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Sample records for teacher nonverbal immediacy

  1. A Reinvestigation of the Relationship of Teacher Nonverbal Immediacy and Student Compliance-Resistance with Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burroughs, Nancy F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined (1) whether or not college students in actual classrooms used resistance strategies similar to those found in earlier hypothetical-anchored research; (2) the influence of teacher immediacy on student's differential use of those resistance strategies; and (3) the relationship among students' willingness to comply, teachers'…

  2. Students' Silent Messages: Can Teacher Verbal and Nonverbal Immediacy Moderate Student Use of Text Messaging in Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Fang-Yi Flora; Wang, Y. Ken

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between teacher immediacy and college students' use of text messaging in class. Using a cross-sectional survey sample (N=228), structural equation model analyses showed that students' learning motivation does not mediate the potential effects of teacher immediacy and students' use of text messaging in…

  3. Understanding Instructor Nonverbal Immediacy, Verbal Immediacy, and Student Motivation at a Small Liberal Arts University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlich, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Instructor communication behaviors and student motivation to learn relationships were studied at a small liberal arts university. Specifically, relationships between instructor nonverbal immediacy, verbal immediacy behaviors and student motivation to learn were measured. Only instructor verbal immediacy behaviors had a significant linear…

  4. Immediacy Scale Represents Four Factors: Nonverbal and Verbal Components Predict Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Janie H.; Locker, Lawrence, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Immediacy communicates psychological availability and warmth. In the classroom, instructor immediacy is traditionally measured with ratings of nonverbal and verbal behaviors. Although nonverbal immediacy has been accepted as a legitimate measure of immediacy, the validity of verbal items has been questioned. In the present study, we examined face…

  5. Conceptualizing Teacher Immediacy through the "Companion" Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibii, Razvan

    2010-01-01

    Situated within the critical pedagogic scholarship that deals with the issue of "teacher immediacy", this study proposes an understanding of the practice of pedagogy through the metaphor of "companionship". A friendly individual but not a friend, the instructor is seen here as someone who can connect to college-age students without any visible…

  6. Teacher Immediacy: Reflections on a Peer Review of Teaching Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Sarah; Vickerman, Philip; Maynard, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Using a qualitative approach drawing on the experiences of four HE lecturers, this study provides an exploration of and insights into a peer review of teaching (PRT) scheme, which focused on teacher immediacy and communication skills. Within the United Kingdom, limited research has been undertaken in relation to teacher immediacy even though…

  7. The Effect of Face Threat Mitigation on Instructor Credibility and Student Motivation in the Absence of Instructor Nonverbal Immediacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trad, Laura; Katt, James; Miller, Ann Neville

    2014-01-01

    Instructor nonverbal immediacy has been associated with a range of positive student outcomes, but it is difficult to convey in an online environment. We investigated whether the text-based variable of face threat mitigation (FTM) alone--without the visual cues of nonverbally immediate behaviors--could significantly raise students' motivation…

  8. The Impact of Instructor Decision Authority and Verbal and Nonverbal Immediacy on Korean Student Satisfaction in the US and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Yun, Doshik; Kim, Wonsun

    2009-01-01

    This study compared Korean students in South Korea and Korean students in the US regarding their perceptions of instructor decision authority and verbal and nonverbal immediacy. Korean students reported higher instructor decision authority and lower levels of instructor verbal and nonverbal immediacy in Korean classrooms than in US classrooms.…

  9. The Relationship of Instructor Self-Disclosure, Nonverbal Immediacy, and Credibility to Student Incivility in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ann Neville; Katt, James A.; Brown, Tim; Sivo, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the potential mediating role of instructor credibility in the relationship of instructor self-disclosure and nonverbal immediacy to student incivility in the college classroom. Four hundred thirty-eight students completed online questionnaires regarding the instructor of the class they attended prior to the one in which…

  10. Teacher Immediacy, Confidence Testing, and the Measurement of Cognitive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Paul; Witt, Paul

    2009-01-01

    There is much disagreement among instructional communication scholars concerning the appropriate means to measure cognitive learning. Significant differences have emerged between studies that rely on perceptual versus performance measures of learning and the issue has been the subject of much recent debate in research on teacher immediacy. The…

  11. Student and Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors and the Influence of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors on Student Motivation to Learn Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlejohn, Vania

    The National Assessment on Educational Progress signals that American students are not being adequately prepared to compete globally in an ever changing scientific society. As a result, legislation mandated that all students be assessed and show proficiency in scientific literacy beginning in Grade 4 with the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2002 also known as No Child Left Behind. Research indicates a disturbing decline in the number of U.S. students pursuing more rigorous science courses in high school, majoring in scientific areas in college, and choosing future careers in science. With a need to improve science instruction and enhance science literacy for all students, this study focuses on immediate communication behaviors of the classroom teacher as a deciding factor in the opinions of high school students towards science. The purpose of this study was to reveal high school science student perceptions of teacher communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal, and how they influence their motivation to learn science. The researcher utilized a nonexperimental, quantitative research design to guide this study. Teacher and student data were collected using the Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ). The Student Motivation to Learn Instrument (SMLI) across gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status survey was used to evaluate student motivation in science. Participants were encouraged to be honest in reporting and sharing information concerning teacher communication behaviors. The data revealed that teacher immediacy behaviors, both verbal and nonverbal, were perceived differently in terms of student gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. The results showed that teachers who display positive communication behaviors and use challenging questioning followed with positive responses create pathways to potentially powerful relationships. These relationships between teachers and students can lead to increased student

  12. Impact of Immediate Faculty Behaviors on the Learning of Japanese Undergraduates in a U.S. Distance Education Program: Immediacy in Cross-Cultural Instructional Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Keiko Inada

    2010-01-01

    Immediacy is the closeness expressed by communicators which maybe observed in teachers as they try to engage students. Teacher immediacy may take nonverbal and verbal forms. U.S. studies have concluded that immediacy has positive effects on U.S. college students' learning. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of American faculty's…

  13. Nonverbal Language and Its Implications for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Richard

    This paper discusses nonverbal communication and its implications and relevance for teachers. The first form of nonverbal language is proxemics, which describes the physical arrangement of space within a classroom and the space we allow between ourselves and others. The second form, coverbal behavior, describes physical movement, such as gestures,…

  14. Teacher Assessment and Nonverbal Communication: The State of the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Tom H.

    Assuming that teacher effectiveness and nonverbal communication are interrelated, an analysis of nonverbal communication and teacher assessment of nonverbal action is appropriate. A review of the literature indicates that nonverbal behaviors may be examined by the impressionistic and the quantitative methods. Each of these methods generates…

  15. Examining Teacher Verbal Immediacy and Sense of Classroom Community in Online Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Shu-Fang; Aust, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    This study used quantitative measures to gather data from online students to analyze the effects of perceptions about teacher verbal immediacy and classroom community on students' level of satisfaction, perceived learning, and online discussion frequency. Using convenience sampling, 214 students were recruited from undergraduate and graduate…

  16. Teacher Immediacy and Student Learning: An Examination of Lecture/Laboratory and Self-Contained Course Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFebvre, Luke; Allen, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teaching assistant's immediacy in lecture/laboratory and self-contained classes. Two hundred fifty-six students responded to instruments measuring teachers' immediacy behavior frequency, perceptions of instruction quality, and cognitive learning. No significant difference was identified when comparing…

  17. Teachers' Nonverbal Behavior and Its Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Noureen Asghar; Arif, Manzoor

    2012-01-01

    The observational study was conducted to see the impact of teachers' nonverbal behavior on academic achievement of learners. This also investigated the relationship of nonverbal communication of teachers working in different educational institutions. Main objectives of study were to measure nonverbal behavior of teachers' both male and female…

  18. The Role of Teacher Immediacy as a Motivational Factor in Student Learning: Using Meta-Analysis to Test a Causal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; Witt, Paul L.; Wheeless, Lawrence R.

    2006-01-01

    This report uses meta-analysis to derive correlations between the variables of teacher immediacy, cognitive learning, and affective learning. A model was constructed such that the perception of teacher immediacy, a behavior, generates an intermediate outcome of affect, a motivation, which in turn increases cognitive learning outcome. The data…

  19. Nonverbal Communication and the Foreign Language Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherford, H. Jarold

    A discussion of the role of nonverbal communication in foreign language learning focuses on culturally-conditioned aspects of nonverbal behavior. Various means of nonverbal communication, including posture, gestures, facial expression, occulesics, proxemics, haptics, chronemics, and syncing are examined, and some of the cultural differences found…

  20. The Relationship between Teacher Nonverbal Behaviors and Selected Teacher-Pupil Attitudes and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Douglas M.; Bowers, Norman D.

    This investigation considered several issues relevant to the assessment of teacher nonverbal behaviors in the classroom. Multiple steps were taken to identify teacher proximity as a quantifiable dimension of teacher nonverbal behavior. These steps include the following: a) isolation of the student-initiated question frame as a suitable and…

  1. Improving the Teacher's Awareness of Nonverbal Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachur, Donald; And Others

    The emphasis in this paper is on developing teacher awareness of how nonverbal communication fits into the classroom setting. Various positive and negative aspects of this phase of communication in the classroom are explored. A classroom teacher is observed closely by students every day, and her/his attitude, feelings, mood or state of mind,…

  2. Videotutoring, Non-Verbal Communication and Initial Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichol, Jon; Watson, Kate

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of video tutoring for distance education within the context of a post-graduate teacher training course at the University of Exeter. Analysis of the tapes used a protocol based on non-verbal communication research, and findings suggest that the interaction of participants was significantly different from face-to-face…

  3. What Teachers Say May Not Be What Students Hear: Non-Verbal Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Kelly

    1978-01-01

    The author focuses on various types of nonverbal communication, reactions of both students and teachers to nonverbal communication, and techniques of developing improved communication to support openness in the classroom. An extensive literature review is presented to support the thesis that the essence of communication is nonverbal; if someone…

  4. Strategies for Enhancing Student Interaction and Immediacy in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conaway, Roger N.; Easton, Susan S.; Schmidt, Wallace V.

    2005-01-01

    The increased demand for Internet courses, especially in schools of business, has raised questions about instructional interaction and teacher-student immediacy, which online courses may lack. Because current research suggests immediacy behaviors may indeed be present, we developed a strategy for measuring immediacy in an online MBA course and…

  5. Who Is Controlling the Interaction? The Effect of Nonverbal Mirroring on Teacher-Student Rapport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang-yuan, Zhou; Wei, Guo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of nonverbal mirroring on teacher-student rapport in one-on-one interactions. Nonverbal mirroring refers to the unconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partner in social interactions. In a within-subjects paradigm, students had four…

  6. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  7. Coaches' Immediacy Behaviors as Predictors of Athletes' Perceptions of Satisfaction and Team Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turman, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether coaches' immediacy behaviors serve as predictors of athletes' satisfaction and team cohesion levels. Participants included 307 male and female high school athletes who completed measures assessing perceptions of their coaches' verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviors, as well as their own levels of…

  8. The Acquisition of Nonverbal Behaviors by Preservice Science Teachers and Their Application During Student Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Anne

    1973-01-01

    Reports a study to analyze relationships between noverbal skills acquired by preservice science teachers in a methods course and their application during student teaching. Microteaching format was used in the experimental group to develop nonverbal cues and silence. Analysis indicated experimental preservice science teachers differed significantly…

  9. Statistics Anxiety and Instructor Immediacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…

  10. Preservice Music Teachers' and Therapists' Nonverbal Behaviors and Their Relationship to Perceived Rapport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann; Johnson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the two studies reported in the article was to determine whether or not a relationship exists between preservice music therapists' and teachers' nonverbal behaviors and their perceived rapport. In study 1, evaluators (N = 56) viewed a stimulus tape consisting of 15 45-second segments of 15 preservice music therapists leading songs…

  11. Immediacy of Course Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Chris

    1979-01-01

    The growth of the Open University has led to attempts to increase the efficiency of the whole operation, such as prepackaging of teaching materials and advanced scheduling and planning of new courses. Effects of such policies on tutor-student links and the immediacy of materials are discussed. (AF)

  12. Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Use of Verbal and Non-Verbal Guidance Strategies across Classroom Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudle, Lori A.; Jung, Min-Jung; Fouts, Hillary N.; Wallace, Heather S.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of preservice teachers often lack information about specific strategies they use when guiding children's behavior. This study investigated how preservice teachers used verbal and non-verbal behavior modification techniques within structured and transition classroom contexts. Using an on-the-mark 20- second observe and 10-second…

  13. The Role of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication between Students with Special Needs and Their Teachers in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dottie S.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a positive relationship between teacher and student improves student performance in school. However, less information is available regarding the verbal and nonverbal communications between the students with special needs and their teachers within this middle school subgroup. Personal attention and support…

  14. Online Graduate Study of Health Care Learners' Perceptions of Instructional Immediacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melrose, Sherri; Bergeron, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Instructional immediacy is an established communication strategy that teachers can implement to create engaging learning environments. Yet, little is known about experiences distance education learners in graduate study programs have had with immediacy. This article presents findings from a qualitative research project designed to explore…

  15. Nonverbal Communication: A Needed Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Charles

    Research into teacher nonverbal behavior is needed. Although teachers are usually aware of their verbal behavior, they may be unaware of many nonverbal cues they express through gesture, facial expression, posture, vocal tone, or similar mechanisms. Such nonverbal expressions convey attitudes and impressions which may affect the teaching-learning…

  16. Investigation of Teachers' Verbal and Non-Verbal Strategies for Managing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Students' Behaviours within a Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated teachers' verbal and non-verbal strategies for managing ADHD students in a classroom environment. It was found that effective verbal and non-verbal strategies included voice control, short phrases, repeated instructions, using students' names, and visual cues and verbal instructions combined. It has been found that…

  17. Beyond the Language: Native Americans' Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Linda H.

    Facing an increasingly heterogeneous society, teachers need to be communicators. Most of human communication is nonverbal, but nonverbal behaviors are largely culture-bound. Teachers' sensitivity and understanding of students' nonverbal behaviors and their competence in sending correct nonverbal messages can make a difference in classroom…

  18. Teaching Strategies to Promote Immediacy in Online Graduate Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahara, Manuel Flores; Castro, Armida Lozano

    2015-01-01

    The present study is the result of the research question: How do teachers promote immediacy through interaction with their students in online graduate courses? Research was carried out at Tecnológico de Monterrey, a Mexican private university that offers online courses. The research methodology employed a qualitative approach of virtual…

  19. Non-verbal Behavior Cross-Cultural Contact, and the Urban Classroom Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Cornelius Lee

    1976-01-01

    The anthropologist sees specific human non-verbal behavior as the medium through which relationships are maintained, regulated, and guided within culturally prescribed patterns. The spoken language, the use of space, eye-contact, smiling, and the use of the hand constitute unique patterns of behavior that are culturally specific and have wide…

  20. Validity of the Verbal Immediacy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Rena Y.; Richmond, Virginia P.

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the development and use of the Verbal Immediacy Scale. Presents data that indicate it lacks both face and construct validity. Concludes that the scale may not be a valid operationalization of the immediacy construct, and even if it is, it generates a response set such that the meaning of the responses obtained is unknown. (SR)

  1. The Importance of Nonverbal Aspects of Communication in Teaching and the Pre- and Inservice Teacher Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinzing, Hans Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The ability to express and decode nonverbal cues is assumed to be an essential quality in communication and teaching. To validate, generalize and expand upon earlier research on the importance of nonverbal competencies in communication and teaching, i.e., the relationship of nonverbal competencies (e.g., expressiveness/"charisma" and nonverbal…

  2. Nonverbal Communication in One-to-One Music Performance Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurkul, Wen W.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored nonverbal communication in one-to-one music performance instruction by investigating relationships among nonverbal sensitivity, nonverbal behaviors and lesson effectiveness. Subjects (N = 120) comprised 60 college teachers and 60 of their non-music major students. Using the Music Lesson Evaluation Form, lesson effectiveness was…

  3. Immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine; Van Boven, Leaf

    2012-08-01

    In seven studies of naturally occurring, "real-world" emotional events, people demonstrated an immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons, perceiving their own current or recent emotional reactions as more intense compared with others' emotional reactions to the same events. The events examined include crossing a scary bridge (study 1a), a national tragedy (study 1b), terrorist attacks (studies 2a and 3b), a natural disaster (study 2b), and a presidential election (study 3b). These perceived differences between one's own and others' emotions declined over time, as relatively immediate and recent emotions subsided, a pattern that people were not intuitively aware of (study 2c). This immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons emerged for both explicit comparisons (studies 1a, 1b, and 3b), and for absolute judgments of emotional intensity (studies 2a, 2b, and 3a). Finally, the immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons was reduced when people were reminded that emotional display norms might lead others' appearances to understate emotional intensity (studies 3a and 3b). Implications of these findings for social-emotional phenomena are discussed. PMID:22148998

  4. Intercultural Nonverbal Communication: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji; Kitao, S. Kathleen

    A bibliography on intercultural nonverbal communication contains citations of interest primarily to Japanese teachers of English as a second language. Citations are organized in these categories: general information; chronemics; proxemics; personal space and territory; physical appearance and clothes; kinesics (posture and gestures); tactile…

  5. Contributions to the Empirical Study of Immediacy in the Pedagogical Relationship through Self-Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manarte, Joana; Lopes, Amélia; Pereira, Fátima

    2014-01-01

    Pedagogical communication is an action wherein the body, being a part of a relational whole, performs a fundamental role. A bibliographical survey of studies on the interaction between teacher and student confirms that there is a strong correlation between the teacher's nonverbal behavior and the students' level of motivation and…

  6. Done in 60-s? Inferring Teachers' Subjective Well-Being from Thin Slices of Nonverbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretsch, Johanna; Flunger, Barbara; Heckmann, Nina; Schmitt, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Being a teacher is known to be a particularly stressful occupation and as a consequence many teachers suffer from reduced well-being. Thus, it is important to know as soon as possible which individuals are likely to experience reduced well-being in their employment. Therefore, this study investigated whether it is possible to infer teachers'…

  7. The Effects of Cognitive Coaching and Nonverbal Classroom Management on Teacher Efficacy and Perceptions of School Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Green, Kathy E.; Lyons, Cherie A.; Rogers, Mary S.; Swords, Marcia E.

    Teachers in this study participated in a 3-year grant funded by the U.S. Department of Education Fund for Innovation in Education. The purpose of the grant was to provide teachers with support in implementing standards-based education. Both treatment and control groups of teachers received instruction in implementing standards-based education from…

  8. Establishing Credibility in the Multicultural Classroom: When the Instructor Speaks with an Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Chikako Akamatsu

    2007-01-01

    Applying theories of cultural dimensions, teacher credibility, and nonverbal immediacy, this chapter explores classroom management techniques used by Asian female teachers to establish credibility. (Contains 1 note.)

  9. Nonverbal Communication in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Howard A.

    1979-01-01

    School-related research is reviewed under seven categories of nonverbal communication: environmental factors, proxemics, kinesics, touching behavior, physical characteristics, paralanguage, and artifacts. (Author/MH)

  10. Nonverbal Sensitivity in the College Classroom: Toward Optimum Classroom Communication Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeaux, Terry Mark

    With the goal of generating research questions about teacher effectiveness, the first half of this paper deals with literature investigating teachers' nonverbal behavior in the classroom. This review lends support to the following ideas: (1) nonverbal cues affect relationship quality; (2) the more positive the teacher feedback to students, the…

  11. Nonverbal Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leathers, Dale G.

    This book was designed to meet five specific criteria which allow development of a course parallel to the treatment of the book's subject matter, active student involvement in testing and developing their own nonverbal communication capacities, delineation and analysis of the functional capacity of different nonverbal communication systems, an…

  12. Evaluation and Nonverbal Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, John E.

    Nonverbal behaviors as part of the communication process in interpersonal relationships has recently become of interest to therapists. Usual investigations of nonverbal behavior have involved observations and ratings of the subjects' behaviors in interview and conventional treatment situations. The author's interest is in: (1) teaching people…

  13. Dimensions of Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overmier, Mary; And Others

    After a brief description of the dimensions of nonverbal communication, this booklet presents 21 activities that deal with nonverbal communication. Activities in the booklet involve body movements (kinesics), facial expressions, eye movements, perception and use of space (proxemics), haptics (touch), paralinguistics (vocal elements that accompany…

  14. Nonverbal Communication in "Friends"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yanrong

    2006-01-01

    This activity uses video clips from a popular sitcom, "Friends," to help students grasp the relational, rule-governed, and culture-specific nature of nonverbal communication. It opens students' eyes to nonverbal behaviors that are happening on a daily basis so that they not only master the knowledge but are able to apply it. While other popular…

  15. Rapid response: email, immediacy, and medical humanitarianism in Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Grayman, Jesse Hession

    2014-11-01

    After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground. PMID:24788052

  16. A review of immediacy and implications for provider–patient relationships to support medication management

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett Ellis, Rebecca J; Carmon, Anna F; Pike, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This review is intended to 1) describe the construct of immediacy by analyzing how immediacy is used in social relational research and 2) discuss how immediacy behaviors can be incorporated into patient–provider interventions aimed at supporting patients’ medication management. Methods A literature search was conducted using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Google Scholar, OVID, PubMed, and Education Resource Information Center (ERIC) EBSCO with the keyword “immediacy”. The literature was reviewed and used to describe historical conceptualizations, identify attributes, examine boundaries, and identify antecedents and consequences of immediacy. Results In total, 149 articles were reviewed, and six attributes of immediacy were identified. Immediacy is 1) reciprocal in nature and 2) reflected in the communicator’s attitude toward the receiver and the message, 3) conveys approachability, 4) respectfulness, 5) and connectedness between communicators, and 6) promotes receiver engagement. Immediacy is associated with affective learning, cognitive learning, greater recall, enhanced relationships, satisfaction, motivation, sharing, and perceptions of mutual value in social relationships. Conclusion Immediacy should be further investigated as an intervention component of patient–provider relationships and shared decision making in medication management. Practice implications In behavioral interventions involving relational interactions between interveners and participants, such as in medication management, the effects of communication behaviors and immediacy during intervention delivery should be investigated as an intervention component. PMID:26792985

  17. Brain Specialization Research and the Teaching of Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Marvin D.

    1980-01-01

    The connectionist theory of brain functioning, which holds that specialization exists within the brain, has three implications for teachers of nonverbal communication. One implication involves the relative emphasis to be placed on linguistic/linear versus nonlinguistic/nonlinear mental processing. Teachers can shift emphasis to nonlinguistic…

  18. Effective Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parratt, Smitty

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the importance of understanding nonverbal communication in enhancing the personal and work relationships of interpreters and increasing their effectiveness in meeting the needs of customers. Discusses the mystique of body language, cultural variation in the use of gestures, the stages of an encounter, interpreting gesture clusters, and…

  19. Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; McCallum, R. Steve

    This kit presents all components of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), a newly developed instrument designed to measure the general intelligence and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents (ages 5 through 17) who may be disadvantaged by traditional verbal and language-loaded measures such as children with speech, language,…

  20. Nonverbal Communication: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, William E.; And Others

    The entries in this extensive bibliography represent books, educational journals, dissertations, popular magazines, and research studies that deal with the topic of nonverbal communication. Divided into time periods (1975 to present, 1973 to 1975, and before 1973), the titles span a variety of topics, including the following: sensory perception,…

  1. Enhancing On-Line Teaching with Verbal Immediacy through Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlich, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of instructor verbal immediacy behaviors for on-line classes. Specifically, it demonstrates how instructor verbal immediacy behaviors found in face-to-face classes can also be displayed for on-line classes. It is argued that self-determination theory describes identification of the student as an important role in the…

  2. The Criticality of Verbal Immediacy in Online Instruction: A Modified Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailie, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    In this 2011 investigation, a modified Delphi technique was introduced to determine whether an informed group of post-secondary online faculty and students could arrive at a consensus regarding the importance of previously recognized verbal immediacy behaviors. Two expert panels were presented with Gorham's (1988) Verbal Immediacy Scale and tasked…

  3. Online Instructor Strategies: A Study of Instructor Immediacy and Student Perceived Learning at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Shannon F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which instructor immediacy correlated with online community college students' perceived learning. The research questions that were investigated in the study focused on online instructor immediacy as it relates to praise (words of approval), encouragement (words of support) and examples…

  4. Nonverbal Behavior and Corrective Feedback in Nine ESL University-Level Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weiqing; Loewen, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Nonverbal behavior is an area of recent interest in second language acquisition (SLA). Some researchers have found that teachers' nonverbal behavior plays a role in second language (L2) learners' learning. Furthermore, corrective feedback during L2 interaction can also be facilitative of L2 development; however, little is known about how nonverbal…

  5. Cognitive Metaphor Theory and the Metaphysics of Immediacy.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Mathias W

    2016-05-01

    One of the core tenets of cognitive metaphor theory is the claim that metaphors ground abstract knowledge in concrete, first-hand experience. In this paper, I argue that this grounding hypothesis contains some problematic conceptual ambiguities and, under many reasonable interpretations, empirical difficulties. I present evidence that there are foundational obstacles to defining a coherent and cognitively valid concept of "metaphor" and "concrete meaning," and some general problems with singling out certain domains of experience as more immediate than others. I conclude from these considerations that whatever the facts are about the comprehension of individual metaphors, the available evidence is incompatible with the notion of an underlying conceptual structure organized according to the immediacy of experience. PMID:26523770

  6. Non-Verbal Communication in Puerto Rico. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curt, Carmen Judith Nine

    Observations of the contrasts between Puerto Rican and Anglo nonverbal communication patterns, and their relevance in the classroom, are outlined and discussed. A general observation is that what is acceptable and permissible in one culture is usually not in the other, and teachers are urged to develop ways of making Anglo and Latin American…

  7. Nonverbal learning disability.

    PubMed

    Volden, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is described as a subtype of specific learning disability where the source of the disability is a difficulty in processing nonverbal information. The child with NLD presents with problems in visual, spatial, and tactile perception but with strengths in rote verbal skills. Traditionally, these children were recognized by their difficulties in arithmetic which presented a stark contrast with their strengths in spelling and decoding text. They also exhibited a split between their verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores with the VIQ being significantly higher than PIQ. Over time, however, diagnostic criteria have evolved and the broadened definition of the NLD syndrome has led many to question the utility and uniqueness of the NLD diagnosis. In addition, shifting diagnostic standards have made research results difficult to replicate. In short, the research to date leaves many unanswered questions about (1) the definition of the NLD syndrome, (2) the pervasiveness of the academic, social and psychopathological difficulties, (3) the source of the NLD syndrome, and (4) the degree to which it overlaps with other conditions. This chapter outlines a brief history of the NLD syndrome, how it is currently conceptualized, and some of the current debate about the unanswered questions above. PMID:23622171

  8. Effective Teaching in the Multi-Cultural Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotch, Donna; Brydges, Michael

    Community college instructors and administrators need to understand teacher immediacy research and the role of immediacy in the multi-cultural classroom. Immediacy can be viewed as a combination of nonverbal behaviors used to accentuate a verbal message and reduce physical and psychological distance between interactants. Janis Andersen's research…

  9. Unspoken Words: Understanding Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Much of what is communicated in the classroom is through nonverbal means. Sending appropriate nonverbal signals, as well as recognizing and interpreting the nonverbal signals of others, are essential features of the learning process. Students' abilities to encode and decode nonverbal communication have the potential to affect all aspects of their…

  10. Nonverbal Accommodation in Healthcare Communication

    PubMed Central

    D’Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within healthcare interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as Joint Convergence, followed closely by Asymmetrical-Patient Convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by Joint Convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. Differences were predominantly non-significant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as Joint Convergence or Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender concordant and non-concordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in healthcare communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective. PMID:24138223

  11. The Effects of Instructor Transformational Leadership and Verbal Immediacy on Learner Autonomy and Creativity in Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Janelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Transformational leadership and immediacy behaviors within educational contexts have received a great deal of attention from researchers in the past few decades. Generally, the literature has focused on the impact of instructor transformational behaviors and instructor immediacy behaviors on educational outcomes. However, the relationship between…

  12. With Words Unspoken: The Nonverbal Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Lawrence B.; Civikly, Jean M.

    This book examines recent theory and research concerning nonverbal experience and behavior and provides examples of the nonverbal experience in contemporary social expression (music, cartoons, fashion, etc.). Chapters include discussions of senses, biorhythms, body image, nonverbal messages from others, environmental factors in nonverbal…

  13. Multicultural Messages: Nonverbal Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitton, Debra; And Others

    In the drive to facilitate inclusion in the classroom, one often overlooked factor that affects the environment of all classrooms is nonverbal interaction. This study was conducted to identify some specific nonverbal messages that are often culturally bound; to help educators and others involved in education understand nonverbal signals and avoid…

  14. Nonverbal Behavior and the Communication Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Charles R.

    The effect of nonverbal behavior on communication is apparent, but educators are left with the question of how an awareness of nonverbal behavior can fit into the classroom. In fact the average classroom offers a vast supply of information about nonverbal communication that remains relatively untouched in scientific studies. The processes of…

  15. Administrative and Management Perspectives on Nonverbal Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.

    The potential of nonverbal communication as a field of inquiry for educators is explored in this paper. Following a brief introduction, the first section of the paper discusses basic concepts in nonverbal communication, beginning with two related definitions and a review of research. The functional significance of nonverbal communication is…

  16. Factor structure of nonverbal cognition.

    PubMed

    Ardil, A; Pineda, D A

    2000-01-01

    In order to define the factor structure of nonverbal cognitive processes, 156 twenty to sixty year-old participants were selected in Medellin (Colombia). A neuropsychological test battery for assessing different nonverbal cognitive domains (attention, memory, visuoperceptual and visuoconstructive abilities. executive functions, praxis abilities, and written calculation abilities) was administered. Initially, independent factor analyses were carried out for each domain. Three attention factors (Sustained Attention, Divided Attention, and Processing Speed, 73.1% of the variance); two memory factors (Categorical and Non-Categorical Memory, 59.7% of the variance): two visuoperceptual and visuoconstructive factors (Sequential and Simultaneous, 54.0% of the variance); and two executive function factors (Categorization and Trial Error, 82.0% of the variance) were found. Further, several sequential factor analyses using Varimax orthogonal rotations for noncorrelated variables were performed. The 32 test variables were included, but progressively some variables were removed. This procedure finally selected 13 variables corresponding to five factors accounting for 72.6% of variance. Factor I was an Executive Function factor (30% of variance). Factor 2 corresponded to a Sequential Constructional factor (14.7%). Factor 3 represented a Processing Speed factor and accounted for 10.6% of the variance. Factor 4 was Visuoperceptual factor (9.5% of the variance). Finally, Factor 5 (7.8% of the variance) was a Nonverbal Memory factor. It was concluded that several, different cognitive dimensions are included in nonverbal cognition. PMID:11011978

  17. Nonverbal Interventions in Clinical Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison of nonverbal with verbal clinical group interventions suggested that some traditional self-report devices show less differentiation between these two interventions than do measures of group cohesion. A strong, replicable manipulation tested these findings, which were consistent with previous research. (Author/BEF)

  18. Nonverbal Behaviors in Presearch Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genova, Bissy

    This study to identify the nonverbal behaviors of librarians and library users that facilitate or impede information exchange in presearch interviews for computer-based literature searches was part of a larger research project that gathered data on 80 presearch interviews in seven medical libraries. The project also sought (1) to identify verbal…

  19. Nonverbal Behavior in Speech Acts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Mary Ritchie

    In forming a theory of communicative interaction between human beings it is necessary to consider some general features implicit in the communicative process. These include the context of situation, philosophical categories, psycholinguistic categories, grammatical categories, and nonverbal categories. Most of these are extra-linguistic and have…

  20. Nonverbal Communication among Italian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri-Bernardoni, Joseph M.

    Participant observation and author introspection were used to collect data in this study of nonverbal communication among Italian Americans in three large American cities. Discussion is given to kinesics (gestures and signs), haptics (touch), proxemics (interiors of homes, exteriors of homes, and spatial arrangements at a wedding dinner), and…

  1. Nonverbal Communication: Readings with Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitz, Shirley, Ed.

    These twenty-two readings in five areas of nonverbal communication emphasize the most recent work indicating significant trends in research. The selections represent several perspectives, including those of Ray L. Birdwhistell, Allen T. Dittman, Albert E. Scheflen, Robert Sommer, Edward T. Hall, Ralph V. Exline, and Adam Kendon. Some of the essays…

  2. Signaled and Unsignaled Terminal Links in Concurrent Chains I: Effects of Reinforcer Probability and Immediacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Karla M.; Hucks, Andrew; Grace, Randolph C.; McLean, Anthony P.

    2010-01-01

    Eight pigeons responded in a three-component concurrent-chains procedure, with either independent or dependent initial links. Relative probability and immediacy of reinforcement in the terminal links were both varied, and outcomes on individual trials (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) were either signaled or unsignaled. Terminal-link fixed-time…

  3. Selected Patterns of Interference in Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Between Black and White Middle Class Cultures. Reference Pamphlets on Intercultural Communication, No.2. Human Relations in Cultural Context, Series C: Teacher Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, E. C., Ed.; Freundlich, Joyce

    Verbal and nonverbal patterns of communication found in the black community are discussed in this paper. They have been selected on the basis of their potential as interference factors in intergroup communication. A section on black language describes and explains the following categories: rapping, running it down, jiving, shucking, copping a…

  4. The Role of Teacher Communicator Style in the Delivery of a Middle School Substance Use Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Steven M.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Ringwalt, Chris; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Hansen, William B.; Bishop, Dana; Dusenbury, Linda; Gottfredson, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether teachers' communicator style relates to student engagement, teacher-student relationships, student perceptions of teacher immediacy, as well as observer ratings of delivery skills during the implementation of All Stars, a middle school-based substance use prevention program. Data from 48 teachers who taught All Stars up to 3…

  5. Independence of Terminal-Link Entry Rate and Immediacy in Concurrent Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Mark E.; Grace, Randolph C.

    2004-01-01

    In Phase 1, 4 pigeons were trained on a three-component multiple concurrent-chains procedure in which components differed only in terms of relative terminal-link entry rate. The terminal links were variable-interval schedules and were varied across four conditions to produce immediacy ratios of 4:1, 1:4, 2:1, and 1:2. Relative terminal-link entry…

  6. Independence of terminal-link entry rate and immediacy in concurrent chains.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Mark E; Grace, Randolph C

    2004-01-01

    In Phase 1, 4 pigeons were trained on a three-component multiple concurrent-chains procedure in which components differed only in terms of relative terminal-link entry rate. The terminal links were variable-interval schedules and were varied across four conditions to produce immediacy ratios of 4:1, 1:4, 2:1, and 1:2. Relative terminal-link entry rate and relative immediacy had additive and independent effects on initial-link response allocation, and the data were well-described by a generalized-matching model. Regression analyses showed that allowing sensitivity to immediacy to vary across components produced only trivial increases in variance accounted for. Phase 2 used a three-component concurrent-schedules procedure in which the schedules were the same as the initial links of Phase 1. Across two conditions, the relative reinforcer magnitude was varied. Sensitivity to relative reinforcer rate was independent of relative magnitude, confirming results of prior studies. Sensitivity to relative reinforcer rate in Phase 2 did not vary systematically across subjects compared to sensitivity to relative entry rate in Phase 1, and regression analyses confirmed again that only small increases in variance accounted for were obtained when sensitivities were estimated independently compared with a single estimate for both phases. Overall, the data suggest that conditioned and primary reinforcers have functionally equivalent effects on choice and support the independence of relative terminal-link entry rate and immediacy as determiners of response allocation. These results are consistent with current models for concurrent chains, including Grace's (1994) contextual choice model and Mazur's (2001) hyperbolic value-added model. PMID:15693521

  7. Non-Verbal Aspects of Impromptu Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Jaakko

    Nonverbal phenomena associated with communication can take a variety of forms: kinesic behavior, physical characteristics, touching behavior, paralanguage, proxemics, artifacts, or environmental factors. To be regarded as communication, nonverbal behavior should be intentional and goal-directed, but it need not involve a conscious choice by the…

  8. Nonverbal Elements of International Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltman, John L.

    Because proficiency in nonverbal communication is as important in international business communication as it is in one's own culture, temporary residents need to learn how to improve communication. This paper explores several ways business communication specialists can help improve sojourners' nonverbal fluency for specific cultures. Temporary…

  9. Nonverbal Communication: A Research Guide & Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Mary Ritchie

    This volume discusses various aspects of nonverbal communication and provides an extensive bibliography of journal articles, listed by author, that are relevant to the topic. Commentary is divided into six sections: "Considerations in Nonverbal Communication," which examines the impact of motion and rhythm, the components of nonverbal…

  10. Body, Identity and Interaction: Interpreting Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, Allan

    The study of nonverbal communication continues to grow across the spectrum of research in many fields of study. Good textbooks and research studies are available to the scholar and the student, and courses about nonverbal behavior and communication are found in modern curricula. This book focuses on the complex, often hidden, processes that…

  11. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  12. Description of Communication Breakdown Repair Strategies Produced by Nonverbal Students with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, Baris; Erbas, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the communication repair behaviors used by nonverbal students with developmental disabilities in the interactions they were involved in with their teachers during free play activities. All children were students at centers serving student with developmental disabilities at Anadolu University in Turkey. Data were collected by…

  13. Instructor Reaction to Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Styles: An Example of Navajo and Caucasian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Holds that differences observed in instructor attention to Navajo and Caucasian children are due to the contrasting verbal and nonverbal-visual styles displayed by the two groups. Offers an evaluation program which attempts to offset teachers' tendencies to attend differentially to children displaying diverse behavioral styles in the classroom.…

  14. Discordant evaluations of Blacks affect nonverbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael A; Fazio, Russell H

    2007-09-01

    Previous research suggests that automatic prejudice directly manifests in nonverbal behavior. The authors offer a more complex picture of the relation between automatic processes and nonverbal behavior by suggesting that any discomfort that appears in nonverbal behavior stems not from negative attitudes per se but from discordance between automatically activated attitudes toward Blacks and the specific evaluations being expressed. White participants for whom estimates of automatic prejudice were available provided videotaped evaluations of several individuals, including two matched Black and White males. Discordance between general racial attitudes and evaluations of specific targets manifested in discomfort-related nonverbal behavior. Moreover, naïve Black judges, but not White judges, doubted the sincerity of individuals characterized by discordance. The nature of the nonverbal "leakage" that automatic prejudice produces is discussed. PMID:17545414

  15. Elementary School Teachers View Elementary Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masih, Lalit K.

    1969-01-01

    Teacher responses indicate positive feelings toward counseling and desire for closer communication with counselors. Teachers suggest extracurricular program enabling counselors to communicate with children in a non-verbal way. (CJ)

  16. Integration of verbal and nonverbal emotional signals in patients with schizophrenia: Decreased nonverbal dominance.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Bastian; Brück, Carolin; Jacob, Heike; Eberle, Mark; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2016-07-30

    In day-to-day social interaction, emotions are usually expressed by verbal (e.g. spoken words) and nonverbal signals (e.g. facial expressions, prosody). In case of conflicting signals nonverbal signals are perceived as being the more reliable source of information. Deficits in interpreting nonverbal signals - as described for patients with schizophrenic disorders - might interfere with the ability to integrate verbal and nonverbal social cues into a meaningful whole. The aim of this study was to examine how schizophrenic disorders influence the integration of verbal and nonverbal signals. For this purpose short video sequences were presented to 21 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls. Each sequence showed an actor speaking a short sentence with independently varying emotional connotations at the verbal and the nonverbal level. The participants rated the valence of the speaker's emotional state on a four-point scale (from very negative to very positive). The relative impact of nonverbal cues as compared to verbal cues on these ratings was evaluated. Both groups base their decisions primarily on nonverbal information. However, this effect is significantly less prominent in the patient group. Patients tend to base their decisions less on nonverbal signals and more on verbal information than healthy controls. PMID:27156031

  17. Symbolic Action in India: Gandhi's Nonverbal Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Allen H.

    1975-01-01

    Examines symbolic action as a method of exerting public influence nonverbally through nonviolent behavior. Discusses Gandhi's persuasive tactics including fasting, propaganda tours, silence, clothing and adoption of symbols. (MH)

  18. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  19. [Nonverbal communication as an iatrogenic factor].

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Monica Martins Trovo; da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes; Puggina, Ana Cláudia G

    2007-09-01

    The current study has the purpose of verifying if nurses are able to identify situations in which the nonverbal aspects of interpersonal communication between health professionals and patients constitute an iatrogenic factor. The data were collected through semistructured interviews with eight nurses and were analyzed according to the content analysis methodology. Three categories appeared from the professional discourses, and these categories make evident the perception of iatrogenesis, its consequences and characteristics and the interrelation between nonverbal language and nursing care. PMID:17977378

  20. Teachers' Opinions about the Use of Body Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzer, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication occurs with non-verbal and verbal tools. In this study the body language as non-verbal communication tool is taken to be examined, and teachers' opinions about the use and importance of body language in education are surveyed. Eight open-ended questions are asked to 100 teachers. As a result, it is shown that teachers…

  1. Teacher Immediacy and Decreased Student Quantitative Reasoning Anxiety: The Mediating Effect of Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stephanie; Rice, Christopher; Wyatt, Bryce; Ducking, Johnny; Denton, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    There is global concern regarding the increased prevalence of math anxiety among college students, which is credited for a decrease in analytical degree completion rates and lower self-confidence among students in their ability to complete analytical tasks in the real world. The present study identified that, as expected, displays of instructional…

  2. The Relationship between Teacher Immediacy Behaviours and Distant Learners' Social Presence Perceptions in Videoconferencing Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozkaya, Mujgan

    2008-01-01

    Videoconferencing systems combine face-to-face and mediated interactions in distance education. We extend the use of a Social Presence measure to on-site (face-to-face) learners and distant learners. Comparison between physically present and distant located learners did not indicate significant differences in social presence. Also results indicate…

  3. Gender-Specific Nonverbal Communication: Impact for Speaker Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Lori

    1995-01-01

    A literature review notes how gender expectations lead to nonverbal communication differences in such behaviors as smiling, eye contact, kinesics, proximics, and decoding. The importance of the effective use of nonverbal communication in human resource development is emphasized. (SK)

  4. Decreased interpretation of nonverbal cues in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Kniepple, J L

    The ability to receive nonverbal facial cues was tested in twelve female victims of multiple nonserial rapes and matched controls. Subjects attempted to interpret nonverbal messages transmitted by male and female senders who were covertly taped while involved in a gambling task. Rape victims had significantly decreased ability to interpret the nonverbal facial cues of both male and female senders. PMID:3557809

  5. A Generational Approach to Using Emoticons as Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Franklin B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to help determine whether the use of emoticons in computer mediated communication (CMC) are truly nonverbal cues. A review of the literature revealed that the traditional nonverbal theorists failed to predict the future employment of nonverbal cues in electronic CMC. A variety of emoticons are then described…

  6. Dissociating Verbal and Nonverbal Audiovisual Object Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J.

    2009-01-01

    This fMRI study investigates how audiovisual integration differs for verbal stimuli that can be matched at a phonological level and nonverbal stimuli that can be matched at a semantic level. Subjects were presented simultaneously with one visual and one auditory stimulus and were instructed to decide whether these stimuli referred to the same…

  7. Social Intelligence and Decoding of Nonverbal Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Michael L.; Sternberg, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between non-verbal decoding ability and social intelligence, defined as the ability to decode social information accurately, was studied using 40 adults. Results are discussed in the framework of R. J. Sternberg's triarchic theory of human intelligence. Decoding skills appeared to be an important part of social intelligence. (SLD)

  8. Nonverbal Effects in Memory for Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narvaez, Alice; Hertel, Paula T.

    Memory for everyday conversational speech may be influenced by the nonverbally communicated emotion of the speaker. In order to investigate this premise, three videotaped scenes with bipolar emotional perspectives (joy/fear about going away to college, fear/anger about having been robbed, and disgust/interest regarding a friend's infidelity) were…

  9. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Facilitative Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepper, Donald T., Jr.; Haase, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Verbal and nonverbal cues were studied in a multichannel communication paradigm to assess their effect on the communication of empathy, respect, and genuineness. Counselors and clients rated videotaped interactions between counselor and client, each portraying a different combination of verbal message, trunk lean, eye contact, vocal intonation,…

  10. Verbal and Nonverbal Predictors of Spelling Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoski, Mark; Willson, Victor L.; Holcomb, Angelia; Boulware-Gooden, Regina

    2005-01-01

    Verbal and nonverbal predictors of spelling performance in Grades 1-12 were investigated using the national norming data from a standardized spelling test. Verbal variables included number of letters, phonemes, syllables, digraphs, blends, silent markers, r-controlled vowels, and the proportion of grapheme-phoneme correspondence. The nonverbal…

  11. The Olfactory Factor in Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Jobie E.

    This paper on the subject of smell in communication provides a brief survey of the subject, pulling together a wide variety of disparate ideas across many disciplines. The paper is comprised of a general introductory section and separate sections on the olfactory nonverbal communication of animals and human beings. The uses to which animals put…

  12. Evaluation of Nonverbal Elements in Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunzel, Martin; Binterova, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This article comments on mathematics textbooks for lower secondary schools. Authors do not focus on texts in the books but on the nonverbal elements instead. A possible system of categories which enables mapping and classifying of such elements is suggested in this article. As a result of that, it is possible to evaluate and compare the textbooks…

  13. Facilitative Effects of Practice upon Nonverbal Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roweton, William E.; Spencer, Herbert L., Jr.

    Numerous studies of verbal creativity indicate that idea originality increases progressively as more ideas are produced. The present study tested the effects of practice upon nonverbal creativity. Thirty-two fifth grade children were administered Form A and/or Form B of Torrance's picture completion task for 5 consecutive days. Figural originality…

  14. Communication Apprehension and Intercultural Nonverbal Coding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardot, Joe

    A study investigated the relationship between communication apprehension and two nonverbal variables--proxemic establishment and kinesic behavior--in an intercultural setting. Subjects were 30 high and 30 low apprehensive adults (15 white and 15 black in each category). The subjects were paired to create three groups: the first containing 10 dyads…

  15. Nonverbal Communication Can Be a Motivational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, John E., Jr.; Weiting, Gretchen K.

    1979-01-01

    Stating that motivation is a product of the interaction between employer and employee, the authors discuss the "Pygmalion effect" (whereby the expectations of a manager influence the performance of subordinates), the importance of communication, and the components of nonverbal communication: environment, proxemics, postures, gestures,…

  16. The Subtle Transmission of Race Bias via Televised Nonverbal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Weisbuch, Max; Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    As compared to more explicit racial slurs and sexist statements, biased facial expressions and body language may resist conscious identification and thus produce a hidden social influence. In four studies we show that race biases can be subtly transmitted via televised nonverbal behavior. Characters on 11 popular television shows exhibited more negative nonverbal behavior toward black than toward status-matched white characters. Critically, exposure to pro-white (vs. pro-black) nonverbal bias increased viewers’ bias even though patterns of nonverbal behavior could not be consciously reported. These findings suggest that hidden patterns of televised nonverbal behavior influence bias among viewers. PMID:20019288

  17. Behavioral Stability Across Time and Situations: Nonverbal Versus Verbal Consistency

    PubMed Central

    Slepian, Michael L.; Clarke, Asha; Ambady, Nalini; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral consistency has been at the center of debates regarding the stability of personality. We argue that people are consistent but that such consistency is best observed in nonverbal behavior. In Study 1, participants’ verbal and nonverbal behaviors were observed in a mock interview and then in an informal interaction. In Study 2, medical students’ verbal and nonverbal behaviors were observed during first- and third-year clinical skills evaluation. Nonverbal behavior exhibited consistency across context and time (a duration of 2 years) whereas verbal behavior did not. Discussion focuses on implications for theories of personality and nonverbal behavior. PMID:20161668

  18. Nonverbal social communication and gesture control in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Walther, Sebastian; Stegmayer, Katharina; Sulzbacher, Jeanne; Vanbellingen, Tim; Müri, René; Strik, Werner; Bohlhalter, Stephan

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia patients are severely impaired in nonverbal communication, including social perception and gesture production. However, the impact of nonverbal social perception on gestural behavior remains unknown, as is the contribution of negative symptoms, working memory, and abnormal motor behavior. Thus, the study tested whether poor nonverbal social perception was related to impaired gesture performance, gestural knowledge, or motor abnormalities. Forty-six patients with schizophrenia (80%), schizophreniform (15%), or schizoaffective disorder (5%) and 44 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and education were included. Participants completed 4 tasks on nonverbal communication including nonverbal social perception, gesture performance, gesture recognition, and tool use. In addition, they underwent comprehensive clinical and motor assessments. Patients presented impaired nonverbal communication in all tasks compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, performance in patients was highly correlated between tasks, not explained by supramodal cognitive deficits such as working memory. Schizophrenia patients with impaired gesture performance also demonstrated poor nonverbal social perception, gestural knowledge, and tool use. Importantly, motor/frontal abnormalities negatively mediated the strong association between nonverbal social perception and gesture performance. The factors negative symptoms and antipsychotic dosage were unrelated to the nonverbal tasks. The study confirmed a generalized nonverbal communication deficit in schizophrenia. Specifically, the findings suggested that nonverbal social perception in schizophrenia has a relevant impact on gestural impairment beyond the negative influence of motor/frontal abnormalities. PMID:25646526

  19. Patterns of non-verbal social interactions within intensive mathematics intervention contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jonathan Norris; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the non-verbal patterns of interaction within an intensive mathematics intervention context. Specifically, the authors draw on social constructivist worldview to examine a teacher's use of gesture in this setting. The teacher conducted a series of longitudinal teaching experiments with a small number of young, school-age children in the context of early arithmetic development. From these experiments, the authors gathered extensive video records of teaching practice and, from an inductive analysis of these records, identified three distinct patterns of teacher gesture: behavior eliciting, behavior suggesting, and behavior replicating. Awareness of their potential to influence students via gesture may prompt teachers to more closely attend to their own interactions with mathematical tools and take these teacher interactions into consideration when forming interpretations of students' cognition.

  20. Patterns of non-verbal social interactions within intensive mathematics intervention contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jonathan Norris; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the non-verbal patterns of interaction within an intensive mathematics intervention context. Specifically, the authors draw on social constructivist worldview to examine a teacher's use of gesture in this setting. The teacher conducted a series of longitudinal teaching experiments with a small number of young, school-age children in the context of early arithmetic development. From these experiments, the authors gathered extensive video records of teaching practice and, from an inductive analysis of these records, identified three distinct patterns of teacher gesture: behavior eliciting, behavior suggesting, and behavior replicating. Awareness of their potential to influence students via gesture may prompt teachers to more closely attend to their own interactions with mathematical tools and take these teacher interactions into consideration when forming interpretations of students' cognition.

  1. The role of teacher communicator style in the delivery of a middle school substance use prevention program.

    PubMed

    Giles, Steven M; Pankratz, Melinda M; Ringwalt, Chris; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Hansen, William B; Bishop, Dana; Dusenbury, Linda; Gottfredson, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether teachers' communicator style relates to student engagement, teacher-student relationships, student perceptions of teacher immediacy, as well as observer ratings of delivery skills during the implementation of All Stars, a middle school-based substance use prevention program. Data from 48 teachers who taught All Stars up to 3 consecutive years and their respective seventh-grade students (n = 2,240) indicate that having an authoritative communication style is negatively related to student engagement with the curriculum and the quality of the student-teacher relationship, while having an expressive communicator style improves teachers' immediacy to student needs. Adaptations made by a subsample of teachers (n = 27) reveal that those who were more expressive asked students more questions, used more motivational techniques, and introduced more new concepts than authoritarian teachers. PMID:25905120

  2. Attachment Anxiety, Verbal Immediacy, and Blood Pressure: Results from a Laboratory-Analogue Study Following Marital Separation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lauren A.; Sbarra, David A.; Mason, Ashley E.; Law, Rita W.

    2011-01-01

    Marital separation and divorce increase risk for all-cause morbidity and mortality. Using a laboratory analogue paradigm, the present study examined attachment anxiety, language use, and blood pressure (BP) reactivity among 119 (n = 43 men, 76 women) recently separated adults who were asked to mentally reflect on their relationship history and separation experience. We created a language use composite of verbal immediacy from participants’ stream-of-consciousness recordings about their separation experience as a behavioral index of attachment-related hyperactivation. Verbal immediacy moderated the association between attachment anxiety and BP at the beginning of a divorce-specific activation task. Participants reporting high attachment anxiety who discussed their separation in a first-person, present-oriented and highly engaged manner evidenced the highest levels of BP at the start of the divorce-specific task. Results provide a deeper understanding of the association between marital dissolution and health and suggest that verbal immediacy may be a useful behavioral index of hyperactivating coping strategies. PMID:21647240

  3. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Rees, Georg M.; Ramseyer, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and ‘fun task’ conditions. We focused on the link between interactants’ affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants’ personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants’ body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology, and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.8 years). Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted 5 min. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation. PMID:25505435

  4. The Motivational Effect of Televised Instruction on Teacher Directed Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganguly, Indrani

    It has been suggested that in science education the immediacy and pervasiveness of television and its ability to bring the world into the classroom could be effectively used by the teacher. The motivational uses of instructional television in a high school environmental science class were studied with 57 tenth graders at a suburban high school.…

  5. Three Characteristics of Effective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses three characteristics that are often associated with successful music educators. The three characteristics discussed include nonverbal communication, teacher self-efficacy, and servant leadership. Although there is no magical combination of characteristics that will produce an effective music teacher, these three attributes…

  6. Nonverbal Communication: Toward Syntax, by Way of Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foa, Uriel G.; And Others

    The search for syntactical rules which govern nonverbal communication and cues in humans has often been considered a problem separate from determining semantic rules. Departing from such a traditional approach was accomplished by employing the meaning of various nonverbal channels to study their interrelationship. It was proposed that the…

  7. Verbal and Nonverbal Metaphor with Children in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesley, Gayle L.; Gillett, Dodie A.; Wagner, William G.

    2008-01-01

    The metaphor is typically viewed as a verbal form of expression in traditional talk therapies. However, this definition excludes nonverbal metaphors that children use when they express themselves through play. In this article, the authors examine the use of therapeutic metaphors, both verbal and nonverbal, with children. The roles of the child,…

  8. Using Nonverbal Tests to Help Identify Academically Talented Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, David F.; Gambrell, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Language-reduced (nonverbal) ability tests are the primary talent identification tools for ELL children. The appropriate use of such tests with low-SES and minority children is more nuanced. Whenever language-reduced tests are used for talent identification, nonverbal tests that measure more than figural reasoning abilities should be employed. For…

  9. Competitive Live Discussion: The Effective Use of Nonverbal Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Robert S.

    Verbal and nonverbal dimensions of communication are a vital part of competitive group discussion. Specific nonverbal elements that have been found useful in competitive group discussion include environment, proxemics, kinesics, objectics, and chronemics. For example, equalizing arrangements for the discussion in the best area of a room enhances…

  10. Observing and Recording Nonverbal Data in Human Transactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Mark L.; Harrison, Randall P.

    Interest in quantifying nonverbal variables in human interaction has led to the development and application of several nonverbal observation systems. The authors present a selective overview of these approaches, briefly explaining the major assumptions in terms of their differences and similarities. Drawing largely from their own experiences in…

  11. A Review of Nonverbal Behaviors of Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La France, Marianne; Mayo, Clara

    1979-01-01

    Review of literature on gender-linked aspects of nonverbal behavior reveals that the differences in nonverbal behavior are in line with societal expectations calling for women to be reactive and for men to be proactive. Communication between the sexes is discussed in terms of smiling, personal space, touch, and talk. (JMF)

  12. Nonverbal Social Interaction Skills of Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agaliotis, Ioannis; Kalyva, Efrosini

    2008-01-01

    Many children with learning disabilities (LD) face problems in their nonverbal communication, which constitutes an important component of their social skills. This study explores the frequency of nonverbal initiations and responses of 36 children with LD and 36 children without LD matched for age and gender, who were observed for 40 min during the…

  13. Nonverbal Style of Emotional Expression: Prediction of Parenting Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diskin, Susan D.

    This research reports the development of a semantic differential for rating nonverbal style of expressiveness in a population of expectant mothers. Mothers' nonverbal features (facial expression, gestures, voice quality) were emphasized as uniquely valid indices of emotional attitudes towards parenthood and as the principal forms of interpersonal…

  14. Japanese Nonverbal Communication: A Review and Critique of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Edwin R.

    The growth of intercultural interactions increases the need for nonverbal communication competency to help obviate potential cross cultural communication difficulties. Foreign language studies too often concentrate on vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, and forgo the role and methods of nonverbal communication. Japanese culture and modes of…

  15. The Nonverbal Communication Field Trip in Organizational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, David W.

    An effective communication learning experience is the nonverbal communication field trip in organizational settings. Objectives for this activity include defining and describing nonverbal areas such as "proxemics,""chronemics,""objectics,""kinesics,""haptics," and "vocalics," and to observe these areas in an organizational setting. The experience…

  16. Selected Nonverbal Communication Factors Influencing Adult Behavior and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Barbara E.

    1985-01-01

    Examines three particular areas of nonverbal communication important to adult educators: proxemics (interrelated observations and theories of people's use of space as a specialized elaboration of culture), eye contact, and touch. The implications of nonverbal communication for teaching adults are surveyed. (CT)

  17. Non-Verbal Communication in Children with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallineni, Sharmila; Nutheti, Rishita; Thangadurai, Shanimole; Thangadurai, Puspha

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine: (a) whether children with visual and additional impairments show any non-verbal behaviors, and if so what were the common behaviors; (b) whether two rehabilitation professionals interpreted the non-verbal behaviors similarly; and (c) whether a speech pathologist and a rehabilitation professional interpreted…

  18. Teaching about Verbal and Nonverbal Communication: A New Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Mark; Archer, Dane

    The encoding and decoding of verbal and nonverbal cues is basic to the process of social interaction. A method of teaching about verbal and nonverbal communication--the Interpersonal Perception Task (IPT)--consists of a videotape divided into 30 brief scenes. After each scene viewers answer an interpretive question by decoding the verbal and…

  19. Nonverbal Behavior of Young Abused and Neglected Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; And Others

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of child abuse and neglect on children's nonverbal behaviors. It was hypothesized that abused and neglected children would be less active nonverbally than would control group children. Eight abused and neglected children, aged one through three years, were videotaped interacting with their caregivers in…

  20. Slap What? An Interactive Lesson in Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa J.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the use of nonverbal communication strategies for fostering social health in middle school students. It outlines a teaching technique designed to help students better understand nonverbal cues and their role in maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships. The technique begins with the card game "Slap What?" where the…

  1. An Activity for Teaching the Effects of Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; King, Eden B.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a novel teaching activity that allows students in diversity, leadership, and communication courses to observe the powerful effects of nonverbal communication. The nonverbal experiences female leaders may encounter as they rise through the ranks of organizations are simulated and consequences discussed. Two student volunteers…

  2. Investigating a Relationship between Nonverbal Communication and Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Clear and effective communication is essential in today's society (Smith & Cotten, 1980; Smith & Land, 1981). Nonverbal communication specifically has a vital role in communication. There is inconsistent data on the effect of nonverbal communication used by instructors and the impact on student learning within the higher education…

  3. Walking the Walk: Understanding Nonverbal Communication through Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Vernon B., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is fundamental to any comprehensive examination of human interaction. This article presents an activity that can be easily applied by any instructor as a starting point for a discussion of nonverbal communication, or as a demonstration of learning points previously discussed. Instructors should have a slight background in…

  4. Unspoken cultural influence: exposure to and influence of nonverbal bias.

    PubMed

    Weisbuch, Max; Ambady, Nalini

    2009-06-01

    The authors examined the extent to which nonverbal behavior contributes to culturally shared attitudes and beliefs. In Study 1, especially slim women elicited especially positive nonverbal behaviors in popular television shows. In Study 2, exposure to this nonverbal bias caused women to have especially slim cultural and personal ideals of female beauty and to have especially positive attitudes toward slim women. In Study 3, individual differences in exposure to such nonverbal bias accounted for substantial variance in pro-slim attitudes, anti-fat attitudes, and personal ideals of beauty, even after controlling for several third variables. In Study 4, regional differences in exposure to nonverbal bias accounted for substantial variance in regional unhealthy dieting behaviors, even after controlling for several third variables. PMID:19469590

  5. Unspoken Cultural Influence: Exposure to and Influence of Nonverbal Bias

    PubMed Central

    Weisbuch, Max; Ambady, Nalini

    2009-01-01

    We examined the extent to which nonverbal behavior contributes to culturally-shared attitudes and beliefs. In Study 1, we demonstrated that slim women elicit especially positive nonverbal behaviors in popular television shows. In Study 2, we demonstrated that exposure to this nonverbal bias caused people to have especially slim cultural and personal ideals of female beauty and to have especially positive attitudes toward slim women. In Study 3, we demonstrated that individual differences in exposure to such nonverbal bias could account for substantial variance in pro-slim attitudes, anti-fat attitudes, and personal ideals of beauty, even after controlling for several third variables. In Study 4, we demonstrated that regional differences in exposure to nonverbal bias accounted for substantial variance in regional unhealthy dieting behaviors, even after controlling for several third variables. PMID:19469590

  6. Nonverbal self-accuracy in interpersonal interaction.

    PubMed

    Hall, Judith A; Murphy, Nora A; Mast, Marianne Schmid

    2007-12-01

    Four studies measure participants' accuracy in remembering, without forewarning, their own nonverbal behavior after an interpersonal interaction. Self-accuracy for smiling, nodding, gazing, hand gesturing, and self-touching is scored by comparing the participants' recollections with coding based on videotape. Self-accuracy is above chance and of modest magnitude on average. Self-accuracy is greatest for smiling; intermediate for nodding, gazing, and gesturing; and lowest for self-touching. It is higher when participants focus attention away from the self (learning as much as possible about the partner, rearranging the furniture in the room, evaluating the partner, smiling and gazing at the partner) than when participants are more self-focused (getting acquainted, trying to make a good impression on the partner, being evaluated by the partner, engaging in more self-touching). The contributions of cognitive demand and affective state are discussed. PMID:18000102

  7. Nonverbal behavior during face-to-face social interaction in schizophrenia: a review.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G T; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia display social cognitive deficits. However, little is known about patients' nonverbal communication during their social encounters with others. This review identified 17 studies investigating nonverbal communication in patients' unscripted face-to-face interactions, addressing a) nonverbal differences between patients and others, b) nonverbal behavior of the patients' partners, c) the association between nonverbal behavior and symptoms, and d) the association between nonverbal behavior and social outcomes. Patients displayed fewer nonverbal behaviors inviting interaction, with negative symptoms exacerbating this pattern. Positive symptoms were associated with heightened nonverbal behavior. Patients' partners changed their own nonverbal behavior in response to the patient. Reduced prosocial behaviors, inviting interaction, were associated with poorer social outcomes. The evidence suggests that patients' nonverbal behavior, during face-to-face interaction, is influenced by patients symptoms and impacts the success of their social interactions. PMID:24375212

  8. Nonverbal learning disabilities and remedial interventions.

    PubMed

    Foss, J M

    1991-01-01

    Adolescents with nonverbal learning disabilities who enroll in private, special secondary schools consistently present a pattern of behaviors which prevents achievement of their potentials in academic areas and impedes their abilities to interact effectively with others. With weaknesses in the fine graphomotor skills for writing and poor organization at all levels, they produce limited written output and often fail to complete academic assignments. Their response to pressure to produce is to become less productive. These students perceive social situations inaccurately; they are not successful in their interactions, especially with peers. They have learned to resolve difficult situations by employing their relatively strong verbal skills to enlist parents and other adults in intervening for them. They have not developed the skills to intervene for themselves.Effective remedial interventions include training the students in skills for planning and organizing, for studying, for written expression, and in social cognition and interpersonal communication. Students gain positive feelings of personal effectiveness through a process-at first verbally mediated, ultimately verbally self-directed-in which they are encouraged to plan, risk, and act on their own behalfs to resolve matters of personal concern. PMID:24233761

  9. Using Asynchronous Video to Achieve Instructor Immediacy and Closeness in Online Classes: Experiences from Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Michael; Graham, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to understand the experiences of students and instructors with asynchronous video (video-mail) using webcams in three online sections of teacher education classes at Brigham Young University. We examined the experiences of students through scores and comments posted in student ratings surveys, and the experiences of…

  10. Measuring Teacher Immediacy and Communication Competence on Student Achievement in Calculus: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Method Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Allen C.

    2012-01-01

    On a national level, data indicate that about 40 percent of students in calculus courses finish with a grade of D or F, drop the course, or withdraw (Reinholz, 2009). This high failure rate has led to research studies investigating the teaching of calculus at the national level (House, 1995). Calculus courses have a history of high failure rates,…

  11. Is Nonverbal Communication Disrupted in Interactions Involving Patients With Schizophrenia?

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G.T.; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nonverbal communication is a critical feature of successful social interaction and interpersonal rapport. Social exclusion is a feature of schizophrenia. This experimental study investigated if the undisclosed presence of a patient with schizophrenia in interaction changes nonverbal communication (ie, speaker gesture and listener nodding). Method: 3D motion-capture techniques recorded 20 patient (1 patient, 2 healthy participants) and 20 control (3 healthy participants) interactions. Participants rated their experience of rapport with each interacting partner. Patients’ symptoms, social cognition, and executive functioning were assessed. Four hypotheses were tested: (1) Compared to controls, patients display less speaking gestures and listener nods. (2) Patients’ increased symptom severity and poorer social cognition are associated with patients’ reduced gesture and nods. (3) Patients’ partners compensate for patients’ reduced nonverbal behavior by gesturing more when speaking and nodding more when listening. (4) Patients’ reduced nonverbal behavior, increased symptom severity, and poorer social cognition are associated with others experiencing poorer rapport with the patient. Results: Patients gestured less when speaking. Patients with more negative symptoms nodded less as listeners, while their partners appeared to compensate by gesturing more as speakers. Patients with more negative symptoms also gestured more when speaking, which, alongside increased negative symptoms and poorer social cognition, was associated with others experiencing poorer patient rapport. Conclusions: Patients’ symptoms are associated with the nonverbal behavior of patients and their partners. Patients’ increased negative symptoms and gesture use are associated with poorer interpersonal rapport. This study provides specific evidence about how negative symptoms impact patients’ social interactions. PMID:22941744

  12. Nonverbal Learning Disabilities and Socioemotional Functioning: A Review of Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Sara S.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents an overview of literature relating to a nonverbal learning disabilities subtype. The article addresses the relationship between nonverbal learning disabilities and socioemotional functioning, generalizability of research outcomes, individual differences, and treatment validity. (Author/JDD)

  13. Children Use Nonverbal Cues to Make Inferences About Social Power

    PubMed Central

    Brey, Elizabeth; Shutts, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Four studies (N=192) tested whether young children use nonverbal information to make inferences about differences in social power. Five- and 6-year-old children were able to determine which of two adults was “in charge” in dynamic videotaped conversations (Study 1) and in static photographs (Study 4) using only nonverbal cues. Younger children (3–4 years) were not successful in Study 1 or Study 4. Removing irrelevant linguistic information from conversations did not improve the performance of 3–4-year-old children (Study 3), but including relevant linguistic cues did (Study 2). Thus, at least by 5 years of age, children show sensitivity to some of the same nonverbal cues adults use to determine other people’s social roles. PMID:25521913

  14. Expressive suppression and neural responsiveness to nonverbal affective cues.

    PubMed

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Optimal social functioning occasionally requires concealment of one's emotions in order to meet one's immediate goals and environmental demands. However, because emotions serve an important communicative function, their habitual suppression disrupts the flow of social exchanges and, thus, incurs significant interpersonal costs. Evidence is accruing that the disruption in social interactions, linked to habitual expressive suppression use, stems not only from intrapersonal, but also from interpersonal causes, since the suppressors' restricted affective displays reportedly inhibit their interlocutors' emotionally expressive behaviors. However, expressive suppression use is not known to lead to clinically significant social impairments. One explanation may be that over the lifespan, individuals who habitually suppress their emotions come to compensate for their interlocutors' restrained expressive behaviors by developing an increased sensitivity to nonverbal affective cues. To probe this issue, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan healthy older women while they viewed silent videos of a male social target displaying nonverbal emotional behavior, together with a brief verbal description of the accompanying context, and then judged the target's affect. As predicted, perceivers who reported greater habitual use of expressive suppression showed increased neural processing of nonverbal affective cues. This effect appeared to be coordinated in a top-down manner via cognitive control. Greater neural processing of nonverbal cues among perceivers who habitually suppress their emotions was linked to increased ventral striatum activity, suggestive of increased reward value/personal relevance ascribed to emotionally expressive nonverbal behaviors. These findings thus provide neural evidence broadly consistent with the hypothesized link between habitual use of expressive suppression and compensatory development of increased responsiveness to

  15. A Nonverbal False Belief Task: The Performance of Children and Great Apes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Compared performance of preschool children, chimpanzees, and orangutans on nonverbal task of false-belief understanding and tested children's performance on a verbal version of the same task. Found that children's performance on verbal and nonverbal tasks were highly correlated, and no chimp or orangutan succeeded in the nonverbal false-belief…

  16. A Survey of the Research on Sex Differences in Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blahna, Loretta J.

    Although the bulk of recent research on nonverbal communication has involved studies of the functions of nonverbal behavior (emotion conveying, regulation, and adaption), a few studies have focused on the differences in nonverbal communication variables between men and women. These differences have been found in vocal patterns, intensities, length…

  17. Getting the Message Across; Non-Verbal Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jack

    This handbook presents selected theories, activities, and resources which can be utilized by educators in the area of non-verbal communication. Particular attention is given to the use of non-verbal communication in a cross-cultural context. Categories of non-verbal communication such as proxemics, haptics, kinesics, smiling, sound, clothing, and…

  18. Exploring the Incremental Validity of Nonverbal Social Aggression: The Utility of Peer Nominations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Lease, A. Michele

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of nonverbal social aggression and the relation of nonverbal social aggression to dimensions of children's social status. Peer nominations of verbal social, nonverbal social, direct veral, and physical aggression, as well as social dominance, perceived popularity, and social acceptance, were collected…

  19. Nonverbal Communication in the Classroom: Report, Analysis, and Critique of Evaluative Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Smith, Virginia

    This master's thesis investigates the evaluative instruments currently available for measuring nonverbal behaviors in the classroom. Chapters discuss the following topics: classroom nonverbal communication, major and minor evaluative instruments, problems in current studies of nonverbal communication, and recommendations for further study of…

  20. The Supportive Learning Environment: Effective Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Jennifer; Grant, Leslie W.; Stronge, James H.

    2010-01-01

    This entry in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice Series focuses on the characteristics of teachers who create supportive learning environments for their students. By conveying a sense of immediacy, credibility, and caring, they communicate to students in both verbal and nonverbal ways that are essential to cultivating a positive and…

  1. The Importance of Nonverbal Communication in the Courtroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remland, Martin S.

    Although a relatively new area of scientific study, theory and research on nonverbal communication in the courtroom has produced important findings for students and practitioners in five key areas: voire dire and jury analysis; opening and closing statements; client demeanor and direct examination; cross-examination; and judge demeanor and…

  2. Young Children's Understanding of Markedness in Non-Verbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…

  3. Verbal and Nonverbal Cognitive Control in Bilinguals and Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woumans, Evy; Ceuleers, Evy; Van der Linden, Lize; Szmalec, Arnaud; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the relation between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in different bilingual populations. We compared monolinguals, Dutch-French unbalanced bilinguals, balanced bilinguals, and interpreters on the Simon task (Simon & Rudell, 1967) and the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz,…

  4. Planning, Imagined Interaction, and the Nonverbal Display of Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Terre H.; Honeycutt, James M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines a nonverbal indicator of anxiety--use of object adaptors. Examines effects of planning for an anticipated encounter and level of discrepancy individuals report they have in imagined interactions on use of object adaptors. Discusses findings in terms of spontaneous helplessness, plan efficacy, and accretion of plan strategies in response…

  5. Nonverbal Learning Disability Explained: The Link to Shunted Hydrocephalus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissman, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…

  6. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in the Initiation of Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Dan; And Others

    A two-part pilot study investigated and categorized the roles verbal and nonverbal communication play in the initiation of sexual intercourse. The study also explored the manner in which partners accept or reject sexual overtures, the contexts and antecedents of sexual initiation, and the changes in sexual behavior which occur as a consequence of…

  7. Decoding of Children's Nonverbal Responses. Technical Report No. 365.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Vernon L.; Feldman, Robert S.

    The experiment was designed to see whether children differ from adults in the ability to understand nonverbal responses of other children. Ten third-grade children were secretly filmed while watching a very easy and a very hard math lesson. Third graders, sixth graders, and adults (college students) were asked to judge, based on a film of each…

  8. The Relationship between Nonverbal Cognitive Functions and Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…

  9. Reading the Client: Nonverbal Communication as an Interviewing Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Tom H.

    The importance of effective communication skills between lawyers and clients is equalled only by the imperative need for sustained instruction in the development of communicative skills for the lawyer. Especially important are the nonverbal communication skills in "reading the client." The subtleties of intonation, posture, gesture, and eye…

  10. Nonverbal Sensitivity: Consequences for Learning and Satisfaction in Genetic Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roter, D. L.; Erby, L. H.; Hall, J. A.; Larson, S.; Ellington, L.; Dudley, W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the role of interactants' nonverbal sensitivity, anxiety and sociodemographic characteristics in learning and satisfaction within the genetic counseling context. Design/methodology/approach: This is a combined simulation and analogue study. Simulations were videotaped with 152 prenatal and cancer genetic…

  11. Children Assess Informant Reliability Using Bystanders' Non-Verbal Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Maria; Harris, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Recent findings show that preschool children are selective with respect to whom they ask for information and whose claims they endorse. In particular, they monitor an informant's record of past accuracy or inaccuracy and use that record to gauge future trustworthiness. We ask if preschoolers also monitor the non-verbal cues of assent or dissent…

  12. Profile Analysis of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test Standardization Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhoit, Brian E.; McCallum, R. Steve

    2002-01-01

    A normative typology was developed and applied using multivariate profile analysis of subtest scores of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) standardization sample. The results yielded a seven-profile cluster solution for the Extended Battery, and a six-profile cluster solution for the Standard Battery. Additionally, the results lend…

  13. Touch. Talking About Non-Verbal Communication: A Corpus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Xiaotian

    1999-01-01

    Presents the third and final report of an analysis of nonverbal communication. In this report, the phrase "touch wood" is investigated using the Bank of English Corpus. The first two phrases examined were "shrug" and "hold one's gaze." Each of these phrases relates to an aspect of communication that may hold particular difficulties for someone…

  14. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS): Initial application and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    D'Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the development, initial application, and evaluation of the Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS). Grounded in Communication Accommodation Theory, this coding system provides a method for analyzing physician and patient nonverbal accommodation behaviors within medical consultations. Methods Video recordings of 45 new visit consultations at a comprehensive cancer center were coded using the NAAS. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were assessed. For validation purposes, two independent coders rated all consultations for theoretically-related constructs. Results The NAAS demonstrated high levels of reliability. Statistically significant correlations were observed across all 10 behavior categories for both inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Evidence of content and construct validity was also observed. Conclusion The current study presents the initial application and evaluation of a coding system meant for analysis of the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within medical consultations. The results of this initial trial and psychometric evaluation provide evidence of the NAAS as a valid and reliable nonverbal accommodation coding system. PMID:20851559

  15. Nonverbal Cues: Clues to the Detection of Foreign Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregersen, Tammy S.

    2005-01-01

    This observation study examined the nonverbal behavior of anxious and nonanxious foreign language learners during a videotaped oral foreign language exam. Focusing primarily on the kinesic signals found in facial expressions, gazing behavior, body movement and gesture, and posture, it was discovered that anxious learners manifested limited facial…

  16. Non-Verbal and Verbal Fluency in Prodromal Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Robins Wahlin, Tarja-Brita; Luszcz, Mary A.; Wahlin, Åke; Byrne, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines non-verbal (design) and verbal (phonemic and semantic) fluency in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD). An accumulating body of research indicates subtle deficits in cognitive functioning among prodromal mutation carriers for HD. Methods Performance was compared between 32 mutation carriers and 38 non-carriers in order to examine the magnitude of impairment across fluency tasks. The predicted years to onset (PYTO) in mutation carriers was calculated by a regression equation and used to divide the group according to whether onset was predicted as less than 12.75 years (HD+CLOSE; n = 16) or greater than 12.75 years (HD+DISTANT; n = 16). Results The results indicate that both non-verbal and verbal fluency is sensitive to subtle impairment in prodromal HD. HD+CLOSE group produced fewer items in all assessed fluency tasks compared to non-carriers. HD+DISTANT produced fewer drawings than non-carriers in the non-verbal task. PYTO correlated significantly with all measures of non-verbal and verbal fluency. Conclusion The pattern of results indicates that subtle cognitive deficits exist in prodromal HD, and that less structured tasks with high executive demands are the most sensitive in detecting divergence from the normal range of functioning. These selective impairments can be attributed to the early involvement of frontostriatal circuitry and frontal lobes. PMID:26955384

  17. Teaching Nonverbal Communication in the Second Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Stephen S.; Moore, Jean

    Because the nonverbal component of communication is culture-specific, effective communication in a second language requires knowledge of the body language typical of speakers of that language. For example, Americans and Hispanics have a different sense of proxemics, Hispanics favoring closeness during conversation. Instruction in nonverbal…

  18. Nonverbal Behavior and Student Achievement in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Howard A.

    An investigation of the principal nonverbal factors elicited by four major correlational studies that examined the relationship between process and product variables in American elementary school classrooms yields several discernible trends, but for the most part contributes mainly to establishing a set of recommendations to guide future research…

  19. Gadgets: Some Non-Verbal Tools for Teaching Pronunciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Judy B.

    Recent findings from the fields of brain research and speech perception suggest that non-verbal approaches may be helpful in pronunciation learning. The left side of the brain uses sequential information, such as verbal descriptions. The right side works in a more simultaneous manner, specializing in spatial relations and pitch perception, among…

  20. The Effect of Illustrations on Children's Nonverbal Responses to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlan, Dan

    A sample of 118 children in kindergarten through grade three participated in this study of the effects of illustrations on pupils' nonverbal responses to the story "The Giving Tree." Children in the experimental group were shown none of the illustrations in the book; the control group were shown all of the original illustrations. After hearing the…

  1. Nonverbal Responses of Primary School Students to "The Giving Tree."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlan, Dan

    In order to discover whether the nonverbal responses to literature of primary grade children--in the form of drawings--provide significant information about their feelings toward literature, this study measured primary children's responses to "The Giving Tree." Ninety children in four grade levels (kindergarten through third grade) listened to the…

  2. Contrastive Analysis of American and Arab Nonverbal and Paralinguistic Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safadi, Michaela; Valentine, Carol Ann

    To achieve effective intercultural communication, participants must understand how behavioral differences may lead to miscommunication. Such behavioral differences can be illustrated by Arab and American nonverbal behavior. Individualism is the ideal for the American middle class, whereas Arabs are motivated by public opinion. Yet in the Arab…

  3. Language Performance in Siblings of Nonverbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Yonata; Bar-Yuda, Chanit

    2011-01-01

    The study focuses on language and cognitive abilities of siblings of the linguistically most affected children with autism (i.e. siblings of nonverbal children--SIBS-ANV). Twenty-eight SIBS-ANV (17 boys), ages 4-9 years, took part in the study. All children attended regular schools, and none had received a diagnosis of autism. Controls were 27…

  4. The Importance of Nonverbal Elements in Online Chat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajadhar, Joan; Green, John

    2005-01-01

    Communication is often not so much what people write or say but how they write and often what they do not say. Thus, meaning in real-world chat messages depends not only on the words they use but also on how they express meaning through nonverbal cues. Online chat is simple, direct, and unrestrained. While it contains many of the elements of…

  5. A Competitive Nonverbal False Belief Task for Children and Apes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus"). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in…

  6. A Method for Teaching about Verbal and Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Mark; Archer, Dane

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Interpersonal Perception Task (IPT), a videotape of brief scenes for teaching about verbal and nonverbal communication. Reports that the IPT includes all communication channels, several categories of interaction, and an objective criterion of accurate judgment. Discusses communications cues, using the IPT to introduce research…

  7. Nonverbal Communication Skills in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The study was to examine nonverbal communication in young children with autism. Methods: The participants were 23 young children with autism (mean CA = 32.79 months), 23 CA and MA-matched children with developmental delay and 22 18-20-month-old, and 22 13-15-month-old typically developing toddlers and infants. The abbreviated Early…

  8. Nonverbal Behavior and Perceived Counselor Attractiveness and Persuasiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, Michael B.

    1975-01-01

    Investigated the perception of counselor attractiveness and persuasiveness through the expression of nonverbal behavior. Two male and female counselors were trained to portray "affiliative" manner and "unaffiliative" manner. Subjects saw four different counselors and then rated them on scales measuring perceived attractiveness and persuasiveness.…

  9. Nonverbal behavior during clinical interviews: similarities and dissimilarities among schizophrenia, mania, and depression.

    PubMed

    Annen, Sigrid; Roser, Patrik; Brüne, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that patients with schizophrenia and depression differ from nonclinical subjects in nonverbal behavior. In contrast, there is a paucity of studies addressing differences in nonverbal communication between diagnostic groups and as to what extent nonverbal communication feeds into standard ratings of psychopathology. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia were compared with 24 patients with affective disorders (13 depressed, 11 manic) regarding their nonverbal behavior using the Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Symptom severity was rated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Patients with mania displayed more illustrative gestures than did patients with schizophrenia or depression. Subtler behavioral differences between the groups occurred regarding assertive behaviors and displacement activities suggestive of hostility and motivational conflict, respectively. Distinct correlations between nonverbal communication and psychopathology ratings emerged in all three groups. Patients with schizophrenia, depression, and mania differ in nonverbal behavior. Nonverbal communication seems to be a significant contributor to clinicians' intuitive ratings. PMID:22210359

  10. Teacher Radar: The View from the Front of the Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    According to the NASPE beginning teacher standards, the ability to manage and motivate students is fundamental to effective teaching. To be truly effective at managing and motivating students, teachers need to monitor and react to class behavior and class feedback (verbal and nonverbal) while simultaneously giving instructions or feedback. This…

  11. Analyzing nonverbal listener responses using parallel recordings of multiple listeners.

    PubMed

    de Kok, Iwan; Heylen, Dirk

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we study nonverbal listener responses on a corpus with multiple parallel recorded listeners. These listeners were meant to believe that they were the sole listener, while in fact there were three persons listening to the same speaker. The speaker could only see one of the listeners. We analyze the impact of the particular setup of the corpus on the behavior and perception of the two types of listeners: the listeners that could be seen by the speaker and the listeners that could not be seen. Furthermore, we compare the nonverbal listening behaviors of these three listeners to each other with regard to timing and form. We correlate these behaviors with behaviors of the speaker, like pauses and whether the speaker is looking at the listeners or not. PMID:22350325

  12. Maintenance of auditory-nonverbal information in working memory.

    PubMed

    Soemer, Alexander; Saito, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    According to the multicomponent view of working memory, both auditory-nonverbal information and auditory-verbal information are stored in a phonological code and are maintained by an articulation-based rehearsal mechanism (Baddeley, 2012). Two experiments have been carried out to investigate this hypothesis using sound materials that are difficult to label verbally and difficult to articulate. Participants were required to maintain 2 to 4 sounds differing in timbre over a delay of up to 12 seconds while performing different secondary tasks. While there was no convincing evidence for articulatory rehearsal as a main maintenance mechanism for auditory-nonverbal information, the results suggest that processes similar or identical to auditory imagery might contribute to maintenance. We discuss the implications of these results for multicomponent models of working memory. PMID:25962688

  13. Nonverbal auditory working memory: Can music indicate the capacity?

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eunju; Ryu, Hokyoung

    2016-06-01

    Different working memory (WM) mechanisms that underlie words, tones, and timbres have been proposed in previous studies. In this regard, the present study developed a WM test with nonverbal sounds and compared it to the conventional verbal WM test. A total of twenty-five, non-music major, right-handed college students were presented with four different types of sounds (words, syllables, pitches, timbres) that varied from two to eight digits in length. Both accuracy and oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) were measured. The results showed significant effects of number of targets on accuracy and sound type on oxyHb. A further analysis showed prefrontal asymmetry with pitch being processed by the right hemisphere (RH) and timbre by the left hemisphere (LH). These findings suggest a potential for employing musical sounds (i.e., pitch and timbre) as a complementary stimuli for conventional nonverbal WM tests, which can additionally examine its asymmetrical roles in the prefrontal regions. PMID:27031677

  14. Detection of Nonverbal Synchronization through Phase Difference in Human Communication

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ono, Eisuke; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is an important factor in human communication, and body movement synchronization in particular is an important part of nonverbal communication. Some researchers have analyzed body movement synchronization by focusing on changes in the amplitude of body movements. However, the definition of “body movement synchronization” is still unclear. From a theoretical viewpoint, phase difference is the most important factor in synchronization analysis. Therefore, there is a need to measure the synchronization of body movements using phase difference. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative definition of the phase difference distribution for detecting body movement synchronization in human communication. The phase difference distribution was characterized using four statistical measurements: density, mean phase difference, standard deviation (SD) and kurtosis. To confirm the effectiveness of our definition, we applied it to human communication in which the roles of speaker and listener were defined. Specifically, we examined the difference in the phase difference distribution between two different communication situations: face-to-face communication with visual interaction and remote communication with unidirectional visual perception. Participant pairs performed a task supposing lecture in the face-to-face communication condition and in the remote communication condition via television. Throughout the lecture task, we extracted a set of phase differences from the time-series data of the acceleration norm of head nodding motions between two participants. Statistical analyses of the phase difference distribution revealed the characteristics of head nodding synchronization. Although the mean phase differences in synchronized head nods did not differ significantly between the conditions, there were significant differences in the densities, the SDs and the kurtoses of the phase difference distributions of synchronized head nods. These

  15. Physical growth and non-verbal intelligence: Associations in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Sascha; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate normative developmental BMI trajectories and associations of physical growth indicators (ie, height, weight, head circumference [HC], body mass index [BMI]) with non-verbal intelligence in an understudied population of children from Sub-Saharan Africa. Study design A sample of 3981 students (50.8% male), grades 3 to 7, with a mean age of 12.75 years was recruited from 34 rural Zambian schools. Children with low scores on vision and hearing screenings were excluded. Height, weight and HC were measured, and non-verbal intelligence was assessed using UNIT-symbolic memory and KABC-II-triangles. Results Results showed that students in higher grades have a higher BMI over and above the effect of age. Girls showed a marginally higher BMI, although that for both boys and girls was approximately 1 SD below the international CDC and WHO norms. Controlling for the effect of age, non-verbal intelligence showed small but significant positive relationships with HC (r = .17) and BMI (r = .11). HC and BMI accounted for 1.9% of the variance in non-verbal intelligence, over and above the contribution of grade and sex. Conclusions BMI-for-age growth curves of Zambian children follow observed worldwide developmental trajectories. The positive relationships between BMI and intelligence underscore the importance of providing adequate nutritional and physical growth opportunities for children worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. Directions for future studies are discussed with regard to maximizing the cognitive potential of all rural African children. PMID:25217196

  16. Study on Nonverbal Communication by Avatars and Pictograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoe, Yuta; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Nosu, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Koji

    This paper describes the design guideline of webs that use avatars and pictograms to promote nonverbal communication smoothly in a virtual space. The shops for clothes, consumer electronic, and furniture are constructed in the virtual space. The web sites using the avatar and the pictogram for shopping were examined. To investigate the usability, three kinds of the web layered structures were examined. The screen layout evaluation by the eyeball movement measurement was also carried out.

  17. Nonverbal Communication Skills in Young Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Rogers, Sally J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study was to examine nonverbal communication in young children with autism. Methods The participants were 23 young children with autism (mean CA = 32.79 months), 23 CA and MA-matched children with developmental delay and 22 18–20-month-old, and 22 13–15-month-old typically developing toddlers and infants. The abbreviated Early Social Communication Scales [Mundy et al. 1996, Early social communication scales (ESCS)] were used to test three types of nonverbal communicative skills, i.e., joint attention, requesting, and social interaction. Both frequency and proportion analyses were done in group comparisons. Results (1) Two- to three-year-old children with autism displayed deficits in joint attention ability, especially high-level skills. (2) The deficit in terms of frequency of communication was marked even compared with typically developing infants with younger mental age. (3) Young children with autism had different nonverbal communication profile compared with all three comparison groups. Conclusion Early social-communicative difficulties in autism involve early triadic communications involving joint attention and possibly dyadic turn-taking skills, which has implications for both early screening and early intervention. PMID:18491223

  18. Dominant, open nonverbal displays are attractive at zero-acquaintance.

    PubMed

    Vacharkulksemsuk, Tanya; Reit, Emily; Khambatta, Poruz; Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J; Carney, Dana R

    2016-04-12

    Across two field studies of romantic attraction, we demonstrate that postural expansiveness makes humans more romantically appealing. In a field study (n = 144 speed-dates), we coded nonverbal behaviors associated with liking, love, and dominance. Postural expansiveness-expanding the body in physical space-was most predictive of attraction, with each one-unit increase in coded behavior from the video recordings nearly doubling a person's odds of getting a "yes" response from one's speed-dating partner. In a subsequent field experiment (n = 3,000), we tested the causality of postural expansion (vs. contraction) on attraction using a popular Global Positioning System-based online-dating application. Mate-seekers rapidly flipped through photographs of potential sexual/date partners, selecting those they desired to meet for a date. Mate-seekers were significantly more likely to select partners displaying an expansive (vs. contractive) nonverbal posture. Mediation analyses demonstrate one plausible mechanism through which expansiveness is appealing: Expansiveness makes the dating candidate appear more dominant. In a dating world in which success sometimes is determined by a split-second decision rendered after a brief interaction or exposure to a static photograph, single persons have very little time to make a good impression. Our research suggests that a nonverbal dominance display increases a person's chances of being selected as a potential mate. PMID:27035937

  19. Impaired non-verbal emotion processing in Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Charles; Saeremans, Mélanie; Delwarte, Jennifer; Noël, Xavier; Campanella, Salvatore; Verbanck, Paul; Ermer, Elsa; Brevers, Damien

    2016-02-28

    Impaired perception of emotion in others has been described and confirmed in addictions with substances, but no such data exists regarding addictions without substances. As it has been hypothesized that toxic effect of substances on the brain was responsible for the impairments described, studying addictions without substances could be of interest to confirm this hypothesis. Twenty-two male pathological gamblers were compared to 22 male healthy controls matched for age and education level on non-verbal emotion perception tasks including faces, voices, and musical excerpts. Depression and anxiety levels were controlled for. Pathological gamblers significantly underestimated the intensity of peacefulness in music, and overall they were less accurate when reading emotion in voices and faces. They also overestimated emotional intensity in neutral voices and faces. Although anxiety levels did account for accuracy problems when detecting fear in voices and for overestimating emotions in neutral faces, anxiety levels did not explain the range of deficits observed. This is the first study showing non-verbal perception deficits in a purely behavioural addiction. These findings show that deficits in decoding non-verbal signals are associated with addictive behaviours per se, and are not due solely to toxic effects of substances on the brain. PMID:26730447

  20. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chang, Wen-Neng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD), 14 with semantic dementia (SD) were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds are mediated by distinct neural circuits.

  1. Crossed-brain representation of verbal and nonverbal functions.

    PubMed

    Matute, Esmeralda; Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Molina Del Rio, Jahaziel; López Elizalde, Ramiro; López, Manuel; Ontiveros, Angel

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old, left-handed man presented with a rapidly evolving loss of strength in his right leg associated with difficulty in walking. MR images disclosed an extensive left hemisphere tumor. A neuropsychological examination revealed that language was broadly normal but that the patient presented with severe nonlinguistic abnormalities, including hemineglect (both somatic and spatial), constructional defects, and general spatial disturbances; symptoms were usually associated with right hemisphere pathologies. No ideomotor apraxia was found. The implications of crossed-brain representations of verbal and nonverbal functions are analyzed. PMID:25802778

  2. Crossed-Brain Representation of Verbal and Nonverbal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Matute, Esmeralda; Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Molina Del Rio, Jahaziel; López Elizalde, Ramiro; López, Manuel; Ontiveros, Angel

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old, left-handed man presented with a rapidly evolving loss of strength in his right leg associated with difficulty in walking. MR images disclosed an extensive left hemisphere tumor. A neuropsychological examination revealed that language was broadly normal but that the patient presented with severe nonlinguistic abnormalities, including hemineglect (both somatic and spatial), constructional defects, and general spatial disturbances; symptoms were usually associated with right hemisphere pathologies. No ideomotor apraxia was found. The implications of crossed-brain representations of verbal and nonverbal functions are analyzed. PMID:25802778

  3. How Can Non-Verbalized Emotions in the Field Be Addressed in Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanas, Maija

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at how emotions in the field move from one context to another and between individuals, and how they change forms in an arctic Finnish village school. During the fieldwork, non-verbalized emotions influenced the events in the field and also penetrated the research. The paper asks how these non-verbalized emotions can be addressed…

  4. Introducing and Evaluating the Behavior of Non-Verbal Features in the Virtual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dharmawansa, Asanka D.; Fukumura, Yoshimi; Marasinghe, Ashu; Madhuwanthi, R. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to introduce the behavior of non-verbal features of e-Learners in the virtual learning environment to establish a fair representation of the real user by an avatar who represents the e-Learner in the virtual environment and to distinguish the deportment of the non-verbal features during the virtual learning…

  5. Nonverbal Communication and Channel Perception: Their Relationship to the Afrocentric World View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, DeVon R.; And Others

    The purpose of this research was to investigate nonverbal communication through channel perception while observing any significant differences among race, sex, and social class background variables. In addition, differences and/or similarities in Afrocentric and Eurocentric world views in regard to nonverbal channel perception and cultural…

  6. "Date with an Angel": A Non-Verbal Communication Teaching Tip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Toni

    This paper presents a strategy for teaching non-verbal communication skills to students in high school or college. The strategy uses the movie "Date with an Angel" to teach the non-verbal skills. According to the paper, the activity can be used at the beginning of a unit or course to get the students interested in important concepts/aspects of…

  7. The Study of Non-Verbal Action of Counselees. Final Report. WSU-cord.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duetscher, John

    The author discusses: (1) the development of a review of the literature on the nonverbal behavior of clients in a counseling situation; and (2) the development of a tape for use in a Counseling Theories class to demonstrate the importance of listening carefully for nonverbal counselee cues. The literature review is broken down into 4 main areas of…

  8. An Inquiry into the Educational Potential of Non-Verbal Communication. Final and Interim Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris-Meyer, Harold

    This document contains eight progress reports of a research project testing the assumption that communication at the nonverbal level affects a student's emotional involvement in the material he studies and this the learning process itself. The project attempted to establish the educational potential of nonverbal communication by measuring…

  9. A Nonverbal Phoneme Deletion Task Administered in a Dynamic Assessment Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Fargo, Jamison; Foley, Beth; Olszewski, Abbie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to design a nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme deletion that may prove useful with individuals who demonstrate complex communication needs (CCN) and are unable to communicate using natural speech or who present with moderate-severe speech impairments. Method: A nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme…

  10. Patterns of Nonverbal Cognitive Functioning in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuschner, Emily S.; Bennetto, Loisa; Yost, Kelley

    2007-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates an uneven pattern of cognitive abilities in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study examined whether this uneven pattern exists within the nonverbal domain in young children. We hypothesized relative strengths in perceptual abilities and weaknesses in nonverbal conceptual abilities in preschoolers…

  11. Nonverbal Synchrony in Psychotherapy: Coordinated Body Movement Reflects Relationship Quality and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors quantified nonverbal synchrony--the coordination of patient's and therapist's movement--in a random sample of same-sex psychotherapy dyads. The authors contrasted nonverbal synchrony in these dyads with a control condition and assessed its association with session-level and overall psychotherapy outcome. Method: Using an…

  12. Nonverbal and Verbal Cognitive Discrepancy Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greater…

  13. A Study of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Second Life--The ARCHI21 Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional synthetic worlds introduce possibilities for nonverbal communication in computer-mediated language learning. This paper presents an original methodological framework for the study of multimodal communication in such worlds. It offers a classification of verbal and nonverbal communication acts in the synthetic world "Second Life"…

  14. The Complementary Effects of Empathy and Nonverbal Communication Training on Persuasion Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin T.; Leonhardt, James M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible complementary effects that training in empathy and nonverbal communication may have on persuasion capabilities. The narrative considers implications from the literature and describes an exploratory study in which students, in a managerial setting, were trained in empathy and nonverbal communication. Subsequent…

  15. Two-Year-Olds Are Vigilant of Others' Non-Verbal Cues to Credibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Susan A. J.; Akmal, Nazanin; Frampton, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    Data from three experiments provide the first evidence that children, at least as young as age two, are vigilant of others' non-verbal cues to credibility, and flexibly use these cues to facilitate learning. Experiment 1 revealed that 2- and 3-year-olds prefer to learn about objects from someone who appears, through non-verbal cues, to be…

  16. Recognizing Non-Verbal Social Cues Promotes Social Performance in LD Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia

    2013-01-01

    The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined the…

  17. Nonverbal Communication, Music Therapy, and Autism: A Review of Literature and Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed…

  18. Navajo and Caucasian Children's Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Behavior in the Urban Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1978-01-01

    A formal observation technique was used in an urban classroom context to assess the verbal and nonverbal-visual behavior of 17 Navajo and 7 Caucasian children. Two statistical techniques revealed significant intergroup differences in verbal and nonverbal-visual style. ( Author)

  19. Comparison of Performance on Two Nonverbal Intelligence Tests by Adolescents with and without Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol A.; Gilbert, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Definitions of specific language impairment (SLI), for both research and clinical purposes, often state that nonverbal IQ scores must be within normal limits. This use of nonverbal IQ has been criticized on several grounds, including lack of equivalence between tests. In the current study, a sample of 204 adolescents with and without language…

  20. The Interplay of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melson, Gail F.; Hulls, M. Johanna

    This paper discusses several studies related to the interplay of verbal and nonverbal communication in young children and presents educational implications of this research. Two areas of nonverbal communication are considered: kinesics, or the use of body movements as displays of affection and emotion and as regulators of communication, and…

  1. The Use of Nonverbal Cues To Assess Affect and Effect in Communication Training and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollman, Steven A.; Gaut, Deborah Roach

    This paper was envisioned as largely a literature review, but surprisingly, there was very little to find besides a comprehensive body of information pertaining to nonverbal aspects of pedagogy almost exclusively dealing with management of the instructor's nonverbal behavior. The paper, therefore, presents what seems to be the most salient cues…

  2. Reaping between the Lines: Non-Verbal Cues to the Journalistic Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, J. J.

    Maintaining that the nonverbal elements of communication are ultimately more significant than the verbal elements in determining the eventual success or failure of the journalistic interview, this paper attempts to assist journalists in understanding the complex and subtle nonverbal characteristics of the interview environment. Based on the…

  3. Man Beyond Words: Theory and Methodology of Nonverbal Communication. Monograph No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyatos, Fernando

    Communication cannot and should not be studied as the simple, isolated phenomenon known as language, because language occurs in a cultural context and its messages are shaped by nonverbal elements. The basic structure of total communication includes language, paralanguage (vocal-nonverbal communication), and kinesics (communication through…

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Race and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Nonverbal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halberstadt, Amy G.

    Although the first research on race and socioeconomic differences in nonverbal behavior was conducted in the 1930's, interest in these issues was not sustained. In order to further understanding of these previous studies, all the nonverbal categories that included more than three studies investigating race and class differences were examined. The…

  5. Cultural Influences on Nonverbal Behavior: An Annotated Bibliography for Counseling Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogelaar, Laura

    This bibliography for counseling psychologists focuses on differences in nonverbal behavior as an aspect of cross cultural psychotherapy. The introductory section discusses the purpose, scope and limitations of the report. Different theories of emotion (dimensional versus typological) are also discussed and classifications of nonverbal behavior…

  6. Nonverbal Communication and the Support Process: Interactional Sensitivity in Interactions between Mothers and Young Adult Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trees, April R.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the contribution of nonverbal cues to supportive communication in interactions between mothers and young adult children. Uses the concept of interactional sensitivity from attachment theory for direction to propose a number of hypotheses concerning support provision. Provides insight into the role of nonverbal as well as verbal…

  7. Universals of Nonverbal Behavior: A Review of Literature and Statement of Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Patrick H.

    Universals in nonverbal behavior represent an important issue in the study of the cross-cultural communication. Perhaps the most well-known research in nonverbal universals was conducted by Paul Ekman, who examined literate and preliterate cultures from various language groups and identified six universal facial expressions: happiness, sadness,…

  8. Broader Autism Phenotype and Nonverbal Sensitivity: Evidence for an Association in the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between characteristics of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) and nonverbal sensitivity, the ability to interpret nonverbal aspects of communication, in a non-clinical sample of college students. One hundred and two participants completed a self-report measure of the BAP, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and…

  9. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  10. The Effect of Nonverbal Signals on Student Role-Play Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taute, Harry A.; Heiser, Robert S.; McArthur, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Although salespeople have long been urged to recognize and adapt to customer needs and wants by observing communications style and other cues or signals by the buyer, nonverbal communications by the salesperson have received much less empirical scrutiny. However, nonverbal communications may be important in this context; research in several…

  11. Assessing Nonverbal Communication Skills through Video Recording and Debriefing of Clinical Skill Simulation Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinerichs, Scott; Cattano, Nicole M.; Morrison, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Nonverbal communication (NVC) skills are a critical component to clinician interactions with patients, and no research exists on the investigation of athletic training students' nonverbal communication skills. Video recording and debriefing have been identified as methods to assess and educate students' NVC skills in other allied health…

  12. Counselor Verbal and Nonverbal Responses and Perceived Expertness, Trustworthiness, and Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong Yul; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Following a 20-minute interview, clients and counselors (N=47) completed two questionnaires assessing perceived counselor characteristics and counselor nonverbal behaviors. Results showed variance client-perceived expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness was not well predicted by judges' verbal and nonverbal behavior categories. (JAC)

  13. The Role of Pictures and Gestures as Nonverbal Aids in Preschoolers' Word Learning in a Novel Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Mullan, Bridget E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that presenting redundant nonverbal semantic information in the form of gestures and/or pictures may aid word learning in first and foreign languages. But do nonverbal supports help all learners equally? We address this issue by examining the role of gestures and pictures as nonverbal supports for word learning in a…

  14. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Intervention Targeting Nonverbal Communication for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome and Related Pervasive Developmental Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhill, Gena P.; Cook, Katherine Tapscott; Tebbenkamp, Kelly; Myles, Brenda Smith

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-week social skills intervention targeting nonverbal communication for eight adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Although minimal nonverbal communication skills development was apparent, some social relationships were developed and the ability of some participants to read the nonverbal communication of…

  15. Children's Talking and Listening within the Classroom: Teachers' Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Coplan, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that social communication (verbal and non-verbal) plays a key role in students' and teachers' elementary-school experiences. Within the framework of sociocognitive developmental theory, this qualitative study investigates teachers' experiences and perceptions of children's talking and listening habits within…

  16. An Investigation of the Teacher Behavior of Wait-Time During an Inquiry Science Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Thaddeus W.

    This study was designed to investigate the nonverbal teacher behavior of wait-time. Wait-time is the silence in a conversation following a teacher or student utterance. The primary purpose of the investigation was to document some of the behavioral and cognitive effects of wait-time and to delineate the interrelationships between the various forms…

  17. Perceptual cues in nonverbal vocal expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Disa A; Eisner, Frank; Calder, Andrew J; Scott, Sophie K

    2010-11-01

    Work on facial expressions of emotions (Calder, Burton, Miller, Young, & Akamatsu, [2001]) and emotionally inflected speech (Banse & Scherer, [1996]) has successfully delineated some of the physical properties that underlie emotion recognition. To identify the acoustic cues used in the perception of nonverbal emotional expressions like laugher and screams, an investigation was conducted into vocal expressions of emotion, using nonverbal vocal analogues of the "basic" emotions (anger, fear, disgust, sadness, and surprise; Ekman & Friesen, [1971]; Scott et al., [1997]), and of positive affective states (Ekman, [1992], [2003]; Sauter & Scott, [2007]). First, the emotional stimuli were categorized and rated to establish that listeners could identify and rate the sounds reliably and to provide confusion matrices. A principal components analysis of the rating data yielded two underlying dimensions, correlating with the perceived valence and arousal of the sounds. Second, acoustic properties of the amplitude, pitch, and spectral profile of the stimuli were measured. A discriminant analysis procedure established that these acoustic measures provided sufficient discrimination between expressions of emotional categories to permit accurate statistical classification. Multiple linear regressions with participants' subjective ratings of the acoustic stimuli showed that all classes of emotional ratings could be predicted by some combination of acoustic measures and that most emotion ratings were predicted by different constellations of acoustic features. The results demonstrate that, similarly to affective signals in facial expressions and emotionally inflected speech, the perceived emotional character of affective vocalizations can be predicted on the basis of their physical features. PMID:20437296

  18. Perceptual cues in non-verbal vocal expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Disa A; Eisner, Frank; Calder, Andrew J; Scott, Sophie K

    2014-01-01

    Work on facial expressions of emotions (Calder et al, 2001) and emotionally inflected speech (Banse & Scherer, 1996) has successfully delineated some of the physical properties that underlie emotion recognition. To identify the acoustic cues used in the perception of non-verbal emotional expressions like laugher and screams, an investigation was conducted into vocal expressions of emotion, using non-verbal vocal analogues of the ‘basic’ emotions (anger, fear, disgust, sadness and surprise; Ekman & Friesen, 1971; Scott et al, 1997), and of positive affective states (Ekman, 1992, 2003; Sauter & Scott, 2007). First, the emotional stimuli were categorized and rated to establish that listeners could identify and rate the sounds reliably, and to provide confusion matrices. A principal components analysis of the rating data yielded two underlying dimensions, correlating with the perceived valence and arousal of the sounds. Second, acoustic properties of the amplitude, pitch and spectral profile of the stimuli were measured. A discriminant analysis procedure established that these acoustic measures provided sufficient discrimination between expressions of emotional categories to permit accurate statistical classification. Multiple linear regressions with participants’ subjective ratings of the acoustic stimuli showed that all classes of emotional ratings could be predicted by some combination of acoustic measures, and that most emotion ratings were predicted by different constellations of acoustic features. The results demonstrate that, similarly to affective signals in facial expressions and emotionally inflected speech, the perceived emotional character of affective vocalizations can be predicted on the basis of their physical features. PMID:20437296

  19. Nonverbal behavior of vendors in customer-vendor interaction.

    PubMed

    Amsbary, J H; Powell, L

    2007-04-01

    Two research questions were posed on the homophily theory of customer-vendor interactions: (a) do vendors show any nonverbal preference for Euro-American or African-American customers?; (b) do vendors demonstrate any nonverbal preference for customers with which they share racial homophily? The results supported the homophily theory for Euro-American customers in that there were significant interaction effects by race in facial expression (F = 5.33, p < .05), amount of speaking (F = 6.76, p < .01), tone of voice (F = 7.62, p < .01), and touching (F = 4.57, p < .05). Vendor behavior varied when the customer was Euro-American, with Euro-American vendors smiling more frequently (M = 4.05) than African-American vendors (M = 3.69), speaking more frequently (M = 3.57) than African-American vendors (M = 3.09), using a more friendly tone of voice (M = 3.59, and engaging in more touching behaviors (M = 1.81) than African-American vendors (M = 1.48). There was no significant difference in the behavior of Euro-American and African-American vendors when the customer was African-American. PMID:17566425

  20. EEG correlates of verbal and nonverbal working memory

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Grace; Jacobs, Joshua; Geller, Aaron; Danker, Jared; Sekuler, Robert; Kahana, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Background Distinct cognitive processes support verbal and nonverbal working memory, with verbal memory depending specifically on the subvocal rehearsal of items. Methods We recorded scalp EEG while subjects performed a Sternberg task. In each trial, subjects judged whether a probe item was one of the three items in a study list. Lists were composed of stimuli from one of five pools whose items either were verbally rehearsable (letters, words, pictures of common objects) or resistant to verbal rehearsal (sinusoidal grating patterns, single dot locations). Results We found oscillatory correlates unique to verbal stimuli in the θ (4–8 Hz), α (9–12 Hz), β (14–28 Hz), and γ (30–50 Hz) frequency bands. Verbal stimuli generally elicited greater power than did nonverbal stimuli. Enhanced verbal power was found bilaterally in the θ band, over frontal and occipital areas in the α and β bands, and centrally in the γ band. When we looked specifically for cases where oscillatory power in the time interval between item presentations was greater than oscillatory power during item presentation, we found enhanced β activity in the frontal and occipital regions. Conclusion These results implicate stimulus-induced oscillatory activity in verbal working memory and β activity in the process of subvocal rehearsal. PMID:16287504

  1. How interviewers' nonverbal behaviors can affect children's perceptions and suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Almerigogna, Jehanne; Ost, James; Akehurst, Lucy; Fluck, Mike

    2008-05-01

    We conducted two studies to examine how interviewers' nonverbal behaviors affect children's perceptions and suggestibility. In the first study, 42 8- to 10-year-olds watched video clips showing an interviewer displaying combinations of supportive and nonsupportive nonverbal behaviors and were asked to rate the interviewer on six attributes (e.g., friendliness, strictness). Smiling received high ratings on the positive attributes (i.e., friendly, helpful, and sincere), and fidgeting received high ratings on the negative attributes (i.e., strict, bored, and stressed). For the second study, 86 8- to 10-year-olds participated in a learning activity about the vocal chords. One week later, they were interviewed individually about the activity by an interviewer adopting either the supportive (i.e., smiling) or nonsupportive (i.e., fidgeting) behavior. Children questioned by the nonsupportive interviewer were less accurate and more likely to falsely report having been touched than were those questioned by the supportive interviewer. Children questioned by the supportive interviewer were also more likely to say that they did not know an answer than were children questioned by the nonsupportive interviewer. Participants in both conditions gave more correct answers to questions about central, as opposed to peripheral, details of the activity. Implications of these findings for the appropriate interviewing of child witnesses are discussed. PMID:18316091

  2. Philosophy and the Role of Teacher Reflections on Constructing Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Colette

    2007-01-01

    Verbal and non-verbal communication interactions have a strong influence on the social construction of gender. Therefore understanding the classroom interaction structures and the subsequent socio-cultural context is a vital commitment for any teacher. Furthermore, since gender is constructed in the day-to-day interactions of children's lives,…

  3. Daily Verbal and Nonverbal Expression of Osteoarthritis Pain and Spouse Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephanie J.; Martire, Lynn M.; Keefe, Francis J.; Mogle, Jacqueline A.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The current study applied a model of pain communication [10] to examine the distinction between verbal and nonverbal pain expression in their prediction of punishing, empathic, and solicitous spouse responses to patient pain. It was hypothesized that on days when patients engaged in more nonverbal expression spouses would respond more positively (i.e., with less punishing, and more solicitous and empathic behavior). The same pattern was predicted for verbal expression. In addition, it was expected that associations between patient nonverbal pain expression and positive spouse responses would be strengthened, and that the association with punishing responses would be weakened, on days when levels of verbal pain expression were higher than usual, regardless of daily pain severity. In a 22-day diary study, 144 individuals with knee osteoarthritis and their spouses completed daily measures of pain expression, spouse responses, health, and affect. The predicted positive main effect of nonverbal expression on empathic and solicitous responses was supported by the data, as was the positive main effect for verbal pain expression. Results from moderation analyses partially supported our hypothesis in that a) patients’ nonverbal pain expression was even more strongly related to empathic and solicitous spouse responses on days of high verbal pain expression, and b) patients were buffered from spouse punishing responses on days when both nonverbal and verbal expression were high. These findings suggest that pain expression in both verbal and nonverbal modes of communication is important for positive and negative spousal responses. PMID:23791895

  4. The Construct of Emotion in the Study of Nonverbal Communication: A Need for Definition and Greater Consideration for the Influences of Socialization and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ed

    Nonverbal communicative behaviors are a primary channel for emotional expression. Emotions, in turn, strongly influence nonverbal communication displays. Thus, the role of emotions should be a central consideration in nonverbal communication studies. A study examined 34 articles, published in the "Journal of Nonverbal Behavior" between 1976 and…

  5. Further Validation of the Learning Alliance Inventory: The Roles of Working Alliance, Rapport, and Immediacy in Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    This study further examined the reliability and validity of the Learning Alliance Inventory (LAI), a self-report measure designed to assess the working alliance between a student and a teacher. The LAI was found to have good internal consistency and test--retest reliability, and it demonstrated the predicted convergence with measures of immediacy…

  6. Conscious and unconscious processing of nonverbal predictability in Wernicke's area.

    PubMed

    Bischoff-Grethe, A; Proper, S M; Mao, H; Daniels, K A; Berns, G S

    2000-03-01

    The association of nonverbal predictability and brain activation was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans. Participants regarded four squares displayed horizontally across a screen and counted the incidence of a particular color. A repeating spatial sequence with varying levels of predictability was embedded within a random color presentation. Both Wernicke's area and its right homolog displayed a negative correlation with temporal predictability, and this effect was independent of individuals' conscious awareness of the sequence. When individuals were made aware of the underlying sequential predictability, a widespread network of cortical regions displayed activity that correlated with the predictability. Conscious processing of predictability resulted in a positive correlation to activity in right prefrontal cortex but a negative correlation in posterior parietal cortex. These results suggest that conscious processing of predictability invokes a large-scale cortical network, but independently of awareness, Wernicke's area processes predictive events in time and may not be exclusively associated with language. PMID:10684898

  7. Predicting FCI gain with a nonverbal intelligence test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semak, M. R.; Dietz, R. D.; Pearson, R. H.; Willis, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    We have administered both a commercial, nonverbal intelligence test (the GAMA) and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning to students in two introductory physics classes to determine if either test can successfully predict normalized gains on the Force Concept Inventory. Since gain on the FCI is known to be related to gender, we adopted a linear model with gain on the FCI as the dependent variable and gender and a test score as the independent variables. We found that the GAMA score did not predict a significant amount of variation beyond gender. Lawson's test, however, did predict a small but significant variation beyond gender. When simple linear regressions were run separately for males and females with the Lawson score as a predictor, we found that the Lawson score did not significantly predict gains for females but was a marginally significant predictor for males.

  8. Verbal and nonverbal fluency in Spanish-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Matute, Esmeralda; Rosselli, Monica; Ardila, Alfredo; Morales, Guadalupe

    2004-01-01

    Fluency measures are commonly used in clinical developmental neuropsychology to assess executive functions. Little is known about the effect of age on performance in these tests. This article analyzes the effect of age on measures of verbal (semantic and phonologic) and nonverbal (semantic and nonsemantic) fluency in 171 children (81 boys, 90 girls) between ages 6 and 15. Participants were selected from public and private schools in Guadalajara and Tijuana, Mexico. A significant age effect was found on all tests but no interaction between age and type of test was found. Significant correlations among the 4 fluency tasks ranged from.36 to.46. Results are consistent with the findings of normative studies carried out in other countries and support the cross-language validity of verbal fluency tests. PMID:15456689

  9. Social influence on metacognitive evaluations: The power of nonverbal cues.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, Terry; Montalan, Benoît; Jacquot, Amélie; Proust, Joëlle; Grèzes, Julie; Conty, Laurence

    2016-11-01

    Metacognitive evaluations refer to the processes by which people assess their own cognitive operations with respect to their current goal. Little is known about whether this process is susceptible to social influence. Here we investigate whether nonverbal social signals spontaneously influence metacognitive evaluations. Participants performed a two-alternative forced-choice task, which was followed by a face randomly gazing towards or away from the response chosen by the participant. Participants then provided a metacognitive evaluation of their response by rating their confidence in their answer. In Experiment 1, the participants were told that the gaze direction was irrelevant to the task purpose and were advised to ignore it. The results revealed an effect of implicit social information on confidence ratings even though the gaze direction was random and therefore unreliable for task purposes. In addition, nonsocial cues (car) did not elicit this effect. In Experiment 2, the participants were led to believe that cue direction (face or car) reflected a previous participant's response to the same question-that is, the social information provided by the cue was made explicit, yet still objectively unreliable for the task. The results showed a similar social influence on confidence ratings, observed with both cues (car and face) but with an increased magnitude relative to Experiment 1. We additionally showed in Experiment 2 that social information impaired metacognitive accuracy. Together our results strongly suggest an involuntary susceptibility of metacognitive evaluations to nonverbal social information, even when it is implicit (Experiment 1) and unreliable (Experiments 1 and 2). PMID:26594787

  10. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-verbal Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.