar ratio of H2/O2 = 2 yields maximum conversions; the temperature required to produce maximum conversions is sensitive to influent PCE concentration. When a homologous series of aliphatic alkanes is used to replace hydrogen as the reductant, the resultant mixed redox conditions also produce high PCE conversions. It appears that the dissociation energy of the C–H bond in the respective alkane molecule is a strong determinant of the activation energy, and therefore the reaction rate, for PCE conversion. This new method was employed in a pilot field study in Tucson, Arizona. The mixed redox system was operated semicontinuously for 240 days with no degradation of catalyst performance and complete destruction of PCE and trichloroethylene in a soil vapor extraction gas stream. Use of propane as the reductant significantly reduced operating costs. Mixed redox destruction of chlorinated solvents provides a potentially viable alternative to current soil and groundwater remediation technologies. PMID:18991945

  17. Chlorinated ethene half-velocity coefficients (K{sub s}) for reductive dehalogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Haston, Z.C.; McCarty, P.L.

    1999-01-15

    Biological reduction of the chlorinated solvents tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) completely to ethene is of interest for engineered or intrinsic destruction of these prevalent groundwater contaminants. However, the transformation are frequently not complete, leading to the production of vinyl chloride (VC), a more hazardous compound. Factors affecting the relative rates of destruction of the solvents and their intermediate products are thus of interest. The maximum degradation rates (kX) and half-velocity coefficients (K{sub s}) for these chlorinated ethenes used as electron acceptors in reductive dehalogenation with hydrogen in excess were examined using an enrichment culture grown on benzoate, hydrogen, and PCE. Initial dehalogenation rates were measured at various chlorinated ethene concentrations in batch studies. With 38 mg/L volatile suspended solids of this culture, the kX and 95% confidence intervals for PCE, TCE, cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), and VC at 25 C were found to be 77 {+-} 5.59 {+-} 11, 14 {+-} 3, and 13 {+-} 3 {micro}M/day with K{sub s} values of 0.11 {+-} 0.04, 1.4 {+-} 0.9, 3.3 {+-} 2.2, and 2.6 {+-} 1.9 {micro}M, respectively. The lower maximum transformation rates and higher K{sub s} values for cDCE and VC partly explain why incomplete transformation of PCE and TCE often occurs in the field.

  18. TCE REMOVAL FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL AND GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread use of trichloroethylene (TEE) in the U.S. has resulted in its frequent detection in soil and groundwater. EE can become a health hazard after being processed in the human liver; or reductive dehalogenation in the environment may result in production of vinyl chloride,...

  19. Framework and Implementation of the Jyvaskyla TCE/TCFL Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, David; Rasanen, Anne

    The first teacher in-service development program in foreign language content instruction was run by the Continuing Education Centre of the University of Jyvaskyla in 1991-1992 as a contract program for the City of Kokkola. The success of that program led to the development of the present Teaching Content in a Foreign Language (TCFL) Program, which…

  20. Biofouling effects on in situ TCE bioremediation by phenol utilizers

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, T.R.; Kitanidis, P.K.

    1995-12-31

    In situ bioremediation involves stimulating the growth of bacteria within the contaminated region of an aquifer to break down the contaminants. This large bacteria population often can have the unwanted effect of clogging the porous media. The clogging reduces the porosity and the hydraulic conductivity of the soil. These hydrodynamic changes can affect the flow of groundwater used to deliver nutrients to the bacteria in the contaminated region of the aquifer. The authors developed a mathematical model to study the impact of biofouling on a recirculation well flow system used to mix nutrients with contaminated groundwater. The insights gained from this examination can aid in designing a system to minimize biofouling problems.