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|This study examined students' perceived understanding as a mediator of the relationship between student perceptions of teacher clarity, nonverbalimmediacy cues, and learner empowerment (i.e., meaningfulness, competence, and impact). Participants included 261 undergraduate students who completed survey instruments. Results of structural equation…
|Cross-cultural validity of teacherimmediacy scales is a constant concern in instructional communication research. The present study examines the validity of two existing teacherimmediacy scales: the Revised NonverbalImmediacy Measure (RNIM) and the Chinese TeacherImmediacy Scale (CTIS) in U.S., Chinese, German, and Japanese cultures. Results…
Zhang, Qin; Oetzel, John G.; Gao, Xiaofang; Wilcox, Richard G.; Takai, Jiro
A discussion of immediacy, the degree of perceived physical or psychological closeness between people, looks at a variety of verbal and nonverbal factors and behaviors useful to gain immediacy among co-workers, including attractiveness, clothing, posture, facial/eye behavior, vocal cues, space, touch, time, and gestures. Cross-gender dimensions,…
|Immediacy communicates psychological availability and warmth. In the classroom, instructor immediacy is traditionally measured with ratings of nonverbal and verbal behaviors. Although nonverbalimmediacy has been accepted as a legitimate measure of immediacy, the validity of verbal items has been questioned. In the present study, we examined face…
|This descriptive correlation study sought to examine the relationships between verbal immediacy, nonverbalimmediacy, self-efficacy and task value. Respondents assessed the verbal and nonverbalimmediacy of their course instructor, and then assessed their personal self-efficacy and task value motivation. Results showed a significant positive…
|Shows that increased teacherimmediacy was associated with increased affective learning across the four diverse cultures of Australia, Finland, Puerto Rico, and the United States. Indicates that, whether the norms in the culture favor high or low immediacy, if the teacher is comparatively more immediate, the student's affective learning is…
McCroskey, James C.; Fayer, Joan M.; Richmond, Virginia P.; Sallinen, Aino; Barraclough, Robert A.
Using a qualitative approach drawing on the experiences of four HE lecturers, this study provides an exploration of and insights into a peer review of teaching (PRT) scheme, which focused on teacherimmediacy and communication skills. Within the United Kingdom, limited research has been undertaken in relation to teacherimmediacy even though…
|This study utilize d direct observation to explore the relationship between nonverbal communication variables (immediacy and territoriality) and roommate satisfaction. Data were collected from 51 roommate pairs (N = 102) at a small liberal arts college. Participants were asked to engage in a discussion about a time they had to negotiate…
|A study examined gender differences in the uses of uncertainty reduction strategies (self-disclosure, interrogative strategies, nonverbalimmediacy, and other's self-disclosure) and their interrelationships with attributional confidence (uncertainty reduction). The subjects, 853 students from three western universities, participated in a survey…
|Analyzes research based on data drawn from the cultures of Puerto Rico, Finland, Australia, and the United States. Finds a very positive relationship between immediacy and perceived cognitive learning in each culture studied, but the magnitude of the relationships varied substantially. Discusses implications. (PA)|
Few concepts in instructional communication literature have received as much attention as teacherimmediacy. However, educational communication scholars have thoroughly studied immediacy behaviors mainly in traditional classrooms and these studies are mostly related to student attitudes and learning. Thanks to some growing attempts, recent research has extended these findings to distance education. The difference of this study is to examine
|A study which replicated previous research focused on the perceived affiliative communication behaviors of teachers within the classroom, their relationship to student learning, and the interrelationship among those behaviors. Six hypotheses were formulated based on already published literature. These hypotheses suggest that student perceptions…
Nonverbal expectancy violations theory holds that positive violations produce more favorable communication outcomes than conformity to expectations, while negative violations produce less favorable ones, and that reward characteristics of the communicator mediate the interpretation and evaluation of violations. The factors affecting expectancies and the consequences of violating them are reviewed and compared to other models (discrepancy?arousal, arousal?labeling, arousal?valence, sequential functional)
Cross-cultural perceptions of teacherimmediacy of American and Japanese college teachers were compared. American (n = 191) and Japanese (n = 227) college students completed versions of the TeacherImmediacy Scale and indices of cognitive, affective, and behavioral learning. Consistent with the general hypothesis guiding the study, perceptions of teacherimmediacy were higher for the American sample than Japanese sample.
This study explored students' emotional intelligence and contagion as moderators of the association between their perceptions of instructors' nonverbalimmediacy cues and their affect for the course and the instructor. Participants included 305 undergraduate students. Hierarchical regression revealed no significant interaction effects for emotional intelligence or contagion, though emotional intelligence emerged as a significant predictor of students' affect for instructors
|Immediacy is the closeness expressed by communicators which maybe observed in teachers as they try to engage students. Teacherimmediacy may take nonverbal and verbal forms. U.S. studies have concluded that immediacy has positive effects on U.S. college students' learning. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of American faculty's…
|Finds that managers' communication openness was positively and significantly related to subordinates' motivation. Finds a positive, yet tentative, relationship between openness and immediacy, indicating that these variables occur together. (SR)|
|Assuming that teacher effectiveness and nonverbal communication are interrelated, an analysis of nonverbal communication and teacher assessment of nonverbal action is appropriate. A review of the literature indicates that nonverbal behaviors may be examined by the impressionistic and the quantitative methods. Each of these methods generates…
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of conveyance system design and social presence, in the form of teacherimmediacy behavior, on perceived student learning and satisfaction in the televised classroom. Results indicate that system design and teacherimmediacy behavior strongly impact student learning and satisfaction. System variables such as interactivity and clear audio and video transmission positively
This study used quantitative measures to gather data from online students to analyze the effects of perceptions about teacher verbal immediacy and classroom community on students' level of satisfaction, perceived learning, and online discussion frequency. Using convenience sampling, 214 students were recruited from undergraduate and graduate online courses. A bivariate correlation, multiple linear regression, and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Teachers can use nonverbal forms of communication (facial expression, gestures, space, eye contact, body orientation, tone of voice, and head nod/head shake) to enhance the communication process with their handicapped students. (CL)
|This investigation considered several issues relevant to the assessment of teachernonverbal behaviors in the classroom. Multiple steps were taken to identify teacher proximity as a quantifiable dimension of teachernonverbal behavior. These steps include the following: a) isolation of the student-initiated question frame as a suitable and…
|The emphasis in this paper is on developing teacher awareness of how nonverbal communication fits into the classroom setting. Various positive and negative aspects of this phase of communication in the classroom are explored. A classroom teacher is observed closely by students every day, and her/his attitude, feelings, mood or state of mind,…
There are a significant number of studies in the literature stressing the important role of teacherimmediacy behaviors on learners' perceptions of social presence and satisfaction in open and distance learning environments. Yet, those studies were conducted in different open and distance education institutions than the current example of which unique characteristics and applications are commonly recognized in the field.
A study was designed 1) to develop and test a conceptual model for viewing teacher-pupil communicative relationships in the classroom, 2) to determine if systematic observations of teacher behavior are useful in analyzing communication events, and 3) to determine if data on teachernonverbal and verbal behavior are more useful than on verbal…
The reactions of schoolchildren between 9 and 17 years to the facial expressions and postures\\/gestures of teachers were compared. The children were tested with still pictures of prosocial and hostile nonverbal behaviours, similar except for their facial expressions. Smiling and frowning facial expressions had strong effects on children's reactions; the effects of posture and gesture were weaker, touch and explaining
|This study sought to determine whether coaches' immediacy behaviors serve as predictors of athletes' satisfaction and team cohesion levels. Participants included 307 male and female high school athletes who completed measures assessing perceptions of their coaches' verbal and nonverbalimmediacy behaviors, as well as their own levels of…
|The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…
|Studied effects of teachers' verbal and non-verbal scaffolding on classroom performance of students with Down Syndrome. Found that with the use of scaffolding that contained gesture components, students were more responsive to directions, focused longer on tasks, and were more successful in accomplishing the tasks. Concluded that gestures in…
|This paper investigated teachers' verbal and non-verbal strategies for managing ADHD students in a classroom environment. It was found that effective verbal and non-verbal strategies included voice control, short phrases, repeated instructions, using students' names, and visual cues and verbal instructions combined. It has been found that…
|Research into teachernonverbal behavior is needed. Although teachers are usually aware of their verbal behavior, they may be unaware of many nonverbal cues they express through gesture, facial expression, posture, vocal tone, or similar mechanisms. Such nonverbal expressions convey attitudes and impressions which may affect the teaching-learning…
The ability to express and decode nonverbal cues is assumed to be an essential quality in communication and teaching. To validate, generalize and expand upon earlier research on the importance of nonverbal competencies in communication and teaching, i.e., the relationship of nonverbal competencies (e.g., expressiveness/"charisma" and nonverbal…
In the present research, associations between student attachment stances, verbal and nonverbal instructor immediacy, student-instructor relationships, and student achievement orientations were specified. It was predicted that positive student-instructor relationships would mediate associations between student attachment stances, instructor…
SUMMARY The most effective counselors are the ones whose nonverbal messages are congruent with their verbal messages. Recent literature suggests that non- verbal immediacy behaviors on the part of pharmacists, physicians and other healthcare providers are very much related to patient satisfaction with care, and hence, outcomes.
|Teachers in this study participated in a 3-year grant funded by the U.S. Department of Education Fund for Innovation in Education. The purpose of the grant was to provide teachers with support in implementing standards-based education. Both treatment and control groups of teachers received instruction in implementing standards-based education…
Edwards, Jennifer L.; Green, Kathy E.; Lyons, Cherie A.; Rogers, Mary S.; Swords, Marcia E.
This study examines the predictive value of dominant, calm and enthusiastic behaviour, shown by applicants for a Postgraduate Certificate of Education (PGCE) teacher training course, for selection and teaching performance. Behaviour at entry was assessed by a questionnaire to referees and by rating interview reports. Progress during the course was recorded from ratings of teaching practice reports, ratings from tutors
Communication skills, as defined by Burleson and Samter (1990), were examined in the teacher?student relationship. Three questions guided this investigation: (a) with regard to effective teaching, what are students’ perceptions of the importance of communication skills and immediacy behaviors? (b) what is the relationship between students’ perceptions of teachers’ use of communication skills, immediacy behaviors, motivation and learning? and (c)
|This activity uses video clips from a popular sitcom, "Friends," to help students grasp the relational, rule-governed, and culture-specific nature of nonverbal communication. It opens students' eyes to nonverbal behaviors that are happening on a daily basis so that they not only master the knowledge but are able to apply it. While other popular…
|A library user exposed to immediate communication with a librarian is more satisfied with the reference interview and question negotiation than when communication is nonimmediate, but there is no difference in satisfaction with information transfer. "Immediacy" evolves from the relatively positive feelings generated in the user by the librarian's…
The connectionist theory of brain functioning, which holds that specialization exists within the brain, has three implications for teachers of nonverbal communication. One implication involves the relative emphasis to be placed on linguistic/linear versus nonlinguistic/nonlinear mental processing. Teachers can shift emphasis to nonlinguistic…
C. E. Hill (2004) recently developed the concept of therapist immediacy to capture discussion by the therapist about the therapeutic relationship that occurs in the here-and-now of a therapy session. This concept has been expanded to include discussion about the therapeutic relationship by both the client and therapist, captured by the term therapeutic immediacy (K. Kuutmann & M. Hilsenroth, 2011). Although prior research has examined the use of therapeutic immediacy across short-term treatment, the present study is the first to examine the use of immediacy across a long-term (4 years) psychotherapy. Also, this is the first study to assess the interrater reliability of therapeutic immediacy, which was found to achieve good to excellent levels across raters. The most frequently used categories of client and therapist immediacy are presented. Finally, the authors provide an in-depth qualitative examination of 5 therapeutic immediacy segments across the treatment judged by the raters to have high levels of depth/intensity (4.5 or higher out of 5) to examine the role of therapeutic immediacy in exploring meaningful treatment issues. Clinical utility, potential limitations, and future research on therapeutic immediacy are discussed. PMID:22059428
|Nonverbal behaviors associated with classroom conversation in Choctaw Indian and white middle class public schools were videotaped with two cameras providing a view of the teacher and class and the listener-gaze of individual students. Results indicated cultural differences in nonverbal behavior were associated with classroom interaction.…
The article describes a pilot program to encourage independent communication in seven nonverbal children (ages 6-8) with orthopedic and/or neurological involvement or cerebral palsy. Transdisciplinary team members included the classroom teacher, speech clinician, instructional aide, computer resource person, occupational therapist, physical…
|Community college instructors and administrators need to understand teacherimmediacy research and the role of immediacy in the multi-cultural classroom. Immediacy can be viewed as a combination of nonverbal behaviors used to accentuate a verbal message and reduce physical and psychological distance between interactants. Janis Andersen's research…
This study to identify the nonverbal behaviors of librarians and library users that facilitate or impede information exchange in presearch interviews project that gathered data on 80 presearch interviews in seven medical libraries. The project also sought...
This study investigated the effects of two different classroom contexts, sociodramatic play and a teacher led activity, on children’s use of verbal and non-verbal communication. Additionally, the effect of children’s gender on their use of verbal and non-verbal communicational modes was examined. Participating in the study were 24 children between the ages of 37 and 55 months old, who were
Believable nonverbal behaviors for embodied conversational agents (ECA) can create a more immersive experience for users and improve the effectiveness of communication. This paper describes a nonverbal behavior generator that analyzes the syntactic and se...
Knowledge from research on nonverbal communication can serve to extend and expand current paradigms that guide the study of teaching. Even more important, attention to nonverbal research may enrich the conceptualization of teaching. (CB)
|Verbal and nonverbal patterns of communication found in the black community are discussed in this paper. They have been selected on the basis of their potential as interference factors in intergroup communication. A section on black language describes and explains the following categories: rapping, running it down, jiving, shucking, copping a…
The study investigates whether bilingualism has a measurable contribution to verbal and nonverbal creative performance. The performance of Russian—English bilingual and English monolingual college students residing in the USA was compared on the verbal and nonverbal indicators of the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults. The results demonstrated a bilingual advantage in nonverbal creativity and a monolingual advantage in verbal creativity.
This study examined the relationship between nonverbal social perception and symptomatology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenic patients (n=28) and normal controls (n=28) were given the profile of nonverbal sensitivity test (PONS). Patients' symptoms were rated with the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS). Schizophrenic subjects performed significantly more poorly than normal subjects in their ability to decode nonverbal cues. In addition, normal subjects
Rosemary Toomey; David Schuldberg; Patrick Corrigan; Michael F. Green
|Effective communication occurs with non-verbal and verbal tools. In this study the body language as non-verbal communication tool is taken to be examined, and teachers' opinions about the use and importance of body language in education are surveyed. Eight open-ended questions are asked to 100 teachers. As a result, it is shown that teachers…
Eight pigeons responded in a three-component concurrent-chains procedure, with either independent or dependent initial links. Relative probability and immediacy of reinforcement in the terminal links were both varied, and outcomes on individual trials (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) were either signaled or unsignaled. Terminal-link fixed-time schedules were varied across components within conditions to yield immediacy ratios of 1?2, 1?1 and 2?1. The probabilities of reinforcement were varied across conditions to yield reinforcer ratios of 1?5, 1?2, 2?1 and 5?1. Results showed that a model based on the generalized matching law provided a good description of response allocation, accounting for 92% of the variance overall. As expected, sensitivity to probability was greater in the unsignaled conditions. However, sensitivity to immediacy was also greater in the unsignaled conditions, suggesting that the effect of signaling terminal-link outcomes may not be limited to probability but apply to reinforcer variables in general. The effects of signaling can be explained in terms of conditioned reinforcement added to each alternative's outcomes in the matching law. There was some evidence for an interaction between reinforcer probability and immediacy, particularly for the dependent-schedules group, such that sensitivity to immediacy was greater at moderate rather than extreme reinforcer ratios. However, further analysis suggested that this could have been due to a ceiling effect on response allocation imposed by dependent scheduling. Overall, the present results show that the generalized matching law can provide a useful account of choice between outcomes that vary in both probability and immediacy of reinforcement.
Mattson, Karla M; Hucks, Andrew; Grace, Randolph C; McLean, Anthony P
|Review features of nonverbal learning disabilities in terms of personal, social, and academic manifestations, including deficits in reading comprehension, graphomotor coordination, mathematics, and science. Examines the neuropsychological and learning components associated with developmental right-hemisphere brain syndrome and outlines effective…
|These twenty-two readings in five areas of nonverbal communication emphasize the most recent work indicating significant trends in research. The selections represent several perspectives, including those of Ray L. Birdwhistell, Allen T. Dittman, Albert E. Scheflen, Robert Sommer, Edward T. Hall, Ralph V. Exline, and Adam Kendon. Some of the…
Emotional communication uses verbal and nonverbal means. In case of conflicting signals, nonverbal information is assumed to have a stronger impact. It is unclear, however, whether perceptual nonverbal dominance varies between individuals and whether it is linked to emotional intelligence. Using audiovisual stimulus material comprising verbal and nonverbal emotional cues that were varied independently, perceptual nonverbal dominance profiles and their relations to emotional intelligence were examined. Nonverbal dominance was found in every participant, ranging from 55 to 100%. Moreover, emotional intelligence, particularly the ability to understand emotions, correlated positively with nonverbal dominance. Furthermore, higher overall emotional intelligence as well as a higher ability to understand emotions were linked to smaller reaction time differences between emotionally incongruent and congruent stimuli. The association between perceptual nonverbal dominance and emotional intelligence, and more specifically the ability to understand emotions, might reflect an adaptive process driven by the experience of higher authenticity in nonverbal cues. PMID:23134564
|C. E. Hill (2004) recently developed the concept of therapist immediacy to capture discussion by the therapist about the therapeutic relationship that occurs in the here-and-now of a therapy session. This concept has been expanded to include discussion about the therapeutic relationship by both the client and therapist, captured by the term…
People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This immediacy bias in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional reactions to pictures (Studies
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder often require therapeutic interventions to support engagement in effective social interactions. In this paper, we present the results of a study conducted in three public schools that use an educational and behavioral intervention for the instruction of social skills in changing situational contexts. The results of this study led to the concept of interaction immediacy
|Eight pigeons responded in a three-component concurrent-chains procedure, with either independent or dependent initial links. Relative probability and immediacy of reinforcement in the terminal links were both varied, and outcomes on individual trials (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) were either signaled or unsignaled. Terminal-link fixed-time…
Mattson, Karla M.; Hucks, Andrew; Grace, Randolph C.; McLean, Anthony P.
Before viewing a scary program, children (ages 5 to 8) heard one of four introductions designed to manipulate the perceived likelihood of the events. Because the manipulation was relatively unsuccessful, the design was restructured on the basis of perceived immediacy of threat. Higher levels of fear were reported by children who believed that the threat existed locally than by those
|Suggests that Web courses have the potential to be more immediate than conventional classroom instruction by introducing a new "agency" into the learning environment, the computer. Presents an exploratory qualitative ethnographic content analysis of three Web courses that identified potential indicators of immediacy in Web classrooms and framed…
C. E. Hill (2004) recently developed the concept of therapist immediacy to capture discussion by the therapist about the therapeutic relationship that occurs in the here-and-now of a therapy session. This concept has been expanded to include discussion about the therapeutic relationship by both the client and therapist, captured by the term…
Current research has explored the impact of instructional immediacy, defined as those behaviors that help build close relationships or feelings of closeness, both on cognition and motivation in the traditional classroom and online classroom; however, online courses continue to suffer from higher dropout rates. Based on Albert Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, four primary relationships or interactions in an online course
|People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional…
Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela
Social interaction is a key element of modern virtual environments. This paper discusses how non-verbal communication (or body language) is vital to real world social interaction, and how it is important to carry it over to virtual environments. It is not sufficient for a character to passively exhibit non-verbal communication; non-verbal communication should be a genuine interaction between a real
This article will examine the often de-emphasized and overlooked nonverbal aspects of communication. Understanding the impact of non-verbal messages sharpens one's ability to view seemingly superficial mannerisms and movements as potential cues. Further, this article is designed to prompt individual assessment and increase awareness of one's personal non-verbal mannerisms. This article is intended to encourage members of the ADR and
|Visuospatial working memory and its involvement in arithmetic were examined in two groups of 7- to 11-year-olds: one comprising children described by teachers as displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning difficulties (N = 21), the other a control group without learning disabilities (N = 21). The two groups were matched for verbal abilities, age,…
This report describes research with 128 kindergarten children, the purpose of which was to assess the stability of verbal behavior and the relationship of verbal and nonverbal abilities and self-concept to talkativeness in the classroom. The children were divided into verbal and quiet groups on the basis of teacher rankings in the fall of kindergarten. Rankings in the spring term
|Finds that interactive television instructors' perceptions of students' nonverbal responses are positively related to their impressions of students, their perceptions of teaching effectiveness and satisfaction, perceptions of teacher-student interpersonal relationships, and preference for teaching in the interactive television classroom; these…
|This study describes the communication repair behaviors used by nonverbal students with developmental disabilities in the interactions they were involved in with their teachers during free play activities. All children were students at centers serving student with developmental disabilities at Anadolu University in Turkey. Data were collected by…
Explored the hypothesis that the degree of liking which is nonverbally communicated to an addressee is a direct correlate of the intended persuasiveness of a communicator and the perceived persuasiveness of his communication. The nonverbal attitude-communication literature provided a basis for several derivative hypotheses relating to specific position, posture, facial, movement, and verbal cues. Findings supported the hypotheses and indicated
This paper attempts to develop a communication?based rationale for understanding the lecturing process in colleges and universities. It seeks to demonstrate the importance of nonverbal communication in lecturing. Particular attention is paid to the lecturer's communication of emotional states signalled nonverbally, at the time of delivery. The process of lecturing is explained from a constructivist perspective so as to emphasise
The Center for Non-Verbal Studies in Spokane, Washington, scientifically studies all modes of non-verbal communication including body movement, gesture, facial expression, and adornment to name a few. Visitors to the site should definitely take a look at the "Nonverbal Dictionary of Gestures, Signs, and Body Language Cues" link, which intriguingly covers everything from the "Adam's-Apple-Jump" to the "Zygomatic Smile." Some of the other entries include Fingertip Cue, Flashbulb Eyes, and Table-Slap. The topics on the left hand menu go more in-depth than the dictionary entries. The "Nonverbal Brain" link begins with a quote by Hippocrates: "Men ought to know that from the brain, and from the brain only, arise our pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, griefs and tears." Finally, visitors can also learn about the literature, evolution, and media approaches to the nonverbal brain.
|In Phase 1, 4 pigeons were trained on a three-component multiple concurrent-chains procedure in which components differed only in terms of relative terminal-link entry rate. The terminal links were variable-interval schedules and were varied across four conditions to produce immediacy ratios of 4:1, 1:4, 2:1, and 1:2. Relative terminal-link entry…
Relationships between the journal download immediacy index (DII) and some citation indicators are studied. The Chinese full-text\\u000a database CNKI is used for data collection. Results suggest that the DII can be considered as an independent indicator, but\\u000a that it also has predictive value for other indicators, such as a journal’s h-index. In case a journal cannot yet have an impact
Jin-kun WanPing-huan; Ping-huan Hua; Ronald Rousseau; Xiu-kun Sun
This study explores relationships among immediacy, communication apprehension, and learning outcomes between two class formats: mixed-size sections (i.e., large-lecture\\/break-out sections) versus self-contained sections. The results indicated that students' cognitive learning outcomes were slightly greater in the mixed-size sections versus self-contained sections. In addition, affective learning decreased for all students from the first day of class, though it decreased slightly more
Nonverbal communication helps to compensate many hidden meanings omitted from spoken language. In some situations, nonverbal\\u000a communication may even take the place of verbal communication. In this paper, we introduce how nonverbal acoustic communication\\u000a can be utilized in human-computer interaction. We first overview acoustic techniques for nonverbal communication. Then we\\u000a provide a design framework of nonverbal communication based intelligent agents.
|Presents evidence that nonverbal cues by newscasters are interpreted by the viewer as a sign of bias. Using two cues, raised eyebrows and a smile, the study produced data that suggest that the audience is aware of this influence. (JMF)|
|Examines symbolic action as a method of exerting public influence nonverbally through nonviolent behavior. Discusses Gandhi's persuasive tactics including fasting, propaganda tours, silence, clothing and adoption of symbols. (MH)|
In this article, we explore the relationship between the study of nonverbal communication and psychology. The study of nonverbal communication originated in the 1950's primarily as a cross?disciplinary effort on the part of psychiatrists, linguists, and anthropologists. This was followed in the 1960's and 1970's by an explosion of empirical research, books, and popular media attention. In the 1980's psychologists
Aphasia is generally accompanied by signs of non-verbal dysfunction. The study of crossed aphasia can help to clarify the relationship between the two orders of phenomena. Four personal cases are reported and the relevant literature is reviewed concerning disorders of non-verbal function which accompany crossed aphasia. Left-sided neglect and constructional apraxia are common findings. Limb apraxia is a rarity among
Non-verbal communication across cultures is one of the under-rated aspects of multicultural and language training. This communication across cultures can prepare students, Peace Corps and NGO volunteers, professionals and consultants for their cultural immersion experiences. Not understanding the importance of non-verbal communication, especially in inter-cultural settings, can cause serious adjustment problems to the person entering another culture. This is reflected
Videoconferencing systems combine face-to-face and mediated interactions in distance education. We extend the use of a Social Presence measure to on-site (face-to-face) learners and distant learners. Comparison between physically present and distant located learners did not indicate significant differences in social presence. Also results indicate that the predicted social presence score for distance instruction is slightly lower than for the
The relative value of verbal and nonverbal cues in teacher accuracy in making judgments of student comprehension was tested. 67 new interns (not yet teachers), 59 inexperienced teachers, and 46 experienced teachers were each shown 20 short sound-film recordings of 10 students being taught. They rated student comprehension. 57 Ss heard both picture and sound, 60 heard sound only, and
Jon Jecker; Nathan Maccoby; Henry S. Breitrose; Ernest D. Rose
80 undergraduates (aged 17–69 yrs) were administered an exam on a microcomputer that was programmed to break down. The major dependent variable was the time it took to call for assistance. Independent variables were the strength, immediacy, and number of potential help givers. As predicted, the time to seek help was significantly longer as a function of increased number and
Uses a semiotic reading of nonverbal communication as a way to comment on the ideologies of various cultural contexts. Suggests that the semiotic approach offers a method of "reading" the metatextual meanings surrounding nonverbal behavior. Finds that a reading of the political leaders of different cultures reveals the connection between nonverbal…
Functional neuroimaging has highlighted a left-hemisphere conceptual system shared by verbal and nonverbal processing despite neuropsychological evidence that the ability to recognize verbal and nonverbal stimuli can doubly dissociate in patients with left- and right-hemisphere lesions, respectively. Previous attempts to control for perceptual differences between verbal and nonverbal stimuli in functional neuroimaging studies may have hidden differences arising at the
|The purpose of this article is to help determine whether the use of emoticons in computer mediated communication (CMC) are truly nonverbal cues. A review of the literature revealed that the traditional nonverbal theorists failed to predict the future employment of nonverbal cues in electronic CMC. A variety of emoticons are then described…
Reviews empirical research on nonverbal communication in the courtroom environment. Introduces a functional model that explicates the process whereby nonverbal signals of courtroom participants can influence a jury. Suggests that nonverbal communication has a role in five key areas. Presents several propositions that come from the research. Notes…
The paper illustrates the definition of non-verbal communication with examples. It also shows the role and importance of non-verbal communication in daily life, analyzing the task of the interpreter, describing what possibilities the interpreter is given to reproduce non-verbal communication.
This article presents a critical review of the term and concept of nonverbal learning disability (NLD). After a brief historical introduction, the article focuses on the apparent rarity of NLD; the hypothesis of the frequent co-occurrence of emotional disorder, depression, and suicide in NLD; the white matter hypothesis as an explanation of the origin of NLD; and the question of
|The Miniaturized Interaction Analysis System (Mini-TIA) was developed to permit improved analysis of classroom communication in conjunction with video taping. Each of seven verbal event categories is subdivided into two categories according to the nature of the nonverbal events paralleling them. Integrated into the system are (1) defined verbal…
This article critiques the literature on existing pain assessment instruments for cognitively impaired elders and reports findings of pilot testing of the Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators. This instrument was designed to measure pain behaviors in cognitively impaired elders. Instrument testing was conducted on a population of elderly patients with hip fractures. Interrater reliability showed 93% agreement on the dichotomous
The purpose of this study was to investigate nonverbal facial, body, and paralanguage cues to deception in children. A sample of 31 Hispanic and Black second and third grade students were videotaped while playing a color identification that required six honest and six deceptive verbal responses to a randomized stimulus presentation. Frame-by-frame…
A central feature of nonverbal expectancy violations theory is that unexpected behaviors trigger a cognitive-affective appraisal of such behavior, leading to a valencing of the behavior(s) as positive or negative. It has been proposed that communicator reward mediates the interpretation and evaluation of such violations but may be more important when the violative act is ambiguous in meaning than when
Judee K. Burgoon; Deborah A. Newton; Joseph B. Walther; E. James Baesler
Slot machines are the most "addictive" games because (a) the disorder (pathological gambling) appears more rapidly in these games than with any other; (b) most patients who seek professional help are mainly addicted to electronic gambling, and (c) even though it is not the more frequent game, most of all the money spent on legal games of chance (at least in Spain) goes to slot machines. Structural characteristics of slot machines induce to gamble because electronic games show the main parameters of operant conditioning, mainly the immediacy of the reinforcement. Ten pathological gamblers played slot machine in two conditions: immediate and delayed reinforcement. The results corroborate the importance of the immediacy of the reinforcement in gambling, because when the result appears immediately (after 2 s), more games are played than when the result is delayed only 10 s. Critical issues in problem gambling prevention and public health are discussed. PMID:19882307
Although hundreds of studies investigate in?class communication in higher education, few assess student?faculty interaction outside the classroom. This study explores students’ and instructors’ perceptions of “extra?classroom” communication (ECC). Substantive differences are posited in four categories: frequency, content (self?disclosure and task?orientation), immediacy, and satisfaction. Since no instrument existed to measure such communication exclusively, parallel inventories for students and faculty were created
A system is described that uses pictograms to support interactive non-verbal communication. While pictograms are typically\\u000a used with objects, this system uses them for events as well. Moreover, whereas communication systems using pictograms are\\u000a generally designed for people with disabilities, this system is designed for people in general. It can thus be used between\\u000a a non-disabled person and a person
This paper investigates the impact of non-verbal interactions and spontaneous encounters on the therapeutic process and on a client's structural and behavioral patterns. The following case vignette concerns a client who presents with a pattern of non-verbal relational schemas based on his early traumatic experiences. The non-verbal and verbal role reenactments that unfold between client and therapist will be examined
The lack of intuitive and non-intrusive non-verbal cues is one of the distinctive features that separate computer-mediated communication settings from face-to-face encounters. The analysis of the non-verbal communication forms in a multi-player game session indicates that the participants of collaborative virtual environment can effectively use various forms of non-verbal communication to reduce the communication difficulties. A creative combination of various
This paper reviews ways in which teachers inadvertently reinforce negative behavior of elementary school students through negative verbal or nonverbal communication. Discussion first points out differences between nonverbal and verbal communication, and then focuses on consequences of negative communication for children. Special attention is given…
This paper introduces social signal processing (SSP), the domain aimed at automatic understanding of social interactions through analysis of nonverbal behavior. The core idea of SSP is that nonverbal behavior is machine detectable evidence of social signals, the relational attitudes exchanged between interacting individuals. Social signals include (dis-)agreement, empathy, hostility, and any other attitude towards others that is expressed not
|Language-reduced (nonverbal) ability tests are the primary talent identification tools for ELL children. The appropriate use of such tests with low-SES and minority children is more nuanced. Whenever language-reduced tests are used for talent identification, nonverbal tests that measure more than figural reasoning abilities should be employed.…
|This article discusses the use of nonverbal communication strategies for fostering social health in middle school students. It outlines a teaching technique designed to help students better understand nonverbal cues and their role in maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships. The technique begins with the card game "Slap What?" where the…
The metaphor is typically viewed as a verbal form of expression in traditional talk therapies. However, this definition excludes nonverbal metaphors that children use when they express themselves through play. In this article, the authors examine the use of therapeutic metaphors, both verbal and nonverbal, with children. The roles of the child,…
Chesley, Gayle L.; Gillett, Dodie A.; Wagner, William G.
Data on numerical processing by verbal (human) and non-verbal (animal and human) subjects are integrated by the hypothesis that a non-verbal counting process represents discrete (countable) quantities by means of magnitudes with scalar variability. These appear to be identical to the magnitudes that represent continuous (uncountable) quantities such as duration. The magnitudes representing countable quantity are generated by a discrete
The aim of this study was to determine: (a) whether children with visual and additional impairments show any non-verbal behaviors, and if so what were the common behaviors; (b) whether two rehabilitation professionals interpreted the non-verbal behaviors similarly; and (c) whether a speech pathologist and a rehabilitation professional interpreted…
This paper presents a series of experiments in which two mobile robots develop a shared lexicon of which the meaning is grounded in the real world. The exper- iments investigate the impact of non-verbal communication on lexicon formation. Non-verbal communication is used to establish joint attention or to evaluate feed- back. The experiments implement adaptive language games in which two
BackgroundThis paper critiques the model for non-verbal communication referred to as SOLER (which stands for: “Sit squarely”; “Open posture”; “Lean towards the other”; “Eye contact; “Relax”). It has been approximately thirty years since Egan (1975) introduced his acronym SOLER as an aid for teaching and learning about non-verbal communication.
The expression of nonverbal cues may differ systematically across cultures. Common cues used in dis- tinct ways cross-culturally may be termed nonverbal accents. The data in this study indicate that nonver- bal accents can help perceivers to distinguish the nationality of expressers. In Study 1, American participants could determine the nationality of Australian and American adults with above-chance accu- racy
|This research reports the development of a semantic differential for rating nonverbal style of expressiveness in a population of expectant mothers. Mothers' nonverbal features (facial expression, gestures, voice quality) were emphasized as uniquely valid indices of emotional attitudes towards parenthood and as the principal forms of interpersonal…
We examined the extent to which nonverbal behavior contributes to culturally-shared attitudes and beliefs. In Study 1, we demonstrated that slim women elicit especially positive nonverbal behaviors in popular television shows. In Study 2, we demonstrated that exposure to this nonverbal bias caused people to have especially slim cultural and personal ideals of female beauty and to have especially positive attitudes toward slim women. In Study 3, we demonstrated that individual differences in exposure to such nonverbal bias could account for substantial variance in pro-slim attitudes, anti-fat attitudes, and personal ideals of beauty, even after controlling for several third variables. In Study 4, we demonstrated that regional differences in exposure to nonverbal bias accounted for substantial variance in regional unhealthy dieting behaviors, even after controlling for several third variables.
Forty-one health professional students were videotaped during three consecutive conditions: a 5-min wait for a tardy interviewer, the structured interview for determining the Type A behavior pattern, and a 5-min relaxation period. Afterward, subjects were classified as Type A or B based on audiotapes of the interview. The total amount of activity and the frequency or duration of Type A behaviors were compared between Type A and Type B subjects. In all three experimental conditions, Type A subjects moved their arms more than Type B subjects. During both the waiting and the relaxation periods, Type A subjects sat still less and spent more time exploring than did Type B subjects. During the interview, Type A subjects gestured more frequently than Type B subjects. Nonverbal behaviors correctly identified behavior pattern in 71% of the subjects. The addition of nonverbal behaviors improved the discrimination of behavior pattern above that obtained from verbal behavior alone. The greater activity, restlessness, exploratory behavior, and gestures of Type A persons are consistent with the two major etiologies proposed for the Type A behavior pattern. PMID:6663615
Hughes, J R; Jacobs, D R; Schucker, B; Chapman, D P; Murray, D M; Johnson, C A
The current study examined the nonverbal displays of men and women in mock job interviews. Specifically, we investigated how the nonverbal behavior of more successful applicants differed from the nonverbal behavior of less successful applicants. Participants served as interviewees for a mock job interview and their interviews were coded for the performance of a number of critical nonverbal behaviors. Analyses
Four studies measure participants' accuracy in remembering, without forewarning, their own nonverbal behavior after an interpersonal interaction. Self-accuracy for smiling, nodding, gazing, hand gesturing, and self-touching is scored by comparing the participants' recollections with coding based on videotape. Self-accuracy is above chance and of modest magnitude on average. Self-accuracy is greatest for smiling; intermediate for nodding, gazing, and gesturing; and lowest for self-touching. It is higher when participants focus attention away from the self (learning as much as possible about the partner, rearranging the furniture in the room, evaluating the partner, smiling and gazing at the partner) than when participants are more self-focused (getting acquainted, trying to make a good impression on the partner, being evaluated by the partner, engaging in more self-touching). The contributions of cognitive demand and affective state are discussed. PMID:18000102
|Investigates the effectiveness of non-speech auditory stimuli in eliciting transformations analogous to those reported for speech stimuli to determine if a non-verbal analogue to the verbal transformation effect exists. (DD)|
Relationship-centered care reflects both knowing and feeling: the knowledge that physician and patient bring from their respective domains of expertise, and the physician's and patient's experience, expression, and perception of emotions during the medical encounter. These processes are conveyed and reciprocated in the care process through verbal and nonverbal communication. We suggest that the emotional context of care is especially related to nonverbal communication and that emotion-related communication skills, including sending and receiving nonverbal messages and emotional self-awareness, are critical elements of high-quality care. Although nonverbal behavior has received far less study than other care processes, the current review argues that it holds significance for the therapeutic relationship and influences important outcomes including satisfaction, adherence, and clinical outcomes of care.
Roter, Debra L; Frankel, Richard M; Hall, Judith A; Sluyter, David
The present study is linked to the Center for Researching and Testing in Nursing at the Nursing School Alfredo Pinto - UNIRIO, and it started during the development of a monograph. The object of the study is the meaning of non-verbal communication under the optics of the nursing course undergraduates. The study presents the following objectives: to determine how non-verbal communication is comprehended among college students in nursing and to analyze in what way that comprehension influences nursing care. The methodological approach was qualitative, while the dynamics of sensitivity were applied as strategy for data collection. It was observed that undergraduate students identify the relevance and influence of non-verbal communication along nursing care, however there is a need in amplifying the knowledge of non-verbal communication process prior the implementation of nursing care. PMID:16514950
The current study examined psychopathy and nonverbal indicators of deception in an incarcerated sample. Nonverbal behaviors\\u000a were coded from videotapes of 45 male offenders telling true and fabricated stories about crimes. Interpersonal features of\\u000a psychopathy were associated with inflated views of lying ability, verbosity, and increases in blinking, illustrator use, and\\u000a speech hesitations. While lying, the more psychopathic offenders spoke
This experiment tested the ability of 81 adult subjects to make a decision on a simple nonverbal false-belief reasoning task while concurrently either shadowing prerecorded spoken dialogue or tapping along with a rhythmic shadowing track. Our results showed that the verbal task, but not tapping, significantly disrupted false-belief reasoning, suggesting that language plays a key role in working theory of mind in adults, even when the false-belief reasoning is nonverbal. PMID:17614864
This study explores the occurence of non-verbal communication in nurse-elderly patient interaction in two different care settings: home nursing and a home for the elderly. In a sample of 181 nursing encounters involving 47 nurses a study was made of videotaped nurse-patient communication. Six non-verbal behaviours were observed: patient-directed eyegaze, affirmative head nodding smiling, forward leaning, affective touch and instrumental
Wilma M. C. M. Caris-Verhallen; Ada Kerkstra; Jozien M. Bensing
We took the face, especially eye or eye gaze, into consideration for discussing the non-verbal interface media. We first proposed a passive eye-camera system based on the facial image processing such as Hough transform for iris recognition. Next we proposed a method for generating eye-contacted facial images by computer image processing for enforcing and improving the quality of facial, nonverbal
Background Social dominance and physical size are closely linked. Nonverbal dominance displays in many non-human species are known to increase the displayer's apparent size. Humans also employ a variety of nonverbal cues that increase apparent status, but it is not yet known whether these cues function via a similar mechanism: by increasing the displayer's apparent size. Methodology/Principal Finding We generated stimuli in which actors displayed high status, neutral, or low status cues that were drawn from the findings of a recent meta-analysis. We then conducted four studies that indicated that nonverbal cues that increase apparent status do so by increasing the perceived size of the displayer. Experiment 1 demonstrated that nonverbal status cues affect perceivers' judgments of physical size. The results of Experiment 2 showed that altering simple perceptual cues can affect judgments of both size and perceived status. Experiment 3 used objective measurements to demonstrate that status cues change targets' apparent size in the two-dimensional plane visible to a perceiver, and Experiment 4 showed that changes in perceived size mediate changes in perceived status, and that the cue most associated with this phenomenon is postural openness. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that nonverbal cues associated with social dominance also affect the perceived size of the displayer. This suggests that certain nonverbal dominance cues in humans may function as they do in other species: by creating the appearance of changes in physical size.
Marsh, Abigail A.; Yu, Henry H.; Schechter, Julia C.; Blair, R. J. R.
Research in children with language problems has focussed on verbal deficits, and we have less understanding of children's deficits with nonverbal sociocognitive skills which have been proposed to be important for language acquisition. This study was designed to investigate elicited nonverbal imitation in children with specific language delay (SLD). It is argued that difficulties in nonverbal imitation, which do not involve the processing of structural aspects of language, may be indicative of sociocognitive deficits. Participants were German-speaking typically developing children (n=60) and children with SLD (n=45) aged 2-3½ years. A novel battery of tasks measured their ability to imitate a range of nonverbal target acts that to a greater or lesser extent involve sociocognitive skills (body movements, instrumental acts on objects, pretend acts). Significant group differences were found for all body movement and pretend act tasks, but not for the instrumental act tasks. The poorer imitative performance of the SLD sample was not explained by motor or nonverbal cognitive skills. Thus, it appeared that the nature of the task affected children's imitation performance. It is argued that the ability to establish a sense of connectedness with the demonstrator was at the core of children's imitation difficulty in the SLD sample. PMID:23896360
This is the third of three studies using complementary designs to investigate the effects of teacher attire on student perceptions of instructors and instruction in contemporary college classrooms. In line with Studies One and Two, modest effects of attire on perceptions of extroversion and competence were found; however, previous conclusions that instructor attire has little meaningful, predictable effect on ratings
|This research sought to understand the experiences of students and instructors with asynchronous video (video-mail) using webcams in three online sections of teacher education classes at Brigham Young University. We examined the experiences of students through scores and comments posted in student ratings surveys, and the experiences of…
This research sought to understand the experiences of students and instructors with asynchronous video (video-mail) using webcams in three online sections of teacher education classes at Brigham Young University. We examined the experiences of students through scores and comments posted in student ratings surveys, and the experiences of…
A slide-viewing paradigm measuring the tendency to communicate accurate nonverbal messages via spontaneous facial expressions and gestures was applied to 13 male and 11 female preschoolers (aged 4-6 years). The children watched 16 emotionally loaded color slides while, unknown to them, their mothers viewed their reactions via television. The children's skin conductance (SC) was monitored during the experiment, and they had been rated by two teachers on a new scale of affect expression developed from Jones' externalizer/internalizer distinction. High communication accuracy was associated with low SC responding. Rated expressiveness was associated with high communication accuracy and low SC responding. Sex differences appeared in the pattern of relations between the affect expression scale and the measures of communication accuracy and SC response. PMID:864589
The nonverbal communication skills of 10 children (mean age = 44.2 months) who underwent hemispherectomy for early onset intractable seizures were tested before and after surgery. A within-group analysis suggests that the 10 seizure-free children used more nonverbal communication after a mean follow-up period of 11.2 months than before surgery. Young normal language age matches were available for the 4 older and higher functioning subjects in the sample. Before surgery, the surgical subjects used less requesting gestures than did the normal children. After surgery, these differences were no longer apparent. The patients also employed more gestures to focus an adult's attention on objects and events than language-age-matched normal children. The children who underwent left or right hemispherectomy used similar nonverbal communication behaviors. The study's findings suggest that children with early onset intractable seizures have impaired early social communication that improves to some extent after hemispherectomy. PMID:1401119
Caplan, R; Guthrie, D; Shields, W D; Sigman, M; Mundy, P; Sherman, T; Vinters, H V
This review addresses recent research on social and nonverbal learning disabilities. Involvement of right hemispheric dysfunction in these disabilities has been hypothesized, as studies with adults have suggested that documented right hemisphere damage may lead to deficits in social skills, prosody, spatial orientation, problem solving, and recognition of nonverbal cues. Studies of children purported to evidence nonverbal learning disabilities are
Most past studies assume that computer-mediated communication (CMC) lacks nonverbal communication cues. However, Internet users have devised and learned to use emoticons to assist their communications. This study examined emoticons as a communication tool that, although presented as verbal cues, perform nonverbal communication functions. We therefore termed emoticons quasi-nonverbal cues. PMID:18817486
This study examined the construct validity of nonverbal social aggression and the relation of nonverbal social aggression to dimensions of children's social status. Peer nominations of verbal social, nonverbal social, direct veral, and physical aggression, as well as social dominance, perceived popularity, and social acceptance, were collected…
Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Lease, A. Michele
Despite personality theories suggesting that extraversion correlates with social skill, most studies have not found a positive correlation between extraversion and nonverbal decoding. The authors propose that introverts are less able to multitask and thus are poorer at nonverbal decoding, but only when it is a secondary task. Prior research has uniformly extracted the nonverbal decoding from its multitasking context
|This handbook presents selected theories, activities, and resources which can be utilized by educators in the area of non-verbal communication. Particular attention is given to the use of non-verbal communication in a cross-cultural context. Categories of non-verbal communication such as proxemics, haptics, kinesics, smiling, sound, clothing, and…
In a longitudinal genetic study we explored which factors underlie stability in verbal and nonverbal abilities, and the extent to which the association between these abilities becomes stronger as children grow older. Measures of verbal and nonverbal IQ were collected in Dutch twin pairs at age 5, 7, 10, 12 and 18 years. The stability of both verbal and nonverbal abilities
Rosa A. Hoekstra; Meike Bartels; Dorret I. Boomsma
|This study examined the construct validity of nonverbal social aggression and the relation of nonverbal social aggression to dimensions of children's social status. Peer nominations of verbal social, nonverbal social, direct veral, and physical aggression, as well as social dominance, perceived popularity, and social acceptance, were collected…
Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Lease, A. Michele
|Concern about the possible bias of using only verbal assessments for the identification of intellectually gifted students led to an examination of the effect of incorporating nonverbal assessments of intelligence into the identification process. Two nonverbal instruments (Progressive Matrices and Test of Nonverbal Intelligence) were used in…
Although salespeople have long been urged to recognize and adapt to customer needs and wants by observing communications style and other cues or signals by the buyer, nonverbal communications by the salesperson have received much less empirical scrutiny. However, nonverbal communications may be important in this context; research in several disciplines intimates that nonverbal signals are equally, perhaps more, important
Harry A. Taute; Robert S. Heiser; David N. McArthur
Background: Previous neuropsychological studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have indicated impaired executive functioning and nonverbal memory. The extent to which impaired executive functioning impacts nonverbal memory has not been established. The current study investigated the mediating effects of organizational strategies used when copying a figure on subsequent nonverbal memory for that figure.Methods: We examined neuropsychological performance in 20 unmedicated subjects
Cary R Savage; Lee Baer; Nancy J Keuthen; Halle D Brown; Scott L Rauch; Michael A Jenike
This article reviews research findings documenting the nature of nonverbal courtship behavior compiled through both observation and self-report methods. I briefly present the major theoretical perspectives guiding research methodologies used in the field and in the laboratory. Studies of verbal courtship, including those conducted via computer, via text messaging, or through personal advertisement, are not included in this review. The article ends by elucidating some key features of human nonverbal courtship behavior that have become apparent after scrutinizing these data. PMID:20358459
A normative typology was developed and applied using multivariate profile analysis of subtest scores of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) standardization sample. The results yielded a seven-profile cluster solution for the Extended Battery, and a six-profile cluster solution for the Standard Battery. Additionally, the results lend…
It has been extremely difficult to teach speech to severely handicapped nonverbal autistic children. However, an overview of the literature suggests the possibility that selecting aspects of motivation as a central target behavior, rather than concentrating on motor speech production per se, may improve the effectiveness of teaching speech to these children. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment was to
|A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…
This article reviews research findings documenting the nature of nonverbal courtship behavior compiled through both observation and self-report methods. I briefly present the major theoretical perspectives guiding research methodologies used in the field and in the laboratory. Studies of verbal courtship, including those conducted via computer, via text messaging, or through personal advertisement, are not included in this review. The
|To investigate the role of learning disabled (LD) children's nonverbal behavior in affecting adult judgments, 13 LD and 14 nondisabled (NLD) children in grades 3 through 5 were given instructions either to ingratiate or to act naturally with an adult interviewer while discussing their television preferences. (Author/SBH)|
The overall objective of this project is to generate guidelines for the conceptual design of an interactive, computer-based training tool to improve Soldiers' ability to decode nonverbal cues and behavior in multiple channels (i.e., vocal tones, gestures)...
|Recent findings show that preschool children are selective with respect to whom they ask for information and whose claims they endorse. In particular, they monitor an informant's record of past accuracy or inaccuracy and use that record to gauge future trustworthiness. We ask if preschoolers also monitor the non-verbal cues of assent or dissent…
Little is known about the processing of non-verbal sounds in the primary progressive aphasias. Here, we investigated the processing of complex non-verbal sounds in detail, in a consecutive series of 20 patients with primary progressive aphasia [12 with progressive non-fluent aphasia; eight with semantic dementia]. We designed a novel experimental neuropsychological battery to probe complex sound processing at early perceptual, apperceptive and semantic levels, using within-modality response procedures that minimized other cognitive demands and matching tests in the visual modality. Patients with primary progressive aphasia had deficits of non-verbal sound analysis compared with healthy age-matched individuals. Deficits of auditory early perceptual analysis were more common in progressive non-fluent aphasia, deficits of apperceptive processing occurred in both progressive non-fluent aphasia and semantic dementia, and deficits of semantic processing also occurred in both syndromes, but were relatively modality specific in progressive non-fluent aphasia and part of a more severe generic semantic deficit in semantic dementia. Patients with progressive non-fluent aphasia were more likely to show severe auditory than visual deficits as compared to patients with semantic dementia. These findings argue for the existence of core disorders of complex non-verbal sound perception and recognition in primary progressive aphasia and specific disorders at perceptual and semantic levels of cortical auditory processing in progressive non-fluent aphasia and semantic dementia, respectively.
Goll, Johanna C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Loo, Jenny H. Y.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Frost, Chris; Bamiou, Doris-Eva
The purpose of this study was to attempt to improve verbal language acquisition for nonverbal autistic children by manipulating traditional teaching techniques so they incorporated parameters of natural language interactions and motivational techniques. Within a multiple baseline design, treatment was conducted in a baseline condition with trials presented serially in a traditional analogue clinical format where the therapist presented instructions,
Robert L. Koegel; Mary C. O'Dell; Lynn Kern Koegel
|Communication skills are important for children with developmental disabilities to be functional and independent in their own lives. This study examined influences of different types of listener feedback or breakdowns on repair behaviors of nonverbal children with disabilities during semi-structured opportunities at snack time. Three preschool…
Proposing that most studies of nonverbal intimacy regulation have inadequately tested the compensation model (changes in any component of intimacy necessitate compensating changes in other components to maintain an equilibrium), this paper examines the nature of methodological problems in such studies and offers three suggestions for improved…
|Language has been shown to play a key role in the development of a child's theory of mind, but its role in adult belief reasoning remains unclear. One recent study used verbal and nonverbal interference during a false-belief task to show that accurate belief reasoning in adults necessarily requires language (Newton & de Villiers, 2007). The…
Purpose – This study aims to explore the role of interactants' nonverbal sensitivity, anxiety and sociodemographic characteristics in learning and satisfaction within the genetic counseling context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a combined simulation and analogue study. Simulations were videotaped with 152 prenatal and cancer genetic counselors and nine simulated clients. The videotapes were shown to 559 subjects recruited to act
D. L. Roter; L. H. Erby; J. A. Hall; S. Larson; L. Ellington; W. Dudley
Recent findings show that preschool children are selective with respect to whom they ask for information and whose claims they endorse. In particular, they monitor an informant's record of past accuracy or inaccuracy and use that record to gauge future trustworthiness. We ask if preschoolers also monitor the non-verbal cues of assent or dissent…
|Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…
Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.
This paper reports on a listening test assessing the perception of short non-verbal emotional vocalisations emitted by a listener as feedback to the speaker. We clarify the concepts backchannel and feedback, and investigate the use of affect bursts as a means of giving emotional feedback via the backchannel. Experiments with German and Dutch subjects confirm that the recognition of emotion
Marc Schröder; Dirk Heylen; Isabella Poggi; R. Hoffmann; H. Mixdorff
The interactive game environment EPS (expressive performance space), presented in this short paper, is a work still in progress. EPS involves participants in an activity using non-verbal emotional expressions. Two teams use expressive gestures in either voice or body movements to compete. Each team has an avatar controlled either by singing into a microphone or by moving in front of
Marie-Louise Rinman; Anders Friberg; Ivar Kjellmo; Antonio Camurri; Damien Cirotteau; Barbara Mazzarino; Bendik Bendikesen; Hugh McCarthy
The aim of this study is to examine students’ perceptions about nonverbal communication in class focusing on eye contact, mimics and gestures. 67 students who were enrolled into two classroom management groups of the researcher were adopted as the participants of the study. The students were assigned to write a “critical moments reflection’ report on any of the incidents that
A two-part pilot study investigated and categorized the roles verbal and nonverbal communication play in the initiation of sexual intercourse. The study also explored the manner in which partners accept or reject sexual overtures, the contexts and antecedents of sexual initiation, and the changes in sexual behavior which occur as a consequence of…
The clinical presentation of patients with semantic dementia is dominated by anomia and poor verbal comprehension. Although a number of researchers have argued that these patients have impaired comprehension of non-verbal as well as verbal stimuli, the evidence for semantic deterioration is mainly derived from tasks that include some form of verbal input or output. Few studies have investigated semantic
Sasha Bozeat; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph; Karalyn Patterson; Peter Garrard; John R. Hodges
|This observation study examined the nonverbal behavior of anxious and nonanxious foreign language learners during a videotaped oral foreign language exam. Focusing primarily on the kinesic signals found in facial expressions, gazing behavior, body movement and gesture, and posture, it was discovered that anxious learners manifested limited facial…
Although a relatively new area of scientific study, theory and research on nonverbal communication in the courtroom has produced important findings for students and practitioners in five key areas: voire dire and jury analysis; opening and closing statements; client demeanor and direct examination; cross-examination; and judge demeanor and…
|A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus"). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward…
Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael
|This bibliography provides a general review of nonverbal communication--background and applications--in specific relation to Black American nonverbal communication. Approximately 230 entries from 140 authors, spanning the years 1932 to 1972, are arranged alphabetically by author. Professional journal articles and studies are the primary sources…
The assessment of personality and related interpersonal dynamics among non-English-speaking populations offers many challenges to psychologists. Nonverbal culture-free or culture-fair instruments often fall short of adequately navigating the complex demands of non-Western cultural and ideological influences. Despite nearly a decade of America's presence within the Middle East, there remains a paucity of useful psychological assessment instruments available for use with non-English-speaking Arab populations in the region. A modified version of the Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire was used to assess personality, motivation, and interpersonal style among a small sample of Iraqi Arab male job applicants (n = 56). The various cross-cultural challenges and lessons learned from this assessment process are discussed and specific recommendations are provided. PMID:22730851
Designing for non-verbal communication using e.g. gestures and other bodily expressions is difficult. Hardware and software need to be co-designed and harmonize in order to not throw users out of their embodied experience. We aim to design for kinaesthetic expressions of emotion in communication between friends - in this case, colleagues at work. A probe was built using sensor node
Petra Sundström; Tove Jaensson; Kristina Höök; Alina Pommeranz
With the increasing popularity of low-cost videocommunications systems and their attendant low bandwidth-resolution problems, receivers are likely to experience difficulties in recognising the sender's intended expression and feeling. As an extension of previous work in the area, this pilot study investigated the effects of three forms of degraded imaging (and their combined effects) on the nonverbal aspects of communication for one person. Degraded video messages significantly impaired the meaning of the sender. PMID:9148312
Relationship-centered care reflects both knowing and feeling: the knowledge that physician and patient bring from their respective\\u000a domains of expertise, and the physician’s and patient’s experience, expression, and perception of emotions during the medical\\u000a encounter. These processes are conveyed and reciprocated in the care process through verbal and nonverbal communication. We\\u000a suggest that the emotional context of care is especially
Debra L. Roter; Richard M. Frankel; Judith A. Hall; David Sluyter
This paper presents a series of experiments in which two mobile robots developa shared lexicon of which the meaning is grounded in the real world. The experimentsinvestigate the impact of non-verbal communication on lexicon formation.Non-verbal communication is used to establish joint attention or to evaluate feedback.The experiments implement adaptive language games in which two agents tryto communicate some real world
This study presents a general description of the applicability of verbal-nonverbal correspondence-training procedures in the management of five cases with Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Two cases additionally met criteria for conduct problems. These five cases, males aged 6 to 10 years were intervened with one of three correspondence-training procedures: (a) reinforcement of do-report, (b) reinforcement of report-do, and (c) reinforcement
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a standardized measure of intellectual ability that taps a wide range of cognitive skills1. Across life span, IQ is generally considered to be stable with scores at one time point used to predict educational achievement and employment prospects in later years1. Neuro-imaging allows us to test whether unexpected longitudinal fluctuations in measured IQ are related to brain development. Here we show that verbal and nonverbal IQ can rise or fall in the teenage years, with these changes in performance validated by their close correlation with changes in local brain structure. A combination of structural and functional imaging showed that verbal IQ changed with grey matter in an area that was activated by speech, while nonverbal IQ changed with grey matter in an area that was activated by finger movements. By using longitudinal assessments of the same individuals, we eschewed the many sources of variation in brain structure that confound cross sectional studies. This allowed us to dissociate neural markers for verbal and nonverbal IQ and to show that these general abilities are closely linked to the sensorimotor skills involved in learning. More generally, our results emphasize the possibility that an individual’s intellectual capacity relative to their peers can weaken or strengthen in the teenage years. This would be encouraging to those whose intellectual potential may improve; and a warning that early achievers may not maintain their potential.
Ramsden, Sue; Richardson, Fiona M.; Josse, Goulven; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Ellis, Caroline; Shakeshaft, Clare; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Price, Cathy J.
The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for
Clinical neuropsychology has frequently considered visuospatial and non-verbal tests to be culturally and educationally fair or at least fairer than verbal tests. This paper reviews the cross-cultural differences in performance on visuoperceptual and visuoconstructional ability tasks and analyzes the impact of education and culture on non-verbal neuropsychological measurements. This paper compares: (1) non-verbal test performance among groups with different educational
Considers the role of non-verbal communication in consumers’ evaluation of service encounters. Non-verbal communication has been extensively studied in the psychology and psychotherapy disciplines and has been shown to have a central effect on participants’ perceptions of an event. As services are essentially interpersonal interactions it follows that non-verbal communication will play a major part in service evaluation. Uses an
Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that
Katharina Hogrefe; Wolfram Ziegler; Nicole Weidinger; Georg Goldenberg
Objective The study was to examine nonverbal communication in young children with autism. Methods The participants were 23 young children with autism (mean CA = 32.79 months), 23 CA and MA-matched children with developmental\\u000a delay and 22 18–20-month-old, and 22 13–15-month-old typically developing toddlers and infants. The abbreviated Early Social\\u000a Communication Scales [Mundy et al. 1996, Early social communication scales (ESCS)] were used to
Chung-Hsin Chiang; Wei-Tsuen Soong; Tzu-Ling Lin; Sally J. Rogers
\\u000a This chapter deals with the communication of persuasion. Only a small percentage of communication involves words: as the old\\u000a saying goes, “it’s not what you say, it’s how you say it”. While this likely underestimates the importance of good verbal\\u000a persuasion techniques, it is accurate in underlining the critical role of non-verbal behaviour during face-to-face communication.\\u000a In this chapter we
Elisabeth André; Elisabetta Bevacqua; Dirk Heylen; Radoslaw Niewiadomski; Catherine Pelachaud; Christopher Peters; Isabella Poggi; Matthias Rehm; Roddy Cowie; Paolo Petta
|A study was conducted to identify the nonverbal behaviors predicting hireability, as well as the nonverbal behaviors candidates employ that predict hireability. Subjects were 25 campus recruiters, each of whom was given a cover letter explaining the purpose of the study and three copies of a Likert-type questionnaire on a single communicator…
|This paper looks at how emotions in the field move from one context to another and between individuals, and how they change forms in an arctic Finnish village school. During the fieldwork, non-verbalized emotions influenced the events in the field and also penetrated the research. The paper asks how these non-verbalized emotions can be addressed…
Thirty-one employers viewed tapes of job interviews of six upper-level college students with physical disabilities. Three interviewees were judged by graduate student raters to have good nonverbal skills and the other three to have poor nonverbal skills. Transcripts of the interviews were read and rated by graduate students in psychology, and the results were used to adjust statistically for the
The purpose of the study was to further examine the utility of the nonverbal learning disability (NLD) model for characterizing deficits in pediatric brain tumor survivors. Data from measures of cognitive, academic, and social functioning were gathered from 101 survivors. Results revealed a pattern consistent with expectations based on the NLD model including stronger verbal than nonverbal intellectual and memory
Melanie J. Bonner; Kristina K. Hardy; Victoria W. Willard; Sridharan Gururangan
|This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed…
|Purpose: The purpose of the project was to design a nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme deletion that may prove useful with individuals who demonstrate complex communication needs (CCN) and are unable to communicate using natural speech or who present with moderate-severe speech impairments. Method: A nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme…
|In a longitudinal genetic study we explored which factors underlie stability in verbal and nonverbal abilities, and the extent to which the association between these abilities becomes stronger as children grow older. Measures of verbal and nonverbal IQ were collected in Dutch twin pairs at age 5, 7, 10, 12 and 18 years. The stability of both…
Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.
This study was designed to investigate the potential association between social anxiety and children's ability to decode nonverbal emotional cues. Participants were 62 children between 8 and 10 years of age, who completed self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptomatology, and nonspecific anxious symptomatology, as well as nonverbal decoding tasks assessing accuracy at identifying emotion in facial expressions and vocal
This paper presents a model of nonverbal communication and interpersonal relationship between virtual actors. Nonverbal communication improves their believability. They react not only to the presence of the other actors but also to their postures. Furthermore, their interpersonal relationships are affected by the issue of social interactions. To avoid homogenous group behaviors, each actor is set with a different character
|Objective: The authors quantified nonverbal synchrony--the coordination of patient's and therapist's movement--in a random sample of same-sex psychotherapy dyads. The authors contrasted nonverbal synchrony in these dyads with a control condition and assessed its association with session-level and overall psychotherapy outcome. Method: Using an…
|The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between interactive television instructors' perceptions of students' nonverbal responsiveness and the influence of these perceptions on distance teaching. The study yielded three general conclusions. First, interactive television instructors' perceptions of students' nonverbal…
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between interactive television instructors’ perceptions of students’ nonverbal responsiveness and the influence of these perceptions on distance teaching. The study yielded three general conclusions. First, interactive television instructors’ perceptions of students’ nonverbal responsiveness are positively related to their impressions of students, their perceptions of their teaching effectiveness and satisfaction, their
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between interactive television instructors' perceptions of students' nonverbal responsiveness and the influence of these perceptions on distance teaching. The study yielded three general conclusions. First, interactive television instructors' perceptions of students' nonverbal…
|This paper discusses several studies related to the interplay of verbal and nonverbal communication in young children and presents educational implications of this research. Two areas of nonverbal communication are considered: kinesics, or the use of body movements as displays of affection and emotion and as regulators of communication, and…
|This document contains eight progress reports of a research project testing the assumption that communication at the nonverbal level affects a student's emotional involvement in the material he studies and this the learning process itself. The project attempted to establish the educational potential of nonverbal communication by measuring…
Joint attention (JA) skills are deficient in children with autism; however, children with autism seem to vary in the degree to which they display joint attention. Joint attention skills refer to verbal and nonverbal skills used to share experiences with others. They include gestures such as pointing, coordinated looks between objects and people, and showing. Some nonverbal gestures are used
Tanya Paparella; Kelly Stickles Goods; Stephanny Freeman; Connie Kasari
|Three-dimensional synthetic worlds introduce possibilities for nonverbal communication in computer-mediated language learning. This paper presents an original methodological framework for the study of multimodal communication in such worlds. It offers a classification of verbal and nonverbal communication acts in the synthetic world "Second Life"…
BACKGROUND: Research has shown that patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) can be distinguished from controls on the basis of their non-verbal expression. For example, patients with SSD use facial expressions less than normals to invite and sustain social interaction. Here, we sought to examine whether non-verbal expressivity in patients corresponds with their impoverished social competence and neurocognition. METHOD: Fifty
Martin Brüne; Mona Abdel-Hamid; Claudia Sonntag; Caroline Lehmkämper; Robyn Langdon
|The purpose of this research was to investigate nonverbal communication through channel perception while observing any significant differences among race, sex, and social class background variables. In addition, differences and/or similarities in Afrocentric and Eurocentric world views in regard to nonverbal channel perception and cultural…
|Although salespeople have long been urged to recognize and adapt to customer needs and wants by observing communications style and other cues or signals by the buyer, nonverbal communications by the salesperson have received much less empirical scrutiny. However, nonverbal communications may be important in this context; research in several…
Taute, Harry A.; Heiser, Robert S.; McArthur, David N.
Although salespeople have long been urged to recognize and adapt to customer needs and wants by observing communications style and other cues or signals by the buyer, nonverbal communications by the salesperson have received much less empirical scrutiny. However, nonverbal communications may be important in this context; research in several…
Taute, Harry A.; Heiser, Robert S.; McArthur, David N.
Describes a hand shaking exercise dealing with making a good first impression with nonverbal communication. Asks students to list the characteristics of a good first impression. Discusses how the instructor teaches the students how to shake hands well. Discusses a broader approach regarding learning nonverbal behavior. (SC)
The present study compared nonverbal social perception in relatives of schizophrenic patients (n=21) with that of normal controls (n=19). We hypothesized that relatives would display deficits in social perception and we sought to determine the skills that are associated with this deficit. Relatives performed significantly worse than controls on the Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity Test (PONS), despite comparable performance on
Rosemary Toomey; Larry J. Seidman; Michael J. Lyons; Stephen V. Faraone; Ming T. Tsuang
|Using a conformity research methodology, the authors investigated the questions of whether (a) the Asch-type conformity setting produces greater yielding than variant settings where subjects are screened from one another and (b) the nonverbal element of contradictory or inconsistent nonverbal communications significantly alters response to the…
A non-verbal aptitude battery was administered to 13,584 non-prior-service male basic airmen. Additional aptitudinal and educational data were combined with the non-verbal tests to assess their usefulness in predicting final technical school grade. Althou...
In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the non-verbal component for efficient communication and that following NVC training future
The study explores the link between remembered non-verbal sexual communication in the home, current sexual behaviours and feelings of sexual guilt, among a sample of young British men and women. Non-verbal sexual communication encapsulates: openness about nudity in the home; the showing of affection between parents; signs of parental sexual activity and contraceptive use; and intimation of mother's menstruation. One
Nonverbal behavior and sensitivity to a relationship partner's nonver- bal behavior importantly influence the quality of interpersonal interactions and relationships, including attachment relationships. The abilities to encode, or express, and to decode, or understand, nonverbal cues are crucial to effective communica- tion of emotions and are associated with social adjustment and relationship satis- faction. One important social context for the
Dory A. Schachner; Phillip R. Shaver; Mario Mikulincer
|This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…
This paper looks at how emotions in the field move from one context to another and between individuals, and how they change forms in an arctic Finnish village school. During the fieldwork, non-verbalized emotions influenced the events in the field and also penetrated the research. The paper asks how these non-verbalized emotions can be addressed in research. Research questions are
|Previous research suggests that presenting redundant nonverbal semantic information in the form of gestures and/or pictures may aid word learning in first and foreign languages. But do nonverbal supports help all learners equally? We address this issue by examining the role of gestures and pictures as nonverbal supports for word learning in a…
Rowe, Meredith L.; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Mullan, Bridget E.
This study investigated the effectiveness of a social skills intervention targeting nonverbal communication for 8 adolescents With Asperger syndrome (AS) and related pervasive developmental delays. The Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy 2 (DANVA2; NoWicki, 1997) Was used as a pre- and posttest measure to assess participants' nonverbal language skills. During the 8-Week social skills intervention, lessons Were adapted from those
Gena P. Barnhill; Katherine Tapscott Cook; Kelly Tebbenkamp; Brenda Smith Myles
Background Distinct cognitive processes support verbal and nonverbal working memory, with verbal memory depending specifically on the subvocal rehearsal of items. Methods We recorded scalp EEG while subjects performed a Sternberg task. In each trial, subjects judged whether a probe item was one of the three items in a study list. Lists were composed of stimuli from one of five pools whose items either were verbally rehearsable (letters, words, pictures of common objects) or resistant to verbal rehearsal (sinusoidal grating patterns, single dot locations). Results We found oscillatory correlates unique to verbal stimuli in the ? (4–8 Hz), ? (9–12 Hz), ? (14–28 Hz), and ? (30–50 Hz) frequency bands. Verbal stimuli generally elicited greater power than did nonverbal stimuli. Enhanced verbal power was found bilaterally in the ? band, over frontal and occipital areas in the ? and ? bands, and centrally in the ? band. When we looked specifically for cases where oscillatory power in the time interval between item presentations was greater than oscillatory power during item presentation, we found enhanced ? activity in the frontal and occipital regions. Conclusion These results implicate stimulus-induced oscillatory activity in verbal working memory and ? activity in the process of subvocal rehearsal.
This article takes a microanalytic perspective on the speech and gestures used by one teacher of English as a second language in her intensive English program classroom. Videotaped excerpts from her intermediate-level grammar course were transcribed to represent the speech, gesture, and other nonverbal behavior that accompanied unplanned…
The numbers are in, and they are not rosy. According to the "Schools and Staffing Survey," 64,954 public schools reported vacancies during the 2003-04 school year. Projections suggest teacher attrition rates will continue to soar, while student enrollments climb. American schools have an urgent challenge: the retention of teachers. Teachers can do…
Social and policy interventions over the last half-century have achieved laudable reductions in blatant discrimination. Yet members of devalued social groups continue to face subtle discrimination. In this article, we argue that decades of anti-discrimination interventions have failed to eliminate intergroup bias because such bias is contagious. We present a model of bias contagion in which intergroup bias is subtly communicated through nonverbal behavior. Exposure to such nonverbal bias “infects” observers with intergroup bias. The model we present details two means by which nonverbal bias can be expressed—either as a veridical index of intergroup bias or as a symptom of worry about appearing biased. Exposure to this nonverbal bias can increase perceivers’ own intergroup biases through processes of implicit learning, informational influence, and normative influence. We identify critical moderators that may interfere with these processes and consequently propose several social and educational interventions based on these moderators.
|Finds that naive human lie detectors follow content-related heuristics (like infrequency of reported events or falsifiability) but can flexibly change their strategy as they learn about authentic nonverbal cues that discriminate lies from truthful communications. (SR)|
The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.
The article presents the position statement and clinical practice recommendations for pain assessment in the nonverbal patient developed by an appointed Task Force and approved by the ASPMN Board of Directors.
Keela Herr; Patrick J. Coyne; Tonya Key; Renee Manworren; Margo McCaffery; Sandra Merkel; Jane Pelosi-Kelly; Lori Wild
The nonverbal, vocal, and content-related speech variables of 28 blind adults were investigated along with the effects of a behavioral training program on congenitally blind Ss' performance in the social setting. (Author/DLS)
Deficits in understanding others’ minds, evident in most individuals with autism spectrum disorders, have been suggested as\\u000a a core deficit of autism. However, nonverbal ability has gone untested because most theory of mind measurement has involved\\u000a verbal materials such as reading tasks. This raises the possibility that children with high function autism spectrum disorder\\u000a would distinguish verbal and nonverbal component
This experiment investigated nonverbal behaviors associated with the encoding and decoding of liking and disliking in initial interaction. Forty-eight adults interacted with participant confederates in an 8-minute problem-solving activity. Beginning at the midpoint of the activity, confederates were instructed to communicate, through nonverbal channels, that they either really liked or really disliked their partners. Kinesic and vocalic behaviors were measured
Previous research demonstrates an uneven pattern of cognitive abilities in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).\\u000a This study examined whether this uneven pattern exists within the nonverbal domain in young children. We hypothesized relative\\u000a strengths in perceptual abilities and weaknesses in nonverbal conceptual abilities in preschoolers with ASDs compared to groups\\u000a with non-autism developmental delays and typical development. Profiles were
Nonverbal communication plays an important role in coordinating teammates' actions for collaborative activities. In this paper, we explore the impact of non-verbal social cues and behavior on task performance by a human-robot team. We report our results from an experiment where naive human subjects guide a robot to perform a physical task using speech and gesture. Both self-report via questionnaire
Cynthia Breazeal; Cory D. Kidd; Andrea Lockerd Thomaz; Guy Hoffman; Matt Berlin
This study examined whether people would interpret and respond to verbal (text) and non-verbal cues (posture) of personality in interactive characters just as they interpret cues from a person. In a balanced, between-subjects experiment (N=40), introverted and extroverted participants were randomly paired with one of two types of consistent computer characters: (1) matched participants' personality with both verbal and non-verbal
There is considerable evidence in the literature for the presence of non-verbal and praxic memory deficits in OCD. Such deficits may represent the cognitive substrate of doubt-related phenomenon such as checking. Neuropsychological tests of non-verbal memory functioning and memory for actions were administered to patients with OCD (whose predominant symptom was checking) and a group of matched healthy controls. Significant
\\u000a In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and\\u000a their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and\\u000a mental processes and their relations. The generic process model has been designed, implemented and used to simulate different\\u000a types of interaction between verbal and non-verbal
Catholijn M. Jonker; Jan Treur; Wouter C. A. Wijngaards
ObjectiveCommunication during medical interviews plays a large role in patient adherence, satisfaction with care, and health outcomes. Both verbal and non-verbal communication (NVC) skills are central to the development of rapport between patients and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of non-verbal and verbal communication skills on evaluations by standardized patients during an ethnogeriatric
Lauren G. Collins; Anne Schrimmer; James Diamond; Janice Burke
In the study described in this article a questionnaire was employed that can be used to assess students' and teachers' perceptions of science teachers' interpersonal communication behaviors in their classroom learning environments. The Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ) has five scales: Challenging, Encouragement and Praise, Non-Verbal Support, Understanding and Friendly, and Controlling. The TCBQ was used with a large sample of secondary science students in Taiwan, which provided additional validation data for the TCBQ for use in Taiwan and cross-validation data for its use in English-speaking countries. Girls perceived their teachers as more understanding and friendly than did boys, and teachers in biological science classrooms exhibited more favorable behavior toward their students than did those in physical science classrooms. Differences were also noted between the perceptions of the students and their teachers. Positive relationships were found between students' perceptions of their teachers' communication behaviors and their attitudes toward science. Students' cognitive achievement scores were higher when students perceived their teacher as using more challenging questions, as giving more nonverbal support, and as being more understanding and friendly. The development of both teacher and student versions of the TCBQ enhances the possibility of the use of the instrument by teachers.
This website called Teachers Helping Teachers has been in operation since 1995 and is maintained by Dr. Scott Mandel, who is also Director of the a musical theater group and an author. The resources provided here are posted by teachers and available at no cost. During the school year the website is updated weekly. As of this report, they were soliciting contributions that relate a teachers favorite lessons from the year or lesson ideas for the end-of-the-year, Fathers' Day or graduation time. The teacher-created lesson plans are organized by subject area, such as math, science, social studies, language arts, special education and the arts. Separate sections discuss classroom management and provide book reviews. Each week a new lesson topic is highlighted and a teacher's suggested stress reduction strategy is posted. The Educational Resources Page provides links to a variety of other resources online.
Background Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Methods Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Results Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Subjects also had significant reductions in RR (P < 0.0001) and improved HRV (P < 0.05) with both tactile and non-tactile LKM. Conclusion It is possible to test the effects of LKM with tactile and non-tactile blinding strategies; even with blinding in this small preliminary study, subjects reported significant improvements in well-being which were reflected in objective physiologic measures of autonomic activity. Extending compassion is not only good care; it may also be good medicine. Trial registration number US National ClinicalTrials.gov registration number, NCT01428674
Good social skills are important and provide for a healthy, successful life; however, individuals with visual impairments are at a disadvantage when interacting with sighted peers due to inaccessible non-verbal cues. This paper presents a haptic (vibrotactile) belt to assist individuals who are blind or visually impaired by communicating non-verbal cues during social interactions. We focus on non-verbal communication pertaining
The nonverbal discrimination of relative and absolute number of sequential visual stimuli was investigated with humans in bisection, reproduction, and report tasks. Participants viewed a sequence of 40 red and black objects on each trial, randomly intermixed, and had to identify the number of red objects, which varied from 1 to 20. To prevent the use of a verbal-counting strategy, participants were required to name the objects as they appeared. The characteristics of human performance resembled those of pigeons in analogous procedures (Tan & Grace Learning and Behavior 38:408-417, 2010; Tan, Grace, Holland, & McLean Journal of Experimental Psychology 33:409-427, 2007): Average response number increased systematically with sample number, and bisection points were located at the arithmetic, not the geometric, mean. Additionally, in both the reproduction and report tasks, coefficients of variation decreased for values less than 6 but increased or remained constant for larger values, suggesting that different representations were used for small and large numbers. PMID:22038738
Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may 'mark' their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing gesture--as special, and so search for a not-so-obvious referent. We set up the context of cleaning up and then pointed to an object. Three-year-olds inferred that the adult intended the pointing gesture to indicate that object, and so cleaned it up. However, when the adult marked her pointing gesture (with exaggerated facial expression) they took the object's hidden contents or a hidden aspect of it as the intended referent. Two-year-olds' appreciation of such marking was less clear-cut. These results demonstrate that markedness is not just a linguistic phenomenon, but rather something concerning the pragmatics of intentional communication more generally. PMID:21382221
Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael
We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled pregnant females with epilepsy on monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study seeks to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin and valproate). This report compares verbal versus non-verbal cognitive outcomes in 216 children who completed testing at the age of three years. Verbal and non-verbal index scores were calculated from the Differential Ability Scales, Preschool Language Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Verbal abilities were lower than non-verbal in children exposed in utero to each drug. Preconceptional folate use was associated with higher verbal outcomes. Valproate was associated with poorer cognitive outcomes. Performance was negatively associated with valproate dose for both verbal and non-verbal domains and negatively associated with carbamazepine dose for verbal performance. No dose effects were seen for lamotrigine and phenytoin. Since foetal antiepileptic drug exposure is associated with lower verbal than non-verbal abilities, language may be particularly susceptible to foetal exposure. We hypothesize that foetal drug exposure may alter normal cerebral lateralization. Further, a dose-dependent relationship is present for both lower verbal and non-verbal abilities with valproate and for lower verbal abilities with carbamazepine. Preconceptional folate may improve cognitive outcomes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings, extend the study to other drugs, define the risks associated with drug treatment for seizures in the neonates, and understand the underlying mechanisms.
Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that limb apraxia would affect the production of communicative gestures. Research investigating if and how apraxia influences the production of communicative gestures, led to contradictory outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of limb apraxia on spontaneous gesturing. Further, linguistic and non-verbal semantic processing abilities were explored as potential factors that might influence non-verbal expression in aphasic patients. Twenty-four aphasic patients with highly limited verbal output were asked to retell short video-clips. The narrations were videotaped. Gestural communication was analyzed in two ways. In the first part of the study, we used a form-based approach. Physiological and kinetic aspects of hand movements were transcribed with a notation system for sign languages. We determined the formal diversity of the hand gestures as an indicator of potential richness of the transmitted information. In the second part of the study, comprehensibility of the patients' gestural communication was evaluated by naive raters. The raters were familiarized with the model video-clips and shown the recordings of the patients' retelling without sound. They were asked to indicate, for each narration, which story was being told and which aspects of the stories they recognized. The results indicate that non-verbal faculties are the most important prerequisites for the production of hand gestures. Whereas results on standardized aphasia testing did not correlate with any gestural indices, non-verbal semantic processing abilities predicted the formal diversity of hand gestures while apraxia predicted the comprehensibility of gesturing. PMID:21458789
Hogrefe, Katharina; Ziegler, Wolfram; Weidinger, Nicole; Goldenberg, Georg
The screening and identification of gifted students has historically been conducted using verbal measures of intelligence. However, the underrepresentation in gifted programs of culturally diverse children, who may have limited English proficiency or cultural values different from those measured in traditional intelligence tests, has prompted researchers to consider other measures. Nonverbal measures of intelligence have been utilized to increase the number of gifted children from diverse backgrounds. Researchers in the current study sought to increase the number of culturally diverse gifted students at a rural public school enrolling predominantly African-American students from low socioeconomic homes. 169 students in Grades 2 through 6 were assessed using three nonverbal measures of intelligence: the Culture-Fair Intelligence Test, the Naglieri Nonverbal Abilities Test, and the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices. The scores on these nonverbal measures indicated that the Culture-Fair Intelligence Test and the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices identified more students than the Naglieri Nonverbal Abilities Test. A discussion of the results and implications for research are presented. PMID:15291199
This mixed-methods study examined elementary teachers' perceptions of teacher-student bullying. Grounded in previous research on peer bullying, the study posed several questions: to what extent did teachers perceive bullying of students by other teachers as a serious matter requiring intervention? Did they perceive teacher bullying as more serious…
The teacher educator is always also a teacher, and as a role model may have an important impact on student teachers’ views on teaching. However, what is the impact of these teacher educator’s own role models on their teaching views and practices? Do teacher educators simply imitate the positive role models and reject the bad? It is already clear that
The current study analyzes trans-cultural universalities and specificities in the recognition of status roles, dominance perception and social evaluation based on nonverbal cues. Using a novel methodology, which allowed to mask clues to ethnicity and cultural background of the agents, we compared impression of Germans, Americans and Arabs observing computer-animated interactions from the three countries. Only in the German stimulus sample the status roles (employee vs. supervisor) could be recognized above chance level. However we found significant correlations in dominance perception across all countries. Significant correlations were only found for evaluation between German observers and observers from the other two countries. Perceived dominance uniformly predicted the assignment of status-roles in all cultures. Microanalysis of movement behavior further revealed predictive value of specific nonverbal cues for dominance ratings. Results support the hypothesis of universalities in the processing of dominance cues and point to cultural specificities in evaluative responses to nonverbal behavior. PMID:20630775
Bente, Gary; Leuschner, Haug; Al Issa, Ahmad; Blascovich, James J
We investigated whether personality and nonverbal interpersonal processes can predict the subsequent response to light treatment in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients. In 60 SAD patients, Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed prior to light treatment (4 days with 30 min of 10.000 lux). From videotaped clinical interviews, the nonverbal interpersonal attunement (i.e. equalizing durations and frequencies of elements of behaviour between conversation partners) was registered for the patients' support seeking and the interviewers' support giving behaviour. The higher Extraversion and the more the patients and the interviewers got attuned over the interview, the more favourable the outcome of light treatment was. Hence, personality and nonverbal interpersonal processes may be involved in the response to light treatment in SAD. PMID:10854636
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID), yet little is known about depressive behaviors in an ID population. This study examined the nonverbal social skills of 18 adults with mild ID diagnosed with depression and a matched sample of adults with mild ID without depression. Nonverbal social skills were coded from videotapes of actual social interactions. Results indicate that adults with mild ID diagnosed with depression evidence a profile of maladaptive nonverbal social skills including limited body movement, a restricted range of facial expressions, infrequent smiling, speaking in a flat and quiet voice, and taking a long time to respond to the questions or comments of a social partner. Findings from this study have implications for enhancing the early detection and diagnosis of depression and guiding theories of and treatments for depression in an ID population.
This study examined whether a debater's background nonverbal behavior affected audience perceptions of her and her opponent's likeability. Students watched one of four versions of a televised debate. In each, while the speaking debater appeared on the main screen, subscreens displayed her opponent's background nonverbal behavior. In one version, the nonspeaking debater displayed a neutral expression, whereas in the others
John S. Seiter; Harry Weger Jr; Harold J. Kinzer; Andrea Sandry Jensen
This paper addresses the automatic estimation of two aspects of social verticality (status and dominance) in small-group meetings using nonverbal cues. The correlation of nonverbal behavior with these social constructs have been extensively documented in social psychology, but their value for computational models is, in many cases, still unknown. We present a systematic study of automati- cally extracted cues -
Dinesh Babu Jayagopi; Sileye O. Ba; Jean-marc Odobez; Daniel Gatica-perez
This study examined the effects of background nonverbal behavior displayed with the purpose of undermining one's opponent in televised debates. Students watched one of four versions of a televised debate. In each, while the speaking debater appeared on the main screen, subscreens displayed her nonspeaking opponent's background nonverbal behavior. In one version, the non-speaking debater remained “stone faced” during her
John S. Seiter; Harry Weger Jr; Andrea Jensen; Harold J. Kinzer
The authors address the decades-old mystery of the association between individual differences in the expression and perception of nonverbal cues of affect. Prior theories predicted positive, negative, and zero correlations in performance—given empirical results ranging from r = ?.80 to r = +.64. A meta-analysis of 40 effects showed a positive correlation for nonverbal behaviors elicited as intentional communication displays
Clinical observations suggest that nonverbal children with severe intellectual disability exhibit pain in a wide variety yet uniquely individual ways. Here, we investigate the feasibility and describe the initial psychometrics properties of the Individualized Numeric Rating Scale (INRS), a personalized pain assessment tool for nonverbal children with intellectual disability based on the parent’s knowledge of the child. Parents of 50
Jean C. Solodiuk; Jennifer Scott-Sutherland; Margie Meyers; Beth Myette; Christine Shusterman; Victoria E. Karian; Sion Kim Harris; Martha A. Q. Curley
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant…
Sandiford, Givona A.; Mainess, Karen J.; Daher, Noha S.
Two nonverbal “events” leading up to the nomination of the Democratic presidential candidate in the 2008 election, Hillary Clinton's “tears” and Barack and Michelle Obama's “fist bump,” were the subject of news media discussion. This discourse provides a sense of the diverse ways the media framed these nonverbal cues, their communicative functions, and the social commentary implied in these framings.
Altruism is difficult to explain evolutionarily if subtle cheaters exist in a population (Trivers, 1971). A pathway to the evolutionary maintenance of cooperation is nonverbal altruist-detection. One adaptive advantage of nonverbal altruist-detection is the formation of trustworthy division of labour partnerships (Frank, 1988). Three studies were designed to test a fundamental assumption behind altruistic partner preference models. In the first
William Michael Brown; Boris Palameta; Chris Moore
|This study of 4-year-old twins investigated the genetic and environmental origins of comorbidity between language impairment and nonverbal ability by testing the extent to which language impairment in one twin predicted nonverbal ability in the co-twin. Impairment of language ability was defined as scores below the 15th percentile on a general…
Viding, Essi; Price, Thomas S.; Spinath, Frank M.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert
Societies use symbolic means to segregate the sexes conceptually as well as physically. Social rules designate some forms of verbal and non-verbal communication according to sex, to maintain distinctions. This paper explores both the non-verbal means of communication and the content and form of verbal modes as they are related to (1) the creation and maintenance of gender distinctions, (2)
|The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant…
Sandiford, Givona A.; Mainess, Karen J.; Daher, Noha S.
The study presents an innovative model for examining both the relationship between the verbal and nonverbal behavior of a political figure in political interviews and the effects of his\\/her political stature on his\\/her performance. The uniqueness of the model lies in the simultaneous examination of the two channels of communication, the verbal and nonverbal and the definition of their relationship,
|Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identify…
The 22q11 deletion syndrome (DS) is a common genetic disorder, and a Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NLD) is considered as a predominant part of the phenotype. The focus of our study was to investigate the role of learning in this NLD characteristic. We compared results of children and adolescents with 22q11 DS; with non-syndromal NLD and with memory disorders on multi-trial
Eight conference papers on language teacher development are presented, including: "Mosaics of Teacher Development and Socialization" (Andrew Barfield, Paul A. Beaufait, Sean Conley, Tim Murphey, Katsura Haruko), a panel presentation on aspects of and experiments in teacher development; "Questions About Teaching? Answers from Teachers!" (David…
This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…
|This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or…
|Can changes in teacher pay encourage more able individuals to enter the teaching profession? So far, studies of the impact of pay on the aptitude distribution of teachers have provided mixed evidence on the extent to which altering teacher salaries represents a feasible solution to the teacher quality problem. One possible reason is that these…
Of all the developmental difficulties that may be present in childhood, language impairment is probably the most common. It is of vast importance to prevent cumulative negative consequences of these impairments. The present study evaluates the effects of a language and activity?based intervention programme on verbal and non?verbal performance and play behaviour in children diagnosed as having specific language impairment.
The present research tests whether recognition for the nonverbal expression of pride generalizes across cultures. Study 1 provided the first evidence for cross-cultural recognition of pride, demonstrating that the expression generalizes across Italy and the United States. Study 2 found that the pride expression generalizes beyond Western cultures; individuals from a preliterate, highly isolated tribe in Burkina Faso, West Africa,
|Young children often use actions rather than talk as they interact with objects and each other to strategically shape the social, material, and cultural environment. New dynamic research designs and methods are needed to capture the collaborative learning and social positioning achieved through children's non-verbal interactions. Mediated…
The nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) syndrome is described, and a model designed to encompass its complex manifestations is derived on the basis of the theory of Goldberg and Costa (1981), as extended by Rourke (1982). The commonality exhibited by children and adolescents suffering from a variety of types of neurological disease, disorder, and dysfunction is viewed as their shared deficiencies
The relationship between autistic children's level of functioning and maternal speech to children was examined. Ten higher functioning verbal and 10 lower functioning nonverbal children were videotaped in a 15-minute interaction with their mothers. Results revealed that mothers of the higher functioning verbal children asked more questions, used more language modeling, gave more reinforcement for language, and answered more children-initiated
M. Mary Konstantareas; Helena Zajdeman; Soula Homatidis; Ann McCabe
A slide-viewing paradigm measuring the tendency to communicate accurate nonverbal messages via spontaneous facial expressions and gestures was applied to 13 male and 11 female preschoolers (aged 4–6 yrs). Ss watched 16 emotionally loaded color slides while, unknown to them, their mothers viewed their reactions via TV. Ss' skin conductance (SC) was monitored during the experiment, and they had been
This paper reviews the literature on the nonverbal aspects of physician-patient interaction, focusing on how expectations about patient involvement are conveyed and negotiated by physicians and patients. Important outcomes of this process, such as satisfaction, adherence, and patient health, are examined. A model of physician-patient negotiation involving four interaction styles is presented to examine the negotiation process and the effects
Heidi S. Lepper; Leslie R. Martin; M. Robin DiMatteo
Communication between players in networked computer games is often inadequately implemented. The games do not exploit the full potential of using different forms of communication possibilities between players, and therefore result in problems in sending and receiving messages. This paper introduces a model that describes how visual aspects of non-verbal communication (NVC) in avatars could be systematically designed. The model
|Objective: Pain assessment for nonverbal older adults with cognitive impairments or dementia presents many challenges, and it is important to determine which scales are most useful in assessing pain among this population. Method: In this review 11 observational scales for assessment of pain in older adults with dementia or cognitive impairments…
Park, Juyoung; Castellanos-Brown, Karen; Belcher, John
Alcohol consumption's influence on perceptions of social behavior increases the chances of misunderstandings and negative consequences in sexual and flirtatious interactions, but previous alcohol studies have not specifically focused on women's perceptions of men's flirtatious nonverbal behavior. Using a field-administered questionnaire, this study examined drinking (N = 120) and nondrinking (N = 134) women's perceptions of three types of immediate contact enacted by an
Models of affective behavior are critical for the development of training systems that are designed to exercise social interactions. Potential applications include various security-oriented operations such as police interrogation, airport security, border crossings, and military peacekeeping. Aside from speech, humans also communicate through vocalizations and inflections, as well as with body language. Such nonverbal communication can convey affect such as
|In this study we characterized profiles of communicative functions and forms of children with autism and intellectual disability (n = 26), as compared to typically developing children (n = 26) with a comparable nonverbal mental age (2-5 years). Videotapes of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales--Developmental Profile were analyzed using…
Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Jansen, Rianne; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina
|Research was conducted on the age and sex differences in raters' evaluations of job applicants' nonverbal behaviors. A ten-minute videotape of five interviews was shown to 28 members (7 females and 21 males) of the Industrial Personnel Association who had varying years of experience in personnel work. The simulations depicted job applicants whose…
Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff – in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise – and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument for all children. Results from structured observations confirmed that
The purpose of this study was to determine the types of nonverbal cues that informal family caregivers use to evaluate pain in loved ones with dementia. Moreover, we sought to determine the extent to which caregiver characteristics such as mood, empathy, and sex are associated with caregiver ratings of patient pain. Long-term care home residents with dementia were filmed while
|In order to investigate the process of nonverbal communication of emotions in a simulated intercultural context, videotapes were made in which two white Americans (one male and one female) responded to paragraphs which evoked the following emotions: sadness, disgust, anger, surprise, happiness, and fear. These portrayals were then viewed by male…
|The cognitive and behavioral symptoms of nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have been described by previous investigators. Nevertheless, we know far less about the potential genetic contributions that may predispose a child to have NLD. An endophenotype model was investigated in 5 samples of children ages 9 to 15 years: NLD (n = 32); reading…
|In an effort to clarify whether semantic integration is impaired in verbal and nonverbal auditory domains in children with developmental language impairment (a.k.a., LI and SLI), the present study obtained behavioral and neural responses to words and environmental sounds in children with language impairment and their typically developing…
Notes that the expression of liking has the potential to generate negative and positive outcomes. Outlines an experiment which extends a common principle of attribution-making, the self-serving bias, to predict and explain participants' and nonparticipants' attributions for a confederate's nonverbal expressions of liking or disliking. (PM)
We examined how the presence and nonverbal communication of an animated pedagogical agent affects students’ perceptions and learning. College students learned about astronomy either without an agent’s image or with an agent under one of the following conditions: a static agent (S), an agent with deictic movements (D), an agent with facial expressions (E), or an agent with both deictic
|Increases in the scores on IQ tests across generations have been called the Flynn effect (FE). One of the unresolved questions is whether the FE affects all subsamples of the intellectual ability distribution equally. The present study was aimed at determining the size of the FE in moderately mentally retarded individuals. A nonverbal…
Nijman, E. E.; Scheirs, J. G. M.; Prinsen, M. J. H.; Abbink, C. D.; Blok, J. B.
|We investigated feelings of involvement evoked by nonverbal behaviour of dynamic virtual characters in 20 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) and high IQ as well as 20 IQ-matched control subjects. The effects of diagnostic group showed that subjects with autism experienced less "contact" and "urge" to establish contact across conditions and…
Schwartz, Caroline; Bente, Gary; Gawronski, Astrid; Schilbach, Leonhard; Vogeley, Kai
In an effort to clarify whether semantic integration is impaired in verbal and nonverbal auditory domains in children with developmental language impairment (a.k.a., LI and SLI), the present study obtained behavioral and neural responses to words and environmental sounds in children with language impairment and their typically developing…
This study investigates factors corresponding to shyness by exploring the relationships among shyness, nonverbal affect decoding, and attentional bias in a non-clinical undergraduate population. Relevant research is reviewed, including literature exploring the conceptualization of shyness and its relationship to social phobia, the biological underpinnings of emotional recognition, the link between shyness and social competence, and the evidence for attentional bias
Marketing researchers have used a variety of approaches in studies of deception and related subjects. This literature is selectively reviewed here, with emphasis on findings relevant to the study of nonverbal behavior. Topics covered include: (a) deception-detection experiments involving advertising, bargaining, and selling; (b) ways of deceiving by implication, while avoiding literal falsehoods; (c) cues conveying the impression of truthfulness,
Results of the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), and Wide Range Achievement Test were compared for 66 learning disabled children in grades one through six. The TONI mean score was found to be significantly different from the WISC-R Performance Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Implications…
|This study examined the nonverbal behaviors of spouses as they listened to their partners present an area of disagreement in their marriage to a relational outsider. Ninety-four married couples, representing a range of marital satisfaction levels, engaged in an interview with a researcher about areas of disagreement in their relationships. A…
|Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…
|We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has…
Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.
|Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…
Joint attention (JA) skills are deficient in children with autism; however, children with autism seem to vary in the degree to which they display joint attention. Joint attention skills refer to verbal and nonverbal skills used to share experiences with others. They include gestures such as pointing, coordinated looks between objects and people,…
Paparella, Tanya; Goods, Kelly Stickles; Freeman, Stephanny; Kasari, Connie
|Although many learning disability types are formally recognized in major classification systems such as "DSM-IV-TR" and ICD-10, Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NLD) is not despite over 40 years of literature addressing its theoretical and neuropsychological foundation, its major features, and the methods by which to assess and diagnose it.…
|This article examines the potential effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication for sales representatives. The literature on this subject was reviewed, and a study using students as sales representatives was conducted to evaluate the potential of training in body language. The research results provide support for the proposition that…
The aim of this study was to determine the social and cognitive correlates of language acquisition in autistic children. Functional and symbolic play skills were shown to be associated with language abilities in a sample of young autistic children (mean CA 54.5 months), thereby replicating previous findings. Certain types of nonverbal communication skills were also shown to be significant correlates
Peter Mundy; Marian Sigman; Judy Ungerer; Tracy Sherman
Introduction. Recent research has suggested that some executive dysfunctions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) represent an epiphenomenon of comorbid depressive symptoms. The present study investigated whether the impact of comorbid depressive symptoms on cognitive dysfunction in OCD extends to nonverbal memory impairment. Methods. A total of 32 OCD patients and 20 healthy controls took part in the study. Participants were administered
Steffen Moritz; Martin Kloss; Holger Jahn; Mildred Schick; Iver Hand
Does autism involve a deficit in intersubjective engagement with other persons? We studied nonverbal communication in children and adolescents with and without autism (n = 12 per group), group-matched for chronological age and verbal mental age, during 3 min of a videotaped interview. In keeping with previous studies, there were only subtle but…
Garcia-Perez, Rosa M.; Lee, Anthony; Hobson, R. Peter
Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…
Objective To investigate the neural correlates of verbal and non-verbal semantic processing in neurodegenerative disease. Background Semantic memory is often impaired in neurodegenerative disease. Neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the semantic processing of verbal and non-verbal stimuli may depend on partially distinct brain networks. Methods We examined this possibility using voxel-based morphometry to correlate performance on verbal and non-verbal versions of a semantic association task with regional gray matter atrophy in 144 individuals with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Results Results showed that, regardless of stimulus type, semantic processing correlated with atrophy in both temporal lobes. In addition, material-specific correlations were found in left temporal regions for verbal stimuli and the right fusiform gyrus for non-verbal stimuli. Conclusions These results provide evidence for a differential role of the left and right hemispheres in the extraction of semantic information from verbal and pictorial representations. Areas in the right inferior temporal lobe may be necessary to access structural descriptions of visually presented objects.
Butler, Christopher R.; Brambati, Simona M.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria-Luisa
This study investigated nonverbal communicative abilities, functional play, and symbolic play in 11 toddlers with Williams syndrome (WS) during spontaneous communication. The WS group was compared with a group of typically developing (TD) children matched for linguistic abilities. Results demonstrated that children with WS exhibited significantly less spontaneous functional play and imaginary play compared to TD children. On the other
Christina F. Papaeliou; Helen Fryssira; Anastassios Kodakos; Maria Kaila; Evangelia Benaveli; Konstantinos Michaelides; Vassilis Stroggilos; Maria Vrettopoulou; Nikitas Polemikos
There has been a growing interest in the use of networked virtual environment (NVE) technology to implement telepresence that allows participants to interact with each other in shared cyberspace. In addition, nonverbal language has attracted increased attention because of its association with more natural human communication, and especially sign languages play an important role for the hearing impaired. This paper
The prefrontal cortex modulates executive control processes and structurally matures throughout adolescence. Consistent with these events, prefrontal functions that demand high levels of executive control may mature later than those that require working memory but decreased control. To test this hypothesis, adolescents (9 to 20 years old) completed nonverbal working memory tasks with varying levels of executive demands. Findings suggest
Monica Luciana; Heather M. Conklin; Catalina J. Hooper; Rebecca S. Yarger
For educators seeking to differentiate instruction, cognitive ability tests sampling multiple content domains, including verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal reasoning, provide superior information about student strengths and weaknesses compared with unidimensional reasoning measures. However, these ability tests have not been fully evaluated with respect to fairness and validity for English-language learners (ELL). In particular, reliability is an important aspect of validity
This research provides a systematic analysis of the nonverbal expression of pride. Study 1 manipulated behavioral movements relevant to pride (e.g., expanded posture and head tilt) to identify the most prototypical pride expression and determine the specific components that are necessary and sufficient for reliable recognition. Studies 2 and 3 tested whether the 2 conceptually and empirically distinct facets of
This study investigated how structured interview formats, instructions to convey favorable impressions, and applicants' individual differences influenced the use and effectiveness of verbal and nonverbal impression management (IM). Results from 190 people who were screened for a training program demonstrated that interview format affected the kind of tactics used, which in turn positively influenced interviewer evaluations. Behavior description interviews triggered
We evaluated Henley's (1973, 1977) and Goffman's (1976, 1979) theories about the relation between gender, nonverbal behavior, and perceived dominance in three studies. Our ratings of 1,106 media portrayals (Study 1) and observations of 1,257 people in public settings (Study 2) revealed few gender differences in frequency of head canting or body canting but some gender differences in frequency of
|The forms, functions, and complexity of nonverbal communication used by 14 young (ages 2-3) children with autism were investigated. Comparison with children with developmental delays and/or language impairments on a structured assessment found that autistic children directly manipulated the examiner's hand and requested more often but were less…
Stone, Wendy L.; Ousley, Opal Y.; Yoder, Paul J.; Hogan, Kerry L.; Hepburn, Susan L.
|This paper reports the development of a classroom observation instrument designed to broaden and extend the power of existing tools to provide a balanced, reciprocal perspective of both verbal and nonverbal communication. An introductory section discusses developments in communication analysis. The Miniaturized Total Interaction Analysis System…
Two mentally retarded boys with autism and one mentally retarded girl with Down syndrome were taught to initiate and play a ball game with an adult confederate. The program targeted both nonverbal responses related to the actual execution of the ball game as well as verbal responses for play initiation and providing compliments for the confederate's behavior. Training sessions provided
David Coe; Johnny Matson; Virginia Fee; Ramasamy Manikam; Christine Linarello
People with autism have severe communication deficits, with many functioning at a prelinguistic level. Consequently, it is important for adults to recognize and respond to nonverbal behaviours as communicative. In the present study, students with autism were videotaped during a social interaction with a familiar instructor. Communicative behaviours and their perceived functions were later identified by the instructor. Trained coders
Relatively little is known about the functional development of verbal and nonverbal working memory during adolescence. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that WM capacity increases with age, yet relatively few studies have assessed the relationship between brain-activity and age-related changes in WM capacity, especially as it differs across…
Brahmbhatt, Shefali B.; McAuley, Tara; Barch, Deanna M.
|Joint attention (JA) skills are deficient in children with autism; however, children with autism seem to vary in the degree to which they display joint attention. Joint attention skills refer to verbal and nonverbal skills used to share experiences with others. They include gestures such as pointing, coordinated looks between objects and people,…
Paparella, Tanya; Goods, Kelly Stickles; Freeman, Stephanny; Kasari, Connie
|For educators seeking to differentiate instruction, cognitive ability tests sampling multiple content domains, including verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal reasoning, provide superior information about student strengths and weaknesses compared with unidimensional reasoning measures. However, these ability tests have not been fully evaluated with…
A non-verbal problem solving task, viz. a semplified version of Shallice’s  London Towers Test, was given to 131 normal subjects to obtain normative data relating to age, education and sex. The test was built up in its easiest possible feature in order to be administrable also to demented patients, therefore possibly becoming part of the neuropsychological diagnostic procedures of
N. Allamanno; S. Della Sala; M. Laiacona; C. Pasetti; H. Spinnler
We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…
Several studies have shown that humans extend their interpersonal behavioral patterns onto their interaction with computers. Based on this finding, research in human-computer interaction acknowledges the need to detect the users' expressions of emotion. However, we discovered that most of the current research is confined to emotion synthesis. In this investigation, we explored the role of verbal and non-verbal information
Verbal memory impairment has been well explored in schizophrenia, but it is unclear whether findings relate to the type of material to be learned or the component process required by the memory task. Also, sparse data on non-verbal memory also open the question of how well schizophrenia patients encode this material. We tested whether episodic memory performance in schizophrenia varies
Joseph I Tracy; Robert Mattson; Christopher King; Thomas Bundick; Mary Anne Celenza; Guila Glosser
Of all the developmental difficulties that may be present in childhood, language impairment is probably the most common. It is of vast importance to prevent cumulative negative consequences of these impairments. The present study evaluates the effects of a language and activity-based intervention programme on verbal and non-verbal performance and…
A previous study showed that partial reinforcement does not lead to more resistance to extinction than 100% reinforcement if S feels that reinforcements are produced as a consequence of his own skill. This study also employed verbal expectancies as a measure of learning and extinction. The present study expands the generality of this finding by using a nonverbal behavior. The
In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the…
We describe the use of non-verbal features in voice for direct control of interactive applications. Traditional speech recognition interfaces are based on an indirect, conversational model. First the user gives a direction and then the system performs certain operation. Our goal is to achieve more direct, immediate interaction like using a button or joystick by using lower-level features of voice
Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…
Abstract In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic process model has been designed, implemented and used to simulate different types of interaction between verbal and
Catholijn M. Jonker; Jan Treur; Wouter C. A. Wijngaards
This paper presents methods for the acquisition and modelling of verbal and non-verbal communicative signals for the use in animated talking agents. This work diverges from the traditional focus on the acoustics of speech in speech technology and will be of importance for the realization of future multimodal interfaces, some experimental examples of which are presented at the end of
Communication with others has both verbal and non-verbal aspects. This article describes theory about the use of language in body psychotherapy, ways of the psychotherapist relating to the client's language, and the psychotherapist using language with different therapeutic purposes in mind. Illustrative case vignettes are included. Links are made to current thinking in neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Language in the
The communication between avatar and agent has already been treated from different but specialized perspectives. In contrast, this paper gives a balanced view of every key architectural aspect: from text analysis to computer graphics, the chatting system and the emotional model. Non-verbal communication, such as facial expression, gaze, or head orientation is crucial to simulate realistic behavior, but is still
S. Gobron; J. Ahn; Q. Silvestre; D. Thalmann; S. Rank; M. Skowron; G. Paltoglou; M. Thelwall
The interactive game environment, Ghost in the Cave, presented in this short paper, is a work still in progress. The game involves participants in an activity using non-verbal emotional expressions. Two teams use expressive gestures in either voice or body movements to compete. Each team has an avatar controlled either by singing into a microphone or by moving in front
Marie-louise Rinman; Anders Friberg; Bendik Bendiksen; Damien Cirotteau; Sofia Dahl; Ivar Kjellmo; Barbara Mazzarino; Antonio Camurri
In this paper we analyze the non-verbal aspects of communication in the classroom. The analysis of these communicative aspects in a chemistry high school classroom was based on data obtained through an ethnographic research. The videotape of the lessons enabled us to analyze aspects such as the occupation of physical space in the classroom; the gesture and physical posture adopted
Flávia Maria Teixeira dos Santos; Eduardo Fleury Mortimer
|We compared processing of non-verbal auditory stimuli by dyslexic and non-dyslexic children using electrophysiological methods. The study included 39 children (17 with dyslexia plus 22 controls) assessed via frontal, central, parietal, and temporal electrodes. As an extension of previous P300 event-related potential studies, we analysed…
|A total of 182 undergraduate students from China and the United States participated in a study examining the presence of stereotypical perceptions regarding creativity and deductive reasoning abilities, as well as the influence of stereotype on participants' performance on deductive reasoning and creativity in nonverbal form. The results showed…
The aim of this study was to investigate the nonverbal decoding of emotion in a group of very preterm children and its relationship to social skills and problem behaviours. All children born less than 30 weeks gestation were prospectively enrolled in developmental follow-up. At 8 years of age, 112 children were assessed using the Receptive Faces subtest of the Diagnostic
In an experiment, nonverbal indicators of deception in police interrogations of mock crimes were examined. Both vocal and nonvocal behaviours were scored. Thirty participants were subjected to long interrogations (over 9 minutes) conducted by 30 experienced police officers, asked to interrogate as they normally do. Although the liars reported being significantly more nervous, and found the task more strenuous than
Leif A. Strömwall; Maria Hartwig; Pär Anders Granhag
|Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine the…
Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.
The forms, functions, and complexity of nonverbal communication used by very young children with autism were investigated. Fourteen children with autism were matched to 14 children with developmental delays and\\/or language impairments on the basis of CA, MA, and expressive vocabulary. Subjects participated in a structured communication assessment consisting of 16 situations designed to elicit requesting or commenting behavior. Children
Wendy L. Stone; Opal Y. Ousley; Paul J. Yoder; Kerry L. Hogan; Susan L. Hepburn
This article examines the potential effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication for sales representatives. The literature on this subject was reviewed, and a study using students as sales representatives was conducted to evaluate the potential of training in body language. The research results provide support for the proposition that such…
This article examines the potential effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication for sales representatives. The literature on this subject was reviewed, and a study using students as sales representatives was conducted to evaluate the potential of training in body language. The research results provide support for the proposition that such training can be of value in academic and practical applications.
|Examination of counselor nonverbal behaviors revealed that European American counselors displayed significantly greater frequency of adaptors, postural shifts, and smiles than did Asian American counselors. The frequency of smiles was significantly positively correlated with client-rated session positivity and session arousal, and the frequency…
Kim, Bryan S. K.; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Li, Lisa C.
This study examined the effects of background nonverbal behavior displayed with the purpose of undermining one's opponent in televised debates. Students watched one of four versions of a televised debate. In each, while the speaking debater appeared on the main screen, subscreens displayed her nonspeaking opponent's background nonverbal behavior. In one version, the non-speaking debater remained "stone faced" during her opponent's speech, while in the other three she nonverbally displayed occasional disagreement, nearly constant disagreement, or both agreement and disagreement. After viewing the debates, students rated the debaters' credibility, appropriateness, objectivity, and debate skills, in addition to judging who won the debate. Analysis indicated that background nonverbal behavior influenced audience perceptions of debaters' credibility, appropriateness, objectivity, debate skill, and the extent to which the debate was won. These results suggest that adding nonverbal agreement to expressions of nonverbal disagreement do not reduce the negative impacts of communicating disagreement nonverbally during an opponent's speech and may in fact further decrease the audiences' perception of a debater's credibility and overall performance. PMID:20575335
Seiter, John S; Weger, Harry; Jensen, Andrea; Kinzer, Harold J
This research project was designed to describe and analyze the verbal and non-verbal interactions of low achieving students during science lessons taught in two contrasting science instructional settings. (1) Teacher-centered, textbook-dominated instruction and (2) Student-centered, materials-dominated instruction. This study provided the unique opportunity to observe individual students under both sets of conditions. Systematic classroom observation, non-structured student interviews, and student documents were used in the analysis. Levels of behavioral involvement were found to be lower during student-centered, materials-dominated lessons, however, increased frequencies, more varied types, and higher cognitive levels of verbal interaction were observed. Teacher-centered, text-dominated lessons yielded increased levels of on-task behavior, however, incidences of verbal interaction were observed to be decreased, less varied, and lower in cognitive level. The findings of this study suggest that the levels of behavioral involvement of low achieving students may be enhanced by increased structuring of the science learning environment. The findings suggest that additional structure in the form of task-specific directions and specific, short time allotments would enable low achieving students to better define a researchable question, and plan and conduct an investigation to answer the question. Low achieving students appeared to lack small group interaction skills needed to complete activities in the materials-dominated format. Groups of four tended to splinter: pairs would break off or students just worked individually. If groups of four are desired, the evidence from this study would suggest clearly defined expectations and shorter work times and more structure are needed for more effective group work. Questions remain concerning the ability for elementary science teachers to monitor the learning environment and learning processes, particularly in less structured classroom settings. Finally, this study questions the depth and breadth of content presented in many textbooks and supplemental materials, particularly in light of current educational theory regarding conceptual understanding and transfer. Additional research is needed to identify types and amounts of structure to impose on the learning environment and to define processes to help low achieving students optimize conceptual understandings.
This study examined the effects of teaching assistant willingness to communicate and communication apprehension in the university classroom. Results indicated that TA willingness to communicate is significantly related to perceptions of TA nonverbalimmediacy. Additionally, as TA communication apprehension increases, student perceptions of TA nonverbalimmediacy and TA power use decrease. An examination of TA state anxiety in the classroom
|Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker, then president of the American Federation of Teachers, endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Fast-forward two decades from Shanker's then-radical proposition and there are nearly 80 teacher-governed…
|This issue collects three articles concerning reading-teacher training. "Language, Failure, and Panda Bears" by Patricia M. Cunningham calls attention to dialect difficulties in the classroom and provides ideas for teacher training programs and for public schools to solve this problem. William H. Rupley, in "Improving Teacher Effectiveness in…
|This introductory column on issues of technology integration across special education teacher preparation reviews efforts towards this end of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, state departments of education, individual universities, and the federal government's Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers To Use Technology program.…
Objective: The present study aimed to examine nonverbal memory and organizational skill functions in psychotropic-naïve patients with OCD. Method: Forty-one drug-naïve, 41 medicated OCD patients and 41 healthy controls, all of whom were matched for gender, age, education and intelligence, were included in the study. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) was administered to evaluate nonverbal memory ability and organizational
Na Young Shin; Do-Hyung Kang; Jung-Seok Choi; Myung Hun Jung; Joon Hwan Jang; Jun Soo Kwon
Although e-mail recipients rely on nonverbal cues to form impressions of senders, relatively little is known about specific contextual factors that may influence sender perceptions in computer-mediated communication. Results from an experiment found that the receivers' personalities influenced their perceptions of the e-mail sender both directly and indirectly through perceptions of nonverbal cues. These results support the notions that the
By putting teachers back into an intense learning and leadership environment, the National Science Foundation (NSF) is embarking on a major effort to improve the mathematics and science education of the nationâs youth. The three-year $5.5 million Teacher Institute project in Park City, Utah, involves middle and high school mathematics teachers from three school districts, including a small system in McAllen, Texas, and larger systems in Cincinnati, Ohio and Seattle, Washington. In summer resident sessions, the institute at Park City will train middle and secondary school teachers to become teacher-leaders.
|Trainers of Teachers of Teachers (TTT) is primarily concerned with the preservice and inservice development of the trainers of teacher trainersand their students through a new pattern of graduate intern experience in a "school clinic" where representatives of the university, the schools, and the community meet in an urban secondary school complex…
The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of teacher learning in a cohort-based, master's degree program in curriculum and pedagogy that was intentionally designed to be responsive to teachers' personal needs and preferences. The program aimed to: (1) provide teachers with the confidence to connect what they do in their classrooms to…
We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of expressive tasks, but not for the aggregate score of receptive tasks. There was also a significant within-group difference among individuals with ASD for expressive vs. receptive performance. Our data indicate that adolescents with ASD can achieve receptive accuracy in non-verbal communication, but show significant qualitative deficits in expressive skills across a range of tasks, which may have a significant negative impact on their success as social communicators.
Recently, much research has explored the role that nonverbal pointing behaviours play in children's early acquisition of language, for example during word learning. However, few researchers have considered the possibility that these behaviours may continue to play a role in language comprehension as children develop more sophisticated language skills. The present study investigates the role that eye gaze and pointing gestures play in three- to five-year-olds understanding of complex pragmatic communication. Experiment 1 demonstrates that children (N = 29) better understand videotapes of a mother making indirect requests to a child when the requests are accompanied by nonverbal pointing behaviours. Experiment 2 uses a different methodology in which children (N = 27) are actual participants rather than observers in order to generalize the findings to naturalistic, face-to-face interactions. The results from both experiments suggest that broader units of analysis beyond the verbal message may be needed in studying children's continuing understanding of pragmatic processes. PMID:11449942
It is well established that certain aspects of play in young children are related to their emerging linguistic skills. The present study examined the relationships between functional play, symbolic play, non-verbal ability, and expressive and receptive language in normally developing children aged between 1 and 6 years using standardized assessment procedures, including a recently developed Test of Pretend Play (ToPP). When effects of chronological age were partialled out, symbolic play remained significantly correlated with both expressive and receptive language, but not with functional play or non-verbal ability; and functional play was only correlated significantly with expressive language. It is concluded that ToPP will provide practitioners with a useful way of assessing symbolic ability in children between the ages of 1 and 6 years, and will contribute to the assessment and diagnosis of a number of communication difficulties, and have implications for intervention. PMID:10824228
We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of expressive tasks, but not for the aggregate score of receptive tasks. There was also a significant within-group difference among individuals with ASD for expressive vs. receptive performance. Our data indicate that adolescents with ASD can achieve receptive accuracy in non-verbal communication, but show significant qualitative deficits in expressive skills across a range of tasks, which may have a significant negative impact on their success as social communicators. PMID:22773928
The three major types of augmentative communication for nonverbal persons consist of writing (or typing), pointing, and signing. These alternative response forms are examined in terms of their advantages and disadvantages for establishing effective verbal behavior. In addition, these systems are examined using the concepts from Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior (i.e., mand, tact, intraverbal, and autoclitic). The results of this analysis show that sign language has the most advantages and the fewest disadvantages, and more closely parallels speech in terms of the verbal operants. Although, the current trend is to favor facilitated communication (typing) and pointing systems, both of these response forms have several disadvantages that impede the development of the verbal operants. It is suggested that for many nonverbal individuals sign language is a better alternative response form, and has a better chance of improving speech.
The syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities (NLD) is characterized by deficient performances in visual-spatial-organizational abilities, complex psychomotor and tactile-perceptual skills (both usually more marked on the left side of the body), and conceptual\\/problem-solving abilities. Over the course of development, above-average facility in single-word reading and spelling and below-average skills in mechanical arithmetic are evident. Extreme difficulties in dealing with novel
Against the background that recent studies on embodied conversational agents demonstrate the importance of their behavior,\\u000a an experimental study is presented that assessed the effects of different nonverbal behaviors of an embodied conversational\\u000a agent on the users´ experiences and evaluations as well as on their behavior. 50 participants conducted a conversation with\\u000a different versions of the virtual agent Max, whose
Theory of mind (ToM) – our ability to predict behaviors of others in terms of their underlying intentions – has been examined through verbal and nonverbal false-belief (FB) tasks. Previous brain imaging studies of ToM in adults have implicated medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) for adults’ ToM ability. To examine age and modality related differences and similarities
The normal development of humor in children has been well documented with a predictable course that is tied to social, cognitive,\\u000a and linguistic development in children. This study explored humor comprehension in children with nonverbal learning disabilities\\u000a (NVLD). Children with NVLD were compared with children with reading disabilities and a comparison group of children with no\\u000a learning disabilities to assess
\\u000a This book is a collection of research on diverse aspects of imitation with a focus on how imitation contributes to language\\u000a learning. Most of the chapters are concerned with imitative processes in language itself, with the imitation of syntactic\\u000a forms or lexical items. A primary aim of this chapter is to discuss a different face of imitation—that of nonverbal imitation,
Does autism involve a deficit in intersubjective engagement with other persons? We studied nonverbal communication in children\\u000a and adolescents with and without autism (n = 12 per group), group-matched for chronological age and verbal mental age, during 3 min of a videotaped interview. In keeping\\u000a with previous studies, there were only subtle but potentially revealing group differences on behavioral ratings. Participants\\u000a with autism
Rosa M. García-Pérez; Anthony Lee; R. Peter Hobson
The sensitivity of eleven pet dogs and eleven 2.5-year-old children to others’ past perceptual access was tested for object-specificity\\u000a in a playful, nonverbal task in which a human Helper’s knowledge state regarding the whereabouts of a hidden toy and a stick\\u000a (a tool necessary for getting the out-of-reach toy) was systematically manipulated. In the four experimental conditions the\\u000a Helper either
This study examined differences between 3 matched samples of White (n = 2,306) and African American (n = 2,306), White (n = 1,176) and Hispanic (n = 1,176), and White (n = 466) and Asian (n = 466) children on the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT; J. A. Naglieri, 1997a). The groups were selected from 22,620 children included in the
This paper introduces a new facet of social media, namely that depicting social interaction. More concretely, we address this\\u000a problem from the perspective of nonverbal behavior-based analysis of competitive meetings. For our study, we made use of “The\\u000a Apprentice” reality TV show, which features a competition for a real, highly paid corporate job. Our analysis is centered\\u000a around two tasks
An approach to intercultural training of nonverbal behavior is presented that draws from research on role-plays with virtual agents and ideas from situated learning. To this end, a mobile serious game is realized where the user acquires knowledge about German emblematic gestures and tries them out in role-plays with virtual agents. Gesture performance is evaluated making use of build-in acceleration
Matthias Rehm; Karin Leichtenstern; Jörg Plomer; Christian Wiedemann
Confusion is present as to possible diagnostic differences between Asperger syndrome (AS) and Nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) and the relation of these disorders to attentional difficulties. Three-hundred and forty-five children participated in this study in 5 groups; NLD, AS, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Combined type, ADHD: Inattentive type, and controls. The NLD group showed particular difficulty on visual-spatial, visual-motor,
Margaret Semrud-Clikeman; Jenifer Walkowiak; Alison Wilkinson; Gina Christopher
Based on Piaget's equilibration theory, father dogmatism and empathy was hypothesized to influence sons' cognitive development through non-verbal behavior in father-son interactions. Subjects were 52 pairs of fathers and their sons drawn from first-year high school students of bi-parental families. Fathers' dogmatism and empathy was assessed by questionnaire, sons' cognitive development with Piaget's permutation task using the clinical procedure, and
Richard E. Tremblay; Serge Larivee; Jacques C. Gregoire
Despite cognitive neuroscience's emphasis on the modularity of cognitive processes, multivariate genetic re- search indicates that the same genetic factors largely affect diverse cognitive abilities, at least from middle childhood onward. We explored this issue for verbal and nonverbal cognitive development in infancy in a study of 1,937 pairs of same-sex 2-year-old twins born in England and Wales in 1994.
Thomas S. Price; Thalia C. Eley; Philip S. Dale; Jim Stevenson; Kim Sandino; Robert Plomin
Recognition of non-verbal communication (NVC) is important for understanding human communication and designing user centric user interfaces. Cultural differences affect the expression and perception of NVC but no previous automatic system considers these cultural differences. Annotation data for the LILiR TwoTalk corpus, containing dyadic (two person) conversations, was gathered using Internet crowdsourcing, with a significant quantity collected from India, Kenya
During the past 5-10 years, increasing efforts have been put into annotation of verbal and non-verbal human-human and human-machine\\u000a communication in order to better understand the complexities of multimodal communication and model them in computers. This\\u000a has helped highlight the huge challenges which still confront annotators in this field, from conceptual confusion through\\u000a lacking or immature coding schemes to inadequate
Recent research has documented that we tend to use the face to express some emotions, but use the body to express other emotions. To understand the contributions of the body to non-verbal emotional communication, we compared the performance of able-bodied participants who were allowed to express emotions naturally (standing) to able-bodied participants who were confined to a wheelchair. Theories of
This paper proposes a novel real-time non-verbal communication system from natural language instruction by introducing an artificial intelligence method into the networked virtual environment (NVE). We extract semantic information as an interlingua from the input text by natural language processing, and then transmit this semantic feature extraction (SFE), which actually is a parameterized action representation, to the 3-D articulated humanoid
In face-to-face communication both visual and auditory information play an obvious and significant role. In this presentation we will discuss work done, primarily at KTH, that aims at analyzing and modelling verbal and non-verbal communication from a multi-modal perspective. In our studies, it appears that both segmental and prosodic phenomena are strongly affected by the communicative context of speech interaction.
We have constructed and validated the Elderly Pain Caring Assessment 2 (EPCA-2) an 8 items behavioural scale to rate the intensity of pain in non-verbally communicating older (age?65years) patients (NVC-OP). It was postulated that the assessed pain had two dimensions (signs outside and during caregiving). The first version of the scale was constructed on the basis of the results of
Remy Morello; Alain Jean; Michel Alix; Dominique Sellin-Peres; Jacques Fermanian
First impressions profoundly influence our attitudes and behavior toward others. However, little is known about whether and to what degree the cognitive processes that underlie impression formation depend on the domain of the available information about the target person. To investigate the neural bases of the influence of verbal as compared to nonverbal information on interpersonal judgments, we identified brain regions where the BOLD signal parametrically increased with increasing strength of evaluation based on either short text vignettes or mimic and gestural behavior. While for verbal stimuli the increasing strength of subjective evaluation was correlated with increased neural activation of precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PC/PCC), a similar effect was observed for nonverbal stimuli in the amygdala. These findings support the assumption that qualitatively different cognitive operations underlie person evaluation depending upon the stimulus domain: while the processing of nonverbal person information may be more strongly associated with affective processing as indexed by recruitment of the amygdala, verbal person information engaged the PC/PCC that has been related to social inferential processing. PMID:22227133
Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Bente, Gary; von Cramon, D Yves; Schilbach, Leonhard; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Vogeley, Kai
Social judgments often require resolution of incongruity in communication contents. Although previous studies revealed that such conflict resolution recruits brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG), functional relationships and networks among these regions remain unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the functional dissociation and networks by measuring human brain activity during resolving incongruity between verbal and non-verbal emotional contents. First, we found that the conflict resolutions biased by the non-verbal contents activated the posterior dorsal mPFC (post-dmPFC), bilateral anterior insula (AI) and right dorsal pIFG, whereas the resolutions biased by the verbal contents activated the bilateral ventral pIFG. In contrast, the anterior dmPFC (ant-dmPFC), bilateral superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus were commonly involved in both of the resolutions. Second, we found that the post-dmPFC and right ventral pIFG were hub regions in networks underlying the non-verbal- and verbal-content-biased resolutions, respectively. Finally, we revealed that these resolution-type-specific networks were bridged by the ant-dmPFC, which was recruited for the conflict resolutions earlier than the two hub regions. These findings suggest that, in social conflict resolutions, the ant-dmPFC selectively recruits one of the resolution-type-specific networks through its interaction with resolution-type-specific hub regions. PMID:23552078
The analysis and intervention of communication is an important focus of autism research. The present study is a microanalysis of the communicative behaviour of 10 autistic children with their parents and a therapist. Protests, appropriate initiation and responses of the children were analysed in relation to demands and the specific feedback of the adults. After 20 months of structured therapy changes in the communicative behaviour of the participants were demonstrated. Autistic children showed different communicative pattern with their parents compared to a therapist. The non-verbal group exhibited significantly more protests and decreased responsivity with their parents compared to the therapist. The verbal group interacted with their parents predominantly by echolalia. After 20 months a significant reduction in protests, increased compliance and responsivity were obvious in the non-verbal group. The verbal group showed a reduction in echolalia as well as increased responsive and spontaneous communication. The results demonstrate that even non-verbal autistic children are sensitive towards different interaction partners. Over the observation period participants showed a reduction in behaviour problems and positive developments of communicative behaviour. PMID:10721273
Intelligence quotient (IQ) is a standardized measure of human intellectual capacity that takes into account a wide range of cognitive skills. IQ is generally considered to be stable across the lifespan, with scores at one time point used to predict educational achievement and employment prospects in later years. Neuroimaging allows us to test whether unexpected longitudinal fluctuations in measured IQ are related to brain development. Here we show that verbal and non-verbal IQ can rise or fall in the teenage years, with these changes in performance validated by their close correlation with changes in local brain structure. A combination of structural and functional imaging showed that verbal IQ changed with grey matter in a region that was activated by speech, whereas non-verbal IQ changed with grey matter in a region that was activated by finger movements. By using longitudinal assessments of the same individuals, we obviated the many sources of variation in brain structure that confound cross-sectional studies. This allowed us to dissociate neural markers for the two types of IQ and to show that general verbal and non-verbal abilities are closely linked to the sensorimotor skills involved in learning. More generally, our results emphasize the possibility that an individual's intellectual capacity relative to their peers can decrease or increase in the teenage years. This would be encouraging to those whose intellectual potential may improve, and would be a warning that early achievers may not maintain their potential. PMID:22012265
Ramsden, Sue; Richardson, Fiona M; Josse, Goulven; Thomas, Michael S C; Ellis, Caroline; Shakeshaft, Clare; Seghier, Mohamed L; Price, Cathy J
Objective The authors contrasted verbal and nonverbal measures of attention and memory in patients with DSM-IV-defined schizotypal personality disorder in order to expand on their previous findings of verbal learning deficits in these patients and to understand better the neuropsychological profile of schizotypal personality disorder. Method Cognitive test performance was examined in 16 right-handed men who met diagnostic criteria for schizotypal personality disorder and 16 matched male comparison subjects. Neuropsychological measures included verbal and nonverbal tests of persistence, supraspan learning, and short- and long-term memory retention. Neuropsychological profiles were constructed by standardizing test scores based on the means and standard deviations of the comparison subject group. Results Subjects with schizotypal personality disorder showed a mild to moderate general reduction in performance on all measures. Verbal measures of persistence, short-term retention, and learning were more severely impaired than their nonverbal analogs. Performance on measures of memory retention was independent of modality. Conclusions The results are consistent with previous reports that have suggested a mild, general decrement in cognitive performance and proportionately greater involvement of the left hemisphere in patients with schizotypal personality disorder. The findings provide further support for a specific deficit in the early processing stages of verbal learning.
Voglmaier, Martina M.; Seidman, Larry J.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.
This research was conducted in order to examine the influence of manifest strabismus and stereoscopic vision on non-verbal abilities of visually impaired children aged between 7 and 15. The sample included 55 visually impaired children from the 1st to the 6th grade of elementary schools for visually impaired children in Belgrade. RANDOT stereotest and polaroid glasses were used for the examination of stereoscopic vision, while Cover test and Hirschberg's pupils reflex test were used for the evaluation of strabismus. In the area of non-verbal abilities was evaluated visual discrimination, visuomotor integration, constructive praxia, visual memory, strategy formation, non-verbal reasoning and the representational dimension of drawings. Subtests of ACADIA test of developmental abilities were used for the evaluation of non-verbal abilities (Atkinson et al., 1972). Statistically significant relations between strabismus and constructive praxia (p=0.009), visual memory (p=0.037), strategy formation (0.040) and the quality of drawings were determined by the results analysis. According to our findings, children with divergent strabismus achieve the best results. Children with stereoscopic vision generally achieve better results in all the examined areas of non-verbal abilities, and statistically significant relations were determined in the areas of visuomotor coordination (0.002), constructive praxia (0.026) and non-verbal reasoning (0.015), which are directly connected to visuospatial abilities. Children with convergent strabismus achieve significantly lower results in the areas of constructive praxia, visual memory, strategy formation and representational dimension of drawings, and children with the lack of stereoscopic vision--in the areas of visuomotor integration, constructive praxia and non-verbal reasoning. PMID:21536409
The author draws on educational psychology to describe the characteristics of a good teacher, bringing in research on teacher thinking, teacher knowledge, teachers' opinions about good teaching, and, finally, students' opinions about what makes a good teacher. (CNP)
|Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Today there are nearly 80 teacher-governed charter schools around the country. Although most are legally constituted as worker cooperatives, they better resemble…
This website has information and links to resources for ocean sciences teachers located in North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. The resources include professional development opportunities, student opportunities, teaching resources and lessons, and organizations and agencies to connect teachers with ocean science materials.
In this group of three 5-minute videos for teachers of grades 3 through 8, three co-teaching teams describe how they work within the same classroom, collaborating on math instruction. Each pair, one classroom teacher and one special educator, talk of the benefits that collaborative teaching can offer and share their experiences of teaching mathematics in an inclusion classroom.
|This study, undertaken at the request of the Joint International Labour Office/UNESCO Committee of Experts on the Application of the Recommendation concerning the Status of Teachers, examines the earnings of teachers in a worldwide context. Drawing on material relating to the public sector of education in over 70 countries, it considers…
International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).
The purpose of this study was to investigate which forms of administrative and peer support facilitate teacher retention. Specifically, I explored both administrative and peer forms of support in an attempt to understand the relationships between this support and teacher retention. While most researchers are aware the growing attrition rate within the teaching profession (Darling-Hammond, 2001; Hope; 2000; McCreight, 2000),
Every student from elementary to graduate has his\\/her own description of a good teacher. Some of them describe people who lecture all the time, some of them describe people who do little other than facilitate group processes, and others describe everything in between. The question of what makes a good teacher becomes a highly complicated one when it is asked
|The classroom as a microsystem is characterised by many interpersonal relationships. These relationships are perceived differently by the teacher than they are by the students. In our research we examine the relationship between formal teacher characteristics, interpersonal teacher behaviour as perceived by the teacher, and teacher wellbeing.…
Van Petegem, K.; Creemers, B. P. M.; Rossel, Y.; Aelterman, A.
This longitudinal study was designed to investigate trajectories of nonverbal cognitive ability in adolescents with fragile X syndrome with respect to the relative influence of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), autism symptom severity, and environmental factors on visualization and fluid reasoning abilities. Males and females with fragile X syndrome (N?=?53; ages 10-16 years) were evaluated with the Leiter-R at up to four annual assessments. On average, IQ declined with age. FMRP levels predicted change in fluid reasoning, but not in visualization. The role of FMRP in the neural development that underlies the fragile X syndrome cognitive phenotype is discussed. PMID:24138215
Kover, Sara T; Pierpont, Elizabeth I; Kim, Jee-Seon; Brown, W Ted; Abbeduto, Leonard
We assessed profoundly deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) (N = 24) and age-matched normal-hearing children (N = 31) on several nonverbal cognition measures: motor sequencing, tactile discrimination, response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and visual-spatial processing. The results revealed that the children with CIs showed disturbances solely on motor sequencing and that performance on this task was significantly correlated with scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, 4th Edition (CELF–4). These findings suggest that a period of auditory deprivation before cochlear implantation affects motor sequencing skills, which in turn may mediate the language delays displayed by some deaf children with CIs.
Conway, Christopher M.; Karpicke, Jennifer; Anaya, Esperanza M.; Henning, Shirley C.; Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.
Eight patients with cerebral vascular disease and aphasia were studied just after the stroke. The clinical, neuropsychiatric, EEG and neuro-radiological aspects were evaluated. The patients were submitted to the psychological and phonoaudiological studies. The authors correlated the neurological lesions to the structural alteration of the intelligence, to the praxic and estheognostic alterations and also to the language disturbances. The criterions adopted by the World Health Organization and the genetics classification of Jean Piaget were used for the intellectual level classification. The results suggest that the intelligence evaluated through Leither's non-verbal test is better preserved in some asphasics. PMID:533383
Ceschin, J S; Melaragno Filho, R; Brauer, M J; Parente, M A
Wechsler test revealed the peculiarities of intellectual development of children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is shown that the psychophysiological structure of intelligence in 6-7 year old children without any signs of ADHD is characterized by a high level of development and close interaction between verbal and nonverbal components. Their peers with ADHD demonstrate an insufficient level of development of visual-spatial perception, voluntary activity organization and regulation, and a lower level of interaction between verbal and nonverbal components. Significant differences between verbal and nonverbal integral indices are the evidence of the deficit in voluntary attention and voluntary regulation and in the integrity of operational cognitive structures. PMID:21873753
|This article presents a review of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2), a nonverbal intelligence test created to assess reasoning and problem solving of children and adults. The goal of the CTONI-2 is to minimize the influence of language ability on intelligence test scores. Oral or pantomime instructions can…
Our lives are ones of uncertainty and surprise, yin and yang existences. Some things we can control and others we are powerless to command, even with the best intentions. Teachers are not exempt from emergencies, jury duty, and illness. Luckily, most schools plan for such incidents by having willing substitutes on hand. Teachers need to follow the Scout's motto to "be prepared" and keep the classroom running smoothly and efficiently for students and subs.
"Artificial humans", so-called "Embodied Conversational Agents" and humanoid robots, are assumed to facilitate human-technology interaction referring to the unique human capacities of interpersonal communication and social information processing. While early research and development in artificial intelligence (AI) focused on processing and production of natural language, the "new AI" has also taken into account the emotional and relational aspects of communication with an emphasis both on understanding and production of nonverbal behavior. This shift in attention in computer science and engineering is reflected in recent developments in psychology and social cognitive neuroscience. This article addresses key challenges which emerge from the goal to equip machines with socio-emotional intelligence and to enable them to interpret subtle nonverbal cues and to respond to social affordances with naturally appearing behavior from both perspectives. In particular, we propose that the creation of credible artificial humans not only defines the ultimate test for our understanding of human communication and social cognition but also provides a unique research tool to improve our knowledge about the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms. PMID:20620019
The accurate assessment of risky sexual behaviors and barriers to condom use is essential to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. This study tests a new nonverbal response-card method for obtaining more accurate responses to sensitive questions in the context of face-to-face interviewer-administered questionnaires in a survey of 1,269 Ethiopian young people aged 13-24. Comparisons of responses between a control group that provided verbal responses and an experimental group that used the card indicate that the prevalence of nonmarital sexual intercourse may be two times higher and knowledge of condom access may be 22 percent lower in the study than typical population-survey methods suggest. These results suggest that our nonverbal response-card method yields less biased estimates of risky adolescent sexual behavior and perceived access to condoms than those derived from conventional face-to-face interviewer-administered surveys, and that this method provides an effective, easy-to-use, low-cost alternative. PMID:21465726
Nonverbal vocal expressions, such as laughter, sobbing, and screams, are an important source of emotional information in social interactions. However, the investigation of how we process these vocal cues entered the research agenda only recently. Here, we introduce a new corpus of nonverbal vocalizations, which we recorded and submitted to perceptual and acoustic validation. It consists of 121 sounds expressing four positive emotions (achievement/triumph, amusement, sensual pleasure, and relief) and four negative ones (anger, disgust, fear, and sadness), produced by two female and two male speakers. For perceptual validation, a forced choice task was used (n = 20), and ratings were collected for the eight emotions, valence, arousal, and authenticity (n = 20). We provide these data, detailed for each vocalization, for use by the research community. High recognition accuracy was found for all emotions (86 %, on average), and the sounds were reliably rated as communicating the intended expressions. The vocalizations were measured for acoustic cues related to temporal aspects, intensity, fundamental frequency (f0), and voice quality. These cues alone provide sufficient information to discriminate between emotion categories, as indicated by statistical classification procedures; they are also predictors of listeners' emotion ratings, as indicated by multiple regression analyses. This set of stimuli seems a valuable addition to currently available expression corpora for research on emotion processing. It is suitable for behavioral and neuroscience research and might as well be used in clinical settings for the assessment of neurological and psychiatric patients. The corpus can be downloaded from Supplementary Materials. PMID:23444120
Extensive prior research has shown that the perception of an emotional facial expression automatically elicits a corresponding facial expression in the observer. Theories of embodied emotion, however, suggest that such reactions might also occur across expressive channels, because simulation is based on integrated motoric and affective representations of that emotion. In the present studies, we examined this idea by focusing on facial and experiential reactions to nonverbal emotion vocalizations. In Studies 1 and 2, we showed that both hearing and reproducing vocalizations of anger, disgust, happiness, and sadness resulted in specific facial behaviors, as well as congruent self-reported emotions (Study 2). In Studies 3 and 4, we showed that the inhibition of congruent facial actions impaired listeners' processing of emotion vocalizations (Study 3), as well as their experiences of a concordant subjective state (Study 4). Results support the idea that cross-channel simulations of others' states serve facilitative functions similar to more strict imitations of observed expressive behavior, suggesting flexibility in the motoric and affective systems involved in emotion processing and interpersonal emotion transfer. We discuss implications for embodiment research and the social consequences of expressing and matching emotions across nonverbal channels. PMID:22059840
Hawk, Skyler T; Fischer, Agneta H; Van Kleef, Gerben A
Material-specific memory impairments are a well-established consequence of unilateral medial temporal lobe damage. We used fMRI to investigate encoding and recognition of verbal and nonverbal stimuli using adaptations of tasks used successfully in clinical evaluations of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We studied two patient groups, one with left TLE and one with right TLE, and one group of healthy subjects. Results from the healthy subjects indicated that initial and delayed recognition trials of the verbal task activated the left medial temporal lobe, and the same tasks of the nonverbal task activated the right, confirming the sensitivity to laterality of our clinical tasks. Patients tended to use the opposite hippocampus, but often the parahippocampal gyrus on the same side, compared to the healthy subjects. Since our patients and the healthy groups performed similarly on the memory tasks, we conclude that the patients' activation patterns represent an effective adaptation to the presence of an unhealthy hippocampus. PMID:22980080
Banks, Sarah Jane; Sziklas, Viviane; Sodums, Devin J; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn
The referred study is based on the assumption that understanding how humans use nonverbal behavior in dialogues can be very useful in the design of more natural-looking animated talking heads. The goal of the study is twofold: (1) to explore how people use specific facial expressions and head movements to serve important dialogue functions, and (2) to show evidence that it is possible to measure and quantify the entity of these movements with the Qualisys MacReflex motion tracking system. Naturally elicited dialogues between humans have been analyzed with focus on the attention on those nonverbal behaviors that serve the very relevant functions of regulating the conversational flux (i.e., turn taking) and producing information about the state of communication (i.e., feedback). The results show that eyebrow raising, head nods, and head shakes are typical signals involved during the exchange of speaking turns, as well as in the production and elicitation of feedback. These movements can be easily measured and quantified, and this measure can be implemented in animated talking heads.
|Investigated relationships between teacher sense of efficacy, superintendents' ratings of teacher competency, and selected demographic and background variables in 155 teachers. Using discriminant analysis, superior and average competency teachers could be differentiated from low competency teachers on four significant variables, one of which was…
This article discusses findings from ongoing research into plurilingual group work interaction in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) teacher training classroom at a university in Catalonia, Spain. We explore how participants make use of available verbal and non-verbal resources—for example, their multilingual verbal repertoires, posture, gesture, gaze—to collaboratively accomplish various activities and, specifically, to problematize linguistic and subject
This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music\\/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the control group. Both experimental groups received vocal hygiene instruction.
This paper presents a multimodal system for real-time analysis of nonverbal affective social interaction in small groups of users. The focus is on two major aspects of affective social interaction: the synchronization of the affective behavior within a small group and the emergence of functional roles, such as leadership. A small group of users is modeled as a complex system
|Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…
van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.
The Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) is said to be a culturally neutral measure of ability that assesses both majority and minority students equally. Although research has examined the effects of ethnicity and gender on NNAT performance, little published research has examined the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and NNAT performance. Correlations and multiple regression were used to examine the
|Videotaped group work lessons of an elementary school third grade class provide material for study of the non-verbal aspect of group behavior. A system of activity categories is developed and a typology of pupils' working methods in group study distinguishes types and characteristic forms of activity. The following activity categories are used in…
The Asperger syndrome (AS) includes impaired recognition of other people's mental states. Since language-based diagnostic procedures may be confounded by cognitive-linguistic compensation strategies, nonverbal test materials were created, including human affective and vegetative sounds. Depending on video context, each sound could be interpreted…
Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Riedel, Andreas; Ackermann, Hermann
|The relationship among IQs of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI), and Quick Test (QT) were investigated using 51 students (grades 2-8) with suspected learning problems. The subjects scored significantly higher on the TONI than on the WISC-R Verbal and Full Scales. (Author/VW)|
There is a debate about whether the language of children with primary language disorders and normal cognitive levels is qualitatively different from those with language impairments who have low or borderline non-verbal IQ (NVIQ). As children reach adolescence, this distinction may be even harder to ascertain, especially in naturalistic settings. Narrative may provide a useful, ecologically valid way in which
|This study compared nonverbal numerical processing in 6-year-olds with that in nonhuman animals using a numerical bisection task. In the study, 16 children were trained on a delayed match-to-sample paradigm to match exemplars of two anchor numerosities. Children were then required to indicate whether a sample intermediate to the anchor values was…
|In Part 2 of a two-part article individual educational program objectives are applied to nonverbal communication areas as follows: proxemics, or the use of distance, spatial arrangements, and territories; vocalics, or the use of prosodic, paralinguistic, or nonlinguistic features; and artifactual cues involving clothing and cosmetics.…
Teenagers with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have difficulty with fine-motor coordination, which may relate to the novelty of the task or the lack of "self-talk" to mediate action. In this study, we required two teenagers with NLD and two control group teenagers to touch the thumb of each hand firmly and accurately to the fingertips of the…
Tuller, Betty; Jantzen, Kelly J.; Olvera, Dianne; Steinberg, Fred; Scott Kelso, J. A.
Consistent with calls by O’Sullivan (1999) and Rogers (1999), we use mass communication theory to help understand what are often thought to be largely interpersonal communication processes. Specifically, we contend that investigating media frames found within metapragmatic discourse of nonverbal events can help organize and reveal more specific meanings that can be given to the cues. To provide evidence for
Interpersonal Deception Theory (IDT) posits that socially skilled individuals are better able to project truthful demeanors and evade detection than are unskilled individuals. IDT also predicts that social skills benefit receivers, making them better able to detect deception. Past research by Riggio, Thcker, Throckmorton, and Widaman in 1987 (in two separate studies) has shown that socially skilled individuals emit nonverbal
Judee K. Burgoon; David B. Buller; Laura K. Guerrero
|Background: Research on gender differences in intelligence has focused mostly on samples from Western countries and empirical evidence on gender differences from Southeast Asia is relatively sparse. Aims: This article presents results on gender differences in variance and means on a non-verbal intelligence test using a national sample of public…
|We present a new analysis of Whitehouse, Maybery, and Durkin's (2006, Experiment 3) data on inner speech in children with autism (CWA). Because inner speech development is thought to depend on linguistically mediated social interaction, we hypothesized that children with both autism and a nonverbal greater than verbal (NV greater than V) skills…
Lidstone, Jane S. M.; Fernyhough, Charles; Meins, Elizabeth; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.
|A survey examined the perceptions of 404 mothers on the availability and importance of various resources for their children (ages 4-17) with Asperger syndrome or nonverbal learning disorder. A significant number (20-30%) reported that pragmatics training, social skills training, smaller classes, or a trained aide were not made available.…
|Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) are developmental disorders in which linguistic ability is reported to be stronger than in disorders from which they must be distinguished for diagnosis. Children and adults with AS and NLD share pragmatic weaknesses, atypical social behaviours, and some cognitive features. To date,…
|Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) are both characterized by impairments in motor coordination, visuo-perceptual abilities, pragmatics and comprehension of language and social understanding. NLD is also defined as a learning disorder affecting functions in the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study investigates…
|A novel method for initiating discrimination training with nonverbal children combines a delayed S+ procedure that requires children to refrain from responding to either of 2 physically different choice stimuli until a prompt stimulus is added onto 1 of the choices, and a delayed prompting procedure that presents the same 2-choice stimulus…
Lionello-DeNolf, Karen M.; da Silva Barros, Romariz; McIlvane, William J.
|Clinical intuition and resent research (Senju et al., 2009) suggests that adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) are able to use explicit verbal information but fail to react upon subtle nonverbal cues in order to understand others and navigate social encounters. In order to investigate the relative influence of different domains of socially…
Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Schilbach, Leonhard; Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai
|The Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) is said to be a culturally neutral measure of ability that assesses both majority and minority students equally. Although research has examined the effects of ethnicity and gender on NNAT performance, little published research has examined the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and NNAT…
|It is common to use questionnaires and interviews to assess the emotions of staff who serve clients with intellectual disabilities. Remarkably, observations of actual staff behaviour and assessments of nonverbal expressions are usually not involved. In the present study, we have made a first start in the development of an observation instrument…
van Oorsouw, Wietske M. W. J.; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; Sohier, Jody
A novel method for initiating discrimination training with nonverbal children combines a delayed S+ procedure that requires children to refrain from responding to either of 2 physically different choice stimuli until a prompt stimulus is added onto 1 of the choices, and a delayed prompting procedure that presents the same 2-choice stimulus display, but stimuli are initially added onto both
Karen M. Lionello-Denolf; Romariz da Silva Barros; William J. McIlvane
The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) is an important advancement in intelligence assessment, but the equal-weighting method used to compute scores for the memory and reasoning abilities results in some psychometric weaknesses. The equally weighted memory and reasoning scores are highly correlated, leading to a lack of discriminant validity, a potential lack of incremental validity, and poor reliability for their
Although research has established that stigmatized individuals suffer impaired performance under stereotype threat conditions, the anxiety presumed to mediate this effect has proven difficult to establish. In the current investigation, we explored whether non-verbal measures would fare better than self-reports in capturing stereotype threat anxiety. Gay and heterosexual men interacted with preschool children under stereotype threat or control conditions. As
Jennifer K Bosson; Ethan L Haymovitz; Elizabeth C Pinel
This study was a preliminary investigation of non-verbal communication in Japanese subjects. Sixteen males and sixteen females were interviewed by one of two male confederates. The confederates were described and dressed as either high or equal status persons. They assumed either a forward lean or a backward lean during the four minute interview. Tape and video recordings were analyzed across
Several clinical and experimental data suggest that some people with schizophrenia have an impaired ability to attribute relevant mental states to other people. We tested this notion in 24 schizophrenic patients and two control groups, who performed a task devised to test understanding of the intentions of nonverbal comic strip characters. Only the schizophrenic subjects with thought and speech disorganization
Yves Sarfati; Marie-Christine Hardy-Baylé; Chrystel Besche; Daniel Widlöcher
Functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated preferential involvement of bilateral prefrontal cortex during episodic memory encoding and retrieval. The aim of the present study is to address the question whether left prefrontal model for encoding holds when highly non-verbal material is used, and which region of the brain is critically related to successful retrieval. To do this, seven normal subjects were
This article has a twofold purpose. First, to show that gestures and speech are fully integrated and together realize a common communicative aim. That is why, as it will be shown, taking both verbal and nonverbal components under consideration is necessary for the correct understanding of the speaker's intention. Second, to emphasize the role of gestures in the process of
In this paper we propose a mathematical model for the concept of Personal Space (PS) and apply it to simulate the non-verbal communication between agents in virtual worlds. Persons within a group tend to maintain the distances between each other within a certain range that maximizes their degree of comfort. These distances reflect the type of their relationship, and changes
This article critically synthesizes current literature regarding communication between nurses and people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. The unique context of communication between the intellectual disability nurse and people with intellectual disability and the review aims and strategies are outlined. Communication as a concept is explored in depth. Communication between the intellectual disability nurse and the person with
Sixty fifth grade students participated in a study that investigated how children learn from a nonverbal film. The students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions where they were presented individually with (1) a film story, (2) a silent version of the film, (3) a descriptive audio version of the film's content, or (4) the same story…
This single subject design study examined two models of intervention: Denver Model (which merges behavioral, developmental, and relationship-oriented intervention), and PROMPT (a neuro-developmental approach for speech production disorders). Ten young, nonverbal children with autism were matched in pairs and randomized to treatment. They received…
|Teenagers with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have difficulty with fine-motor coordination, which may relate to the novelty of the task or the lack of "self-talk" to mediate action. In this study, we required two teenagers with NLD and two control group teenagers to touch the thumb of each hand firmly and accurately to the fingertips of…
Tuller, Betty; Jantzen, Kelly J.; Olvera, Dianne; Steinberg, Fred; Scott Kelso, J. A.
Many PhysTEC sites have recruited local physics teachers to form Teacher Advisory Groups (TAGs), which meet regularly with department faculty to help improve pre-service teacher preparation. TAGs can serve several functions within a teacher preparation program. Several programs have benefited from the advice and expertise that local teachers were able to provide. TAGS can also become communities where teacher networks form, and where pre-service teachers can meet and learn from experienced working teachers.
|Tennessee's Better Schools Program includes a Master Teacher Program that has three components: teacher education, clinical supervision of beginning teachers, and a career ladder based on performance. In conjunction with the establishment of the Master Teacher Program, 23 master teacher competencies for teacher evaluation have been defined.…
|The start of a new school year is a challenging and exciting time for any teacher--and a time when beginning teachers particularly need our support. Working with new science teachers in the New Science Teachers' Support Network (NSTSN) has shown the authors that veteran teachers have the greatest impact on beginning teacher's success. The NSTSN…
The start of a new school year is a challenging and exciting time for any teacher--and a time when beginning teachers particularly need our support. Working with new science teachers in the New Science Teachers' Support Network (NSTSN) has shown the authors that veteran teachers have the greatest impact on beginning teacher's success. The NSTSN is…
|Historically, "teacher action research" and "teacher research" have been terms mostly used at the PK-12 level. Yet, embracing it fully and visibly in the teacher education realm is important because it raises awareness of the critical and transformative aspects of teaching and learning. It allows teacher research to be made visible and validated…
This section of the Windows to the Universe web site provides information and resources for teachers including activities about astronomy, earth science, physical science, and NASA; educational links on such topics as biology, earth science, math, mythology, space science, and physics; and Share-a-thon, which allows users to share curriculum and activities with fellow teachers. Users can also search educational standards of Windows to the Universe content pages and access a teacher workbook for use with the Windows to the Universe website. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience.
The Catholic University of America, in collaboration with the Solar Physics Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory and the Goddard Space Flight Center, has begun development of an experimental, inquiry-driven and standards-referenced physical science course for undergraduate, pre-service K-8 teachers. The course is team-taught by faculty from the University's Departments of Education and Physics and NRL solar physics research personnel. Basic physical science concepts are taught in the context of the Sun and Sun-Earth Connections, through direct observation, web-based solar data, and images and movies from ongoing space missions. The Sun can illuminate, in ways that cannot be duplicated with comparable clarity in the laboratory, the basics of magnetic and gravitational force fields, Newton's Laws, and light and optics. The immediacy of the connection to ongoing space research and live mission data serves as well to inspire student interest and curiosity. Teaching objectives include pedagogical methods, especially hands-on and observational experiences appropriate to the physics content and the K-8 classroom. The CUA Program, called TOPS! (Top Teachers of Physical Science!) has completed its first year of classroom experience; the first few batches of Program graduates should be in K-8 classrooms in time to capitalize on the motivational opportunities offered by the 2007-2008 IHY and IPY. We present data on the attitudinal and scientific progress of fifteen pre-service Early Childhood and Elementary Education majors as they experienced, many for the first time, the marvels of attractive and repulsive forces, live observations of solar system dynamics, access to real-time satellite data and NASA educational resources.
Michels, D. J.; Pickert, S. M.; Montrose, C. J.; Thompson, J. L.
Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n = 69) and adults (n = 77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R, and DSM-IV criteria, and a corresponding sample of typical child (n = 72) and adult controls (n = 107). At least one of the three primary components of the Wechsler pattern seen in NLD were found in 17–26% of the children and 20–32% of the adults with HFA. All three components occurred in slightly more than 5% of the children and adults with autism. Overall, the VIQ > PIQ profile seen in NLD occurred in 18% of the sample of individuals stringently diagnosed with HFA. Therefore, obtaining this IQ profile is not a valid clinical discriminator between NLD and HFA.
Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J.
Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n = 69) and adults (n = 77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R, and DSM-IV criteria, and a corresponding sample of typical child (n = 72) and adult controls (n = 107). At least one of the three primary components of the Wechsler pattern seen in NLD were found in 17-26% of the children and 20-32% of the adults with HFA. All three components occurred in slightly more than 5% of the children and adults with autism. Overall, the VIQ > PIQ profile seen in NLD occurred in 18% of the sample of individuals stringently diagnosed with HFA. Therefore, obtaining this IQ profile is not a valid clinical discriminator between NLD and HFA. PMID:18516234
This study aimed to explore non-verbal executive processes in simultaneous interpreters. Simultaneous interpreters, bilinguals without any training in simultaneous interpreting, and control monolinguals performed the Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST; Experiment 1) and the Simon task (Experiment 2). Performance on WCST was thought to index cognitive flexibility while Simon task performance was considered an index of inhibitory processes. Simultaneous interpreters outperformed bilinguals and monolinguals on the WCST by showing reduced number of attempts to infer the rule, few errors, and few previous-category perseverations. However, simultaneous interpreters presented Simon effects similar to those found in bilinguals and monolinguals. Together, these results suggest that experience in interpreting is associated with changes in control processes required to perform interpreting tasks.
Emotional signals are crucial for sharing important information, with conspecifics, for example, to warn humans of danger. Humans use a range of different cues to communicate to others how they feel, including facial, vocal, and gestural signals. We examined the recognition of nonverbal emotional vocalizations, such as screams and laughs, across two dramatically different cultural groups. Western participants were compared to individuals from remote, culturally isolated Namibian villages. Vocalizations communicating the so-called "basic emotions" (anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise) were bidirectionally recognized. In contrast, a set of additional emotions was only recognized within, but not across, cultural boundaries. Our findings indicate that a number of primarily negative emotions have vocalizations that can be recognized across cultures, while most positive emotions are communicated with culture-specific signals. PMID:20133790
Sauter, Disa A; Eisner, Frank; Ekman, Paul; Scott, Sophie K
This study aims to investigate the types of difficulty encountered by children with nonverbal (visuospatial) learning disabilities (NLD) during the processing of spatial information derived from descriptions. Two spatial descriptions--one in survey, one in route perspective--and one nonspatial description were orally presented to children aged 9-12 divided in three groups: (i) with NLD (N=12), (ii) with reading disability (RD) (N=11), and (iii) without learning disabilities who served as controls (N=16). Children performed two tasks: sentence verification and location. In the verification task, NLD performed worse in survey text than control and RD groups. Moreover, in the location task NLD were worse than controls in both survey and route descriptions, but significantly poorer than the RD group only in the survey description. The results are discussed considering their implications in understanding the neuropsychological profile of NLD and the processes involved by different types of spatial descriptions. PMID:19520476
While most studies of emotion recognition in Asperger's Syndrome (AS) have focused solely on the verbal decoding of affective states, the current research employed the novel technique of using both nonverbal matching and verbal labeling tasks to examine the decoding of emotional body postures and facial expressions. AS participants performed as accurately as controls at matching fear body postures, but were significantly less accurate than controls verbally identifying these same stimuli. This profile arguably indicates that that while the AS participants were aware that the fear body posture stimuli represented a distinct emotion, they were unsure as to which specific emotion. In addition, the AS participants took significantly longer than the controls to respond to anger body posture stimuli on a matching task. However, in contrast to previous studies, AS and control participants did not differ significantly in their responses to facial expression stimuli, in terms of either accuracy or response times. PMID:23179341
A growing body of research suggests that pride and shame are associated with distinct, cross-culturally recognised nonverbal expressions, which are spontaneously displayed in situations of success and failure, respectively. Here, we review these findings, then offer a theoretical account of the adaptive benefits of these displays. We argue that both pride and shame expressions function as social signals that benefit both observers and expressers. Specifically, pride displays function to signal high status, which benefits displayers by according them deference from others, and benefits observers by affording them valuable information about social-learning opportunities. Shame displays function to appease others after a social transgression, which benefits displayers by allowing them to avoid punishment and negative appraisals, and observers by easing their identification of committed group members and followers. PMID:22471848
Martens, Jason P; Tracy, Jessica L; Shariff, Azim F
15 School-aged high functioning children on the autistic spectrum were compared with a neurotypical cohort on the WISC-III and the KABC-II, to determine the impact of the relatively more strict timing criteria of the former test on the evaluation of nonverbal intelligence. Significant group effects, showing lower performance by the ASD group were found for three of the five sub-tests for the WISC but not for the KABC, peaks and troughs were more evident for the WISC, and the evaluation of intellectual level was also markedly lower for ASD children on the WISC-III as opposed to the KABC-II. The results are discussed in terms of how speed of processing can impact on how children with ASD are 'matched' against neurotypical samples. PMID:22555367
The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure. PMID:24146641
We sought to longitudinally evaluate the potential association of educational level with performance on verbal and nonverbal tasks in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated patients with MCI, age >50 years, no medication intake, absent vascular risk factors, and no lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each patient underwent a clinical assessment packet and a series of neuropsychological tests of the language and constructional praxis subtests of Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMGOG) and the Boston naming test (BNT), at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Educational levels were defined taking into account the total years of education, the school level, and diplomas. MCI patients with low education level showed a stepwise reduction in scores of naming objects (NO; P = 0.009), definition (DF; P = 0.012), language (LT; P = 0.021), constructional praxis (CD; P = 0.022), confrontation naming skills (BXB; P = 0.033), phonemic help (BFB; P = 0.041), and BNT (P = 0.002). Analysis of covariance, controlling for baseline scores, showed that education was associated with NO score (P = 0.002), DF score (P = 0.005), LT (P = 0.008), CD score (P = 0.008), BXB score (44.36 ± 1.84, P = 0.0001), BFB (P = 0.022), and BNT (P = 0.004). Our findings indicate that education appeared to affect verbal and nonverbal task performance in MCI patients. Despite the fact that higher educated patients are more acquainted with the tasks, slower deterioration in consecutive follow-up examinations could be explained by the cognitive reserve theory. The potential association of this protective effect with delayed onset of symptoms deserves further investigation. PMID:23139907
The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure.
This essay presents a list of 11 qualities that outstanding teachers possess, including: (1) flexibility (being able to change plans at a moment's notice and make adjustments accordingly); (2) enthusiasm and energy (showing a drive to excite students and model positive behavior); (3) empathy (acting understanding and compassionate of parents as…
This guide provides teachers with copies of the materials given to students participating in the oceanography program of the Orange County Floating Laboratory Program and provides information concerning colleges and universities offering courses in oceanography and marine science, source of films, and sources of publications concerning the Navy's…
An open letter from the school board to teachers in the Gouverneur (New York) Central School District outlines what is expected of them in the areas of role in the school and the community, preparation, and job attitude. An outline of the letter is included to help other boards prepare a similar document. (MLF)
|Thirteen teachers and a teacher educator describe a year-long graduate program for experienced teachers in which they learned from each other how to become better teachers. The program, which was situated at Harvard's Graduate School of Education, included an integrative seminar, three required courses, and two elective courses. This book is…
This article reports on a study of English language arts teachers' attempts to integrate technology into the English classroom. Informants included middle and high school English teachers with varying teaching and technology experiences. Conceptualized as an interview study, the study used an open-ended protocol and spontaneously generated probes to seek teachers' perspectives. Results from the study revealed that teachers described
Since PreK–12 student achievement is the primary focus of schools, all teachers are called to serve as teachers leaders and improve learning on their campuses. Rather than waiting until they have gained experience, teachers can begin acquiring the knowledge, skills, and dispositions of teacher leaders during their preservice programs. Drawing upon published literature, this synthesis paper recommends reflection, service learning,
This fastback provides practical information to help teachers better fulfill their roles in the mentoring process. The first section, "Introduction," explains the importance of the mentoring relationship. The second section, "Characteristics of a Good Mentor," highlights four core concepts: a mentor leads through example, a mentor leads through…
The present work was aimed at verifying the following hypotheses: (a) lamotrigine, a drug used to treat mood disorders, affects regulation of stress hormone release in humans, and (b) non-verbal behavior during mental stress situations (public speech) is related to hormonal responses. To achieve these aims, we performed a controlled, double-blind study investigating hormonal responses and non-verbal behavior during public
Aikaterini Makatsori; Roman Duncko; Fedor Moncek; Ingrid Loder; Stanislav Katina; Daniela Jezova
For too long colleges and universities have avoided looking critically at their teacher-preparation programs, choosing instead to be comfortable with âbusiness as usual.â We need a dramatic shift in the role of these institutions. It begins when the incoming freshman arrives on campus and does not end four years later. We need to âerase the slateâ and redirect our focus on the real goal of achieving increased student achievement in our K-12 schools. My presentation will include a challenge to all of us to re-think who we are preparing science teachers for our nation's very serious task of significantly increasing student achievement and a roadmap for successful change.
|In this article, the author discusses the consequences of losing mature teachers due to voluntary separation or retirement and the mindset of a mature teacher that is different from younger teachers in a number of ways. Mature teachers are colleagues over 45 years of age possessing significant experience in the field. Future trends in teacher…
|In "Teachers as Learners", a collection of landmark essays, noted teacher educator and scholar Sharon Feiman-Nemser shines a light on teacher learning. Arguing that serious and sustained teacher learning is a necessary condition for ambitious student learning, she examines closely how teachers acquire, generate, and use knowledge about teaching…
The focus of this article is the more immediate way to help new science teachers, which comes from the experienced and professionally active teacher--you! As science teacher educators who work with and study the development of beginning teachers, the authors found the support offered knowingly and unknowingly by the teacher next door was a…
Resources for Preschool Teachers in the classroom. This link will have emotion faces and a tool to create a solution box for student use. Behavior This is the home page to Positive Behavior Intervention System PBIS Entering data for check points Creative Curriculum NAYEC national page along with the IA page NAEYC IA AEYC Dr. Jean's main page with some YouTube songs Dr. Jean ...
From the National Park Service comes the Teachers Corner Web site on Badlands National Park. The lesson plans offered include erosion in a box, understanding rock layers, making dirt, muddying the waters, and more. Each lesson page gives a suggested grade range, key concepts, background, materials, procedure, results, and a why section that explains the scientific reasons behind the results. The pages are simple and easy to follow while containing good material that should help kids learn about geology and our national parks.
The Teacher Tools Web site is part of the National Science Center -- a partnership between the National Science Center, Inc. and the US Army. The tools include lesson plans, classroom activities, videos, distance learning, and backpack activities that are organized into eleven topics that include magnetism, chemistry, electricity, energy, sound, etc. The tools are all downloadable and offer excellent learning resources for those teaching science to students in grade 3 to 12.
This educational website contains teacher materials for many subjects as well as books, professional resources, advice, and teaching tips for educators. Classroom materials include project ideas, activities such as web quests, unit ideas and lesson plans by grade level. Science topics covered include ecosystems, the solar system, the Sun, geography, seasons, weather, dinosaurs, life science and physical science. Links to additional information are also provided.
This Instruction supersedes Assistant Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness) Memorandum, 'Teacher and Teacher's Aide Placement Assistance Program,' January 19, 1994. It implements Sections 1151, 1598, and 2410j of Title 10, United States Code, by ...
An fMRI pitch memory task was administered to left and right anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) patients. The goal was to verify the neuroanatomical correlates of non-verbal memory, and to determine if pitch memory tasks can identify cognitive risk prior to ATL. The data showed that the bilateral posterior superior temporal lobes implement pitch memory in both ATL patients and NCs (normal controls), indicating that the task can be accomplished with either anterior temporal lobe resected. NCs activate the posterior temporal lobes more strongly than ATL patients during highly accurate performance. In contrast, both ATL groups activate the anterior cingulate in association with accuracy. While our data clarifies the functional neuroanatomy of pitch memory, it also indicates that such tasks do not serve well to lateralize and functionally map potentially "at risk" non-verbal memory skills prior to ATL. PMID:23031747
Tracy, Joseph I; Hernandez, R Nick; Mayekar, Sonal; Osipowicz, Karol; Corbett, Brian; Pascua, Mark; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini D
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of melodic based communication therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant progress after treatment. The MBCT group progressed significantly in number of verbal attempts after weeks 1 through 4 and number of correct words after weeks 1 and 3, while the traditional group progressed significantly after weeks 4 and 5. No significant differences in number of verbal attempts or number of correct words were noted between groups following treatment. A significant number of new words were heard in the home environment for the MBCT group (p = .04). Participants in the MBCT group had more imitative attempts (p = .03). MBCT appears to be a valid form of intervention for children with autism. PMID:23065117
Sandiford, Givona A; Mainess, Karen J; Daher, Noha S
A novel method for initiating discrimination training with nonverbal children combines a delayed S+ procedure that requires children to refrain from responding to either of 2 physically different choice stimuli until a prompt stimulus is added onto 1 of the choices, and a delayed prompting procedure that presents the same 2-choice stimulus display, but stimuli are initially added onto both choices. After a short delay, the added stimulus on the S- is removed, and the choice of the S+ is thus prompted. If the children learn to observe and respond to the defining features of the S+ choice stimulus, then they may respond to the S+ prior to the added-stimulus removal. Implementation was successful with 8 nonverbal children who had not previously exhibited simple simultaneous discrimination, suggesting a useful methodology for initiating discrimination training with populations for whom verbal instruction is ineffective. PMID:19606260
Lionello-Denolf, Karen M; Barros, Romariz da Silva; McIlvane, William J
A novel method for initiating discrimination training with nonverbal children combines a delayed S+ procedure that requires children to refrain from responding to either of 2 physically different choice stimuli until a prompt stimulus is added onto 1 of the choices, and a delayed prompting procedure that presents the same 2-choice stimulus display, but stimuli are initially added onto both choices. After a short delay, the added stimulus on the S- is removed, and the choice of the S+ is thus prompted. If the children learn to observe and respond to the defining features of the S+ choice stimulus, then they may respond to the S+ prior to the added-stimulus removal. Implementation was successful with 8 nonverbal children who had not previously exhibited simple simultaneous discrimination, suggesting a useful methodology for initiating discrimination training with populations for whom verbal instruction is ineffective.
Lionello-DeNolf, Karen M.; Barros, Romariz da Silva; McIlvane, William J.
This study replicates and extends R. Buriel, W. Perez, T. L. De Ment, D. V. Chavez, and V. R. Moran's (1998) study to assess the influence of language brokering on acculturation, biculturalism, and nonverbal decoding in U.S. culture as well as the subsequent influence of these variables on academic self-efficacy and grade point average. Bilingual Hispanic teenagers attending U.S. public
This single subject design study examined two models of intervention: Denver Model (which merges behavioral, developmental,\\u000a and relationship-oriented intervention), and PROMPT (a neuro-developmental approach for speech production disorders). Ten\\u000a young, nonverbal children with autism were matched in pairs and randomized to treatment. They received 12 1-h weekly sessions\\u000a of therapy and daily 1-h home intervention delivered by parents. Fidelity criteria
Sally J. Rogers; Deborah Hayden; Susan Hepburn; Renee Charlifue-Smith; Terry Hall; Athena Hayes
Neuropsychological studies suggest a subclinical impairment in executive function that occurs with normal aging. This is the first study to examine the performance of healthy older adults on the Tower of London-Revised (TOL-R), as well as the relationship between TOL-R performance and verbal and nonverbal abilities. Performance of 63 older adult participants on the TOL-R and two WAIS-III subtests was
The prospective association between exposure to family violence or maltreatment in the first four years of life and nonverbal\\u000a decoding ability at age 8.5 years was examined in a British birth cohort. Overall differences were very minor, except it was\\u000a found that children exposed to maternal victimization were less accurate in decoding low intensity expressions of fear, than\\u000a were children from
Objectives: One aspect of social cognition that has received little research attention in sport psychology is the impact of non-verbal behaviour on sporting encounters. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that opponents’ clothing and body language have on the way in which they are perceived.Method: Experienced table-tennis players (n=18) viewed videos of four models warming up
Iain Greenlees; Andrew Bradley; Tim Holder; Richard Thelwell
This study compared the cognitive ability of adult Canadian First Nations (American Indian) aboriginals (N=101) living in remote areas to recruits (N=131) undergoing military training in the Canadian Forces. Comparisons involved both verbal and nonverbal measures: The Canadian Forces Aptitude Test (CFAT), Wonderlic Personnel Test, (WPT), Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and Mill Hill Vocabulary (MHV) test. All measures were
In healthcare settings, medical professionals' nonverbal behavior impacts patients' satisfaction and long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a music therapist's nonverbal behavior, affect and proximity, on participation and affect of 38 individuals with Alzheimer's disease and other related dementia (ADRD) during movement-to-music, singing, and instrument playing. Data indicated 62% of the individuals evinced positive affect when the therapist utilized affect and proximity combined, followed by the affect only condition (53%), proximity only condition (30%), and no affect or proximity condition (28%). A Friedman analysis indicated a significant difference in individuals' affect according to treatment conditions, chi(r)2 (3, 4) = 34.05, p = .001. Nonverbal behavior also impacted individuals' accuracy of participation, with participation at 79% for both affect and proximity combined, 75% for affect only, 71% for no affect or proximity, and 70% for proximity only. A significant difference occurred for participation by treatment conditions, F (3, 111) = 4.05, p = .009, eta2 = .10. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21275336
Oral narrative retelling is often problematic for children with communicative and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, beyond a suggested role of language level, little is known about the basis of narrative performance. In this study we examine whether oral narrative retelling might be associated not just with language level but also with skills related to nonverbal narrative temporal sequencing. A diagnostically heterogeneous sample of Swedish-speaking children with a full scale IQ >70 was included in the study (N = 55; age 6-9 years). Narrative retelling skills were measured using the three subscores from the bus story test (BST). Independent predictors included (1) temporal sequencing skills according to a picture arrangement test and (2) a language skills factor consisting of definitional vocabulary and receptive grammar. Regression analyses show that language skills predicted BST Sentence Length and Subordinate Clauses subscores, while both temporal sequencing and language were independently linked with the BST Information subscore. When subdividing the sample based on nonverbal temporal sequencing level, a significant subgroup difference was found only for BST Information. Finally, a principal component analysis shows that temporal sequencing and BST Information loaded on a common factor, separately from the language measures. It is concluded that language level is an important correlate of narrative performance more generally in this diagnostically heterogeneous sample, and that nonverbal temporal sequencing functions are important especially for conveying story information. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23855443
Johnels, Jakob Åsberg; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher; Miniscalco, Carmela
|In this article, the author shares some tips for teachers. His tips are as follows: (1) a teacher should forget his or her education; (2) a teacher should forget the theory (3) a teacher should remember that he or she is a translator, not an originator; (4) a teacher should respect his or her students; (5) a teacher should be true to his or her…
... Teachers' Tools: Adult Program. Medicines in My Home. -. ... Program Description and Objectives: Adult Program; Teachers' Kit - Adult Program. -. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers
We performed a delayed-item-recognition task to investigate the neural substrates of non-verbal visual working memory with event-related fMRI (‘Shape task’). 25 young subjects (mean age: 24.0 years; STD=3.8 years) were instructed to study a list of either 1,2 or 3 unnamable nonsense line drawings for 3 seconds (‘stimulus phase’ or STIM). Subsequently, the screen went blank for 7 seconds (‘retention phase’ or RET), and then displayed a probe stimulus for 3 seconds in which subject indicated with a differential button press whether the probe was contained in the studied shape-array or not (‘probe phase’ or PROBE). Ordinal Trend Canonical Variates Analysis (Habeck et al., 2005a) was performed to identify spatial covariance patterns that showed a monotonic increase in expression with memory load during all task phases. Reliable load-related patterns were identified in the stimulus and retention phase (p<0.01), while no significant pattern could be discerned during the probe phase. Spatial covariance patterns that were obtained from an earlier version of this task (Habeck et al., 2005b) using 1, 3, or 6 letters (‘Letter task’) were also prospectively applied to their corresponding task phases in the current non-verbal task version. Interestingly, subject expression of covariance patterns from both verbal and non-verbal retention phases correlated positively in the non-verbal task for all memory loads (p<0.0001). Both patterns also involved similar frontoparietal brain regions that were increasing in activity with memory load, and mediofrontal and temporal regions that were decreasing. Mean subject expression of both patterns across memory load during retention also correlated positively with recognition accuracy (dL) in the Shape task (p<0.005). These findings point to similarities in the neural substrates of verbal and non-verbal rehearsal processes. Encoding processes, on the other hand, are critically dependent on the to-be-remembered material, and seem to necessitate material-specific neural substrates.
The purpose of this research has been to determine the influence of verbal and nonverbal behavior on power and status within small groups. The interactions which took place within five small groups of students in a middle school spatial reasoning elective were analyzed. Verbal responses to requests for help were analyzed using sequential analysis techniques. Results indicated that the identity of the student asking a question or requesting help in some form or another is a better predictor of whether he/she will receive help than the type of questions he/she asks. Nonverbal behavior was analyzed for social gestures, body language, and shifts in possession of tools. Each nonverbal act was coded as either "positive" (encouraging participation) or "negative" (discouraging participation); and, the researchers found that in groups in which there was unequal participation and less "help" provided among peers (according to the verbal analysis results) there tended to be more "negative" nonverbal behavior demonstrated than in groups in which "shared talk time" and "helping behavior" were common characteristics of the norm. The combined results from the analyses of the verbal and nonverbal behavior of students within small groups were then reviewed through the conflict, power, status perspective of small group interactions in order to determine some common characteristics of high functioning (collaborative) and low functioning (non-collaborative) groups. Some common characteristics of the higher functioning groups include: few instances of conflict, shared "talk time" and decision making, inclusive leadership, frequent use of encouraging social gestures and body language, and more sharing of tools than seizing. Some shared traits among the lower functioning groups include: frequent occurrences of interpersonal conflict, a focus on process (rather than content), persuasive or alienating leadership, unequal participation and power, frequent use of discouraging social gestures and body language, and more seizing of tools than sharing. While "functionality" was easily defined, labeling groups according to this characteristic proved to be a more difficult task. Although there was clearly a "highest functioning" and a "lowest functioning" group among the five, the other three groups fell somewhere in between these two, along a continuum of group functioning.
How do humans coordinate their intentions, goals and motor behaviors when performing joint action tasks? Recent experimental evidence suggests that resonance processes in the observer's motor system are crucially involved in our ability to understand actions of others', to infer their goals and even to comprehend their action-related language. In this paper, we present a control architecture for human-robot collaboration that exploits this close perception-action linkage as a means to achieve more natural and efficient communication grounded in sensorimotor experiences. The architecture is formalized by a coupled system of dynamic neural fields representing a distributed network of neural populations that encode in their activation patterns goals, actions and shared task knowledge. We validate the verbal and nonverbal communication skills of the robot in a joint assembly task in which the human-robot team has to construct toy objects from their components. The experiments focus on the robot's capacity to anticipate the user's needs and to detect and communicate unexpected events that may occur during joint task execution. PMID:20725504
Classroom emotional climates (ECs) are interrelated with students' engagement with university courses. Despite growing interest in emotions and EC research, little is known about the ways in which social interactions and different subject matter mediate ECs in preservice science teacher education classes. In this study we investigated the EC and associated classroom interactions in a preservice science teacher education class. We were interested in the ways in which salient classroom interactions were related to the EC during lessons centered on debates about science-based issues (e.g., nuclear energy alternatives). Participants used audience response technology to indicate their perceptions of the EC. Analysis of conversation for salient video clips and analysis of non-verbal conduct (acoustic parameters, body movements, and facial expressions) supplemented EC data. One key contribution that this study makes to preservice science teacher education is to identify the micro-processes of successful and unsuccessful class interactions that were associated with positive and neutral EC. The structure of these interactions can inform the practice of other science educators who wish to produce positive ECs in their classes. The study also extends and explicates the construct of intensity of EC.
Bellocchi, Alberto; Ritchie, Stephen M.; Tobin, Kenneth; Sandhu, Maryam; Sandhu, Satwant
Examined what students think about good teachers. 198 students of 4 age groups (7, 10, 13, and 16 yrs old) and teachers from primary and secondary schools were asked to write an essay on the good teacher. The correspondence between conceptual items in the essays was investigated. The analysis revealed 2 dimensions. The first dimension reflected the preference of students
J. J. Beishuizen; E. Hof; Putten van C. M; S. Bouwmeester; J. J. Asscher
Reports how the prolonged 1978 Levittown (New York) teachers strike initially depleted resources and created problems but proved to be the impetus for development of an effective school system. Reviews sources of conflict that led to the strike, reactions of community and teachers, and reforms focused on teacher empowerment. (FMW)
|In this study, researchers qualitatively analyzed middle school teacher participant perceptions of qualities of teacher effectiveness across 3 years (2006-2009) through 66 focus group sessions by comparing the participants' identified qualities to Stronge's (2007) Teacher Skills Assessment Checklist. Surprisingly, a disproportionate number…
|The purpose of this research and development study was to design and develop an affordable, computer-based, pre-service teacher assessment and reporting system to allow teacher education institutions and supervising teachers to efficiently enter evaluation criteria, record pre-service teacher evaluations, and generate evaluation reports. The…
Investigates problems besetting United States teacher education institutions. Cites curricula, the relatively low status of teachers in American society, and low salary expectations as reasons behind the present need for better teachers and improved teacher education. Discusses current reform efforts to attract talented persons to the profession.…
|This paper explores the concept of instrumental/vocal learning when studying the same instrument or voice with more than one concurrent teacher. In this context, teachers may be working as a team, or one or both teachers may not know of the other's contribution to a student's learning. Qualitative data from music students and teachers at the…
|New teachers are often too overwhelmed by their new responsibilities to be the effective teachers they wish to be. Brian K. Jones, a new teacher who loves his job but still thinks of quitting at least once a month, says that teachers need a more comprehensive system of supports before and after they enter the classroom. Such a system would…
The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430 children (aged 11-15 years) from three state secondary schools in disadvantaged areas in one county in the South East of England. Total difficulties (i.e., emotional symptoms, peer problems, hyperactivity, and conduct problems) were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adjustment was made for gender, age, ethnicity, special educational needs, exclusion history, family structure, and family socio-economic disadvantage. Adverse life events were measured with Tiet et al.'s (Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1191-1200, 1998) Adverse Life Events Scale. Non-verbal cognitive ability was measured with Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices Plus. Non-verbal cognitive ability moderated the effect of adverse life events both on total difficulties and on emotional symptoms. Overgeneralizing mediated the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events and total difficulties. Adverse life events were related to a tendency to overgeneralize which was associated with emotional and behavioral problems, but particularly among those adolescents with lower non-verbal cognitive ability. PMID:21503645
The sensitivity of eleven pet dogs and eleven 2.5-year-old children to others' past perceptual access was tested for object-specificity in a playful, nonverbal task in which a human Helper's knowledge state regarding the whereabouts of a hidden toy and a stick (a tool necessary for getting the out-of-reach toy) was systematically manipulated. In the four experimental conditions the Helper either participated or was absent during hiding of the toy and the stick and therefore she knew the place(s) of (1) both the toy and the stick, (2) only the toy, (3) only the stick or (4) neither of them. The subjects observed the hiding processes, but they could not reach the objects, so they had to involve the Helper to retrieve the toy. The dogs were more inclined to signal the place of the toy in each condition and indicated the location of the stick only sporadically. However the children signalled both the location of the toy and that of the stick in those situations when the Helper had similar knowledge regarding the whereabouts of them (i.e. knew or ignored both of them), and in those conditions in which the Helper was ignorant of the whereabouts of only one object the children indicated the place of this object more often than that of the known one. At the same time however, both dogs and children signalled the place of the toy more frequently if the Helper had been absent during toy-hiding compared to those conditions when she had participated in the hiding. Although this behaviour appears to correspond with the Helper's knowledge state, even the subtle distinction made by the children can be interpreted without a casual understanding of knowledge-formation in others. PMID:15895261
Scholars and teachers are increasingly realizing that language consists of more than the additive nature of learned morphological, syntactical, and lexical items. This paper describes the pragmatic implications of linguistic strings, based on research and interviews with native speakers of American English and standard German. (20 references)…
Professional educational philosophers C.A. Bowers and D.J. Flinders (1990) describe the classroom as an ecology comprising interrelated linguistic and cultural patterns that determine how information is communicated in the classroom. their classroom ecology model centers on the observation of three interconnected areas: the metaphors that the teacher and the textbook use to introduce students to the formal and informal curriculum,
Research on HCI and multimedia systems for art and entertainment based on non-verbal, full-body, emotional and social interaction is the main topic of this paper. A short review of previous research projects in this area at our centre are presented, to introduce the main issues discussed in the paper. In particular, a case study based on novel paradigms of social active music listening is presented. Active music listening experience enables users to dynamically mould expressive performance of music and of audiovisual content. This research is partially supported by the 7FP EU-ICT Project SAME (Sound and Music for Everyone, Everyday, Everywhere, Every Way, www.sameproject.eu).
The focus of this article is the more immediate way to help new science teachers, which comes from the experienced and professionally active teacher--you! As science teacher educators who work with and study the development of beginning teachers, the authors found the support offered knowingly and unknowingly by the teacher next door was a critical factor in assisting the new teacher (Luft and Roehrig 2006). Other research has expanded on this and found that support creates a positive learning and teaching environment and contributes to the development of the new teacher (Dangel 2006). Experienced science teachers can use the research-based strategies presented in this article to assist beginning science teachers.
This study examines the relationship between teacher-student attachment and teachers' attitude towards work. We show that teacher-student attachment and teachers' attitudes towards work appear critical in promoting and maintaining positive teacher behaviours. Communication connects students with teachers, improving the classroom atmosphere. Teachers who communicate effectively with their students can give them appropriate and helpful feedback. Teacher-student interaction is extremely important
Fluid intelligence (Gf) predicts performance on a wide range of cognitive activities, and children with impaired Gf often experience academic difficulties. Previous attempts to improve Gf have been hampered by poor control conditions and single outcome measures. It is thus still an open question whether Gf can be improved by training. This study included 4-year-old children (N = 101) who performed computerized training (15 min/day for 25 days) of either non-verbal reasoning, working memory, a combination of both, or a placebo version of the combined training. Compared to the placebo group, the non-verbal reasoning training group improved significantly on Gf when analysed as a latent variable of several reasoning tasks. Smaller gains on problem solving tests were seen in the combination training group. The group training working memory improved on measures of working memory, but not on problem solving tests. This study shows that it is possible to improve Gf with training, which could have implications for early interventions in children. PMID:21477197