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Sample records for teacher nonverbal immediacy

  1. The Effect of Teacher Nonverbal Immediacy and Credibility on Student Motivation and Affective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogue, Lanette L.; AhYun, Kimo

    2006-01-01

    This study hypothesized that teacher nonverbal immediacy and credibility interact to impact student motivation and affective learning. Utilizing an experimental 2 x 2 (immediacy high/low, credibility high/low) factorial design, 586 students were exposed to one of four written scenarios and completed motivation and affective learning scales.Ö

  2. Students' Perceived Understanding Mediates the Effects of Teacher Clarity and Nonverbal Immediacy on Learner Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Amber N.; Schrodt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' perceived understanding as a mediator of the relationship between student perceptions of teacher clarity, nonverbal immediacy cues, and learner empowerment (i.e., meaningfulness, competence, and impact). Participants included 261 undergraduate students who completed survey instruments. Results of structural equation…

  3. The Measurement of Nonverbal Immediacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Janis F.; And Others

    Two studies were conducted to develop and refine instruments for measuring nonverbal immediacy, defined as approach behaviors increasing sensory stimulation and producing interpersonal closeness. In the first study, three instruments were developed concurrently and were tested to establish their reliability and preliminary validity. These…

  4. A Reinvestigation of the Relationship of Teacher Nonverbal Immediacy and Student Compliance-Resistance with Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burroughs, Nancy F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined (1) whether or not college students in actual classrooms used resistance strategies similar to those found in earlier hypothetical-anchored research; (2) the influence of teacher immediacy on student's differential use of those resistance strategies; and (3) the relationship among students' willingness to comply, teachers'…

  5. The Effects of Verbal and Nonverbal Teacher Immediacy on Perceived Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Learning in the Multicultural Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Judith A.; Wiseman, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the effects of teacher immediacy in the multicultural classroom on perceived cognitive, affective, and behavioral learning for White, Asian, Hispanic, and Black students. Finds that, in general, teacher immediacy behaviors enhance students' learning. Notes similarities and differences in the effects of teacher immediacy cues across United…

  6. Teacher Immediacy Scales: Testing for Validity across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qin; Oetzel, John G.; Gao, Xiaofang; Wilcox, Richard G.; Takai, Jiro

    2007-01-01

    Cross-cultural validity of teacher immediacy scales is a constant concern in instructional communication research. The present study examines the validity of two existing teacher immediacy scales: the Revised Nonverbal Immediacy Measure (RNIM) and the Chinese Teacher Immediacy Scale (CTIS) in U.S., Chinese, German, and Japanese cultures. Results…

  7. Competent Verbal and Nonverbal Crossgender Immediacy Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifkind, Lawrence J.; Harper, Loretta F.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of immediacy, the degree of perceived physical or psychological closeness between people, looks at a variety of verbal and nonverbal factors and behaviors useful to gain immediacy among co-workers, including attractiveness, clothing, posture, facial/eye behavior, vocal cues, space, touch, time, and gestures. Cross-gender dimensions,…

  8. Competent Verbal and Nonverbal Crossgender Immediacy Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifkind, Lawrence J.; Harper, Loretta F.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of immediacy, the degree of perceived physical or psychological closeness between people, looks at a variety of verbal and nonverbal factors and behaviors useful to gain immediacy among co-workers, including attractiveness, clothing, posture, facial/eye behavior, vocal cues, space, touch, time, and gestures. Cross-gender dimensions,Ö

  9. Students' Silent Messages: Can Teacher Verbal and Nonverbal Immediacy Moderate Student Use of Text Messaging in Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Fang-Yi Flora; Wang, Y. Ken

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between teacher immediacy and college students' use of text messaging in class. Using a cross-sectional survey sample (N=228), structural equation model analyses showed that students' learning motivation does not mediate the potential effects of teacher immediacy and students' use of text messaging in…

  10. Students' Silent Messages: Can Teacher Verbal and Nonverbal Immediacy Moderate Student Use of Text Messaging in Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Fang-Yi Flora; Wang, Y. Ken

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between teacher immediacy and college students' use of text messaging in class. Using a cross-sectional survey sample (N=228), structural equation model analyses showed that students' learning motivation does not mediate the potential effects of teacher immediacy and students' use of text messaging inÖ

  11. The Relationship between Nonverbal/Verbal Immediacy, Learning, and Caring by the Teacher in the L2 Spanish Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrott, Carl L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the role of immediate behaviors on L2 Spanish students when presented with videos exhibiting verbal and nonverbal immediacy in permutations. Six sets of subjects (N = 320) viewed the videos and responded on a seven-step scale of perceived caring and one-item instrument on learning. The results…

  12. The Relationship between Teacher Immediacy and Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Jonathan J.; Cano, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive correlational study examined the relationships between teacher immediacy and student motivation. Specifically, verbal and nonverbal independent variables were compared with dependent traits of expectancy-value and approach-avoidance motivation. Students self-reported perceived levels of instructor immediacy and self-rated their…

  13. The Effects of Nonverbal and Verbal Immediacy on Recall and Multiple Student Learning Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodboy, Alan K.; Weber, Keith; Bolkan, San

    2009-01-01

    A 2 x 2 experiment was conducted in which instructor nonverbal immediacy and verbal immediacy were manipulated in a college classroom to examine causal links with cognitive and affective learning outcomes. Previous criticisms concerning immediacy and learning research were considered and multiple operationalizations of cognitive learning (i.e.,Ö

  14. Stay out of My Space! Territoriality and Nonverbal Immediacy as Predictors of Roommate Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlandson, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This study utilize d direct observation to explore the relationship between nonverbal communication variables (immediacy and territoriality) and roommate satisfaction. Data were collected from 51 roommate pairs (N = 102) at a small liberal arts college. Participants were asked to engage in a discussion about a time they had to negotiate activities…

  15. Teacher Immediacy: Reflections on a Peer Review of Teaching Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Sarah; Vickerman, Philip; Maynard, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Using a qualitative approach drawing on the experiences of four HE lecturers, this study provides an exploration of and insights into a peer review of teaching (PRT) scheme, which focused on teacher immediacy and communication skills. Within the United Kingdom, limited research has been undertaken in relation to teacher immediacy even though…

  16. The Effect of Face Threat Mitigation on Instructor Credibility and Student Motivation in the Absence of Instructor Nonverbal Immediacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trad, Laura; Katt, James; Miller, Ann Neville

    2014-01-01

    Instructor nonverbal immediacy has been associated with a range of positive student outcomes, but it is difficult to convey in an online environment. We investigated whether the text-based variable of face threat mitigation (FTM) alone--without the visual cues of nonverbally immediate behaviors--could significantly raise students' motivation…

  17. The Impact of Instructor Decision Authority and Verbal and Nonverbal Immediacy on Korean Student Satisfaction in the US and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Yun, Doshik; Kim, Wonsun

    2009-01-01

    This study compared Korean students in South Korea and Korean students in the US regarding their perceptions of instructor decision authority and verbal and nonverbal immediacy. Korean students reported higher instructor decision authority and lower levels of instructor verbal and nonverbal immediacy in Korean classrooms than in US classrooms.…

  18. The Impact of Instructor Decision Authority and Verbal and Nonverbal Immediacy on Korean Student Satisfaction in the US and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Yun, Doshik; Kim, Wonsun

    2009-01-01

    This study compared Korean students in South Korea and Korean students in the US regarding their perceptions of instructor decision authority and verbal and nonverbal immediacy. Korean students reported higher instructor decision authority and lower levels of instructor verbal and nonverbal immediacy in Korean classrooms than in US classrooms.Ö

  19. The Relationship of Instructor Self-Disclosure, Nonverbal Immediacy, and Credibility to Student Incivility in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ann Neville; Katt, James A.; Brown, Tim; Sivo, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the potential mediating role of instructor credibility in the relationship of instructor self-disclosure and nonverbal immediacy to student incivility in the college classroom. Four hundred thirty-eight students completed online questionnaires regarding the instructor of the class they attended prior to the one in which…

  20. Student and Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors and the Influence of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors on Student Motivation to Learn Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlejohn, Vania

    The National Assessment on Educational Progress signals that American students are not being adequately prepared to compete globally in an ever changing scientific society. As a result, legislation mandated that all students be assessed and show proficiency in scientific literacy beginning in Grade 4 with the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2002 also known as No Child Left Behind. Research indicates a disturbing decline in the number of U.S. students pursuing more rigorous science courses in high school, majoring in scientific areas in college, and choosing future careers in science. With a need to improve science instruction and enhance science literacy for all students, this study focuses on immediate communication behaviors of the classroom teacher as a deciding factor in the opinions of high school students towards science. The purpose of this study was to reveal high school science student perceptions of teacher communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal, and how they influence their motivation to learn science. The researcher utilized a nonexperimental, quantitative research design to guide this study. Teacher and student data were collected using the Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ). The Student Motivation to Learn Instrument (SMLI) across gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status survey was used to evaluate student motivation in science. Participants were encouraged to be honest in reporting and sharing information concerning teacher communication behaviors. The data revealed that teacher immediacy behaviors, both verbal and nonverbal, were perceived differently in terms of student gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. The results showed that teachers who display positive communication behaviors and use challenging questioning followed with positive responses create pathways to potentially powerful relationships. These relationships between teachers and students can lead to increased student motivation and academic achievement in the science classroom.

  1. Impact of Immediate Faculty Behaviors on the Learning of Japanese Undergraduates in a U.S. Distance Education Program: Immediacy in Cross-Cultural Instructional Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Keiko Inada

    2010-01-01

    Immediacy is the closeness expressed by communicators which maybe observed in teachers as they try to engage students. Teacher immediacy may take nonverbal and verbal forms. U.S. studies have concluded that immediacy has positive effects on U.S. college students' learning. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of American faculty's…

  2. The Effect of Instructor Nonverbal Immediacy Behaviors and Feedback Sensitivity on Hispanic Students' Affective Learning Outcomes in Ninth-Grade Writing Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Laura; Mottet, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to show how instructor use of nonverbal immediacy behaviors influence Hispanic students' affective learning in ninth-grade writing conferences, regardless of the level of feedback sensitivity provided. According to Kluger and DeNisi's (1996) feedback intervention theory, when feedback is direct and targeted on theÖ

  3. Nonverbal Language and Its Implications for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Richard

    This paper discusses nonverbal communication and its implications and relevance for teachers. The first form of nonverbal language is proxemics, which describes the physical arrangement of space within a classroom and the space we allow between ourselves and others. The second form, coverbal behavior, describes physical movement, such as gestures,…

  4. Teacher Immediacy and Student Learning: An Examination of Lecture/Laboratory and Self-Contained Course Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFebvre, Luke; Allen, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teaching assistant's immediacy in lecture/laboratory and self-contained classes. Two hundred fifty-six students responded to instruments measuring teachers' immediacy behavior frequency, perceptions of instruction quality, and cognitive learning. No significant difference was identified when comparing…

  5. Examining Teacher Verbal Immediacy and Sense of Classroom Community in Online Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Shu-Fang; Aust, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    This study used quantitative measures to gather data from online students to analyze the effects of perceptions about teacher verbal immediacy and classroom community on students' level of satisfaction, perceived learning, and online discussion frequency. Using convenience sampling, 214 students were recruited from undergraduate and graduate…

  6. Teachers' Nonverbal Behavior and Its Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Noureen Asghar; Arif, Manzoor

    2012-01-01

    The observational study was conducted to see the impact of teachers' nonverbal behavior on academic achievement of learners. This also investigated the relationship of nonverbal communication of teachers working in different educational institutions. Main objectives of study were to measure nonverbal behavior of teachers' both male and female…

  7. The Role of Teacher Immediacy as a Motivational Factor in Student Learning: Using Meta-Analysis to Test a Causal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; Witt, Paul L.; Wheeless, Lawrence R.

    2006-01-01

    This report uses meta-analysis to derive correlations between the variables of teacher immediacy, cognitive learning, and affective learning. A model was constructed such that the perception of teacher immediacy, a behavior, generates an intermediate outcome of affect, a motivation, which in turn increases cognitive learning outcome. The data…

  8. Nonverbal Behavior of Teachers and Students: Clues to Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loss, Suzanne Perry

    1973-01-01

    The article emphasizes the importance of consistency of meaning in communication through verbal and nonverbal behavior. Teachers' intent to encourage self-directed learning was measured using Smith's Teacher Facilitation of Self-Direction Inventory. The Loss Observation System was used to analyze non-verbal behavior. (AG)

  9. Completion Time as a Nonverbal Component of Teacher Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, D. M.; Wagenhauser, Betsy

    1980-01-01

    Examines the dynamics of the formation of impressions that teachers and pupils have of one another and suggests that the time pupils take to complete a teacher-directed task may be a nonverbal component in the formation of teachers' impressions. (Author/MP)

  10. The Impact of Teacher Immediacy on Student Participation: An Objective Cross-Disciplinary Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amy; Friedman, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined how immediacy behaviors of college professors influence student participation. While these claims have been studied in the past, this investigation examined a cross-disciplinary sample and employed a more objective methodology, classroom observation. It was hypothesized that professors who showed greater immediacy would…

  11. The Impact of Teacher Nonverbal Behavior upon Student Learning and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfolk, Anita E.

    Four combinations of teacher verbal and nonverbal evaluative behavior were studied within a controlled microlesson. Two male and two female teachers presented each of the four combinations--(a) verbally and nonverbally positive; (b) verbally positive and nonverbally negative; (c) verbally negative and nonverbally positive; or (d) verbally andÖ

  12. Nonverbal Mediators of Teacher Expectancy Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaikin, Alan L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This study describes nonverbal behaviors on the part of subjects asked to give five minutes of instruction to a ten-year-old student, described as either bright or slow or not described at all in terms of IQ. (JH)

  13. Improving the Teacher's Awareness of Nonverbal Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachur, Donald; And Others

    The emphasis in this paper is on developing teacher awareness of how nonverbal communication fits into the classroom setting. Various positive and negative aspects of this phase of communication in the classroom are explored. A classroom teacher is observed closely by students every day, and her/his attitude, feelings, mood or state of mind,…

  14. The Effects of Students' Nonverbal Behavior on Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Douglas M.; Woolfolk, Anita E.

    1987-01-01

    This review presents evidence that student nonverbal behavior may be an important component in the formation of teachers' impressions, attitudes, beliefs, and reciprocal behavioral expressions. Results of the studies are considered within the research on impression formation, communication theory, and classroom activity and participation…

  15. Nonverbal Communication: How Important Is It for the Language Teacher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1997-01-01

    Argues that nonverbal communication in the language classroom can have dramatic results for the students' appreciation for the subject and in the cognitive domain. Notes that the personality and expectations of the teachers, their gestures, tone of voice, and facial expressions have an important effect on language acquisition. (29 references)Ö

  16. Videotutoring, Non-Verbal Communication and Initial Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichol, Jon; Watson, Kate

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of video tutoring for distance education within the context of a post-graduate teacher training course at the University of Exeter. Analysis of the tapes used a protocol based on non-verbal communication research, and findings suggest that the interaction of participants was significantly different from face-to-face…

  17. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  18. Coaches' Immediacy Behaviors as Predictors of Athletes' Perceptions of Satisfaction and Team Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turman, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether coaches' immediacy behaviors serve as predictors of athletes' satisfaction and team cohesion levels. Participants included 307 male and female high school athletes who completed measures assessing perceptions of their coaches' verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviors, as well as their own levels of…

  19. Statistics Anxiety and Instructor Immediacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety wasÖ

  20. Statistics Anxiety and Instructor Immediacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…

  1. Better Signers, Better Teachers: The Importance of Non-Verbal Cues in Classroom Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Suzanne

    1985-01-01

    Suggestions are offered to help hearing teachers use effective nonverbal techniques in conjunction with signing when communicating information to hearing impaired students. Topics discussed include use of discourse markers, ways of maintaining eye contact, gaining/maintaining student attention, and effective turn-taking. (JW)

  2. Preservice Music Teachers' and Therapists' Nonverbal Behaviors and Their Relationship to Perceived Rapport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann; Johnson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the two studies reported in the article was to determine whether or not a relationship exists between preservice music therapists' and teachers' nonverbal behaviors and their perceived rapport. In study 1, evaluators (N = 56) viewed a stimulus tape consisting of 15 45-second segments of 15 preservice music therapists leading songs…

  3. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Teaching: A Study of Trainee P.E. Teachers in the Gymnasium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Cynthia; Poppleton, Pam

    1983-01-01

    Reports a study of nonverbal communication in which 77 female student teachers of physical education were observed during teaching practice to identify any patterns of communicative acts, the balance of verbal and nonverbal components, and whether the patterns are related to pupil responsiveness. Cluster and factor analysis are used. (EAO)

  4. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Teaching: A Study of Trainee P.E. Teachers in the Gymnasium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Cynthia; Poppleton, Pam

    1983-01-01

    Argyle and Kendon's model of social skills provided the framework for examining the relationship between verbal and nonverbal aspects of the performance of 77 female student teachers at a British physical education college. (Author/RM)

  5. Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Use of Verbal and Non-Verbal Guidance Strategies across Classroom Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudle, Lori A.; Jung, Min-Jung; Fouts, Hillary N.; Wallace, Heather S.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of preservice teachers often lack information about specific strategies they use when guiding children's behavior. This study investigated how preservice teachers used verbal and non-verbal behavior modification techniques within structured and transition classroom contexts. Using an on-the-mark 20- second observe and 10-second…

  6. The Role of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication between Students with Special Needs and Their Teachers in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dottie S.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a positive relationship between teacher and student improves student performance in school. However, less information is available regarding the verbal and nonverbal communications between the students with special needs and their teachers within this middle school subgroup. Personal attention and support…

  7. An Exploratory Study of the Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviors of Biology Teachers and Their Relationships to Selected Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Thomas Parker

    Developed was a category system for first-hand systematic observation of the verbal and non-verbal behavior of high school biology teachers in both classroom and laboratory situations. This was used to investigate correlations between selected personality traits and the verbal and non-verbal behaviors of high school biology teachers. Some…

  8. The Influence of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors on Student Performance in an Online Course (and the Problem of Method Variance)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Social presence (represented by salience of instructor and fellow students) in an online teaching environment has been shown to influence perceptions of course activity and self-estimates of learning. An experiment is described here in which teacher presence is manipulated via personalized messages from the teaching assistant throughout the…

  9. Online Graduate Study of Health Care Learners' Perceptions of Instructional Immediacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melrose, Sherri; Bergeron, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Instructional immediacy is an established communication strategy that teachers can implement to create engaging learning environments. Yet, little is known about experiences distance education learners in graduate study programs have had with immediacy. This article presents findings from a qualitative research project designed to explore…

  10. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Teaching: A Study of Trainee P.E. Teachers in the Gymnasium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Cynthia; Poppleton, Pam

    1983-01-01

    Seventy-seven female student teachers at an English Physical Education college were observed during teaching practice in order to examine the relationship between their verbal and nonverbal performance. Results are discussed in relation to Argyle and Kendon's model of social skills. (Author/GC)

  11. Investigation of Teachers' Verbal and Non-Verbal Strategies for Managing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Students' Behaviours within a Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated teachers' verbal and non-verbal strategies for managing ADHD students in a classroom environment. It was found that effective verbal and non-verbal strategies included voice control, short phrases, repeated instructions, using students' names, and visual cues and verbal instructions combined. It has been found that…

  12. Teaching Strategies to Promote Immediacy in Online Graduate Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahara, Manuel Flores; Castro, Armida Lozano

    2015-01-01

    The present study is the result of the research question: How do teachers promote immediacy through interaction with their students in online graduate courses? Research was carried out at Tecnológico de Monterrey, a Mexican private university that offers online courses. The research methodology employed a qualitative approach of virtual…

  13. Nonverbal Behavior and Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Morton; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Article summarizes suppositions implicit in approaches to body language" studies, stresses conceptual distinction between nonverbal behavior as communication and other non-verbal behavior and suggests criteria for nonverbal communication investigations. (Author/PD)

  14. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN THE CLASSROOM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GALLOWAY, CHARLES

    NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR CONSISTS MAINLY OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS, GESTURES AND BODY MOVEMENTS, AND VOCAL INTONATIONS AND INFLECTIONS. IN ORDER TO PROVIDE A MODEL FOR OBSERVING TEACHER NONVERBAL CLASSROOM ACTIVITY, 12 CATEGORIES WERE DEVELOPED THROUGH THE USE OF TWO DIMENSIONS--ENCOURAGING TO INHIBITING AND TEACHER INITIATED TO TEACHER RESPONSE. THREE…

  15. Non-Verbal Communication and the Affective Domain. Teacher Corps Associates: Resources for CBTE, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligons, Claudette Merrell

    This training package in nonverbal communication and the affective domain rests on the rationale that nonverbal communication is a support system for the verbal message that we convey and that it can be divided into two channels--the vocal and the kinetic. The vocal channel consists of the pitch of the voice, and the kinetic consists of postures,…

  16. Non-verbal Behavior Cross-Cultural Contact, and the Urban Classroom Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Cornelius Lee

    1976-01-01

    The anthropologist sees specific human non-verbal behavior as the medium through which relationships are maintained, regulated, and guided within culturally prescribed patterns. The spoken language, the use of space, eye-contact, smiling, and the use of the hand constitute unique patterns of behavior that are culturally specific and have wide…

  17. The Importance of Nonverbal Aspects of Communication in Teaching and the Pre- and Inservice Teacher Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinzing, Hans Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The ability to express and decode nonverbal cues is assumed to be an essential quality in communication and teaching. To validate, generalize and expand upon earlier research on the importance of nonverbal competencies in communication and teaching, i.e., the relationship of nonverbal competencies (e.g., expressiveness/"charisma" and nonverbal…

  18. Nonverbal Interaction Analysis. A Method of Systematically Observing and Recording Nonverbal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amidon, Peggy

    These materials will help the educator develop an awareness of nonverbal behavior, which is complimentary to and independent of the verbal realm, to give a complete picture of the classroom. The purpose of the manual is to enable the teacher to identify nonverbal components of behavior, including dimensions other than behavioral of the teacher's…

  19. Nonverbal Communication in One-to-One Music Performance Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurkul, Wen W.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored nonverbal communication in one-to-one music performance instruction by investigating relationships among nonverbal sensitivity, nonverbal behaviors and lesson effectiveness. Subjects (N = 120) comprised 60 college teachers and 60 of their non-music major students. Using the Music Lesson Evaluation Form, lesson effectiveness was…

  20. Immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine; Van Boven, Leaf

    2012-08-01

    In seven studies of naturally occurring, "real-world" emotional events, people demonstrated an immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons, perceiving their own current or recent emotional reactions as more intense compared with others' emotional reactions to the same events. The events examined include crossing a scary bridge (study 1a), a national tragedy (study 1b), terrorist attacks (studies 2a and 3b), a natural disaster (study 2b), and a presidential election (study 3b). These perceived differences between one's own and others' emotions declined over time, as relatively immediate and recent emotions subsided, a pattern that people were not intuitively aware of (study 2c). This immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons emerged for both explicit comparisons (studies 1a, 1b, and 3b), and for absolute judgments of emotional intensity (studies 2a, 2b, and 3a). Finally, the immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons was reduced when people were reminded that emotional display norms might lead others' appearances to understate emotional intensity (studies 3a and 3b). Implications of these findings for social-emotional phenomena are discussed. PMID:22148998

  1. Further Validation of the Learning Alliance Inventory: The Roles of Working Alliance, Rapport, and Immediacy in Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    This study further examined the reliability and validity of the Learning Alliance Inventory (LAI), a self-report measure designed to assess the working alliance between a student and a teacher. The LAI was found to have good internal consistency and test--retest reliability, and it demonstrated the predicted convergence with measures of immediacyÖ

  2. Student Perceptions of Teachers' Nonverbal and Verbal Communication: A Comparison of Best and Worst Professors across Six Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakopoulos, Alexia; Guerrero, Laura K.

    2010-01-01

    Students from six countries--Australia, Japan, Mexico, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United States--recalled the extent to which their best or worst professors used various forms of communication that have been associated with effective teaching. Across cultures, best professors were perceived to employ more nonverbal expressiveness, relaxed movement,…

  3. The Development of a Communication-Based Model of Teacher Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Kristi A.; DeWine, Sue

    The study reported here tested a proposed teacher efficacy model by examining: (1) whether perceived teacher efficacy, teacher communication competence, and teacher immediacy are significant predictors of perceived affective and cognitive student learning; and (2) whether perceived teacher communication competence and teacher immediacy are…

  4. Research in Nonverbal Communication and Its Relationship to Pedagogy and Suggestopedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    Nonverbal communication in the classroom can produce subtle nonverbal influences, particularly in the affective domain. In Suggestopedia, double-planeness (the role of the environment and the personality of the teacher) is considered an important factor in learning. Suggestopedic teachers are trained to use nonverbal gestures in their presentation…

  5. Contributions to the Empirical Study of Immediacy in the Pedagogical Relationship through Self-Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manarte, Joana; Lopes, Amélia; Pereira, Fátima

    2014-01-01

    Pedagogical communication is an action wherein the body, being a part of a relational whole, performs a fundamental role. A bibliographical survey of studies on the interaction between teacher and student confirms that there is a strong correlation between the teacher's nonverbal behavior and the students' level of motivation and…

  6. Done in 60-s? Inferring Teachers' Subjective Well-Being from Thin Slices of Nonverbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretsch, Johanna; Flunger, Barbara; Heckmann, Nina; Schmitt, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Being a teacher is known to be a particularly stressful occupation and as a consequence many teachers suffer from reduced well-being. Thus, it is important to know as soon as possible which individuals are likely to experience reduced well-being in their employment. Therefore, this study investigated whether it is possible to infer teachers'…

  7. The Effects of Cognitive Coaching and Nonverbal Classroom Management on Teacher Efficacy and Perceptions of School Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Green, Kathy E.; Lyons, Cherie A.; Rogers, Mary S.; Swords, Marcia E.

    Teachers in this study participated in a 3-year grant funded by the U.S. Department of Education Fund for Innovation in Education. The purpose of the grant was to provide teachers with support in implementing standards-based education. Both treatment and control groups of teachers received instruction in implementing standards-based education from…

  8. Done in 60-s? Inferring Teachers' Subjective Well-Being from Thin Slices of Nonverbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretsch, Johanna; Flunger, Barbara; Heckmann, Nina; Schmitt, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Being a teacher is known to be a particularly stressful occupation and as a consequence many teachers suffer from reduced well-being. Thus, it is important to know as soon as possible which individuals are likely to experience reduced well-being in their employment. Therefore, this study investigated whether it is possible to infer teachers

  9. Nonverbal communication affect in children.

    PubMed

    Buck, R

    1975-04-01

    A paradign was tested for measuting the tendency of children to send accurate nonverbal signals to others via spontaneous facial expressions and gestures. This paradign was derived from studies on adults that suggest that women are more accurate nonverbal "sendres" than men in certain situations. Eighteeen male and 11 female preschoolers (aged 4 to 6 years) watched a series of emotionally loaded color slides while they were observed via a hidden television camera by their mothers. Results indicated that significant overall communciation occurred, with large individual differences in "sending ability" between children. There was no evidence of a large sex difference in sending ability in choldren, although on one measure girls were more accurate senders than boys when viewed by undergraduates. Sending ability was positively related to teacher's ratings of activity level, aggressiveness, impulsiveness, bossiness, sociability, etc., and negatively related ti shyness, cooperation, emotional inhibition and control, etc. PMID:1159612

  10. Establishing Credibility in the Multicultural Classroom: When the Instructor Speaks with an Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Chikako Akamatsu

    2007-01-01

    Applying theories of cultural dimensions, teacher credibility, and nonverbal immediacy, this chapter explores classroom management techniques used by Asian female teachers to establish credibility. (Contains 1 note.)

  11. Nonverbal Disorders of Learning: The Reverse of Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badian, Nathlie A.

    1986-01-01

    Teacher perceptions of the social-behavioral characteristics of 99 boys (aged 7-14) identified by their nonverbal learning abilities found that low nonverbal subjects showed good left-brain functioning, good reading, poor right-brain functioning, poor arithmetic skills, low motivation, poor work habits, disorganization, and poor relationship with…

  12. An Analysis of Theories and Research in Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Charles M.

    Neither teachers nor students have been instructed in the meaning of non-verbal communication. Several assumptions are presented regarding the nature of non-verbal communication. It has been difficult to do research and reporting in this field due to difficulty in data collection, the complexity of human communication, analization difficulty,…

  13. [Nonverbal communications and psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Doudin, P A; Genoud, G; Fivaz, E

    1989-10-01

    The authors review the research on non-verbal communications in therapy; they distinguish between psychoanalytic, psychiatric, phenomenological and ecosystemic approaches and compare their respective methodologies. They show that the structural approach is the most advanced as far as systematic description of non-verbal behavior is concerned and therefore is presently the most promising for the inference of the therapeutic process. PMID:2694890

  14. Nonverbal Communication in "Friends"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yanrong

    2006-01-01

    This activity uses video clips from a popular sitcom, "Friends," to help students grasp the relational, rule-governed, and culture-specific nature of nonverbal communication. It opens students' eyes to nonverbal behaviors that are happening on a daily basis so that they not only master the knowledge but are able to apply it. While other popular…

  15. Nonverbal Sensitivity in the College Classroom: Toward Optimum Classroom Communication Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeaux, Terry Mark

    With the goal of generating research questions about teacher effectiveness, the first half of this paper deals with literature investigating teachers' nonverbal behavior in the classroom. This review lends support to the following ideas: (1) nonverbal cues affect relationship quality; (2) the more positive the teacher feedback to students, the…

  16. So Far But Yet So Close: Student Chat Room Immediacy, Learning, and Performance in an Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelowski, Susan; Frissell, Langley; Cabral, Kyle; Yu, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    Immediacy behaviors enhance perceptions of closeness to others. In traditional and online college courses, instructor immediacy predicts student reports of learning and motivation. Student immediacy is theoretically also important in any learning community. However, there is little research on cyber-student immediacy as a predictor of course…

  17. Teaching Counseling Students to Understand and Use Immediacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Craig D.; D'Andrea, Livia M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examine the counseling skill of immediacy, emphasizing its importance in counselor education. Ways of addressing and teaching the skill are proposed, with an emphasis on a "gentle approach" to reduce risks associated with applying the skill and to minimize students" resistance to applying it. Examples are provided of narratives that…

  18. The Relationship between Perceived Instructor Immediacy and Student Challenge Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodboy, Alan K.; Myers, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived instructor immediacy and student challenge behavior (i.e., procedural, evaluation, power play, practicality) in the college classroom. Participants were 403 students who listened to and reported on a 15 minute guest lecturer in an introductory communication class. Results…

  19. Nonverbal Communication for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Edward T.; Hall, Mildred Reed

    1977-01-01

    Nonverbal communication involves not only body language, but also environment, physical space, time systems, discipline, and competition systems--in short, the totality of communicaton excepting the printed word. (MJB)

  20. Rapid response: email, immediacy, and medical humanitarianism in Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Grayman, Jesse Hession

    2014-11-01

    After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground. PMID:24788052

  1. A review of immediacy and implications for provider‚Äďpatient relationships to support medication management

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett Ellis, Rebecca J; Carmon, Anna F; Pike, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This review is intended to 1) describe the construct of immediacy by analyzing how immediacy is used in social relational research and 2) discuss how immediacy behaviors can be incorporated into patient‚Äďprovider interventions aimed at supporting patients‚Äô medication management. Methods A literature search was conducted using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Google Scholar, OVID, PubMed, and Education Resource Information Center (ERIC) EBSCO with the keyword ‚Äúimmediacy‚ÄĚ. The literature was reviewed and used to describe historical conceptualizations, identify attributes, examine boundaries, and identify antecedents and consequences of immediacy. Results In total, 149 articles were reviewed, and six attributes of immediacy were identified. Immediacy is 1) reciprocal in nature and 2) reflected in the communicator‚Äôs attitude toward the receiver and the message, 3) conveys approachability, 4) respectfulness, 5) and connectedness between communicators, and 6) promotes receiver engagement. Immediacy is associated with affective learning, cognitive learning, greater recall, enhanced relationships, satisfaction, motivation, sharing, and perceptions of mutual value in social relationships. Conclusion Immediacy should be further investigated as an intervention component of patient‚Äďprovider relationships and shared decision making in medication management. Practice implications In behavioral interventions involving relational interactions between interveners and participants, such as in medication management, the effects of communication behaviors and immediacy during intervention delivery should be investigated as an intervention component. PMID:26792985

  2. Nonverbal Behavior in Tutoring Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.

    This document reports on a series of studies carried out concerning nonverbal behavior in peer tutoring interactions. The first study examined the encoding (enactment) of nonverbal behavior in a tutoring situation. Results clearly indicated that the tutor's nonverbal behavior was affected by the performance of the tutee. The question of whether or…

  3. Nonverbal Communication and Social Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Judith A.

    Various aspects of nonverbal communication are discussed in this paper, and the questions of how and why to teach it are considered. It is suggested that the nonverbal field can be roughly divided into three domains, in terms of method and the nature of the questions asked. Albert Scheflen and several other "nonverbal structuralists" areÖ

  4. Interpreting Congruent and Incongruent Verbal and Nonverbal Classroom Communication Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Dale R.; Doan, Robert L.

    Happy, neutral, and unhappy visual expressions were combined with positive, neutral, and negative intonations of positive, neutral, and negative messages to investigate congruent and incongruent verbal/nonverbal classroom communication. The 53 students in the study viewed pictures of their teacher, listened to a recording of their teacher, then…

  5. Nonverbal Communication: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, William E.; And Others

    The entries in this extensive bibliography represent books, educational journals, dissertations, popular magazines, and research studies that deal with the topic of nonverbal communication. Divided into time periods (1975 to present, 1973 to 1975, and before 1973), the titles span a variety of topics, including the following: sensory perception,…

  6. Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; McCallum, R. Steve

    This kit presents all components of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), a newly developed instrument designed to measure the general intelligence and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents (ages 5 through 17) who may be disadvantaged by traditional verbal and language-loaded measures such as children with speech, language,…

  7. Effective Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parratt, Smitty

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the importance of understanding nonverbal communication in enhancing the personal and work relationships of interpreters and increasing their effectiveness in meeting the needs of customers. Discusses the mystique of body language, cultural variation in the use of gestures, the stages of an encounter, interpreting gesture clusters, and…

  8. Nonverbal Communication: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, William E.; And Others

    The entries in this extensive bibliography represent books, educational journals, dissertations, popular magazines, and research studies that deal with the topic of nonverbal communication. Divided into time periods (1975 to present, 1973 to 1975, and before 1973), the titles span a variety of topics, including the following: sensory perception,Ö

  9. Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, R. A., Ed.

    This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…

  10. Enhancing On-Line Teaching with Verbal Immediacy through Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlich, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of instructor verbal immediacy behaviors for on-line classes. Specifically, it demonstrates how instructor verbal immediacy behaviors found in face-to-face classes can also be displayed for on-line classes. It is argued that self-determination theory describes identification of the student as an important role in the…

  11. Effects of a Training Program on Expressive Non-Verbal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinzing, Hans Gerhard; And Others

    A program was designed for training secondary school trainee teachers in expressive nonverbal behavior and for assessing the effect of various combinations of different training elements. The program was developed on the basis of nonverbal descriptors of "enthusiastic teaching": vocal delivery, eyes, facial expression, gestures, and eye contact…

  12. Cognitive Metaphor Theory and the Metaphysics of Immediacy.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Mathias W

    2016-05-01

    One of the core tenets of cognitive metaphor theory is the claim that metaphors ground abstract knowledge in concrete, first-hand experience. In this paper, I argue that this grounding hypothesis contains some problematic conceptual ambiguities and, under many reasonable interpretations, empirical difficulties. I present evidence that there are foundational obstacles to defining a coherent and cognitively valid concept of "metaphor" and "concrete meaning," and some general problems with singling out certain domains of experience as more immediate than others. I conclude from these considerations that whatever the facts are about the comprehension of individual metaphors, the available evidence is incompatible with the notion of an underlying conceptual structure organized according to the immediacy of experience. PMID:26523770

  13. Non-Verbal Communication in Puerto Rico. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curt, Carmen Judith Nine

    Observations of the contrasts between Puerto Rican and Anglo nonverbal communication patterns, and their relevance in the classroom, are outlined and discussed. A general observation is that what is acceptable and permissible in one culture is usually not in the other, and teachers are urged to develop ways of making Anglo and Latin American…

  14. Hispanic-Anglo Conflicts in Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curt, Carmen Judith Nine

    The problem of Hispanic-Anglo conflicts in nonverbal communication is approached in this paper from the perspective of a teacher of English and Spanish as second languages, using largely anecdotal and often autobiographical data. Specific cross-cultural differences between Hispanics (Puerto Ricans, Dominicans and Cubans) and Anglos in the area of…

  15. Nonverbal learning disability.

    PubMed

    Volden, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is described as a subtype of specific learning disability where the source of the disability is a difficulty in processing nonverbal information. The child with NLD presents with problems in visual, spatial, and tactile perception but with strengths in rote verbal skills. Traditionally, these children were recognized by their difficulties in arithmetic which presented a stark contrast with their strengths in spelling and decoding text. They also exhibited a split between their verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores with the VIQ being significantly higher than PIQ. Over time, however, diagnostic criteria have evolved and the broadened definition of the NLD syndrome has led many to question the utility and uniqueness of the NLD diagnosis. In addition, shifting diagnostic standards have made research results difficult to replicate. In short, the research to date leaves many unanswered questions about (1) the definition of the NLD syndrome, (2) the pervasiveness of the academic, social and psychopathological difficulties, (3) the source of the NLD syndrome, and (4) the degree to which it overlaps with other conditions. This chapter outlines a brief history of the NLD syndrome, how it is currently conceptualized, and some of the current debate about the unanswered questions above. PMID:23622171

  16. Unspoken Words: Understanding Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Much of what is communicated in the classroom is through nonverbal means. Sending appropriate nonverbal signals, as well as recognizing and interpreting the nonverbal signals of others, are essential features of the learning process. Students' abilities to encode and decode nonverbal communication have the potential to affect all aspects of their…

  17. The Effects of Instructor Transformational Leadership and Verbal Immediacy on Learner Autonomy and Creativity in Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Janelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Transformational leadership and immediacy behaviors within educational contexts have received a great deal of attention from researchers in the past few decades. Generally, the literature has focused on the impact of instructor transformational behaviors and instructor immediacy behaviors on educational outcomes. However, the relationship betweenÖ

  18. The Effects of Instructor Transformational Leadership and Verbal Immediacy on Learner Autonomy and Creativity in Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Janelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Transformational leadership and immediacy behaviors within educational contexts have received a great deal of attention from researchers in the past few decades. Generally, the literature has focused on the impact of instructor transformational behaviors and instructor immediacy behaviors on educational outcomes. However, the relationship between…

  19. Nonverbal Behavior and the Communication Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Charles R.

    The effect of nonverbal behavior on communication is apparent, but educators are left with the question of how an awareness of nonverbal behavior can fit into the classroom. In fact the average classroom offers a vast supply of information about nonverbal communication that remains relatively untouched in scientific studies. The processes of…

  20. Non-Verbal Channels in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudek, Miluse; Soudek, Lev I.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of non-verbal communication in learning a foreign language and culture. Discusses and gives examples of cultural specificity in interpretations of various forms of non-verbal behavior and its implications for language study. Makes specific suggestions of how to teach non-verbal communication to students of English as a second…

  1. Sex Differences in Nonverbal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beekman, Susan J.

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of both sex of subject and sex of partner with respect to a wide variety of nonverbal behaviors. The subjects were 44 men and 44 women graduate professional students at the University of Chicago. The behaviors were coded from videotapes of 88 dyadic conversations where each subject participated in…

  2. Nonverbal Behavior in Speech Acts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Mary Ritchie

    In forming a theory of communicative interaction between human beings it is necessary to consider some general features implicit in the communicative process. These include the context of situation, philosophical categories, psycholinguistic categories, grammatical categories, and nonverbal categories. Most of these are extra-linguistic and have…

  3. Nonverbal Communication among Italian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri-Bernardoni, Joseph M.

    Participant observation and author introspection were used to collect data in this study of nonverbal communication among Italian Americans in three large American cities. Discussion is given to kinesics (gestures and signs), haptics (touch), proxemics (interiors of homes, exteriors of homes, and spatial arrangements at a wedding dinner), andÖ

  4. Speaking to silence: toward queering nonverbal communication.

    PubMed

    Lovaas, Karen E

    2003-01-01

    The majority of nonverbal communication research and pedagogy reproduces heterosexist and sexist ideologies, normalizing and naturalizing gender and sexual binaries, and sanctioning an exceedingly narrow range of gendered and sexualized subjects, practices, and relationships. This essay proposes that nonverbal communication scholarship and pedagogy need to address these issues. First, I provide a brief summary of the history of the field of nonverbal communication. Second, I critique the conspicuous absence of the queer subject, the rigid essentialism, and the pervasive heterosexism in nonverbal communication textbooks in particular. Finally, I discuss three examples of communication research that avoid these pitfalls and herald what queering nonverbal communication might look like. PMID:14651175

  5. A Cross-Cultural Test of Immediacy-Learning Models in Chinese Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qin; Oetzel, John G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-cultural test of three U.S.-based immediacy--learning models and to compare a proposed integrating model with the existing models in Chinese classrooms. The findings suggested that the affective learning model provided a better fit than the learning model, which had a better fit than the motivation…

  6. Immediacy Bias in Emotion Perception: Current Emotions Seem More Intense than Previous Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional…

  7. Therapeutic Immediacy across Long-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: An Evidence-Based Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayotte-Blum, Jason; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle; Lehmann, Meaghan; Pesale, Frank; Becker-Matero, Nikaya; Hilsenroth, Mark

    2012-01-01

    C. E. Hill (2004) recently developed the concept of therapist immediacy to capture discussion by the therapist about the therapeutic relationship that occurs in the here-and-now of a therapy session. This concept has been expanded to include discussion about the therapeutic relationship by both the client and therapist, captured by the term…

  8. Signaled and Unsignaled Terminal Links in Concurrent Chains I: Effects of Reinforcer Probability and Immediacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Karla M.; Hucks, Andrew; Grace, Randolph C.; McLean, Anthony P.

    2010-01-01

    Eight pigeons responded in a three-component concurrent-chains procedure, with either independent or dependent initial links. Relative probability and immediacy of reinforcement in the terminal links were both varied, and outcomes on individual trials (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) were either signaled or unsignaled. Terminal-link fixed-time…

  9. Selected Patterns of Interference in Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Between Black and White Middle Class Cultures. Reference Pamphlets on Intercultural Communication, No.2. Human Relations in Cultural Context, Series C: Teacher Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, E. C., Ed.; Freundlich, Joyce

    Verbal and nonverbal patterns of communication found in the black community are discussed in this paper. They have been selected on the basis of their potential as interference factors in intergroup communication. A section on black language describes and explains the following categories: rapping, running it down, jiving, shucking, copping a…

  10. The Role of Teacher Communicator Style in the Delivery of a Middle School Substance Use Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Steven M.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Ringwalt, Chris; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Hansen, William B.; Bishop, Dana; Dusenbury, Linda; Gottfredson, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether teachers' communicator style relates to student engagement, teacher-student relationships, student perceptions of teacher immediacy, as well as observer ratings of delivery skills during the implementation of All Stars, a middle school-based substance use prevention program. Data from 48 teachers who taught All Stars up to 3…

  11. The Role of Teacher Communicator Style in the Delivery of a Middle School Substance Use Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Steven M.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Ringwalt, Chris; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Hansen, William B.; Bishop, Dana; Dusenbury, Linda; Gottfredson, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether teachers' communicator style relates to student engagement, teacher-student relationships, student perceptions of teacher immediacy, as well as observer ratings of delivery skills during the implementation of All Stars, a middle school-based substance use prevention program. Data from 48 teachers who taught All Stars up to 3Ö

  12. Independence of Terminal-Link Entry Rate and Immediacy in Concurrent Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Mark E.; Grace, Randolph C.

    2004-01-01

    In Phase 1, 4 pigeons were trained on a three-component multiple concurrent-chains procedure in which components differed only in terms of relative terminal-link entry rate. The terminal links were variable-interval schedules and were varied across four conditions to produce immediacy ratios of 4:1, 1:4, 2:1, and 1:2. Relative terminal-link entry…

  13. Non-verbal Effects in Oral Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, G. M.; Pedrosa, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the effects of nonverbal communication during oral examinations by testing two groups of British secondary students, one group in a face-to-face situation. Finds nonverbal effects increased the mean scores by two points but could not conclude that the increase was a result of student appearance and gestures. (CH)

  14. Importance and Use of Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamersma, Richard J.; Mark, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important part of the total communication process. It is important for counselors to be aware of their own pattern of non-verbal communication, as well as being alert to the silent messages being communicated by the client. (Author)

  15. Body, Identity and Interaction: Interpreting Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, Allan

    The study of nonverbal communication continues to grow across the spectrum of research in many fields of study. Good textbooks and research studies are available to the scholar and the student, and courses about nonverbal behavior and communication are found in modern curricula. This book focuses on the complex, often hidden, processes that…

  16. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  17. Nonverbal Communication of Couples in Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.; Allen, George

    1981-01-01

    Examined the rates, contextual meanings, and attributional meanings of nonverbal behavior occurring during role-played conflict between dating couples. Eighty couples reported perceptions of their own behaviors and their partners' behaviors and were observed by trained raters. The nonverbal channel was used significantly more by females than by…

  18. Relational Messages Associated with Nonverbal Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Judee K.; And Others

    Based on the assumptions that relational messages are multidimensional and that they are largely communicated by nonverbal cues, this experiment manipulated five nonverbal cues--eye contact, proximity, body lean, smiling, and touch--to determine what meanings they convey along four relational message dimensions: emotionality/arousal/composure,…

  19. Spatial Working Memory and Arithmetic Deficits in Children with Nonverbal Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammarella, Irene Cristina; Lucangeli, Daniela; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Visuospatial working memory and its involvement in arithmetic were examined in two groups of 7- to 11-year-olds: one comprising children described by teachers as displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning difficulties (N = 21), the other a control group without learning disabilities (N = 21). The two groups were matched for verbal abilities, age,…

  20. Cerebral integration of verbal and nonverbal emotional cues: impact of individual nonverbal dominance.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Br√ľck, Carolin; Erb, Michael; H√∂sl, Franziska; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Emotional communication is essential for successful social interactions. Emotional information can be expressed at verbal and nonverbal levels. If the verbal message contradicts the nonverbal expression, usually the nonverbal information is perceived as being more authentic, revealing the "true feelings" of the speaker. The present fMRI study investigated the cerebral integration of verbal (sentences expressing the emotional state of the speaker) and nonverbal (facial expressions and tone of voice) emotional signals using ecologically valid audiovisual stimulus material. More specifically, cerebral activation associated with the relative impact of nonverbal information on judging the affective state of a speaker (individual nonverbal dominance index, INDI) was investigated. Perception of nonverbally expressed emotions was associated with bilateral activation within the amygdala, fusiform face area (FFA), temporal voice area (TVA), and the posterior temporal cortex as well as in the midbrain and left inferior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/left insula. Verbally conveyed emotions were linked to increased responses bilaterally in the TVA. Furthermore, the INDI correlated with responses in the left amygdala elicited by nonverbal and verbal emotional stimuli. Correlation of the INDI with the activation within the medial OFC was observed during the processing of communicative signals. These results suggest that individuals with a higher degree of nonverbal dominance have an increased sensitivity not only to nonverbal but to emotional stimuli in general. PMID:22516367

  1. Teachers' Opinions about the Use of Body Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzer, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication occurs with non-verbal and verbal tools. In this study the body language as non-verbal communication tool is taken to be examined, and teachers' opinions about the use and importance of body language in education are surveyed. Eight open-ended questions are asked to 100 teachers. As a result, it is shown that teachersÖ

  2. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  3. Symbolic Action in India: Gandhi's Nonverbal Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Allen H.

    1975-01-01

    Examines symbolic action as a method of exerting public influence nonverbally through nonviolent behavior. Discusses Gandhi's persuasive tactics including fasting, propaganda tours, silence, clothing and adoption of symbols. (MH)

  4. Teacher Immediacy and Decreased Student Quantitative Reasoning Anxiety: The Mediating Effect of Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stephanie; Rice, Christopher; Wyatt, Bryce; Ducking, Johnny; Denton, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    There is global concern regarding the increased prevalence of math anxiety among college students, which is credited for a decrease in analytical degree completion rates and lower self-confidence among students in their ability to complete analytical tasks in the real world. The present study identified that, as expected, displays of instructionalÖ

  5. The Relationship between Teacher Immediacy Behaviours and Distant Learners' Social Presence Perceptions in Videoconferencing Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozkaya, Mujgan

    2008-01-01

    Videoconferencing systems combine face-to-face and mediated interactions in distance education. We extend the use of a Social Presence measure to on-site (face-to-face) learners and distant learners. Comparison between physically present and distant located learners did not indicate significant differences in social presence. Also results indicate…

  6. Teacher Immediacy and Decreased Student Quantitative Reasoning Anxiety: The Mediating Effect of Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stephanie; Rice, Christopher; Wyatt, Bryce; Ducking, Johnny; Denton, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    There is global concern regarding the increased prevalence of math anxiety among college students, which is credited for a decrease in analytical degree completion rates and lower self-confidence among students in their ability to complete analytical tasks in the real world. The present study identified that, as expected, displays of instructional…

  7. Teachers' Opinions about the Use of Body Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzer, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication occurs with non-verbal and verbal tools. In this study the body language as non-verbal communication tool is taken to be examined, and teachers' opinions about the use and importance of body language in education are surveyed. Eight open-ended questions are asked to 100 teachers. As a result, it is shown that teachers…

  8. A Preliminary Study of Nonverbal Cues and Relational Termination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smythe, Mary-Jeanette; Schlueter, David

    A preliminary analysis of the nonverbal aspects of developing and deteriorating dating relationships was undertaken to determine what nonverbal behaviors were considered most important in defining such relationships. A checklist of 12 nonverbal behaviors associated with successful dating relationships was given to 100 male and 100 female college…

  9. A Generational Approach to Using Emoticons as Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Franklin B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to help determine whether the use of emoticons in computer mediated communication (CMC) are truly nonverbal cues. A review of the literature revealed that the traditional nonverbal theorists failed to predict the future employment of nonverbal cues in electronic CMC. A variety of emoticons are then described…

  10. Decreased interpretation of nonverbal cues in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Kniepple, J L

    The ability to receive nonverbal facial cues was tested in twelve female victims of multiple nonserial rapes and matched controls. Subjects attempted to interpret nonverbal messages transmitted by male and female senders who were covertly taped while involved in a gambling task. Rape victims had significantly decreased ability to interpret the nonverbal facial cues of both male and female senders. PMID:3557809

  11. Nonverbal Communication in the Classroom: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollman, Steven A.

    Research has shown that nonverbal variables have a strong influence on classroom communication. This paper examines the way in which communication in the classroom is affected by the variables of distance, physical environment, facial expression, vocal cues, posture and gestures, touch, use of time, physical attractiveness, and dress. Each…

  12. Nonverbal Communication Can Be a Motivational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, John E., Jr.; Weiting, Gretchen K.

    1979-01-01

    Stating that motivation is a product of the interaction between employer and employee, the authors discuss the "Pygmalion effect" (whereby the expectations of a manager influence the performance of subordinates), the importance of communication, and the components of nonverbal communication: environment, proxemics, postures, gestures,…

  13. Dissociating Verbal and Nonverbal Audiovisual Object Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J.

    2009-01-01

    This fMRI study investigates how audiovisual integration differs for verbal stimuli that can be matched at a phonological level and nonverbal stimuli that can be matched at a semantic level. Subjects were presented simultaneously with one visual and one auditory stimulus and were instructed to decide whether these stimuli referred to the same…

  14. Emotion Comprehension: The Impact of Nonverbal Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Ottavia; De Stasio, Simona; Di Chiacchio, Carlo; Fiorilli, Caterina; Pons, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research has established that emotion understanding develops throughout early childhood and has identified three hierarchical developmental phases: external, mental, and reflexive. The authors analyzed nonverbal intelligence and its effect on children's improvement of emotion understanding and hypothesized that cognitive…

  15. Nonverbal Cues to Sex-Role Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoist, Irving R.; Butcher, James N.

    1977-01-01

    Explores how self-reported sex-role attitudes, or masculinity and femininity, when assessed by an instrument based on sound item selection procedures (Minnesota Attitude Survey) are related to expressive, nonverbal behaviors as viewed by peers. Examines the possibility that personality characteristics, more frequently associated with one or theÖ

  16. Personality Correlates of Nonverbal Interview Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Arthur N.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Measured interviewee nonverbal behaviors, which included selected temporal speech behaviors, duration and frequency of interviewee adaptor and illustrator hand movements, and gaze at the interviewer. Normal conversation was related to positive self-descriptions. Interviewee interruptions were associated with measures of anxiety. (Author)

  17. Facilitative Effects of Practice upon Nonverbal Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roweton, William E.; Spencer, Herbert L., Jr.

    Numerous studies of verbal creativity indicate that idea originality increases progressively as more ideas are produced. The present study tested the effects of practice upon nonverbal creativity. Thirty-two fifth grade children were administered Form A and/or Form B of Torrance's picture completion task for 5 consecutive days. Figural originality…

  18. Nonverbal Communication Can Be a Motivational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, John E., Jr.; Weiting, Gretchen K.

    1979-01-01

    Stating that motivation is a product of the interaction between employer and employee, the authors discuss the "Pygmalion effect" (whereby the expectations of a manager influence the performance of subordinates), the importance of communication, and the components of nonverbal communication: environment, proxemics, postures, gestures,Ö

  19. Verbal and Nonverbal Predictors of Spelling Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoski, Mark; Willson, Victor L.; Holcomb, Angelia; Boulware-Gooden, Regina

    2005-01-01

    Verbal and nonverbal predictors of spelling performance in Grades 1-12 were investigated using the national norming data from a standardized spelling test. Verbal variables included number of letters, phonemes, syllables, digraphs, blends, silent markers, r-controlled vowels, and the proportion of grapheme-phoneme correspondence. The nonverbal…

  20. Evaluation of Nonverbal Elements in Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunzel, Martin; Binterova, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This article comments on mathematics textbooks for lower secondary schools. Authors do not focus on texts in the books but on the nonverbal elements instead. A possible system of categories which enables mapping and classifying of such elements is suggested in this article. As a result of that, it is possible to evaluate and compare the textbooks…

  1. Nonverbal Effects in Memory for Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narvaez, Alice; Hertel, Paula T.

    Memory for everyday conversational speech may be influenced by the nonverbally communicated emotion of the speaker. In order to investigate this premise, three videotaped scenes with bipolar emotional perspectives (joy/fear about going away to college, fear/anger about having been robbed, and disgust/interest regarding a friend's infidelity) were…

  2. Nonverbal Cues to Deception in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimmin, Harold; Noel, Richard C.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nonverbal facial, body, and paralanguage cues to deception in children. A sample of 31 Hispanic and Black second and third grade students were videotaped while playing a color identification that required six honest and six deceptive verbal responses to a randomized stimulus presentation. Frame-by-frame…

  3. Nonverbal Social Communication and Gesture Control in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Sebastian; Stegmayer, Katharina; Sulzbacher, Jeanne; Vanbellingen, Tim; M√ľri, Ren√©; Strik, Werner; Bohlhalter, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients are severely impaired in nonverbal communication, including social perception and gesture production. However, the impact of nonverbal social perception on gestural behavior remains unknown, as is the contribution of negative symptoms, working memory, and abnormal motor behavior. Thus, the study tested whether poor nonverbal social perception was related to impaired gesture performance, gestural knowledge, or motor abnormalities. Forty-six patients with schizophrenia (80%), schizophreniform (15%), or schizoaffective disorder (5%) and 44 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and education were included. Participants completed 4 tasks on nonverbal communication including nonverbal social perception, gesture performance, gesture recognition, and tool use. In addition, they underwent comprehensive clinical and motor assessments. Patients presented impaired nonverbal communication in all tasks compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, performance in patients was highly correlated between tasks, not explained by supramodal cognitive deficits such as working memory. Schizophrenia patients with impaired gesture performance also demonstrated poor nonverbal social perception, gestural knowledge, and tool use. Importantly, motor/frontal abnormalities negatively mediated the strong association between nonverbal social perception and gesture performance. The factors negative symptoms and antipsychotic dosage were unrelated to the nonverbal tasks. The study confirmed a generalized nonverbal communication deficit in schizophrenia. Specifically, the findings suggested that nonverbal social perception in schizophrenia has a relevant impact on gestural impairment beyond the negative influence of motor/frontal abnormalities. PMID:25646526

  4. Patterns of non-verbal social interactions within intensive mathematics intervention contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jonathan Norris; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the non-verbal patterns of interaction within an intensive mathematics intervention context. Specifically, the authors draw on social constructivist worldview to examine a teacher's use of gesture in this setting. The teacher conducted a series of longitudinal teaching experiments with a small number of young, school-age children in the context of early arithmetic development. From these experiments, the authors gathered extensive video records of teaching practice and, from an inductive analysis of these records, identified three distinct patterns of teacher gesture: behavior eliciting, behavior suggesting, and behavior replicating. Awareness of their potential to influence students via gesture may prompt teachers to more closely attend to their own interactions with mathematical tools and take these teacher interactions into consideration when forming interpretations of students' cognition.

  5. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Rees, Georg M.; Ramseyer, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and ‚Äėfun task‚Äô conditions. We focused on the link between interactants‚Äô affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants‚Äô personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants‚Äô body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology, and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.8 years). Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted 5 min. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation. PMID:25505435

  6. The Motivational Effect of Televised Instruction on Teacher Directed Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganguly, Indrani

    It has been suggested that in science education the immediacy and pervasiveness of television and its ability to bring the world into the classroom could be effectively used by the teacher. The motivational uses of instructional television in a high school environmental science class were studied with 57 tenth graders at a suburban high school.…

  7. Three Characteristics of Effective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses three characteristics that are often associated with successful music educators. The three characteristics discussed include nonverbal communication, teacher self-efficacy, and servant leadership. Although there is no magical combination of characteristics that will produce an effective music teacher, these three attributes…

  8. Discursive and Communicative Functions of Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Philip

    This paper studies meaning as a construct of human interaction. Basic to this approach is the concept of the act of communication, which may be realized verbally or non-verbally. In order to integrate non-verbal behaviors into descriptions of discourse and interaction, a series of functional, not anatomic, categories is needed. For the kinesicÖ

  9. Non-Verbal Communication in Children with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallineni, Sharmila; Nutheti, Rishita; Thangadurai, Shanimole; Thangadurai, Puspha

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine: (a) whether children with visual and additional impairments show any non-verbal behaviors, and if so what were the common behaviors; (b) whether two rehabilitation professionals interpreted the non-verbal behaviors similarly; and (c) whether a speech pathologist and a rehabilitation professional interpreted…

  10. Discursive and Communicative Functions of Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Philip

    This paper studies meaning as a construct of human interaction. Basic to this approach is the concept of the act of communication, which may be realized verbally or non-verbally. In order to integrate non-verbal behaviors into descriptions of discourse and interaction, a series of functional, not anatomic, categories is needed. For the kinesic…

  11. Guidelines for Teaching Non-Verbal Communications Through Visual Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kundu, Mahima Ranjan

    1976-01-01

    There is a natural unique relationship between non-verbal communication and visual media such as television and film. Visual media will have to be used extensively--almost exclusively--in teaching non-verbal communications, as well as other methods requiring special teaching skills. (Author/ER)

  12. An Activity for Teaching the Effects of Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; King, Eden B.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a novel teaching activity that allows students in diversity, leadership, and communication courses to observe the powerful effects of nonverbal communication. The nonverbal experiences female leaders may encounter as they rise through the ranks of organizations are simulated and consequences discussed. Two student volunteers…

  13. Walking the Walk: Understanding Nonverbal Communication through Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Vernon B., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is fundamental to any comprehensive examination of human interaction. This article presents an activity that can be easily applied by any instructor as a starting point for a discussion of nonverbal communication, or as a demonstration of learning points previously discussed. Instructors should have a slight background in…

  14. Nonverbal Social Interaction Skills of Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agaliotis, Ioannis; Kalyva, Efrosini

    2008-01-01

    Many children with learning disabilities (LD) face problems in their nonverbal communication, which constitutes an important component of their social skills. This study explores the frequency of nonverbal initiations and responses of 36 children with LD and 36 children without LD matched for age and gender, who were observed for 40 min during the…

  15. Slap What? An Interactive Lesson in Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa J.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the use of nonverbal communication strategies for fostering social health in middle school students. It outlines a teaching technique designed to help students better understand nonverbal cues and their role in maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships. The technique begins with the card game "Slap What?" where the…

  16. Investigating a Relationship between Nonverbal Communication and Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Clear and effective communication is essential in today's society (Smith & Cotten, 1980; Smith & Land, 1981). Nonverbal communication specifically has a vital role in communication. There is inconsistent data on the effect of nonverbal communication used by instructors and the impact on student learning within the higher education…

  17. Japanese Nonverbal Communication: A Review and Critique of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Edwin R.

    The growth of intercultural interactions increases the need for nonverbal communication competency to help obviate potential cross cultural communication difficulties. Foreign language studies too often concentrate on vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, and forgo the role and methods of nonverbal communication. Japanese culture and modes ofÖ

  18. Verbal and Nonverbal Metaphor with Children in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesley, Gayle L.; Gillett, Dodie A.; Wagner, William G.

    2008-01-01

    The metaphor is typically viewed as a verbal form of expression in traditional talk therapies. However, this definition excludes nonverbal metaphors that children use when they express themselves through play. In this article, the authors examine the use of therapeutic metaphors, both verbal and nonverbal, with children. The roles of the child,…

  19. Unspoken cultural influence: exposure to and influence of nonverbal bias.

    PubMed

    Weisbuch, Max; Ambady, Nalini

    2009-06-01

    The authors examined the extent to which nonverbal behavior contributes to culturally shared attitudes and beliefs. In Study 1, especially slim women elicited especially positive nonverbal behaviors in popular television shows. In Study 2, exposure to this nonverbal bias caused women to have especially slim cultural and personal ideals of female beauty and to have especially positive attitudes toward slim women. In Study 3, individual differences in exposure to such nonverbal bias accounted for substantial variance in pro-slim attitudes, anti-fat attitudes, and personal ideals of beauty, even after controlling for several third variables. In Study 4, regional differences in exposure to nonverbal bias accounted for substantial variance in regional unhealthy dieting behaviors, even after controlling for several third variables. PMID:19469590

  20. Unspoken Cultural Influence: Exposure to and Influence of Nonverbal Bias

    PubMed Central

    Weisbuch, Max; Ambady, Nalini

    2009-01-01

    We examined the extent to which nonverbal behavior contributes to culturally-shared attitudes and beliefs. In Study 1, we demonstrated that slim women elicit especially positive nonverbal behaviors in popular television shows. In Study 2, we demonstrated that exposure to this nonverbal bias caused people to have especially slim cultural and personal ideals of female beauty and to have especially positive attitudes toward slim women. In Study 3, we demonstrated that individual differences in exposure to such nonverbal bias could account for substantial variance in pro-slim attitudes, anti-fat attitudes, and personal ideals of beauty, even after controlling for several third variables. In Study 4, we demonstrated that regional differences in exposure to nonverbal bias accounted for substantial variance in regional unhealthy dieting behaviors, even after controlling for several third variables. PMID:19469590

  1. How Teachers Know Their Classrooms: A Crosscultural Study of Teachers' Understanding of Classroom Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Peretz, Miriam; Halkes, Rob

    Teachers' knowledge and understanding of classrooms is perceived in this study in terms of interpretation of non-verbal and situational cues. Two sets of videotapes of classroom episodes were prepared, one in Hebrew and one in Dutch. These tapes were viewed by Israeli and Dutch teachers in cross-cultural settings. Teachers responded in writing and…

  2. The Relationship between Student Perceptions of Instructor Humor and Student's Reports of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Frymier, Ann Bainbridge

    1999-01-01

    Finds that a high humor orientation (HO) was associated with increased undergraduate student perceptions of learning; and that high HO students reported learning more with a high HO teacher. Examines perceived teacher humor orientation in relation to nonverbal immediacy and socio-communicative style. (SR)

  3. Altruism in Children: The Significance of Nonverbal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Harvey J.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a study demonstrating that aid-giving by children is predicated by nonverbal displays of submission emitted by the child under attack, and that although the children observing the episodes respond to the displays, the aggressor ignores them. (JMF)

  4. Children's emotional reactivity to interadult nonverbal conflict expressions.

    PubMed

    De, Arth-Pendley Gina; Cummings, E Mark

    2002-03-01

    The authors investigated children's responses to nonverbal expressions of conflict. Reactions of 3 groups of children (ranging in age from 6 to 16 years) to multiple forms of nonverbal conflict behaviors expressed in videotaped simulations of interadult disputes were examined. Results indicated that children make few discriminations between different forms of nonverbal conflict behaviors and that their reactions to nonverbal conflict are similar to their reactions to verbal conflict. Adults' expressions of fear elicited the most negative emotional responses from children, suggesting that children react to the meaning of conflict expressions and that expressions of fear may represent the greatest emotional security risks to children. Implications of these results for a theoretical model of the effects of forms of marital conflict on children are discussed (P. T. Davies & E. M. Cummings, 1994). PMID:11952268

  5. Larger than Life: Humans' Nonverbal Status Cues Alter Perceived Size

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Abigail A.; Yu, Henry H.; Schechter, Julia C.; Blair, R. J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Social dominance and physical size are closely linked. Nonverbal dominance displays in many non-human species are known to increase the displayer's apparent size. Humans also employ a variety of nonverbal cues that increase apparent status, but it is not yet known whether these cues function via a similar mechanism: by increasing the displayer's apparent size. Methodology/Principal Finding We generated stimuli in which actors displayed high status, neutral, or low status cues that were drawn from the findings of a recent meta-analysis. We then conducted four studies that indicated that nonverbal cues that increase apparent status do so by increasing the perceived size of the displayer. Experiment 1 demonstrated that nonverbal status cues affect perceivers' judgments of physical size. The results of Experiment 2 showed that altering simple perceptual cues can affect judgments of both size and perceived status. Experiment 3 used objective measurements to demonstrate that status cues change targets' apparent size in the two-dimensional plane visible to a perceiver, and Experiment 4 showed that changes in perceived size mediate changes in perceived status, and that the cue most associated with this phenomenon is postural openness. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that nonverbal cues associated with social dominance also affect the perceived size of the displayer. This suggests that certain nonverbal dominance cues in humans may function as they do in other species: by creating the appearance of changes in physical size. PMID:19479082

  6. The effect of praise, positive nonverbal response, reprimand, and negative nonverbal response on child compliance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Owen, Daniela J; Slep, Amy M S; Heyman, Richard E

    2012-12-01

    Lack of compliance has both short- and long-term costs and is a leading reason why parents seek mental health services for children. What parents do to help children comply with directives or rules is an important part of child socialization. The current review examines the relationship between a variety of parenting discipline behaviors (i.e., praise, positive nonverbal response, reprimand, negative nonverbal response) and child compliance. Forty-one studies of children ranging in age from 1¬Ĺ to 11 years were reviewed. Reprimand and negative nonverbal responses consistently resulted in greater compliance. Praise and positive nonverbal responses resulted in mixed child outcomes. The findings are discussed based on theory and populations studied. The authors propose a mechanism that may increase children's sensitivity to both positive and negative behavioral contingencies. PMID:22918669

  7. Nonverbal learning disabilities and remedial interventions.

    PubMed

    Foss, J M

    1991-01-01

    Adolescents with nonverbal learning disabilities who enroll in private, special secondary schools consistently present a pattern of behaviors which prevents achievement of their potentials in academic areas and impedes their abilities to interact effectively with others. With weaknesses in the fine graphomotor skills for writing and poor organization at all levels, they produce limited written output and often fail to complete academic assignments. Their response to pressure to produce is to become less productive. These students perceive social situations inaccurately; they are not successful in their interactions, especially with peers. They have learned to resolve difficult situations by employing their relatively strong verbal skills to enlist parents and other adults in intervening for them. They have not developed the skills to intervene for themselves.Effective remedial interventions include training the students in skills for planning and organizing, for studying, for written expression, and in social cognition and interpersonal communication. Students gain positive feelings of personal effectiveness through a process-at first verbally mediated, ultimately verbally self-directed-in which they are encouraged to plan, risk, and act on their own behalfs to resolve matters of personal concern. PMID:24233761

  8. Imagery deficits in nonverbal learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Cornoldi, C; Rigoni, F; Tressoldi, P E; Vio, C

    1999-01-01

    This study reports the observations gathered from 11 children referred to consulting services because of learning difficulties at school and diagnosed with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). These children had an average verbal IQ, but a WISC-R performance IQ lower than the verbal IQ by at least 15 points and experienced difficulties especially in mathematics and drawing. The children completed a battery of four tasks requiring visuospatial working memory and visual imagery: a memory task composed of pictures and their positions (Pictures task), a task that required them to memorize the positions filled in a matrix (Passive Matrix task), a task that required them to imagine a pathway along a matrix (Active Matrix task) and a task that required them to learn groups made up of three words, using a visual interactive imagery strategy (TV task). In comparison to a control group of 49 children, children with NVLD scored lower in all the tasks, showing deficits in the use of visuospatial working memory and visual imagery. By contrasting subgroups of children of different ages in the control group, it was possible to show that some tasks did not show a clear developmental trend. Thus the deficits shown by the children with NVLD cannot simply be attributed to a developmental delay of these children, but seem to reflect a more severe disability. PMID:15499887

  9. Early Childhood Education: Teacher Behaviors from a Cross Cultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Patricia Ann

    Reported in this document are observations of early childhood education in England, Israel, Seychelles, and China. Specifically, observations focus on (1) teacher behavior, including behavior toward individuals, small groups, and large groups or whole classes; (2) teacher demonstration behaviors; (3) teacher verbal and nonverbal behaviors, such as…

  10. Expert and Novice Teachers' Ability To Judge Student Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, Ellen; And Others

    Four studies were conducted on how well teachers at various stages of development can decode a student's nonverbal behavior, particularly that which communicates a lack of comprehension. Participants in the studies were novice (n=9), advanced beginner (n=10), and expert (n=10) elementary school teachers. In the first study, the teachers viewed aÖ

  11. Is Nonverbal Communication Disrupted in Interactions Involving Patients With Schizophrenia?

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G.T.; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nonverbal communication is a critical feature of successful social interaction and interpersonal rapport. Social exclusion is a feature of schizophrenia. This experimental study investigated if the undisclosed presence of a patient with schizophrenia in interaction changes nonverbal communication (ie, speaker gesture and listener nodding). Method: 3D motion-capture techniques recorded 20 patient (1 patient, 2 healthy participants) and 20 control (3 healthy participants) interactions. Participants rated their experience of rapport with each interacting partner. Patients’ symptoms, social cognition, and executive functioning were assessed. Four hypotheses were tested: (1) Compared to controls, patients display less speaking gestures and listener nods. (2) Patients’ increased symptom severity and poorer social cognition are associated with patients’ reduced gesture and nods. (3) Patients’ partners compensate for patients’ reduced nonverbal behavior by gesturing more when speaking and nodding more when listening. (4) Patients’ reduced nonverbal behavior, increased symptom severity, and poorer social cognition are associated with others experiencing poorer rapport with the patient. Results: Patients gestured less when speaking. Patients with more negative symptoms nodded less as listeners, while their partners appeared to compensate by gesturing more as speakers. Patients with more negative symptoms also gestured more when speaking, which, alongside increased negative symptoms and poorer social cognition, was associated with others experiencing poorer patient rapport. Conclusions: Patients’ symptoms are associated with the nonverbal behavior of patients and their partners. Patients’ increased negative symptoms and gesture use are associated with poorer interpersonal rapport. This study provides specific evidence about how negative symptoms impact patients’ social interactions. PMID:22941744

  12. Nonverbal imitation skills in children with specific language delay.

    PubMed

    Dohmen, Andrea; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2013-10-01

    Research in children with language problems has focussed on verbal deficits, and we have less understanding of children's deficits with nonverbal sociocognitive skills which have been proposed to be important for language acquisition. This study was designed to investigate elicited nonverbal imitation in children with specific language delay (SLD). It is argued that difficulties in nonverbal imitation, which do not involve the processing of structural aspects of language, may be indicative of sociocognitive deficits. Participants were German-speaking typically developing children (n=60) and children with SLD (n=45) aged 2-3 ¬Ĺ years. A novel battery of tasks measured their ability to imitate a range of nonverbal target acts that to a greater or lesser extent involve sociocognitive skills (body movements, instrumental acts on objects, pretend acts). Significant group differences were found for all body movement and pretend act tasks, but not for the instrumental act tasks. The poorer imitative performance of the SLD sample was not explained by motor or nonverbal cognitive skills. Thus, it appeared that the nature of the task affected children's imitation performance. It is argued that the ability to establish a sense of connectedness with the demonstrator was at the core of children's imitation difficulty in the SLD sample. PMID:23896360

  13. Measuring Teacher Immediacy and Communication Competence on Student Achievement in Calculus: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Method Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Allen C.

    2012-01-01

    On a national level, data indicate that about 40 percent of students in calculus courses finish with a grade of D or F, drop the course, or withdraw (Reinholz, 2009). This high failure rate has led to research studies investigating the teaching of calculus at the national level (House, 1995). Calculus courses have a history of high failure rates,…

  14. How Teachers Know Their Classrooms: A Cross-Cultural Study of Teachers' Understanding of Classroom Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Peretz, Miriam; Halkes, Rob

    1987-01-01

    Examines teachers' knowledge and understanding of classrooms in terms of interpretation of nonverbal and situational clues. Two sets of videotapes of classroom episodes, one in Hebrew and one in Dutch, were viewed by both Dutch and Israeli teachers in cross-cultural settings. Analysis of responses yielded insights into the two cultures.…

  15. Children Use Nonverbal Cues to Make Inferences About Social Power

    PubMed Central

    Brey, Elizabeth; Shutts, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Four studies (N=192) tested whether young children use nonverbal information to make inferences about differences in social power. Five- and 6-year-old children were able to determine which of two adults was ‚Äúin charge‚ÄĚ in dynamic videotaped conversations (Study 1) and in static photographs (Study 4) using only nonverbal cues. Younger children (3‚Äď4 years) were not successful in Study 1 or Study 4. Removing irrelevant linguistic information from conversations did not improve the performance of 3‚Äď4-year-old children (Study 3), but including relevant linguistic cues did (Study 2). Thus, at least by 5 years of age, children show sensitivity to some of the same nonverbal cues adults use to determine other people‚Äôs social roles. PMID:25521913

  16. The Logic of Young Children's (Nonverbal) Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Elly

    This paper asserts that teachers need to understand the logic of young children's behavior in their joint play and in their conflicts in order to respond sensitively, and that children construct logic-in-action (procedural knowledge) long before they are able to verbalize their logic in narratives. The basic assumption of the paper is that there…

  17. Exploring the Incremental Validity of Nonverbal Social Aggression: The Utility of Peer Nominations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Lease, A. Michele

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of nonverbal social aggression and the relation of nonverbal social aggression to dimensions of children's social status. Peer nominations of verbal social, nonverbal social, direct veral, and physical aggression, as well as social dominance, perceived popularity, and social acceptance, were collected…

  18. The Use of Non-Verbal Measures of Intellectual Functioning in Identifying Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasca, Donald

    Concern about the possible bias of using only verbal assessments for the identification of intellectually gifted students led to an examination of the effect of incorporating nonverbal assessments of intelligence into the identification process. Two nonverbal instruments (Progressive Matrices and Test of Nonverbal Intelligence) were used in…

  19. A Survey of the Research on Sex Differences in Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blahna, Loretta J.

    Although the bulk of recent research on nonverbal communication has involved studies of the functions of nonverbal behavior (emotion conveying, regulation, and adaption), a few studies have focused on the differences in nonverbal communication variables between men and women. These differences have been found in vocal patterns, intensities, lengthÖ

  20. Exploring the Incremental Validity of Nonverbal Social Aggression: The Utility of Peer Nominations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Lease, A. Michele

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of nonverbal social aggression and the relation of nonverbal social aggression to dimensions of children's social status. Peer nominations of verbal social, nonverbal social, direct veral, and physical aggression, as well as social dominance, perceived popularity, and social acceptance, were collectedÖ

  1. Nonverbal Communication and Interpersonal Relationships--New Directions in Film and Computer Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peery, J. Craig

    There are essentially four types of non-verbal communication: touching, moving, gazing (these are the truly "non-verbal modalities"), and para-linguistic aspects of vocalizing. These types of non-verbal communication are measured in five different dimensions: (1) frequency, (2) duration, (3) magnitude, (4) rates-frequency per time, (5)…

  2. Getting the Message Across; Non-Verbal Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jack

    This handbook presents selected theories, activities, and resources which can be utilized by educators in the area of non-verbal communication. Particular attention is given to the use of non-verbal communication in a cross-cultural context. Categories of non-verbal communication such as proxemics, haptics, kinesics, smiling, sound, clothing, and…

  3. The Supportive Learning Environment: Effective Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Jennifer; Grant, Leslie W.; Stronge, James H.

    2010-01-01

    This entry in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice Series focuses on the characteristics of teachers who create supportive learning environments for their students. By conveying a sense of immediacy, credibility, and caring, they communicate to students in both verbal and nonverbal ways that are essential to cultivating a positive and…

  4. Introverts' and Extraverts' Responses to Nonverbal Attending Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genthner, Robert W.; Moughan, James

    1977-01-01

    The different responses of introverts and extraverts to two types of helper nonverbal attending were examined. Subjects were 26 introverts and 26 extraverts, as defined by Eysenck and Eysenck's questionnaire. Introverts rated the listener higher than did extraverts, independent of his posture. (Author)

  5. Verbal and Nonverbal Cognitive Control in Bilinguals and Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woumans, Evy; Ceuleers, Evy; Van der Linden, Lize; Szmalec, Arnaud; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the relation between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in different bilingual populations. We compared monolinguals, Dutch-French unbalanced bilinguals, balanced bilinguals, and interpreters on the Simon task (Simon & Rudell, 1967) and the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz,Ö

  6. Nonverbal Cues: Clues to the Detection of Foreign Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregersen, Tammy S.

    2005-01-01

    This observation study examined the nonverbal behavior of anxious and nonanxious foreign language learners during a videotaped oral foreign language exam. Focusing primarily on the kinesic signals found in facial expressions, gazing behavior, body movement and gesture, and posture, it was discovered that anxious learners manifested limited facial…

  7. Contrastive Analysis of American and Arab Nonverbal and Paralinguistic Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safadi, Michaela; Valentine, Carol Ann

    To achieve effective intercultural communication, participants must understand how behavioral differences may lead to miscommunication. Such behavioral differences can be illustrated by Arab and American nonverbal behavior. Individualism is the ideal for the American middle class, whereas Arabs are motivated by public opinion. Yet in the Arab…

  8. Non-Verbal Cognitive Development and Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botting, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is currently partly defined by the presence of non-verbal IQ scores in the normal range. However, not only is there a debate concerning where "normal thresholds" should be, but increasing information about the presence of processing deficits in SLI have led some researchers to question the use of IQÖ

  9. Touch. Talking About Non-Verbal Communication: A Corpus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Xiaotian

    1999-01-01

    Presents the third and final report of an analysis of nonverbal communication. In this report, the phrase "touch wood" is investigated using the Bank of English Corpus. The first two phrases examined were "shrug" and "hold one's gaze." Each of these phrases relates to an aspect of communication that may hold particular difficulties for someone…

  10. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS): Initial application and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    D'Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the development, initial application, and evaluation of the Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS). Grounded in Communication Accommodation Theory, this coding system provides a method for analyzing physician and patient nonverbal accommodation behaviors within medical consultations. Methods Video recordings of 45 new visit consultations at a comprehensive cancer center were coded using the NAAS. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were assessed. For validation purposes, two independent coders rated all consultations for theoretically-related constructs. Results The NAAS demonstrated high levels of reliability. Statistically significant correlations were observed across all 10 behavior categories for both inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Evidence of content and construct validity was also observed. Conclusion The current study presents the initial application and evaluation of a coding system meant for analysis of the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within medical consultations. The results of this initial trial and psychometric evaluation provide evidence of the NAAS as a valid and reliable nonverbal accommodation coding system. PMID:20851559

  11. Communicative Interaction between Nonverbal, Severely Handicapped Children and Their Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lynne G.; Sweda, Janet P.

    The study examined the dyadic relationship between two nonverbal, severely handicapped children (5 and 6 years old) and their mothers. Ss were videotaped in a classroom at an early intervention program, and approximately 110 maternal verbalizations were transcribed. Among findings were that the dyads used little eye contact while communicating;…

  12. A Competitive Nonverbal False Belief Task for Children and Apes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus"). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in…

  13. Nonverbal Sensitivity: Consequences for Learning and Satisfaction in Genetic Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roter, D. L.; Erby, L. H.; Hall, J. A.; Larson, S.; Ellington, L.; Dudley, W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the role of interactants' nonverbal sensitivity, anxiety and sociodemographic characteristics in learning and satisfaction within the genetic counseling context. Design/methodology/approach: This is a combined simulation and analogue study. Simulations were videotaped with 152 prenatal and cancer genetic…

  14. The Relationships between Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Therapeutic Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proefrock, David W.; Bloom, Robert

    The relationship between a therapist's verbal and nonverbal communication of therapeutic effectiveness was investigated. In a design intended to eliminate many of the methodological problems which exist in this area of research, subjects (N=102) were asked to rate videotaped segments showing combinations of three different levels of both verbal…

  15. The Relationship between Nonverbal Cognitive Functions and Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…

  16. Matched False-Belief Performance during Verbal and Nonverbal Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dungan, James; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Language has been shown to play a key role in the development of a child's theory of mind, but its role in adult belief reasoning remains unclear. One recent study used verbal and nonverbal interference during a false-belief task to show that accurate belief reasoning in adults necessarily requires language (Newton & de Villiers, 2007). The…

  17. Nonverbal Learning Disability Explained: The Link to Shunted Hydrocephalus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissman, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationshipÖ

  18. Young Children's Understanding of Markedness in Non-Verbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…

  19. Writing without Words: A Nonverbal Approach to Reading Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portch, Stephen

    1982-01-01

    Argues that awareness of nonverbal elements of communication increase the reader's comprehension of literary works by authors who use these elements in character development. Focuses on regulators, affect displays, and adaptors (identified by Ekman and Friesen) and physical appearance, vocalics, touch, space, time, and artifacts (identified by…

  20. The Importance of Nonverbal Communication in the Courtroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remland, Martin S.

    Although a relatively new area of scientific study, theory and research on nonverbal communication in the courtroom has produced important findings for students and practitioners in five key areas: voire dire and jury analysis; opening and closing statements; client demeanor and direct examination; cross-examination; and judge demeanor and…

  1. Issues in Teaching Pragmatics, Prosody, and Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Daniel Sean

    1992-01-01

    After setting definitions of pragmatics, prosody, and nonverbal communication, this paper reviews politeness theories and research in these fields, discussing their implications for teaching. It is posited that learners whose first language and native culture are more similar to the target language (TL) and culture are more likely to experience TL…

  2. Nonverbal Communication and Counseling/Psychotherapy: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladstein, Gerald A.

    1974-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on non-verbal communication (NVC) as it pertains to the counseling/therapy process, although it also includes discussion of issues in the general NVC literature. Extensive appendixes are included (an alphabetical list and description of NVC references and examples of NVC classification and measuring systems).…

  3. Syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: Psycholinguistic Assets and Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, Byron P.; Tsatsanis, Katherine D.

    1996-01-01

    This discussion of speech and language development in individuals with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) reviews NLD assets, deficits, and dynamics; the white matter model; manifestations of NLD in neurological dysfunction; psycholinguistic dimensions of NLD in terms of language content, form, and use; developmental considerations in NLD; and…

  4. Reading the Client: Nonverbal Communication as an Interviewing Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Tom H.

    The importance of effective communication skills between lawyers and clients is equalled only by the imperative need for sustained instruction in the development of communicative skills for the lawyer. Especially important are the nonverbal communication skills in "reading the client." The subtleties of intonation, posture, gesture, and eye…

  5. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in the Initiation of Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Dan; And Others

    A two-part pilot study investigated and categorized the roles verbal and nonverbal communication play in the initiation of sexual intercourse. The study also explored the manner in which partners accept or reject sexual overtures, the contexts and antecedents of sexual initiation, and the changes in sexual behavior which occur as a consequence of…

  6. Verbal and Nonverbal Cognitive Control in Bilinguals and Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woumans, Evy; Ceuleers, Evy; Van der Linden, Lize; Szmalec, Arnaud; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the relation between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in different bilingual populations. We compared monolinguals, Dutch-French unbalanced bilinguals, balanced bilinguals, and interpreters on the Simon task (Simon & Rudell, 1967) and the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz,…

  7. Nonverbal Communication Skills in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The study was to examine nonverbal communication in young children with autism. Methods: The participants were 23 young children with autism (mean CA = 32.79 months), 23 CA and MA-matched children with developmental delay and 22 18-20-month-old, and 22 13-15-month-old typically developing toddlers and infants. The abbreviated Early…

  8. Non-Verbal and Verbal Fluency in Prodromal Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Robins Wahlin, Tarja-Brita; Luszcz, Mary A.; Wahlin, √Öke; Byrne, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines non-verbal (design) and verbal (phonemic and semantic) fluency in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD). An accumulating body of research indicates subtle deficits in cognitive functioning among prodromal mutation carriers for HD. Methods Performance was compared between 32 mutation carriers and 38 non-carriers in order to examine the magnitude of impairment across fluency tasks. The predicted years to onset (PYTO) in mutation carriers was calculated by a regression equation and used to divide the group according to whether onset was predicted as less than 12.75 years (HD+CLOSE; n = 16) or greater than 12.75 years (HD+DISTANT; n = 16). Results The results indicate that both non-verbal and verbal fluency is sensitive to subtle impairment in prodromal HD. HD+CLOSE group produced fewer items in all assessed fluency tasks compared to non-carriers. HD+DISTANT produced fewer drawings than non-carriers in the non-verbal task. PYTO correlated significantly with all measures of non-verbal and verbal fluency. Conclusion The pattern of results indicates that subtle cognitive deficits exist in prodromal HD, and that less structured tasks with high executive demands are the most sensitive in detecting divergence from the normal range of functioning. These selective impairments can be attributed to the early involvement of frontostriatal circuitry and frontal lobes. PMID:26955384

  9. Nonverbal Learning Disability Explained: The Link to Shunted Hydrocephalus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissman, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…

  10. Judging Attraction from Nonverbal Behavior: The Gain Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clore, Gerald L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes two experiments conducted to explore non-verbal behaviors and their capacity to convey attraction between men and women. Examines in particular the gain phenomenon which is the idea that people are more attracted to a person who is initially punishing and then rewarding than to one who is always rewarding. (Author/EJT)

  11. Teaching Nonverbal Communication in the Second Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Stephen S.; Moore, Jean

    Because the nonverbal component of communication is culture-specific, effective communication in a second language requires knowledge of the body language typical of speakers of that language. For example, Americans and Hispanics have a different sense of proxemics, Hispanics favoring closeness during conversation. Instruction in nonverbal…

  12. Planning, Imagined Interaction, and the Nonverbal Display of Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Terre H.; Honeycutt, James M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines a nonverbal indicator of anxiety--use of object adaptors. Examines effects of planning for an anticipated encounter and level of discrepancy individuals report they have in imagined interactions on use of object adaptors. Discusses findings in terms of spontaneous helplessness, plan efficacy, and accretion of plan strategies in response…

  13. The Importance of Nonverbal Elements in Online Chat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajadhar, Joan; Green, John

    2005-01-01

    Communication is often not so much what people write or say but how they write and often what they do not say. Thus, meaning in real-world chat messages depends not only on the words they use but also on how they express meaning through nonverbal cues. Online chat is simple, direct, and unrestrained. While it contains many of the elements of…

  14. Counselor Educator Nonverbal Behavior in the Supervision Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbur, Michael P.; Wilbur, Janice Roberts

    1979-01-01

    Results of this study indicate reliable identification of different nonverbal behaviors of counselor educators. Eye contact and gestural activity of the head, arms, hands, and legs and feet suggest needed consideration, and practical applications of these variables in the supervisory process. A methodological model for investigators of nonverbal…

  15. Teacher Radar: The View from the Front of the Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    According to the NASPE beginning teacher standards, the ability to manage and motivate students is fundamental to effective teaching. To be truly effective at managing and motivating students, teachers need to monitor and react to class behavior and class feedback (verbal and nonverbal) while simultaneously giving instructions or feedback. This…

  16. Nonverbal auditory working memory: Can music indicate the capacity?

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eunju; Ryu, Hokyoung

    2016-06-01

    Different working memory (WM) mechanisms that underlie words, tones, and timbres have been proposed in previous studies. In this regard, the present study developed a WM test with nonverbal sounds and compared it to the conventional verbal WM test. A total of twenty-five, non-music major, right-handed college students were presented with four different types of sounds (words, syllables, pitches, timbres) that varied from two to eight digits in length. Both accuracy and oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) were measured. The results showed significant effects of number of targets on accuracy and sound type on oxyHb. A further analysis showed prefrontal asymmetry with pitch being processed by the right hemisphere (RH) and timbre by the left hemisphere (LH). These findings suggest a potential for employing musical sounds (i.e., pitch and timbre) as a complementary stimuli for conventional nonverbal WM tests, which can additionally examine its asymmetrical roles in the prefrontal regions. PMID:27031677

  17. Hemispheric contributions to nonverbal abstract reasoning and problem solving.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel N; Strauss, Gregory P; Kemtes, Karen A; Goldstein, Gerald

    2007-11-01

    Hemispheric involvement in reasoning abilities has been debated for some time, and it remains unclear whether the right hemisphere's involvement in problem solving is modality specific or dependent on the type of spatial reasoning required. In the current study, 2 types of nonverbal reasoning abilities were examined, spatial reasoning and proportional reasoning, in 109 patients with cerebrovascular disease that was confined to either the right or the left hemisphere or was diffuse in nature. Results indicated that no lateralizing effects were present based on type of spatial reasoning. Findings are consistent with the suggestion that higher order cognitive processes involved in nonverbal abstraction and problem solving are not strongly lateralized to the right hemisphere but rather are more generally distributed throughout the cortex. PMID:17983285

  18. Maintenance of auditory-nonverbal information in working memory.

    PubMed

    Soemer, Alexander; Saito, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    According to the multicomponent view of working memory, both auditory-nonverbal information and auditory-verbal information are stored in a phonological code and are maintained by an articulation-based rehearsal mechanism (Baddeley, 2012). Two experiments have been carried out to investigate this hypothesis using sound materials that are difficult to label verbally and difficult to articulate. Participants were required to maintain 2 to 4 sounds differing in timbre over a delay of up to 12 seconds while performing different secondary tasks. While there was no convincing evidence for articulatory rehearsal as a main maintenance mechanism for auditory-nonverbal information, the results suggest that processes similar or identical to auditory imagery might contribute to maintenance. We discuss the implications of these results for multicomponent models of working memory. PMID:25962688

  19. Study on Nonverbal Communication by Avatars and Pictograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoe, Yuta; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Nosu, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Koji

    This paper describes the design guideline of webs that use avatars and pictograms to promote nonverbal communication smoothly in a virtual space. The shops for clothes, consumer electronic, and furniture are constructed in the virtual space. The web sites using the avatar and the pictogram for shopping were examined. To investigate the usability, three kinds of the web layered structures were examined. The screen layout evaluation by the eyeball movement measurement was also carried out.

  20. Detection of Nonverbal Synchronization through Phase Difference in Human Communication.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ono, Eisuke; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is an important factor in human communication, and body movement synchronization in particular is an important part of nonverbal communication. Some researchers have analyzed body movement synchronization by focusing on changes in the amplitude of body movements. However, the definition of "body movement synchronization" is still unclear. From a theoretical viewpoint, phase difference is the most important factor in synchronization analysis. Therefore, there is a need to measure the synchronization of body movements using phase difference. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative definition of the phase difference distribution for detecting body movement synchronization in human communication. The phase difference distribution was characterized using four statistical measurements: density, mean phase difference, standard deviation (SD) and kurtosis. To confirm the effectiveness of our definition, we applied it to human communication in which the roles of speaker and listener were defined. Specifically, we examined the difference in the phase difference distribution between two different communication situations: face-to-face communication with visual interaction and remote communication with unidirectional visual perception. Participant pairs performed a task supposing lecture in the face-to-face communication condition and in the remote communication condition via television. Throughout the lecture task, we extracted a set of phase differences from the time-series data of the acceleration norm of head nodding motions between two participants. Statistical analyses of the phase difference distribution revealed the characteristics of head nodding synchronization. Although the mean phase differences in synchronized head nods did not differ significantly between the conditions, there were significant differences in the densities, the SDs and the kurtoses of the phase difference distributions of synchronized head nods. These results show the difference in nonverbal synchronization between different communication types. Our study indicates that the phase difference distribution is useful in detecting nonverbal synchronization in various human communication situations. PMID:26208100

  1. Detection of Nonverbal Synchronization through Phase Difference in Human Communication

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ono, Eisuke; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is an important factor in human communication, and body movement synchronization in particular is an important part of nonverbal communication. Some researchers have analyzed body movement synchronization by focusing on changes in the amplitude of body movements. However, the definition of ‚Äúbody movement synchronization‚ÄĚ is still unclear. From a theoretical viewpoint, phase difference is the most important factor in synchronization analysis. Therefore, there is a need to measure the synchronization of body movements using phase difference. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative definition of the phase difference distribution for detecting body movement synchronization in human communication. The phase difference distribution was characterized using four statistical measurements: density, mean phase difference, standard deviation (SD) and kurtosis. To confirm the effectiveness of our definition, we applied it to human communication in which the roles of speaker and listener were defined. Specifically, we examined the difference in the phase difference distribution between two different communication situations: face-to-face communication with visual interaction and remote communication with unidirectional visual perception. Participant pairs performed a task supposing lecture in the face-to-face communication condition and in the remote communication condition via television. Throughout the lecture task, we extracted a set of phase differences from the time-series data of the acceleration norm of head nodding motions between two participants. Statistical analyses of the phase difference distribution revealed the characteristics of head nodding synchronization. Although the mean phase differences in synchronized head nods did not differ significantly between the conditions, there were significant differences in the densities, the SDs and the kurtoses of the phase difference distributions of synchronized head nods. These results show the difference in nonverbal synchronization between different communication types. Our study indicates that the phase difference distribution is useful in detecting nonverbal synchronization in various human communication situations. PMID:26208100

  2. Impaired non-verbal emotion processing in Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Charles; Saeremans, M√©lanie; Delwarte, Jennifer; No√ęl, Xavier; Campanella, Salvatore; Verbanck, Paul; Ermer, Elsa; Brevers, Damien

    2016-02-28

    Impaired perception of emotion in others has been described and confirmed in addictions with substances, but no such data exists regarding addictions without substances. As it has been hypothesized that toxic effect of substances on the brain was responsible for the impairments described, studying addictions without substances could be of interest to confirm this hypothesis. Twenty-two male pathological gamblers were compared to 22 male healthy controls matched for age and education level on non-verbal emotion perception tasks including faces, voices, and musical excerpts. Depression and anxiety levels were controlled for. Pathological gamblers significantly underestimated the intensity of peacefulness in music, and overall they were less accurate when reading emotion in voices and faces. They also overestimated emotional intensity in neutral voices and faces. Although anxiety levels did account for accuracy problems when detecting fear in voices and for overestimating emotions in neutral faces, anxiety levels did not explain the range of deficits observed. This is the first study showing non-verbal perception deficits in a purely behavioural addiction. These findings show that deficits in decoding non-verbal signals are associated with addictive behaviours per se, and are not due solely to toxic effects of substances on the brain. PMID:26730447

  3. Principles of non-verbal communication in efforts to reduce peer and social pressure.

    PubMed

    Duryea, E J

    1991-01-01

    Nonverbal communication literature contains salient and pragmatic principles relevant to peer pressure refusal components in school health education curricula. Yet, this literature has not been analyzed or integrated into health education interventions. Basic nonverbal components that could be applied to peer pressure resistance programs, such as gaze (eye behavior), stance and proxemics (space), gesture and emblems, and facial expression, are reviewed. Assertiveness literature and nonverbal communication also are summarized. Selected nonverbal resistance strategies are proposed for future peer pressure reduction efforts. A distinction is made between peer "pressure" conceptualized as nonverbal and peer "persuasion" viewed as verbal. Recommendations to incorporate relevant nonverbal concepts into the peer "pressure" components of school health education curricula are proposed. PMID:2027295

  4. Crossed-Brain Representation of Verbal and Nonverbal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Matute, Esmeralda; Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Molina Del Rio, Jahaziel; López Elizalde, Ramiro; López, Manuel; Ontiveros, Angel

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old, left-handed man presented with a rapidly evolving loss of strength in his right leg associated with difficulty in walking. MR images disclosed an extensive left hemisphere tumor. A neuropsychological examination revealed that language was broadly normal but that the patient presented with severe nonlinguistic abnormalities, including hemineglect (both somatic and spatial), constructional defects, and general spatial disturbances; symptoms were usually associated with right hemisphere pathologies. No ideomotor apraxia was found. The implications of crossed-brain representations of verbal and nonverbal functions are analyzed. PMID:25802778

  5. Cultural differences in interpersonal responses to depressives' nonverbal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Vanger, P; Summerfield, A B; Rosen, B K; Watson, J P

    1991-01-01

    The Social Impression and Interpersonal Attraction of British depressed patients was rated by British and German subjects on the basis of the patients' video-recorded nonverbal behaviour. Depressives were rated negatively by all subjects. Males in both cultural groups agreed in their ratings of depressives but German females expressed a more negative attitude than British females. This is attributed to cultural differences in sex-appropriate interactive behaviour. The importance of studying the expression of depression and its meaning within a particular cultural context is indicated and the role of cultural differences in interactive behaviour is discussed with respect to intercultural assessment and treatment of depression. PMID:1743899

  6. How Can Non-Verbalized Emotions in the Field Be Addressed in Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanas, Maija

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at how emotions in the field move from one context to another and between individuals, and how they change forms in an arctic Finnish village school. During the fieldwork, non-verbalized emotions influenced the events in the field and also penetrated the research. The paper asks how these non-verbalized emotions can be addressed…

  7. A Nonverbal Phoneme Deletion Task Administered in a Dynamic Assessment Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Fargo, Jamison; Foley, Beth; Olszewski, Abbie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to design a nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme deletion that may prove useful with individuals who demonstrate complex communication needs (CCN) and are unable to communicate using natural speech or who present with moderate-severe speech impairments. Method: A nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme…

  8. Nonverbal and Verbal Cognitive Discrepancy Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greaterÖ

  9. The Effect of Nonverbal Signals on Student Role-Play Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taute, Harry A.; Heiser, Robert S.; McArthur, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Although salespeople have long been urged to recognize and adapt to customer needs and wants by observing communications style and other cues or signals by the buyer, nonverbal communications by the salesperson have received much less empirical scrutiny. However, nonverbal communications may be important in this context; research in severalÖ

  10. Nonverbal Synchrony in Psychotherapy: Coordinated Body Movement Reflects Relationship Quality and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors quantified nonverbal synchrony--the coordination of patient's and therapist's movement--in a random sample of same-sex psychotherapy dyads. The authors contrasted nonverbal synchrony in these dyads with a control condition and assessed its association with session-level and overall psychotherapy outcome. Method: Using anÖ

  11. Nonverbal Imitation and Toddlers Mastery of Verbal Means of Achieving Coordinated Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckerman, Carol O.; Didow, Sharon M.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzed toddlers' verbal speech concurrent with nonverbal behavior. Fourteen dyads of unfamiliar peers were observed at 16, 20, 24, and 32 months of age. Found that six types of speech increased in frequency only after the peer partners had shown a marked increase in their readiness to imitate each others' nonverbal actions. (MOK)

  12. An Exploratory Analysis of the Effects of Complementary and Contradictory Nonverbal Cues on Conformity Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Harry; And Others

    Using a conformity research methodology, the authors investigated the questions of whether (a) the Asch-type conformity setting produces greater yielding than variant settings where subjects are screened from one another and (b) the nonverbal element of contradictory or inconsistent nonverbal communications significantly alters response to the…

  13. An Inquiry into the Educational Potential of Non-Verbal Communication. Final and Interim Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris-Meyer, Harold

    This document contains eight progress reports of a research project testing the assumption that communication at the nonverbal level affects a student's emotional involvement in the material he studies and this the learning process itself. The project attempted to establish the educational potential of nonverbal communication by measuringÖ

  14. Physicians' Nonverbal Rapport Building and Patients' Talk About the Subjective Component of Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Ashley P.; Parrott, Roxanne L.

    2001-01-01

    Considers how physicians' nonverbal communication is sometimes associated with patients' affective satisfaction. Examines the relationship between physicians' nonverbal rapport building and patients' disclosure of information related to the subjective component of illness. Considers implications for understanding the role of physicians' nonverbal…

  15. Nonverbal and Verbal Cognitive Discrepancy Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greater…

  16. The Interplay of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melson, Gail F.; Hulls, M. Johanna

    This paper discusses several studies related to the interplay of verbal and nonverbal communication in young children and presents educational implications of this research. Two areas of nonverbal communication are considered: kinesics, or the use of body movements as displays of affection and emotion and as regulators of communication, and…

  17. Longitudinal Genetic Study of Verbal and Nonverbal IQ from Early Childhood to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal genetic study we explored which factors underlie stability in verbal and nonverbal abilities, and the extent to which the association between these abilities becomes stronger as children grow older. Measures of verbal and nonverbal IQ were collected in Dutch twin pairs at age 5, 7, 10, 12 and 18 years. The stability of both…

  18. Nonverbal Disclosure of Deception and Interpersonal Affect. Technical Report No. 343.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.

    The present study explored the effect of verbal dissembling on nonverbal behavior. Subjects were 146 females who were led to be either truthful or deceptive verbally to a confederate. The underlying affective state of the subjects and the publicness of the interaction between subject and confederate were also varied experimentally. The nonverbalÖ

  19. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  20. A Study of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Second Life--The ARCHI21 Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional synthetic worlds introduce possibilities for nonverbal communication in computer-mediated language learning. This paper presents an original methodological framework for the study of multimodal communication in such worlds. It offers a classification of verbal and nonverbal communication acts in the synthetic world "Second Life"…

  1. Introducing and Evaluating the Behavior of Non-Verbal Features in the Virtual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dharmawansa, Asanka D.; Fukumura, Yoshimi; Marasinghe, Ashu; Madhuwanthi, R. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to introduce the behavior of non-verbal features of e-Learners in the virtual learning environment to establish a fair representation of the real user by an avatar who represents the e-Learner in the virtual environment and to distinguish the deportment of the non-verbal features during the virtual learning…

  2. Recognizing Non-Verbal Social Cues Promotes Social Performance in LD Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia

    2013-01-01

    The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined the…

  3. Recognizing Non-Verbal Social Cues Promotes Social Performance in LD Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia

    2013-01-01

    The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined theÖ

  4. "Date with an Angel": A Non-Verbal Communication Teaching Tip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Toni

    This paper presents a strategy for teaching non-verbal communication skills to students in high school or college. The strategy uses the movie "Date with an Angel" to teach the non-verbal skills. According to the paper, the activity can be used at the beginning of a unit or course to get the students interested in important concepts/aspects of…

  5. Reaping between the Lines: Non-Verbal Cues to the Journalistic Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, J. J.

    Maintaining that the nonverbal elements of communication are ultimately more significant than the verbal elements in determining the eventual success or failure of the journalistic interview, this paper attempts to assist journalists in understanding the complex and subtle nonverbal characteristics of the interview environment. Based on the…

  6. Nonverbal Behaviors in Developing Relationships: An Empirically-Based Descriptive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsea, Ken; Ashley, Dennis

    A study was designed to describe the nonverbal behaviors of two male/female couples as they initiated, maintained, and terminated their relationships. Over a five-month period, couple one met seven times and couple two met six times in a laboratory setting. During the meetings, observers coded the couples' nonverbal behaviors as eye gaze, smiles,…

  7. Universals of Nonverbal Behavior: A Review of Literature and Statement of Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Patrick H.

    Universals in nonverbal behavior represent an important issue in the study of the cross-cultural communication. Perhaps the most well-known research in nonverbal universals was conducted by Paul Ekman, who examined literate and preliterate cultures from various language groups and identified six universal facial expressions: happiness, sadness,…

  8. A Study of the Relationship between Kindergarten Nonverbal Ability and Third-Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    Increased scrutiny of educational proficiency targets has intensified the urgency for educators to identify measurements that indicate students' likelihood of eventual achievement in reading. This regression analysis explored the relationship between nonverbal ability in kindergarten as measured by the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT)…

  9. Le rire: aspect non verbal dans l'interaction (Laughter: A Nonverbal Aspect of Interaction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foerster, Cordula

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the kinds and uses of laughter in five adult introductory foreign language classes is presented. The importance of this form of nonverbal communication in the teaching situation is examined in the context of classroom ritual's effects on learners' nonverbal behavior. (MSE)

  10. Shake My Hand: Making the Right First Impression in Business with Nonverbal Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiemstra, Kathleen M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a hand shaking exercise dealing with making a good first impression with nonverbal communication. Asks students to list the characteristics of a good first impression. Discusses how the instructor teaches the students how to shake hands well. Discusses a broader approach regarding learning nonverbal behavior. (SC)

  11. The Complementary Effects of Empathy and Nonverbal Communication Training on Persuasion Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin T.; Leonhardt, James M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible complementary effects that training in empathy and nonverbal communication may have on persuasion capabilities. The narrative considers implications from the literature and describes an exploratory study in which students, in a managerial setting, were trained in empathy and nonverbal communication. Subsequent…

  12. Broader Autism Phenotype and Nonverbal Sensitivity: Evidence for an Association in the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between characteristics of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) and nonverbal sensitivity, the ability to interpret nonverbal aspects of communication, in a non-clinical sample of college students. One hundred and two participants completed a self-report measure of the BAP, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and…

  13. Assessing Nonverbal Communication Skills through Video Recording and Debriefing of Clinical Skill Simulation Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinerichs, Scott; Cattano, Nicole M.; Morrison, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Nonverbal communication (NVC) skills are a critical component to clinician interactions with patients, and no research exists on the investigation of athletic training students' nonverbal communication skills. Video recording and debriefing have been identified as methods to assess and educate students' NVC skills in other allied health…

  14. The Study of Non-Verbal Action of Counselees. Final Report. WSU-cord.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duetscher, John

    The author discusses: (1) the development of a review of the literature on the nonverbal behavior of clients in a counseling situation; and (2) the development of a tape for use in a Counseling Theories class to demonstrate the importance of listening carefully for nonverbal counselee cues. The literature review is broken down into 4 main areas of…

  15. The Use of Nonverbal Cues To Assess Affect and Effect in Communication Training and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollman, Steven A.; Gaut, Deborah Roach

    This paper was envisioned as largely a literature review, but surprisingly, there was very little to find besides a comprehensive body of information pertaining to nonverbal aspects of pedagogy almost exclusively dealing with management of the instructor's nonverbal behavior. The paper, therefore, presents what seems to be the most salient cues…

  16. Nonverbal Synchrony in Psychotherapy: Coordinated Body Movement Reflects Relationship Quality and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors quantified nonverbal synchrony--the coordination of patient's and therapist's movement--in a random sample of same-sex psychotherapy dyads. The authors contrasted nonverbal synchrony in these dyads with a control condition and assessed its association with session-level and overall psychotherapy outcome. Method: Using an…

  17. A Study of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Second Life--The ARCHI21 Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional synthetic worlds introduce possibilities for nonverbal communication in computer-mediated language learning. This paper presents an original methodological framework for the study of multimodal communication in such worlds. It offers a classification of verbal and nonverbal communication acts in the synthetic world "Second Life"Ö

  18. Nonverbal Communication, Music Therapy, and Autism: A Review of Literature and Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed…

  19. The Effect of Nonverbal Signals on Student Role-Play Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taute, Harry A.; Heiser, Robert S.; McArthur, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Although salespeople have long been urged to recognize and adapt to customer needs and wants by observing communications style and other cues or signals by the buyer, nonverbal communications by the salesperson have received much less empirical scrutiny. However, nonverbal communications may be important in this context; research in several…

  20. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Intervention Targeting Nonverbal Communication for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome and Related Pervasive Developmental Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhill, Gena P.; Cook, Katherine Tapscott; Tebbenkamp, Kelly; Myles, Brenda Smith

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-week social skills intervention targeting nonverbal communication for eight adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Although minimal nonverbal communication skills development was apparent, some social relationships were developed and the ability of some participants to read the nonverbal communication of…

  1. The Role of Pictures and Gestures as Nonverbal Aids in Preschoolers' Word Learning in a Novel Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Mullan, Bridget E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that presenting redundant nonverbal semantic information in the form of gestures and/or pictures may aid word learning in first and foreign languages. But do nonverbal supports help all learners equally? We address this issue by examining the role of gestures and pictures as nonverbal supports for word learning in a…

  2. Perceptual cues in nonverbal vocal expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Disa A; Eisner, Frank; Calder, Andrew J; Scott, Sophie K

    2010-11-01

    Work on facial expressions of emotions (Calder, Burton, Miller, Young, & Akamatsu, [2001]) and emotionally inflected speech (Banse & Scherer, [1996]) has successfully delineated some of the physical properties that underlie emotion recognition. To identify the acoustic cues used in the perception of nonverbal emotional expressions like laugher and screams, an investigation was conducted into vocal expressions of emotion, using nonverbal vocal analogues of the "basic" emotions (anger, fear, disgust, sadness, and surprise; Ekman & Friesen, [1971]; Scott et al., [1997]), and of positive affective states (Ekman, [1992], [2003]; Sauter & Scott, [2007]). First, the emotional stimuli were categorized and rated to establish that listeners could identify and rate the sounds reliably and to provide confusion matrices. A principal components analysis of the rating data yielded two underlying dimensions, correlating with the perceived valence and arousal of the sounds. Second, acoustic properties of the amplitude, pitch, and spectral profile of the stimuli were measured. A discriminant analysis procedure established that these acoustic measures provided sufficient discrimination between expressions of emotional categories to permit accurate statistical classification. Multiple linear regressions with participants' subjective ratings of the acoustic stimuli showed that all classes of emotional ratings could be predicted by some combination of acoustic measures and that most emotion ratings were predicted by different constellations of acoustic features. The results demonstrate that, similarly to affective signals in facial expressions and emotionally inflected speech, the perceived emotional character of affective vocalizations can be predicted on the basis of their physical features. PMID:20437296

  3. [Verbal and nonverbal intelligence in children with language development disorders].

    PubMed

    Willinger, U; Eisenwort, B

    1999-01-01

    Difficulties in language acquisition seem to be serious, if there are additional problems like intellectual and/or emotional/social impairment, which are often reported [10]. These additional problems and the definition of specific language impairment as a developmental disorder, restricted to language acquisition seem to be contradictory [17]. Aim of that study is to look for specific language impaired children with similar cognitive abilities and though to investigate, if there are children without additional cognitive problems considering the definition of specific language impairment. 93 children, between 4;0 and 6;6 years old, were diagnostized as specific language impaired (ICD-10) and were assessed by the "Hannover Wechsler Intelligenztest f√ľr das Vorschulalter (HAWIVA)" [6] (german version of WPPSI). Cluster analysis showed, that 1/3 of the specific language impaired children presented no additional cognitive problems and 2/3 of them showed cognitive problems regarding nonverbal and verbal intelligence indeed. These additional cognitive problems indicate that there may be a more basic cognitive defect underlying specific language impairment [15]--at least for a group of specific language impaired children. Furthermore the nonverbal and verbal intellectual difficulties emphasize to general developmental support of specific language impaired children for optimal improvement in language acquisition. PMID:10592924

  4. Nonverbal behavior of vendors in customer-vendor interaction.

    PubMed

    Amsbary, J H; Powell, L

    2007-04-01

    Two research questions were posed on the homophily theory of customer-vendor interactions: (a) do vendors show any nonverbal preference for Euro-American or African-American customers?; (b) do vendors demonstrate any nonverbal preference for customers with which they share racial homophily? The results supported the homophily theory for Euro-American customers in that there were significant interaction effects by race in facial expression (F = 5.33, p < .05), amount of speaking (F = 6.76, p < .01), tone of voice (F = 7.62, p < .01), and touching (F = 4.57, p < .05). Vendor behavior varied when the customer was Euro-American, with Euro-American vendors smiling more frequently (M = 4.05) than African-American vendors (M = 3.69), speaking more frequently (M = 3.57) than African-American vendors (M = 3.09), using a more friendly tone of voice (M = 3.59, and engaging in more touching behaviors (M = 1.81) than African-American vendors (M = 1.48). There was no significant difference in the behavior of Euro-American and African-American vendors when the customer was African-American. PMID:17566425

  5. How interviewers' nonverbal behaviors can affect children's perceptions and suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Almerigogna, Jehanne; Ost, James; Akehurst, Lucy; Fluck, Mike

    2008-05-01

    We conducted two studies to examine how interviewers' nonverbal behaviors affect children's perceptions and suggestibility. In the first study, 42 8- to 10-year-olds watched video clips showing an interviewer displaying combinations of supportive and nonsupportive nonverbal behaviors and were asked to rate the interviewer on six attributes (e.g., friendliness, strictness). Smiling received high ratings on the positive attributes (i.e., friendly, helpful, and sincere), and fidgeting received high ratings on the negative attributes (i.e., strict, bored, and stressed). For the second study, 86 8- to 10-year-olds participated in a learning activity about the vocal chords. One week later, they were interviewed individually about the activity by an interviewer adopting either the supportive (i.e., smiling) or nonsupportive (i.e., fidgeting) behavior. Children questioned by the nonsupportive interviewer were less accurate and more likely to falsely report having been touched than were those questioned by the supportive interviewer. Children questioned by the supportive interviewer were also more likely to say that they did not know an answer than were children questioned by the nonsupportive interviewer. Participants in both conditions gave more correct answers to questions about central, as opposed to peripheral, details of the activity. Implications of these findings for the appropriate interviewing of child witnesses are discussed. PMID:18316091

  6. Development of the Teacher Assessment of Student Communicative Competence (TASCC) for Grades 1 through 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann R.; McCauley, Rebecca; Guitar, Barry

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the development and possible applications of the Teacher Assessment of Student Communicative Competencies (TASCC) for use with students in the first through fifth grades. The TASCC allowed 20 teachers to successfully observe and measure their students' verbal and nonverbal communicative abilities and use of compensatory…

  7. An Investigation of the Teacher Behavior of Wait-Time During an Inquiry Science Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Thaddeus W.

    This study was designed to investigate the nonverbal teacher behavior of wait-time. Wait-time is the silence in a conversation following a teacher or student utterance. The primary purpose of the investigation was to document some of the behavioral and cognitive effects of wait-time and to delineate the interrelationships between the various forms…

  8. Children's Talking and Listening within the Classroom: Teachers' Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Coplan, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that social communication (verbal and non-verbal) plays a key role in students' and teachers' elementary-school experiences. Within the framework of sociocognitive developmental theory, this qualitative study investigates teachers' experiences and perceptions of children's talking and listening habits within…

  9. The Construct of Emotion in the Study of Nonverbal Communication: A Need for Definition and Greater Consideration for the Influences of Socialization and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ed

    Nonverbal communicative behaviors are a primary channel for emotional expression. Emotions, in turn, strongly influence nonverbal communication displays. Thus, the role of emotions should be a central consideration in nonverbal communication studies. A study examined 34 articles, published in the "Journal of Nonverbal Behavior" between 1976 and…

  10. Predicting FCI gain with a nonverbal intelligence test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semak, M. R.; Dietz, R. D.; Pearson, R. H.; Willis, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    We have administered both a commercial, nonverbal intelligence test (the GAMA) and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning to students in two introductory physics classes to determine if either test can successfully predict normalized gains on the Force Concept Inventory. Since gain on the FCI is known to be related to gender, we adopted a linear model with gain on the FCI as the dependent variable and gender and a test score as the independent variables. We found that the GAMA score did not predict a significant amount of variation beyond gender. Lawson's test, however, did predict a small but significant variation beyond gender. When simple linear regressions were run separately for males and females with the Lawson score as a predictor, we found that the Lawson score did not significantly predict gains for females but was a marginally significant predictor for males.

  11. Philosophy and the Role of Teacher Reflections on Constructing Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Colette

    2007-01-01

    Verbal and non-verbal communication interactions have a strong influence on the social construction of gender. Therefore understanding the classroom interaction structures and the subsequent socio-cultural context is a vital commitment for any teacher. Furthermore, since gender is constructed in the day-to-day interactions of children's lives,…

  12. The Communicative Approach to Foreign Language Teaching. The Teacher's Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolle, Dora; Willems, Gerard M.

    To accomplish successful communicative foreign language teaching, a teacher needs more than a sound command of the language and thorough training in communicative methodology. He or she also needs training in self-presentation, exposure to situations in which the importance of non-verbal behavior is made clear, and discussion of the fundamental…

  13. Further Validation of the Learning Alliance Inventory: The Roles of Working Alliance, Rapport, and Immediacy in Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    This study further examined the reliability and validity of the Learning Alliance Inventory (LAI), a self-report measure designed to assess the working alliance between a student and a teacher. The LAI was found to have good internal consistency and test--retest reliability, and it demonstrated the predicted convergence with measures of immediacy…

  14. Birth order effects on nonverbal IQ scores in autism multiplex families.

    PubMed

    Spiker, D; Lotspeich, L J; Dimiceli, S; Szatmari, P; Myers, R M; Risch, N

    2001-10-01

    Lord (1992) published a brief report showing a trend for decreasing nonverbal IQ scores with increasing birth order in a sample of 16 autism multiplex families, and urged replication in a larger sample. In this report, analyses of nonverbal IQ scores for a sample of 144 autism multiplex families indicated that nonverbal IQ scores were significantly lower in secondborn compared with firstborn siblings with autism. This birth order effect was independent of gender as well as the age differences within sib pairs. No such birth order effects were found for social or communicative deficits as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), but there was a modest tendency for increased scores for ritualistic behaviors for the firstborn sibs. Further, there were no gender differences on nonverbal IQ scores in this sample. Results are discussed in terms of implications for genetic studies of autism. PMID:11794410

  15. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-verbal Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.

  16. The natural order of events: How speakers of different languages represent events nonverbally

    PubMed Central

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; So, Wing Chee; √Ėzy√ľrek, AslńĪ; Mylander, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    To test whether the language we speak influences our behavior even when we are not speaking, we asked speakers of four languages differing in their predominant word orders (English, Turkish, Spanish, and Chinese) to perform two nonverbal tasks: a communicative task (describing an event by using gesture without speech) and a noncommunicative task (reconstructing an event with pictures). We found that the word orders speakers used in their everyday speech did not influence their nonverbal behavior. Surprisingly, speakers of all four languages used the same order and on both nonverbal tasks. This order, actor‚Äďpatient‚Äďact, is analogous to the subject‚Äďobject‚Äďverb pattern found in many languages of the world and, importantly, in newly developing gestural languages. The findings provide evidence for a natural order that we impose on events when describing and reconstructing them nonverbally and exploit when constructing language anew. PMID:18599445

  17. Why introverts can't always tell who likes them: multitasking and nonverbal decoding.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, M D; Rosenthal, R

    2001-02-01

    Despite personality theories suggesting that extraversion correlates with social skill, most studies have not found a positive correlation between extraversion and nonverbal decoding. The authors propose that introverts are less able to multitask and thus are poorer at nonverbal decoding, but only when it is a secondary task. Prior research has uniformly extracted the nonverbal decoding from its multitasking context and, consequently, never tested this hypothesis. In Studies 1-3, introverts exhibited a nonverbal decoding deficit, relative to extraverts, but only when decoding was a secondary rather than a primary task within a multitasking context. In Study 4, extraversion was found to correlate with central executive efficiency (r = .42) but not with storage capacity (r = .04). These results are discussed in terms of arousal theories of extraversion and the role of catecholamines (dopamine and norepinephrine) in prefrontal function. PMID:11220447

  18. Audience perceptions of candidates' appropriateness as a function of nonverbal behaviors displayed during televised political debates.

    PubMed

    Seiter, John S; Weger, Harry

    2005-04-01

    Compared to televised debates using a single-screen format, such debates using a split screen presenting both debaters simultaneously show viewers the nonverbal reactions of each debater's opponent. The authors examined how appropriate or inappropriate such nonverbal behaviors are perceived to be. Students watched one of four versions of a televised debate. One version used a single-screen format, showing only the speaker, whereas the other three versions used a split-screen format in which the speaker's oppodent displayed constant, occasional, or no nonverbal disagreement with the speaker. Students then rated the debaters' appropriateness. Analysis indicated that the opponent was perceived to be less appropriate when he displayed any background disagreement compared to when he did not. The students perceived the speaker as most appropriate when his opponent displayed constant nonverbal disagreement. PMID:15816349

  19. The Nonverbal Transmission of Intergroup Bias: A Model of Bias Contagion with Implications for Social Policy

    PubMed Central

    Weisbuch, Max; Pauker, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Social and policy interventions over the last half-century have achieved laudable reductions in blatant discrimination. Yet members of devalued social groups continue to face subtle discrimination. In this article, we argue that decades of anti-discrimination interventions have failed to eliminate intergroup bias because such bias is contagious. We present a model of bias contagion in which intergroup bias is subtly communicated through nonverbal behavior. Exposure to such nonverbal bias ‚Äúinfects‚ÄĚ observers with intergroup bias. The model we present details two means by which nonverbal bias can be expressed‚ÄĒeither as a veridical index of intergroup bias or as a symptom of worry about appearing biased. Exposure to this nonverbal bias can increase perceivers‚Äô own intergroup biases through processes of implicit learning, informational influence, and normative influence. We identify critical moderators that may interfere with these processes and consequently propose several social and educational interventions based on these moderators. PMID:23997812

  20. An Electrical Communication System for a Nonverbal, Profoundly Retarded Spastic Quadriplegic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucherawy, David A.; Kucherawy, Jenny M.

    1978-01-01

    The article describes the use of an electrical communication system (the Cocom Center Model 25) to establish communication with and more accurately assess an apparently profoundly retarded, nonverbal, 28-year-old spastic quadriplegic female. (Author/PHR)

  1. Hearing Loss is Associated with Decreased Nonverbal Intelligence in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Susan D.; Schmitz, Jane; Pillion, Joseph; Wu, Lee; Khatry, Subarna K.; Karna, Sureshwar L.; LeClerq, Steven C.; West, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the association between adolescent and young adult hearing loss and nonverbal intelligence in rural Nepal Study Design Cross-sectional assessment of hearing loss among a population cohort of adolescents and young adults Setting Sarlahi District, southern Nepal Patients 764 individuals aged 14‚Äď23 years Intervention Evaluation of hearing loss, defined by WHO criteria of pure-tone average (PTA) >25 decibels (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz), unilaterally and bilaterally Main Outcome Measure Nonverbal intelligence, measured by the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, 3rd Edition (TONI-3) standardized score (mean 100; standard deviation (SD) 15) Results Nonverbal intelligence scores differed between participants with normal hearing and those with bilateral (p =0.04) but not unilateral (p =0.74) hearing loss. Demographic and socioeconomic factors including male sex, higher caste, literacy, education level, occupation reported as student, and ownership of a bicycle, watch, and latrine were strongly associated with higher nonverbal intelligence scores (all p <0.001). Subjects with bilateral hearing loss scored an average of 3.16 points lower (95% CI: ‚ąí5.56, ‚ąí0.75; p =0.01) than subjects with normal hearing after controlling for socioeconomic factors. There was no difference in nonverbal intelligence score based on unilateral hearing loss (0.97; 95% CI: ‚ąí1.67, 3.61; p =0.47). Conclusions Nonverbal intelligence is adversely affected by bilateral hearing loss, even at mild hearing loss levels. Social and economic well being appear compromised in individuals with lower nonverbal intelligence test scores. PMID:25299832

  2. On Manipulating Nonverbal Interaction Style to Increase Anthropomorphic Computer Character Credibility

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2003-09-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of enhancing humanagentinteraction through the use of nonverbal behaviors. Ataxonomy is described, which organizes nonverbal behaviorsinto functional categories and the manner in which they can beembodied (i.e. through gesture, posture, paralanguage, eyecontact and facial expression). Prototype computer characterswere created according to guidelines extracted from thetaxonomy and their efficacy was empirical evaluated. Theresults indicate that by including trusting nonverbal behaviors,the perceived credibility of a computer character was enhanced,although addition of trusting bodily nonverbal behaviorprovided little in addition to trusting facial nonverbal behavior.Perhaps more importantly, a character expressing non-trustingnonverbal behaviors was perceived to be the least credible of allcharacters examined (including a character that expressed nononverbal behavior). Participants that interacted with thispersona perceived the task to be more demanding, madesignificantly more errors, and rated their interaction lesspositively and more monotonous than those using trustingpersonas. They also rated this character to be less likable,accurate, and intelligent. Taken together, the results from thisstudy suggest that there may indeed be benefit to endowingcomputer characters with nonverbal trusting behaviors, as longas those behaviors are accurately and appropriately portrayed.Such behaviors may lead to a more trusting environment andpositive experience for users. Negative character behavior,however, such as non-trusting behavior, may squander theadvantages that embodiment brings.

  3. What Is Suspicious When Trying to be Inconspicuous? Criminal Intentions Inferred From Nonverbal Behavioral Cues.

    PubMed

    Koller, Corinne I; Wetter, Olive E; Hofer, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates whether nonverbal behavioral cues to hidden criminal intentions during the build-up phase of a criminal act can be measured. To this end, we created recordings of actors once in a search situation and once committing a mock crime (theft or bomb placing) in a public crowded area. For ecological validation, we used authentic CCTV footage of real crimes in Experiment I. In this experiment, the two behavioral clusters pattern of movement in space and nonverbal communication behavior were analyzed. The results showed a deviance in pattern of movement in space for offenders' compared with the nonoffenders' condition as well as a bystanders' baseline. There was no significant difference between nonverbal communication behavior in the offenders' and nonoffenders' conditions. Experiment 2 was conducted to examine the two behavior clusters use of object- and self-adaptors while controlling for interpersonal differences. The results showed an increased use of object- and decreased use of self-adaptors during the build-up phase of a mock crime compared with a control condition (search). Thus, nonverbal behavior of offenders seems to differ from nonverbal behavior of nonoffenders. However, this holds only under the conditions of a valid baseline and of judging not only a single, typical behavioral cue but a whole cluster of nonverbal behaviors, such as pattern of movement in space or use of object-adaptors in general. PMID:26489210

  4. Ethnic Differences in Nonverbal Pain Behaviors Observed in Older Adults with Dementia.

    PubMed

    Ford, Brianne; Snow, A Lynn; Herr, Keela; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2015-10-01

    Research supports using nonverbal pain behaviors to identify pain in persons with dementia. It is unknown whether variations exist among ethnic groups in the expression of nonverbal pain behaviors in this special population. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine ethnic differences in the presentation and intensity of nonverbal pain behaviors among African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic older adults with dementia when screened for pain by certified nursing assistants. Six certified nursing assistants were trained to review and score 28 video recordings of subjects with dementia for nonverbal pain behaviors using the Non-Communicative Patient's Pain Assessment Instrument. Chi-square was used to examine differences among ethnic groups with regard to the display of nonverbal pain behaviors, and ANOVA was used to evaluate differences in the intensity of overall pain across ethnic groups. Of the 168 assessments, pain words (28%), pain noises (29.8%), and pain faces (28%) were observed most often as indicators of pain. Rubbing, bracing, and restlessness were rarely noted. Chi-square analysis revealed ethnic differences in the expression of pain words (Ōá(2)¬†=¬†19.167, p¬†<¬†.001). No significant differences were noted across ethnic groups with regards to overall pain intensity. These findings are the first to examine ethnic differences in nonverbal pain behaviors for older adults with dementia. However, future work should examine assessment tendencies of providers in a larger, more diverse sample. PMID:25962546

  5. The Effect of Parkinson's Disease Subgroups on Verbal and Nonverbal Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Jaywant, Abhishek; Musto, Giovanni; Neargarder, Sandy; Gilbert, Karina Stavitsky; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease (PD) leads to deficits in executive function, including verbal and nonverbal fluency, as a result of compromised fronto-striatal circuits. It is unknown whether deficits in verbal and nonverbal fluency in PD are driven by certain subgroups of patients, or how strategy use may facilitate performance. Participants Sixty-five non-demented individuals with PD, including 36 with right-body onset (RPD; 20 with tremor as their initial symptom, 16 non-tremor) and 29 with left-body onset (LPD; 14 with tremor as their initial symptom, 15 non-tremor), and 52 normal control participants (NC). Measurements Verbal fluency was assessed using the FAS and Animals tests. Nonverbal fluency was assessed using the Ruff Figural Fluency Test. Results Both RPD and LPD were impaired in generating words and in using clustering and switching strategies on phonemic verbal fluency, whereas different patterns of impairment were found on nonverbal fluency depending on the interaction of side of onset and initial motor symptom (tremor vs. non-tremor). Strategy use correlated with number of correct responses on verbal fluency in LPD, RPD, and NC. By contrast, on nonverbal fluency, strategy use correlated with correct responses for RPD and LPD, but not for NC. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering subgroups in PD and analyzing subcomponents of verbal and nonverbal fluency (correct responses, errors, and strategies), which may depend differently on the integrity of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. PMID:24533593

  6. Further analysis of a doctor-patient nonverbal communication instrument.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Timothy J; Hartung, Paul J; Gerzina, Holly; Gregory, Stanford W; Merolla, Dave

    2005-06-01

    This study examines the reliability and validity of the relational communication scale for observational measurement (RCS-O) using a random sample of 80 videotaped interactions of medical students interviewing standardized patients (SPs). The RCS-O is a 34-item instrument designed to measure the nonverbal communication of physicians interacting with patients. The instrument was applied and examined in two different interview scenarios. In the first scenario (year 1), the medical student's interview objective is to demonstrate patient-centered interviewing skills as the SP presents with a psychosocial concern. In the second scenario (year 3), the student's interview objective is to demonstrate both doctor-centered and patient-centered skills as the SP presents with a case common in primary care. In the year 1 scenario, 19 of the 34 RCS-O items met acceptable levels of inter-rater agreement and reliability. In the year 3 scenario, 26 items met acceptable levels of inter-rater agreement and reliability. Factor analysis indicated that in both scenarios each of the four primary relational communication dimensions was salient: intimacy, composure, formality, and dominance. Measures of correlation and differences involving the RCS-O dimensions and structural features of the interviews (e.g., number of questions asked by the medical student) are examined. PMID:15893207

  7. Socialization and nonverbal communication in atypically developing infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Konst, Matthew J; Matson, Johnny L; Goldin, Rachel L; Williams, Lindsey W

    2014-12-01

    Emphasis on early identification of atypical development has increased as evidence supporting the efficacy of intervention has grown. These increases have also directly affected the availability of funding and providers of early intervention services. A majority of research has focused on interventions specific to an individual's primary diagnoses. For example, interventions for those with cerebral palsy (CP) have traditionally focused on physiological symptoms, while intervention for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) focus on socialization, communication, and restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. However deficits in areas other than those related to their primary diagnoses (e.g., communication, adaptive behaviors, and social skills) are prevalent in atypically developing populations and are significant predictors of quality of life. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine impairments in socialization and nonverbal communication in individuals with Down's syndrome (DS), CP, and those with CP and comorbid ASD. Individuals with comorbid CP and ASD exhibited significantly greater impairments than any diagnostic group alone. However, individuals with CP also exhibited significantly greater impairments than those with DS. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25200676

  8. Estimating Working Memory Capacity for Lists of Nonverbal Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dawei; Cowan, Nelson; Saults, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Working memory (WM) capacity limit has been extensively studied in the domains of visual and verbal stimuli. Previous studies have suggested a fixed WM capacity of typically about 3 or 4 items, based on the number of items in working memory reaching a plateau after several items as the set size increases. However, the fixed WM capacity estimate appears to rely on categorical information in the stimulus set (Olsson & Poom, 2005). We designed a series of experiments to investigate nonverbal auditory WM capacity and its dependence on categorical information. Experiments 1 and 2 used simple tones and revealed capacity limit of up to 2 tones following a 6-s retention interval. Importantly, performance was significantly higher at set sizes 2, 3, and 4 when the frequency difference between target and test tones was relatively large. In Experiment 3, we added categorical information to the simple tones, and the effect of tone change magnitude decreased. Maximal capacity for each individual was just over 3 sounds, in the range of typical visual procedures. We propose that two types of information, categorical and detailed acoustic information, are kept in WM, and that categorical information is critical for high WM performance. PMID:23143913

  9. Spatial attention determines the nature of nonverbal number representation.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Daniel C; Wood, Justin N

    2011-09-01

    Coordinated studies of adults, infants, and nonhuman animals provide evidence for two systems of nonverbal number representation: a "parallel individuation" system that represents individual items and a "numerical magnitude" system that represents the approximate cardinal value of a group. However, there is considerable debate about the nature and functions of these systems, due largely to the fact that some studies show a dissociation between small (1-3) and large (>3) number representation, whereas others do not. Using event-related potentials, we show that it is possible to determine which system will represent the numerical value of a small number set (1-3 items) by manipulating spatial attention. Specifically, when attention can select individual objects, an early brain response (N1) scales with the cardinal value of the display, the signature of parallel individuation. In contrast, when attention cannot select individual objects or is occupied by another task, a later brain response (P2p) scales with ratio, the signature of the approximate numerical magnitude system. These results provide neural evidence that small numbers can be represented as approximate numerical magnitudes. Further, they empirically demonstrate the importance of early attentional processes to number representation by showing that the way in which attention disperses across a scene determines which numerical system will deploy in a given context. PMID:20961170

  10. Verbal and nonverbal cognitive control in bilinguals and interpreters.

    PubMed

    Woumans, Evy; Ceuleers, Evy; Van der Linden, Lize; Szmalec, Arnaud; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-09-01

    The present study explored the relation between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in different bilingual populations. We compared monolinguals, Dutch-French unbalanced bilinguals, balanced bilinguals, and interpreters on the Simon task (Simon & Rudell, 1967) and the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002). All bilingual groups showed a smaller congruency effect in the Simon task than the monolingual group. They were also faster overall in the ANT. Furthermore, interpreters outperformed unbalanced, but not balanced, bilinguals in terms of overall accuracy on both tasks. In the ANT, the error congruency effect was significantly smaller for interpreters and balanced bilinguals. Using a measure of switching fluency in language production, this study also found direct evidence for a relation between language control and executive control. This relation was only observed in balanced bilinguals, where fluent switching was correlated with the Simon effect. These findings support the existence of a bilingual advantage and also indicate that different patterns of bilingual language use modulate the nature and extent of a cognitive control advantage in multilingual populations. PMID:25689001

  11. Foetal antiepileptic drug exposure and verbal versus non-verbal abilities at three years of age

    PubMed Central

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled pregnant females with epilepsy on monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study seeks to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin and valproate). This report compares verbal versus non-verbal cognitive outcomes in 216 children who completed testing at the age of three years. Verbal and non-verbal index scores were calculated from the Differential Ability Scales, Preschool Language Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Verbal abilities were lower than non-verbal in children exposed in utero to each drug. Preconceptional folate use was associated with higher verbal outcomes. Valproate was associated with poorer cognitive outcomes. Performance was negatively associated with valproate dose for both verbal and non-verbal domains and negatively associated with carbamazepine dose for verbal performance. No dose effects were seen for lamotrigine and phenytoin. Since foetal antiepileptic drug exposure is associated with lower verbal than non-verbal abilities, language may be particularly susceptible to foetal exposure. We hypothesize that foetal drug exposure may alter normal cerebral lateralization. Further, a dose-dependent relationship is present for both lower verbal and non-verbal abilities with valproate and for lower verbal abilities with carbamazepine. Preconceptional folate may improve cognitive outcomes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings, extend the study to other drugs, define the risks associated with drug treatment for seizures in the neonates, and understand the underlying mechanisms. PMID:21224309

  12. Nonverbal Synchrony in Social Interactions of Patients with Schizophrenia Indicates Socio-Communicative Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Kupper, Zeno; Ramseyer, Fabian; Hoffmann, Holger; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background Disordered interpersonal communication can be a serious problem in schizophrenia. Recent advances in computer-based measures allow reliable and objective quantification of nonverbal behavior. Research using these novel measures has shown that objective amounts of body and head movement in patients with schizophrenia during social interactions are closely related to the symptom profiles of these patients. In addition to and above mere amounts of movement, the degree of synchrony, or imitation, between patients and normal interactants may be indicative of core deficits underlying various problems in domains related to interpersonal communication, such as symptoms, social competence, and social functioning. Methods Nonverbal synchrony was assessed objectively using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA) in 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia. Results Low nonverbal synchrony was indicative of symptoms, low social competence, impaired social functioning, and low self-evaluation of competence. These relationships remained largely significant when correcting for the amounts of patients‚Äė movement. When patients showed reduced imitation of their interactants‚Äô movements, negative symptoms were likely to be prominent. Conversely, positive symptoms were more prominent in patients when their interaction partners‚Äô imitation of their movements was reduced. Conclusions Nonverbal synchrony can be an objective and sensitive indicator of the severity of patients‚Äô problems. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nonverbal synchrony may provide novel insights into specific relationships between symptoms, cognition, and core communicative problems in schizophrenia. PMID:26716444

  13. Nurses' beliefs and self-reported practices related to pain assessment in nonverbal patients.

    PubMed

    Wysong, Peggy Rupp

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the beliefs and self-reported practices of nurses related to pain assessment in nonverbal patients. A convenience sample of 74 nurses from one Midwestern community hospital responded to a researcher-developed questionnaire based on established pain standards and clinical practice recommendations. Areas of nonverbal pain assessment beliefs and practices with low scores were identified. One-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc tests showed a significant difference in belief scores based on unit worked. No significant differences in beliefs or practices were found based on age, years of experience, or degree. Paired t tests showed significant differences between general pain beliefs and nonverbal pain beliefs, between general pain beliefs and practices, and between nonverbal pain beliefs and practices. Additional testing using Pearson correlation coefficients demonstrated that only three out of seven questions relating to beliefs were significantly correlated with similar questions related to practices. Good reliability of the instrument was demonstrated by Cronbach alpha coefficient őĪ = 0.82. Recommendations include further education for hospital nurses related to pain assessment standards in nonverbal patients, as well as utilization of techniques to integrate this knowledge into nurses' belief systems and practice environment. PMID:24602435

  14. Sensory processing in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relationship with non-verbal IQ, autism severity and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Cervera, Pilar; Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; FernŠndez-Andrťs, Maria-Inmaculada; TŠrraga-MŪnguez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze in a sample of children with ASD the relationship between sensory processing, social participation and praxis impairments and some of the child's characteristics, such as non-verbal IQ, severity of ASD symptoms and the number of ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), both in the home and main-classroom environments. Participants were the parents and teachers of 41 children with ASD from 5 to 8 years old (M=6.09). They completed the Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) to evaluate sensory processing, social participation and praxis; the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS-2) to evaluate autism severity; and a set of items (the DSM-IV-TR criteria) to evaluate the number of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in the child. Non-verbal IQ - measured by the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices Test - did not show a relationship with any of the SPM variables. The SPM variables were significant predictors of autism severity and had similar weights in the two environments. In the case of ADHD symptoms, the SPM variables had a greater weight in the home than in the classroom environment, and they were significant predictors of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity - especially inattention - only in the family context. The moderate association between inattention and auditory processing found in the main-classroom suggests the possible utility of certain measures aimed to simplify any classroom's acoustic environment. PMID:26263405

  15. Effects of nonverbal behavior on perceptions of a female employee's power bases.

    PubMed

    Aguinis, H; Henle, C A

    2001-08-01

    The authors extended a previous examination of the effects of nonverbal behavior on perceptions of a male employee's power bases (H. Aguinis, M. M. Simonsen, & C. A. Pierce, 1998) by examining the effects of nonverbal behavior on perceptions of a female employee's power bases. U.S. undergraduates read vignettes describing a female employee engaging in 3 types of nonverbal behavior (i.e., eye contact, facial expression, body posture) and rated their perceptions of the woman's power bases (i.e., reward, coercive, legitimate, referent, expert, credibility). As predicted, (a) direct eye contact increased perceptions of coercive power, and (b) a relaxed facial expression decreased perceptions of all 6 power bases. Also as predicted, the present results differed markedly from those of Aguinis et al. (1998) regarding a male employee. The authors discuss implications for theory, future research, and the advancement of female employees. PMID:11577851

  16. The others: universals and cultural specificities in the perception of status and dominance from nonverbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Bente, Gary; Leuschner, Haug; Al Issa, Ahmad; Blascovich, James J

    2010-09-01

    The current study analyzes trans-cultural universalities and specificities in the recognition of status roles, dominance perception and social evaluation based on nonverbal cues. Using a novel methodology, which allowed to mask clues to ethnicity and cultural background of the agents, we compared impression of Germans, Americans and Arabs observing computer-animated interactions from the three countries. Only in the German stimulus sample the status roles (employee vs. supervisor) could be recognized above chance level. However we found significant correlations in dominance perception across all countries. Significant correlations were only found for evaluation between German observers and observers from the other two countries. Perceived dominance uniformly predicted the assignment of status-roles in all cultures. Microanalysis of movement behavior further revealed predictive value of specific nonverbal cues for dominance ratings. Results support the hypothesis of universalities in the processing of dominance cues and point to cultural specificities in evaluative responses to nonverbal behavior. PMID:20630775

  17. Sensory Symptoms and Processing of Nonverbal Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Claire R; Sanchez, Sandra S; Grenesko, Emily L; Brown, Christine M; Chen, Colleen P; Keehn, Brandon; Velasquez, Francisco; Lincoln, Alan J; M√ľller, Ralph-Axel

    2016-05-01

    Atypical sensory responses are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While evidence suggests impaired auditory-visual integration for verbal information, findings for nonverbal stimuli are inconsistent. We tested for sensory symptoms in children with ASD (using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile) and examined unisensory and bisensory processing with a nonverbal auditory-visual paradigm, for which neurotypical adults show bisensory facilitation. ASD participants reported more atypical sensory symptoms overall, most prominently in the auditory modality. On the experimental task, reduced response times for bisensory compared to unisensory trials were seen in both ASD and control groups, but neither group showed significant race model violation (evidence of intermodal integration). Findings do not support impaired bisensory processing for simple nonverbal stimuli in high-functioning children with ASD. PMID:25652601

  18. A Review of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT): An Advance for Evaluating Youngsters with Diverse Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Christopher J.; Flanagan, Rosemary

    2002-01-01

    The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) is reviewed and critiqued. The UNIT is a completely nonverbal test that can be administered as a screening battery, a standard battery for special education eligibility decisions, or as an extended battery for diagnostic purposes. Implications for school psychology practice and research areÖ

  19. Non-Verbal Behavior of Children Who Disclose or Do Not Disclose Child Abuse in Investigative Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lamb, Michael E.; Atabaki, Armita; Spindler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identifyÖ

  20. A Study of Nonverbal Communication and Leadership Emergence in Task-Oriented and Informal Small Group Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Arline; And Others

    Fifty volunteer undergraduate students majoring in speech pathology and audiology at the University of North Dakota tested the following hypotheses: (1) leaders exhibit significantly more nonverbal cues than do nonleaders in task-oriented and informal small groups; (2) members of task-oriented small groups exhibit significantly more nonverbal cues…

  1. The Effects of Nonverbal Skill on Dimensions of Global Personality: Six Correlational and Nine Experimental Replicated Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinzing, Hans Gerhard; Aloisio, Bernadette Gerada

    2007-01-01

    A research-based program was designed for the improvement of decoding and encoding nonverbal cues as they are important aspects of successful communication and teaching. To extend the scientific base of the program, six correlational studies (N=784) investigated relationships between nonverbal skill and personality dimensions. Low non-significant…

  2. A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy for Eliciting Speech in Nonverbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandiford, Givona A.; Mainess, Karen J.; Daher, Noha S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant…

  3. Counselor Nonverbal Self-Disclosure and Fear of Intimacy during Employment Counseling: An Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrein, Cindy; Bernaud, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of nonverbal self-disclosure within the dynamic of aptitude-treatment interaction. Participants (N = 94) watched a video of a career counseling session aimed at helping the jobseeker to find employment. The video was then edited to display 3 varying degrees of nonverbal self-disclosure. In conjunction with the…

  4. Counselor Nonverbal Self-Disclosure and Fear of Intimacy during Employment Counseling: An Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrein, Cindy; Bernaud, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of nonverbal self-disclosure within the dynamic of aptitude-treatment interaction. Participants (N = 94) watched a video of a career counseling session aimed at helping the jobseeker to find employment. The video was then edited to display 3 varying degrees of nonverbal self-disclosure. In conjunction with theÖ

  5. An Investigation of Nonverbal Cue Combinations and the Validity of Aggregation Measurement Techniques in a Spontaneous Persuasive Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, David B.

    A study was conducted to examine the presence and composition of nonverbal cues exhibited in a spontaneous dyadic interaction and to investigate the assumption that cue variation is inconsequential to the effect of nonverbal behavior implicit in methods that aggregate cue incidence across interactions. Subjects, 110 college undergraduates, worked…

  6. A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy for Eliciting Speech in Nonverbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandiford, Givona A.; Mainess, Karen J.; Daher, Noha S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significantÖ

  7. Non-Verbal Behavior of Children Who Disclose or Do Not Disclose Child Abuse in Investigative Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lamb, Michael E.; Atabaki, Armita; Spindler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identify…

  8. Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Effect of Verbal and Nonverbal Task Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botting, Nicola; Psarou, Popi; Caplin, Tamara; Nevin, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background and Design: In recent years, evidence has emerged that suggests specific language impairment (SLI) does not exclusively affect linguistic skill. Studies have revealed memory difficulties, including those measured using nonverbal tasks. However, there has been relatively little research into the nature of the verbal/nonverbal boundaries…

  9. Genetic and Environmental Mediation of the Relationship between Language and Nonverbal Impairment in 4-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viding, Essi; Price, Thomas S.; Spinath, Frank M.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This study of 4-year-old twins investigated the genetic and environmental origins of comorbidity between language impairment and nonverbal ability by testing the extent to which language impairment in one twin predicted nonverbal ability in the co-twin. Impairment of language ability was defined as scores below the 15th percentile on a general…

  10. Nonverbal Communication: Increasing Awareness in the General Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battersby, Sharyn L.

    2009-01-01

    Busy music teachers try to strike a balance between everything that they want to accomplish in a lesson and the constraints of their own teaching circumstances. What is sometimes overlooked in their efforts to fulfill their expectations is how their students really see them and what they are communicating to them with their bodies. Nonverbal…

  11. Nonverbal Communication: Implications for the Global Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battersby, Sharyn L.; Bolton, Jami

    2013-01-01

    Many American schools today have richly diverse classrooms composed of immigrants with a limited vocabulary or little command of the English language. Now more than ever, music educators must explore new, creative, and effective ways to communicate with this ever-changing student population. Although most teachers rely primarily on verbal…

  12. The role of nonverbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined the relationship between nonverbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10years matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntactic processing and a visual N-Back task and Corsi Blocks task to measure nonverbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher nonverbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that nonverbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge. PMID:26550957

  13. Can't You See What I'm Saying. A Study of Non-Verbal Communication. An Alpha Study Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Storti, Anthony J.; And Others

    The unit on nonverbal communication is designed for presentation to elementary, middle, and junior high school gifted students. An introductory section lists four unit objectives leading to awareness of the nonverbal communication transmitted by students themselves and by others; expression and understanding of the nonverbal messages of gestures,…

  14. Taking a Stance through Visual Texts: Novice Teachers as Educational Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orland-Barak, Lily; Maskit, Ditza

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative methodologies that integrate verbal and non-verbal texts, this study investigated novice teachers' attributions of their experiences of internship, as conveyed through a visual text. Novices were invited to design a visual text that represented their experience during internship, as part of a national call entitledÖ

  15. Gesture and Speech in the Vocabulary Explanations of One ESL Teacher: A Microanalytic Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaraton, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This article takes a microanalytic perspective on the speech and gestures used by one teacher of English as a second language in her intensive English program classroom. Videotaped excerpts from her intermediate-level grammar course were transcribed to represent the speech, gesture, and other nonverbal behavior that accompanied unplanned…

  16. Dealing with Conflict and Aggression in the Classroom: What Skills Do Teachers Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Teachers need to be trained in skills for coping with increasing conflict and aggression in the classroom. Specifically, they need to be able to (1) teach social problem solving and conflict resolution skills; (2) implement verbal and nonverbal intervention techniques; and (3) physically intervene, when necessary, to protect all concerned.…

  17. Taking a Stance through Visual Texts: Novice Teachers as Educational Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orland-Barak, Lily; Maskit, Ditza

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative methodologies that integrate verbal and non-verbal texts, this study investigated novice teachers' attributions of their experiences of internship, as conveyed through a visual text. Novices were invited to design a visual text that represented their experience during internship, as part of a national call entitled…

  18. Songs My Student Taught Me: Narrative of an Early Childhood Cello Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Karin S.

    2013-01-01

    Out of the mouth of babes (and even more nonverbal) has come perhaps the wisest music teacher education I have ever received. In this narrative I share my foibles as a young, over-confident, and naive music instructor who, through a great amount of error, eventually learned the value of letting a child lead his own music learning. Throughout this…

  19. Intentional Communication in Nonverbal and Verbal Low-Functioning Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Jansen, Rianne; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2011-01-01

    In this study we characterized profiles of communicative functions and forms of children with autism and intellectual disability (n = 26), as compared to typically developing children (n = 26) with a comparable nonverbal mental age (2-5 years). Videotapes of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales--Developmental Profile were analyzed usingÖ

  20. Anxiety and Depression in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…

  1. Social Cognition and Its Relation to Psychosocial Adjustment in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galway, Tanya M.; Metsala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined social cognitive skills in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) compared to normally achieving (NA) children. The relation between social cognitive skills and psychosocial adjustment was also investigated. There were no group differences on children's ability to represent orally presented social vignettes.…

  2. Recognition, Expression, and Understanding Facial Expressions of Emotion in Adolescents with Nonverbal and General Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…

  3. A Review of Observational Pain Scales in Nonverbal Elderly with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Juyoung; Castellanos-Brown, Karen; Belcher, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Pain assessment for nonverbal older adults with cognitive impairments or dementia presents many challenges, and it is important to determine which scales are most useful in assessing pain among this population. Method: In this review 11 observational scales for assessment of pain in older adults with dementia or cognitive impairmentsÖ

  4. Concurrent Validity of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, V. Scott; Bell, Sherry Mee

    2006-01-01

    One hundred elementary- and middle-school students were administered the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT; B.A. Bracken & R.S. McCallum, 1998) and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R; G.H. Roid & L.J. Miller, 1997). Correlations between UNIT and Leiter-R scores were statistically significant ( p less thanÖ

  5. The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test with Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendley, Julia D.; Myers, Carl L.; Brown, Reagan D.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to test two hypotheses proposed by Bracken and McCallum (1998), authors of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), as to how children diagnosed with ADHD would perform on the UNIT. Twenty-nine students between the ages of 5 and 17 years were administered the extended battery of the UNIT twice, withÖ

  6. Foetal Antiepileptic Drug Exposure and Verbal versus Non-Verbal Abilities at Three Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled…

  7. A Review of Observational Pain Scales in Nonverbal Elderly with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Juyoung; Castellanos-Brown, Karen; Belcher, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Pain assessment for nonverbal older adults with cognitive impairments or dementia presents many challenges, and it is important to determine which scales are most useful in assessing pain among this population. Method: In this review 11 observational scales for assessment of pain in older adults with dementia or cognitive impairments…

  8. A Developmental Investigation of Verbal and Nonverbal Methodologies in Incidental Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jenny Boyer

    This paper reports three experiments concerning methodological issues in studies on incidental learning performance which use verbal and nonverbal procedures and which appear to be hampered by differences in stimulus materials, learning opportunities, and dependent measures. The first study, using 128 children from grades 3, 5, 7, and 9, attempted…

  9. Verbal and Nonverbal Semantic Processing in Children with Developmental Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Alycia; Ceponiene, Rita

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to clarify whether semantic integration is impaired in verbal and nonverbal auditory domains in children with developmental language impairment (a.k.a., LI and SLI), the present study obtained behavioral and neural responses to words and environmental sounds in children with language impairment and their typically developing…

  10. Can Human-Taught Primates Produce a Non-Verbal Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, James A.

    The debate over whether primates can be taught visual language is examined, and evidence of use of nonverbal language in primate studies is compared with the language criteria of a number of linguistic researchers. Background information on language, visual language (including sign language), and the parameters of the studies is offered, including…

  11. Low-Level Defective Processing of Non-Verbal Sounds in Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucles, Paulino; Mendez, Mario; Garay, Jose

    2009-01-01

    We compared processing of non-verbal auditory stimuli by dyslexic and non-dyslexic children using electrophysiological methods. The study included 39 children (17 with dyslexia plus 22 controls) assessed via frontal, central, parietal, and temporal electrodes. As an extension of previous P300 event-related potential studies, we analysed variations…

  12. Nonverbal Requesting and Problem-Solving by Toddlers with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Deborah J.; Philofsky, Amy; Hepburn, Susan L.; Rogers, Sally J.

    2005-01-01

    The association between nonverbal requesting (as measured by the Early Social Communication Scales) and problem-solving skills (as measured by an object retrieval task) was examined in 16 toddlers who had Down syndrome, 18 toddlers with developmental disabilities of mixed etiologies, and 19 typically developing infants and toddlers. Toddlers with…

  13. Is There an Increased Familial Prevalence of Psychopathology in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Khan, Fahad M.

    2008-01-01

    The cognitive and behavioral symptoms of nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have been described by previous investigators. Nevertheless, we know far less about the potential genetic contributions that may predispose a child to have NLD. An endophenotype model was investigated in 5 samples of children ages 9 to 15 years: NLD (n = 32); reading…

  14. Use of a Non-Navigational, Non-Verbal Landmark Task in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overman, William; Pierce, Allison; Watterson, Lucas; Coleman, Jennifer K.

    2013-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty two children (104 females), 1-8 years of age and young adults, were tested for up to 25 days on five versions of a non-verbal, non-navigational landmark task that had previously been used for monkeys. In monkeys, performance on this task is severely impaired following damage to the parietal cortex. For the basic task, theÖ

  15. Maternal Stress in Nonverbal Learning Disorder: A Comparison with Reading Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Joseph, Guy-Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Maternal stress was assessed in mothers of children ages 8 to 11 years with learning disorders (LD). Age-, gender-, and IQ-matched children with reading disorders (RD; n = 31), children with nonverbal learning disorders (NVLD; n = 21), and typically developing control participants (n = 23) participated. Mothers of children with LD reported higher…

  16. A Model to Guide the Conceptualization, Assessment, and Diagnosis of Nonverbal Learning Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Although many learning disability types are formally recognized in major classification systems such as "DSM-IV-TR" and ICD-10, Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NLD) is not despite over 40 years of literature addressing its theoretical and neuropsychological foundation, its major features, and the methods by which to assess and diagnose it. Currently,…

  17. Measuring Nonverbal Expression of Feelings in Parent-Child Interactions: A Dilemma and a Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Rogers, Frances A.

    Thirty parents, 8 males and 22 females, whose children were enrolled in kindergarten, participated in this study, designed to elicit parents' nonverbal expression of feeling toward their children. Two faceless, 30-inch unisex dolls were designed to represent the child. Depending on the situation, the dolls were dressed as either male or female or…

  18. The Effects of Nonverbal Communication and Gender on Impression Formation in Opening Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barge, J. Kevin; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the influence of nonverbal cues and attorney gender on juror impression formation. Concludes that (1) attorney gender may not influence the impression formation process in the courtroom; and (2) delivery styles produce expectations for the appropriateness of disfluencies in speech. (MM)

  19. Nonverbal Behavior and the Vertical Dimension of Social Relations: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Judith A.; Coats, Erik J.; LeBeau, Lavonia Smith

    2005-01-01

    The vertical dimension of interpersonal relations (relating to dominance, power, and status) was examined in association with nonverbal behaviors that included facial behavior, gaze, interpersonal distance, body movement, touch, vocal behaviors, posed encoding skill, and others. Results were separately summarized for people's beliefs (perceptions)…

  20. Communicating in a Multicultural Classroom: A Study of Students' Nonverbal Behavior and Attitudes toward Faculty Attire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoro, Ephraim; Washington, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    Economic and market globalization in the United States has engendered a multicultural learning environment that challenges both faculty and students. Diversity in the classroom is further complicated by nonverbal communication, which impacts on students' attitudes toward faculty members. Because today's classrooms are changing and undergoing rapidÖ

  1. Representation of Survey and Route Spatial Descriptions in Children with Nonverbal (Visuospatial) Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Gitti, Filippo; Gomez, Claudia; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the types of difficulty encountered by children with nonverbal (visuospatial) learning disabilities (NLD) during the processing of spatial information derived from descriptions. Two spatial descriptions--one in survey, one in route perspective--and one nonspatial description were orally presented to children aged…

  2. Nonverbal Communication across Eastern-Western Cultures: Facial Expressions during Interviews of Japanese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Keiko

    2007-01-01

    Background: Effective educational evaluations involve interviews, observations and nonverbal cue interpretations. Educators carry out these evaluative activities everyday as instructors, advisors or administrators, often relying on nothing but their intuition. These evaluations inform the future decisions. One must determine if students really…

  3. Reduction of Left Visual Field Lexical Decision Accuracy as a Result of Concurrent Nonverbal Auditory Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Strien, Jan W.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether concurrent nonverbal sound sequences would affect visual-hemifield lexical processing, lexical-decision performance of 24 strongly right-handed students (12 men, 12 women) was measured in three conditions: baseline, concurrent neutral sound sequence, and concurrent emotional sound sequence. With the neutral sequence,…

  4. Nonverbal Rapport-Building Behaviors' Effects on Perceptions of a Supervisor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintzman, Mark; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Finds male supervisors can be effective in building rapport with subordinates solely by using certain nonverbal communicative behaviors. Shows that supervisors with such behaviors were more positively perceived than those without and that subordinates were more likely to comply with the requests of the high-rapport supervisor and to experience a…

  5. Verbal and Nonverbal Strategies of Rapport in Cross-Cultural Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiksdal, Susan

    1988-01-01

    The verbal and nonverbal strategies of rapport, their environments, and their consequences are identified. Interviews between two foreign student advisors and 16 foreign students (both native and non-native speakers of English) were videotaped, and playback sessions with students and advisors were audio-recorded. Rapport-building and…

  6. A Comparison of Deaf and Hearing Subjects in Visual Nonverbal Sensitivity and Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollman, Steven A.; Harrison, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    This investigation with 122 college students, including 45 deaf students, found that neither deaf nor hearing students demonstrated a statistically significant advantage in accuracy or recall of nonverbal information about people in photographs. Deaf subjects, however, were more than twice as likely as hearing subjects to base their judgments upon…

  7. Channel Effects and Non-Verbal Properties of Media Messages: A State of the Art Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Thomas A.; White, Sylvia

    The purposes of this paper are to compile and describe the published empirical studies that have examined nonverbal visual production variables, to offer a critique of the lines of inquiry, and to suggest some areas for continued research. The studies are presented in two major sections: intravisual and intermedia. The intravisual section…

  8. She Wore a Flower in Her Hair: The Effect of Ornamentation on Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillman, JeriJayne W.; Hensley, Wayne E.

    Six waitresses in a restaurant of a large midwestern city agreed to participate in a study of the nonverbal effects of ornamentation. The hypothesis was that diners would leave larger tips for a waitress who wore a flower in her hair than for the same waitress without a flower. During the four nights that data were collected, the waitresses…

  9. Cerebral Asymmetry for Verbal and Nonverbal Sounds in Normal Literate and Illiterate Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargha-Khadem, F.; And Others

    A preliminary experiment was conducted to explore the effects of illiteracy on hemispheric specialization. Groups of literate and illiterate Iranian children were tested on three dichotic tapes consisting of monosyllabic animal names, double-digit numbers, and nonverbal environmental sounds. All children were also tested for handedness and for…

  10. Is There an Increased Familial Prevalence of Psychopathology in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Khan, Fahad M.

    2008-01-01

    The cognitive and behavioral symptoms of nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have been described by previous investigators. Nevertheless, we know far less about the potential genetic contributions that may predispose a child to have NLD. An endophenotype model was investigated in 5 samples of children ages 9 to 15 years: NLD (n = 32); readingÖ

  11. Recognition, Expression, and Understanding Facial Expressions of Emotion in Adolescents with Nonverbal and General Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LDÖ

  12. Social Cognition and Its Relation to Psychosocial Adjustment in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galway, Tanya M.; Metsala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined social cognitive skills in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) compared to normally achieving (NA) children. The relation between social cognitive skills and psychosocial adjustment was also investigated. There were no group differences on children's ability to represent orally presented social vignettes.Ö

  13. Concurrent Validity of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, V. Scott; Bell, Sherry Mee

    2006-01-01

    One hundred elementary- and middle-school students were administered the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT; B.A. Bracken & R.S. McCallum, 1998) and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R; G.H. Roid & L.J. Miller, 1997). Correlations between UNIT and Leiter-R scores were statistically significant ( p less than…

  14. Gender-Specific Development of Nonverbal Behaviours and Mild Depression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Beek, Yolanda; Van Dolderen, Marlies S. M.; Demon Dubas, Judith J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Individual differences in depressive symptoms have been linked with social skill deficits in adults and children, yet empirical studies on adolescents are lacking. The present research examines age and gender differences in nonverbal behaviour between mildly depressed and nondepressed (pre-) adolescents during conversations with an…

  15. Nonverbal Communication and Play Correlates of Language Development in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundy, Peter; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of 16 autistic children (mean age 54.5 months) found functional and symbolic play skills associated with language ability and certain nonverbal skills (such as the ability to use gestures to coordinate attention between social partners) also correlated with language ability, but not with play variables. (Author/DB)

  16. A New Look at Nonverbal Expressiveness: The Affective Communication Test (ACT-10).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Wayne E.

    A study investigated the validity and usefulness of the Affective Communication Test (ACT) which measures a person's ability to project a nonverbal message to others. The ACT test was reduced to 10 items and administered to 130 college students. The results were analyzed for interpersonal display of effect, public display, and small group display.Ö

  17. Representation of Survey and Route Spatial Descriptions in Children with Nonverbal (Visuospatial) Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Gitti, Filippo; Gomez, Claudia; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the types of difficulty encountered by children with nonverbal (visuospatial) learning disabilities (NLD) during the processing of spatial information derived from descriptions. Two spatial descriptions--one in survey, one in route perspective--and one nonspatial description were orally presented to children agedÖ

  18. Video-Mediated Judgements of Personal Characteristics Based upon Non-Verbal Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargie, Owen D. W.; Dickson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of making judgments about other people and forming first impressions focuses on a study in Northern Ireland that was concerned with the accuracy of first impressions based on nonverbal information. The use of video recordings is described, and correlations between actual and observed characteristics are examined. (22 references) (LRW)

  19. Intentional Communication in Nonverbal and Verbal Low-Functioning Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Jansen, Rianne; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2011-01-01

    In this study we characterized profiles of communicative functions and forms of children with autism and intellectual disability (n = 26), as compared to typically developing children (n = 26) with a comparable nonverbal mental age (2-5 years). Videotapes of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales--Developmental Profile were analyzed using…

  20. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  1. Quality Matters! Differences between Expressive and Receptive Non-Verbal Communication Skills in Adolescents with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…

  2. The Introduction of Non-Verbal Communication in Greek Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…

  3. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  4. Non-Verbal Communication Training: An Avenue for University Professionalizing Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazaille, Mariane

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the…

  5. The Use and Frequency of Verbal and Non-Verbal Praise in Nurture Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…

  6. Verbal and Non-Verbal Development in SLI Children after Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina

    2010-01-01

    Of all the developmental difficulties that may be present in childhood, language impairment is probably the most common. It is of vast importance to prevent cumulative negative consequences of these impairments. The present study evaluates the effects of a language and activity-based intervention programme on verbal and non-verbal performance and…

  7. Increasing Social Interaction Using Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching with Nonverbal School-Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Jessica H.; Davis, Barbara L.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Method: Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in…

  8. An Examination of the Relative Effectiveness of Training in Nonverbal Communication: Personal Selling Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin T.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the potential effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication for sales representatives. The literature on this subject was reviewed, and a study using students as sales representatives was conducted to evaluate the potential of training in body language. The research results provide support for the proposition that suchÖ

  9. Low-Level Defective Processing of Non-Verbal Sounds in Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucles, Paulino; Mendez, Mario; Garay, Jose

    2009-01-01

    We compared processing of non-verbal auditory stimuli by dyslexic and non-dyslexic children using electrophysiological methods. The study included 39 children (17 with dyslexia plus 22 controls) assessed via frontal, central, parietal, and temporal electrodes. As an extension of previous P300 event-related potential studies, we analysed variationsÖ

  10. Cognitive Patterns of Children with Dyslexia: A Comparison between Groups with High and Average Nonverbal Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, J. P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Elementary children (n=112) comprising average IQ, high IQ, dyslexic, and normal readers were administered measures of planning, attention-arousal, simultaneous and successive processing, phonemic segmentation, and nonverbal IQ. Cognitive tasks differentiating dyslexic from normal readers were the successive processing tasks and two tasks ofÖ

  11. Counselor Ethnicity, Counselor Nonverbal Behavior, and Session Outcome with Asian American Clients: Initial Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bryan S. K.; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Li, Lisa C.

    2003-01-01

    Examination of counselor nonverbal behaviors revealed that European American counselors displayed significantly greater frequency of adaptors, postural shifts, and smiles than did Asian American counselors. The frequency of smiles was significantly positively correlated with client-rated session positivity and session arousal, and the frequency of…

  12. The Human Potential Movement: Body/Nonverbal/Movement Approaches to Human Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Stratton F.

    This report briefly describes the recent search for personal and interpersonal growth which has been termed the "Human Potential Movement," and the institutions or "growth centers" which have evolved as a result of this movement. It presents a list of body, nonverbal, and movement experiences derived from descriptive literature of the growth…

  13. Nonverbal Social Skills of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability Diagnosed with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Birgenheir, Denis G.

    2009-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID), yet little is known about depressive behaviors in an ID population. This study examined the nonverbal social skills of 18 adults with mild ID diagnosed with depression and a matched sample of adults with mild ID without depression. Nonverbal…

  14. The Impact of Nonverbal Communications on the Public Services Functions of Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Kay

    This annotated, selected bibliography of 21 monographs and articles on non-verbal communication is designed to help library personnel develop their perceptions of body language, thereby helping them respond more appropriately to user queries. Introductory material includes a brief literature review. (MBR)

  15. Clever Hans, Non-Verbal Literacy, and the Improvement of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciampa, Bartholomew J.

    Skillful interpretation of nonverbal communication on the part of college administrators is pointed out as an important factor in the success or failure of educational enterprises. A method is presented of using such instruments as the Occupational Climate Description Questionnaire and the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire in assessing…

  16. Verbal-Non Verbal: Activites (Verbal and Non-Verbal Activities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalaron, Marie-Laure

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on nonverbal and extralinguistic activities as an aide to learning. Body language, movement, and action, simultaneously simple and omnipresent, are useful at the level of comprehension. These activities suggest images or result from verbal instigation. This visual imagery fills in the gaps between one's mother tongue and a foreign…

  17. Effects of Nonverbal Behaviors on Judged Levels of Counselor Warmth and Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Hanen, Sandra S.

    1977-01-01

    A sample of 40 college subjects were asked to rate counselor warmth and empathy after viewing videosegments of non-verbal body language. Arm and leg positions significantly affected the ratings of counselor warmth and empathy. The arms-crossed position was the least empathic position. (Author)

  18. English Face-to-Face: The Non-Verbal Dimension of Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachmann, James K.

    Nonverbal communication is important in foreign language teaching and learning because of its variation in form, meaning and distribution from one culture to another and because of its extensive use in the communicative process. Cross-cultural misunderstandings result from incorrect interpretations of the tone of voice, body motions, facial…

  19. Speech--Language Therapy with the Non-Verbal Child Utilizing Assistive Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Alecia S.

    The paper describes assessment techniques, the process of aid selection, and therapy procedures with young nonverbal handicapped children. Assessment of such children requires an evaluation of the child's present means of communication, hearing, vision, receptive skills, and ability to use language (verbal, gestural, or graphic). Among factors to…

  20. The Use and Frequency of Verbal and Non-Verbal Praise in Nurture Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrumentÖ

  1. The Role of Nonverbal Communication in Beginners' EFL Classrooms: Sale Junior High Schools as a Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfatihi, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    This paper has as objective to investigate the nonverbal features used in beginners' EFL classroom in Morocco. It is based on a field research conducted in a junior high school in Sale, Morocco. The main sample is composed of 3rd form students in junior high school (their age ranges from 15 to 19), and the techniques for data collection are…

  2. Comprehension of Humor in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Glass, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The normal development of humor in children has been well documented with a predictable course that is tied to social, cognitive, and linguistic development in children. This study explored humor comprehension in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). Children with NVLD were compared with children with reading disabilities and a…

  3. One-Year-Olds' Understanding of Nonverbal Gestures Directed to a Third Person

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether infants comprehend others' nonverbal communicative intentions directed to a third person, in an "overhearing" context. An experimenter addressed an assistant and indicated a hidden toy's location by either gazing ostensively or pointing to the location for her. In a matched control condition, the experimenter performed…

  4. The Emergence of Nonverbal Joint Attention and Requesting Skills in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paparella, Tanya; Goods, Kelly Stickles; Freeman, Stephanny; Kasari, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Joint attention (JA) skills are deficient in children with autism; however, children with autism seem to vary in the degree to which they display joint attention. Joint attention skills refer to verbal and nonverbal skills used to share experiences with others. They include gestures such as pointing, coordinated looks between objects and people,…

  5. Communicating in a Multicultural Classroom: A Study of Students' Nonverbal Behavior and Attitudes toward Faculty Attire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoro, Ephraim; Washington, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    Economic and market globalization in the United States has engendered a multicultural learning environment that challenges both faculty and students. Diversity in the classroom is further complicated by nonverbal communication, which impacts on students' attitudes toward faculty members. Because today's classrooms are changing and undergoing rapid…

  6. An Examination of the Relative Effectiveness of Training in Nonverbal Communication: Personal Selling Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin T.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the potential effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication for sales representatives. The literature on this subject was reviewed, and a study using students as sales representatives was conducted to evaluate the potential of training in body language. The research results provide support for the proposition that such…

  7. An Investigation of Mediated Person Peception Comparing Jungian Archetypes to Perception of Nonverbal Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, R. C.; Copeland, Gary A.

    The effects of photographic framing on viewer perceptions of men and women was studied across five cultural groups, enabling the comparison of Jung's theory of universal archetypes to a contemporary theory of culture-bound, learned nonverbal cues. Subjects for the study were 140 college students from five cultural groups: Anglo, Chicano, Iranian,Ö

  8. Foetal Antiepileptic Drug Exposure and Verbal versus Non-Verbal Abilities at Three Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolledÖ

  9. Language Development in Nonverbal Autistic Children Using a Simultaneous Communication System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creedon, Margaret Procyk

    Twenty-one nonverbal autistic children, 4- to 9-years-old, with language ages of 4- to 24-months, participated in the communication learning program from 1 to 3 years. Simultaneous verbal and manual signs were chosen as the communications mode. The children initially displayed infrequent, unrecognizable vocalizations (Screeches, or vocalÖ

  10. Functional Developmental Similarities and Differences in the Neural Correlates of Verbal and Nonverbal Working Memory Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brahmbhatt, Shefali B.; McAuley, Tara; Barch, Deanna M.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the functional development of verbal and nonverbal working memory during adolescence. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that WM capacity increases with age, yet relatively few studies have assessed the relationship between brain-activity and age-related changes in WM capacity, especially as it differs across…

  11. Use of a Non-Navigational, Non-Verbal Landmark Task in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overman, William; Pierce, Allison; Watterson, Lucas; Coleman, Jennifer K.

    2013-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty two children (104 females), 1-8 years of age and young adults, were tested for up to 25 days on five versions of a non-verbal, non-navigational landmark task that had previously been used for monkeys. In monkeys, performance on this task is severely impaired following damage to the parietal cortex. For the basic task, the…

  12. Development of Non-Verbal Intellectual Capacity in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine the…

  13. The Use of Non-Verbal and Body Movement Techniques in Working with Families with Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James M.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an experiential-educational approach to families with infants integrating dance and movement therapy with family therapy theories and techniques. Nonverbal techniques are the only possible methods of working directly with infants present with their parents in these workshops. The focus is on negotiations and exchanges of feelings in…

  14. Addictions Counselors' Credibility: The Impact of Interactional Style, Recovery Status, and Nonverbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toriello, Paul J.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of addictions counselors' interactional style (confrontational vs. motivational), recovery status (recovering vs. nonrecovering), and nonverbal behavior (facilitative vs. neutral) on 116 clients' perceptions of addictions counselor credibility was examined in a fully crossed factorial design. Significant results were found, and…

  15. Measurement of Nonverbal IQ in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Scores in Young Adulthood Compared to Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Somer L.; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was examined in 84 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed from age 2 to 19. Most adults who scored in the range of intellectual disability also received scores below 70 as children, and the majority of adults with scores in the average range had scored in this range by age 3. However, within the lower ranges…

  16. Development of Non-Verbal Intellectual Capacity in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine theÖ

  17. Reduction of Left Visual Field Lexical Decision Accuracy as a Result of Concurrent Nonverbal Auditory Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Strien, Jan W.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether concurrent nonverbal sound sequences would affect visual-hemifield lexical processing, lexical-decision performance of 24 strongly right-handed students (12 men, 12 women) was measured in three conditions: baseline, concurrent neutral sound sequence, and concurrent emotional sound sequence. With the neutral sequence,Ö

  18. A Communication-Based Intervention for Nonverbal Children with Autism: What Changes? Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Kate; Pasco, Greg; McElduff, Fiona; Wade, Angie; Howlin, Pat; Charman, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the form and function of spontaneous communication and outcome predictors in nonverbal children with autism following classroom-based intervention (Picture Exchange Communication System [PECS] training). Method: 84 children from 15 schools participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of PECS (P. Howlin, R.…

  19. Do Individuals with High Functioning Autism Have the IQ Profile Associated with Nonverbal Learning Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n=69) and adults (n=77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R,…

  20. Relationships among vocabulary size, nonverbal cognition, and spoken word recognition in adults with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene E.

    2002-05-01

    Recent research has attempted to identify the factors that predict speech perception performance among users of cochlear implants (CIs). Studies have found that approximately 20%-60% of the variance in speech perception scores can be accounted for by factors including duration of deafness, etiology, type of device, and length of implant use, leaving approximately 50% of the variance unaccounted for. The current study examines the extent to which vocabulary size and nonverbal cognitive ability predict CI listeners' spoken word recognition. Fifteen postlingually deafened adults with nucleus or clarion CIs were given standardized assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive vocabulary size: the Expressive Vocabulary Test, the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-III, and the Woodcock-Johnson-III Test of Cognitive Ability, Verbal Comprehension subtest. Two spoken word recognition tasks were administered. In the first, listeners identified isophonemic CVC words. In the second, listeners identified gated words varying in lexical frequency and neighborhood density. Analyses will examine the influence of lexical frequency and neighborhood density on the uniqueness point in the gating task, as well as relationships among nonverbal cognitive ability, vocabulary size, and the two spoken word recognition measures. [Work supported by NIH Grant P01 DC00110 and by the Lions 3M Hearing Foundation.

  1. Why Verbalization of Non-Verbal Memory Reduces Recognition Accuracy: A Computational Approach to Verbal Overshadowing

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Aya; Ueno, Taiji; Kitagami, Shinji; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Verbal overshadowing refers to a phenomenon whereby verbalization of non-verbal stimuli (e.g., facial features) during the maintenance phase (after the target information is no longer available from the sensory inputs) impairs subsequent non-verbal recognition accuracy. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed for verbal overshadowing, namely the recoding interference hypothesis, and the transfer-inappropriate processing shift. The former assumes that verbalization renders non-verbal representations less accurate. In contrast, the latter assumes that verbalization shifts processing operations to a verbal mode and increases the chance of failing to return to non-verbal, face-specific processing operations (i.e., intact, yet inaccessible non-verbal representations). To date, certain psychological phenomena have been advocated as inconsistent with the recoding-interference hypothesis. These include a decline in non-verbal memory performance following verbalization of non-target faces, and occasional failures to detect a significant correlation between the accuracy of verbal descriptions and the non-verbal memory performance. Contrary to these arguments against the recoding interference hypothesis, however, the present computational model instantiated core processing principles of the recoding interference hypothesis to simulate face recognition, and nonetheless successfully reproduced these behavioral phenomena, as well as the standard verbal overshadowing. These results demonstrate the plausibility of the recoding interference hypothesis to account for verbal overshadowing, and suggest there is no need to implement separable mechanisms (e.g., operation-specific representations, different processing principles, etc.). In addition, detailed inspections of the internal processing of the model clarified how verbalization rendered internal representations less accurate and how such representations led to reduced recognition accuracy, thereby offering a computationally grounded explanation. Finally, the model also provided an explanation as to why some studies have failed to report verbal overshadowing. Thus, the present study suggests it is not constructive to discuss whether verbal overshadowing exists or not in an all-or-none manner, and instead suggests a better experimental paradigm to further explore this phenomenon. PMID:26061046

  2. Communication and the Foreign Language Teacher. The Challenge of Communication. ACTFL Review of Foreign Language Education, Vol. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles T.

    This analysis considers the deep purposes of communication, communication and relationship, relationship and nonverbal communication, projective and introjective perception, emotions and learning, the theory of dramaturgy applied to teaching, and some implications for the foreign language teacher. Communication is a special combination ofÖ

  3. A Survey of Special Educators' Awareness of, Experiences with, and Attitudes toward Nonverbal Communication Aids in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrewsbury, Rosemary G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Results of surveys completed by 237 special educators indicate respondents' limited awareness, understanding, and experiences with nonverbal communication aids. Results have implications for preservice and continuing education programs for special educators. (Author/CL)

  4. The Relation of Serial Recall Performance to Verbal and Nonverbal Encoding Strategies in Middle- and Lower-Class Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacher, Miriam R.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of action content and verbal codability of stimulus pictures, parental occupational status and verbal intelligence upon nonverbal serial recall were investigated in white first graders. (Author/SB)

  5. Schizophrenia and the Immediacy Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    The author comments on the article "The Primacy of Cognition in Schizophrenia," by R. W. Heinrichs and states that to the pursuit of schizophrenic/normal differences, there is no end. Heinrichs used meta-analyses to argue persuasively for the primacy of cognition for this role. His conclusion not only elicited agreement from both researchers and…

  6. A qualitative analysis of the nonverbal and verbal interactions of low achieving students in two contrasting science instructional settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Laverne K.

    This research project was designed to describe and analyze the verbal and non-verbal interactions of low achieving students during science lessons taught in two contrasting science instructional settings. (1) Teacher-centered, textbook-dominated instruction and (2) Student-centered, materials-dominated instruction. This study provided the unique opportunity to observe individual students under both sets of conditions. Systematic classroom observation, non-structured student interviews, and student documents were used in the analysis. Levels of behavioral involvement were found to be lower during student-centered, materials-dominated lessons, however, increased frequencies, more varied types, and higher cognitive levels of verbal interaction were observed. Teacher-centered, text-dominated lessons yielded increased levels of on-task behavior, however, incidences of verbal interaction were observed to be decreased, less varied, and lower in cognitive level. The findings of this study suggest that the levels of behavioral involvement of low achieving students may be enhanced by increased structuring of the science learning environment. The findings suggest that additional structure in the form of task-specific directions and specific, short time allotments would enable low achieving students to better define a researchable question, and plan and conduct an investigation to answer the question. Low achieving students appeared to lack small group interaction skills needed to complete activities in the materials-dominated format. Groups of four tended to splinter: pairs would break off or students just worked individually. If groups of four are desired, the evidence from this study would suggest clearly defined expectations and shorter work times and more structure are needed for more effective group work. Questions remain concerning the ability for elementary science teachers to monitor the learning environment and learning processes, particularly in less structured classroom settings. Finally, this study questions the depth and breadth of content presented in many textbooks and supplemental materials, particularly in light of current educational theory regarding conceptual understanding and transfer. Additional research is needed to identify types and amounts of structure to impose on the learning environment and to define processes to help low achieving students optimize conceptual understandings.

  7. E.M.P.A.T.H.Y.: a tool to enhance nonverbal communication between clinicians and their patients.

    PubMed

    Riess, Helen; Kraft-Todd, Gordon

    2014-08-01

    There is a gap in the medical education literature on teaching nonverbal detection and expression of empathy. Many articles do not address nonverbal interactions, instead focusing on "what to say" rather than "how to be." This focus on verbal communication overlooks the essential role nonverbal signals play in the communication of emotions, which has significant effects on patient satisfaction, health outcomes, and malpractice claims. This gap is addressed with a novel teaching tool for assessing nonverbal behavior using the acronym E.M.P.A.T.H.Y.-E: eye contact; M: muscles of facial expression; P: posture; A: affect; T: tone of voice; H: hearing the whole patient; Y: your response. This acronym was the cornerstone of a randomized controlled trial of empathy training at Massachusetts General Hospital, 2010-2012. Used as an easy-to-remember checklist, the acronym orients medical professionals to key aspects of perceiving and responding to nonverbal emotional cues. An urgent need exists to teach nonverbal aspects of communication as medical practices must be reoriented to the increasing cultural diversity represented by patients presenting for care. Where language proficiency may be limited, nonverbal communication becomes more crucial for understanding patients' communications. Furthermore, even in the absence of cultural differences, many patients are reluctant to disagree with their clinicians, and subtle nonverbal cues may be the critical entry point for discussions leading to shared medical decisions. A detailed description of the E.M.P.A.T.H.Y. acronym and a brief summary of the literature that supports each component of the teaching tool are provided. PMID:24826853

  8. Teacher communication behavior and its association with students' cognitive and attitudinal outcomes in science in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Hsiao-Ching; Fisher, Darrell

    2002-01-01

    In the study described in this article a questionnaire was employed that can be used to assess students' and teachers' perceptions of science teachers' interpersonal communication behaviors in their classroom learning environments. The Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ) has five scales: Challenging, Encouragement and Praise, Non-Verbal Support, Understanding and Friendly, and Controlling. The TCBQ was used with a large sample of secondary science students in Taiwan, which provided additional validation data for the TCBQ for use in Taiwan and cross-validation data for its use in English-speaking countries. Girls perceived their teachers as more understanding and friendly than did boys, and teachers in biological science classrooms exhibited more favorable behavior toward their students than did those in physical science classrooms. Differences were also noted between the perceptions of the students and their teachers. Positive relationships were found between students' perceptions of their teachers' communication behaviors and their attitudes toward science. Students' cognitive achievement scores were higher when students perceived their teacher as using more challenging questions, as giving more nonverbal support, and as being more understanding and friendly. The development of both teacher and student versions of the TCBQ enhances the possibility of the use of the instrument by teachers.

  9. Broadening the units of analysis in communication: speech and nonverbal behaviours in pragmatic comprehension.

    PubMed

    Kelly, S D

    2001-06-01

    Recently, much research has explored the role that nonverbal pointing behaviours play in children's early acquisition of language, for example during word learning. However, few researchers have considered the possibility that these behaviours may continue to play a role in language comprehension as children develop more sophisticated language skills. The present study investigates the role that eye gaze and pointing gestures play in three- to five-year-olds understanding of complex pragmatic communication. Experiment 1 demonstrates that children (N = 29) better understand videotapes of a mother making indirect requests to a child when the requests are accompanied by nonverbal pointing behaviours. Experiment 2 uses a different methodology in which children (N = 27) are actual participants rather than observers in order to generalize the findings to naturalistic, face-to-face interactions. The results from both experiments suggest that broader units of analysis beyond the verbal message may be needed in studying children's continuing understanding of pragmatic processes. PMID:11449942

  10. Nonverbal communication and play correlates of language development in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Mundy, P; Sigman, M; Ungerer, J; Sherman, T

    1987-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the social and cognitive correlates of language acquisition in autistic children. Functional and symbolic play skills were shown to be associated with language abilities in a sample of young autistic children (mean CA 54.5 months), thereby replicating previous findings. Certain types of nonverbal communication skills were also shown to be significant correlates of language development in this group of autistic children. These involved the ability to use gestures to coordinate visual attention between social partners with respect to objects or events. The play and nonverbal communication variables were not significantly correlated, suggesting that these variables reflect independent psychological factors associated with language development in young autistic children. PMID:3654487

  11. Selecting a response form for nonverbal persons: Facilitated communication, pointing systems, or sign language?

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    1993-01-01

    The three major types of augmentative communication for nonverbal persons consist of writing (or typing), pointing, and signing. These alternative response forms are examined in terms of their advantages and disadvantages for establishing effective verbal behavior. In addition, these systems are examined using the concepts from Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior (i.e., mand, tact, intraverbal, and autoclitic). The results of this analysis show that sign language has the most advantages and the fewest disadvantages, and more closely parallels speech in terms of the verbal operants. Although, the current trend is to favor facilitated communication (typing) and pointing systems, both of these response forms have several disadvantages that impede the development of the verbal operants. It is suggested that for many nonverbal individuals sign language is a better alternative response form, and has a better chance of improving speech. PMID:22477084

  12. Brain morphology and neuropsychological profiles in a family displaying dyslexia and superior nonverbal intelligence.

    PubMed

    Craggs, Jason G; Sanchez, Juliana; Kibby, Michelle Y; Gilger, Jeffrey W; Hynd, George W

    2006-11-01

    Behavioral research suggests that individuals with dyslexia may have exceptional skills in nonverbal cognitive processes, while genetic studies have noted that giftedness, high IQ and/or special talents tend to run in families. Taken together, these results suggest that persons within families (particularly offspring) may share similar cortical systems supporting those functions. Postmortem and in vivo imaging studies have linked dyslexia to abnormalities in the structures associated with the parietal operculum (PO) (e.g., planum temporale, supramarginal gyrus, and angular gyrus). In this paper we present data on a single family showing a link between dyslexia, superior nonverbal IQ and atypical PO presentation. We consider the psychometric and neurological patterns of this family as a tentative etiological test of the putative dyslexia-talent association. PMID:17209416

  13. Mediate evaluation of replicating a Training Program in Nonverbal Communication in Gerontology.

    PubMed

    Schimidt, Teresa Cristina Gioia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Silva, Maria Julia Paes da

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Replicating the training program in non-verbal communication based on the theoretical framework of interpersonal communication; non-verbal coding, valuing the aging aspects in the perspective of active aging, checking its current relevance through the content assimilation index after 90 days (mediate) of its application. METHOD A descriptive and exploratory field study was conducted in three hospitals under direct administration of the state of S√£o Paulo that caters exclusively to Unified Health System (SUS) patients. The training lasted 12 hours divided in three meetings, applied to 102 health professionals. RESULTS Revealed very satisfactory and satisfactory mediate content assimilation index in 82.9%. CONCLUSION The program replication proved to be relevant and updated the setting of hospital services, while remaining efficient for healthcare professionals. PMID:25992831

  14. Teacher Quality: Teachers Teaching Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Linda

    2006-01-01

    School districts write mission statements about creating citizens of the world, but more and more, they want teachers to become robotic hands who deliver education programs designed and shipped from sites outside of classrooms. If people want an educated citizenry, they need teachers who know how to think about their students' needs and write…

  15. Patterns of nonverbal behavior among adolescents responding to a formal reasoning task.

    PubMed

    Miller, L; Bart, W M

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated nonverbal behavior patterns of 11 adolescents who responded to the Inhelder-Piaget (1958) balance task, which provides an assessment of proportional reasoning and was the first study of how students behave while being assessed for formal reasoning ability. Interdependency among the precisely defined categories of behavior was found, even when the categories were collapsed on a conceptual basis. Consequences of this categorical interdependency were discussed. PMID:3735144

  16. Oncologists' non-verbal behavior and analog patients' recall of information.

    PubMed

    Hillen, Marij A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; van Weert, Julia C M; Vermeulen, Dani√ęlle M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2016-06-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist's non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors, i.e. eye contact, body posture and smiling, on patients' recall of information and perceived friendliness of the oncologist. Moreover, the influence of patient characteristics on recall was examined, both directly or as a moderator of non-verbal communication. Material and methods Non-verbal communication of an oncologist was experimentally varied using video vignettes. In total 194 breast cancer patients/survivors and healthy women participated as 'analog patients', viewing a randomly selected video version while imagining themselves in the role of the patient. Directly after viewing, they evaluated the oncologist. From 24 to 48 hours later, participants' passive recall, i.e. recognition, and free recall of information provided by the oncologist were assessed. Results Participants' recognition was higher if the oncologist maintained more consistent eye contact (ő≤‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.17). More eye contact and smiling led to a perception of the oncologist as more friendly. Body posture and smiling did not significantly influence recall. Older age predicted significantly worse recognition (ő≤‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ-0.28) and free recall (ő≤‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ-0.34) of information. Conclusion Oncologists may be able to facilitate their patients' recall functioning through consistent eye contact. This seems particularly relevant for older patients, whose recall is significantly worse. These findings can be used in training, focused on how to maintain eye contact while managing computer tasks. PMID:27031166

  17. Telling ingratiating lies: effects of target sex and target attractiveness on verbal and nonverbal deceptive success.

    PubMed

    DePaulo, B M; Stone, J I; Lassiter, G D

    1985-05-01

    Male and female "senders" described their opinions on four controversial issues to target persons. Each sender expressed sincere agreement with the target on one of the issues and sincere disagreement on another (truthful messages), and also pretended to agree with the partner on one of the issues (an ingratiating lie) and pretended to disagree on another (a noningratiating lie). Groups of judges then rated the sincerity of each message on the basis of information available from one of four different channels: verbal (words only, in transcript form), audio (audiotape only), visual (videotape with no sound), and audiovisual (videotape with sound). Results showed that (a) lies told by women were more readily detected than lies told by men, (b) lies told to opposite-sex targets were more easily detected than lies to same-sex targets, and (c) ingratiating lies were more successfully detected than were noningratiating lies, particularly when told to attractive targets. Furthermore, when senders talked to opposite-sex (relative to same-sex) targets, their lies were most easily detected from the three channels that included nonverbal cues. For ingratiating (relative to noningratiating) lies, detectability was greatest for the channels that included visual nonverbal cues. Senders addressing attractive targets were perceived as less sincere than senders addressing unattractive targets, both when lying and when telling the truth, and this difference in the degree of sincerity conveyed was especially pronounced in the channels that included nonverbal cues. Results are discussed in terms of the effects of motivation on verbal and nonverbal communicative success. PMID:3998987

  18. Executive functioning and non-verbal intelligence as predictors of bullying in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jansen, Pauline W; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-08-01

    Executive function and intelligence are negatively associated with aggression, yet the role of executive function has rarely been examined in the context of school bullying. We studied whether different domains of executive function and non-verbal intelligence are associated with bullying involvement in early elementary school. The association was examined in a population-based sample of 1,377 children. At age 4 years we assessed problems in inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory and planning/organization, using a validated parental questionnaire (the BRIEF-P). Additionally, we determined child non-verbal IQ at age 6 years. Bullying involvement as a bully, victim or a bully-victim in grades 1-2 of elementary school (mean age 7.7 years) was measured using a peer-nomination procedure. Individual bullying scores were based on the ratings by multiple peers (on average 20 classmates). Analyses were adjusted for various child and maternal socio-demographic and psychosocial covariates. Child score for inhibition problems was associated with the risk of being a bully (OR per SD‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.35, 95%CI: 1.09-1.66), victim (OR per SD‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.45) and a bully-victim (OR per SD‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.55, 95%CI: 1.10-2.17). Children with higher non-verbal IQ were less likely to be victims (OR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.99, 95%CI: 0.98-1.00) and bully-victims (OR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ95%CI: 0.93-0.98, respectively). In conclusion, our study showed that peer interactions may be to some extent influenced by children's executive function and non-verbal intelligence. Future studies should examine whether training executive function skills can reduce bullying involvement and improve the quality of peer relationships. PMID:24337736

  19. Functional Asymmetry of Human Prefrontal Cortex: Encoding and Retrieval of Verbally and Nonverbally Coded Information

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Bertram; Mecklinger, Axel; Friederici, Angela D.

    2000-01-01

    There are several views about the organization of memory functions in the human prefrontal cortex. One view assumes a process-specific brain lateralization according to different memory subprocesses, that is, encoding and retrieval. An alternative view emphasizes content-specific lateralization of brain systems involved in memory processes. This study addresses this apparent inconsistency between process- and content-specific lateralization of brain activity by investigating the effects of verbal and nonverbal encoding on prefrontal activations during encoding and retrieval of environmental novel sounds using fMRI. An intentional memory task was applied in which subjects were required either to judge the sounds' loudness (nonverbal encoding task) or to indicate whether or not a sound can be verbally described (verbal encoding task). Retrieval processes were examined in a subsequent yes/no recognition test. In the study phase the right posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) was activated in both tasks. During verbal encoding additional activation of the left dorsolateral PFC was obtained. Retrieval-related fMRI activity varied as a function of encoding task: For the nonverbal task we detected an activation focus in the right posterior dorsolateral PFC whereas an activation in the left dorsolateral PFC was observed for the verbal task. These findings indicate that the right dorsolateral PFC is engaged in encoding of auditory information irrespective of encoding task. The lateralization of PFC activity during retrieval was shown to depend on the availability of verbal codes, with left hemispheric involvement for verbally and right hemispheric activation for nonverbally coded information. PMID:10753975

  20. Importance of nonverbal expression to the emergence of emotive artificial intelligence systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioggia, Giovanni; Hanson, David; Dinelli, Serena; Di Francesco, Fabio; Francesconi, R.; De Rossi, Danilo

    2002-07-01

    The nonverbal expression of the emotions, especially in the human face, has rapidly become an area of intense interest in computer science and robotics. Exploring the emotions as a link between external events and behavioural responses, artificial intelligence designers and psychologists are approaching a theoretical understanding of foundational principles which will be key to the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence. In fact, it has been well demonstrated that many important aspects of intelligence are grounded in intimate communication with the physical world- so-called embodied intelligence . It follows naturally, then, that recent advances in emotive artificial intelligence show clear and undeniable broadening in the capacities of biologically-inspired robots to survive and thrive in a social environment. The means by which AI may express its foundling emotions are clearly integral to such capacities. In effect: powerful facial expressions are critical to the development of intelligent, sociable robots. Following discussion the importance of the nonverbal expression of emotions in humans and robots, this paper describes methods used in robotically emulating nonverbal expressions using human-like robotic faces. Furthermore, it describes the potentially revolutionary impact of electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators as artificial muscles for such robotic devices.

  1. Assessment of Nonverbal and Verbal Apraxia in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Presotto, Monia; Olchik, Maira Rozenfeld; Shumacher Shuh, Artur Francisco; Rieder, Carlos R M

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the presence of nonverbal and verbal apraxia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and analyze the correlation between these conditions and patient age, education, duration of disease, and PD stage, as well as evaluate the correlation between the two types of apraxia and the frequency and types of verbal apraxic errors made by patients in the sample. Method. This was an observational prevalence study. The sample comprised 45 patients with PD seen at the Movement Disorders Clinic of the Clinical Hospital of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were evaluated using the Speech Apraxia Assessment Protocol and PD stages were classified according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Results. The rate of nonverbal apraxia and verbal apraxia in the present sample was 24.4%. Verbal apraxia was significantly correlated with education (p ‚ȧ 0.05). The most frequent types of verbal apraxic errors were omissions (70.8%). The analysis of manner and place of articulation showed that most errors occurred during the production of trill (57.7%) and dentoalveolar (92%) phonemes, consecutively. Conclusion. Patients with PD presented nonverbal and verbal apraxia and made several verbal apraxic errors. Verbal apraxia was correlated with education levels. PMID:26543663

  2. The Evocative Power of Words: Activation of Concepts by Verbal and Nonverbal Means

    PubMed Central

    Lupyan, Gary; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    A major part of learning a language is learning to map spoken words onto objects in the environment. An open question is what are the consequences of this learning for cognition and perception? Here, we present a series of experiments that examine effects of verbal labels on the activation of conceptual information as measured through picture verification tasks. We find that verbal cues, such as the word ‚Äúcat,‚ÄĚ lead to faster and more accurate verification of congruent objects and rejection of incongruent objects than do either nonverbal cues, such as the sound of a cat meowing, or words that do not directly refer to the object, such as the word ‚Äúmeowing.‚ÄĚ This label advantage does not arise from verbal labels being more familiar or easier to process than other cues, and it does extends to newly learned labels and sounds. Despite having equivalent facility in learning associations between novel objects and labels or sounds, conceptual information is activated more effectively through verbal means than through non-verbal means. Thus, rather than simply accessing nonverbal concepts, language activates aspects of a conceptual representation in a particularly effective way. We offer preliminary support that representations activated via verbal means are more categorical and show greater consistency between subjects. These results inform the understanding of how human cognition is shaped by language and hint at effects that different patterns of naming can have on conceptual structure. PMID:21928923

  3. Testosterone metabolism: a possible biological underpinning of non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls.

    PubMed

    Durdiaková, Jaroslava; Celec, Peter; Laznibatová, Jolana; Minárik, Gabriel; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The extraordinary giftedness is apparently a unique manifestation of a mutual interconnection between genes and environment. One of the possible etiological factors of intellectual giftedness is testosterone which is believed to affect the brain organization and function. The aim of our study was to analyze associations between 2D:4D digit ratio (a proxy of prenatal testosterone) and/or salivary testosterone levels with non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls. Fifty-one girls with an age range of 10 to18 years and IQ scores higher than 130 were tested. Saliva samples were collected to obtain levels of salivary testosterone. 2D:4D digit ratio was measured on both hands as an indicator of prenatal testosterone. IQ parameters were assessed employing standardized set of tests. The CAG repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene was analyzed to assess the sensitivity of androgen receptor. Testing of between-subjects effects proved significant interactions between right and left 2D:4D ratio, genetic variability in androgen receptor, and also salivary testosterone level with non-verbal IQ in gifted girls. Our results point out that the variability in parameters of androgenicity contributes to the variability of nonverbal IQ in gifted girls. However, the exact molecular mechanism of how testosterone acts on the brain and affects this cognitive domain remains still unclear. PMID:27102919

  4. Neuropsychological characteristics of verbal and non-verbal fluency in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Tyburski, Ernest; Soko?owski, Andrzej; Ch??, Magdalena; Pe?ka-Wysiecka, Justyna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka

    2015-02-01

    This review paper provides analyses confirming correlation between various brain regions activity, particularly its prefrontal portions, and schizophrenia patients' performance in verbal fluency tests. Various factors modifying patients' performance in the aforementioned tasks were singled out and discussed. Systematically we have reviewed the results of non-verbal fluency tests conducted in the schizophrenic patients. The authors also summarizes findings of earlier studies stressing the role of semantic fluency as a predictor of first-episode psychosis. Verbal and non-verbal fluency tests engage complex cognitive processes and executive functions in patients. As a result, the interpretation of their results is often complicated and requires special competences. The tests are popular neuropsychological tools used for assessment of verbal memory, executive functions, visual-spatial abilities and psychomotor speed in patients with mental and neurological disorders. The aim of this paper is to discuss diagnostic tools used for measuring both types of fluency (verbal and non-verbal), test interpretation methods, as well as their usefulness in clinical diagnostics and scientific research. PMID:25634872

  5. Assessment of Nonverbal and Verbal Apraxia in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Presotto, Monia; Olchik, Maira Rozenfeld; Shumacher Shuh, Artur Francisco; Rieder, Carlos R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the presence of nonverbal and verbal apraxia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and analyze the correlation between these conditions and patient age, education, duration of disease, and PD stage, as well as evaluate the correlation between the two types of apraxia and the frequency and types of verbal apraxic errors made by patients in the sample. Method. This was an observational prevalence study. The sample comprised 45 patients with PD seen at the Movement Disorders Clinic of the Clinical Hospital of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were evaluated using the Speech Apraxia Assessment Protocol and PD stages were classified according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Results. The rate of nonverbal apraxia and verbal apraxia in the present sample was 24.4%. Verbal apraxia was significantly correlated with education (p ‚ȧ 0.05). The most frequent types of verbal apraxic errors were omissions (70.8%). The analysis of manner and place of articulation showed that most errors occurred during the production of trill (57.7%) and dentoalveolar (92%) phonemes, consecutively. Conclusion. Patients with PD presented nonverbal and verbal apraxia and made several verbal apraxic errors. Verbal apraxia was correlated with education levels. PMID:26543663

  6. Imaging first impressions: distinct neural processing of verbal and nonverbal social information.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Bente, Gary; von Cramon, D Yves; Schilbach, Leonhard; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Vogeley, Kai

    2012-03-01

    First impressions profoundly influence our attitudes and behavior toward others. However, little is known about whether and to what degree the cognitive processes that underlie impression formation depend on the domain of the available information about the target person. To investigate the neural bases of the influence of verbal as compared to nonverbal information on interpersonal judgments, we identified brain regions where the BOLD signal parametrically increased with increasing strength of evaluation based on either short text vignettes or mimic and gestural behavior. While for verbal stimuli the increasing strength of subjective evaluation was correlated with increased neural activation of precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PC/PCC), a similar effect was observed for nonverbal stimuli in the amygdala. These findings support the assumption that qualitatively different cognitive operations underlie person evaluation depending upon the stimulus domain: while the processing of nonverbal person information may be more strongly associated with affective processing as indexed by recruitment of the amygdala, verbal person information engaged the PC/PCC that has been related to social inferential processing. PMID:22227133

  7. Manipulation of Non-verbal Interaction Style and Demographic Embodiment to Increase Anthropomorphic Computer Character Credibility

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2005-02-01

    For years, people have sought more natural means of communicating with their computers. Many have suggested that interaction with a computer should be as easy as interacting with other people, taking advantage of the multimodal nature of human communication. While users should, in theory, gravitate to such anthropomorphic embodiments, quite the contrary has been experienced; users generally have been dissatisfied and abandoned their use. This suggests a disconnect between the factors that make human-human communication engaging and those used by designers to support human-agent interaction. This paper discusses a set of empirical studies that attempted to replicate human-human nonverbal behavior. The focus revolved around the behaviors that portrayed a credible façade, helping the embodied conversational agent (ECA) to form a successful cooperative dyad with the user. Based on a review of the nonverbal literature, a framework was created that identified trustworthy and credible nonverbal behaviors across five areas and formed design guidelines for character interaction. The design suggestions for those areas emanating from the facial region (facial expression, eye contact and paralanguage) were experimentally supported but there was no concordant increase in perceived trust when bodily regions (posture and gesture) were added. In addition, in examining the importance of demographic elements in the embodiment, it was found that users prefer to interact with characters that match their ethnicity and are young looking. There was no significant preference for gender. The implications of these results, as well as other interesting consequences are discussed.

  8. Perceiving nonverbal behavior: neural correlates of processing movement fluency and contingency in dyadic interactions.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Alexandra L; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Santos, Natacha S; Tepest, Ralf; Bente, Gary; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Vogeley, Kai

    2014-04-01

    Despite the fact that nonverbal dyadic social interactions are abundant in the environment, the neural mechanisms underlying their processing are not yet fully understood. Research in the field of social neuroscience has suggested that two neural networks appear to be involved in social understanding: (1) the action observation network (AON) and (2) the social neural network (SNN). The aim of this study was to determine the differential contributions of the AON and the SNN to the processing of nonverbal behavior as observed in dyadic social interactions. To this end, we used short computer animation sequences displaying dyadic social interactions between two virtual characters and systematically manipulated two key features of movement activity, which are known to influence the perception of meaning in nonverbal stimuli: (1) movement fluency and (2) contingency of movement patterns. A group of 21 male participants rated the "naturalness" of the observed scenes on a four-point scale while undergoing fMRI. Behavioral results showed that both fluency and contingency significantly influenced the "naturalness" experience of the presented animations. Neurally, the AON was preferentially engaged when processing contingent movement patterns, but did not discriminate between different degrees of movement fluency. In contrast, regions of the SNN were engaged more strongly when observing dyads with disturbed movement fluency. In conclusion, while the AON is involved in the general processing of contingent social actions, irrespective of their kinematic properties, the SNN is preferentially recruited when atypical kinematic properties prompt inferences about the agents' intentions. PMID:23813661

  9. [Analysis of pragmatic aspects of communication behavior of verbal and nonverbal autistic children].

    PubMed

    Bernard-Opitz, V; Chen, A; Kok, A J; Sriram, N

    2000-02-01

    The analysis and intervention of communication is an important focus of autism research. The present study is a microanalysis of the communicative behaviour of 10 autistic children with their parents and a therapist. Protests, appropriate initiation and responses of the children were analysed in relation to demands and the specific feedback of the adults. After 20 months of structured therapy changes in the communicative behaviour of the participants were demonstrated. Autistic children showed different communicative pattern with their parents compared to a therapist. The non-verbal group exhibited significantly more protests and decreased responsivity with their parents compared to the therapist. The verbal group interacted with their parents predominantly by echolalia. After 20 months a significant reduction in protests, increased compliance and responsivity were obvious in the non-verbal group. The verbal group showed a reduction in echolalia as well as increased responsive and spontaneous communication. The results demonstrate that even non-verbal autistic children are sensitive towards different interaction partners. Over the observation period participants showed a reduction in behaviour problems and positive developments of communicative behaviour. PMID:10721273

  10. Language skills and nonverbal cognitive processes associated with reading comprehension in deaf children.

    PubMed

    Daza, María Teresa; Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Ruiz-Cuadra, María del Mar; López-López, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between language skills (vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness), nonverbal cognitive processes (attention, memory and executive functions) and reading comprehension in deaf children. Participants were thirty prelingually deaf children (10.7 ¬Ī 1.6 years old; 18 boys, 12 girls), who were classified as either good readers or poor readers by their scores on two reading comprehension tasks. The children were administered a rhyme judgment task and seven computerized neuropsychological tasks specifically designed and adapted for deaf children to evaluate vocabulary knowledge, attention, memory and executive functions in deaf children. A correlational approach was also used to assess the association between variables. Although the two groups did not show differences in phonological awareness, good readers showed better vocabulary and performed significantly better than poor readers on attention, memory and executive functions measures. Significant correlations were found between better scores in reading comprehension and better scores on tasks of vocabulary and non-verbal cognitive processes. The results suggest that in deaf children, vocabulary knowledge and nonverbal cognitive processes such as selective attention, visuo-spatial memory, abstract reasoning and sequential processing may be especially relevant for the development of reading comprehension. PMID:25240218

  11. Immigrant Teachers' Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Young Suk; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine 27 immigrant teachers' understanding of teaching Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Students. The participants were asked to respond to the 18-item survey of Teacher Efficacy of English Language Learners. The implications of the findings for the cultural differences in teacher efficacy are discussed. Appended…

  12. The Effect of Vocal Hygiene and Behavior Modification Instruction on the Self-Reported Vocal Health Habits of Public School Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…

  13. "How Do the Apples Reproduce (Themselves)?" How Teacher Trainees Negotiate Language, Content, and Membership in a CLIL Science Education Classroom at a Multilingual University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Emilee; Dooly, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses findings from ongoing research into plurilingual group work interaction in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) teacher training classroom at a university in Catalonia, Spain. We explore how participants make use of available verbal and non-verbal resources--for example, their multilingual verbal repertoires,…

  14. In the ear of the beholder: how age shapes emotion processing in nonverbal vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Lima, César F; Alves, Tiago; Scott, Sophie K; Castro, São Luís

    2014-02-01

    It is well established that emotion recognition of facial expressions declines with age, but evidence for age-related differences in vocal emotions is more limited. This is especially true for nonverbal vocalizations such as laughter, sobs, or sighs. In this study, 43 younger adults (M = 22 years) and 43 older ones (M = 61.4 years) provided multiple emotion ratings of nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Contrasting with previous research, which often includes only one positive emotion (happiness) versus several negative ones, we examined 4 positive and 4 negative emotions: achievement/triumph, amusement, pleasure, relief, anger, disgust, fear, and sadness. We controlled for hearing loss and assessed general cognitive decline, cognitive control, verbal intelligence, working memory, current affect, emotion regulation, and personality. Older adults were less sensitive than younger ones to the intended vocal emotions, as indicated by decrements in ratings on the intended emotion scales and accuracy. These effects were similar for positive and negative emotions, and they were independent of age-related differences in cognitive, affective, and personality measures. Regression analyses revealed that younger and older participants' responses could be predicted from the acoustic properties of the temporal, intensity, fundamental frequency, and spectral profile of the vocalizations. The two groups were similarly efficient in using the acoustic cues, but there were differences in the patterns of emotion-specific predictors. This study suggests that ageing produces specific changes on the processing of nonverbal vocalizations. That decrements were not attenuated for positive emotions indicates that they cannot be explained by a positivity effect in older adults. PMID:24219391

  15. Perception of 'Back-Channeling' Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation.

    PubMed

    Moran, Nikki; Hadley, Lauren V; Bader, Maria; Keller, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues ('back-channeling') by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched) duos from musicians' nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers' musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse) or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed). The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio) of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician ('back-channeler'). Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60) with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction. PMID:26086593

  16. Age of second language acquisition affects nonverbal conflict processing in children: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background In their daily communication, bilinguals switch between two languages, a process that involves the selection of a target language and minimization of interference from a nontarget language. Previous studies have uncovered the neural structure in bilinguals and the activation patterns associated with performing verbal conflict tasks. One question that remains, however is whether this extra verbal switching affects brain function during nonverbal conflict tasks. Methods In this study, we have used fMRI to investigate the impact of bilingualism in children performing two nonverbal tasks involving stimulus‚Äďstimulus and stimulus‚Äďresponse conflicts. Three groups of 8‚Äď11-year-old children ‚Äď bilinguals from birth (2L1), second language learners (L2L), and a control group of monolinguals (1L1) ‚Äď were scanned while performing a color Simon and a numerical Stroop task. Reaction times and accuracy were logged. Results Compared to monolingual controls, bilingual children showed higher behavioral congruency effect of these tasks, which is matched by the recruitment of brain regions that are generally used in general cognitive control, language processing or to solve language conflict situations in bilinguals (caudate nucleus, posterior cingulate gyrus, STG, precuneus). Further, the activation of these areas was found to be higher in 2L1 compared to L2L. Conclusion The coupling of longer reaction times to the recruitment of extra language-related brain areas supports the hypothesis that when dealing with language conflicts the specialization of bilinguals hampers the way they can process with nonverbal conflicts, at least at early stages in life. PMID:25328840

  17. Perception of ‚ÄėBack-Channeling‚Äô Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Nikki; Hadley, Lauren V.; Bader, Maria; Keller, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues (‚Äėback-channeling‚Äô) by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched) duos from musicians‚Äô nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers‚Äô musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse) or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed). The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio) of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician (‚Äėback-channeler‚Äô). Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60) with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction. PMID:26086593

  18. All eyes on the patient: the influence of oncologists' nonverbal communication on breast cancer patients' trust.

    PubMed

    Hillen, Marij A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Bijker, Nina; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Vermeulen, Dani√ęlle M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2015-08-01

    Trust in the oncologist is crucial for breast cancer patients. It reduces worry, enhances decision making, and stimulates adherence. Optimal nonverbal communication by the oncologist, particularly eye contact, body posture, and smiling, presumably benefits patients' trust. We were the first to experimentally examine (1) how the oncologist's nonverbal behavior influences trust, and (2) individual differences in breast cancer patients' trust. Analogue patients (APs) viewed one out of eight versions of a video vignette displaying a consultation about chemotherapy treatment. All eight versions varied only in the oncologist's amount of eye contact (consistent vs. inconsistent), body posture (forward leaning vs. varying), and smiling (occasional smiling vs. no smiling). Primary outcome was trust in the observed oncologist (Trust in Oncologist Scale). 214 APs participated. Consistent eye contact led to stronger trust (ő≤ = -.13, p = .04). This effect was largely explained by lower educated patients, for whom the effect of consistent eye contact was stronger than for higher educated patients (ő≤ = .18, p = .01). A forward leaning body posture did not influence trust, nor did smiling. However, if the oncologist smiled more, he was perceived as more friendly (rs = .31, p < .001) and caring (rs = .18, p = .01). Older (ő≤ = .17, p = .01) and lower educated APs (ő≤ = -.25, p < .001) were more trusting. Trust was weaker for more avoidantly attached APs (ő≤ = -.16, p = .03). We experimentally demonstrated the importance of maintaining consistent eye contact for breast cancer patients' trust, especially among lower educated patients. These findings need to be translated into training for oncologists in how to optimize their nonverbal communication with breast cancer patients while simultaneously managing increased time pressure and computer use during the consultation. PMID:26227472

  19. A Neurodevelopmental Perspective on the Acquisition of Nonverbal Cognitive Skills in Adolescents With Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kover, Sara T.; Pierpont, Elizabeth I.; Kim, Jee-Seon; Brown, W. Ted; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to investigate trajectories of nonverbal cognitive ability in adolescents with fragile X syndrome with respect to the relative influence of FMRP, autism symptom severity, and environmental factors on visualization and fluid reasoning abilities. Males and females with fragile X syndrome (N = 53; ages 10 - 16 years) were evaluated with the Leiter-R at up to four annual assessments. On average, IQ declined with age. FMRP levels predicted change in fluid reasoning, but not in visualization. The role of FMRP in the neural development that underlies the fragile X syndrome cognitive phenotype is discussed. PMID:24138215

  20. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Chlo√ę; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities within a normal developmental timeframe for language acquisition). A more direct, and therefore stronger, test of the hypothesis that the type and quality of language exposure impact working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM) and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition and reduced quality of language input compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6‚Äď11 years: hearing children (n = 28), deaf children who were native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n = 8), and deaf children who used BSL but who were not native signers (n = 19). We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and whether scores on language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two executive-loaded NVWM tasks included in our battery, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another). Multiple regression analysis revealed that scores on the vocabulary measure predicted scores on those two executive-loaded NVWM tasks (with age and non-verbal reasoning partialled out). Our results suggest that whatever the language modality‚ÄĒspoken or signed‚ÄĒrich language experience from birth, and the good language skills that result from this early age of acquisition, play a critical role in the development of NVWM and in performance on NVWM tasks. PMID:25999875

  1. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Chlo√ę; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities within a normal developmental timeframe for language acquisition). A more direct, and therefore stronger, test of the hypothesis that the type and quality of language exposure impact working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM) and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition and reduced quality of language input compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6-11 years: hearing children (n = 28), deaf children who were native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n = 8), and deaf children who used BSL but who were not native signers (n = 19). We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and whether scores on language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two executive-loaded NVWM tasks included in our battery, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another). Multiple regression analysis revealed that scores on the vocabulary measure predicted scores on those two executive-loaded NVWM tasks (with age and non-verbal reasoning partialled out). Our results suggest that whatever the language modality-spoken or signed-rich language experience from birth, and the good language skills that result from this early age of acquisition, play a critical role in the development of NVWM and in performance on NVWM tasks. PMID:25999875

  2. Treating dyspnea with morphine sulfate in nonverbal children with neurological impairment.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Julie M

    2015-04-01

    Children with severe neurological impairment (NI) are at risk for recurrent respiratory illness with risk for associated distressing respiratory symptoms as respiratory exacerbations become more frequent. Evidence for treating dyspnea in adults with severe pulmonary disease offers interventions for consideration, including morphine sulfate. This case series of four individuals with severe NI reviews the benefit from morphine for respiratory distress. Information includes descriptors of distress, starting dose, and dose increases. This is the first report to review the use of morphine for the treatment of dyspnea in nonverbal children with severe impairment of the central nervous system. PMID:25470003

  3. [Evaluation of intelligence with non-verbal tests in aphasic patients].

    PubMed

    Ceschin, J S; Melaragno Filho, R; Brauer, M J; Parente, M A

    1979-09-01

    Eight patients with cerebral vascular disease and aphasia were studied just after the stroke. The clinical, neuropsychiatric, EEG and neuro-radiological aspects were evaluated. The patients were submitted to the psychological and phonoaudiological studies. The authors correlated the neurological lesions to the structural alteration of the intelligence, to the praxic and estheognostic alterations and also to the language disturbances. The criterions adopted by the World Health Organization and the genetics classification of Jean Piaget were used for the intellectual level classification. The results suggest that the intelligence evaluated through Leither's non-verbal test is better preserved in some asphasics. PMID:533383

  4. Brief report: Impression formation in high-functioning autism: role of nonverbal behavior and stereotype activating information.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Caroline; Dratsch, Thomas; Vogeley, Kai; Bente, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about whether stereotypes influence social judgments of autistic individuals, in particular when they compete with tacit face-to-face cues. We compared impression formation of 17 subjects with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 17 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls. Information about the profession of a job applicant served as stereotype activating information. The target person's nonverbal behavior was presented as a computer animation showing two virtual characters in interaction. Contrary to our hypothesis, HFA participants were as sensitive to nonverbal cues as controls. Moreover, HFA showed a tendency to evaluate persons more positively. This might indicate a routine HFA apply in impression formation in order to compensate for their deficit in intuitive understanding of nonverbal communication cues. PMID:24362848

  5. Memory Test Performance on Analogous Verbal and Nonverbal Memory Tests in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, Deanna; Miller, Justin B.; Leger, Gabriel C.; Banks, Sarah Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) typically have initial deficits in language or changes in personality, while the defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is memory impairment. Neuropsychological findings in the two diseases tend to differ, but can be confounded by verbal impairment in FTD impacting performance on memory tests in these patients. Methods Twenty-seven patients with FTD and 102 patients with AD underwent a neuropsychological assessment before diagnosis. By utilizing analogous versions of a verbal and nonverbal memory test, we demonstrated differences in these two modalities between AD and FTD. Discussion Better differentiation between AD and FTD is found in a nonverbal memory test, possibly because it eliminates the confounding variable of language deficits found in patients with FTD. These results highlight the importance of nonverbal learning tests with multiple learning trials in diagnostic testing. PMID:26933437

  6. "You Looking at Me?": Investigating 9 and 13 Year-Olds' Ability to Encode and Decode Nonverbal Communication and Demonstrate "Emotional Literacy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Esther; Burton, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This small-scale study reports the findings from an investigation into non-verbal communication. It primarily seeks to analyse whether 9 and 13 year-olds can encode and decode non-verbal communication in the context of classroom behaviour management. This research showed that, in contrast to previous published research, there were no distinct…

  7. Test Review: L. Brown, R. J. Sherbenou, & S. K. Johnsen "Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-4" (Toni-4). Austin, TX--PRO-ED, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Nicola; Kilinc, Emin; Navruz, Bilgin; Bae, Yunhee

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition (TONI-4), an individually administered instrument created to assess intelligence. The distinguishing characteristic of the TONI-4 is the nonverbal, motor-reduced format that assesses common elements of intelligence without the confounding effects of motor or linguistic skills. The…

  8. Relationship of Non-Verbal Intelligence Materials as Catalyst for Academic Achievement and Peaceful Co-Existence among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambo, Aminu

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines students' performance in Non-verbal Intelligence tests relative academic achievement of some selected secondary school students. Two hypotheses were formulated with a view to generating data for the ease of analyses. Two non-verbal intelligent tests viz: Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and AH[subscript 4] Part II…

  9. Test Review: Hammill, D. D., Pearson, N. A., & Weiderholt, J. L. (2009). "Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2)." Austin, TX: PRO-ED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delen, Erhan; Kaya, Fatih; Ritter, Nicola L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2), a nonverbal intelligence test created to assess reasoning and problem solving of children and adults. The goal of the CTONI-2 is to minimize the influence of language ability on intelligence test scores. Oral or pantomime instructions canÖ

  10. Test Review: L. Brown, R. J. Sherbenou, & S. K. Johnsen "Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-4" (Toni-4). Austin, TX--PRO-ED, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Nicola; Kilinc, Emin; Navruz, Bilgin; Bae, Yunhee

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition (TONI-4), an individually administered instrument created to assess intelligence. The distinguishing characteristic of the TONI-4 is the nonverbal, motor-reduced format that assesses common elements of intelligence without the confounding effects of motor or linguistic skills. TheÖ

  11. Network structure underlying resolution of conflicting non-verbal and verbal social information

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Inoue, Hideyuki; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Takao, Hidemasa; Sasaki, Hiroki; Gonoi, Wataru; Murakami, Mizuho; Katsura, Masaki; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2014-01-01

    Social judgments often require resolution of incongruity in communication contents. Although previous studies revealed that such conflict resolution recruits brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG), functional relationships and networks among these regions remain unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the functional dissociation and networks by measuring human brain activity during resolving incongruity between verbal and non-verbal emotional contents. First, we found that the conflict resolutions biased by the non-verbal contents activated the posterior dorsal mPFC (post-dmPFC), bilateral anterior insula (AI) and right dorsal pIFG, whereas the resolutions biased by the verbal contents activated the bilateral ventral pIFG. In contrast, the anterior dmPFC (ant-dmPFC), bilateral superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus were commonly involved in both of the resolutions. Second, we found that the post-dmPFC and right ventral pIFG were hub regions in networks underlying the non-verbal‚Äď and verbal‚Äďcontent-biased resolutions, respectively. Finally, we revealed that these resolution-type‚Äďspecific networks were bridged by the ant-dmPFC, which was recruited for the conflict resolutions earlier than the two hub regions. These findings suggest that, in social conflict resolutions, the ant-dmPFC selectively recruits one of the resolution-type‚Äďspecific networks through its interaction with resolution-type‚Äďspecific hub regions. PMID:23552078

  12. Regularity of unit length boosts statistical learning in verbal and nonverbal artificial languages.

    PubMed

    Hoch, L; Tyler, M D; Tillmann, B

    2013-02-01

    Humans have remarkable statistical learning abilities for verbal speech-like materials and for nonverbal music-like materials. Statistical learning has been shown with artificial languages (AL) that consist of the concatenation of nonsense word-like units into a continuous stream. These ALs contain no cues to unit boundaries other than the transitional probabilities between events, which are high within a unit and low between units. Most AL studies have used units of regular lengths. In the present study, the ALs were based on the same statistical structures but differed in unit length regularity (i.e., whether they were made out of units of regular vs. irregular lengths) and in materials (i.e., syllables vs. musical timbres), to allow us to investigate the influence of unit length regularity on domain-general statistical learning. In addition to better performance for verbal than for nonverbal materials, the findings revealed an effect of unit length regularity, with better performance for languages with regular- (vs. irregular-) length units. This unit length regularity effect suggests the influence of dynamic attentional processes (as proposed by the dynamic attending theory; Large & Jones (Psychological Review 106: 119-159, 1999)) on domain-general statistical learning. PMID:22890871

  13. Assessing nonverbal memory with the Biber Figure Learning Test-Extended in temporal lobe epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Glosser, Guila; Cole, Lynne; Khatri, Upama; DellaPietra, Lynn; Kaplan, Edith

    2002-01-01

    Material-specific memory dysfunction was assessed using a nonverbal, visuospatial, supraspan learning test, the Biber Figure Learning Test-Extended (BFLT-E), in 71 left-hemisphere language-dominant epilepsy patients prior to anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and in 48 age-matched healthy subjects. Two matched forms of the BFLT-E yielded comparable scores, indicating that this task may be used to track memory performance over time in individual patients. Right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE) and left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) patients performed below healthy subjects on all free-recall measures. RTLE, but not LTLE, patients also differed from healthy subjects in recognition memory discrimination. Furthermore, the RTLE patients performed below LTLE patients on measures specific to long-term memory abilities. The BFLT-E appears to be a useful clinical tool for assessing different components of visuospatial memory in patients with lateralized mesial temporal lobe (MTL) dysfunction. The test is sensitive to visuoconstructional problems associated with various types of brain damage, but it also distinguishes material-specific, nonverbal, visuospatial memory impairments in patients with neurological dysfunction in the non language-dominant right temporal lobe. PMID:14589750

  14. [Nonverbal communication between nurses and the elderly based on the proxemics].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Fabiana Ferraz Queiroga; Costa, Kátia Nêyla de Freitas Macêdo; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; Fernandes, Maria das Graças Melo; Lima, Joab de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to analyze the nonverbal communication between nurses and the elderly in the nursing consultation based on the theory by Hall. The research concerns a descriptive exploratory study and it has a quantitative approach. It took place through filmings of the nursing consultations which happened in Health Basic Units in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, observed every minute, a total of 1.575 nonverbal interactions. The analysis has showed the predominance of the female nurses (90.63%) and the elderly (65.63) and a regular classification for most of the factors as a prevalence of a sitting set (80.09), opposite chairs (64.46%), personal distance (91.40%), calm facial expression (59.78%), touch was used for a technical procedure (53.33%), visual interaction for the manipulation of the objects (57.69) and no alteration in the voice volume (48.79%). These results reflect the necessity of the nurses to domain consciously their corporal and facial manifestations in order to improve the interaction with the elderly. PMID:25590883

  15. Verbal/nonverbal communication between man and Avatar in virtual mechanical assembly training system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuaki; Ozaki, Tomoaki; Abe, Norihiro; Taki, Horikazu

    2003-04-01

    The interface environment of a computer still uses a mouse and a keyboard and it is hard for many users including aged person to use computers. The computer operation may become difficult with age even if a person can use a computer currently. Development of the interface system is desired that permits persons to talk to a computer in the same way as they communicate with other ones. Of course the development of such an interface system will be effective for all computer application users in addition to aged person. We developed in this study the man machine interface system that exploits virtual reality in order to bring a talk between a person and a machine close to that between persons. We aimed at realization of bi-directional verbal/nonverbal communication that permits both the user and an avatar rendered in virtual space can use a spoken language and nonverbal behavior such as gesture/a hand gesture. As the field of concrete application, the field of assembling/disassembly of mechanical part is selected. We produced an experimental assembly training system that helps a novice acquire a right assembling procedure of virtual machine. In the system, a user can ask an avatar to show the way to assemble/disassemble mechanical parts whenever he needs help.

  16. Localizing Pain Matrix and Theory of Mind networks with both verbal and non-verbal stimuli.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Nir; Bruneau, Emile; Koster-Hale, Jorie; Saxe, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    Functional localizer tasks allow researchers to identify brain regions in each individual's brain, using a combination of anatomical and functional constraints. In this study, we compare three social cognitive localizer tasks, designed to efficiently identify regions in the "Pain Matrix," recruited in response to a person's physical pain, and the "Theory of Mind network," recruited in response to a person's mental states (i.e. beliefs and emotions). Participants performed three tasks: first, the verbal false-belief stories task; second, a verbal task including stories describing physical pain versus emotional suffering; and third, passively viewing a non-verbal animated movie, which included segments depicting physical pain and beliefs and emotions. All three localizers were efficient in identifying replicable, stable networks in individual subjects. The consistency across tasks makes all three tasks viable localizers. Nevertheless, there were small reliable differences in the location of the regions and the pattern of activity within regions, hinting at more specific representations. The new localizers go beyond those currently available: first, they simultaneously identify two functional networks with no additional scan time, and second, the non-verbal task extends the populations in whom functional localizers can be applied. These localizers will be made publicly available. PMID:26589334

  17. "Artificial humans": Psychology and neuroscience perspectives on embodiment and nonverbal communication.

    PubMed

    Vogeley, Kai; Bente, Gary

    2010-01-01

    "Artificial humans", so-called "Embodied Conversational Agents" and humanoid robots, are assumed to facilitate human-technology interaction referring to the unique human capacities of interpersonal communication and social information processing. While early research and development in artificial intelligence (AI) focused on processing and production of natural language, the "new AI" has also taken into account the emotional and relational aspects of communication with an emphasis both on understanding and production of nonverbal behavior. This shift in attention in computer science and engineering is reflected in recent developments in psychology and social cognitive neuroscience. This article addresses key challenges which emerge from the goal to equip machines with socio-emotional intelligence and to enable them to interpret subtle nonverbal cues and to respond to social affordances with naturally appearing behavior from both perspectives. In particular, we propose that the creation of credible artificial humans not only defines the ultimate test for our understanding of human communication and social cognition but also provides a unique research tool to improve our knowledge about the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms. PMID:20620019

  18. Intuitive geometry and visuospatial working memory in children showing symptoms of nonverbal learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mammarella, Irene C; Giofrè, David; Ferrara, Rosanna; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and intuitive geometry were examined in two groups aged 11-13, one with children displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning disability (NLD; n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ16), and the other, a control group without learning disabilities (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ16). The two groups were matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. The children were presented with simple storage and complex-span tasks involving VSWM and with the intuitive geometry task devised by Dehaene, Izard, Pica, and Spelke (2006 ). Results revealed that the two groups differed in the intuitive geometry task. Differences were particularly evident in Euclidean geometry and in geometrical transformations. Moreover, the performance of NLD children was worse than controls to a larger extent in complex-span than in simple storage tasks, and VSWM differences were able to account for group differences in geometry. Finally, a discriminant function analysis confirmed the crucial role of complex-span tasks involving VSWM in distinguishing between the two groups. Results are discussed with reference to the relationship between VSWM and mathematics difficulties in nonverbal learning disabilities. PMID:22375915

  19. Quantifying nonverbal communicative behavior in face-to-face human dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skhiri, Mustapha; Cerrato, Loredana

    2002-11-01

    The referred study is based on the assumption that understanding how humans use nonverbal behavior in dialogues can be very useful in the design of more natural-looking animated talking heads. The goal of the study is twofold: (1) to explore how people use specific facial expressions and head movements to serve important dialogue functions, and (2) to show evidence that it is possible to measure and quantify the entity of these movements with the Qualisys MacReflex motion tracking system. Naturally elicited dialogues between humans have been analyzed with focus on the attention on those nonverbal behaviors that serve the very relevant functions of regulating the conversational flux (i.e., turn taking) and producing information about the state of communication (i.e., feedback). The results show that eyebrow raising, head nods, and head shakes are typical signals involved during the exchange of speaking turns, as well as in the production and elicitation of feedback. These movements can be easily measured and quantified, and this measure can be implemented in animated talking heads.

  20. Associations Between Nonverbal Behaviors and Subsequent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Noll, Jennie G.; Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study examined a sample of sexually abused and comparison girls to determine (a) whether there were patterns of behavior that differed between the groups and (b) whether nonverbal behaviors assessed at the initial visit (n = 147; M= 11.11 years; SD = 3.02) might predict sexual attitudes and behaviors at a later point in development (n = 144; M = 18.52 years; SD = 3.52). At the initial assessment, nonverbal behaviors during an interaction with an unknown male interviewer were factor analyzed revealing 3 factors: wary (e.g., pouting), affiliative (e.g., chin resting on hand), and coy (e.g., tongue show). Abused girls scored higher on the coy factor that was related to earlier age at first voluntary intercourse later in development (approximately 7 years later). High scores on the affiliative factor were related to higher sexual permissiveness and less negative attitudes toward sex. Results indicate that sexually abused girls showed early maladaptive patterns in interpersonal interactions, which were subsequently related to risky sexual attitudes and behaviors. PMID:20410025

  1. Patterns of Change in Nonverbal Cognition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Channell, Marie Moore; Thurman, Angela John; Kover, Sara Teresa; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine longitudinal change in nonverbal cognitive abilities across adolescence for 20 males with Down syndrome (DS). We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine the rate of change in performance on the subtests of the Leiter-R Brief IQ across four annual time points and to determine the relation between maternal IQ and level and rate of change in performance. Results indicated no significant change in IQ (standard scores) with age in the sample, suggesting IQ stability during adolescence for individuals with DS, although several participants performed at floor level on the standard scores for the Leiter-R, limiting interpretation. Growth scores, however, provide a metric of absolute ability level, allow for the examination of change in Leiter-R performance in all participants, and minimize floor effects. Results from the analysis of growth scores indicated significant gain in absolute nonverbal cognitive ability levels (growth score values) over time for the adolescents with DS, although the growth varied by subdomain. Maternal IQ did not explain variability in cognitive performance or change in that performance over time in our sample of adolescents with DS. PMID:25112795

  2. Do Experts and Students Agree on the Importance of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Skills for Business Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Martha E.; Chaney, Lillian H.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of 21 chief executive officers and 1,565 business communication students found strong agreement in both groups' opinions of the importance of verbal and nonverbal communication skills. They disagreed in two areas related to oral communication and social sensitivity. (SK)

  3. Teaching Approach for Developing Nonverbal Communication Skills in Students with Social Perception Deficits. Part II. Proxemic, Vocalic, and Artifactual Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minskoff, Esther H.

    1980-01-01

    In Part 2 of a two-part article individual educational program objectives are applied to nonverbal communication areas as follows: proxemics, or the use of distance, spatial arrangements, and territories; vocalics, or the use of prosodic, paralinguistic, or nonlinguistic features; and artifactual cues involving clothing and cosmetics. (Author/SBH)

  4. Value-Added Predictors of Expressive and Receptive Language Growth in Initially Nonverbal Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Paul; Watson, Linda R.; Lambert, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders who were initially nonverbal (under 6 words in language sample and under 21 parent-reported words said) were assessed at five time points over 16†months. Statistical models that accounted for the intercorrelation among nine theoretically- and empirically-motivated predictors, as well as twoÖ

  5. Verbal and Nonverbal Emotional Behaviour of Staff: A First Attempt in the Development of an Observation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oorsouw, Wietske M. W. J.; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; Sohier, Jody

    2011-01-01

    It is common to use questionnaires and interviews to assess the emotions of staff who serve clients with intellectual disabilities. Remarkably, observations of actual staff behaviour and assessments of nonverbal expressions are usually not involved. In the present study, we have made a first start in the development of an observation instrument…

  6. Evidence for Impaired Verbal Identification but Intact Nonverbal Recognition of Fearful Body Postures in Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doody, John P.; Bull, Peter

    2013-01-01

    While most studies of emotion recognition in Asperger's Syndrome (AS) have focused solely on the verbal decoding of affective states, the current research employed the novel technique of using both nonverbal matching and verbal labeling tasks to examine the decoding of emotional body postures and facial expressions. AS participants performed…

  7. Oral Language Impairments in Developmental Disorders Characterized by Language Strengths: A Comparison of Asperger Syndrome and Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stothers, M. E.; Cardy, J. Oram

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) are developmental disorders in which linguistic ability is reported to be stronger than in disorders from which they must be distinguished for diagnosis. Children and adults with AS and NLD share pragmatic weaknesses, atypical social behaviours, and some cognitive features. To date,…

  8. The Influence of Manifest Strabismus and Stereoscopic Vision on Non-Verbal Abilities of Visually Impaired Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gligorovic, Milica; Vucinic, Vesna; Eskirovic, Branka; Jablan, Branka

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to examine the influence of manifest strabismus and stereoscopic vision on non-verbal abilities of visually impaired children aged between 7 and 15. The sample included 55 visually impaired children from the 1st to the 6th grade of elementary schools for visually impaired children in Belgrade. RANDOT stereotestÖ

  9. The Validity of the Lorge Thorndike Nonverbal Battery as a Predictor of the Academic Achievement of International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saigh, Philip A.

    1981-01-01

    Moderate correlations were observed between the grade point average and nonverbal battery IQ scores of the Lorge Thorndike Intelligence Test administered to 27 elementary school students representing 12 countries during their first semester at a private American school overseas. Reasons are cited for additional research needs in the United States…

  10. Interest Level in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder Predicts Rate of Verbal, Nonverbal, and Adaptive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…

  11. The Influence of Instruction Modality on Brain Activation in Teenagers with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: Two Case Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuller, Betty; Jantzen, Kelly J.; Olvera, Dianne; Steinberg, Fred; Scott Kelso, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Teenagers with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have difficulty with fine-motor coordination, which may relate to the novelty of the task or the lack of "self-talk" to mediate action. In this study, we required two teenagers with NLD and two control group teenagers to touch the thumb of each hand firmly and accurately to the fingertips of theÖ

  12. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  13. Role of Auditory Non-Verbal Working Memory in Sentence Repetition for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. Aims: ToÖ

  14. A Matter of Words: Impact of Verbal and Nonverbal Information on Impression Formation in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Schilbach, Leonhard; Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Clinical intuition and resent research (Senju et al., 2009) suggests that adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) are able to use explicit verbal information but fail to react upon subtle nonverbal cues in order to understand others and navigate social encounters. In order to investigate the relative influence of different domains of socially…

  15. A Common Representational System Governed by Weber's Law: Nonverbal Numerical Similarity Judgments in 6-Year-Olds and Rhesus Macaques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kerry E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared nonverbal numerical processing in 6-year-olds with that in nonhuman animals using a numerical bisection task. In the study, 16 children were trained on a delayed match-to-sample paradigm to match exemplars of two anchor numerosities. Children were then required to indicate whether a sample intermediate to the anchor values was…

  16. Verbal Strategies and Nonverbal Cues in School-Age Children with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichorn, Naomi; Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Scheuer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considerable evidence suggests that performance across a variety of cognitive tasks is effectively supported by the use of verbal and nonverbal strategies. Studies exploring the usefulness of such strategies in children with specific language impairment (SLI) are scarce and report inconsistent findings. Aims: To examine the effects ofÖ

  17. The Relation of Verbal and Nonverbal Encoding to Serial Recall Performance in Middle and Lower Class Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacher, Miriam R.

    Effects of lower versus middle class parental occupation, verbal intelligence, and action content of pictured stimuli upon nonverbal serial recall were investigated in white first-graders attending a semi-rural elementary school in southeastern Michigan. Forty lower class and 20 middle class children, (half boys and half girls) were grouped on the…

  18. Narrative Skills in Adolescents with a History of SLI in Relation to Non-Verbal IQ Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherell, Danielle; Botting, Nicola; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2007-01-01

    There is a debate about whether the language of children with primary language disorders and normal cognitive levels is qualitatively different from those with language impairments who have low or borderline non-verbal IQ (NVIQ). As children reach adolescence, this distinction may be even harder to ascertain, especially in naturalistic settings.…

  19. Linking Childhood Poverty and Cognition: Environmental Mediators of Non-Verbal Executive Control in an Argentine Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipina, SebastiŠn; Segretin, Soledad; Hermida, Julia; Prats, LucŪa; Fracchia, Carolina; Camelo, Jorge Lůpez; Colombo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Tests of attentional control, working memory, and planning were administered to compare the non-verbal executive control performance of healthy children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. In addition, mediations of several sociodemographic variables, identified in the literature as part of the experience of child poverty, betweenÖ

  20. Developmental Changes in the Effect of Verbal, Non-Verbal and Spatial-Positional Cues on Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derevensky, Jeffrey

    Sixty kindergarten, 60 second-grade, and 60 fourth-grade students performed several memory tasks under one of six conditions. The conditions differed as to the method of presentation of information. The study was focused on developmental changes in children's use of verbal, nonverbal, and spatial-positional cues for memory. The results, in…

  1. Maternal Perceptions of the Importance of Needs and Resources for Children with Asperger Syndrome and Nonverbal Learning Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Liza

    2003-01-01

    A survey examined the perceptions of 404 mothers on the availability and importance of various resources for their children (ages 4-17) with Asperger syndrome or nonverbal learning disorder. A significant number (20-30%) reported that pragmatics training, social skills training, smaller classes, or a trained aide were not made available. (Contains…

  2. Evidence of Increased Non-Verbal Behavioral Signs of Pain in Adults with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Chronic Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Frank J.; Harper, Vicki N.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Breau, Lynn M.; Bodfish, James W.

    2009-01-01

    The role of pain in relation to self-injurious behavior (SIB) among individuals with intellectual disabilities is not well understood. Some models of SIB are based on altered endogenous opioid system activity which could result in elevated pain thresholds. In this study, non-verbal behavioral signs indicative of pain as measured by the…

  3. Interest level in 2-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder predicts rate of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2‚ÄČyears predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3‚ÄČyears. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9‚ÄČmonths, were scored using Interest Level Scoring for Autism, quantifying toddlers' interest in toys, social routines, and activities that could serve as reinforcers in an intervention. Adaptive level and mental age were measured concurrently (Time 1) and again after a mean of 16.3‚ÄČmonths of treatment (Time 2). Interest Level Scoring for Autism score, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule score, adaptive age equivalent, verbal and nonverbal mental age, and intensity of intervention were entered into regression models to predict rates of skill acquisition. Interest level at Time 1 predicted subsequent acquisition rate of adaptive skills (R(2)‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.36) and verbal mental age (R(2)‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.30), above and beyond the effects of Time 1 verbal and nonverbal mental ages and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. Interest level at Time 1 also contributed (R(2)‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.30), with treatment intensity, to variance in development of nonverbal mental age. PMID:25398893

  4. Value-Added Predictors of Expressive and Receptive Language Growth in Initially Nonverbal Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Paul; Watson, Linda R.; Lambert, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders who were initially nonverbal (under 6 words in language sample and under 21 parent-reported words said) were assessed at five time points over 16 months. Statistical models that accounted for the intercorrelation among nine theoretically- and empirically-motivated predictors, as well as two…

  5. Teaching Young Nonverbal Children with Autism Useful Speech: A Pilot Study of the Denver Model and PROMPT Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sally J.; Hayden, Deborah; Hepburn, Susan; Charlifue-Smith, Renee; Hall, Terry; Hayes, Athena

    2006-01-01

    This single subject design study examined two models of intervention: Denver Model (which merges behavioral, developmental, and relationship-oriented intervention), and PROMPT (a neuro-developmental approach for speech production disorders). Ten young, nonverbal children with autism were matched in pairs and randomized to treatment. They received…

  6. Narrative Skills in Adolescents with a History of SLI in Relation to Non-Verbal IQ Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherell, Danielle; Botting, Nicola; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2007-01-01

    There is a debate about whether the language of children with primary language disorders and normal cognitive levels is qualitatively different from those with language impairments who have low or borderline non-verbal IQ (NVIQ). As children reach adolescence, this distinction may be even harder to ascertain, especially in naturalistic settings.Ö

  7. Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

  8. Role of Auditory Non-Verbal Working Memory in Sentence Repetition for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. Aims: To…

  9. Adults with Asperger Syndrome with and without a Cognitive Profile Associated with "Non-Verbal Learning Disability." A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyden, Agneta; Niklasson, Lena; Stahlberg, Ola; Anckarsater, Henrik; Dahlgren-Sandberg, Annika; Wentz, Elisabet; Rastam, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) are both characterized by impairments in motor coordination, visuo-perceptual abilities, pragmatics and comprehension of language and social understanding. NLD is also defined as a learning disorder affecting functions in the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study investigates…

  10. Linking Childhood Poverty and Cognition: Environmental Mediators of Non-Verbal Executive Control in an Argentine Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipina, Sebastián; Segretin, Soledad; Hermida, Julia; Prats, Lucía; Fracchia, Carolina; Camelo, Jorge López; Colombo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Tests of attentional control, working memory, and planning were administered to compare the non-verbal executive control performance of healthy children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. In addition, mediations of several sociodemographic variables, identified in the literature as part of the experience of child poverty, between…

  11. Brief Report: Inner Speech Impairment in Children with Autism Is Associated with Greater Nonverbal than Verbal Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, Jane S. M.; Fernyhough, Charles; Meins, Elizabeth; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new analysis of Whitehouse, Maybery, and Durkin's (2006, Experiment 3) data on inner speech in children with autism (CWA). Because inner speech development is thought to depend on linguistically mediated social interaction, we hypothesized that children with both autism and a nonverbal greater than verbal (NV greater than V) skills…

  12. Evidence of Increased Non-Verbal Behavioral Signs of Pain in Adults with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Chronic Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Frank J.; Harper, Vicki N.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Breau, Lynn M.; Bodfish, James W.

    2009-01-01

    The role of pain in relation to self-injurious behavior (SIB) among individuals with intellectual disabilities is not well understood. Some models of SIB are based on altered endogenous opioid system activity which could result in elevated pain thresholds. In this study, non-verbal behavioral signs indicative of pain as measured by theÖ

  13. Memory and Reasoning Abilities Assessed by the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test: A Reliable Component Analysis (RCA) Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, John C.; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2001-01-01

    Applied reliable component analysis (RCA) to the normative data (2,100 children and adolescents) for the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) (A. Bracken and R. McCallum, 1998) to allow for the computation of reliable uncorrelated memory and reasoning scores. RCA sores were highly replicable, had good convergent validity, and had greaterÖ

  14. The Changing Role Behaviors of Educational Administrators During Role Simulation Training: Perceptions of Verbal and Non-Verbal Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Frederick P.

    Included in a current genre of studies on dyadic interaction (i.e., communication involving only two people), the study reported herein focuses on dyadic verbal, nonverbal, and proxemic behaviors and their meanings. The study is inductive in nature and is, by intent, descriptive and analytic rather than predictive. The subjects for the study were…

  15. A Study on the Functions of Western Cultural Non-Verbal Behavior in English Classroom in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Yuehong

    2013-01-01

    In China, English classroom is the main place of English language acquisition. Therefore, how to improve English classroom teaching effectively has become the scholars' concern. This paper reports a study conducted at North China Electric Power University on the functions of western cultural nonverbal behaviors in English classroom in China.…

  16. The Influence of Manifest Strabismus and Stereoscopic Vision on Non-Verbal Abilities of Visually Impaired Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gligorovic, Milica; Vucinic, Vesna; Eskirovic, Branka; Jablan, Branka

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to examine the influence of manifest strabismus and stereoscopic vision on non-verbal abilities of visually impaired children aged between 7 and 15. The sample included 55 visually impaired children from the 1st to the 6th grade of elementary schools for visually impaired children in Belgrade. RANDOT stereotest…

  17. The Influence of Instruction Modality on Brain Activation in Teenagers with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: Two Case Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuller, Betty; Jantzen, Kelly J.; Olvera, Dianne; Steinberg, Fred; Scott Kelso, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Teenagers with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have difficulty with fine-motor coordination, which may relate to the novelty of the task or the lack of "self-talk" to mediate action. In this study, we required two teenagers with NLD and two control group teenagers to touch the thumb of each hand firmly and accurately to the fingertips of the…

  18. Interest Level in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder Predicts Rate of Verbal, Nonverbal, and Adaptive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skillÖ

  19. Brief Report: Impaired Differentiation of Vegetative/Affective and Intentional Nonverbal Vocalizations in a Subject with Asperger Syndrome (AS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Riedel, Andreas; Ackermann, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    The Asperger syndrome (AS) includes impaired recognition of other people's mental states. Since language-based diagnostic procedures may be confounded by cognitive-linguistic compensation strategies, nonverbal test materials were created, including human affective and vegetative sounds. Depending on video context, each sound could be interpreted…

  20. Verbal Strategies and Nonverbal Cues in School-Age Children with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichorn, Naomi; Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Scheuer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considerable evidence suggests that performance across a variety of cognitive tasks is effectively supported by the use of verbal and nonverbal strategies. Studies exploring the usefulness of such strategies in children with specific language impairment (SLI) are scarce and report inconsistent findings. Aims: To examine the effects of…