Smythe, Mary-Jeanette; Hess, Jon A.
This project was undertaken to address the question of whether student reports are a valid way to measure teacher nonverbal immediacy. In response to concerns about psychometric shortcomings of available immediacy measures, Study 1 was conducted to refine the items used to measure teacher immediacy. The resulting set of 8 items, Nonverbal…
Kemal Sinan Özmen
This research study focuses on integrating acting theories in pre-service English teacher education so as to improve nonverbal immediacy behavior and to contribute to the development process of teacher identity. Studies on incorporation of acting literature into teacher education provide educators with some significant findings clearly indicating that certain teacher competences can be fostered effectively by benefiting from acting theories
Ozmen, Kemal Sinan
This research study focuses on integrating acting theories in pre-service English teacher education so as to improve nonverbal immediacy behavior and to contribute to the development process of teacher identity. Studies on incorporation of acting literature into teacher education provide educators with some significant findings clearly indicating…
McCroskey, James C.; And Others
Investigates what specific teacher nonverbal immediacy behaviors are most associated with students' evaluations of their teachers. Uses data from Australia, Finland, Puerto Rico, and the United States. Compares the relationship between nonverbal immediacy and teacher evaluation across diverse cultural and linguistic communities as well as…
Finn, Amber N.; Schrodt, Paul
This study examined students' perceived understanding as a mediator of the relationship between student perceptions of teacher clarity, nonverbal immediacy cues, and learner empowerment (i.e., meaningfulness, competence, and impact). Participants included 261 undergraduate students who completed survey instruments. Results of structural equation…
Habash, Samira H.
This quantitative study explores the relationship between student perceptions of teacher nonverbal immediacy and student course retention as well as the relationship between student perceptions of teacher misbehaviors and student course retention within the context of an urban community college. Additionally, this study investigates the mediating…
Witt, Paul L.; Wheeless, Lawrence R.
Presents a study in which experimental manipulation of combinations of nonverbal and verbal immediacy allowed researchers to more precisely test these causal links in relation to recall, learning loss, and affective learning. Notes that higher verbal immediacy in the experimental manipulations, when combined with higher and lower nonverbal…
McDowell, Earl E.; McDowell, Carlene E.
This study focused on verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviors of teachers, the relationship between immediacy variables and cognitive learning, as well as homophily, interpersonal solidarity, and student attentiveness at the senior-high school level. Subjects, 87 female and 73 male senior-high school students enrolled in interpersonal…
Burroughs, Nancy F.
This study examined (1) whether or not college students in actual classrooms used resistance strategies similar to those found in earlier hypothetical-anchored research; (2) the influence of teacher immediacy on student's differential use of those resistance strategies; and (3) the relationship among students' willingness to comply, teachers'…
Sanders, Judith A.; Wiseman, Richard L.
Examines the effects of teacher immediacy in the multicultural classroom on perceived cognitive, affective, and behavioral learning for White, Asian, Hispanic, and Black students. Finds that, in general, teacher immediacy behaviors enhance students' learning. Notes similarities and differences in the effects of teacher immediacy cues across United…
Zhang, Qin; Oetzel, John G.; Gao, Xiaofang; Wilcox, Richard G.; Takai, Jiro
Cross-cultural validity of teacher immediacy scales is a constant concern in instructional communication research. The present study examines the validity of two existing teacher immediacy scales: the Revised Nonverbal Immediacy Measure (RNIM) and the Chinese Teacher Immediacy Scale (CTIS) in U.S., Chinese, German, and Japanese cultures. Results…
Zhang, Qin; Oetzel, John G.
The purpose of this study is to construct and validate a scale of perceived teacher immediacy from a Chinese cultural perspective. Based on the immediacy-exchange theories that emphasize the core role culture plays in the assessment of immediacy, this study argues that the validity and reliability of existing teacher verbal and nonverbal immediacy…
Rifkind, Lawrence J.; Harper, Loretta F.
A discussion of immediacy, the degree of perceived physical or psychological closeness between people, looks at a variety of verbal and nonverbal factors and behaviors useful to gain immediacy among co-workers, including attractiveness, clothing, posture, facial/eye behavior, vocal cues, space, touch, time, and gestures. Cross-gender dimensions,…
Wei, Fang-Yi Flora; Wang, Y. Ken
This study investigated the relationship between teacher immediacy and college students' use of text messaging in class. Using a cross-sectional survey sample (N=228), structural equation model analyses showed that students' learning motivation does not mediate the potential effects of teacher immediacy and students' use of text messaging in…
Garrott, Carl L.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the role of immediate behaviors on L2 Spanish students when presented with videos exhibiting verbal and nonverbal immediacy in permutations. Six sets of subjects (N = 320) viewed the videos and responded on a seven-step scale of perceived caring and one-item instrument on learning. The results…
Moore, Alexis; And Others
Examines the relationship between college student perceptions of teacher immediacy and student ratings of instruction. Notes that 266 students responded to instruments designed to measure the frequency of teachers' verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviors. Finds positive correlation between immediacy and student ratings of instruction. Discusses…
Plax, Timothy G.; And Others
Tested a model of secondary and college students' affective learning (attitudes toward course, subject, teachers) as a function of behavior alternation techniques (BATs) and teacher nonverbal immediacy (concern for students). Found a positive relationship among teachers' use of BATs, immediacy, and students' affective learning. (PD)
Timothy G. Plax; Patricia Kearney; James C. McCroskey; Virginia P. Richmond
This investigation is the sixth in a series of projects designed to programmatically examine teacher power in the classroom. Recognizing that nonverbal behaviors typically provide the framework for interpreting verbal messages, this project proposed and sequentially tested a heuristic model of student affective learning as a function of behavior alteration techniques and teacher nonverbal immediacy. Employing a two?study correlational design,
Identifies verbal teacher immediacy behaviors which relate to increased learning, finding that the impact of both verbal and non-verbal behaviors on learners is enhanced as class size increases. Provides empirical definition of a specific set of low-inference verbal variables which, combined with previously identified nonverbal variables, clarify…
Powell, Robert G.; Harville, Barbara
Examines (1) the correlations between teacher clarity and teacher verbal and nonverbal immediacy for ethnically diverse students; and (2) the correlations of clarity and verbal and nonverbal immediacy with four instructional outcomes for ethnically diverse students. Finds cultural differences in these relationships. Finds significant correlations…
Wilson, Janie H.; Locker, Lawrence, Jr.
Immediacy communicates psychological availability and warmth. In the classroom, instructor immediacy is traditionally measured with ratings of nonverbal and verbal behaviors. Although nonverbal immediacy has been accepted as a legitimate measure of immediacy, the validity of verbal items has been questioned. In the present study, we examined face…
Previous research has indicated that nonverbal teacher behaviors such as smiling, vocal expressiveness, movement about the classroom, and relaxed body position are salient low?inference variables of a process which results in a product of increased cognitive and affective learning. This study identified a set of verbal teacher immediacy behaviors which similarly relate to increased student learning. Results indicated differentiated use
Kearney, Patricia; And Others
A study investigated the effects of teacher nonverbal immediacy and strategy type on college students' likelihood of resisting teacher strategies for gaining compliance. Subjects were 629 undergraduate students randomly assigned to four separate conditions. They responded to four written scenarios that reflected the variables of teacher immediacy…
Estepp, Christopher M.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among teacher immediacy, professor/student rapport, and student self-regulated learning among selected undergraduate students in a college of agriculture. The independent variables for this study were verbal and nonverbal immediacy and professor/student rapport. The dependent variable in…
Chamberlin, Carla R.
Investigates the relationship between nonverbal behaviors of immediacy and dominance on teachers' initial impressions of trust toward a supervisor. Notes that supervisor immediacy resulted in higher perceptions of trust than supervisor dominance, and immediacy also rated higher on measures of appropriateness and effectiveness than dominance.…
Goodboy, Alan K.; Weber, Keith; Bolkan, San
A 2 x 2 experiment was conducted in which instructor nonverbal immediacy and verbal immediacy were manipulated in a college classroom to examine causal links with cognitive and affective learning outcomes. Previous criticisms concerning immediacy and learning research were considered and multiple operationalizations of cognitive learning (i.e.,…
Jones, Susanne M.; Guerrero, Laura K.
Explores the combined influence of nonverbal immediacy and verbal person centeredness in the emotional support process. Tests three complementary models in an experiment with participants who disclosed an emotionally upsetting event to a confederate trained to display different levels of nonverbal immediacy and person centeredness. Suggests that…
Christensen, Laura J.; Menzel, Kent E.
Notes that recent research suggests a curvilinear relationship between teacher immediacy behaviors and student learning. Investigates these variables as they occur in relationships between college professors and students. Finds positive, linear relationships between (1) teacher nonverbal and verbal immediacy and perceived cognitive, affective, and…
Skow, Lisa; Whitaker, Todd
Nonverbal immediacy behaviors are nonlinguistic actions that send four simultaneous and complementary messages conveying a person's approachability, availability, closeness and warmth, and "multi-channeling" qualities. For principals, such behaviors help even potentially hostile interactions proceed more smoothly. Principals should consciously…
This study utilize d direct observation to explore the relationship between nonverbal communication variables (immediacy and territoriality) and roommate satisfaction. Data were collected from 51 roommate pairs (N = 102) at a small liberal arts college. Participants were asked to engage in a discussion about a time they had to negotiate activities…
Robinson, Rena Y.
A study which replicated previous research focused on the perceived affiliative communication behaviors of teachers within the classroom, their relationship to student learning, and the interrelationship among those behaviors. Six hypotheses were formulated based on already published literature. These hypotheses suggest that student perceptions of…
Nixon, Sarah; Vickerman, Philip; Maynard, Carol
Using a qualitative approach drawing on the experiences of four HE lecturers, this study provides an exploration of and insights into a peer review of teaching (PRT) scheme, which focused on teacher immediacy and communication skills. Within the United Kingdom, limited research has been undertaken in relation to teacher immediacy even though…
Trad, Laura; Katt, James; Miller, Ann Neville
Instructor nonverbal immediacy has been associated with a range of positive student outcomes, but it is difficult to convey in an online environment. We investigated whether the text-based variable of face threat mitigation (FTM) alone--without the visual cues of nonverbally immediate behaviors--could significantly raise students' motivation…
Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Yun, Doshik; Kim, Wonsun
This study compared Korean students in South Korea and Korean students in the US regarding their perceptions of instructor decision authority and verbal and nonverbal immediacy. Korean students reported higher instructor decision authority and lower levels of instructor verbal and nonverbal immediacy in Korean classrooms than in US classrooms.…
Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Thompson, Catherine A.
Teacher immediacy has been a widely studied construct with the overall finding that being immediate is good. Verbal and nonverbal immediacy has been associated with increased motivation to study and learning. The most common methodology used to measure teacher immediacy has been student reports. An underlying assumption of this methodology is that…
The National Assessment on Educational Progress signals that American students are not being adequately prepared to compete globally in an ever changing scientific society. As a result, legislation mandated that all students be assessed and show proficiency in scientific literacy beginning in Grade 4 with the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2002 also known as No Child Left Behind. Research indicates a disturbing decline in the number of U.S. students pursuing more rigorous science courses in high school, majoring in scientific areas in college, and choosing future careers in science. With a need to improve science instruction and enhance science literacy for all students, this study focuses on immediate communication behaviors of the classroom teacher as a deciding factor in the opinions of high school students towards science. The purpose of this study was to reveal high school science student perceptions of teacher communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal, and how they influence their motivation to learn science. The researcher utilized a nonexperimental, quantitative research design to guide this study. Teacher and student data were collected using the Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ). The Student Motivation to Learn Instrument (SMLI) across gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status survey was used to evaluate student motivation in science. Participants were encouraged to be honest in reporting and sharing information concerning teacher communication behaviors. The data revealed that teacher immediacy behaviors, both verbal and nonverbal, were perceived differently in terms of student gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. The results showed that teachers who display positive communication behaviors and use challenging questioning followed with positive responses create pathways to potentially powerful relationships. These relationships between teachers and students can lead to increased student motivation and academic achievement in the science classroom.
Miller, Ann Neville; Katt, James A.; Brown, Tim; Sivo, Stephen A.
In this study, we examined the potential mediating role of instructor credibility in the relationship of instructor self-disclosure and nonverbal immediacy to student incivility in the college classroom. Four hundred thirty-eight students completed online questionnaires regarding the instructor of the class they attended prior to the one in which…
Frymier, Ann Bainbridge
Tests two models (the Motivation Model and the Learning Model) of the immediacy-learning relationship using path analysis. Uses Keller's Model of Motivation to explain the results, finding that teacher nonverbal and verbal immediacy enhances student motivation, presumably by impacting attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. (SR)
Plax, Timothy G.; And Others
Recognizing that nonverbal behaviors typically provide the framework for interpreting verbal messages, this project (the sixth in a series of projects designed to examine teacher power in the classroom) proposed and sequentially tested a heuristic model of student affective learning as a function of behavior alteration techniques and teacher…
Rester, Carolyn H.; Edwards, Renee
Using a message interpretation perspective, this study (N = 379) examined how sex of the student, sex of the teacher, and the setting affect the messages students receive from a teacher's excessive use of immediacy. Results reveal that students interpret excessive immediacy from female teachers as caring, but the same behavior from male teachers…
Khoo, Keiko Inada
Immediacy is the closeness expressed by communicators which maybe observed in teachers as they try to engage students. Teacher immediacy may take nonverbal and verbal forms. U.S. studies have concluded that immediacy has positive effects on U.S. college students' learning. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of American faculty's…
Butland, Mark J.; Beebe, Steven A.
Teacher immediacy has surfaced as an important instructional communication variable, yet little is known about how it functions to effect learning. To offer an explanation as to how teacher immediacy facilitates learning, a study investigated implicit communication theory. Subjects consisted of 625 undergraduate students who completed…
Butland, Mark J.; Beebe, Steven A.
Teacher immediacy and use of power have surfaced as important instructional communication variables, yet little is known about how they function to effect learning. To offer an explanation as to how teacher immediacy and use of power facilitates learning, a study investigated implicit communication theory. Subjects consisted of 625 undergraduate…
Martin, Laura; Mottet, Timothy P.
The purpose of this study was to show how instructor use of nonverbal immediacy behaviors influence Hispanic students' affective learning in ninth-grade writing conferences, regardless of the level of feedback sensitivity provided. According to Kluger and DeNisi's (1996) feedback intervention theory, when feedback is direct and targeted on the…
Michael Zane Hackman; Kim B. Walker
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of conveyance system design and social presence, in the form of teacher immediacy behavior, on perceived student learning and satisfaction in the televised classroom. Results indicate that system design and teacher immediacy behavior strongly impact student learning and satisfaction. System variables such as interactivity and clear audio and video transmission positively
Hackman, Michael Zane; Walker, Kim B.
Investigates the effects of conveyance system design and social presence, in the form of teacher immediacy behavior, on perceived student learning and satisfaction in the televised classroom. Finds that system design and teacher immediacy behavior strongly impact student learning and satisfaction. (MG)
Chesebro, Joseph L.; McCroskey, James C.
Examines the relationships among receiver apprehension, teacher clarity, and teacher immediacy in the instructional context. Examines the relationships between state receiver apprehension and student motivation, affect, and cognitive learning. Finds that, although state receiver apprehension is significantly related to negative instructional…
Ni, Shu-Fang; Aust, Ronald
This study used quantitative measures to gather data from online students to analyze the effects of perceptions about teacher verbal immediacy and classroom community on students' level of satisfaction, perceived learning, and online discussion frequency. Using convenience sampling, 214 students were recruited from undergraduate and graduate…
Frymier, Ann Bainbridge
A study investigated the impact of teachers' use of immediacy behaviors on students' reported motivation to study over the course of a semester. The state and trait motivation of 178 undergraduate students (enrolled in communication courses at a mid-sized eastern university) to study for a class was measured at three points during the semester.…
Brooks, Douglas M.; Bowers, Norman D.
This investigation considered several issues relevant to the assessment of teacher nonverbal behaviors in the classroom. Multiple steps were taken to identify teacher proximity as a quantifiable dimension of teacher nonverbal behavior. These steps include the following: a) isolation of the student-initiated question frame as a suitable and…
Nichol, Jon; Watson, Kate
Describes the use of video tutoring for distance education within the context of a post-graduate teacher training course at the University of Exeter. Analysis of the tapes used a protocol based on non-verbal communication research, and findings suggest that the interaction of participants was significantly different from face-to-face…
Robert J. Sidelinger; James C. McCroskey
Teacher clarity was found to be positively correlated with perceived nonverbal immediacy and socio?communicative style of the instructor. It also was found to be associated with enhanced student affect toward the instructor and the course. Students who perceived the verbal and nonverbal communication of their instructors as being clear and understandable also perceived their instructors as being nonverbally immediate, assertive,
Love, Alice M.; Roderick, Jessie A.
Authors feel that bringing the nonverbal communication of teachers to the level of conscious awareness could make possible the analysis and understanding of the nonverbal dimension in classroom communication. (Authors)
Finds that high, moderate, and low apprehensives perceived significant gains in competency and significant decreases in anxiety in a public speaking course. Finds no differences among them in the amount of perceived improvement and anxiety decrease. Reveals a significant positive correlation between teachers' verbal immediacy and anxiety decrease…
To examine the hypotheses that differences exist between Indians and non-Indians in the nonverbal regulation of conversation and that these differences cause functional difficulties in classroom interaction, the study quantitatively examined differences in the nonverbal repertoires of students and teachers in an American Indian school system and a…
This study examines trends and relationships among public speaking anxiety, self?perceived public speaking competency, and teacher immediacy for students with high, moderate, and low communication apprehension in the laboratory?supported public speaking course. Public speaking anxiety and self?perceived competency were measured at three points during the semester. Trends of anxiety and self?perceived competency for high, moderate, and low apprehensives were examined
Roberts, Amy; Friedman, Denise
The current study examined how immediacy behaviors of college professors influence student participation. While these claims have been studied in the past, this investigation examined a cross-disciplinary sample and employed a more objective methodology, classroom observation. It was hypothesized that professors who showed greater immediacy would…
Instructor immediacy has been positively associated with many desirable academic outcomes including increased student learning. This study extends existing understanding of instructional immediacy behaviours in elearning by describing postgraduate nursing students' reflections on their own experience. An exploratory, descriptive survey design was used to collect qualitative data. Participants were asked what behaviours or activities help to create rapport or a positive interpersonal connection (immediacy) between students and their online teacher(s). Thematic analysis of the data revealed three main themes: acknowledging and affirming student's personal and professional responsibilities; providing clear and timely information; and utilising rich media. These findings give lecturers insight into instructional strategies they may adopt to increase immediacy in elearning and hence improve student learning outcomes. PMID:25632711
This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…
Berlin, Matthew Roberts, 1980-
As robots enter the social environments of our workplaces and homes, it will be important for them to be able to learn from natural human teaching behavior. My research seeks to identify simple, non-verbal cues that human ...
The Relationship between Teacher Immediacy Behaviors and Learners' Perceptions of Social Presence and Satisfaction in Open and Distance Education: The Case of Anadolu University Open Education Faculty
Bozkaya, Mujgan; Erdem Aydin, Irem
A significant number of studies in the literature stress the important role of teacher immediacy behaviors on learners' perceptions of social presence and satisfaction in open and distance learning environments. Yet, those studies were conducted in different open and distance education institutions than the current example of which unique…
Sidelinger, Robert J.; McCroskey, James C.
Considers aspects of teachers' communication and their effect on clarity. Finds that clarity was positively correlated with the instructor's perceived nonverbal immediacy and sociocommunicative style, and with enhanced student affect toward the instructor and course. Argues that teachers need to be clear in their oral and written communication to…
Conaway, Roger N.; Easton, Susan S.; Schmidt, Wallace V.
The increased demand for Internet courses, especially in schools of business, has raised questions about instructional interaction and teacher-student immediacy, which online courses may lack. Because current research suggests immediacy behaviors may indeed be present, we developed a strategy for measuring immediacy in an online MBA course and…
Johnson, Scott D.; Miller, Ann N.
Presents a cross-cultural study of immediacy, with samples of students drawn from a university in the U.S. and a university in Kenya. Identifies positive relationships between verbal immediacy, nonverbal immediacy, credibility, and cognitive learning for both samples, further supporting research done in the U.S. and elsewhere suggesting that…
Williams, Dottie S.
Previous research has demonstrated that a positive relationship between teacher and student improves student performance in school. However, less information is available regarding the verbal and nonverbal communications between the students with special needs and their teachers within this middle school subgroup. Personal attention and support…
Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe
Studied effects of teachers' verbal and non-verbal scaffolding on classroom performance of students with Down Syndrome. Found that with the use of scaffolding that contained gesture components, students were more responsive to directions, focused longer on tasks, and were more successful in accomplishing the tasks. Concluded that gestures in…
Turman, Paul D.
This study sought to determine whether coaches' immediacy behaviors serve as predictors of athletes' satisfaction and team cohesion levels. Participants included 307 male and female high school athletes who completed measures assessing perceptions of their coaches' verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviors, as well as their own levels of…
Mottet, Timothy P.; Parker-Raley, Jessica; Beebe, Steven A.; Cunningham, Cory
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an instructor's nonverbal immediacy behaviors and course-workload demands on student perceptions of instructor credibility and student higher-order affective learning. H1 and H2 predicted that an instructor's nonverbal immediacy behaviors would neutralize the instructor's violations of…
Sherer, M; Rogers, R W
A therapist's nonverbal behavior may communicate emotion and feelings toward a client. Thus, skilled utilization of appropriate nonverbal cues should facilitate many nonbehavioral therapies. A 2 X 2 X 2 factorial experiment investigated the therapy-facilitating effects of three theoretical dimensions of nonverbal communication: Immediacy, potency or status, and responsivity. A reenacted client-centered therapy session was videotaped. Verbal content was held constant, but all combinations of the three nonverbal dimensions were portrayed. A total of 118 male and female nonparticipant observers rated the therapist's interpersonal skills (empathy, warmth, and genuineness) and effectiveness. The results disclosed that the nonverbal cues of immediacy (close therapist-client distance and eye contact) significantly improved ratings of the therapist's interpersonal skills and effectiveness. Thus, the study demonstrated that a therapist's nonverbal behavior is a basis for interpretations of empathy, warmth, genuiness, and effectiveness. These findings were interpreted in terms of the therapist's nonverbal cues communicating liking and acceptance of the client. PMID:7410567
Mottet, Timothy P.; Parker-Raley, Jessica; Cunningham, Cory; Beebe, Steven A.; Raffeld, Paul C.
This study investigates how an instructor's use of relational messages, specifically nonverbal immediacy behaviors, may neutralize how students interpret instructor course workload demands and student expectations for instructor availability. It was hypothesized that instructor immediacy would temper instructor course workload demands that…
Jaasma, Marjorie A.; Koper, Randall J.
Finds that: (1) the perception of instructor behavior most closely linked to the frequency and length of out-of-class communication is verbal immediacy; (2) frequency of informal contact was related also to nonverbal immediacy and trust; and (3) student motivation correlated positively with the frequency of both kinds of contact and to the length…
Williams, Amanda S.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…
Kelsey, Dawn M.; Kearney, Patricia; Plax, Timothy G.; Allen, Terre H.; Ritter, Kerry J.
Grounded in attribution theory, this investigation examined explanations students provide when college teachers misbehave, and the influence of perceived teacher immediacy shaping those interpretations. Across two different samples, college students responded to questionnaires assessing perceptions of their teachers' immediacy, teacher…
Klinzing, Hans Gerhard
The ability to express and decode nonverbal cues is assumed to be an essential quality in communication and teaching. To validate, generalize and expand upon earlier research on the importance of nonverbal competencies in communication and teaching, i.e., the relationship of nonverbal competencies (e.g., expressiveness/"charisma" and nonverbal…
Campbell, David E.
Social presence (represented by salience of instructor and fellow students) in an online teaching environment has been shown to influence perceptions of course activity and self-estimates of learning. An experiment is described here in which teacher presence is manipulated via personalized messages from the teaching assistant throughout the…
Baker, Jason D.
A significant body of literature has supported the assertion that communication in the classroom is central to the learning process. Prosocial behaviors, such as nonverbal and verbal immediacy, have been found to promote affective and cognitive learning in traditional instructional settings. This study examined the relationships among instructor…
Melrose, Sherri; Bergeron, Kim
Instructional immediacy is an established communication strategy that teachers can implement to create engaging learning environments. Yet, little is known about experiences distance education learners in graduate study programs have had with immediacy. This article presents findings from a qualitative research project designed to explore…
Roth, Marvin; Kuiken, Don
The immediacy of 24 conceptually complex and 24 conceptually simple introductory psychology students' self-disclosures was assessed as a function of (a) the level of immediacy of a confederate's self-disclosures and (b) the similarity of the subject's and confederate's levels of conceptual complexity. (Author)
For over 30 years, instructional communication scholars have investigated the relationships between instructors' communicative behaviors and students' affective/cognitive learning, as well as student classroom motivation. More specifically, perceived teacher immediacy is positively related to student learning and motivation. Albert Mehrabian first…
Creasey, Gary; Jarvis, Patricia; Gadke, Daniel
In the present research, associations between student attachment stances, verbal and nonverbal instructor immediacy, student-instructor relationships, and student achievement orientations were specified. It was predicted that positive student-instructor relationships would mediate associations between student attachment stances, instructor…
Kurkul, Wen W.
This study explored nonverbal communication in one-to-one music performance instruction by investigating relationships among nonverbal sensitivity, nonverbal behaviors and lesson effectiveness. Subjects (N = 120) comprised 60 college teachers and 60 of their non-music major students. Using the Music Lesson Evaluation Form, lesson effectiveness was…
Stewart, Denton J.; Patterson, Miles L.
A verbal reinforcer and two nonverbal immediacy cues, eye contact and body lean, were manipulated by an E under far and close conditions of interpersonal distance in a projective testing situation. As hypothesized, significant increases in the dependent measure, the number of thematic responses, were found for the verbal cue at both interaction…
Nonverbal Behavior Analysis Chapter 12 Nonverbal Behavior Analysis Daniel Gatica-Perez, Alessandro Vinciarelli and Jean-Marc Odobez 12.1 Introduction: a brief history of nonverbal behavior research in IM2 The last decade marked the emergence of the automated understanding of face-to-face social interaction
Robinson, Rena Y.; Richmond, Virginia P.
Outlines the development and use of the Verbal Immediacy Scale. Presents data that indicate it lacks both face and construct validity. Concludes that the scale may not be a valid operationalization of the immediacy construct, and even if it is, it generates a response set such that the meaning of the responses obtained is unknown. (SR)
McLean, Chikako Akamatsu
Applying theories of cultural dimensions, teacher credibility, and nonverbal immediacy, this chapter explores classroom management techniques used by Asian female teachers to establish credibility. (Contains 1 note.)
Schutt, Maria; Allen, Brock S.; Laumakis, Mark A.
Previous research has indicated that instructor immediacy is associated with learning outcomes, satisfaction, and motivation. However, few researchers have examined instructor immediacy in the context of online learning. This study is the first large experiment (n = 433) to empirically investigate the effects of instructor immediacy behaviors…
This activity uses video clips from a popular sitcom, "Friends," to help students grasp the relational, rule-governed, and culture-specific nature of nonverbal communication. It opens students' eyes to nonverbal behaviors that are happening on a daily basis so that they not only master the knowledge but are able to apply it. While other popular…
Manarte, Joana; Lopes, Amélia; Pereira, Fátima
Pedagogical communication is an action wherein the body, being a part of a relational whole, performs a fundamental role. A bibliographical survey of studies on the interaction between teacher and student confirms that there is a strong correlation between the teacher's nonverbal behavior and the students' level of motivation and…
James Poon Teng Fatt
Attempts to link nonverbal communication and business success by advocating that salespeople in particular should be aware of nonverbal communication and what it means. Claims that verbal and nonverbal communication, taken together, provide more complete information and states that women are innately more knowledgeable than men when it comes to understanding nonverbal communication. Covers and explains metalanguage, paralanguage, body motion
In this article, I discuss an experiment that tests the prediction of social impact theory that immediacy matters and the claim that trust partially mediates its impact in command and control settings. Active-duty soldiers completed oral commands more quickly when collocated with an unfamiliar leader than when that leader was sheltered at a remote location. A questionnaire on trust in
Hall, Edward T.; Hall, Mildred Reed
Nonverbal communication involves not only body language, but also environment, physical space, time systems, discipline, and competition systems--in short, the totality of communicaton excepting the printed word. (MJB)
Rice, Dale R.; Doan, Robert L.
Happy, neutral, and unhappy visual expressions were combined with positive, neutral, and negative intonations of positive, neutral, and negative messages to investigate congruent and incongruent verbal/nonverbal classroom communication. The 53 students in the study viewed pictures of their teacher, listened to a recording of their teacher, then…
Jensen, Marvin D.
The connectionist theory of brain functioning, which holds that specialization exists within the brain, has three implications for teachers of nonverbal communication. One implication involves the relative emphasis to be placed on linguistic/linear versus nonlinguistic/nonlinear mental processing. Teachers can shift emphasis to nonlinguistic…
Jason D. Baker; Robert H. Woods
THIS ARTICLE HIGHLIGHTS instructional communication and distance education research with an emphasis on the social dynamics\\u000a of the online learning experience and their impact on the learning experience. Literature related to the twin concepts of\\u000a immediacy and group cohesiveness—central constructs related to building an effective classroom social dynamic—will be reviewed\\u000a in an attempt to glean insights for the practical adaptation
White, Katherine; Van Boven, Leaf
In seven studies of naturally occurring, "real-world" emotional events, people demonstrated an immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons, perceiving their own current or recent emotional reactions as more intense compared with others' emotional reactions to the same events. The events examined include crossing a scary bridge (study 1a), a national tragedy (study 1b), terrorist attacks (studies 2a and 3b), a natural disaster (study 2b), and a presidential election (study 3b). These perceived differences between one's own and others' emotions declined over time, as relatively immediate and recent emotions subsided, a pattern that people were not intuitively aware of (study 2c). This immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons emerged for both explicit comparisons (studies 1a, 1b, and 3b), and for absolute judgments of emotional intensity (studies 2a, 2b, and 3a). Finally, the immediacy bias in social-emotional comparisons was reduced when people were reminded that emotional display norms might lead others' appearances to understate emotional intensity (studies 3a and 3b). Implications of these findings for social-emotional phenomena are discussed. PMID:22148998
The Center for Nonverbal Studies, a private, nonprofit research center located on the West Coast whose mission is to advance the study of human communication in all forms apart from language, offers online The Nonverbal Dictionary of Gestures, Signs, and Body Language Cues. Compiled by PhD David B. Givens and drawing on the work of anthropologists, archaeologists, biologists, linguists, psychiatrists, psychologists, semioticians, and others who study communication, this text is a fascinating compendium of brief essays on the way we say things without saying anything. From automobile grilles to folded arms to lawn ornaments to high heels, this text elucidates the language of nonverbal communication. New entries are added on a regular basis and featured at the Center's What's New page. The Website is affiliated with the Center for Ethnographic Research (CER) at the University of Missouri in Kansas City.
Rosa, Susan B.
This research study examined the nature of nonverbal teacher-student interaction in a second-grade inclusive classroom. The purpose of the study was to compare the nonverbal behaviors of children who are considered average in ability with those who are perceived as cognitively challenged, while they are engaged in general classroom instruction in…
Greenbaum, Paul E.
Nonverbal behaviors associated with classroom conversation in Choctaw Indian and white middle class public schools were videotaped with two cameras providing a view of the teacher and class and the listener-gaze of individual students. Results indicated cultural differences in nonverbal behavior were associated with classroom interaction.…
Discusses the importance of understanding nonverbal communication in enhancing the personal and work relationships of interpreters and increasing their effectiveness in meeting the needs of customers. Discusses the mystique of body language, cultural variation in the use of gestures, the stages of an encounter, interpreting gesture clusters, and…
Hinde, R. A., Ed.
This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…
Bracken, Bruce A.; McCallum, R. Steve
This kit presents all components of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), a newly developed instrument designed to measure the general intelligence and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents (ages 5 through 17) who may be disadvantaged by traditional verbal and language-loaded measures such as children with speech, language,…
WANG De-hua; LI Hui
All cultures make use of nonverbal communication but the meanings of nonverbal communication vary across cultures. Nonverbal communication may be as important to understand as words are, for it can cause misunderstandings between people from different cultures if they misinterpret nonverbal symbols. Nonverbal communication is largely beyond our conscious, and the system we learn is not determined by the genetic
Battersby, Sharyn L.
Busy music teachers try to strike a balance between everything that they want to accomplish in a lesson and the constraints of their own teaching circumstances. What is sometimes overlooked in their efforts to fulfill their expectations is how their students really see them and what they are communicating to them with their bodies. Nonverbal…
Understanding how nonverbal aspects of communication support, complement, and in some cases, override verbal communication\\u000a is necessary for human interactions. It is also crucial for designing and implementing interactive systems that aim at supporting\\u000a flexible interaction management using natural language with users. In particular, the need for more comprehensive communication\\u000a has become obvious in theubiquitous computing context where context-aware applications
Hill, Clara E; Sim, Wonjin; Spangler, Patricia; Stahl, Jessica; Sullivan, Catherine; Teyber, Edward
Immediacy was examined in a 17-session case of brief therapy with a bright, articulate, inner-city, African American female client seeing an interpersonally oriented, White, male therapist. The main types of therapist immediacy were reinforcing the client for in-session behavior, inviting the client to collaborate, inquiring about client reactions to therapy, and reminding the client that it was okay to disagree with him. An in-depth qualitative examination of the seven most extensive/salient immediacy events revealed that therapist immediacy enabled the therapist and client to negotiate the relationship, helped the client express her immediate feelings to the therapist, helped the client open up to deeper exploration of concerns, and provided the client with a corrective relational experience. Implications for practice and research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122490
James M. Webb; Ellen M. Diana; Pamela Luft; Elizabeth W. Brooks; Elizabeth L. Brennan
In 3 related studies, expert and nonexpert teachers were tested for their ability to judge student comprehension of instruction from visual, nonverbal behavior. When sufficient background and contextual information was present, expert teachers were more accurate in their judgments, especially when feedback about their performance was combined with discussion of judgments before the second test occasion. The experts were also
Pelowski, Susan; Frissell, Langley; Cabral, Kyle; Yu, Theresa
Immediacy behaviors enhance perceptions of closeness to others. In traditional and online college courses, instructor immediacy predicts student reports of learning and motivation. Student immediacy is theoretically also important in any learning community. However, there is little research on cyber-student immediacy as a predictor of course…
Gotch, Donna; Brydges, Michael
Community college instructors and administrators need to understand teacher immediacy research and the role of immediacy in the multi-cultural classroom. Immediacy can be viewed as a combination of nonverbal behaviors used to accentuate a verbal message and reduce physical and psychological distance between interactants. Janis Andersen's research…
Effective communication occurs with non-verbal and verbal tools. In this study the body language as non-verbal communication tool is taken to be examined, and teachers' opinions about the use and importance of body language in education are surveyed. Eight open-ended questions are asked to 100 teachers. As a result, it is shown that teachers…
Wilson, Janie H.; Taylor, Kelli W.
Presents a study that examines the relations: (1) among professor immediacy (being available and welcoming to students) behaviors and undergraduate students perceptions of instructor's attitudes towards them; and (2) perceptions of instructor attitude towards undergraduates students and student motivation, projected grades, and attitudes towards…
Goodboy, Alan K.; Myers, Scott A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived instructor immediacy and student challenge behavior (i.e., procedural, evaluation, power play, practicality) in the college classroom. Participants were 403 students who listened to and reported on a 15 minute guest lecturer in an introductory communication class. Results…
A library user exposed to immediate communication with a librarian is more satisfied with the reference interview and question negotiation than when communication is nonimmediate, but there is no difference in satisfaction with information transfer. "Immediacy" evolves from the relatively positive feelings generated in the user by the librarian's…
Mottet, Timothy P.; Patterson, Brian R.
A study sought to better understand the construct of teacher verbal effectiveness. Teacher verbal effectiveness was theoretically conceptualized using certain variables: verbal immediacy, language intensity, self-disclosure, communication and accommodation, and humor. A scale was developed and factor analysis yielded a unidimensional teacher…
and naturally like no one else, identifies automatic understanding and synthesis of nonverbal communicationTowards a Technology of Nonverbal Communication: Vocal Behavior in Social and Affective Phenomena, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland ABSTRACT Nonverbal communication is the main channel through which we
Maureen C. Minielli
Nonverbal communication offers political communication scholars the opportunity to examine public figures beyond the traditional rhetorical realm. As a way of beginning the dialogue, this essay examines the nonverbal communication of President Bill Clinton during both presidential terms. This essay argues that Clinton was on a course of developing and refining his nonverbal communication skills until the Lewinsky scandal surfaced.
Soudek, Miluse; Soudek, Lev I.
Discusses the role of non-verbal communication in learning a foreign language and culture. Discusses and gives examples of cultural specificity in interpretations of various forms of non-verbal behavior and its implications for language study. Makes specific suggestions of how to teach non-verbal communication to students of English as a second…
Timm, Susan; Schroeder, Betty L.
Proposes that cultural understanding and communication skills provide frameworks for developing tolerance and understanding. Analyzes the influence of listening/nonverbal communication training on an individual's level of multicultural sensitivity with applications for business and education. Notes that a statistically significant relationship was…
This paper defends a nonsummative perspective in the investigation of nonverbal communication. It maintains that a holistic approach is necessary for examining the systematic nature of communicaton, as well as for considering the hierarchical arrangement of behavioral units, interaction as an undissected whole, and the context of communication.…
DuBose, Rebecca F.
The sequence of prelinguistic patterns in the infant and young child is described and explained to aid in identifying the nonverbal child's level of signal and symbol communication. Child-object and child-adult interactions are grouped into the following levels (with sample characteristic behaviors in parentheses): sensation (ceasing crying upon…
. Communication & Technology The teacher uses knowledge of effective verbal, nonverbal, and media communication. Content Pedagogy The teacher understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures meaningful for students. 2. Student Development The teacher understands how students learn and develop
Grayman, Jesse Hession
After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground. PMID:24788052
Rainforth, Emma C.
. Communication. Teachers shall use knowledge of effective verbal, nonverbal and written communication techniques at Ramapo College seeks to ensure that teachers are prepared to communicate effectively, establish. Subject Matter Knowledge. Teachers shall understand the central concepts, tools of inquiry, structures
Adriana Peña Pérez Negrón; Angélica de Antonio Jiménez
When a group of students, placed around a shared workspace and working on an anticipated task is observed, the teacher or the facilitator intuitively can, to a certain extent, understand how collaboration is taking place within the group, without listening to the students' discourse. Following this analogy, we propose that some specific nonverbal communication cues should be useful to infer
Mary Ann Evans
This report describes research with 128 kindergarten children, the purpose of which was to assess the stability of verbal behavior and the relationship of verbal and nonverbal abilities and self-concept to talkativeness in the classroom. The children were divided into verbal and quiet groups on the basis of teacher rankings in the fall of kindergarten. Rankings in the spring term
Marco Gillies; Mel Slater
Social interaction is a key element of modern virtual environments. This paper discusses how non-verbal communication (or body language) is vital to real world social interaction, and how it is important to carry it over to virtual environments. It is not sufficient for a character to passively exhibit non-verbal communication; non-verbal communication should be a genuine interaction between a real
This article will examine the often de-emphasized and overlooked nonverbal aspects of communication. Understanding the impact of non-verbal messages sharpens one's ability to view seemingly superficial mannerisms and movements as potential cues. Further, this article is designed to prompt individual assessment and increase awareness of one's personal non-verbal mannerisms. This article is intended to encourage members of the ADR and
Social Signal Processing: Understanding Nonverbal Communication in Social Interactions Alessandro Processing, human-human communication, nonverbal behavior, social interactions. ACM Classification Keywords A in human sciences have shown that nonverbal communication is the main channel through which we express
Stephen Nowicki Jr; Marshall P. Duke
The Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy (DANVA) was designed to measure individual differences in the accurate sending and receiving of nonverbal social information. The DANVA consists of four receptive and three expressive subtests that measure nonverbal processing accuracy in children from 6 to 10 years of age. Four propositions were offered to guide the gathering of construct validity data for
Siminoff, Laura A; Traino, Heather M; Gordon, Nahida H
This study explores the effects of tissue requesters' relational, persuasive, and nonverbal communication on families' final donation decisions. One thousand sixteen (N = 1,016) requests for tissue donation were audiotaped and analyzed using the Siminoff Communication Content and Affect Program, a computer application specifically designed to code and assist with the quantitative analysis of communication data. This study supports the important role of communication strategies in health-related decision making. Families were more likely to consent to tissue donation when confirmational messages (e.g., messages that expressed validation or acceptance) or persuasive tactics such as credibility, altruism, or esteem were used during donation discussions. Consent was also more likely when family members exhibited nonverbal immediacy or disclosed private information about themselves or the patient. The results of a hierarchical log-linear regression revealed that the use of relational communication during requests directly predicted family consent. The results provide information about surrogate decision making in end-of-life situations and may be used to guide future practice in obtaining family consent to tissue donation. PMID:21512935
Furlich, Stephen A.
This paper explores the use of instructor verbal immediacy behaviors for on-line classes. Specifically, it demonstrates how instructor verbal immediacy behaviors found in face-to-face classes can also be displayed for on-line classes. It is argued that self-determination theory describes identification of the student as an important role in the…
Bailie, Jeffrey L.
In this 2011 investigation, a modified Delphi technique was introduced to determine whether an informed group of post-secondary online faculty and students could arrive at a consensus regarding the importance of previously recognized verbal immediacy behaviors. Two expert panels were presented with Gorham's (1988) Verbal Immediacy Scale and tasked…
Mottet, Timothy P.; Richmond, Virginia P.
Two studies investigated inductively the verbal immediacy construct in the interpersonal context. Specifically, the studies explored whether or not verbal immediacy is an autonomous and distinct linguistic verbal code that people use to approach and avoid relationship formation, or part of a much larger repertoire of verbal relational strategies…
Rocca, Kelly A.; McCroskey, James C.
Explores the relationships of immediacy and verbal aggression with homophily and interpersonal attraction in the higher education instructional context. Finds that immediacy was negatively related to verbal aggression and positively related to all dimensions of homophily and interpersonal attraction and that verbal aggression was negatively…
Hayes, Gillian R.
Designing for Interaction Immediacy to Enhance Social Skills of Children with Autism Monica Tentori@ics.uci.edu ABSTRACT Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder often require therapeutic interventions to support immediacy, social compass, social skills, autism ACM Classification Keywords K.3.1 Computer Uses
Frymier, Ann B.; Shulman, Gary M.
A study developed a valid and reliable instrument to measure learner empowerment and tested a model in which learner empowerment was caused by teacher communication behaviors and students' self-esteem. The model tested hypothesized teacher communication behaviors (relevance, verbal immediacy, and nonverbal immediacy) and student self-esteem as…
Lochman, John E.; Allen, George
Examined the rates, contextual meanings, and attributional meanings of nonverbal behavior occurring during role-played conflict between dating couples. Eighty couples reported perceptions of their own behaviors and their partners' behaviors and were observed by trained raters. The nonverbal channel was used significantly more by females than by…
The value of nonverbal cues in treating clients in reasserted, citing first the need for baseline data as well as an understanding of the context in which behavior occurs. The use of the various sensory channels to observe cues is introduced informally, followed by the three formal approaches to nonverbal data: proxemics, the study of distance and body orientation; kinesics,
JANA KLECKOVA; PAVEL KRAL; JANA KRUTISOVA
Understanding human emotions and their nonverbal messages is one of the most necessary and important skills for making the next generation of human-comp uter interfaces (HCI) easier, more natural and effe ctive. Indeed, the first step toward an automatic emotion sensitiv e human-computer system having the ability to automatically detect users' nonverbal signals is the development of an a ccurate
Nonverbal Behaviour of an Embodied Storyteller F.Jonkman firstname.lastname@example.org Supervisors communicative capabilities is often called an Embodied Conversational Agent. Some of these Embodied of the storyteller with a sideways camera placement. Subsequently gaze-behaviours are introduced as the main non-verbal
This paper attempts to develop a communication?based rationale for understanding the lecturing process in colleges and universities. It seeks to demonstrate the importance of nonverbal communication in lecturing. Particular attention is paid to the lecturer's communication of emotional states signalled nonverbally, at the time of delivery. The process of lecturing is explained from a constructivist perspective so as to emphasise
Writing labs should utilize the knowledge gained from a variety of fields to enhance further their programs, particularly with regard to the study of nonverbal communication. Regardless of the sincerity and importance of the tutor's suggestions, nonverbal messages often are sent to the student which undermine the session. Various channels of…
DeThorne, Laura S.; Schaefer, Barbara A.
This guide provides a basic overview of 16 child nonverbal IQ measures and uses a set of specified criteria to evaluate them in terms of their psychometric properties. In doing so, the goal is neither to validate nor to criticize current uses of IQ but to (a) familiarize clinicians and investigators with the variety of nonverbal IQ measures…
Bella M. DePaulo
Because of special characteristics of nonverbal behaviors (e.g., they can be difficult to suppress, they are more accessible to the people who observe them than to the people who produce them), the intention to produce a particular nonverbal expression for self-presentational purposes cannot always be successfully translated into the actual production of that expression. The literatures on people's skills at
Hamersma, Richard J.; Mark, Robert
Non-verbal communication is an important part of the total communication process. It is important for counselors to be aware of their own pattern of non-verbal communication, as well as being alert to the silent messages being communicated by the client. (Author)
The study of nonverbal communication continues to grow across the spectrum of research in many fields of study. Good textbooks and research studies are available to the scholar and the student, and courses about nonverbal behavior and communication are found in modern curricula. This book focuses on the complex, often hidden, processes that…
Beebe, Steven A.
Nonverbal communication variables play a major role in affecting the meaning of messages in business communication contexts. Consequently, business communicators need to have a general understanding of nonverbal communication and to recognize how such behaviors as body posture and movement, eye contact, facial expression, seating arrangement,…
Olson, Michael A; Fazio, Russell H
Previous research suggests that automatic prejudice directly manifests in nonverbal behavior. The authors offer a more complex picture of the relation between automatic processes and nonverbal behavior by suggesting that any discomfort that appears in nonverbal behavior stems not from negative attitudes per se but from discordance between automatically activated attitudes toward Blacks and the specific evaluations being expressed. White participants for whom estimates of automatic prejudice were available provided videotaped evaluations of several individuals, including two matched Black and White males. Discordance between general racial attitudes and evaluations of specific targets manifested in discomfort-related nonverbal behavior. Moreover, naïve Black judges, but not White judges, doubted the sincerity of individuals characterized by discordance. The nature of the nonverbal "leakage" that automatic prejudice produces is discussed. PMID:17545414
The Center for Non-Verbal Studies in Spokane, Washington, scientifically studies all modes of non-verbal communication including body movement, gesture, facial expression, and adornment to name a few. Visitors to the site should definitely take a look at the "Nonverbal Dictionary of Gestures, Signs, and Body Language Cues" link, which intriguingly covers everything from the "Adam's-Apple-Jump" to the "Zygomatic Smile." Some of the other entries include Fingertip Cue, Flashbulb Eyes, and Table-Slap. The topics on the left hand menu go more in-depth than the dictionary entries. The "Nonverbal Brain" link begins with a quote by Hippocrates: "Men ought to know that from the brain, and from the brain only, arise our pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, griefs and tears." Finally, visitors can also learn about the literature, evolution, and media approaches to the nonverbal brain.
The Impact of Non-verbal Communication on Lexicon Formation Paul Vogt Universiteit Maastricht. The exper- iments investigate the impact of non-verbal communication on lexicon formation. Non-verbal, infants receive little or no feedback, are there other non-verbal cues available to the child? One cue
Yong Lin; Fillia Makedon
Nonverbal communication helps to compensate many hidden meanings omitted from spoken language. In some situations, nonverbal\\u000a communication may even take the place of verbal communication. In this paper, we introduce how nonverbal acoustic communication\\u000a can be utilized in human-computer interaction. We first overview acoustic techniques for nonverbal communication. Then we\\u000a provide a design framework of nonverbal communication based intelligent agents.
Feldman, Robert S.; Prohaska, Thomas
Two experiments examined the possibility that student expectations regarding teacher competence can be communicated to the teacher and bring about expected behavior. Results showed significant differences in student attitudes, performance, and nonverbal behavior according to expectation. Positive and negative nonverbal student behaviors had…
Braun, Elizabeth V.
SOME PERSPECTIVES ON NON-VERBALCO}~ruNICATION Elizabeth V. Braun University of Kansas Through non-verbal communication man may demonstrate behavior as meaningfully as he does through spoken language. Non-verbal language may be communicated..., in societies, and within himself. The threatening gesture is a symbol of defense; the ill-men dialogue relates the "gener'al.Lzed other" toa~lrovedor disapproved behaviors pertaining to acquired moral norms. 90 Exploitation 0 This category refers to man...
Heidi Vrankin; Mowlot Kazati; Manisha Rajadhyaksha
Non-verbal communication across cultures is one of the under-rated aspects of multicultural and language training. This communication across cultures can prepare students, Peace Corps and NGO volunteers, professionals and consultants for their cultural immersion experiences. Not understanding the importance of non-verbal communication, especially in inter-cultural settings, can cause serious adjustment problems to the person entering another culture. This is reflected
Based on a native English-speaking teacher's perception that Chinese university students of English as a Second Language have greater skill in vocabulary than in the communication of ideas, a survey of students in one class investigated attitudes about the role of nonverbal communication in the communication process. Responses indicate a lack of…
Babad, Elisha; Taylor, Paul J.
Study investigated the detection of teacher expectancy effects across language and cultural boundaries. Students and teachers rated taped samples of foreign teachers talking about or to high-expectancy and low-expectancy students, focusing on facial expressions and body language. Teachers had distinctive nonverbal styles, even when language and…
and naturally like no one else, identifies automatic understanding and synthesis of nonverbal communicationTowards a Technology of Nonverbal Communication: Vocal Behavior in Social and Affective Phenomena, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland ABSTRACT Nonverbal communication is the main channel through which we
M. Robin Dimatteo; Angelo Taranta
Studied 71 medical residents and approximately 400 patients to examine the relationship between patients' satisfaction with the medical care they received from their physicians and the nonverbal skills of those physicians. Various aspects of the physicians' personalities were assessed with the Personality Research Form, and their nonverbal decoding skills were measured with the Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity scale. Patients rated
Robert L. Russell; James Stokes; Marylouise E. Jones; Dietmar Czogalik; Lisa Rohleder
Two samples of boys were compared on their sensitivity to nonverbal communication: boys not in treatment (sampled from elementary school populations) and boys in treatment (sampled from community mental health clinics). Three main decoding tasks assessed the boys' ability to identify, classify, and predict nonverbal displays. Parent and self appraisals on nonverbal sensitivity were also collected. Results indicated that clinic-recruited
Social Signal Processing: Understanding Social Interactions through Nonverbal Behavior Analysis A), the domain aimed at automatic understanding of social in- teractions through analysis of nonverbal behavior, nonverbal behavior analysis is used as a key to automatic understanding of social interactions. This pa- per
Joan S. Tucker; Sherry L. Anders
This study examined the nonverbal correlates of attachment style during interaction with a dating partner. Sixty-one heterosexual couples completed a self-report measure of attachment style and then were videotaped while discussing positive aspects of their relationships. The partners' nonverbal behaviors were coded for specific nonverbal cues and qualities theoretically associated with attachment style. A more secure attachment style was generally
The paper illustrates the definition of non-verbal communication with examples. It also shows the role and importance of non-verbal communication in daily life, analyzing the task of the interpreter, describing what possibilities the interpreter is given to reproduce non-verbal communication.
Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Kniepple, J L
The ability to receive nonverbal facial cues was tested in twelve female victims of multiple nonserial rapes and matched controls. Subjects attempted to interpret nonverbal messages transmitted by male and female senders who were covertly taped while involved in a gambling task. Rape victims had significantly decreased ability to interpret the nonverbal facial cues of both male and female senders. PMID:3557809
Harrison, Janelle L.
Transformational leadership and immediacy behaviors within educational contexts have received a great deal of attention from researchers in the past few decades. Generally, the literature has focused on the impact of instructor transformational behaviors and instructor immediacy behaviors on educational outcomes. However, the relationship between…
Giles, Steven M; Pankratz, Melinda M; Ringwalt, Chris; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Hansen, William B; Bishop, Dana; Dusenbury, Linda; Gottfredson, Nisha
We examine whether teachers' communicator style relates to student engagement, teacher-student relationships, student perceptions of teacher immediacy, as well as observer ratings of delivery skills during the implementation of All Stars, a middle school-based substance use prevention program. Data from 48 teachers who taught All Stars up to 3 consecutive years and their respective seventh-grade students (n = 2,240) indicate that having an authoritative communication style is negatively related to student engagement with the curriculum and the quality of the student-teacher relationship, while having an expressive communicator style improves teachers' immediacy to student needs. Adaptations made by a subsample of teachers (n = 27) reveal that those who were more expressive asked students more questions, used more motivational techniques, and introduced more new concepts than authoritarian teachers. PMID:25905120
Slepian, Michael L.; Clarke, Asha; Ambady, Nalini; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy
Behavioral consistency has been at the center of debates regarding the stability of personality. We argue that people are consistent but that such consistency is best observed in nonverbal behavior. In Study 1, participants’ verbal and nonverbal behaviors were observed in a mock interview and then in an informal interaction. In Study 2, medical students’ verbal and nonverbal behaviors were observed during first- and third-year clinical skills evaluation. Nonverbal behavior exhibited consistency across context and time (a duration of 2 years) whereas verbal behavior did not. Discussion focuses on implications for theories of personality and nonverbal behavior. PMID:20161668
JANA KLECKOVA; BABAK MAHDIAN
Verbal communication is the most obvious instrument used to express our thoughts and ideas, considering only this part of speech without regarding its nonverbal part, may lead to overlooking important information of utter- ance or even misunderstanding it. The development of an automatic system for recognition of facial expressions is a rather difficult task. Such a system must perform automatically,
Gita Govahi; Sid Ward
This paper describes an experiential exercise that is used in Business courses to teach and emphasize the importance of intercultural nonverbal communication cues in today's international business environment. With the dramatic growth in international business activity during the last ten years, it is important for educators to explore some of the areas that would give us a better understanding of
Judith A. Hall; Amy G. Halberstadt
As a step toward understanding sex differences in nonverbal decoding and encoding abilities, the hypothesis that sex-role variables are related to these communication abilities was tested. An analysis was undertaken of 11 studies on the relationship of encoding and decoding abilities to sex roles, including several masculinity and femininity scales, a measure of attitudes toward women, and a questionnaire on
Saralea E. Chazan
Play therapy receives an innovative, theoretical underpinning for in-depth intervention with children. It is suggested that a new instrument to measure a child's play activity would enhance the understanding of young patients. Interestingly, the word cluster is employed here also to describe categories and components in a child's play. Long clinical experience has shown that nonverbal communication while playing presents
Rollman, Steven A.
Research has shown that nonverbal variables have a strong influence on classroom communication. This paper examines the way in which communication in the classroom is affected by the variables of distance, physical environment, facial expression, vocal cues, posture and gestures, touch, use of time, physical attractiveness, and dress. Each…
Jensen, Marvin D.
The amorphous nature of nonverbal study can benefit from the unifying yet pluralistic perspective of the humanities and liberal arts. Those who teach, write, and create under the broad rubric of the humanities appreciate the complexity of human life and try to honor the subtle and the special in human actions and creations. When addressed from…
Karen S Feldt
This article critiques the literature on existing pain assessment instruments for cognitively impaired elders and reports findings of pilot testing of the Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators. This instrument was designed to measure pain behaviors in cognitively impaired elders. Instrument testing was conducted on a population of elderly patients with hip fractures. Interrater reliability showed 93% agreement on the dichotomous
Mattson, Karla M.; Hucks, Andrew; Grace, Randolph C.; McLean, Anthony P.
Eight pigeons responded in a three-component concurrent-chains procedure, with either independent or dependent initial links. Relative probability and immediacy of reinforcement in the terminal links were both varied, and outcomes on individual trials (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) were either signaled or unsignaled. Terminal-link fixed-time…
Feldstein, Andrew P.; Craig, Robert T.
Antecedents of linguistic nonimmediacy were examined in a four-factor analysis of covariance with repeated measures design. Immediacy refers to the language of a message expressing a close relationship to the referent, while nonimmediacy suggests that the language expresses a more distant relationship. Subjects in the study were 118 college…
Mayotte-Blum, Jason; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle; Lehmann, Meaghan; Pesale, Frank; Becker-Matero, Nikaya; Hilsenroth, Mark
C. E. Hill (2004) recently developed the concept of therapist immediacy to capture discussion by the therapist about the therapeutic relationship that occurs in the here-and-now of a therapy session. This concept has been expanded to include discussion about the therapeutic relationship by both the client and therapist, captured by the term…
Arbaugh, J. B.
Finds that instructor immediacy behaviors in web-based Master of Business Administration courses were positive predictors of student learning and course satisfaction; and that other factors such as student attitudes towards course software, length of course, and prior student and instructor experience with web-based courses were also significant…
Menzel, Kent E.; Carrell, Lori J.
Finds that instructor verbal-immediacy behavior was positively related to: a student's willingness to talk in class (with gender not a factor for this outcome); and to a student's perceived learning. Finds that while students perceived more learning from a professor of the same gender, the effect was strongly mediated by instructor…
Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela
People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional…
Freitas, Frances Anne; Myers, Scott A.; Avtgis, Theodore A.
Finds that students enrolled in conventional classrooms and distributed-learning classrooms (in which students primarily interact with the instructor and other students through computer-mediated communication) did not perceive a significant difference in instructor verbal immediacy, but they did perceive a significant difference in instructor…
Frymier, Ann Bainbridge
Finds that communication apprehension has a negative relationship with students' motivation to study but that highly apprehensive students appeared to have a small increase in motivation when exposed to highly verbal immediate teachers. (SR)
Makiko Okita; Yuki Nakaura; Hidetsugu Suto
A system is described that uses pictograms to support interactive non-verbal communication. While pictograms are typically\\u000a used with objects, this system uses them for events as well. Moreover, whereas communication systems using pictograms are\\u000a generally designed for people with disabilities, this system is designed for people in general. It can thus be used between\\u000a a non-disabled person and a person
Anthony Guye-Vuillème; Tolga K. Capin; S. Pandzic; Nadia Magnenat Thalmann; Daniel Thalmann
Nonverbal communication is an important aspect of real-life face-to-face interaction and one of the most efficient ways to convey emotions, therefore users should be provided the means to replicate it in the virtual world. Because articulated embodiments are well suited to provide body communication in virtual environments, this paper first reviews some of the advantages and disadvantages of complex embodiments.
This paper investigates the impact of non-verbal interactions and spontaneous encounters on the therapeutic process and on a client's structural and behavioral patterns. The following case vignette concerns a client who presents with a pattern of non-verbal relational schemas based on his early traumatic experiences. The non-verbal and verbal role reenactments that unfold between client and therapist will be examined
Tony Manninen; Tomi Kujanpää
The lack of intuitive and non-intrusive non-verbal cues is one of the distinctive features that separate computer-mediated communication settings from face-to-face encounters. The analysis of the non-verbal communication forms in a multi-player game session indicates that the participants of collaborative virtual environment can effectively use various forms of non-verbal communication to reduce the communication difficulties. A creative combination of various
Hoque, Mohammed Ehsan
Nonverbal behavior plays an integral part in a majority of social interaction scenarios. Being able to adjust nonverbal behavior and influence other's responses are considered valuable social skills. A deficiency in nonverbal ...
Harper, Vernon B., Jr.
Nonverbal communication is fundamental to any comprehensive examination of human interaction. This article presents an activity that can be easily applied by any instructor as a starting point for a discussion of nonverbal communication, or as a demonstration of learning points previously discussed. Instructors should have a slight background in…
Armenteros, Eduardo C.; Roid, Gale H.
The present study examines a new battery of nonverbal cognitive measures used extensively with numerous preschool children. Seven nonverbal, individually administered measures of fluid reasoning and visualization were administered to these children. Raw scores were converted to age-corrected scaled scores and subjected to multivariate analysis of…
Stokoe, William C.
"Verbal" and "nonverbal" are confused and confusing terms. Gestural phenomena in semiotic use--gSigns--are called nonverbal but work in three major ways, only the first of which is unrelated to the highly encoded (verbal) activity called language. A gSign may: (1) have a general meaning: "yes,""no,""who cares"; (2) be a code substitute for a…
Lohman, David F.; Gambrell, James L.
Language-reduced (nonverbal) ability tests are the primary talent identification tools for ELL children. The appropriate use of such tests with low-SES and minority children is more nuanced. Whenever language-reduced tests are used for talent identification, nonverbal tests that measure more than figural reasoning abilities should be employed. For…
McDaniel, Edwin R.
The growth of intercultural interactions increases the need for nonverbal communication competency to help obviate potential cross cultural communication difficulties. Foreign language studies too often concentrate on vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, and forgo the role and methods of nonverbal communication. Japanese culture and modes of…
Hecht, Michael L.; And Others
A study was conducted to examine the effects of child abuse and neglect on children's nonverbal behaviors. It was hypothesized that abused and neglected children would be less active nonverbally than would control group children. Eight abused and neglected children, aged one through three years, were videotaped interacting with their caregivers in…
BackgroundThis paper critiques the model for non-verbal communication referred to as SOLER (which stands for: “Sit squarely”; “Open posture”; “Lean towards the other”; “Eye contact; “Relax”). It has been approximately thirty years since Egan (1975) introduced his acronym SOLER as an aid for teaching and learning about non-verbal communication.
Young children's understanding of markedness in non-verbal communication* KRISTIN LIEBAL, MALINDA expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act in this case a pointing gesture as special, and so search for a not-so-obvious referent
John Shearer; Patrick Olivier; Philip Heslop; Marco De Boni
Realism for synthetic characters, both in computer games and conversational agent mediated applications, requires both visual and behavioural fidelity. One significant area of synthetic character behaviour, that has to date received little attention, is non-verbal communication. In identifying the scope and participants of non-verbal communication in computer games we first review the range of spatial and task scenarios that are
This paper presents a series of experiments in which two mobile robots develop a shared lexicon of which the meaning is grounded in the real world. The exper- iments investigate the impact of non-verbal communication on lexicon formation. Non-verbal communication is used to establish joint attention or to evaluate feed- back. The experiments implement adaptive language games in which two
Kundu, Mahima Ranjan
There is a natural unique relationship between non-verbal communication and visual media such as television and film. Visual media will have to be used extensively--almost exclusively--in teaching non-verbal communications, as well as other methods requiring special teaching skills. (Author/ER)
Agaliotis, Ioannis; Kalyva, Efrosini
Many children with learning disabilities (LD) face problems in their nonverbal communication, which constitutes an important component of their social skills. This study explores the frequency of nonverbal initiations and responses of 36 children with LD and 36 children without LD matched for age and gender, who were observed for 40 min during the…
Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa J.
This article discusses the use of nonverbal communication strategies for fostering social health in middle school students. It outlines a teaching technique designed to help students better understand nonverbal cues and their role in maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships. The technique begins with the card game "Slap What?" where the…
This paper studies meaning as a construct of human interaction. Basic to this approach is the concept of the act of communication, which may be realized verbally or non-verbally. In order to integrate non-verbal behaviors into descriptions of discourse and interaction, a series of functional, not anatomic, categories is needed. For the kinesic…
Diskin, Susan D.
This research reports the development of a semantic differential for rating nonverbal style of expressiveness in a population of expectant mothers. Mothers' nonverbal features (facial expression, gestures, voice quality) were emphasized as uniquely valid indices of emotional attitudes towards parenthood and as the principal forms of interpersonal…
Peter H. Waxer
20 silent 1-min video segments of psychiatric patients ranging in anxiety levels were shown to 46 psychology seniors serving as raters. Results show that raters were able to identify the presence of anxiety and discriminate varying intensities of anxiety on the basis of nonverbal cues alone. Nonverbal cues identified as most salient in communicating anxiety were the hands, eyes, mouth,
Chesley, Gayle L.; Gillett, Dodie A.; Wagner, William G.
The metaphor is typically viewed as a verbal form of expression in traditional talk therapies. However, this definition excludes nonverbal metaphors that children use when they express themselves through play. In this article, the authors examine the use of therapeutic metaphors, both verbal and nonverbal, with children. The roles of the child,…
Lee, Doohwang; LaRose, Robert
This study examined how personalized social cues of immediacy can affect two types of information disclosure intentions (embarrassing information and descriptive information) directly and indirectly through two positive outcome expectations (social trust and customization outcome expectations) and two negative outcome expectations (embarrassment and information abuse outcome expectations) in the context of a personal health record (PHR) Web-site service. An online experiment was chosen and 252 participants were directed to visit a newly created PHR Web site. The results showed that, regardless of the two different type of information, participants' exposure to the high-immediacy level on the site increased their information disclosure intentions even when their privacy self-efficacy beliefs were controlled. Further, the results of path analyses suggest that such main effect on information disclosure is mediated by social cognitive variables of positive and negative outcome expectations. PMID:21204695
Berg, Mark E; Grace, Randolph C
In Phase 1, 4 pigeons were trained on a three-component multiple concurrent-chains procedure in which components differed only in terms of relative terminal-link entry rate. The terminal links were variable-interval schedules and were varied across four conditions to produce immediacy ratios of 4:1, 1:4, 2:1, and 1:2. Relative terminal-link entry rate and relative immediacy had additive and independent effects on initial-link response allocation, and the data were well-described by a generalized-matching model. Regression analyses showed that allowing sensitivity to immediacy to vary across components produced only trivial increases in variance accounted for. Phase 2 used a three-component concurrent-schedules procedure in which the schedules were the same as the initial links of Phase 1. Across two conditions, the relative reinforcer magnitude was varied. Sensitivity to relative reinforcer rate was independent of relative magnitude, confirming results of prior studies. Sensitivity to relative reinforcer rate in Phase 2 did not vary systematically across subjects compared to sensitivity to relative entry rate in Phase 1, and regression analyses confirmed again that only small increases in variance accounted for were obtained when sensitivities were estimated independently compared with a single estimate for both phases. Overall, the data suggest that conditioned and primary reinforcers have functionally equivalent effects on choice and support the independence of relative terminal-link entry rate and immediacy as determiners of response allocation. These results are consistent with current models for concurrent chains, including Grace's (1994) contextual choice model and Mazur's (2001) hyperbolic value-added model. PMID:15693521
Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela
People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This immediacy bias in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional reactions to pictures (Studies 1 and 2), films (Studies 3 and 4), and descriptions of terrorist threats (Study 5). The immediacy bias may be partly caused by immediate emotion's salience, and by the greater availability of information about immediate compared with previous emotion. Consistent with emotional salience, when people experienced new emotions, they perceived previous emotions as less intense than they did initially (Studies 3 and 5)-a change in perception that did not occur when people did not experience a new immediate emotion (Study 2). Consistent with emotional availability, reminding people that information about emotions naturally decays from memory reduced the immediacy bias by making previous emotions seem more intense (Study 4). Discussed are implications for psychological theory and other judgments and behaviors. PMID:19653796
of the nonverbal phenomenon in social psychology and nonverbal communication. How- ever, the problem has onlyComputational modeling of face-to-face social interaction using nonverbal behavioral cues TH of face-to-face interactions using nonverbal behavioral cues is an emerging and relevant problem in social
attributions to previously perceived non-verbal behaviours and the contribution to the non-verbal communication of varied facial behaviours. Keywords: Non-verbal communication, Facial expression, Appraisal theory, an observational study is lead on the perception of non-verbal communication cues. In a judgement task
Sara Pollak Levine; Robert S. Feldman
The current study examined the nonverbal displays of men and women in mock job interviews. Specifically, we investigated how the nonverbal behavior of more successful applicants differed from the nonverbal behavior of less successful applicants. Participants served as interviewees for a mock job interview and their interviews were coded for the performance of a number of critical nonverbal behaviors. Analyses
According to the NASPE beginning teacher standards, the ability to manage and motivate students is fundamental to effective teaching. To be truly effective at managing and motivating students, teachers need to monitor and react to class behavior and class feedback (verbal and nonverbal) while simultaneously giving instructions or feedback. This…
TEACHER RECOMMENDATION TO THE TEACHER: Please complete all. __________________________________________________________ Teacher's Name ______________________________ __________________________ Teacher's Telephone Number Teacher's Email Address __________________________________________________________ Teacher's Signature
Kelly, Stephanie; Rice, Christopher; Wyatt, Bryce; Ducking, Johnny; Denton, Zachary
There is global concern regarding the increased prevalence of math anxiety among college students, which is credited for a decrease in analytical degree completion rates and lower self-confidence among students in their ability to complete analytical tasks in the real world. The present study identified that, as expected, displays of instructional…
Videoconferencing systems combine face-to-face and mediated interactions in distance education. We extend the use of a Social Presence measure to on-site (face-to-face) learners and distant learners. Comparison between physically present and distant located learners did not indicate significant differences in social presence. Also results indicate…
Feldt, K S
This article critiques the literature on existing pain assessment instruments for cognitively impaired elders and reports findings of pilot testing of the Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators. This instrument was designed to measure pain behaviors in cognitively impaired elders. Instrument testing was conducted on a population of elderly patients with hip fractures. Interrater reliability showed 93% agreement on the dichotomous checklist items. Behaviors occurred more frequently during movement in this population. Of the six pain-related behaviors in the instrument, facial grimaces/winces occurred in 44% of the patients tested. Observed pain behaviors were positively correlated with self-report of pain. No differences between observed pain behaviors in cognitively intact versus cognitively impaired older adults with hip fractures were noted. Limitations of the instrument and recommendations for tool use are discussed. PMID:11706452
This dissertation examines the syntax and argument structure of non-verbal predicates (focusing primarily on adjectives) in Tagalog. Drawing on evidence from a variety of construction types (including Comparative, Existential, ...
Jessica R. Klaver; Zina Lee; Stephen D. Hart
The current study examined psychopathy and nonverbal indicators of deception in an incarcerated sample. Nonverbal behaviors\\u000a were coded from videotapes of 45 male offenders telling true and fabricated stories about crimes. Interpersonal features of\\u000a psychopathy were associated with inflated views of lying ability, verbosity, and increases in blinking, illustrator use, and\\u000a speech hesitations. While lying, the more psychopathic offenders spoke
Takuma Funahashi; Takayuki Fujiwara; Hiroyasu Koshimizu
We took the face, especially eye or eye gaze, into consideration for discussing the non-verbal interface media. We first proposed a passive eye-camera system based on the facial image processing such as Hough transform for iris recognition. Next we proposed a method for generating eye-contacted facial images by computer image processing for enforcing and improving the quality of facial, nonverbal
Toshitaka Amaoka; Hamid Laga; Makoto Yoshie; Masayuki Nakajima
The analysis of the non-verbal communication between people via the management of their personal spaces (PS) gives an idea on the nature of their relationship. In this paper we propose a mathematical model for the concept of personal space and demonstrate its application in simulating the non-verbal communication between agents in virtual worlds and also in human–computer interaction. Persons within
Todd, Timothy S.; Tillson, Lou Davidson; Cox, Stephen A.; Malinauskas, Barbara K.
Compares undergraduate college students' attitudes regarding student motivation, student perceptions of teacher verbal and nonverbal immediacy, and student perceptions of teacher credibility in two different instructional formats: mass-lecture/lab versus self-contained. Finds comparable perceptions across both instructional formats and concludes…
Dohmen, Andrea; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny
Research in children with language problems has focussed on verbal deficits, and we have less understanding of children's deficits with nonverbal sociocognitive skills which have been proposed to be important for language acquisition. This study was designed to investigate elicited nonverbal imitation in children with specific language delay (SLD). It is argued that difficulties in nonverbal imitation, which do not involve the processing of structural aspects of language, may be indicative of sociocognitive deficits. Participants were German-speaking typically developing children (n=60) and children with SLD (n=45) aged 2-3 ½ years. A novel battery of tasks measured their ability to imitate a range of nonverbal target acts that to a greater or lesser extent involve sociocognitive skills (body movements, instrumental acts on objects, pretend acts). Significant group differences were found for all body movement and pretend act tasks, but not for the instrumental act tasks. The poorer imitative performance of the SLD sample was not explained by motor or nonverbal cognitive skills. Thus, it appeared that the nature of the task affected children's imitation performance. It is argued that the ability to establish a sense of connectedness with the demonstrator was at the core of children's imitation difficulty in the SLD sample. PMID:23896360
Cuddy, Amy J C; Wilmuth, Caroline A; Yap, Andy J; Carney, Dana R
The authors tested whether engaging in expansive (vs. contractive) "power poses" before a stressful job interview-preparatory power posing-would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25664473
Little, Sara S.
This article presents an overview of literature relating to a nonverbal learning disabilities subtype. The article addresses the relationship between nonverbal learning disabilities and socioemotional functioning, generalizability of research outcomes, individual differences, and treatment validity. (Author/JDD)
Lathrop, Daniel P.
TEACHER RECOMMENDATION TO THE TEACHER: Please complete all of the following sections before. __________________________________________________________ Teacher's Name ______________________________ __________________________ Teacher's Telephone Number Teacher's Email Address __________________________________________________________ Teacher's Signature
This article presents the author's personal reflection on how her nursing practice was enhanced as a result of losing her voice. Surprisingly, being unable to speak appeared to improve the nurse/patient relationship. Patients responded positively to a quiet approach and silent communication. Indeed, the skilled use of non-verbal communication through silence, facial expression, touch and closer physical proximity appeared to facilitate active listening, and helped to develop empathy, intuition and presence between the nurse and patient. Quietly 'being with' patients and communicating non-verbally was an effective form of communication. It is suggested that effective communication is dependent on the nurse's ability to listen and utilize non-verbal communication skills. In addition, it is clear that reflection on practical experience can be an important method of uncovering and exploring tacit knowledge in nursing. PMID:9155278
Human Nonverbal Behaviour Understanding in the Wild for New Media Art Evan Morgan and Hatice Gunes nonverbal and af- fective behaviour understanding for new media art as a case study, and reports the design understanding in the wild, gestural interaction, mood, nonverbal behaviour. 1 Introduction New Media Art
on nonverbal behavior sensing, I present results on understanding the underlying meaning behind smiles elicitedComputers to Help with Conversations: Affective Framework to Enhance Human Nonverbal Skills: Affective Framework to Enhance Human Nonverbal Skills by Mohammed Ehsan Hoque Submitted to the Program
the key role that nonverbal communication plays in the formation, maintenance, and evolution of a number analysis of small group conversations using nonverbal communication, and aims at bridging the currentAutomatic nonverbal analysis of social interaction in small groups: A review Daniel Gatica
Dory A. Schachner; Phillip R. Shaver; Mario Mikulincer
Nonverbal behavior and sensitivity to a relationship partner’s nonverbal behavior importantly influence the quality of interpersonal interactions and relationships, including attachment relationships. The abilities to encode, or express, and to decode, or understand, nonverbal cues are crucial to effective communication of emotions and are associated with social adjustment and relationship satisfaction. One important social context for the development and use
Duggan, Ashley P.; Parrott, Roxanne L.
Considers how physicians' nonverbal communication is sometimes associated with patients' affective satisfaction. Examines the relationship between physicians' nonverbal rapport building and patients' disclosure of information related to the subjective component of illness. Considers implications for understanding the role of physicians' nonverbal…
.Dubois@upmf-grenoble.fr Abstract. Mediated communication technologies, conveying verbal and nonverbal cues, are more and more on tutoring speech acts. Keywords: audio-video mediated communication, nonverbal communication, kinesic cues and nonverbal languages to perform activities, as creating, teaching, etc. When we communicate with our partners
Perception of Nonverbal Gestures of Prominence in Visual Speech Animation Samer Al Moubayed 1992]. Recently there has been an increasing interest in the verbal and non-verbal interaction between the perception of prominence. This paper ex- plores , in addition to the known nonverbal effects of prominence
Nonverbal Leakage in Robots: Communication of Intentions through Seemingly Unintentional Behavior, Osaka, Japan email@example.com ABSTRACT Human communication involves a number of nonverbal nonverbal cues. When we see the trembling hands of a public speaker, we understand that the speaker
Nonverbal communication (e.g., eye gaze and hand gesture) plays an important role in human conversations, including providing semantic content, expressing emotional status, and regulating conversation turns. However, most analyses of conversations largely focus on spoken content and not important nonverbal cues. ^ In this thesis, we investigated the use of nonverbal cues for enhancing the analysis of conversations. Particularly, we
This article suggests ways in which attribution theories can explain the interpretation processes involved in understanding nonverbal behavior. An experiment examined attribution choices for nonverbal messages between romantic partners. Couples (N = 63) were videotaped while playing a game of “Trivial Pursuit.” During the interaction, one member of the dyad manipulated his or her nonverbal behaviors to appear positive at
Jacquelyn Crane; Frederick G. Crane
This article discusses the importance of physician management of their nonverbal communication behavior during physician-patient interactions. This management is important because certain nonverbal behaviors are associated with clinical outcomes. The article outlines research findings involving various physicians' nonverbal behaviors, such as gaze orientation, head nodding, facial expressiveness, body orientation, proxemics, and paralinguistics. It also highlights the need to train physicians
cues. I. INTRODUCTION CHARACTERIZING small groups using nonverbal be- havior helps understand and model the verbal channel is the primary mode of communication, the nonverbal channel has very useful and honest790 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MULTIMEDIA, VOL. 12, NO. 8, DECEMBER 2010 Mining Group Nonverbal
to its ability to produce and understand verbal and nonverbal human communication, a tailoringKnow your users! Empirical results for tailoring an agent´s nonverbal behavior to different user and their (nonverbal) behaviour in particular. Here, we present evidence from three empirical studies with the agent
communication to interrupting users. Yet many robots will be non-verbal, and there are likely many situationsExploring Minimal Nonverbal Interruption in Social HRI Paul Saulnier, Ehud Sharlin and Saul evaluate a minimal set of physical and nonverbal cues that can be exhibited by a robot to initiate robot
Max Weisbuch; Nalini Ambady
Gesture and elaborate forms of nonverbal behaviour have been posited as necessary antecedents to language and shared con- ceptual understanding. Here we argue that subtle and largely unin- tentional nonverbal behaviours play a key role in building consensual beliefs within culture. Specifically, people extract a great deal of information from even brief exposure to subtle nonverbal behaviour and much, if
COM 4200 Nonverbal Communication Fall 2011 (M/W 1:25-2:50) Want to know how to make a good first Communication! Indeed, there are a number of other reasons why students should study nonverbal communication: 1. Up to 93% of the communication process in which human beings engage is nonverbal in nature. 2
Behavioral Overlays for Non-Verbal Communication Expression on a Humanoid Robot Andrew G. Brooks of non-verbal communication display behaviors to an autonomous humanoid robot, including the use the robot to communicate information non-verbally while simultaneously fulfilling its existing instrumental
Behavioral Overlays for NonVerbal Communication Expression on a Humanoid Robot Andrew G. Brooks of nonverbal communication display behaviors to an autonomous humanoid robot, including the use the robot to communicate information nonverbally while simultaneously fulfilling its existing instrumental
This handbook presents selected theories, activities, and resources which can be utilized by educators in the area of non-verbal communication. Particular attention is given to the use of non-verbal communication in a cross-cultural context. Categories of non-verbal communication such as proxemics, haptics, kinesics, smiling, sound, clothing, and…
An Executable Model of the Interaction between Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Catholijn M In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication communication processes: a non-verbal communication process that adds and modifies content to a verbal
Cary R Savage; Lee Baer; Nancy J Keuthen; Halle D Brown; Scott L Rauch; Michael A Jenike
Background: Previous neuropsychological studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have indicated impaired executive functioning and nonverbal memory. The extent to which impaired executive functioning impacts nonverbal memory has not been established. The current study investigated the mediating effects of organizational strategies used when copying a figure on subsequent nonverbal memory for that figure.Methods: We examined neuropsychological performance in 20 unmedicated subjects
Powell, Evan R.; Dennis, Virginia Collier
Thirty educable mentally retarded (EMR) and 20 trainable mentally retarded (TMR) black or white pupils were observed interacting with classmates and 25 teachers in a retardation center. Multi-modal communicative behavior was noted, with focus on interpersonal spatial distance as one index of relationship and affect between interacting partners.…
This paper asserts that teachers need to understand the logic of young children's behavior in their joint play and in their conflicts in order to respond sensitively, and that children construct logic-in-action (procedural knowledge) long before they are able to verbalize their logic in narratives. The basic assumption of the paper is that there…
Bosacki, Sandra; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Coplan, Robert J.
Research suggests that social communication (verbal and non-verbal) plays a key role in students' and teachers' elementary-school experiences. Within the framework of sociocognitive developmental theory, this qualitative study investigates teachers' experiences and perceptions of children's talking and listening habits within…
Cerutti, D T; Staddon, J E R
In the time-left experiment (J. Gibbon & R. M. Church, 1981), animals are said to compare an expectation of a fixed delay to food, for one choice, with a decreasing delay expectation for the other, mentally representing both upcoming time to food and the difference between current time and upcoming time (the cognitive hypothesis). The results of 2 experiments support a simpler view: that animals choose according to the immediacies of reinforcement for each response at a time signaled by available time markers (the temporal control hypothesis). It is not necessary to assume that animals can either represent or subtract representations of times to food to explain the results of the time-left experiment. PMID:14709114
Fusaro, Maria; Harris, Paul L.
Recent findings show that preschool children are selective with respect to whom they ask for information and whose claims they endorse. In particular, they monitor an informant's record of past accuracy or inaccuracy and use that record to gauge future trustworthiness. We ask if preschoolers also monitor the non-verbal cues of assent or dissent…
Duska Rosenberg; John A. A. Sillince
The paper discusses the verbal and nonverbal communication during a video- recorded meeting between two physically separate teams as part of a 9 month multi-site construction project. In the extract analysed here, the team which was video-recorded contained three members and the project coordinator, whereas the remote team contained a single individual. Communication between the two teams was by means
Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael
Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…
Vlogcast Yourself: Nonverbal Behavior and Attention in Social Media Joan-Isaac Biel jibiel to social media, but also to remote communication scenarios, and requires the integration of methods for multimodal pro- cessing and for social media understanding. Based on works from social psychology
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Amygdala Volume and Nonverbal Social Impairment in Adolescent and Adult Males disorders de- fined by impairment in 3 core domains: reciprocal social interaction, communication behavior (eg, understanding of social norms)9-11 ; this fueled specula- tion that autistic behavior
Vlogcast Yourself: Nonverbal Behavior and Attention in Social Media Joan-Isaac Biel jibiel is useful not only to study social media, but also re- mote communication scenarios, and requires the integration of methods for multimodal processing and for social media understanding. Based on works from
Remland, Martin S.
Although a relatively new area of scientific study, theory and research on nonverbal communication in the courtroom has produced important findings for students and practitioners in five key areas: voire dire and jury analysis; opening and closing statements; client demeanor and direct examination; cross-examination; and judge demeanor and…
Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Rogers, Sally J.
Objective: The study was to examine nonverbal communication in young children with autism. Methods: The participants were 23 young children with autism (mean CA = 32.79 months), 23 CA and MA-matched children with developmental delay and 22 18-20-month-old, and 22 13-15-month-old typically developing toddlers and infants. The abbreviated Early…
Results from focus group interviews with 23 professional disability-sector workers indicate that personal values strongly influence the practices used by study participants when they are listening to nonverbal individuals with severe intellectual disabilities. Environmental, teller, and listener impediments to successful listening are identified,…
Genthner, Robert W.; Moughan, James
The different responses of introverts and extraverts to two types of helper nonverbal attending were examined. Subjects were 26 introverts and 26 extraverts, as defined by Eysenck and Eysenck's questionnaire. Introverts rated the listener higher than did extraverts, independent of his posture. (Author)
Safadi, Michaela; Valentine, Carol Ann
To achieve effective intercultural communication, participants must understand how behavioral differences may lead to miscommunication. Such behavioral differences can be illustrated by Arab and American nonverbal behavior. Individualism is the ideal for the American middle class, whereas Arabs are motivated by public opinion. Yet in the Arab…
Dinesh Babu Jayagopi; Daniel Gatica-Perez
The automatic discovery of group conversational behavior is a relevant problem in social computing. In this paper, we present an approach to address this problem by defining a novel group descriptor called bag of group-nonverbal-patterns (NVPs) defined on brief observations of group interaction, and by using principled probabilistic topic models to discover topics. The proposed bag of group NVPs allows
Cavanaugh, Dan; And Others
A two-part pilot study investigated and categorized the roles verbal and nonverbal communication play in the initiation of sexual intercourse. The study also explored the manner in which partners accept or reject sexual overtures, the contexts and antecedents of sexual initiation, and the changes in sexual behavior which occur as a consequence of…
Daniel N. Allen; Gregory P. Strauss; Karen A. Kemtes; Gerald Goldstein
Hemispheric involvement in reasoning abilities has been debated for some time, and it remains unclear whether the right hemisphere's involvement in problem solving is modality specific or dependent on the type of spatial reasoning required. In the current study, 2 types of nonverbal reasoning abilities were examined, spatial reasoning and proportional reasoning, in 109 patients with cerebrovascular disease that was
Dungan, James; Saxe, Rebecca
Language has been shown to play a key role in the development of a child's theory of mind, but its role in adult belief reasoning remains unclear. One recent study used verbal and nonverbal interference during a false-belief task to show that accurate belief reasoning in adults necessarily requires language (Newton & de Villiers, 2007). The…
Communication skills are important for children with developmental disabilities to be functional and independent in their own lives. This study examined influences of different types of listener feedback or breakdowns on repair behaviors of nonverbal children with disabilities during semi-structured opportunities at snack time. Three preschool…
Marie-Louise Rinman; Anders Friberg; Ivar Kjellmo; Antonio Camurri; Damien Cirotteau; Barbara Mazzarino; Bendik Bendikesen; Hugh McCarthy
The interactive game environment EPS (expressive performance space), presented in this short paper, is a work still in progress. EPS involves participants in an activity using non-verbal emotional expressions. Two teams use expressive gestures in either voice or body movements to compete. Each team has an avatar controlled either by singing into a microphone or by moving in front of
Canan P. Zeki
The aim of this study is to examine students’ perceptions about nonverbal communication in class focusing on eye contact, mimics and gestures. 67 students who were enrolled into two classroom management groups of the researcher were adopted as the participants of the study. The students were assigned to write a “critical moments reflection’ report on any of the incidents that
Karen Caplovitz Barrett
A functionalist perspective on the development of nonverbal communication of emotion is presented. This perspective is distinguished from other current conceptualizations by the following features: (a) Emphasis is placed on the functional implications of emotion-relevant movements for social regulation (communication), intrapersonal (internal) regulation, and behavior regulation. (b) Emotions are viewed as “members of families of emotions.” Emotion families are composed
Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.
Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…
Andersen, Peter A.; Guerrero, Laura Knarr
Defining defensiveness as a protective reaction resulting from fear or a threat to one's face or ego, this paper provides a perspective on both verbal and nonverbal aspects of defensiveness. First, the paper examines two trait-like communication predispositions--communication apprehension and touch avoidance--which arguably produce defensive…
Wilhoit, Brian E.; McCallum, R. Steve
A normative typology was developed and applied using multivariate profile analysis of subtest scores of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) standardization sample. The results yielded a seven-profile cluster solution for the Extended Battery, and a six-profile cluster solution for the Standard Battery. Additionally, the results lend…
Burgoon, Judee K.; Blair, J. Pete; Strom, Renee E.
In potentially deceptive situations, people rely on mental shortcuts to help process information. These heuristic judgments are often biased and result in inaccurate assessments of sender veracity. Four such biases--truth bias, visual bias, demeanor bias, and expectancy violation bias--were examined in a judgment experiment that varied nonverbal…
Levy, Yonata; Bar-Yuda, Chanit
The study focuses on language and cognitive abilities of siblings of the linguistically most affected children with autism (i.e. siblings of nonverbal children--SIBS-ANV). Twenty-eight SIBS-ANV (17 boys), ages 4-9 years, took part in the study. All children attended regular schools, and none had received a diagnosis of autism. Controls were 27…
Verbal and non-verbal communication interactions have a strong influence on the social construction of gender. Therefore understanding the classroom interaction structures and the subsequent socio-cultural context is a vital commitment for any teacher. Furthermore, since gender is constructed in the day-to-day interactions of children's lives,…
Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Weser, Benjamin
Focuses on the relationship of three student predispositions to their expectations for instructor communication behavior. Examines students' communication apprehension, grade and learning orientation, and humor orientation in relation to students' expectations for teachers' use of verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviors, clarity behaviors, and…
Hindman, Jennifer; Grant, Leslie W.; Stronge, James H.
This entry in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice Series focuses on the characteristics of teachers who create supportive learning environments for their students. By conveying a sense of immediacy, credibility, and caring, they communicate to students in both verbal and nonverbal ways that are essential to cultivating a positive and…
This digest focuses on verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors in the college classroom. The digest reviews research on the kinds of behaviors instructors, many of whom are graduate teaching assistants (GTAs), exhibit, and students' reactions to and attitudes about those behaviors. The digest also reviews research on teacher immediacy…
Slot machines are the most "addictive" games because (a) the disorder (pathological gambling) appears more rapidly in these games than with any other; (b) most patients who seek professional help are mainly addicted to electronic gambling, and (c) even though it is not the more frequent game, most of all the money spent on legal games of chance (at least in Spain) goes to slot machines. Structural characteristics of slot machines induce to gamble because electronic games show the main parameters of operant conditioning, mainly the immediacy of the reinforcement. Ten pathological gamblers played slot machine in two conditions: immediate and delayed reinforcement. The results corroborate the importance of the immediacy of the reinforcement in gambling, because when the result appears immediately (after 2 s), more games are played than when the result is delayed only 10 s. Critical issues in problem gambling prevention and public health are discussed. PMID:19882307
Lee, Lauren A; Sbarra, David A; Mason, Ashley E; Law, Rita W
Marital separation and divorce increase risk for all-cause morbidity and mortality. Using a laboratory analogue paradigm, the present study examined attachment anxiety, language use, and blood pressure (BP) reactivity among 119 (n = 43 men, 76 women) recently separated adults who were asked to mentally reflect on their relationship history and separation experience. We created a language use composite of verbal immediacy from participants' stream-of-consciousness recordings about their separation experience as a behavioral index of attachment-related hyperactivation. Verbal immediacy moderated the association between attachment anxiety and BP at the beginning of a divorce-specific activation task. Participants reporting high attachment anxiety who discussed their separation in a first-person, present-oriented and highly engaged manner evidenced the highest levels of BP at the start of the divorce-specific task. Results provide a deeper understanding of the association between marital dissolution and health and suggest that verbal immediacy may be a useful behavioral index of hyperactivating coping strategies. PMID:21647240
Lee, Lauren A.; Sbarra, David A.; Mason, Ashley E.; Law, Rita W.
Marital separation and divorce increase risk for all-cause morbidity and mortality. Using a laboratory analogue paradigm, the present study examined attachment anxiety, language use, and blood pressure (BP) reactivity among 119 (n = 43 men, 76 women) recently separated adults who were asked to mentally reflect on their relationship history and separation experience. We created a language use composite of verbal immediacy from participants’ stream-of-consciousness recordings about their separation experience as a behavioral index of attachment-related hyperactivation. Verbal immediacy moderated the association between attachment anxiety and BP at the beginning of a divorce-specific activation task. Participants reporting high attachment anxiety who discussed their separation in a first-person, present-oriented and highly engaged manner evidenced the highest levels of BP at the start of the divorce-specific task. Results provide a deeper understanding of the association between marital dissolution and health and suggest that verbal immediacy may be a useful behavioral index of hyperactivating coping strategies. PMID:21647240
Grammer, K; Honda, M; Juette, A; Schmitt, A
A new method for the assessment of qualitative description of nonverbal behavior (automatic movie analysis) is introduced. This model-free method does not use any assumptions on the structure and organization of nonverbal behavior. Cross-cultural comparison (Germany, Japan) of unobtrusively filmed initial interactions between 2 opposite-sex strangers revealed no consistent courtship repertoire of directly observable behavior categories. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of gaze behavior and speech revealed differences between the countries but also showed no consistent relation to interest. Motion energy detection demonstrated in both cultures that female movement quality score (number of movements, duration, size, speed, and complexity) covaries with female interest. This effect is in concordance with the theory that in early stages of interactions manipulative efforts occur in order to avoid possible deception in high-risk situations. PMID:10510505
Feiler, Rachelle; Heritage, Margaret; Gallimore, Ronald
UCLA's laboratory school is experimenting with the teacher-leader role as a way to provide ongoing learning opportunities for teachers. Teacher leaders serve as in-house experts who provide information, modeling, and assistance to other teachers. Choosing appropriate leader roles and teachers with credible leadership skills helps. (MLH)
Duryea, E J
Nonverbal communication literature contains salient and pragmatic principles relevant to peer pressure refusal components in school health education curricula. Yet, this literature has not been analyzed or integrated into health education interventions. Basic nonverbal components that could be applied to peer pressure resistance programs, such as gaze (eye behavior), stance and proxemics (space), gesture and emblems, and facial expression, are reviewed. Assertiveness literature and nonverbal communication also are summarized. Selected nonverbal resistance strategies are proposed for future peer pressure reduction efforts. A distinction is made between peer "pressure" conceptualized as nonverbal and peer "persuasion" viewed as verbal. Recommendations to incorporate relevant nonverbal concepts into the peer "pressure" components of school health education curricula are proposed. PMID:2027295
Howard S. Friedman; Louise M. Prince; Ronald E. Riggio; M. Robin DiMatteo
577 undergraduates participated in an investigation of the concept of nonverbal emotional expressiveness. Ss were administered a 13-item self-report Affective Communication Test (ACT) and a battery of other tests, including the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, Rotter's Internal–External Locus of Control Scale, and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Results show the ACT to be a reliable and valid measure
Debra L. Roter; Richard M. Frankel; Judith A. Hall; David Sluyter
Relationship-centered care reflects both knowing and feeling: the knowledge that physician and patient bring from their respective\\u000a domains of expertise, and the physician’s and patient’s experience, expression, and perception of emotions during the medical\\u000a encounter. These processes are conveyed and reciprocated in the care process through verbal and nonverbal communication. We\\u000a suggest that the emotional context of care is especially
Infonomics Ikat; Paul Vogt
This paper presents a series of experiments in which two mobile robots developa shared lexicon of which the meaning is grounded in the real world. The experimentsinvestigate the impact of non-verbal communication on lexicon formation.Non-verbal communication is used to establish joint attention or to evaluate feedback.The experiments implement adaptive language games in which two agents tryto communicate some real world
Mark Gabbott; Gillian Hogg
Considers the role of non-verbal communication in consumers’ evaluation of service encounters. Non-verbal communication has been extensively studied in the psychology and psychotherapy disciplines and has been shown to have a central effect on participants’ perceptions of an event. As services are essentially interpersonal interactions it follows that non-verbal communication will play a major part in service evaluation. Uses an
Katharina Hogrefe; Wolfram Ziegler; Nicole Weidinger; Georg Goldenberg
Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that
Noting that cross-cultural and language barriers pose formidable challenges to managers, a case study examined the application of selective nonverbal communication strategies (nonverbal cues, learning by observation, and the organization of learning) for management and training development efforts within diverse cultural environments. Source…
language. Such nonverbal communication can convey affect such as anger or nervousness that is importantNonverbal Indicators of Malicious Intent: Affective Components for Interrogative Virtual Reality-oriented operations such as police interrogation, airport security, border crossings, and military peacekeeping. Aside
Young, R. Michael
is concerned with understanding users' communicative intentions as reflected in their utterances analysis (Joty et al., 2011). Human interaction involves not only verbal communication but also nonverbal communication. Research on nonverbal communication (Knapp and Hall, 2006; Mehrabian, 2007; Russell et al., 2003
You Are Known by How You Vlog: Personality Impressions and Nonverbal Behavior in YouTube Joan in understanding human percep- tion in social media has led to the study of the pro- cesses of personality self and interpersonal perception. We investi- gate the use of nonverbal cues as descriptors of vlog- gers' behavior
Dory A. Schachner; Phillip R. Shaver; Mario Mikulincer
Nonverbal behavior and sensitivity to a relationship partner's nonver- bal behavior importantly influence the quality of interpersonal interactions and relationships, including attachment relationships. The abilities to encode, or express, and to decode, or understand, nonverbal cues are crucial to effective communica- tion of emotions and are associated with social adjustment and relationship satis- faction. One important social context for the
April R. Trees
This study investigated the contribution of nonverbal cues to supportive communication in interactions between mothers and young adult children. Current support communication research primarily focuses on verbal messages communicating support or conceptualizes nonverbal communication in narrow ways. Using the concept of interactional sensitivity from attachment theory for direction, a number of hypotheses concerning support provision were proposed in order to
Taute, Harry A.; Heiser, Robert S.; McArthur, David N.
Although salespeople have long been urged to recognize and adapt to customer needs and wants by observing communications style and other cues or signals by the buyer, nonverbal communications by the salesperson have received much less empirical scrutiny. However, nonverbal communications may be important in this context; research in several…
Improving Recognition and Identification of Facial Areas Involved in Non-verbal Communication selection approach for automatic NVC recognition based on sequential backward selection of facial shape,e.ong,n.pugeault,firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract--Meaningful Non-Verbal Communication (NVC) sig- nals can be recognised by facial deformations
Hartley, Sigan L.; Birgenheir, Denis G.
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID), yet little is known about depressive behaviors in an ID population. This study examined the nonverbal social skills of 18 adults with mild ID diagnosed with depression and a matched sample of adults with mild ID without depression. Nonverbal…
reports preliminary experiments on automatic attribution of personality traits based on nonverbal vocal of personality traits from nonverbal features of speech. Our Permission to make digital or hard copies of all the language spoken in the speech samples so that the influence of the verbal content is limited. To the best
This document contains eight progress reports of a research project testing the assumption that communication at the nonverbal level affects a student's emotional involvement in the material he studies and this the learning process itself. The project attempted to establish the educational potential of nonverbal communication by measuring…
Hélène Joffe; Ana ClÁUdia Franca-Koh
The study explores the link between remembered non-verbal sexual communication in the home, current sexual behaviours and feelings of sexual guilt, among a sample of young British men and women. Non-verbal sexual communication encapsulates: openness about nudity in the home; the showing of affection between parents; signs of parental sexual activity and contraceptive use; and intimation of mother's menstruation. One
This paper presents a strategy for teaching non-verbal communication skills to students in high school or college. The strategy uses the movie "Date with an Angel" to teach the non-verbal skills. According to the paper, the activity can be used at the beginning of a unit or course to get the students interested in important concepts/aspects of…
In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the non-verbal component for efficient communication and that following NVC training future
Andrew G. Brooks; Ronald C. Arkin
This research details the application of non-verbal communication display behaviors to an autonomous humanoid robot, including the use of proxemics, which to date has been seldom explored in the field of human-robot interaction. In order to allow the robot to communicate information non-verbally while simultaneously fulfilling its existing instrumental be- havior, a \\
Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry
Three-dimensional synthetic worlds introduce possibilities for nonverbal communication in computer-mediated language learning. This paper presents an original methodological framework for the study of multimodal communication in such worlds. It offers a classification of verbal and nonverbal communication acts in the synthetic world "Second Life"…
Miller, Carol A.; Gilbert, Erin
Definitions of specific language impairment (SLI), for both research and clinical purposes, often state that nonverbal IQ scores must be within normal limits. This use of nonverbal IQ has been criticized on several grounds, including lack of equivalence between tests. In the current study, a sample of 204 adolescents with and without language…
This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…
This study examined the relationship between characteristics of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) and nonverbal sensitivity, the ability to interpret nonverbal aspects of communication, in a non-clinical sample of college students. One hundred and two participants completed a self-report measure of the BAP, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and…
Fugita, Stephen; And Others
The vast majority of research on nonverbal behavior has used white college students as subjects. The present investigation examined both white and black subjects' non-verbal behavior and also independently varied the race of the person with whom the subject interacted. The experimental setting was an actual employment interview. Twenty black and…
Grujic, Zdenda; Libby, William L., Jr.
The present study was designed to investigate whether known intercultural differences in nonverbal behavior extend to specific nonverbal repertoires accompanying, and perhaps facilitating the act of speaking a verbal language. Conversations in the form of structured interviews between 48 French-Canadian, French-English bilinguals (24 males and 24…
Judith A. Hall; Amy G. Halberstadt; Christopher E. O'Brien
We conducted a primary study and a meta-analysis on the relation of trait “subordination” measures to trait measures of sensitivity to nonverbal cues, in order to test the hypothesis that more subordinate individuals have enhanced ability to decode nonverbal cues. In the primary study, subordination measures included socioeconomic background, two dominance scales, a capacity for status scale, a control by
Garner, Patrick H.
Universals in nonverbal behavior represent an important issue in the study of the cross-cultural communication. Perhaps the most well-known research in nonverbal universals was conducted by Paul Ekman, who examined literate and preliterate cultures from various language groups and identified six universal facial expressions: happiness, sadness,…
Peterson, Robin T.; Leonhardt, James M.
This paper investigates the possible complementary effects that training in empathy and nonverbal communication may have on persuasion capabilities. The narrative considers implications from the literature and describes an exploratory study in which students, in a managerial setting, were trained in empathy and nonverbal communication. Subsequent…
Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael
Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greater…
Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang
Objective: The authors quantified nonverbal synchrony--the coordination of patient's and therapist's movement--in a random sample of same-sex psychotherapy dyads. The authors contrasted nonverbal synchrony in these dyads with a control condition and assessed its association with session-level and overall psychotherapy outcome. Method: Using an…
Gena P. Barnhill; Katherine Tapscott Cook; Kelly Tebbenkamp; Brenda Smith Myles
This study investigated the effectiveness of a social skills intervention targeting nonverbal communication for 8 adolescents With Asperger syndrome (AS) and related pervasive developmental delays. The Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy 2 (DANVA2; NoWicki, 1997) Was used as a pre- and posttest measure to assess participants' nonverbal language skills. During the 8-Week social skills intervention, lessons Were adapted from those
Barnhill, Gena P.; Cook, Katherine Tapscott; Tebbenkamp, Kelly; Myles, Brenda Smith
A study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-week social skills intervention targeting nonverbal communication for eight adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Although minimal nonverbal communication skills development was apparent, some social relationships were developed and the ability of some participants to read the nonverbal communication of…
Matute, Esmeralda; Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Molina Del Rio, Jahaziel; López Elizalde, Ramiro; López, Manuel; Ontiveros, Angel
A 74-year-old, left-handed man presented with a rapidly evolving loss of strength in his right leg associated with difficulty in walking. MR images disclosed an extensive left hemisphere tumor. A neuropsychological examination revealed that language was broadly normal but that the patient presented with severe nonlinguistic abnormalities, including hemineglect (both somatic and spatial), constructional defects, and general spatial disturbances; symptoms were usually associated with right hemisphere pathologies. No ideomotor apraxia was found. The implications of crossed-brain representations of verbal and nonverbal functions are analyzed. PMID:25802778
The current study examined the willingness to communicate (WTC) of language learners who were studying English as a foreign language in a Chinese college setting. Some 234 college students participated in the study. The objective of the current study was to test the proposed relationships among communication apprehension (CA), self-perceived communication competence (SPCC), integrativeness, attitudes toward the learning situation, motivation,
Barclay, Allen C.
On a national level, data indicate that about 40 percent of students in calculus courses finish with a grade of D or F, drop the course, or withdraw (Reinholz, 2009). This high failure rate has led to research studies investigating the teaching of calculus at the national level (House, 1995). Calculus courses have a history of high failure rates,…
Orland-Barak, Lily; Maskit, Ditza
Drawing on qualitative methodologies that integrate verbal and non-verbal texts, this study investigated novice teachers' attributions of their experiences of internship, as conveyed through a visual text. Novices were invited to design a visual text that represented their experience during internship, as part of a national call entitled…
Jaasma, Marjorie A.; Koper, Randall J.
Research has established the important and positive relationship between informal student-faculty interactions and student retention. To add to the scant research on out-of-class communication (OCC), a study investigated the relationship between OCC and instructor immediacy, trust, and conversation control, and student motivation for students and…
Teacher2Teacher is "a peer-mentored question-and-answer service" and intended to serve as "a resource for teachers and parents who have questions about teaching mathematics." Visitors to the website can search or browse the archived discussions by topic area or grade level, ask a question, discuss math education in the Teachers' Lounge, or look up some Frequently Asked Questions. When posting a message or question, you are asked to provide your name and email. Registration is not required, but will qualify you for a free copy of their newsletter via email. Questions are answered by Teacher2Teacher Associates. The wide range of topics and levels covered here will prove helpful to students or instructors with questions on Developmental Math, ESL instruction, Logic, Calculus and many more. In addition, anyone interested in becoming a Teacher2Teacher Associate can learn more about how to apply in the About T2T section.
Wilson, Stephanie J.; Martire, Lynn M.; Keefe, Francis J.; Mogle, Jacqueline A.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Schulz, Richard
The current study applied a model of pain communication  to examine the distinction between verbal and nonverbal pain expression in their prediction of punishing, empathic, and solicitous spouse responses to patient pain. It was hypothesized that on days when patients engaged in more nonverbal expression spouses would respond more positively (i.e., with less punishing, and more solicitous and empathic behavior). The same pattern was predicted for verbal expression. In addition, it was expected that associations between patient nonverbal pain expression and positive spouse responses would be strengthened, and that the association with punishing responses would be weakened, on days when levels of verbal pain expression were higher than usual, regardless of daily pain severity. In a 22-day diary study, 144 individuals with knee osteoarthritis and their spouses completed daily measures of pain expression, spouse responses, health, and affect. The predicted positive main effect of nonverbal expression on empathic and solicitous responses was supported by the data, as was the positive main effect for verbal pain expression. Results from moderation analyses partially supported our hypothesis in that a) patients’ nonverbal pain expression was even more strongly related to empathic and solicitous spouse responses on days of high verbal pain expression, and b) patients were buffered from spouse punishing responses on days when both nonverbal and verbal expression were high. These findings suggest that pain expression in both verbal and nonverbal modes of communication is important for positive and negative spousal responses. PMID:23791895
The numbers are in, and they are not rosy. According to the "Schools and Staffing Survey," 64,954 public schools reported vacancies during the 2003-04 school year. Projections suggest teacher attrition rates will continue to soar, while student enrollments climb. American schools have an urgent challenge: the retention of teachers. Teachers can do…
Basten, Maartje; van der Ende, Jan; Tiemeier, Henning; Althoff, Robert R; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Hudziak, James J; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya
Children meeting the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) suffer from high levels of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems. Little is known about the cognitive abilities of these children with CBCL-DP. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence. Parents of 6,131 children from a population-based birth cohort, aged 5 through 7 years, reported problem behavior on the CBCL/1.5-5. The CBCL-DP was derived using latent profile analysis on the CBCL/1.5-5 syndrome scales. Nonverbal intelligence was assessed using the Snijders Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test 2.5-7-Revised. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence using linear regression. Analyses were adjusted for parental intelligence, parental psychiatric symptoms, socio-economic status, and perinatal factors. In a subsample with diagnostic interview data, we tested if the results were independent of the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The results showed that children meeting the CBCL-DP (n = 110, 1.8%) had a 11.0 point lower nonverbal intelligence level than children without problems and 7.2-7.3 points lower nonverbal intelligence level than children meeting other profiles of problem behavior (all p values <0.001). After adjustment for covariates, children with CBCL-DP scored 8.3 points lower than children without problems (p < 0.001). The presence of ADHD or ASD did not account for the lower nonverbal intelligence in children with CBCL-DP. In conclusion, we found that children with CBCL-DP have a considerable lower nonverbal intelligence score. The CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence may share a common neurodevelopmental etiology. PMID:24802760
Bjoro, Karen; Herr, Keela
The inability of nonverbal older adults to communicate pain represents a major barrier to pain assessment and treatment. This article focuses on nonverbal older adult populations with dementia, delirium, and severe critical illness. A comprehensive approach to pain assessment is advocated encompassing multiple sources of information. Selected behavioral tools for nonverbal pain assessment are critiqued. Although there are tools with promise, there is currently no standardized behavioral tool that may be recommended for broad adoption in clinical practice and continued concerted effort to this end is needed. PMID:18387454
This study examined the nonverbal, interaction quality and perceptual accuracy correlates of attachment style within two interactions groups; strangers and romantic couples. Twenty eight stranger dyads and twenty eight ...
The purpose of this research is to examine parenting, child goal orientation, and child nonverbal intelligence as predictors of academic achievement among fifth grade Turkish children. The influence of intelligence, parenting style, and goal...
The purpose of this research is to examine parenting, child goal orientation, and child nonverbal intelligence as predictors of academic achievement among fifth grade Turkish children. The influence of intelligence, parenting style, and goal...
Kucherawy, David A.; Kucherawy, Jenny M.
The article describes the use of an electrical communication system (the Cocom Center Model 25) to establish communication with and more accurately assess an apparently profoundly retarded, nonverbal, 28-year-old spastic quadriplegic female. (Author/PHR)
Goldin-Meadow, Susan; So, Wing Chee; Özyürek, Asl?; Mylander, Carolyn
To test whether the language we speak influences our behavior even when we are not speaking, we asked speakers of four languages differing in their predominant word orders (English, Turkish, Spanish, and Chinese) to perform two nonverbal tasks: a communicative task (describing an event by using gesture without speech) and a noncommunicative task (reconstructing an event with pictures). We found that the word orders speakers used in their everyday speech did not influence their nonverbal behavior. Surprisingly, speakers of all four languages used the same order and on both nonverbal tasks. This order, actor–patient–act, is analogous to the subject–object–verb pattern found in many languages of the world and, importantly, in newly developing gestural languages. The findings provide evidence for a natural order that we impose on events when describing and reconstructing them nonverbally and exploit when constructing language anew. PMID:18599445
Keela Herr; Patrick J. Coyne; Tonya Key; Renee Manworren; Margo McCaffery; Sandra Merkel; Jane Pelosi-Kelly; Lori Wild
The article presents the position statement and clinical practice recommendations for pain assessment in the nonverbal patient developed by an appointed Task Force and approved by the ASPMN Board of Directors.
Weisbuch, Max; Pauker, Kristin
Social and policy interventions over the last half-century have achieved laudable reductions in blatant discrimination. Yet members of devalued social groups continue to face subtle discrimination. In this article, we argue that decades of anti-discrimination interventions have failed to eliminate intergroup bias because such bias is contagious. We present a model of bias contagion in which intergroup bias is subtly communicated through nonverbal behavior. Exposure to such nonverbal bias “infects” observers with intergroup bias. The model we present details two means by which nonverbal bias can be expressed—either as a veridical index of intergroup bias or as a symptom of worry about appearing biased. Exposure to this nonverbal bias can increase perceivers’ own intergroup biases through processes of implicit learning, informational influence, and normative influence. We identify critical moderators that may interfere with these processes and consequently propose several social and educational interventions based on these moderators. PMID:23997812
Milne, Jennifer S. (Jennifer Sarah)
Telepresence robots have emerged as a novel solution to meeting the social communication needs of nomadic workers. This thesis provides an overview of non-verbal communication cues for telepresence robot applications, and ...
Cynthia Breazeal; Cory D. Kidd; Andrea Lockerd Thomaz; Guy Hoffman; Matt Berlin
Nonverbal communication plays an important role in coordinating teammates' actions for collaborative activities. In this paper, we explore the impact of non-verbal social cues and behavior on task performance by a human-robot team. We report our results from an experiment where naive human subjects guide a robot to perform a physical task using speech and gesture. Both self-report via questionnaire
Little, S S
Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the use of subtyping techniques for research and treatment of learning disabilities (LD). This article presents an overview of the current literature relating to a nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) subtype. Research on the relationship between nonverbal learning disabilities and socioemotional functioning is critically reviewed. Issues of generalizability of research outcomes, individual differences, and treatment validity are addressed. Emphasis is on findings that are most likely to have direct relevance for practitioners. PMID:8151205
Terrence G. Horgan; Jessi L. Smith
Women’s tendency to outperform men on measures of accuracy in interpreting the meaning of nonverbal behavior might be due to such measures being more congruent with women’s interpersonal goals than men’s. The present study examined undergraduate men’s and women’s (N = 41) nonverbal judgment accuracy on the Interpersonal Perception Task-15 (IPT-15; Costanzo & Archer, 1993 [.The interpersonal perception task-15 (IPT-15). Berkeley: University
Tanja Bänziger; Klaus R. Scherer; Judith A. Hall; Robert Rosenthal
Despite extensive research activity on the recognition of emotional expression, there are only few validated tests of individual\\u000a differences in this competence (generally considered as part of nonverbal sensitivity and emotional intelligence). This paper\\u000a reports the development of a short, multichannel, version (MiniPONS) of the established Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity (PONS)\\u000a test. The full test has been extensively validated in
Lauren G. Collins; Anne Schrimmer; James Diamond; Janice Burke
ObjectiveCommunication during medical interviews plays a large role in patient adherence, satisfaction with care, and health outcomes. Both verbal and non-verbal communication (NVC) skills are central to the development of rapport between patients and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of non-verbal and verbal communication skills on evaluations by standardized patients during an ethnogeriatric
Catholijn M. Jonker; Jan Treur; Wouter C. A. Wijngaards
\\u000a In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and\\u000a their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and\\u000a mental processes and their relations. The generic process model has been designed, implemented and used to simulate different\\u000a types of interaction between verbal and non-verbal
Griffiths, Michael; Graham, Charles
This research sought to understand the experiences of students and instructors with asynchronous video (video-mail) using webcams in three online sections of teacher education classes at Brigham Young University. We examined the experiences of students through scores and comments posted in student ratings surveys, and the experiences of…
Troisi, A; Spalletta, G; Pasini, A
The aims of this study were (i) to define the dimensions of non-verbal behaviour which distinguish between schizophrenic patients and control subjects and (ii) to examine the relationship between patients' non-verbal behaviour and clinical symptoms. The non-verbal behaviour of 28 drug-free patients with schizophrenia according to Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) and 25 control subjects was videotaped during interviews and scored according to an ethological scoring system. Patients' symptoms were rated on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. As a group, schizophrenic patients showed a global restriction of non-verbal expressiveness, as indicated by their lower scores on prosocial behaviour, gesture and conflict. However, some patients had normal ethological profiles. Non-verbal behaviour was largely independent of negative and positive symptoms. Deficits in non-verbal behaviour may play a role in determining or aggravating dysfunctional patterns of relating in schizophrenia. Ethological analysis provides further support for the model that conceptualizes positive symptoms, negative symptoms and disorders of social relationships as three separate dimensions of the schizophrenic syndrome. PMID:9517903
Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.
This study examined the effectiveness of enhancing humanagentinteraction through the use of nonverbal behaviors. Ataxonomy is described, which organizes nonverbal behaviorsinto functional categories and the manner in which they can beembodied (i.e. through gesture, posture, paralanguage, eyecontact and facial expression). Prototype computer characterswere created according to guidelines extracted from thetaxonomy and their efficacy was empirical evaluated. Theresults indicate that by including trusting nonverbal behaviors,the perceived credibility of a computer character was enhanced,although addition of trusting bodily nonverbal behaviorprovided little in addition to trusting facial nonverbal behavior.Perhaps more importantly, a character expressing non-trustingnonverbal behaviors was perceived to be the least credible of allcharacters examined (including a character that expressed nononverbal behavior). Participants that interacted with thispersona perceived the task to be more demanding, madesignificantly more errors, and rated their interaction lesspositively and more monotonous than those using trustingpersonas. They also rated this character to be less likable,accurate, and intelligent. Taken together, the results from thisstudy suggest that there may indeed be benefit to endowingcomputer characters with nonverbal trusting behaviors, as longas those behaviors are accurately and appropriately portrayed.Such behaviors may lead to a more trusting environment andpositive experience for users. Negative character behavior,however, such as non-trusting behavior, may squander theadvantages that embodiment brings.
Troy McDaniel; Sreekar Krishna; Vineeth Balasubramanian; Dirk Colbry; Sethuraman Panchanathan
Good social skills are important and provide for a healthy, successful life; however, individuals with visual impairments are at a disadvantage when interacting with sighted peers due to inaccessible non-verbal cues. This paper presents a haptic (vibrotactile) belt to assist individuals who are blind or visually impaired by communicating non-verbal cues during social interactions. We focus on non-verbal communication pertaining
Background Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Methods Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Results Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Subjects also had significant reductions in RR (P < 0.0001) and improved HRV (P < 0.05) with both tactile and non-tactile LKM. Conclusion It is possible to test the effects of LKM with tactile and non-tactile blinding strategies; even with blinding in this small preliminary study, subjects reported significant improvements in well-being which were reflected in objective physiologic measures of autonomic activity. Extending compassion is not only good care; it may also be good medicine. Trial registration number US National ClinicalTrials.gov registration number, NCT01428674 PMID:22185349
Lepach, A C; Petermann, F
The 22q11 deletion syndrome (DS) is a common genetic disorder, and a Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NLD) is considered as a predominant part of the phenotype. The focus of our study was to investigate the role of learning in this NLD characteristic. We compared results of children and adolescents with 22q11 DS; with non-syndromal NLD and with memory disorders on multi-trial verbal and nonverbal learning tests. Better verbal and worse nonverbal IQs were significantly discrepant for the 22q11 DS sample and for the NLD sample; the memory sample had a FS-IQ in the normal range with lower verbal IQ. General IQ was lowest for the 22q11 DS group. Similar differences in normal verbal and worse nonverbal learning resulted for the 22q11 sample and NLD-sample, while memory sample showed low performances on both tasks. Error analysis in the visual learning task indicated that lacking integration of visual-spatial information affected impaired visual memory performances in 22q11 DS and NLD. Our results reflected a common neurological basis with visual-spatial and visual memory deficits in NLD and in the 22q11 DS sample. To further investigate the issue of cross modal novelty learning deficits we recommend the use of abstract verbal learning material. PMID:21598176
McKeown, Denis; Holt, Jessica; Delvenne, Jean-Francois; Smith, Amy; Griffiths, Benjamin
Forgetting over the short term has challenged researchers for more than a century, largely because of the difficulty of controlling what goes on within the memory retention interval. But the "recent-negative-probe" procedure offers a valuable paradigm, by examining the influences of (presumably) unattended memoranda from prior trials. Here we used a recent-probe task to investigate forgetting for visual nonverbal short-term memory. The target stimuli (two visually presented abstract shapes) on a trial were followed after a retention interval by a probe, and participants indicated whether the probe matched one of the target items. Proactive interference, and hence memory for old trial probes, was observed, whereby participants were slowed in rejecting a nonmatching probe on the current trial that nevertheless matched a target item on the previous trial (a recent-negative probe). The attraction of the paradigm is that, by uncovering proactive influences of past-trial probe stimuli, it can be argued that active maintenance in memory of those probes is unlikely. In two experiments, we recorded such proactive interference of prior-trial items over a range of interstimulus (ISI) and intertrial (ITI) intervals (between 1 and 6 s, respectively). Consistent with a proposed two-process memory conception (the active-passive memory model, or APM), actively maintained memories on current trials decayed, but passively "maintained," or unattended, visual memories of stimuli on past trials did not. PMID:24390797
Konst, Matthew J; Matson, Johnny L; Goldin, Rachel L; Williams, Lindsey W
Emphasis on early identification of atypical development has increased as evidence supporting the efficacy of intervention has grown. These increases have also directly affected the availability of funding and providers of early intervention services. A majority of research has focused on interventions specific to an individual's primary diagnoses. For example, interventions for those with cerebral palsy (CP) have traditionally focused on physiological symptoms, while intervention for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) focus on socialization, communication, and restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. However deficits in areas other than those related to their primary diagnoses (e.g., communication, adaptive behaviors, and social skills) are prevalent in atypically developing populations and are significant predictors of quality of life. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine impairments in socialization and nonverbal communication in individuals with Down's syndrome (DS), CP, and those with CP and comorbid ASD. Individuals with comorbid CP and ASD exhibited significantly greater impairments than any diagnostic group alone. However, individuals with CP also exhibited significantly greater impairments than those with DS. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25200676
Zerillo, Christine; Osterman, Karen F
This mixed-methods study examined elementary teachers' perceptions of teacher-student bullying. Grounded in previous research on peer bullying, the study posed several questions: to what extent did teachers perceive bullying of students by other teachers as a serious matter requiring intervention? Did they perceive teacher bullying as more serious…
Wan, Catherine Y.; Marchina, Sarah; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried
Despite the fact that as many as 25% of the children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders are nonverbal, surprisingly little research has been conducted on this population. In particular, the mechanisms that underlie their absence of speech remain unknown. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we compared the structure of a language-related white matter tract (the arcuate fasciculus, AF) in five completely nonverbal children with autism to that of typically developing children. We found that, as a group, the nonverbal children did not show the expected left–right AF asymmetry—rather, four of the five nonverbal children actually showed the reversed pattern. It is possible that this unusual pattern of asymmetry may underlie some of the severe language deficits commonly found in autism, particularly in children whose speech fails to develop. Furthermore, novel interventions (such as auditory-motor mapping training) designed to engage brain regions that are connected via the AF may have important clinical potential for facilitating expressive language in nonverbal children with autism. PMID:22524376
Adriana Peña Pérez Negrón; Angélica de Antonio Jiménez
Nonverbal communication gives significance to communication and in a collaborative task accomplishment situation it is a helpful mechanism to support peers' awareness. Besides speech, actions and gestures help students to create a shared ground and the group process in a learning scenario. In virtual environments, the context nonverbal communication displayed by the user's avatar could be the means to understand
Hyo Sun Jung; Hye Hyun Yoon
The purpose of this study was to understand interrelationships among customers’ perception of nonverbal communication, customers’ emotional responses and customer satisfaction in the family restaurant. A total of 333 customers in Korea participated. The results showed that employees’ kinesics and proxemics among nonverbal communications have a significant effect on customers’ positive emotions, while employees’ kinesics and paralanguage affect customers’ negative
Klinzing, Hans Gerhard; Aloisio, Bernadette Gerada
A research-based program was designed for the improvement of decoding and encoding nonverbal cues as they are important aspects of successful communication and teaching. To extend the scientific base of the program, six correlational studies (N=784) investigated relationships between nonverbal skill and personality dimensions. Low non-significant…
Ascan Koerner; Mary Anne Fitzpatrick
The present study investigates the relationship between nonverbal encoding and decoding of positive and negative affect attributed to relational and nonrelational factors and spouses' marital adjustment. Findings indicate that accuracy in decoding of nonverbal affect was associated with the partner's, but not one's own, marital satisfaction. In regard to specific relational and nonrelational affect, results showed that accurate decoding of
Douglas Astler; Harrison Chau; Kailin Hsu; Alvin Hua; Andrew Kannan; Lydia Lei; Melissa Nathanson; Esmaeel Paryavi; Michelle Rosen; Hayato Unno; Carol Wang; Khadija Zaidi; Xuemin Zhang; Cha-Min Tang
Conversation between two individuals requires verbal dialogue; the majority of human communication however consists of non-verbal cues such as gestures and facial expressions. Blind individuals are thus hindered in their interaction capabilities. To address this, we are building a computer vision system with facial recognition and expression algorithms to relay nonverbal messages to a blind user. The device will communicate
Sandiford, Givona A.; Mainess, Karen J.; Daher, Noha S.
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant…
John S. Seiter; Harry Weger Jr; Andrea Jensen; Harold J. Kinzer
This study examined the effects of background nonverbal behavior displayed with the purpose of undermining one's opponent in televised debates. Students watched one of four versions of a televised debate. In each, while the speaking debater appeared on the main screen, subscreens displayed her nonspeaking opponent's background nonverbal behavior. In one version, the non-speaking debater remained “stone faced” during her
Cynthia Fuchs Epstein
Societies use symbolic means to segregate the sexes conceptually as well as physically. Social rules designate some forms of verbal and non-verbal communication according to sex, to maintain distinctions. This paper explores both the non-verbal means of communication and the content and form of verbal modes as they are related to (1) the creation and maintenance of gender distinctions, (2)
Rice, Mabel L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Hoffman, Lesa; Richman, W. Allen; Marquis, Janet
The relationship between children's language acquisition and their nonverbal intelligence has a long tradition of scientific inquiry. Current attention focuses on the use of nonverbal IQ level as an exclusionary criterion in the definition of specific language impairment (SLI). Grammatical tense deficits are known as a clinical marker of SLI, but…
Fives, Christopher J.; Flanagan, Rosemary
The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) is reviewed and critiqued. The UNIT is a completely nonverbal test that can be administered as a screening battery, a standard battery for special education eligibility decisions, or as an extended battery for diagnostic purposes. Implications for school psychology practice and research are…
Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lamb, Michael E.; Atabaki, Armita; Spindler, Sabine
Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identify…
Hackworth, Rhonda S.
This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…
Cultural Factors in the Regression of Non-verbal Communication Perception Tim Sheerman-Chase, Eng.sheerman-chase,e.ong,email@example.com Abstract Recognition of non-verbal communication (NVC) is im- portant for understanding human communication of the NVC which enables the use of -SVR to perform the regression. 1. INTRODUCTION Spontaneous non-verbal
Battersby, Sharyn L.; Bolton, Jami
Many American schools today have richly diverse classrooms composed of immigrants with a limited vocabulary or little command of the English language. Now more than ever, music educators must explore new, creative, and effective ways to communicate with this ever-changing student population. Although most teachers rely primarily on verbal…
Paul Glewwe; Nauman Ilias; Michael Kremer
We analyze a randomized trial of a program that rewarded Kenyan primary school teachers based on student test scores, with penalties for students not taking the exams. Scores increased on the formula used to reward teachers, and program school students scored higher on the exams linked to teacher incentives. Yet most of the gains were focused on the teacher reward
Eric A. Hanushek; Steven G. Rivkin
Improving the quality of instruction is a central component to virtually all proposals to raise school quality. Unfortunately, policy recommendations often ignore existing evidence about teacher labor markets and the determinants of teacher effectiveness in the classroom. This chapter reviews research on teacher labor markets, the importance of teacher quality in the determination of student achievement, and the extent to
David N. Figlio
Recently public schools have increased teacher salaries in an apparent effort to recruit higher quality teachers. This paper finds a significant relationship between teacher salaries and quality (measured by undergraduate college selectivity and subject matter expertise) within local teacher labor markets.
Merbler, J B
This article describes a three-phase program for training special education teachers to teach Logo and artificial intelligence. Logo is derived from the LISP computer language and is relatively simple to learn and use, and it is argued that these factors make it an ideal tool for classroom experimentation in basic artificial intelligence concepts. The program trains teachers to develop simple demonstrations of artificial intelligence using Logo. The material that the teachers learn to teach is suitable as an advanced level topic for intermediate- through secondary-level students enrolled in computer competency or similar courses. The material emphasizes problem-solving and thinking skills using a nonverbal expressive medium (Logo), thus it is deemed especially appropriate for hearing-impaired children. It is also sufficiently challenging for academically talented children, whether hearing or deaf. Although the notion of teachers as programmers is controversial, Logo is relatively easy to learn, has direct implications for education, and has been found to be an excellent tool for empowerment-for both teachers and children. PMID:2091452
The numbers are in, and they are not rosy. According to the "Schools and Staffing Survey," 64,954 public schools reported vacancies during the 2003-04 school year. Even more alarming is the fact that projections suggest teacher attrition rates will continue to soar, while student enrollments climb, well into the 21st century. American schools have…
Mark W. Scerbo; Jean M. Catanzaro; Mark Phillips
Models of affective behavior are critical for the development of training systems that are designed to exercise social interactions. Potential applications include various security-oriented operations such as police interrogation, airport security, border crossings, and military peacekeeping. Aside from speech, humans also communicate through vocalizations and inflections, as well as with body language. Such nonverbal communication can convey affect such as
Frans Willem Winkel
Research findings reveal a differential treatment by police officers of Dutch citizens and foreign born citizens belonging to minority groups. Differences in the degree to which both targets make a suspicious impression on the observing officer are hypothesized to be its main determinant. Theoretically this determinant is linked with the occurrence of nonverbal communication errors, which are a common source
David A. Morand
Researchers have long been interested in managerial socio-emotional competency —“people skills.” One problem has been that many such competencies are properly categorized as nonverbal in nature, yet researchers typically utilize paper and pencil, verbal, measures to assess these. The present research draws upon emerging literature on emotional intelligence, as well as upon psychological research on cross-cultural universals in the display
Peter Mundy; Marian Sigman; Judy Ungerer; Tracy Sherman
The aim of this study was to determine the social and cognitive correlates of language acquisition in autistic children. Functional and symbolic play skills were shown to be associated with language abilities in a sample of young autistic children (mean CA 54.5 months), thereby replicating previous findings. Certain types of nonverbal communication skills were also shown to be significant correlates
Mammarella, Irene C.; Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Gitti, Filippo; Gomez, Claudia; Cornoldi, Cesare
This study aims to investigate the types of difficulty encountered by children with nonverbal (visuospatial) learning disabilities (NLD) during the processing of spatial information derived from descriptions. Two spatial descriptions--one in survey, one in route perspective--and one nonspatial description were orally presented to children aged…
Introduction: The purpose of this article is to explore the effect of nonverbal information (gestures and facial expressions) provided in real time on the interpretation of utterances by people with total blindness. Methods: The article reports on an exploratory study performed on two groups of participants with visual impairments who were tested…
Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy
Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…
Grafenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael
We investigated whether infants comprehend others' nonverbal communicative intentions directed to a third person, in an "overhearing" context. An experimenter addressed an assistant and indicated a hidden toy's location by either gazing ostensively or pointing to the location for her. In a matched control condition, the experimenter performed…
Mustapha Skhiri; Loredana Cerrato
The referred study is based on the assumption that understanding how humans use nonverbal behavior in dialogues can be very useful in the design of more natural-looking animated talking heads. The goal of the study is twofold: (1) to explore how people use specific facial expressions and head movements to serve important dialogue functions, and (2) to show evidence that
Maria Gräfenhain; Tanya Behne; Malinda Carpenter; Michael Tomasello
We investigated whether infants comprehend others’ nonverbal communicative intentions directed to a third person, in an ‘overhearing’ context. An experimenter addressed an assistant and indicated a hidden toy's location by either gazing ostensively or pointing to the location for her. In a matched control condition, the experimenter performed similar behaviors (absent-minded gazing and extended index finger) but did not communicate
Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene E.
Recent research has attempted to identify the factors that predict speech perception performance among users of cochlear implants (CIs). Studies have found that approximately 20%-60% of the variance in speech perception scores can be accounted for by factors including duration of deafness, etiology, type of device, and length of implant use, leaving approximately 50% of the variance unaccounted for. The current study examines the extent to which vocabulary size and nonverbal cognitive ability predict CI listeners' spoken word recognition. Fifteen postlingually deafened adults with nucleus or clarion CIs were given standardized assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive vocabulary size: the Expressive Vocabulary Test, the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-III, and the Woodcock-Johnson-III Test of Cognitive Ability, Verbal Comprehension subtest. Two spoken word recognition tasks were administered. In the first, listeners identified isophonemic CVC words. In the second, listeners identified gated words varying in lexical frequency and neighborhood density. Analyses will examine the influence of lexical frequency and neighborhood density on the uniqueness point in the gating task, as well as relationships among nonverbal cognitive ability, vocabulary size, and the two spoken word recognition measures. [Work supported by NIH Grant P01 DC00110 and by the Lions 3M Hearing Foundation.
Pendley, Julia D.; Myers, Carl L.; Brown, Reagan D.
The primary purpose of this study was to test two hypotheses proposed by Bracken and McCallum (1998), authors of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), as to how children diagnosed with ADHD would perform on the UNIT. Twenty-nine students between the ages of 5 and 17 years were administered the extended battery of the UNIT twice, with…
St. Martin, Gail McAllister
In order to investigate the process of nonverbal communication of emotions in a simulated intercultural context, videotapes were made in which two white Americans (one male and one female) responded to paragraphs which evoked the following emotions: sadness, disgust, anger, surprise, happiness, and fear. These portrayals were then viewed by male…
Hall, Judith A.
The causes of gender differences in nonverbal behavior are not well understood. The present article discusses status as a possible explanation and analyzes some of the methodological and conceptual challenges associated with testing that hypothesis. The study by Helweg-Larsen, Cunningham, Carrico, and Pergram (2004), which investigated gender in…
Schwartz, Caroline; Bente, Gary; Gawronski, Astrid; Schilbach, Leonhard; Vogeley, Kai
We investigated feelings of involvement evoked by nonverbal behaviour of dynamic virtual characters in 20 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) and high IQ as well as 20 IQ-matched control subjects. The effects of diagnostic group showed that subjects with autism experienced less "contact" and "urge" to establish contact across conditions and…
Ostermeier, Terry H.
A study examined students' perceptions of nonverbal cues as they affected the listening process during interviews with someone from a culture outside of the United States. Subjects were 129 American students in a senior level cross cultural communication course at a midwestern state university; they each interviewed an international person…
Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Glass, Kimberly
The normal development of humor in children has been well documented with a predictable course that is tied to social, cognitive, and linguistic development in children. This study explored humor comprehension in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). Children with NVLD were compared with children with reading disabilities and a…
Bishop, Somer L.; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey
Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was examined in 84 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed from age 2 to 19. Most adults who scored in the range of intellectual disability also received scores below 70 as children, and the majority of adults with scores in the average range had scored in this range by age 3. However, within the lower ranges…
Goodman, James R.
ENHANCING VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT-BASED SURGICAL TEAMWORK TRAINING WITH NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Stefan teamwork and communication. This is a major drawback since recent research suggests that a large percentage of mistakes in clinical settings are due to communication problems. In addition, training teamwork can also
Lakin, Joni M.; Lai, Emily R.
For educators seeking to differentiate instruction, cognitive ability tests sampling multiple content domains, including verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal reasoning, provide superior information about student strengths and weaknesses compared with unidimensional reasoning measures. However, these ability tests have not been fully evaluated with…
von Raffler-Engel, Walburga
This paper postulates that the television media in the United States is reflecting the country's culture-at-large. To be marketable, photojournalists adjust their nonverbal behavior to the cultural changes of the time. To prove the point, documentation culled from the Vanderbilt University Television News Archive is provided from the three major…
Creedon, Margaret Procyk
Twenty-one nonverbal autistic children, 4- to 9-years-old, with language ages of 4- to 24-months, participated in the communication learning program from 1 to 3 years. Simultaneous verbal and manual signs were chosen as the communications mode. The children initially displayed infrequent, unrecognizable vocalizations (Screeches, or vocal…
Background: Effective educational evaluations involve interviews, observations and nonverbal cue interpretations. Educators carry out these evaluative activities everyday as instructors, advisors or administrators, often relying on nothing but their intuition. These evaluations inform the future decisions. One must determine if students really…
Christof E. Müller; Yasuyuki Sumi; Kenji Mase; Megumu Tsuchikawa
We present a system that retrieves the voice part of human communications captured by our collaborative experience capturing system. For segmenting, interpreting, and retrieving past conversation scenes from a huge amount of captured data the system focusses on the non-verbal aspects, i.e. the contextual information captured by ubiquitous sensors, rather than the verbal (semantic) aspects of the data. The retrieved
Dean, Raymond S.
Assessed the prediction of learning proficiency on the basis of scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) with children (N=60) referred for learning disabilities. The WISC-R Coding accounted for over 50 percent of the variance in a controlled nonverbal paired associate learning measure and was the single best…
Hall, Judith A.; Coats, Erik J.; LeBeau, Lavonia Smith
The vertical dimension of interpersonal relations (relating to dominance, power, and status) was examined in association with nonverbal behaviors that included facial behavior, gaze, interpersonal distance, body movement, touch, vocal behaviors, posed encoding skill, and others. Results were separately summarized for people's beliefs (perceptions)…
Crista Wocadlo; Ingrid Rieger
The aim of this study was to investigate the nonverbal decoding of emotion in a group of very preterm children and its relationship to social skills and problem behaviours. All children born less than 30 weeks gestation were prospectively enrolled in developmental follow-up. At 8 years of age, 112 children were assessed using the Receptive Faces subtest of the Diagnostic
This study examined the effects of an instructor's use of video casting as a nonverbal emotional cue in synchronous discussion sessions on students' social presence, satisfaction, and learning achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of video casting in a synchronous virtual classroom. The research setting…
Hooper, V. Scott; Bell, Sherry Mee
One hundred elementary- and middle-school students were administered the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT; B.A. Bracken & R.S. McCallum, 1998) and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R; G.H. Roid & L.J. Miller, 1997). Correlations between UNIT and Leiter-R scores were statistically significant ( p less than…
Gordon, Kate; Pasco, Greg; McElduff, Fiona; Wade, Angie; Howlin, Pat; Charman, Tony
Objective: This article examines the form and function of spontaneous communication and outcome predictors in nonverbal children with autism following classroom-based intervention (Picture Exchange Communication System [PECS] training). Method: 84 children from 15 schools participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of PECS (P. Howlin, R.…
Perky, Sandra Dutreau
Five actors were videotaped and audiotaped during 12 performances, in order to identify variables and to observe actors' behaviors and attitudes in positive, negative, and "unclaqued" audience response conditions. Audience response was effected by actors trained in nonverbal cues and placed in the audience as "claquers," to subtly influence…
Alison Wilkinson-Smith; Margaret Semrud-Clikeman
The most commonly used model of nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) is the Rourke model. This model includes bilateral deficits in psychomotor skills as a primary neuropsychological deficit. Extant studies have identified attentional issues as one of the components seen in many children with NVLD. Forty-five children divided into three groups completed a battery of tests including psychomotor skills. Groups were
Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.
Marie-louise Rinman; Anders Friberg; Bendik Bendiksen; Damien Cirotteau; Sofia Dahl; Ivar Kjellmo; Barbara Mazzarino; Antonio Camurri
The interactive game environment, Ghost in the Cave, presented in this short paper, is a work still in progress. The game involves participants in an activity using non-verbal emotional expressions. Two teams use expressive gestures in either voice or body movements to compete. Each team has an avatar controlled either by singing into a microphone or by moving in front
Flávia Maria Teixeira dos Santos; Eduardo Fleury Mortimer
In this paper we analyze the non-verbal aspects of communication in the classroom. The analysis of these communicative aspects in a chemistry high school classroom was based on data obtained through an ethnographic research. The videotape of the lessons enabled us to analyze aspects such as the occupation of physical space in the classroom; the gesture and physical posture adopted
Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…
S. Gobron; J. Ahn; Q. Silvestre; D. Thalmann; S. Rank; M. Skowron; G. Paltoglou; M. Thelwall
The communication between avatar and agent has already been treated from different but specialized perspectives. In contrast, this paper gives a balanced view of every key architectural aspect: from text analysis to computer graphics, the chatting system and the emotional model. Non-verbal communication, such as facial expression, gaze, or head orientation is crucial to simulate realistic behavior, but is still
Björn Granström; David House
This paper presents methods for the acquisition and modelling of verbal and non-verbal communicative signals for the use in animated talking agents. This work diverges from the traditional focus on the acoustics of speech in speech technology and will be of importance for the realization of future multimodal interfaces, some experimental examples of which are presented at the end of
Catholijn M. Jonker; Jan Treur; Wouter C. A. Wijngaards
Abstract In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic process model has been designed, implemented and used to simulate different types of interaction between verbal and
Tomi Kujanpää; Tony Manninen
Communication between players in networked computer games is often inadequately implemented. The games do not exploit the full potential of using different forms of communication possibilities between players, and therefore result in problems in sending and receiving messages. This paper introduces a model that describes how visual aspects of non-verbal communication (NVC) in avatars could be systematically designed. The model
Communication with others has both verbal and non-verbal aspects. This article describes theory about the use of language in body psychotherapy, ways of the psychotherapist relating to the client's language, and the psychotherapist using language with different therapeutic purposes in mind. Illustrative case vignettes are included. Links are made to current thinking in neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Language in the
Nijman, E. E.; Scheirs, J. G. M.; Prinsen, M. J. H.; Abbink, C. D.; Blok, J. B.
Increases in the scores on IQ tests across generations have been called the Flynn effect (FE). One of the unresolved questions is whether the FE affects all subsamples of the intellectual ability distribution equally. The present study was aimed at determining the size of the FE in moderately mentally retarded individuals. A nonverbal intelligence…
Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.
We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled…
Brahmbhatt, Shefali B.; McAuley, Tara; Barch, Deanna M.
Relatively little is known about the functional development of verbal and nonverbal working memory during adolescence. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that WM capacity increases with age, yet relatively few studies have assessed the relationship between brain-activity and age-related changes in WM capacity, especially as it differs across…
Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen
We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…
Stamatis, Panagiotis J.
Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…
In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the…
Irene C. Mammarella; Francesca Pazzaglia
Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and visual perception were examined in two groups aged 11–13, one with children displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning disability (NLD) (n = 18) and the other a control group without learning disabilities (n = 18). The two groups were matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. The children were presented with VSWM tests
R. Weylin Sternglanz; Bella M. DePaulo
Accuracy at reading nonverbal cues to emotions was examined for close friends, less close friends, and strangers. Forty-eight senders were videotaped talking about an experience during which they felt either very happy, very sad, or very angry. Half of the time they expressed their emotion clearly, and half of the time they concealed their emotion. Forty-eight judges watched these tapes
Franco, Jessica H.; Davis, Barbara L.; Davis, John L.
Purpose: Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Method: Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in…
Asbury, Kathryn; Wachs, Theodore D.; Plomin, Robert
The study of genotype-environment interaction (G x E) has been dominated by two competing hypotheses, one that heritability is greater in high-risk environments (diathesis-stress) and the other that heritability is greater in permissive environments. The current study examined relationships between verbal and nonverbal abilities and 10 measured…
Am J Psychiatry 157:5, May 2000 787 Article Verbal and Nonverbal Neuropsychological Test.D. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE IN SCHIZOTYPAL SUBJECTS VOGLMAIER, SEIDMAN, NIZNIKIEWICZ, ET AL. Objective in these patients and to understand better the neuropsychological profile of schizo- typal personality disorder
Martina M. Voglmaier; Larry J. Seidman; Margaret A. Niznikiewicz; Chandlee C. Dickey; Martha E. Shenton; Robert W. McCarley
Objective: The authors contrasted ver- bal and nonverbal measures of atten- tion and memory in patients with DSM- IV-defined schizotypal personality disor- der in order to expand on their previous findings of verbal learning deficits in these patients and to understand better the neuropsychological profile of schizo- typal personality disorder. Method: Cognitive test performance was examined in 16 right-handed men
Van Duyne, H. John
The purpose of the study was (1) to examine the results from a two-association perceptual-motor task as to their implications for Luria's theory about the development of verbal control of non-verbal behavior; (2) to explore the effects of various learning experiences upon this development. The sample consisted of 20 randomly selected children in…
Kepplinger, Hans Mathias; And Others
A controlled experiment was conducted to test the extent to which nonverbal behavior between a journalist and a politician in a televised interview influences the way in which they are perceived by a television audience. Nine test films were produced that showed different versions of an interview in which the participants exhibited aggressive or…
Murphy, James M.
Presents an experiential-educational approach to families with infants integrating dance and movement therapy with family therapy theories and techniques. Nonverbal techniques are the only possible methods of working directly with infants present with their parents in these workshops. The focus is on negotiations and exchanges of feelings in…
Kim, Bryan S. K.; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Li, Lisa C.
Examination of counselor nonverbal behaviors revealed that European American counselors displayed significantly greater frequency of adaptors, postural shifts, and smiles than did Asian American counselors. The frequency of smiles was significantly positively correlated with client-rated session positivity and session arousal, and the frequency of…
Jessica L. Tracy; Richard W. Robins
The present research tests whether recognition for the nonverbal expression of pride generalizes across cultures. Study 1 provided the first evidence for cross-cultural recognition of pride, demonstrating that the expression generalizes across Italy and the United States. Study 2 found that the pride expression generalizes beyond Western cultures; individuals from a preliterate, highly isolated tribe in Burkina Faso, West Africa,
Eric Brunet; Yves Sarfati; Marie-Christine Hardy-Baylé; Jean Decety
Theory of mind (ToM), the specific ability to attribute thoughts and feelings to oneself and others is generally impaired in schizophrenia. Previous studies demonstrated a deficit of the attribution of intentions to others among patients having formal thought disorder. During nonverbal tasks, such a function requires both the visual perception of human figures and the understanding of their intentions. These
Eric Brunet; Yves Sarfati; Marie-Christine Hardy-Baylé; Jean Decety
Several authors have demonstrated that theory of mind is associated with a cerebral pattern of activity involving the medial prefrontal cortex. This study was designed to determine the cerebral regions activated during attribution of intention to others, a task which requires theory-of-mind skills. Eight healthy subjects performed three nonverbal tasks using comic strips while PET scanning was performed. One condition
Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.
Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine the…
Peterson, Robin T.
This article examines the potential effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication for sales representatives. The literature on this subject was reviewed, and a study using students as sales representatives was conducted to evaluate the potential of training in body language. The research results provide support for the proposition that such…
Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Puccinelli, Nancy M.
A study to investigate the preclinical and clinical consequences of 79 occupational-therapy students' emotional attributes found that, when interviews were conducted in pairs, their feelings and behavior were associated with attributes of negative emotionality and nonverbal expressiveness. Students who had a high degree of negative emotionality…
Fergusson, Lee C.; And Others
A study investigated the effects on students' nonverbal intelligence of implementing an approach to higher education based on Vedic science, developed by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and including transcendental meditation. The approach was implemented in two Cambodian universities and its effects assessed in 70 undergraduate students. An increase in…
Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J.
Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n=69) and adults (n=77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R,…
Paparella, Tanya; Goods, Kelly Stickles; Freeman, Stephanny; Kasari, Connie
Joint attention (JA) skills are deficient in children with autism; however, children with autism seem to vary in the degree to which they display joint attention. Joint attention skills refer to verbal and nonverbal skills used to share experiences with others. They include gestures such as pointing, coordinated looks between objects and people,…
Cummings, Alycia; Ceponiene, Rita
In an effort to clarify whether semantic integration is impaired in verbal and nonverbal auditory domains in children with developmental language impairment (a.k.a., LI and SLI), the present study obtained behavioral and neural responses to words and environmental sounds in children with language impairment and their typically developing…
Hatano, Aya; Ueno, Taiji; Kitagami, Shinji; Kawaguchi, Jun
Verbal overshadowing refers to a phenomenon whereby verbalization of non-verbal stimuli (e.g., facial features) during the maintenance phase (after the target information is no longer available from the sensory inputs) impairs subsequent non-verbal recognition accuracy. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed for verbal overshadowing, namely the recoding interference hypothesis, and the transfer-inappropriate processing shift. The former assumes that verbalization renders non-verbal representations less accurate. In contrast, the latter assumes that verbalization shifts processing operations to a verbal mode and increases the chance of failing to return to non-verbal, face-specific processing operations (i.e., intact, yet inaccessible non-verbal representations). To date, certain psychological phenomena have been advocated as inconsistent with the recoding-interference hypothesis. These include a decline in non-verbal memory performance following verbalization of non-target faces, and occasional failures to detect a significant correlation between the accuracy of verbal descriptions and the non-verbal memory performance. Contrary to these arguments against the recoding interference hypothesis, however, the present computational model instantiated core processing principles of the recoding interference hypothesis to simulate face recognition, and nonetheless successfully reproduced these behavioral phenomena, as well as the standard verbal overshadowing. These results demonstrate the plausibility of the recoding interference hypothesis to account for verbal overshadowing, and suggest there is no need to implement separable mechanisms (e.g., operation-specific representations, different processing principles, etc.). In addition, detailed inspections of the internal processing of the model clarified how verbalization rendered internal representations less accurate and how such representations led to reduced recognition accuracy, thereby offering a computationally grounded explanation. Finally, the model also provided an explanation as to why some studies have failed to report verbal overshadowing. Thus, the present study suggests it is not constructive to discuss whether verbal overshadowing exists or not in an all-or-none manner, and instead suggests a better experimental paradigm to further explore this phenomenon. PMID:26061046
Asserts that effective onsite professional development for teachers must include weekly professional meetings (conversations) for teachers to improve teaching and learning. Provides examples and guidelines for weekly professional meetings. Includes the importance of creating meeting time. (PKP)
Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker, then president of the American Federation of Teachers, endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Fast-forward two decades from Shanker's then-radical proposition and there are nearly 80 teacher-governed…
Brown, Peggy Ann, Ed.
Articles on improving preservice teacher education, with particular considerations on proposed five-year programs, are featured in this theme issue. In "Fifth Year Teacher Preparation: A Solution in Search Of a Problem," Alan R. Tom weighs the pros and cons of extending teacher preparation for a fifth year, noting the fact that high-quality…
Darr, Ralph F., Jr.
This paper focuses primarily on the more prominent teacher characteristics research published in the latter half of the 1980s. Literature on the characteristics of elementary, secondary, and college-level teachers is reviewed. Demographic data suggest that today's public school teachers are older and more experienced, and have more years of…
Shrewsbury, Rosemary G.; And Others
Results of surveys completed by 237 special educators indicate respondents' limited awareness, understanding, and experiences with nonverbal communication aids. Results have implications for preservice and continuing education programs for special educators. (Author/CL)
This paper examines teacher labor mobility within and out of the teaching profession. Previous studies of teacher mobility treat attrition as a binary choice where inter-district transfers are grouped with stayers or exits. Either case ignores the possibility that transfer attrition may be influenced by different factors than exit attrition. Using data for new teachers in Wisconsin, I estimate separate
Juarez-Torres, Rachel; Hurst, Jeannine Lane; Hurst, Roy
This qualitative case study examines the relationship of teachers who mentor other teachers. We studied 125 autobiographical portfolios submitted by elementary and secondary teachers who had won awards as outstanding educators from their campuses and were competing at the district level. The research site was a midsize city (population 95,000) in…
Riess, Helen; Kraft-Todd, Gordon
There is a gap in the medical education literature on teaching nonverbal detection and expression of empathy. Many articles do not address nonverbal interactions, instead focusing on "what to say" rather than "how to be." This focus on verbal communication overlooks the essential role nonverbal signals play in the communication of emotions, which has significant effects on patient satisfaction, health outcomes, and malpractice claims. This gap is addressed with a novel teaching tool for assessing nonverbal behavior using the acronym E.M.P.A.T.H.Y.-E: eye contact; M: muscles of facial expression; P: posture; A: affect; T: tone of voice; H: hearing the whole patient; Y: your response. This acronym was the cornerstone of a randomized controlled trial of empathy training at Massachusetts General Hospital, 2010-2012. Used as an easy-to-remember checklist, the acronym orients medical professionals to key aspects of perceiving and responding to nonverbal emotional cues. An urgent need exists to teach nonverbal aspects of communication as medical practices must be reoriented to the increasing cultural diversity represented by patients presenting for care. Where language proficiency may be limited, nonverbal communication becomes more crucial for understanding patients' communications. Furthermore, even in the absence of cultural differences, many patients are reluctant to disagree with their clinicians, and subtle nonverbal cues may be the critical entry point for discussions leading to shared medical decisions. A detailed description of the E.M.P.A.T.H.Y. acronym and a brief summary of the literature that supports each component of the teaching tool are provided. PMID:24826853
Na Young Shin; Do-Hyung Kang; Jung-Seok Choi; Myung Hun Jung; Joon Hwan Jang; Jun Soo Kwon
Objective: The present study aimed to examine nonverbal memory and organizational skill functions in psychotropic-naïve patients with OCD. Method: Forty-one drug-naïve, 41 medicated OCD patients and 41 healthy controls, all of whom were matched for gender, age, education and intelligence, were included in the study. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) was administered to evaluate nonverbal memory ability and organizational
Newsom, C D; Simon, K M
Few nonverbal developmentally disabled children ever receive adequate vision assessment because of their limited language skills. The present study details a simultaneous discrimination procedure for measuring subjective visual acuity in such children. A stimulus fading procedure was used to train a discrimination between Snellen Es differing in orientation, and a psychophysical tracking method was used to determine acuity thresholds. The procedure was tested with 11 nonverbal autistic and schizophrenic children and validated with four nonpsychotic children. Eight of the psychotic children were successfully examined in one to three sessions. Two of these children were identified as having significant acuity losses. The validity assessment showed that the experimental procedure resulted in thresholds equal to or slightly lower than those obtained with the Illiterate E chart. PMID:599108
Schimidt, Teresa Cristina Gioia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Silva, Maria Julia Paes da
OBJECTIVE Replicating the training program in non-verbal communication based on the theoretical framework of interpersonal communication; non-verbal coding, valuing the aging aspects in the perspective of active aging, checking its current relevance through the content assimilation index after 90 days (mediate) of its application. METHOD A descriptive and exploratory field study was conducted in three hospitals under direct administration of the state of São Paulo that caters exclusively to Unified Health System (SUS) patients. The training lasted 12 hours divided in three meetings, applied to 102 health professionals. RESULTS Revealed very satisfactory and satisfactory mediate content assimilation index in 82.9%. CONCLUSION The program replication proved to be relevant and updated the setting of hospital services, while remaining efficient for healthcare professionals. PMID:25992831
In the following are described the fundamental features and the major objectives of COST 2102: Cross-Modal Analysis of Verbal\\u000a and Nonverbal Communication (CAVeNC) as they have been expressed in the Memorandum of Understanding. COST (European Cooperation\\u000a in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research) is “one of the longest-running instruments supporting co-operation among scientists and researchers across Europe” www.cost.esf.org. In
Kristin J. LiebDhavan; Dhavan V. Shah
This commentary addresses Olivola and Todorov’s “Elected in 100 ms: Appearance-Based Trait Inferences and Voting” and considers\\u000a its valuable contribution to the field of nonverbal communication. This work suggests that contemporary politics and voting\\u000a behavior are so complex that they can be better understood outside of laboratory settings where the vital elements on culture\\u000a and context come into play. By using
Bracht, Glenn H.; Hopkins, Kenneth D.
The long-term stability of verbal and nonverbal IQ scores was studied for 146 Spanish-surname students. About 30-50% of Spanish students do no speak English when they begin school. The California Test of Mental Maturity or the Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Tests were administered in grades 1,2,4,7,9, and 11. The stability of IQ scores for…
Jennifer A. Samp; Jennifer L. Monahan
We examined the effect of alcohol intoxication on the display of nonverbal behaviors during discussions with dating partners\\u000a about a relationship problem. Forty-four heterosexual dyads engaged in a 7-min conversation about a hypothetical infidelity.\\u000a Males were randomly assigned to drinking condition (sober or .08 g\\/dl) and their behaviors were coded for behavioral expressivity,\\u000a verbal expressivity, positive affect, and anxiety at 30 s
Remy Morello; Alain Jean; Michel Alix; Dominique Sellin-Peres; Jacques Fermanian
We have constructed and validated the Elderly Pain Caring Assessment 2 (EPCA-2) an 8 items behavioural scale to rate the intensity of pain in non-verbally communicating older (age?65years) patients (NVC-OP). It was postulated that the assessed pain had two dimensions (signs outside and during caregiving). The first version of the scale was constructed on the basis of the results of
Niels Ole Bernsen; Laila Dybkjær
During the past 5-10 years, increasing efforts have been put into annotation of verbal and non-verbal human-human and human-machine\\u000a communication in order to better understand the complexities of multimodal communication and model them in computers. This\\u000a has helped highlight the huge challenges which still confront annotators in this field, from conceptual confusion through\\u000a lacking or immature coding schemes to inadequate
Jin Hou; Yoshinao Aoki
This paper proposes a novel real-time non-verbal communication system from natural language instruction by introducing an artificial intelligence method into the networked virtual environment (NVE). We extract semantic information as an interlingua from the input text by natural language processing, and then transmit this semantic feature extraction (SFE), which actually is a parameterized action representation, to the 3-D articulated humanoid
Björn Granström; David House
In face-to-face communication both visual and auditory information play an obvious and significant role. In this presentation we will discuss work done, primarily at KTH, that aims at analyzing and modelling verbal and non-verbal communication from a multi-modal perspective. In our studies, it appears that both segmental and prosodic phenomena are strongly affected by the communicative context of speech interaction.
Tim Sheerman-Chase; Eng-Jon Ong; Richard Bowden
Recognition of non-verbal communication (NVC) is important for understanding human communication and designing user centric user interfaces. Cultural differences affect the expression and perception of NVC but no previous automatic system considers these cultural differences. Annotation data for the LILiR TwoTalk corpus, containing dyadic (two person) conversations, was gathered using Internet crowdsourcing, with a significant quantity collected from India, Kenya
Zs. Virányi; J. Topál; Á. Miklósi; V. Csányi
The sensitivity of eleven pet dogs and eleven 2.5-year-old children to others’ past perceptual access was tested for object-specificity\\u000a in a playful, nonverbal task in which a human Helper’s knowledge state regarding the whereabouts of a hidden toy and a stick\\u000a (a tool necessary for getting the out-of-reach toy) was systematically manipulated. In the four experimental conditions the\\u000a Helper either
Shefali B. Brahmbhatt; Tara McAuley; Deanna M. Barch
Relatively little is known about the functional development of verbal and nonverbal working memory during adolescence. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that WM capacity increases with age, yet relatively few studies have assessed the relationship between brain-activity and age-related changes in WM capacity, especially as it differs across multiple domains. The present study used an n-back task and functional magnetic resonance
Toshiya Naka; Toru Ishida
\\u000a In this paper, we assumed that the nonverbal communication by using 3DAgents with natural gestures had various advantages\\u000a compared with only the traditional voice and video communication, and we developed the IMoTS ( Interactive Motion Tracking System) to verify this hypothesis. The features of this system are that the natural gestures of 3DAgents are captured easily\\u000a by using interactive GUI
Thomas S. Price; Thalia C. Eley; Philip S. Dale; Jim Stevenson; Kim Sandino; Robert Plomin
Despite cognitive neuroscience's emphasis on the modularity of cognitive processes, multivariate genetic re- search indicates that the same genetic factors largely affect diverse cognitive abilities, at least from middle childhood onward. We explored this issue for verbal and nonverbal cognitive development in infancy in a study of 1,937 pairs of same-sex 2-year-old twins born in England and Wales in 1994.
Cindy L. Bethel; Robin R. Murphy
This work focuses on the use of non-verbal methods of com- municating affect in non-anthropomorphic appearance-con- strained robots. The concepts discussed can be applied to other types of robotic systems. The paper gives a survey of relevant literature from the psychology community. Non-ver- bal methods of affective expression cannot be the sole means of communicating affect in robotic systems; however
Lynn M. Breau; Carol S. Camfield; Frank J. Symons; James W. Bodfish; Alison MacKay; G. Allen Finley; Patrick J. McGrath
Objectives To explore whether self-injurious behavior (SIB) alters pain expression in children with severe cognitive impairments and the relation between SIB and chronic pain. Study design Caregivers of 101 nonverbal children 3 to 18 years of age (55% boys) completed the Non-Communicating Children's Pain Checklist-Revised (NCCPC-R) retrospectively and for an observed pain episode. Caregivers of children with SIB (n =
Kathryn H Mgrublian
Recent research has documented that we tend to use the face to express some emotions, but use the body to express other emotions. To understand the contributions of the body to non-verbal emotional communication, we compared the performance of able-bodied participants who were allowed to express emotions naturally (standing) to able-bodied participants who were confined to a wheelchair. Theories of
Kagoda, Alice Merab; Sentongo, John
Practicing teachers are partners in preparation of teacher trainees. However, little is known about their perceptions of the teacher trainees they receive every year in their schools. Ninety three practicing teachers from twenty schools participated in this study. The objectives were to find out the practicing teachers' perceptions of teacher…
Georgescu, Alexandra L; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Santos, Natacha S; Tepest, Ralf; Bente, Gary; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Vogeley, Kai
Despite the fact that nonverbal dyadic social interactions are abundant in the environment, the neural mechanisms underlying their processing are not yet fully understood. Research in the field of social neuroscience has suggested that two neural networks appear to be involved in social understanding: (1) the action observation network (AON) and (2) the social neural network (SNN). The aim of this study was to determine the differential contributions of the AON and the SNN to the processing of nonverbal behavior as observed in dyadic social interactions. To this end, we used short computer animation sequences displaying dyadic social interactions between two virtual characters and systematically manipulated two key features of movement activity, which are known to influence the perception of meaning in nonverbal stimuli: (1) movement fluency and (2) contingency of movement patterns. A group of 21 male participants rated the "naturalness" of the observed scenes on a four-point scale while undergoing fMRI. Behavioral results showed that both fluency and contingency significantly influenced the "naturalness" experience of the presented animations. Neurally, the AON was preferentially engaged when processing contingent movement patterns, but did not discriminate between different degrees of movement fluency. In contrast, regions of the SNN were engaged more strongly when observing dyads with disturbed movement fluency. In conclusion, while the AON is involved in the general processing of contingent social actions, irrespective of their kinematic properties, the SNN is preferentially recruited when atypical kinematic properties prompt inferences about the agents' intentions. PMID:23813661
Pioggia, Giovanni; Hanson, David; Dinelli, Serena; Di Francesco, Fabio; Francesconi, R.; De Rossi, Danilo
The nonverbal expression of the emotions, especially in the human face, has rapidly become an area of intense interest in computer science and robotics. Exploring the emotions as a link between external events and behavioural responses, artificial intelligence designers and psychologists are approaching a theoretical understanding of foundational principles which will be key to the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence. In fact, it has been well demonstrated that many important aspects of intelligence are grounded in intimate communication with the physical world- so-called embodied intelligence . It follows naturally, then, that recent advances in emotive artificial intelligence show clear and undeniable broadening in the capacities of biologically-inspired robots to survive and thrive in a social environment. The means by which AI may express its foundling emotions are clearly integral to such capacities. In effect: powerful facial expressions are critical to the development of intelligent, sociable robots. Following discussion the importance of the nonverbal expression of emotions in humans and robots, this paper describes methods used in robotically emulating nonverbal expressions using human-like robotic faces. Furthermore, it describes the potentially revolutionary impact of electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators as artificial muscles for such robotic devices.
Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.
For years, people have sought more natural means of communicating with their computers. Many have suggested that interaction with a computer should be as easy as interacting with other people, taking advantage of the multimodal nature of human communication. While users should, in theory, gravitate to such anthropomorphic embodiments, quite the contrary has been experienced; users generally have been dissatisfied and abandoned their use. This suggests a disconnect between the factors that make human-human communication engaging and those used by designers to support human-agent interaction. This paper discusses a set of empirical studies that attempted to replicate human-human nonverbal behavior. The focus revolved around the behaviors that portrayed a credible façade, helping the embodied conversational agent (ECA) to form a successful cooperative dyad with the user. Based on a review of the nonverbal literature, a framework was created that identified trustworthy and credible nonverbal behaviors across five areas and formed design guidelines for character interaction. The design suggestions for those areas emanating from the facial region (facial expression, eye contact and paralanguage) were experimentally supported but there was no concordant increase in perceived trust when bodily regions (posture and gesture) were added. In addition, in examining the importance of demographic elements in the embodiment, it was found that users prefer to interact with characters that match their ethnicity and are young looking. There was no significant preference for gender. The implications of these results, as well as other interesting consequences are discussed.
App, Betsy; McIntosh, Daniel N; Reed, Catherine L; Hertenstein, Matthew J
This study investigated the hypothesis that different emotions are most effectively conveyed through specific, nonverbal channels of communication: body, face, and touch. Experiment 1 assessed the production of emotion displays. Participants generated nonverbal displays of 11 emotions, with and without channel restrictions. For both actual production and stated preferences, participants favored the body for embarrassment, guilt, pride, and shame; the face for anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness; and touch for love and sympathy. When restricted to a single channel, participants were most confident about their communication when production was limited to the emotion's preferred channel. Experiment 2 examined the reception or identification of emotion displays. Participants viewed videos of emotions communicated in unrestricted and restricted conditions and identified the communicated emotions. Emotion identification in restricted conditions was most accurate when participants viewed emotions displayed via the emotion's preferred channel. This study provides converging evidence that some emotions are communicated predominantly through different nonverbal channels. Further analysis of these channel-emotion correspondences suggests that the social function of an emotion predicts its primary channel: The body channel promotes social-status emotions, the face channel supports survival emotions, and touch supports intimate emotions. PMID:21668111
Lupyan, Gary; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.
A major part of learning a language is learning to map spoken words onto objects in the environment. An open question is what are the consequences of this learning for cognition and perception? Here, we present a series of experiments that examine effects of verbal labels on the activation of conceptual information as measured through picture verification tasks. We find that verbal cues, such as the word “cat,” lead to faster and more accurate verification of congruent objects and rejection of incongruent objects than do either nonverbal cues, such as the sound of a cat meowing, or words that do not directly refer to the object, such as the word “meowing.” This label advantage does not arise from verbal labels being more familiar or easier to process than other cues, and it does extends to newly learned labels and sounds. Despite having equivalent facility in learning associations between novel objects and labels or sounds, conceptual information is activated more effectively through verbal means than through non-verbal means. Thus, rather than simply accessing nonverbal concepts, language activates aspects of a conceptual representation in a particularly effective way. We offer preliminary support that representations activated via verbal means are more categorical and show greater consistency between subjects. These results inform the understanding of how human cognition is shaped by language and hint at effects that different patterns of naming can have on conceptual structure. PMID:21928923
Voglmaier, Martina M.; Seidman, Larry J.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.
Objective The authors contrasted verbal and nonverbal measures of attention and memory in patients with DSM-IV-defined schizotypal personality disorder in order to expand on their previous findings of verbal learning deficits in these patients and to understand better the neuropsychological profile of schizotypal personality disorder. Method Cognitive test performance was examined in 16 right-handed men who met diagnostic criteria for schizotypal personality disorder and 16 matched male comparison subjects. Neuropsychological measures included verbal and nonverbal tests of persistence, supraspan learning, and short- and long-term memory retention. Neuropsychological profiles were constructed by standardizing test scores based on the means and standard deviations of the comparison subject group. Results Subjects with schizotypal personality disorder showed a mild to moderate general reduction in performance on all measures. Verbal measures of persistence, short-term retention, and learning were more severely impaired than their nonverbal analogs. Performance on measures of memory retention was independent of modality. Conclusions The results are consistent with previous reports that have suggested a mild, general decrement in cognitive performance and proportionately greater involvement of the left hemisphere in patients with schizotypal personality disorder. The findings provide further support for a specific deficit in the early processing stages of verbal learning. PMID:10784473
Diantha Lay is principal of an elementary school in Montgomery County, Maryland. When she wrote this chapter, she was just starting a new position for the county as a staff development teacher. Earlier she had been a second- and a fourth-grade teacher with a passion for science. When her county decided to establish the new position of staff development teacher in every school, Diantha embarked on a new adventure. In this chapter, she describes the formation of teacher study groups as she began to engage colleagues in developing a professional learning community in their school.
Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Today there are nearly 80 teacher-governed charter schools around the country. Although most are legally constituted as worker cooperatives, they better resemble…
Well-designed and -equipped teacher workspaces provide the opportunity to improve student achievement at every step of their K-12 education. Shared workspace enhances communication among teachers as they evaluate student performance individually and collectively, and share insights with one another. This paper addresses the key elements found in…
USA Today, 1985
Teacher burnout is characterized by three factors: emotional exhaustion and fatigue; negative, cynical attitudes towards students; and the loss of feelings of accomplishment on the job. Important predictors of burnout include a lack of participation in decision-making, inappropriate job expectations, a lack of teacher autonomy, and role conflict.…
Aström, J; Thorell, L H; d'Elia, G
An interview study of 50 Swedish nonpsychotic outpatients treated by some kind of psychotherapy was performed to investigate their attitudes towards and observations of nonverbal communication in a greeting situation according to the Questionnaire on Nonverbal Communication (psychotherapy patients' version) in relation to background factors such as gender, age, education, and profession, interest in psychological matters, "reading articles and books in psychology," duration of professional help for psychological troubles, number of occasions waiting for a new therapist, and number of therapeutic sessions before the interview. The greeting situation was the first time a patient and a therapist met in a waiting room. Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was larger for items about observation of nonverbal communication than for those about attitudes. Face communication (eye contact and smile) was considered by the subjects to constitute the most important nonverbal communication in the greeting process. The importance of the face in communication was stressed when the patient believed that such communication corresponded to more than 50% of the total communication in general, was female, was elderly, or reported special interest in nonverbal communication in the greeting situation. Some effects of bias were discussed. The analyses also showed a considerable consciousness and observation in the greeting situation by many psychotherapeutic outpatients. PMID:8367554
Roach, K. David; Byrne, Paul R.
Addresses patterns and influence of student perceptions of instructor power use, affinity-seeking, and nonverbal immediacy in American and German classrooms. Notes that American instructors were seen to be higher in power use, affinity-seeking, and nonverbal immediacy than German instructors. Concludes that the influence of instructor referent…
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Ritter, Nicola; Kilinc, Emin; Navruz, Bilgin; Bae, Yunhee
This article reviews Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition (TONI-4), an individually administered instrument created to assess intelligence. The distinguishing characteristic of the TONI-4 is the nonverbal, motor-reduced format that assesses common elements of intelligence without the confounding effects of motor or linguistic skills. The…
Franklin, Margery; Cobb, Judith
A current exploratory research project is directed toward developing means for gathering systematic data on nonverbal representation in young children. Tasks involving nonverbal representational functioning have been developed, evaluated in preliminary work with fifteen 4-year-old subjects, and revised. The revised series of tasks consists of four…
Moran, Nikki; Hadley, Lauren V.; Bader, Maria; Keller, Peter E.
In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues (‘back-channeling’) by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched) duos from musicians’ nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers’ musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse) or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed). The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio) of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician (‘back-channeler’). Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60) with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction. PMID:26086593
Lima, César F; Alves, Tiago; Scott, Sophie K; Castro, São Luís
It is well established that emotion recognition of facial expressions declines with age, but evidence for age-related differences in vocal emotions is more limited. This is especially true for nonverbal vocalizations such as laughter, sobs, or sighs. In this study, 43 younger adults (M = 22 years) and 43 older ones (M = 61.4 years) provided multiple emotion ratings of nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Contrasting with previous research, which often includes only one positive emotion (happiness) versus several negative ones, we examined 4 positive and 4 negative emotions: achievement/triumph, amusement, pleasure, relief, anger, disgust, fear, and sadness. We controlled for hearing loss and assessed general cognitive decline, cognitive control, verbal intelligence, working memory, current affect, emotion regulation, and personality. Older adults were less sensitive than younger ones to the intended vocal emotions, as indicated by decrements in ratings on the intended emotion scales and accuracy. These effects were similar for positive and negative emotions, and they were independent of age-related differences in cognitive, affective, and personality measures. Regression analyses revealed that younger and older participants' responses could be predicted from the acoustic properties of the temporal, intensity, fundamental frequency, and spectral profile of the vocalizations. The two groups were similarly efficient in using the acoustic cues, but there were differences in the patterns of emotion-specific predictors. This study suggests that ageing produces specific changes on the processing of nonverbal vocalizations. That decrements were not attenuated for positive emotions indicates that they cannot be explained by a positivity effect in older adults. PMID:24219391
Schwartz, Caroline; Dratsch, Thomas; Vogeley, Kai; Bente, Gary
Little is known about whether stereotypes influence social judgments of autistic individuals, in particular when they compete with tacit face-to-face cues. We compared impression formation of 17 subjects with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 17 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls. Information about the profession of a job applicant served as stereotype activating information. The target person's nonverbal behavior was presented as a computer animation showing two virtual characters in interaction. Contrary to our hypothesis, HFA participants were as sensitive to nonverbal cues as controls. Moreover, HFA showed a tendency to evaluate persons more positively. This might indicate a routine HFA apply in impression formation in order to compensate for their deficit in intuitive understanding of nonverbal communication cues. PMID:24362848
Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene
The main purpose of this study was to report the existence of previously unidentified brain cysts or lesions in children with nonverbal learning disabilities, Asperger syndrome, or controls. The authors compared the incidence of cysts or lesions on magnetic resonance images (MRIs) in 28 children with nonverbal learning disability, 26 children with Asperger syndrome, and 24 typical controls for abnormalities. In this study, the authors found 25% of children previously diagnosed with nonverbal learning disability to have unsuspected brain abnormalities generally including cysts or lesions in the occipital region, compared with approximately 4% in the Asperger syndrome or control group. The cysts/lesions were found mainly in the occipital lobe, an area responsible for visual/spatial reasoning. It is appropriate to speculate that there might be a connection between anomalous brain development and skill differences among these groups. PMID:21398562
Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary
Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities within a normal developmental timeframe for language acquisition). A more direct, and therefore stronger, test of the hypothesis that the type and quality of language exposure impact working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM) and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition and reduced quality of language input compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6–11 years: hearing children (n = 28), deaf children who were native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n = 8), and deaf children who used BSL but who were not native signers (n = 19). We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and whether scores on language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two executive-loaded NVWM tasks included in our battery, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another). Multiple regression analysis revealed that scores on the vocabulary measure predicted scores on those two executive-loaded NVWM tasks (with age and non-verbal reasoning partialled out). Our results suggest that whatever the language modality—spoken or signed—rich language experience from birth, and the good language skills that result from this early age of acquisition, play a critical role in the development of NVWM and in performance on NVWM tasks. PMID:25999875
Conway, Christopher M.; Karpicke, Jennifer; Anaya, Esperanza M.; Henning, Shirley C.; Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.
We assessed profoundly deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) (N = 24) and age-matched normal-hearing children (N = 31) on several nonverbal cognition measures: motor sequencing, tactile discrimination, response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and visual-spatial processing. The results revealed that the children with CIs showed disturbances solely on motor sequencing and that performance on this task was significantly correlated with scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, 4th Edition (CELF–4). These findings suggest that a period of auditory deprivation before cochlear implantation affects motor sequencing skills, which in turn may mediate the language delays displayed by some deaf children with CIs. PMID:21347923
Ceschin, J S; Melaragno Filho, R; Brauer, M J; Parente, M A
Eight patients with cerebral vascular disease and aphasia were studied just after the stroke. The clinical, neuropsychiatric, EEG and neuro-radiological aspects were evaluated. The patients were submitted to the psychological and phonoaudiological studies. The authors correlated the neurological lesions to the structural alteration of the intelligence, to the praxic and estheognostic alterations and also to the language disturbances. The criterions adopted by the World Health Organization and the genetics classification of Jean Piaget were used for the intellectual level classification. The results suggest that the intelligence evaluated through Leither's non-verbal test is better preserved in some asphasics. PMID:533383
Furley, Philip; Schweizer, Geoffrey
The goal of the present research was to test whether score-related changes in opponents' nonverbal behavior influence athletes' confidence in beating their opponents. In an experiment, 40 participants who were experienced basketball players watched brief video clips depicting athletes' nonverbal behavior. Video clips were not artificially created, but showed naturally occurring behavior. Participants indicated how confident they were in beating the presented athletes in a hypothetical scenario. Results indicated that participants' confidence estimations were influenced by opponents' score-related nonverbal behavior. Participants were less confident about beating a leading team and more confident about beating a trailing team, although they were unaware of the actual score during the depicted scenes. The present research is the first to show that in-game variations of naturally occurring nonverbal behavior can influence athletes' confidence. This finding highlights the importance of research into nonverbal behavior in sports, particularly in relation to athletes' confidence. PMID:24918314
Tuytens, Melissa; Devos, Geert
There is a general doubt on whether teacher evaluation can contribute to teachers' professional development. Recently, standards-based teacher evaluation has been introduced in many countries to improve teaching practice. This study wants to investigate which teacher evaluation procedural, leadership, and teacher characteristics can stimulate…
Hughes, Phillip, Ed.
This book is the first in a series on teachers and teaching, a result of the Australian Council for Educational Research program of research on teachers. The theme, teachers in society, has been constructed around three broad areas: the context of teaching, teacher education, and teachers' work. The book is divided into 8 chapters as follows: (l)…
Emilee Moore; Melinda Dooly
This article discusses findings from ongoing research into plurilingual group work interaction in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) teacher training classroom at a university in Catalonia, Spain. We explore how participants make use of available verbal and non-verbal resources—for example, their multilingual verbal repertoires, posture, gesture, gaze—to collaboratively accomplish various activities and, specifically, to problematize linguistic and subject
Chan, Lap Ki; Sharma, Neel
The one-minute preceptor (OMP) is a time-efficient, learner-centered teaching method used in a busy ambulatory care setting. This project evaluated the effects of training experienced anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory on students' perceived learning. Second-year medical students from a five-year, undergraduate-entry, system- and problem-based medical program were divided randomly into two groups of 76 students each. The groups took part in the same gross anatomy laboratory session on different dates, supervised by the same two teachers (both with over 25 years of teaching experience). The teachers attended a workshop on the use of the OMP between the two sessions. Students were given a questionnaire at the end of the two sessions to indicate their agreements to statements regarding their learning experiences. Semistructured interviews were conducted with the two teachers after the second session. Results showed that training experienced anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP did not result in improvement of student learning perception in the gross anatomy laboratory. The experienced teachers have developed their own approaches with elements similar to those in the OMP: being learner centered and adaptable to individual student's needs, providing feedback, and enhancing teacher immediacy. They do not have an explicit structure such as the OMP, and are thus flexible and adaptive. Confining the teachers' teaching behaviors to the OMP structure could limit their performance. Although there are theoretical advantages for novice teachers in adopting the OMP technique, these advantages still need to be supported by further studies. PMID:23864286
Skhiri, Mustapha; Cerrato, Loredana
The referred study is based on the assumption that understanding how humans use nonverbal behavior in dialogues can be very useful in the design of more natural-looking animated talking heads. The goal of the study is twofold: (1) to explore how people use specific facial expressions and head movements to serve important dialogue functions, and (2) to show evidence that it is possible to measure and quantify the entity of these movements with the Qualisys MacReflex motion tracking system. Naturally elicited dialogues between humans have been analyzed with focus on the attention on those nonverbal behaviors that serve the very relevant functions of regulating the conversational flux (i.e., turn taking) and producing information about the state of communication (i.e., feedback). The results show that eyebrow raising, head nods, and head shakes are typical signals involved during the exchange of speaking turns, as well as in the production and elicitation of feedback. These movements can be easily measured and quantified, and this measure can be implemented in animated talking heads.
Narayanan, Jwala; Duncan, Rod; Greene, John; Leach, John-Paul; Razvi, Saif; McLean, John; Evans, Jonathan J
Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often present with memory complaints despite performing within normal limits on standard memory tests. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF). The present study investigated material-specific ALF in patients with unilateral TLE and also examined whether ALF could be demonstrated on a novel, standardized anterograde autobiographical memory (ABM) task. Fourteen patients with TLE and 17 controls were administered verbal, nonverbal and ABM event memory tasks. The participants were tested for immediate recall, recall and recognition at 30-minute delay, and recall and recognition after four weeks. The extent of ALF was calculated based on the percentage decay of memory from the 30-minute delay trial to the four-week delay trial. Patients with left TLE showed significantly greater ALF for verbal material and a trend towards greater forgetting of ABM. Patients with right TLE showed a non-significant trend towards greater ALF for nonverbal material. Patients with unilateral hippocampal abnormalities showed greater ALF compared to patients without hippocampal abnormalities. Patients with seizures that generalize had more global memory deficits and greater ALF. We conclude that patients with unilateral TLE show material-specific ALF, which appears to be more pronounced with an abnormal hippocampus or seizures that secondarily generalize. PMID:23200623
Liao, Diana A.; Kronemer, Sharif I.; Yau, Jeffrey M.; Desmond, John E.; Marvel, Cherie L.
Working memory (WM) involves the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in mind. Neuroimaging studies have shown that secondary motor areas activate during WM for verbal content (e.g., words or letters), in the absence of primary motor area activation. This activation pattern may reflect an inner speech mechanism supporting online phonological rehearsal. Here, we examined the causal relationship between motor system activity and WM processing by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to manipulate motor system activity during WM rehearsal. We tested WM performance for verbalizable (words and pseudowords) and non-verbalizable (Chinese characters) visual information. We predicted that disruption of motor circuits would specifically affect WM processing of verbalizable information. We found that TMS targeting motor cortex slowed response times (RTs) on verbal WM trials with high (pseudoword) vs. low (real word) phonological load. However, non-verbal WM trials were also significantly slowed with motor TMS. WM performance was unaffected by sham stimulation or TMS over visual cortex (VC). Self-reported use of motor strategy predicted the degree of motor stimulation disruption on WM performance. These results provide evidence of the motor system’s contributions to verbal and non-verbal WM processing. We speculate that the motor system supports WM by creating motor traces consistent with the type of information being rehearsed during maintenance. PMID:25309402
Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues
Accessing the meaning of words, objects, people and facts is a human ability, made possible thanks to semantic processing. Although studies concerning its cortical organization are proficient, the subcortical connectivity underlying this semantic network received less attention. We used intraoperative direct electrostimulation, which mimics a transient virtual lesion during brain surgery for glioma in eight awaken patients, to map the anatomical white matter substrate subserving the semantic system. Patients performed a picture naming task and a non-verbal semantic association test during the electrical mapping. Direct electrostimulation of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, a poorly known ventral association pathway which runs throughout the brain, induced in all cases semantic disturbances. These transient disorders were highly reproducible, and concerned verbal as well as non-verbal output. Our results highlight for the first time the essential role of the left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle in multimodal (and not only in verbal) semantic processing. On the basis of these original findings, and in the lights of phylogenetic considerations regarding this fascicle, we suggest its possible implication in the monitoring of the human level of consciousness related to semantic memory, namely noetic consciousness. PMID:23778263
Negriff, Sonya; Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K
This prospective, longitudinal study examined a sample of sexually abused and comparison girls to determine (a) whether there were patterns of behavior that differed between the groups and (b) whether nonverbal behaviors assessed at the initial visit (n = 147; M = 11.11 years; SD = 3.02) might predict sexual attitudes and behaviors at a later point in development (n = 144; M = 18.52 years; SD = 3.52). At the initial assessment, nonverbal behaviors during an interaction with an unknown male interviewer were factor analyzed revealing 3 factors: wary (e.g., pouting), affiliative (e.g., chin resting on hand), and coy (e.g., tongue show). Abused girls scored higher on the coy factor that was related to earlier age at first voluntary intercourse later in development (approximately 7 years later). High scores on the affiliative factor were related to higher sexual permissiveness and less negative attitudes toward sex. Results indicate that sexually abused girls showed early maladaptive patterns in interpersonal interactions, which were subsequently related to risky sexual attitudes and behaviors. PMID:20410025
Freitas, Fabiana Ferraz Queiroga; Costa, Kátia Nêyla de Freitas Macêdo; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; Fernandes, Maria das Graças Melo; Lima, Joab de Oliveira
The aim is to analyze the nonverbal communication between nurses and the elderly in the nursing consultation based on the theory by Hall. The research concerns a descriptive exploratory study and it has a quantitative approach. It took place through filmings of the nursing consultations which happened in Health Basic Units in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, observed every minute, a total of 1.575 nonverbal interactions. The analysis has showed the predominance of the female nurses (90.63%) and the elderly (65.63) and a regular classification for most of the factors as a prevalence of a sitting set (80.09), opposite chairs (64.46%), personal distance (91.40%), calm facial expression (59.78%), touch was used for a technical procedure (53.33%), visual interaction for the manipulation of the objects (57.69) and no alteration in the voice volume (48.79%). These results reflect the necessity of the nurses to domain consciously their corporal and facial manifestations in order to improve the interaction with the elderly. PMID:25590883
Banks, Sarah Jane; Sziklas, Viviane; Sodums, Devin J; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn
Material-specific memory impairments are a well-established consequence of unilateral medial temporal lobe damage. We used fMRI to investigate encoding and recognition of verbal and nonverbal stimuli using adaptations of tasks used successfully in clinical evaluations of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We studied two patient groups, one with left TLE and one with right TLE, and one group of healthy subjects. Results from the healthy subjects indicated that initial and delayed recognition trials of the verbal task activated the left medial temporal lobe, and the same tasks of the nonverbal task activated the right, confirming the sensitivity to laterality of our clinical tasks. Patients tended to use the opposite hippocampus, but often the parahippocampal gyrus on the same side, compared to the healthy subjects. Since our patients and the healthy groups performed similarly on the memory tasks, we conclude that the patients' activation patterns represent an effective adaptation to the presence of an unhealthy hippocampus. PMID:22980080
Kobayashi, Chiyoko; Glover, Gary H; Temple, Elise
Theory of mind (ToM) - our ability to predict behaviors of others in terms of their underlying intentions - has been examined through verbal and nonverbal false-belief (FB) tasks. Previous brain imaging studies of ToM in adults have implicated medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) for adults' ToM ability. To examine age and modality related differences and similarities in neural correlates of ToM, we tested 16 adults (18-40 years old) and 12 children (8-12 years old) with verbal (story) and nonverbal (cartoon) FB tasks, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both age groups showed significant activity in the TPJ bilaterally and right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in a modality-independent manner, indicating that these areas are important for ToM during both adulthood and childhood, regardless of modality. We also found significant age-related differences in the ToM condition-specific activity for the story and cartoon tasks in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left TPJ. These results suggest that depending on the modality adults may utilize different brain regions from children in understanding ToM. PMID:17208260
Andrews, Jean F.; Franklin, Thomas C.
This paper reviews the role of deaf teachers in the education of deaf children and urges the hiring of such teachers, especially in Texas. Part 1 presents current data on deaf teachers in Texas and the nation, reviews the history of deaf teachers, considers the modern day preparation of deaf teachers and some court cases supporting deaf teachers…