Smythe, Mary-Jeanette; Hess, Jon A.
This project was undertaken to address the question of whether student reports are a valid way to measure teacher nonverbal immediacy. In response to concerns about psychometric shortcomings of available immediacy measures, Study 1 was conducted to refine the items used to measure teacher immediacy. The resulting set of 8 items, Nonverbal…
James C. McCroskey; Virginia P. Richmond; Aino Sallinen; Joan M. Fayer; Robert A. Barraclough
Nonverbal immediacy of teachers has been demonstrated to be substantially associated with increased cognitive and affective learning in students. The assumption underlying the current research is that teacher communication behaviors that enhance student learning will also enhance positive evaluations of teachers by those students. This study sought to determine what specific teacher nonverbal immediacy behaviors are most associated with students'
Burroughs, Nancy F.
This study examined (1) whether or not college students in actual classrooms used resistance strategies similar to those found in earlier hypothetical-anchored research; (2) the influence of teacher immediacy on student's differential use of those resistance strategies; and (3) the relationship among students' willingness to comply, teachers'…
Zhang, Qin; Oetzel, John G.; Gao, Xiaofang; Wilcox, Richard G.; Takai, Jiro
Cross-cultural validity of teacher immediacy scales is a constant concern in instructional communication research. The present study examines the validity of two existing teacher immediacy scales: the Revised Nonverbal Immediacy Measure (RNIM) and the Chinese Teacher Immediacy Scale (CTIS) in U.S., Chinese, German, and Japanese cultures. Results…
Wei, Fang-Yi Flora; Wang, Y. Ken
This study investigated the relationship between teacher immediacy and college students' use of text messaging in class. Using a cross-sectional survey sample (N=228), structural equation model analyses showed that students' learning motivation does not mediate the potential effects of teacher immediacy and students' use of text messaging in…
Estepp, Christopher M.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among teacher immediacy, professor/student rapport, and student self-regulated learning among selected undergraduate students in a college of agriculture. The independent variables for this study were verbal and nonverbal immediacy and professor/student rapport. The dependent variable in…
Thweatt, Katherine S.; McCroskey, James C.
Finds strong positive main effects for teacher immediacy and strong negative effects for teacher misbehavior on all three dimensions of credibility (competence, trustworthiness, and caring/goodwill). Finds, however, that with low teacher immediacy, both "nonmisbehavior" and misbehavior produced perceptions of low credibility; whereas when teacher…
Christensen, Laura J.; Menzel, Kent E.
Notes that recent research suggests a curvilinear relationship between teacher immediacy behaviors and student learning. Investigates these variables as they occur in relationships between college professors and students. Finds positive, linear relationships between (1) teacher nonverbal and verbal immediacy and perceived cognitive, affective, and…
James C. McCroskey; Aino Sallinen; Joan M. Fayer; Virginia P. Richmond; Robert A. Barraclough
The current research was based on data drawn from the cultures of Australia, Finland, and Puerto Rico as well as the dominant United States culture. The direction of the relationship between immediacy and perceived cognitive learning did not differ among the cultures studied (a very positive relationship exists within each culture). However, the magnitude of the relationships varied substantially. The
Nixon, Sarah; Vickerman, Philip; Maynard, Carol
Using a qualitative approach drawing on the experiences of four HE lecturers, this study provides an exploration of and insights into a peer review of teaching (PRT) scheme, which focused on teacher immediacy and communication skills. Within the United Kingdom, limited research has been undertaken in relation to teacher immediacy even though…
Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Yun, Doshik; Kim, Wonsun
This study compared Korean students in South Korea and Korean students in the US regarding their perceptions of instructor decision authority and verbal and nonverbal immediacy. Korean students reported higher instructor decision authority and lower levels of instructor verbal and nonverbal immediacy in Korean classrooms than in US classrooms.…
Miller, Ann Neville; Katt, James A.; Brown, Tim; Sivo, Stephen A.
In this study, we examined the potential mediating role of instructor credibility in the relationship of instructor self-disclosure and nonverbal immediacy to student incivility in the college classroom. Four hundred thirty-eight students completed online questionnaires regarding the instructor of the class they attended prior to the one in which…
The National Assessment on Educational Progress signals that American students are not being adequately prepared to compete globally in an ever changing scientific society. As a result, legislation mandated that all students be assessed and show proficiency in scientific literacy beginning in Grade 4 with the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2002 also known as No Child Left Behind. Research indicates a disturbing decline in the number of U.S. students pursuing more rigorous science courses in high school, majoring in scientific areas in college, and choosing future careers in science. With a need to improve science instruction and enhance science literacy for all students, this study focuses on immediate communication behaviors of the classroom teacher as a deciding factor in the opinions of high school students towards science. The purpose of this study was to reveal high school science student perceptions of teacher communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal, and how they influence their motivation to learn science. The researcher utilized a nonexperimental, quantitative research design to guide this study. Teacher and student data were collected using the Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ). The Student Motivation to Learn Instrument (SMLI) across gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status survey was used to evaluate student motivation in science. Participants were encouraged to be honest in reporting and sharing information concerning teacher communication behaviors. The data revealed that teacher immediacy behaviors, both verbal and nonverbal, were perceived differently in terms of student gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. The results showed that teachers who display positive communication behaviors and use challenging questioning followed with positive responses create pathways to potentially powerful relationships. These relationships between teachers and students can lead to increased student motivation and academic achievement in the science classroom.
Rester, Carolyn H.; Edwards, Renee
Using a message interpretation perspective, this study (N = 379) examined how sex of the student, sex of the teacher, and the setting affect the messages students receive from a teacher's excessive use of immediacy. Results reveal that students interpret excessive immediacy from female teachers as caring, but the same behavior from male teachers…
Chaudhry, Noureen Asghar; Arif, Manzoor
The observational study was conducted to see the impact of teachers' nonverbal behavior on academic achievement of learners. This also investigated the relationship of nonverbal communication of teachers working in different educational institutions. Main objectives of study were to measure nonverbal behavior of teachers' both male and female…
Michael Zane Hackman; Kim B. Walker
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of conveyance system design and social presence, in the form of teacher immediacy behavior, on perceived student learning and satisfaction in the televised classroom. Results indicate that system design and teacher immediacy behavior strongly impact student learning and satisfaction. System variables such as interactivity and clear audio and video transmission positively
Ni, Shu-Fang; Aust, Ronald
This study used quantitative measures to gather data from online students to analyze the effects of perceptions about teacher verbal immediacy and classroom community on students' level of satisfaction, perceived learning, and online discussion frequency. Using convenience sampling, 214 students were recruited from undergraduate and graduate…
LeFebvre, Luke; Allen, Mike
This study examined teaching assistant's immediacy in lecture/laboratory and self-contained classes. Two hundred fifty-six students responded to instruments measuring teachers' immediacy behavior frequency, perceptions of instruction quality, and cognitive learning. No significant difference was identified when comparing…
Weatherford, H. Jarold
A discussion of the role of nonverbal communication in foreign language learning focuses on culturally-conditioned aspects of nonverbal behavior. Various means of nonverbal communication, including posture, gestures, facial expression, occulesics, proxemics, haptics, chronemics, and syncing are examined, and some of the cultural differences found…
Chaikin, Alan L.; And Others
This study describes nonverbal behaviors on the part of subjects asked to give five minutes of instruction to a ten-year-old student, described as either bright or slow or not described at all in terms of IQ. (JH)
Kazdin, Alan E.; Klock, Joan
The effect of contingent nonverbal teacher approval on student attentive behavior was examined in a classroom with 12 retarded children. After baseline data were gathered on contingent verbal and nonverbal teacher approval and student attentive behavior, the teacher was instructed to increase her use of contingent nonverbal approval (smiles and physical contact) and to maintain her baseline level of verbal approval. After a reversal phase, the nonverbal approval phase was reinstated. Nonverbal teacher behaviors increased during the experimental phases, whereas verbal teacher approval (alone or in conjunction with nonverbal behaviors) did not increase. Attentive behavior increased for 11 of 12 students during the phases in which contingent nonverbal teacher approval increased. Correlational data suggested that nonverbal teacher approval accounted for behavior change of the students to a greater extent than did changes in the amount of teacher approval per se or in the teacher's use of verbal approval. PMID:16795448
Finds that high, moderate, and low apprehensives perceived significant gains in competency and significant decreases in anxiety in a public speaking course. Finds no differences among them in the amount of perceived improvement and anxiety decrease. Reveals a significant positive correlation between teachers' verbal immediacy and anxiety decrease…
Instructor immediacy has been positively associated with many desirable academic outcomes including increased student learning. This study extends existing understanding of instructional immediacy behaviours in elearning by describing postgraduate nursing students' reflections on their own experience. An exploratory, descriptive survey design was used to collect qualitative data. Participants were asked what behaviours or activities help to create rapport or a positive interpersonal connection (immediacy) between students and their online teacher(s). Thematic analysis of the data revealed three main themes: acknowledging and affirming student's personal and professional responsibilities; providing clear and timely information; and utilising rich media. These findings give lecturers insight into instructional strategies they may adopt to increase immediacy in elearning and hence improve student learning outcomes. PMID:25632711
French, Russell L.; Galloway, Charles M.
Because of the need to describe and analyze nonverbal as well as verbal classroom interaction, an attempt has been made to develop an observational system of complete behavioral analysis using the Flanders system as a base. Each of the 10 Flanders verbal categories (based on direct and indirect teacher influence) is combined with relevant…
This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…
Roger N. Conaway; Susan S. Easton; Wallace V. Schmidt
The increased demand for Internet courses, especially in schools of business, has raised questions about instructional interaction and teacher-student immediacy, which online courses may lack. Because current research suggests immediacy behaviors may indeed be present, we developed a strategy for measuring immediacy in an online MBA course and related the results to student grades on final team projects in the
Conaway, Roger N.; Easton, Susan S.; Schmidt, Wallace V.
The increased demand for Internet courses, especially in schools of business, has raised questions about instructional interaction and teacher-student immediacy, which online courses may lack. Because current research suggests immediacy behaviors may indeed be present, we developed a strategy for measuring immediacy in an online MBA course and…
Berlin, Matthew Roberts, 1980-
As robots enter the social environments of our workplaces and homes, it will be important for them to be able to learn from natural human teaching behavior. My research seeks to identify simple, non-verbal cues that human ...
Darrow, Alice-Ann; Johnson, Christopher
The purpose of the two studies reported in the article was to determine whether or not a relationship exists between preservice music therapists' and teachers' nonverbal behaviors and their perceived rapport. In study 1, evaluators (N = 56) viewed a stimulus tape consisting of 15 45-second segments of 15 preservice music therapists leading songs…
Williams, Amanda S.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…
Caudle, Lori A.; Jung, Min-Jung; Fouts, Hillary N.; Wallace, Heather S.
Observations of preservice teachers often lack information about specific strategies they use when guiding children's behavior. This study investigated how preservice teachers used verbal and non-verbal behavior modification techniques within structured and transition classroom contexts. Using an on-the-mark 20- second observe and 10-second…
Evans, Thomas Parker
Developed was a category system for first-hand systematic observation of the verbal and non-verbal behavior of high school biology teachers in both classroom and laboratory situations. This was used to investigate correlations between selected personality traits and the verbal and non-verbal behaviors of high school biology teachers. Some…
This paper investigated teachers' verbal and non-verbal strategies for managing ADHD students in a classroom environment. It was found that effective verbal and non-verbal strategies included voice control, short phrases, repeated instructions, using students' names, and visual cues and verbal instructions combined. It has been found that…
Non-verbal tests are paper-and-pencil tests that are designed to measure cognitive processes that do not involve verbal language. Such tests use shapes, patterns, diagrams, and sequences to measure general intellectual skills of a non-verbal nature. The use of such tests in schools is described. Performance tests using concrete apparatus are…
Carrell, Lori J.; Menzel, Kent E.
Studies undergraduate students assigned to three experimental educational settings: a live classroom, a video classroom, and an audio with PowerPoint display classroom. Assesses impact of the settings on participant learning, motivation, and perceived teacher immediacy. Finds perceived instructor immediacy was significantly higher for the live…
Overmier, Mary; Frank, Cheryl
This booklet presents 10 activities that deal with nonverbal communication. Activities in the booklet involve nonverbal messages present in the style of lettering, design, and color in advertisements; comic strips; facial expressions; body movement; idioms (such as "to be all eyes"); personal space; handshakes; clothing; and nonverbal…
Kurkul, Wen W.
This study explored nonverbal communication in one-to-one music performance instruction by investigating relationships among nonverbal sensitivity, nonverbal behaviors and lesson effectiveness. Subjects (N = 120) comprised 60 college teachers and 60 of their non-music major students. Using the Music Lesson Evaluation Form, lesson effectiveness was…
Georgakopoulos, Alexia; Guerrero, Laura K.
Students from six countries--Australia, Japan, Mexico, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United States--recalled the extent to which their best or worst professors used various forms of communication that have been associated with effective teaching. Across cultures, best professors were perceived to employ more nonverbal expressiveness, relaxed movement,…
Schutt, Maria; Allen, Brock S.; Laumakis, Mark A.
Previous research has indicated that instructor immediacy is associated with learning outcomes, satisfaction, and motivation. However, few researchers have examined instructor immediacy in the context of online learning. This study is the first large experiment (n = 433) to empirically investigate the effects of instructor immediacy behaviors…
Baker, Jason D.; Woods, Robert H.
This article highlights instructional communication and distance education research with an emphasis on the social dynamics of the online learning experience and their impact on the learning experience. Literature related to the twin concepts of immediacy and group cohesiveness--central constructs related to building an effective classroom social…
Bancroft, W. Jane
Nonverbal communication in the classroom can produce subtle nonverbal influences, particularly in the affective domain. In Suggestopedia, double-planeness (the role of the environment and the personality of the teacher) is considered an important factor in learning. Suggestopedic teachers are trained to use nonverbal gestures in their presentation…
Thibodeaux, Terry Mark
With the goal of generating research questions about teacher effectiveness, the first half of this paper deals with literature investigating teachers' nonverbal behavior in the classroom. This review lends support to the following ideas: (1) nonverbal cues affect relationship quality; (2) the more positive the teacher feedback to students, the…
Leathers, Dale G.
This book was designed to meet five specific criteria which allow development of a course parallel to the treatment of the book's subject matter, active student involvement in testing and developing their own nonverbal communication capacities, delineation and analysis of the functional capacity of different nonverbal communication systems, an…
McLean, Chikako Akamatsu
Applying theories of cultural dimensions, teacher credibility, and nonverbal immediacy, this chapter explores classroom management techniques used by Asian female teachers to establish credibility. (Contains 1 note.)
Walker, Kim B.; Hackman, Michael Z.
A study examined which factors of telecommunication system design and instructor style had the greatest impact on student perceptions of learning and satisfaction with televised instruction. Surveys were completed by 164 adult learners evaluating over 20 courses taken via two-way, multi-camera, telecommunications systems. Results showed that…
Arnold, William E.; And Others
The entries in this extensive bibliography represent books, educational journals, dissertations, popular magazines, and research studies that deal with the topic of nonverbal communication. Divided into time periods (1975 to present, 1973 to 1975, and before 1973), the titles span a variety of topics, including the following: sensory perception,…
Bracken, Bruce A.; McCallum, R. Steve
This kit presents all components of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), a newly developed instrument designed to measure the general intelligence and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents (ages 5 through 17) who may be disadvantaged by traditional verbal and language-loaded measures such as children with speech, language,…
Goodboy, Alan K.; Myers, Scott A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived instructor immediacy and student challenge behavior (i.e., procedural, evaluation, power play, practicality) in the college classroom. Participants were 403 students who listened to and reported on a 15 minute guest lecturer in an introductory communication class. Results…
Watkins, Sherry; And Others
The article describes a pilot program to encourage independent communication in seven nonverbal children (ages 6-8) with orthopedic and/or neurological involvement or cerebral palsy. Transdisciplinary team members included the classroom teacher, speech clinician, instructional aide, computer resource person, occupational therapist, physical…
Key, Mary Ritchie
Nonverbal communication is an important and little-understood aspect of human communication. This book deals primarily with two aspects of nonverbal communication: paralanguage and kinesics. "Paralanguage" includes vocalizations such as hissing, shushing, and whistling, as well as speech modifications such as quality of voice (sepulchral, whiny,…
Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is described as a subtype of specific learning disability where the source of the disability is a difficulty in processing nonverbal information. The child with NLD presents with problems in visual, spatial, and tactile perception but with strengths in rote verbal skills. Traditionally, these children were recognized by their difficulties in arithmetic which presented a stark contrast with their strengths in spelling and decoding text. They also exhibited a split between their verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores with the VIQ being significantly higher than PIQ. Over time, however, diagnostic criteria have evolved and the broadened definition of the NLD syndrome has led many to question the utility and uniqueness of the NLD diagnosis. In addition, shifting diagnostic standards have made research results difficult to replicate. In short, the research to date leaves many unanswered questions about (1) the definition of the NLD syndrome, (2) the pervasiveness of the academic, social and psychopathological difficulties, (3) the source of the NLD syndrome, and (4) the degree to which it overlaps with other conditions. This chapter outlines a brief history of the NLD syndrome, how it is currently conceptualized, and some of the current debate about the unanswered questions above. PMID:23622171
Corona, Shannon F.
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which instructor immediacy correlated with online community college students' perceived learning. The research questions that were investigated in the study focused on online instructor immediacy as it relates to praise (words of approval), encouragement (words of support) and examples…
Rocca, Kelly A.; McCroskey, James C.
Explores the relationships of immediacy and verbal aggression with homophily and interpersonal attraction in the higher education instructional context. Finds that immediacy was negatively related to verbal aggression and positively related to all dimensions of homophily and interpersonal attraction and that verbal aggression was negatively…
Furlich, Stephen A.
This paper explores the use of instructor verbal immediacy behaviors for on-line classes. Specifically, it demonstrates how instructor verbal immediacy behaviors found in face-to-face classes can also be displayed for on-line classes. It is argued that self-determination theory describes identification of the student as an important role in the…
Bailie, Jeffrey L.
In this 2011 investigation, a modified Delphi technique was introduced to determine whether an informed group of post-secondary online faculty and students could arrive at a consensus regarding the importance of previously recognized verbal immediacy behaviors. Two expert panels were presented with Gorham's (1988) Verbal Immediacy Scale and tasked…
Recognizing Nonverbal Affective Behavior in Humanoid Robots Sunghyun PARKa , Lilia MOSHKINAa, 1. This paper describes the addition of nonverbal affective behaviors to a humanoid robot, as well phenomena: traits, moods and emotions. Keywords. Humanoid Robotics, Interactive Systems, Human-Robot
Duke, Charles R.
The effect of nonverbal behavior on communication is apparent, but educators are left with the question of how an awareness of nonverbal behavior can fit into the classroom. In fact the average classroom offers a vast supply of information about nonverbal communication that remains relatively untouched in scientific studies. The processes of…
Key, Mary Ritchie
This volume discusses various aspects of nonverbal communication and provides an extensive bibliography of journal articles, listed by author, that are relevant to the topic. Commentary is divided into six sections: "Considerations in Nonverbal Communication," which examines the impact of motion and rhythm, the components of nonverbal…
Martino, Jacquelyn A
Approaches to shape computation and algorithmic art-making within the fields of shape grammars and computer graphics still do not consider the immediacy of the artist's mark in drawing and painting. This research examines ...
Key, Mary Ritchie
In forming a theory of communicative interaction between human beings it is necessary to consider some general features implicit in the communicative process. These include the context of situation, philosophical categories, psycholinguistic categories, grammatical categories, and nonverbal categories. Most of these are extra-linguistic and have…
Gilbert, Gary S.; And Others
Two nonverbal methods for assessing degree of interpersonal attraction--placing representative figures on a ruled board and human figure drawing--were explored. Subjects' scores differed as a function of peer liking on the measures of distance, degree of detail, affective peer drawings and peer drawing articulation. (MV)
Lovaas, Karen E
The majority of nonverbal communication research and pedagogy reproduces heterosexist and sexist ideologies, normalizing and naturalizing gender and sexual binaries, and sanctioning an exceedingly narrow range of gendered and sexualized subjects, practices, and relationships. This essay proposes that nonverbal communication scholarship and pedagogy need to address these issues. First, I provide a brief summary of the history of the field of nonverbal communication. Second, I critique the conspicuous absence of the queer subject, the rigid essentialism, and the pervasive heterosexism in nonverbal communication textbooks in particular. Finally, I discuss three examples of communication research that avoid these pitfalls and herald what queering nonverbal communication might look like. PMID:14651175
SIMINOFF, LAURA A.; TRAINO, HEATHER M.; GORDON, NAHIDA H.
This study explores the effects of tissue requesters’ relational, persuasive, and nonverbal communication on families’ final donation decisions. One thousand sixteen (N=1,016) requests for tissue donation were audiotaped and analyzed using the Siminoff Communication Content and Affect Program, a computer application specifically designed to code and assist with the quantitative analysis of communication data. This study supports the important role of communication strategies in health-related decision making. Families were more likely to consent to tissue donation when confirmational messages (e.g., messages that expressed validation or acceptance) or persuasive tactics such as credibility, altruism, or esteem were used during donation discussions. Consent was also more likely when family members exhibited nonverbal immediacy or disclosed private information about themselves or the patient. The results of a hierarchical log-linear regression revealed that the use of relational communication during requests directly predicted family consent. The results provide information about surrogate decision making in end-of-life situations and may be used to guide future practice in obtaining family consent to tissue donation. PMID:21512935
Harrison, Janelle L.
Transformational leadership and immediacy behaviors within educational contexts have received a great deal of attention from researchers in the past few decades. Generally, the literature has focused on the impact of instructor transformational behaviors and instructor immediacy behaviors on educational outcomes. However, the relationship between…
Mattson, Karla M; Hucks, Andrew; Grace, Randolph C; McLean, Anthony P
Eight pigeons responded in a three-component concurrent-chains procedure, with either independent or dependent initial links. Relative probability and immediacy of reinforcement in the terminal links were both varied, and outcomes on individual trials (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) were either signaled or unsignaled. Terminal-link fixed-time schedules were varied across components within conditions to yield immediacy ratios of 1?2, 1?1 and 2?1. The probabilities of reinforcement were varied across conditions to yield reinforcer ratios of 1?5, 1?2, 2?1 and 5?1. Results showed that a model based on the generalized matching law provided a good description of response allocation, accounting for 92% of the variance overall. As expected, sensitivity to probability was greater in the unsignaled conditions. However, sensitivity to immediacy was also greater in the unsignaled conditions, suggesting that the effect of signaling terminal-link outcomes may not be limited to probability but apply to reinforcer variables in general. The effects of signaling can be explained in terms of conditioned reinforcement added to each alternative's outcomes in the matching law. There was some evidence for an interaction between reinforcer probability and immediacy, particularly for the dependent-schedules group, such that sensitivity to immediacy was greater at moderate rather than extreme reinforcer ratios. However, further analysis suggested that this could have been due to a ceiling effect on response allocation imposed by dependent scheduling. Overall, the present results show that the generalized matching law can provide a useful account of choice between outcomes that vary in both probability and immediacy of reinforcement. PMID:21541175
Effective communication occurs with non-verbal and verbal tools. In this study the body language as non-verbal communication tool is taken to be examined, and teachers' opinions about the use and importance of body language in education are surveyed. Eight open-ended questions are asked to 100 teachers. As a result, it is shown that teachers…
Mammarella, Irene Cristina; Lucangeli, Daniela; Cornoldi, Cesare
Visuospatial working memory and its involvement in arithmetic were examined in two groups of 7- to 11-year-olds: one comprising children described by teachers as displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning difficulties (N = 21), the other a control group without learning disabilities (N = 21). The two groups were matched for verbal abilities, age,…
Tuedio, James Alan
of human freedom. V We have argued in this paper that human beings can choose either to appropriate their freedom (by engaging lived-immediacy) or to effect a flight from their free dom (by succumbing to the dictates of das Man). Freedom thus becomes...THE ENGAGEMENT OF LIVED-IMMEDIACY A PHENOMENOLOGICAL UNCOVERING OF THE FIELD OF HUMAN FREEDOM James Alan Tuedio "Hearts remote yet not asunder Distance and no space was seen So between them love did shine Either was the other's mine...
Waltman, John L.
Because proficiency in nonverbal communication is as important in international business communication as it is in one's own culture, temporary residents need to learn how to improve communication. This paper explores several ways business communication specialists can help improve sojourners' nonverbal fluency for specific cultures. Temporary…
Writing labs should utilize the knowledge gained from a variety of fields to enhance further their programs, particularly with regard to the study of nonverbal communication. Regardless of the sincerity and importance of the tutor's suggestions, nonverbal messages often are sent to the student which undermine the session. Various channels of…
Recognizing Nonverbal Affective Behavior in Humanoid Robots Sunghyun PARK a , Lilia MOSHKINA a, 1. This paper describes the addition of nonverbal affective behaviors to a humanoid robot, as well phenomena: traits, moods and emotions. Keywords. Humanoid Robotics, Interactive Systems, HumanRobot
Sadoski, Mark; Willson, Victor L.; Holcomb, Angelia; Boulware-Gooden, Regina
Verbal and nonverbal predictors of spelling performance in Grades 1-12 were investigated using the national norming data from a standardized spelling test. Verbal variables included number of letters, phonemes, syllables, digraphs, blends, silent markers, r-controlled vowels, and the proportion of grapheme-phoneme correspondence. The nonverbal…
Mattson, Karla M.; Hucks, Andrew; Grace, Randolph C.; McLean, Anthony P.
Eight pigeons responded in a three-component concurrent-chains procedure, with either independent or dependent initial links. Relative probability and immediacy of reinforcement in the terminal links were both varied, and outcomes on individual trials (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) were either signaled or unsignaled. Terminal-link fixed-time…
Menzel, Kent E.; Carrell, Lori J.
Finds that instructor verbal-immediacy behavior was positively related to: a student's willingness to talk in class (with gender not a factor for this outcome); and to a student's perceived learning. Finds that while students perceived more learning from a professor of the same gender, the effect was strongly mediated by instructor…
Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)
Merriam, Allen H.
Examines symbolic action as a method of exerting public influence nonverbally through nonviolent behavior. Discusses Gandhi's persuasive tactics including fasting, propaganda tours, silence, clothing and adoption of symbols. (MH)
tested the performance of less and more proficient bilinguals on a bilingual translation task and observed the effect of nonverbal semantic contexts on the translation performance. The logic of the study is that if backward translation is conceptually...
Berg, Mark E; Grace, Randolph C
In Phase 1, 4 pigeons were trained on a three-component multiple concurrent-chains procedure in which components differed only in terms of relative terminal-link entry rate. The terminal links were variable-interval schedules and were varied across four conditions to produce immediacy ratios of 4:1, 1:4, 2:1, and 1:2. Relative terminal-link entry rate and relative immediacy had additive and independent effects on initial-link response allocation, and the data were well-described by a generalized-matching model. Regression analyses showed that allowing sensitivity to immediacy to vary across components produced only trivial increases in variance accounted for. Phase 2 used a three-component concurrent-schedules procedure in which the schedules were the same as the initial links of Phase 1. Across two conditions, the relative reinforcer magnitude was varied. Sensitivity to relative reinforcer rate was independent of relative magnitude, confirming results of prior studies. Sensitivity to relative reinforcer rate in Phase 2 did not vary systematically across subjects compared to sensitivity to relative entry rate in Phase 1, and regression analyses confirmed again that only small increases in variance accounted for were obtained when sensitivities were estimated independently compared with a single estimate for both phases. Overall, the data suggest that conditioned and primary reinforcers have functionally equivalent effects on choice and support the independence of relative terminal-link entry rate and immediacy as determiners of response allocation. These results are consistent with current models for concurrent chains, including Grace's (1994) contextual choice model and Mazur's (2001) hyperbolic value-added model. PMID:15693521
Berg, Mark E.; Grace, Randolph C.
In Phase 1, 4 pigeons were trained on a three-component multiple concurrent-chains procedure in which components differed only in terms of relative terminal-link entry rate. The terminal links were variable-interval schedules and were varied across four conditions to produce immediacy ratios of 4:1, 1:4, 2:1, and 1:2. Relative terminal-link entry…
Smythe, Mary-Jeanette; Schlueter, David
A preliminary analysis of the nonverbal aspects of developing and deteriorating dating relationships was undertaken to determine what nonverbal behaviors were considered most important in defining such relationships. A checklist of 12 nonverbal behaviors associated with successful dating relationships was given to 100 male and 100 female college…
Riley, Jobie E.
This paper on the subject of smell in communication provides a brief survey of the subject, pulling together a wide variety of disparate ideas across many disciplines. The paper is comprised of a general introductory section and separate sections on the olfactory nonverbal communication of animals and human beings. The uses to which animals put…
Baird, John E., Jr.; Weiting, Gretchen K.
Stating that motivation is a product of the interaction between employer and employee, the authors discuss the "Pygmalion effect" (whereby the expectations of a manager influence the performance of subordinates), the importance of communication, and the components of nonverbal communication: environment, proxemics, postures, gestures,…
Narvaez, Alice; Hertel, Paula T.
Memory for everyday conversational speech may be influenced by the nonverbally communicated emotion of the speaker. In order to investigate this premise, three videotaped scenes with bipolar emotional perspectives (joy/fear about going away to college, fear/anger about having been robbed, and disgust/interest regarding a friend's infidelity) were…
Impairment of nonverbal recognition in Alzheimer disease A PET O-15 study K.E. Anderson, MD A recognition memory and functional brain changes associated with these deficits in Alzheimer disease (AD: Relative fusiform and inferior frontal differences may re- flect the Alzheimer disease (AD) patients
Heger, Herbert K.
The Miniaturized Interaction Analysis System (Mini-TIA) was developed to permit improved analysis of classroom communication in conjunction with video taping. Each of seven verbal event categories is subdivided into two categories according to the nature of the nonverbal events paralleling them. Integrated into the system are (1) defined verbal…
Walther, Sebastian; Stegmayer, Katharina; Sulzbacher, Jeanne; Vanbellingen, Tim; Müri, René; Strik, Werner; Bohlhalter, Stephan
Schizophrenia patients are severely impaired in nonverbal communication, including social perception and gesture production. However, the impact of nonverbal social perception on gestural behavior remains unknown, as is the contribution of negative symptoms, working memory, and abnormal motor behavior. Thus, the study tested whether poor nonverbal social perception was related to impaired gesture performance, gestural knowledge, or motor abnormalities. Forty-six patients with schizophrenia (80%), schizophreniform (15%), or schizoaffective disorder (5%) and 44 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and education were included. Participants completed 4 tasks on nonverbal communication including nonverbal social perception, gesture performance, gesture recognition, and tool use. In addition, they underwent comprehensive clinical and motor assessments. Patients presented impaired nonverbal communication in all tasks compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, performance in patients was highly correlated between tasks, not explained by supramodal cognitive deficits such as working memory. Schizophrenia patients with impaired gesture performance also demonstrated poor nonverbal social perception, gestural knowledge, and tool use. Importantly, motor/frontal abnormalities negatively mediated the strong association between nonverbal social perception and gesture performance. The factors negative symptoms and antipsychotic dosage were unrelated to the nonverbal tasks. The study confirmed a generalized nonverbal communication deficit in schizophrenia. Specifically, the findings suggested that nonverbal social perception in schizophrenia has a relevant impact on gestural impairment beyond the negative influence of motor/frontal abnormalities. PMID:25646526
Kelly, Stephanie; Rice, Christopher; Wyatt, Bryce; Ducking, Johnny; Denton, Zachary
There is global concern regarding the increased prevalence of math anxiety among college students, which is credited for a decrease in analytical degree completion rates and lower self-confidence among students in their ability to complete analytical tasks in the real world. The present study identified that, as expected, displays of instructional…
Tschacher, Wolfgang; Rees, Georg M.; Ramseyer, Fabian
In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and ‘fun task’ conditions. We focused on the link between interactants’ affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants’ personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants’ body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology, and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.8 years). Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted 5 min. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation. PMID:25505435
Eisenwort, B; Willinger, U; Schattauer, A; Willnauer, R
33 children with Specific Language Impairment (F 80, ICD 10) were randomly selected and their results regarding nonverbal intelligence, passive vocabulary and sentence comprehension were compared with data of 33 control children matched by age and sex. Although cognitive performance is average in both groups, significant differences regarding nonverbal intelligence are found. Whereas nonverbal intelligence is predictable from sentence comprehension to a high degree in den SLI-group, it is not predictable in the control group. PMID:10592923
Babad, Elisha; Taylor, Paul J.
Study investigated the detection of teacher expectancy effects across language and cultural boundaries. Students and teachers rated taped samples of foreign teachers talking about or to high-expectancy and low-expectancy students, focusing on facial expressions and body language. Teachers had distinctive nonverbal styles, even when language and…
Cerutti, D T; Staddon, J E R
In the time-left experiment (J. Gibbon & R. M. Church, 1981), animals are said to compare an expectation of a fixed delay to food, for one choice, with a decreasing delay expectation for the other, mentally representing both upcoming time to food and the difference between current time and upcoming time (the cognitive hypothesis). The results of 2 experiments support a simpler view: that animals choose according to the immediacies of reinforcement for each response at a time signaled by available time markers (the temporal control hypothesis). It is not necessary to assume that animals can either represent or subtract representations of times to food to explain the results of the time-left experiment. PMID:14709114
Staddon, J. E. R.
In the time-left experiment (J. Gibbon & R. M. Church, 1981), animals are said to compare an expectation of a fixed delay to food, for one choice, with a decreasing delay expectation for the other, mentally representing both upcoming time to food and the difference between current time and upcoming time (the cognitive hypothesis). The results of 2 experiments support a simpler view: that animals choose according to the immediacies of reinforcement for each response at a time signaled by available time markers (the temporal control hypothesis). It is not necessary to assume that animals can either represent or subtract representations of times to food to explain the results of the time-left experiment. PMID:14709114
Mabry, Edward A.
Analyzed observational data on nonverbal behavior in small groups to assess whether such behavior significantly changed within or across group meetings. Results showed that kinesic limb movements, posture, eye contact, and body orientation significantly changed across five group sessions. Discussion relates results of nonverbal behavioral changes…
Herring, Roger D.
Reviews the importance and rationale for the study of nonverbal communication and its relevance for cross-cultural counseling. Concludes cross-cultural counselors can begin to eradicate many misunderstandings and misconceptions by accepting and understanding that people and cultures are different, especially concerning their nonverbal…
Hall, Judith A.
An experiment tested the hypothesis that the outcome of a vocal nonverbal persuasion attempt can be affected by the participants' skills in nonverbal communication. Subjects' vocal sending or decoding abilities were pretested. Senders and decoders (N=54) were agents and recipients of social influence, respectively, in a field experiment in which…
Corbett, Stephen S.; Moore, Jean
Because the nonverbal component of communication is culture-specific, effective communication in a second language requires knowledge of the body language typical of speakers of that language. For example, Americans and Hispanics have a different sense of proxemics, Hispanics favoring closeness during conversation. Instruction in nonverbal…
Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa J.
This article discusses the use of nonverbal communication strategies for fostering social health in middle school students. It outlines a teaching technique designed to help students better understand nonverbal cues and their role in maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships. The technique begins with the card game "Slap What?" where the…
Almerigogna, Jehanne; Ost, James; Akehurst, Lucy; Fluck, Mike
We conducted two studies to examine how interviewers' nonverbal behaviors affect children's perceptions and suggestibility. In the first study, 42 8- to 10-year-olds watched video clips showing an interviewer displaying combinations of supportive and nonsupportive nonverbal behaviors and were asked to rate the interviewer on six attributes (e.g.,…
This paper studies meaning as a construct of human interaction. Basic to this approach is the concept of the act of communication, which may be realized verbally or non-verbally. In order to integrate non-verbal behaviors into descriptions of discourse and interaction, a series of functional, not anatomic, categories is needed. For the kinesic…
Weisbuch, Max; Ambady, Nalini
We examined the extent to which nonverbal behavior contributes to culturally-shared attitudes and beliefs. In Study 1, we demonstrated that slim women elicit especially positive nonverbal behaviors in popular television shows. In Study 2, we demonstrated that exposure to this nonverbal bias caused people to have especially slim cultural and personal ideals of female beauty and to have especially positive attitudes toward slim women. In Study 3, we demonstrated that individual differences in exposure to such nonverbal bias could account for substantial variance in pro-slim attitudes, anti-fat attitudes, and personal ideals of beauty, even after controlling for several third variables. In Study 4, we demonstrated that regional differences in exposure to nonverbal bias accounted for substantial variance in regional unhealthy dieting behaviors, even after controlling for several third variables. PMID:19469590
Slot machines are the most "addictive" games because (a) the disorder (pathological gambling) appears more rapidly in these games than with any other; (b) most patients who seek professional help are mainly addicted to electronic gambling, and (c) even though it is not the more frequent game, most of all the money spent on legal games of chance (at least in Spain) goes to slot machines. Structural characteristics of slot machines induce to gamble because electronic games show the main parameters of operant conditioning, mainly the immediacy of the reinforcement. Ten pathological gamblers played slot machine in two conditions: immediate and delayed reinforcement. The results corroborate the importance of the immediacy of the reinforcement in gambling, because when the result appears immediately (after 2 s), more games are played than when the result is delayed only 10 s. Critical issues in problem gambling prevention and public health are discussed. PMID:19882307
Roter, Debra L; Frankel, Richard M; Hall, Judith A; Sluyter, David
Relationship-centered care reflects both knowing and feeling: the knowledge that physician and patient bring from their respective domains of expertise, and the physician's and patient's experience, expression, and perception of emotions during the medical encounter. These processes are conveyed and reciprocated in the care process through verbal and nonverbal communication. We suggest that the emotional context of care is especially related to nonverbal communication and that emotion-related communication skills, including sending and receiving nonverbal messages and emotional self-awareness, are critical elements of high-quality care. Although nonverbal behavior has received far less study than other care processes, the current review argues that it holds significance for the therapeutic relationship and influences important outcomes including satisfaction, adherence, and clinical outcomes of care. PMID:16405706
Gorrell, John Jeffrey
The purpose of this educational research project is to assess whether teachers actually encourage and foster (invite) their elementary students to solve problems. Teacher invitations are verbal and nonverbal messages sent to students either intentionally or unintentionally. Teacher invitations are significant because they indicate the teacher's…
Owen, Daniela J; Slep, Amy M S; Heyman, Richard E
Lack of compliance has both short- and long-term costs and is a leading reason why parents seek mental health services for children. What parents do to help children comply with directives or rules is an important part of child socialization. The current review examines the relationship between a variety of parenting discipline behaviors (i.e., praise, positive nonverbal response, reprimand, negative nonverbal response) and child compliance. Forty-one studies of children ranging in age from 1½ to 11 years were reviewed. Reprimand and negative nonverbal responses consistently resulted in greater compliance. Praise and positive nonverbal responses resulted in mixed child outcomes. The findings are discussed based on theory and populations studied. The authors propose a mechanism that may increase children's sensitivity to both positive and negative behavioral contingencies. PMID:22918669
Cuddy, Amy J C; Wilmuth, Caroline A; Yap, Andy J; Carney, Dana R
The authors tested whether engaging in expansive (vs. contractive) "power poses" before a stressful job interview-preparatory power posing-would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25664473
Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Lease, A. Michele
This study examined the construct validity of nonverbal social aggression and the relation of nonverbal social aggression to dimensions of children's social status. Peer nominations of verbal social, nonverbal social, direct veral, and physical aggression, as well as social dominance, perceived popularity, and social acceptance, were collected…
This handbook presents selected theories, activities, and resources which can be utilized by educators in the area of non-verbal communication. Particular attention is given to the use of non-verbal communication in a cross-cultural context. Categories of non-verbal communication such as proxemics, haptics, kinesics, smiling, sound, clothing, and…
Blahna, Loretta J.
Although the bulk of recent research on nonverbal communication has involved studies of the functions of nonverbal behavior (emotion conveying, regulation, and adaption), a few studies have focused on the differences in nonverbal communication variables between men and women. These differences have been found in vocal patterns, intensities, length…
and non-verbal retention phases correlated positively in the non-verbal task for all memory loads (p patterns across memory load during retention also correlated positively with recognition accuracy (dResearch Report Contrasting visual working memory for verbal and non-verbal material
Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael
Compared performance of preschool children, chimpanzees, and orangutans on nonverbal task of false-belief understanding and tested children's performance on a verbal version of the same task. Found that children's performance on verbal and nonverbal tasks were highly correlated, and no chimp or orangutan succeeded in the nonverbal false-belief…
According to the NASPE beginning teacher standards, the ability to manage and motivate students is fundamental to effective teaching. To be truly effective at managing and motivating students, teachers need to monitor and react to class behavior and class feedback (verbal and nonverbal) while simultaneously giving instructions or feedback. This…
Hopkins, Kenneth D.; Bracht, Glenn H.
The results of this study show that, below ten years of age, stability in IQ scores from group verbal tests is considerably below that for Stanford-Binet. Non-verbal IQ scores were found to have substantially less stability than verbal IQs. (Author/DEP)
Koegel, Robert L.; And Others
The study attempted to improve verbal language acquisition for two nonverbal four- and five-year-old autistic children by incorporating natural language interactions and motivational techniques. Broadly generalized treatment gains resulted from use of functional and varied stimuli, natural reinforcers, reinforcement of communicative attempts, and…
Information gathered from one and a half years of interviews with anthropologists, psychologists, ethologists, sociologists, and psychiatrists provides the source of answers for the questions this book addresses: How much do we communicate with words, and how much with gestures, postures, and movement? What can we learn from the study of nonverbal…
In order to discover whether the nonverbal responses to literature of primary grade children--in the form of drawings--provide significant information about their feelings toward literature, this study measured primary children's responses to "The Giving Tree." Ninety children in four grade levels (kindergarten through third grade) listened to the…
A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…
Levy, Yonata; Bar-Yuda, Chanit
The study focuses on language and cognitive abilities of siblings of the linguistically most affected children with autism (i.e. siblings of nonverbal children--SIBS-ANV). Twenty-eight SIBS-ANV (17 boys), ages 4-9 years, took part in the study. All children attended regular schools, and none had received a diagnosis of autism. Controls were 27…
Genthner, Robert W.; Moughan, James
The different responses of introverts and extraverts to two types of helper nonverbal attending were examined. Subjects were 26 introverts and 26 extraverts, as defined by Eysenck and Eysenck's questionnaire. Introverts rated the listener higher than did extraverts, independent of his posture. (Author)
-taking in shaping the perception of social and task attractiveness when people talk together for the first time [11From Nonverbal Cues to Perception: Personality and Social Attractiveness A.Vinciarelli1,2 , H behaviour influences to a significant extent our perception of others, especially during the earliest stages
Roter, D. L.; Erby, L. H.; Hall, J. A.; Larson, S.; Ellington, L.; Dudley, W.
Purpose: This study aims to explore the role of interactants' nonverbal sensitivity, anxiety and sociodemographic characteristics in learning and satisfaction within the genetic counseling context. Design/methodology/approach: This is a combined simulation and analogue study. Simulations were videotaped with 152 prenatal and cancer genetic…
Woumans, Evy; Ceuleers, Evy; Van der Linden, Lize; Szmalec, Arnaud; Duyck, Wouter
The present study explored the relation between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in different bilingual populations. We compared monolinguals, Dutch-French unbalanced bilinguals, balanced bilinguals, and interpreters on the Simon task (Simon & Rudell, 1967) and the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz,…
Stark, Joel; And Others
Selected principles and procedures related to language training for nonverbal children are presented. The participating children are 3 to 6 years of age and are enrolled at a clinic for a minimal of 3 hours of individual therapy a week. The language problems vary considerably. The possibility of some central nervous system dysfunction is thought…
Presents the third and final report of an analysis of nonverbal communication. In this report, the phrase "touch wood" is investigated using the Bank of English Corpus. The first two phrases examined were "shrug" and "hold one's gaze." Each of these phrases relates to an aspect of communication that may hold particular difficulties for someone…
Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael
A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus"). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in…
Gregersen, Tammy S.
This observation study examined the nonverbal behavior of anxious and nonanxious foreign language learners during a videotaped oral foreign language exam. Focusing primarily on the kinesic signals found in facial expressions, gazing behavior, body movement and gesture, and posture, it was discovered that anxious learners manifested limited facial…
Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.
Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…
Joann M. Montepare
This is Part II of our Special Issue on Evolution and Nonverbal Behavior. In Part I, researchers explored how our reactions to particular people could be traced to distal evolutionary challenges our ancestors faced and the mechanisms that evolved to meet them. Just as Darwin (1872) theorized that facial expressions have their roots in adaptive evolved processes, these researchers proposed
Gajadhar, Joan; Green, John
Communication is often not so much what people write or say but how they write and often what they do not say. Thus, meaning in real-world chat messages depends not only on the words they use but also on how they express meaning through nonverbal cues. Online chat is simple, direct, and unrestrained. While it contains many of the elements of…
Barclay, Allen C.
On a national level, data indicate that about 40 percent of students in calculus courses finish with a grade of D or F, drop the course, or withdraw (Reinholz, 2009). This high failure rate has led to research studies investigating the teaching of calculus at the national level (House, 1995). Calculus courses have a history of high failure rates,…
Griffiths, Michael; Graham, Charles
This research sought to understand the experiences of students and instructors with asynchronous video (video-mail) using webcams in three online sections of teacher education classes at Brigham Young University. We examined the experiences of students through scores and comments posted in student ratings surveys, and the experiences of…
This digest focuses on verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors in the college classroom. The digest reviews research on the kinds of behaviors instructors, many of whom are graduate teaching assistants (GTAs), exhibit, and students' reactions to and attitudes about those behaviors. The digest also reviews research on teacher immediacy…
Thornton, Barbara L.
This bibliography provides a general review of nonverbal communication--background and applications--in specific relation to Black American nonverbal communication. Approximately 230 entries from 140 authors, spanning the years 1932 to 1972, are arranged alphabetically by author. Professional journal articles and studies are the primary sources of…
Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ono, Eisuke; Miyake, Yoshihiro
Nonverbal communication is an important factor in human communication, and body movement synchronization in particular is an important part of nonverbal communication. Some researchers have analyzed body movement synchronization by focusing on changes in the amplitude of body movements. However, the definition of “body movement synchronization” is still unclear. From a theoretical viewpoint, phase difference is the most important factor in synchronization analysis. Therefore, there is a need to measure the synchronization of body movements using phase difference. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative definition of the phase difference distribution for detecting body movement synchronization in human communication. The phase difference distribution was characterized using four statistical measurements: density, mean phase difference, standard deviation (SD) and kurtosis. To confirm the effectiveness of our definition, we applied it to human communication in which the roles of speaker and listener were defined. Specifically, we examined the difference in the phase difference distribution between two different communication situations: face-to-face communication with visual interaction and remote communication with unidirectional visual perception. Participant pairs performed a task supposing lecture in the face-to-face communication condition and in the remote communication condition via television. Throughout the lecture task, we extracted a set of phase differences from the time-series data of the acceleration norm of head nodding motions between two participants. Statistical analyses of the phase difference distribution revealed the characteristics of head nodding synchronization. Although the mean phase differences in synchronized head nods did not differ significantly between the conditions, there were significant differences in the densities, the SDs and the kurtoses of the phase difference distributions of synchronized head nods. These results show the difference in nonverbal synchronization between different communication types. Our study indicates that the phase difference distribution is useful in detecting nonverbal synchronization in various human communication situations. PMID:26208100
Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Ono, Eisuke; Miyake, Yoshihiro
Nonverbal communication is an important factor in human communication, and body movement synchronization in particular is an important part of nonverbal communication. Some researchers have analyzed body movement synchronization by focusing on changes in the amplitude of body movements. However, the definition of "body movement synchronization" is still unclear. From a theoretical viewpoint, phase difference is the most important factor in synchronization analysis. Therefore, there is a need to measure the synchronization of body movements using phase difference. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative definition of the phase difference distribution for detecting body movement synchronization in human communication. The phase difference distribution was characterized using four statistical measurements: density, mean phase difference, standard deviation (SD) and kurtosis. To confirm the effectiveness of our definition, we applied it to human communication in which the roles of speaker and listener were defined. Specifically, we examined the difference in the phase difference distribution between two different communication situations: face-to-face communication with visual interaction and remote communication with unidirectional visual perception. Participant pairs performed a task supposing lecture in the face-to-face communication condition and in the remote communication condition via television. Throughout the lecture task, we extracted a set of phase differences from the time-series data of the acceleration norm of head nodding motions between two participants. Statistical analyses of the phase difference distribution revealed the characteristics of head nodding synchronization. Although the mean phase differences in synchronized head nods did not differ significantly between the conditions, there were significant differences in the densities, the SDs and the kurtoses of the phase difference distributions of synchronized head nods. These results show the difference in nonverbal synchronization between different communication types. Our study indicates that the phase difference distribution is useful in detecting nonverbal synchronization in various human communication situations. PMID:26208100
Del-Monte, Jonathan; Raffard, Stéphane; Capdevielle, Delphine; Salesse, Robin N.; Schmidt, Richard C.; Varlet, Manuel; Bardy, Benoît G.; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Marin, Ludovic
Semantic priming tasks are classically used to influence and implicitly promote target behaviors. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that prosocial semantic priming modulated feelings of social affiliation. The main aim of this study was to determine whether inducing feelings of social affiliation using priming tasks could modulate nonverbal social behaviors in schizophrenia. We used the Scrambled Sentence Task to prime schizophrenia patients according to three priming group conditions: pro-social, non-social or anti-social. Forty-five schizophrenia patients, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR, were randomly assigned to one of the three priming groups of 15 participants. We evaluated nonverbal social behaviors using the Motor-Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale. Results showed that schizophrenia patients with pro-social priming had significantly more nonverbal behaviors than schizophrenia patients with anti-social and non-social priming conditions. Schizophrenia patient behaviors are affected by social priming. Our results have several clinical implications for the rehabilitation of social skills impairments frequently encountered among individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:25275522
Fowler, Thaddeus W.
This study was designed to investigate the nonverbal teacher behavior of wait-time. Wait-time is the silence in a conversation following a teacher or student utterance. The primary purpose of the investigation was to document some of the behavioral and cognitive effects of wait-time and to delineate the interrelationships between the various forms…
Bosacki, Sandra; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Coplan, Robert J.
Research suggests that social communication (verbal and non-verbal) plays a key role in students' and teachers' elementary-school experiences. Within the framework of sociocognitive developmental theory, this qualitative study investigates teachers' experiences and perceptions of children's talking and listening habits within…
Matute, Esmeralda; Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Molina Del Rio, Jahaziel; López Elizalde, Ramiro; López, Manuel; Ontiveros, Angel
A 74-year-old, left-handed man presented with a rapidly evolving loss of strength in his right leg associated with difficulty in walking. MR images disclosed an extensive left hemisphere tumor. A neuropsychological examination revealed that language was broadly normal but that the patient presented with severe nonlinguistic abnormalities, including hemineglect (both somatic and spatial), constructional defects, and general spatial disturbances; symptoms were usually associated with right hemisphere pathologies. No ideomotor apraxia was found. The implications of crossed-brain representations of verbal and nonverbal functions are analyzed. PMID:25802778
Stokes, DeVon R.; And Others
The purpose of this research was to investigate nonverbal communication through channel perception while observing any significant differences among race, sex, and social class background variables. In addition, differences and/or similarities in Afrocentric and Eurocentric world views in regard to nonverbal channel perception and cultural…
Elsea, Ken; Ashley, Dennis
A study was designed to describe the nonverbal behaviors of two male/female couples as they initiated, maintained, and terminated their relationships. Over a five-month period, couple one met seven times and couple two met six times in a laboratory setting. During the meetings, observers coded the couples' nonverbal behaviors as eye gaze, smiles,…
Mottet, Timothy P.
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between interactive television instructors' perceptions of students' nonverbal responsiveness and the influence of these perceptions on distance teaching. The study yielded three general conclusions. First, interactive television instructors' perceptions of students' nonverbal…
Martin Brüne; Mona Abdel-Hamid; Claudia Sonntag; Caroline Lehmkämper; Robyn Langdon
BACKGROUND: Research has shown that patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) can be distinguished from controls on the basis of their non-verbal expression. For example, patients with SSD use facial expressions less than normals to invite and sustain social interaction. Here, we sought to examine whether non-verbal expressivity in patients corresponds with their impoverished social competence and neurocognition. METHOD: Fifty
Improving Recognition and Identification of Facial Areas Involved in Non-verbal Communication selection approach for automatic NVC recognition based on sequential backward selection of facial shape,e.ong,n.pugeault,email@example.com Abstract--Meaningful Non-Verbal Communication (NVC) sig- nals can be recognised by facial deformations
Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.
In a longitudinal genetic study we explored which factors underlie stability in verbal and nonverbal abilities, and the extent to which the association between these abilities becomes stronger as children grow older. Measures of verbal and nonverbal IQ were collected in Dutch twin pairs at age 5, 7, 10, 12 and 18 years. The stability of both…
Herring, Roger D.
This paper documents the importance of nonverbal behavior and nonverbal communication across cultures, their relevance to interpersonal communication between ethnicities and cultures, and discusses their relevance to Native Americans. It presents a historical survey, a selective review of the literature, an overview of accepted theories of…
This paper looks at how emotions in the field move from one context to another and between individuals, and how they change forms in an arctic Finnish village school. During the fieldwork, non-verbalized emotions influenced the events in the field and also penetrated the research. The paper asks how these non-verbalized emotions can be addressed…
Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael
Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greater…
Remland, Martin S.; Jones, Tricia S.
Examines whether communication apprehension mediates the effect of nonverbal involvement cues (head nods, eye contact, body orientation, etc.) on state anxiety, interpersonal attraction, and speech duration in information gathering interviews. Finds that nonverbal cues affect loquacity and liking, but that a speaker's communication apprehension…
Dennis, Harry; And Others
Using a conformity research methodology, the authors investigated the questions of whether (a) the Asch-type conformity setting produces greater yielding than variant settings where subjects are screened from one another and (b) the nonverbal element of contradictory or inconsistent nonverbal communications significantly alters response to the…
Gillam, Sandra Laing; Fargo, Jamison; Foley, Beth; Olszewski, Abbie
Purpose: The purpose of the project was to design a nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme deletion that may prove useful with individuals who demonstrate complex communication needs (CCN) and are unable to communicate using natural speech or who present with moderate-severe speech impairments. Method: A nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme…
Lohman, David F.
The first goal of this article is to discuss the role of nonverbal ability tests in the identification of academically gifted children. I note that most nonverbal tests measure verbally mediated cognitive processes, that they are neither "culture flee" nor "culture fair," and that we have known these facts for a very long time. I show that…
David F. Lohman
The first goal of this article is to discuss the role of nonverbal ability tests in the identification of academically gifted children. I note that most nonverbal tests measure verbally mediated cognitive processes, that they are neither “culture free” nor “culture fair,” and that we have known these facts for a very long time. I show that selecting students for
Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang
Objective: The authors quantified nonverbal synchrony--the coordination of patient's and therapist's movement--in a random sample of same-sex psychotherapy dyads. The authors contrasted nonverbal synchrony in these dyads with a control condition and assessed its association with session-level and overall psychotherapy outcome. Method: Using an…
Hartley, Sigan L.; Birgenheir, Denis G.
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID), yet little is known about depressive behaviors in an ID population. This study examined the nonverbal social skills of 18 adults with mild ID diagnosed with depression and a matched sample of adults with mild ID without depression. Nonverbal…
Black, J. J.
Maintaining that the nonverbal elements of communication are ultimately more significant than the verbal elements in determining the eventual success or failure of the journalistic interview, this paper attempts to assist journalists in understanding the complex and subtle nonverbal characteristics of the interview environment. Based on the…
Taute, Harry A.; Heiser, Robert S.; McArthur, David N.
Although salespeople have long been urged to recognize and adapt to customer needs and wants by observing communications style and other cues or signals by the buyer, nonverbal communications by the salesperson have received much less empirical scrutiny. However, nonverbal communications may be important in this context; research in several…
Peterson, Robin T.; Leonhardt, James M.
This paper investigates the possible complementary effects that training in empathy and nonverbal communication may have on persuasion capabilities. The narrative considers implications from the literature and describes an exploratory study in which students, in a managerial setting, were trained in empathy and nonverbal communication. Subsequent…
Dharmawansa, Asanka D.; Fukumura, Yoshimi; Marasinghe, Ashu; Madhuwanthi, R. A. M.
The objective of this research is to introduce the behavior of non-verbal features of e-Learners in the virtual learning environment to establish a fair representation of the real user by an avatar who represents the e-Learner in the virtual environment and to distinguish the deportment of the non-verbal features during the virtual learning…
Rowe, Meredith L.; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Mullan, Bridget E.
Previous research suggests that presenting redundant nonverbal semantic information in the form of gestures and/or pictures may aid word learning in first and foreign languages. But do nonverbal supports help all learners equally? We address this issue by examining the role of gestures and pictures as nonverbal supports for word learning in a…
Amsbary, J H; Powell, L
Two research questions were posed on the homophily theory of customer-vendor interactions: (a) do vendors show any nonverbal preference for Euro-American or African-American customers?; (b) do vendors demonstrate any nonverbal preference for customers with which they share racial homophily? The results supported the homophily theory for Euro-American customers in that there were significant interaction effects by race in facial expression (F = 5.33, p < .05), amount of speaking (F = 6.76, p < .01), tone of voice (F = 7.62, p < .01), and touching (F = 4.57, p < .05). Vendor behavior varied when the customer was Euro-American, with Euro-American vendors smiling more frequently (M = 4.05) than African-American vendors (M = 3.69), speaking more frequently (M = 3.57) than African-American vendors (M = 3.09), using a more friendly tone of voice (M = 3.59, and engaging in more touching behaviors (M = 1.81) than African-American vendors (M = 1.48). There was no significant difference in the behavior of Euro-American and African-American vendors when the customer was African-American. PMID:17566425
Willinger, U; Eisenwort, B
Difficulties in language acquisition seem to be serious, if there are additional problems like intellectual and/or emotional/social impairment, which are often reported . These additional problems and the definition of specific language impairment as a developmental disorder, restricted to language acquisition seem to be contradictory . Aim of that study is to look for specific language impaired children with similar cognitive abilities and though to investigate, if there are children without additional cognitive problems considering the definition of specific language impairment. 93 children, between 4;0 and 6;6 years old, were diagnostized as specific language impaired (ICD-10) and were assessed by the "Hannover Wechsler Intelligenztest für das Vorschulalter (HAWIVA)"  (german version of WPPSI). Cluster analysis showed, that 1/3 of the specific language impaired children presented no additional cognitive problems and 2/3 of them showed cognitive problems regarding nonverbal and verbal intelligence indeed. These additional cognitive problems indicate that there may be a more basic cognitive defect underlying specific language impairment --at least for a group of specific language impaired children. Furthermore the nonverbal and verbal intellectual difficulties emphasize to general developmental support of specific language impaired children for optimal improvement in language acquisition. PMID:10592924
Milne, Jennifer S. (Jennifer Sarah)
Telepresence robots have emerged as a novel solution to meeting the social communication needs of nomadic workers. This thesis provides an overview of non-verbal communication cues for telepresence robot applications, and ...
Greene, Deric M; Stewart, Felicia R
The nonverbal communication behavior of Black people continues to take new forms as time progresses. In Kochman's 1972 book, Rappin' and Stylin' Out: Communication in Urban Black America, Benjamin Cooke introduced an initial classification and code of nonverbal behaviors among people of African descent. In this study, students react to Cooke's study conducted in the late 1960s by commenting on Cooke's initial findings in comparison to nonverbal behaviors practiced among Black people as of late. Respondents suggest that while differences and variations exist between the expression of nonverbal behaviors exhibited by the original group studied and people recently observed, there yet remains a similarity in the cultural significance and motivation behind the displays. PMID:21905326
The purpose of this research is to examine parenting, child goal orientation, and child nonverbal intelligence as predictors of academic achievement among fifth grade Turkish children. The influence of intelligence, parenting ...
Abstract The ability to imitate is a core deficit in autism spectrum disorders, and so it is of key interest to investigate this deficit in non-verbal children with autism. The current study aimed to design an imitation ...
Bonfanti, Barbara H.
The nonverbal, vocal, and content-related speech variables of 28 blind adults were investigated along with the effects of a behavioral training program on congenitally blind Ss' performance in the social setting. (Author/DLS)
Weisbuch, Max; Pauker, Kristin
Social and policy interventions over the last half-century have achieved laudable reductions in blatant discrimination. Yet members of devalued social groups continue to face subtle discrimination. In this article, we argue that decades of anti-discrimination interventions have failed to eliminate intergroup bias because such bias is contagious. We present a model of bias contagion in which intergroup bias is subtly communicated through nonverbal behavior. Exposure to such nonverbal bias “infects” observers with intergroup bias. The model we present details two means by which nonverbal bias can be expressed—either as a veridical index of intergroup bias or as a symptom of worry about appearing biased. Exposure to this nonverbal bias can increase perceivers’ own intergroup biases through processes of implicit learning, informational influence, and normative influence. We identify critical moderators that may interfere with these processes and consequently propose several social and educational interventions based on these moderators. PMID:23997812
Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.
This study examined the effectiveness of enhancing humanagentinteraction through the use of nonverbal behaviors. Ataxonomy is described, which organizes nonverbal behaviorsinto functional categories and the manner in which they can beembodied (i.e. through gesture, posture, paralanguage, eyecontact and facial expression). Prototype computer characterswere created according to guidelines extracted from thetaxonomy and their efficacy was empirical evaluated. Theresults indicate that by including trusting nonverbal behaviors,the perceived credibility of a computer character was enhanced,although addition of trusting bodily nonverbal behaviorprovided little in addition to trusting facial nonverbal behavior.Perhaps more importantly, a character expressing non-trustingnonverbal behaviors was perceived to be the least credible of allcharacters examined (including a character that expressed nononverbal behavior). Participants that interacted with thispersona perceived the task to be more demanding, madesignificantly more errors, and rated their interaction lesspositively and more monotonous than those using trustingpersonas. They also rated this character to be less likable,accurate, and intelligent. Taken together, the results from thisstudy suggest that there may indeed be benefit to endowingcomputer characters with nonverbal trusting behaviors, as longas those behaviors are accurately and appropriately portrayed.Such behaviors may lead to a more trusting environment andpositive experience for users. Negative character behavior,however, such as non-trusting behavior, may squander theadvantages that embodiment brings.
Background Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Methods Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Results Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Subjects also had significant reductions in RR (P < 0.0001) and improved HRV (P < 0.05) with both tactile and non-tactile LKM. Conclusion It is possible to test the effects of LKM with tactile and non-tactile blinding strategies; even with blinding in this small preliminary study, subjects reported significant improvements in well-being which were reflected in objective physiologic measures of autonomic activity. Extending compassion is not only good care; it may also be good medicine. Trial registration number US National ClinicalTrials.gov registration number, NCT01428674 PMID:22185349
Woumans, Evy; Ceuleers, Evy; Van der Linden, Lize; Szmalec, Arnaud; Duyck, Wouter
The present study explored the relation between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in different bilingual populations. We compared monolinguals, Dutch-French unbalanced bilinguals, balanced bilinguals, and interpreters on the Simon task (Simon & Rudell, 1967) and the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002). All bilingual groups showed a smaller congruency effect in the Simon task than the monolingual group. They were also faster overall in the ANT. Furthermore, interpreters outperformed unbalanced, but not balanced, bilinguals in terms of overall accuracy on both tasks. In the ANT, the error congruency effect was significantly smaller for interpreters and balanced bilinguals. Using a measure of switching fluency in language production, this study also found direct evidence for a relation between language control and executive control. This relation was only observed in balanced bilinguals, where fluent switching was correlated with the Simon effect. These findings support the existence of a bilingual advantage and also indicate that different patterns of bilingual language use modulate the nature and extent of a cognitive control advantage in multilingual populations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25689001
Li, Dawei; Cowan, Nelson; Saults, J. Scott
Working memory (WM) capacity limit has been extensively studied in the domains of visual and verbal stimuli. Previous studies have suggested a fixed WM capacity of typically about 3 or 4 items, based on the number of items in working memory reaching a plateau after several items as the set size increases. However, the fixed WM capacity estimate appears to rely on categorical information in the stimulus set (Olsson & Poom, 2005). We designed a series of experiments to investigate nonverbal auditory WM capacity and its dependence on categorical information. Experiments 1 and 2 used simple tones and revealed capacity limit of up to 2 tones following a 6-s retention interval. Importantly, performance was significantly higher at set sizes 2, 3, and 4 when the frequency difference between target and test tones was relatively large. In Experiment 3, we added categorical information to the simple tones, and the effect of tone change magnitude decreased. Maximal capacity for each individual was just over 3 sounds, in the range of typical visual procedures. We propose that two types of information, categorical and detailed acoustic information, are kept in WM, and that categorical information is critical for high WM performance. PMID:23143913
Batten, Charles T.
“Psychosomatic medicine” does not demand that the general practitioner function as a psychiatrist; rather, it is a psychiatric orientation that can increase the effectiveness of purely medical treatment for such conditions as neuroses. The general practitioner to whom the patient turns may achieve permanent results with nonverbal techniques where formal psychotherapy would be impracticable or unacceptable. The first aim is to relieve pressure so that the patient can regain his mental balance and thereby his self-confidence. Arts, hobbies, sports, and the like can be prescribed rather specifically according to the patient's personality and needs. Nutrition can be improved simply at first by prescribing needed additions to diet rather than imposing restrictions. Vitamin deficiency may by itself be the cause of neurosis or more serious mental disease, whereas psychic stress by itself may create a need for additional vitamin intake. Hormone therapy may be extremely helpful but must be based on clear indication and limited to specific purposes. Since lack of sleep and rest quickly impairs mental function, it is important for neurotic persons to learn relaxation as a necessity for sleep. Sedatives may be used in a crisis but should be abandoned as soon as possible. With all drugs there are problems of excess and habituation. The least, the mildest, the shortest dosage is the ideal. The initial steps of psychotherapy are available to any physician: Establishing rapport, noting how complaints are stated, encouraging ventilation, winning confidence rather than immediate results. PMID:13638823
Meador, Kimford J; Baker, Gus A; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W
We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled pregnant females with epilepsy on monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study seeks to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin and valproate). This report compares verbal versus non-verbal cognitive outcomes in 216 children who completed testing at the age of three years. Verbal and non-verbal index scores were calculated from the Differential Ability Scales, Preschool Language Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Verbal abilities were lower than non-verbal in children exposed in utero to each drug. Preconceptional folate use was associated with higher verbal outcomes. Valproate was associated with poorer cognitive outcomes. Performance was negatively associated with valproate dose for both verbal and non-verbal domains and negatively associated with carbamazepine dose for verbal performance. No dose effects were seen for lamotrigine and phenytoin. Since foetal antiepileptic drug exposure is associated with lower verbal than non-verbal abilities, language may be particularly susceptible to foetal exposure. We hypothesize that foetal drug exposure may alter normal cerebral lateralization. Further, a dose-dependent relationship is present for both lower verbal and non-verbal abilities with valproate and for lower verbal abilities with carbamazepine. Preconceptional folate may improve cognitive outcomes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings, extend the study to other drugs, define the risks associated with drug treatment for seizures in the neonates, and understand the underlying mechanisms. PMID:21224309
Hendricks, Karin S.
Out of the mouth of babes (and even more nonverbal) has come perhaps the wisest music teacher education I have ever received. In this narrative I share my foibles as a young, over-confident, and naive music instructor who, through a great amount of error, eventually learned the value of letting a child lead his own music learning. Throughout this…
McGhie-Richmond, Donna R.; Jordan, Anne; Underwood, Kathryn
This study examined the teaching practices of Maria, a special educator who worked with students who had multiple disabilities, were nonverbal, and used augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). It highlighted the complex, interdependent, and dynamic nature of teacher knowledge, beliefs, and practices and evaluated what Maria knew and…
Schalock, H. Del
This overview describes a system for measuring instructional and management parameters of teaching through a method of classroom observation in which live observers and video tapes record teacher and learner behavior (both verbal and nonverbal) and the social-political-physical characteristics of the setting. Presentation is in 3 sections: (1) the…
Sanz-Cervera, Pilar; Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, Maria-Inmaculada; Tárraga-Mínguez, Raul
The main objective of this study was to analyze in a sample of children with ASD the relationship between sensory processing, social participation and praxis impairments and some of the child's characteristics, such as non-verbal IQ, severity of ASD symptoms and the number of ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), both in the home and main-classroom environments. Participants were the parents and teachers of 41 children with ASD from 5 to 8 years old (M=6.09). They completed the Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) to evaluate sensory processing, social participation and praxis; the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS-2) to evaluate autism severity; and a set of items (the DSM-IV-TR criteria) to evaluate the number of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in the child. Non-verbal IQ - measured by the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices Test - did not show a relationship with any of the SPM variables. The SPM variables were significant predictors of autism severity and had similar weights in the two environments. In the case of ADHD symptoms, the SPM variables had a greater weight in the home than in the classroom environment, and they were significant predictors of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity - especially inattention - only in the family context. The moderate association between inattention and auditory processing found in the main-classroom suggests the possible utility of certain measures aimed to simplify any classroom's acoustic environment. PMID:26263405
Wan, Catherine Y; Marchina, Sarah; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried
Despite the fact that as many as 25% of the children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders are nonverbal, surprisingly little research has been conducted on this population. In particular, the mechanisms that underlie their absence of speech remain unknown. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we compared the structure of a language-related white matter tract (the arcuate fasciculus, AF) in five completely nonverbal children with autism to that of typically developing children. We found that, as a group, the nonverbal children did not show the expected left-right AF asymmetry--rather, four of the five nonverbal children actually showed the reversed pattern. It is possible that this unusual pattern of asymmetry may underlie some of the severe language deficits commonly found in autism, particularly in children whose speech fails to develop. Furthermore, novel interventions (such as auditory-motor mapping training) designed to engage brain regions that are connected via the AF may have important clinical potential for facilitating expressive language in nonverbal children with autism. PMID:22524376
Wysong, Peggy Rupp
This study explored the beliefs and self-reported practices of nurses related to pain assessment in nonverbal patients. A convenience sample of 74 nurses from one Midwestern community hospital responded to a researcher-developed questionnaire based on established pain standards and clinical practice recommendations. Areas of nonverbal pain assessment beliefs and practices with low scores were identified. One-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc tests showed a significant difference in belief scores based on unit worked. No significant differences in beliefs or practices were found based on age, years of experience, or degree. Paired t tests showed significant differences between general pain beliefs and nonverbal pain beliefs, between general pain beliefs and practices, and between nonverbal pain beliefs and practices. Additional testing using Pearson correlation coefficients demonstrated that only three out of seven questions relating to beliefs were significantly correlated with similar questions related to practices. Good reliability of the instrument was demonstrated by Cronbach alpha coefficient ? = 0.82. Recommendations include further education for hospital nurses related to pain assessment standards in nonverbal patients, as well as utilization of techniques to integrate this knowledge into nurses' belief systems and practice environment. PMID:24602435
Aguinis, H; Henle, C A
The authors extended a previous examination of the effects of nonverbal behavior on perceptions of a male employee's power bases (H. Aguinis, M. M. Simonsen, & C. A. Pierce, 1998) by examining the effects of nonverbal behavior on perceptions of a female employee's power bases. U.S. undergraduates read vignettes describing a female employee engaging in 3 types of nonverbal behavior (i.e., eye contact, facial expression, body posture) and rated their perceptions of the woman's power bases (i.e., reward, coercive, legitimate, referent, expert, credibility). As predicted, (a) direct eye contact increased perceptions of coercive power, and (b) a relaxed facial expression decreased perceptions of all 6 power bases. Also as predicted, the present results differed markedly from those of Aguinis et al. (1998) regarding a male employee. The authors discuss implications for theory, future research, and the advancement of female employees. PMID:11577851
Sandiford, Givona A.; Mainess, Karen J.; Daher, Noha S.
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant…
Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lamb, Michael E.; Atabaki, Armita; Spindler, Sabine
Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identify…
In press, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Feb. 2000 Non-Verbal Numerical Cognition: From the Reals works with real numbers (magnitudes). On this hypothesis, evolution provided the real numbers; getting from integers back to real numbers has been the work of man. KEY WORDS Numerical Reasoning / Nonverbal
Lohman, David F.; Korb, Katrina A.; Lakin, Joni M.
In this study, the authors compare the validity of three nonverbal tests for the purpose of identifying academically gifted English-language learners (ELLs). Participants were 1,198 elementary children (approximately 40% ELLs). All were administered the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (Raven), the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT), and…
Le Storti, Anthony J.; And Others
The unit on nonverbal communication is designed for presentation to elementary, middle, and junior high school gifted students. An introductory section lists four unit objectives leading to awareness of the nonverbal communication transmitted by students themselves and by others; expression and understanding of the nonverbal messages of gestures,…
Park, Juyoung; Castellanos-Brown, Karen; Belcher, John
Objective: Pain assessment for nonverbal older adults with cognitive impairments or dementia presents many challenges, and it is important to determine which scales are most useful in assessing pain among this population. Method: In this review 11 observational scales for assessment of pain in older adults with dementia or cognitive impairments…
Peterson, Robin T.
This article examines the potential effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication for sales representatives. The literature on this subject was reviewed, and a study using students as sales representatives was conducted to evaluate the potential of training in body language. The research results provide support for the proposition that such…
Lewis, Ernest L.; Beggs, Donald L.
The purpose of this study was to attempt to determine if score gains obtained upon repeated testing with an intelligence test result from a practice effect, from students remembering specific items, or from a combination of both. The verbal and nonverbal batteries of an I.Q. test were administered to 860 sixth graders on three occasions with…
Elena Plante; Cyma Van Petten; Ava J Senkfor
Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded as 16 adults with learning disabilities (LD) and 16 controls were presented with two sets of stimuli. The first set comprised pairs of line drawings and environmental sounds (nonverbal condition); the second consisted of printed and spoken words (verbal condition). In the controls, semantically related items elicited smaller N400s than unrelated items in both conditions,
Matthias Henry; Thomas Merten; Simone Andrea Wolf; Sandy Harth
The study aimed to provide independent data on the specificity of the Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT; Green, 2008), a new test that combines conventional decision making based on cutoffs with profile analyses in order to identify invalid test performance and to reduce false positive classifications. The results of 65 bona fide neurological patients (with 21 of them meeting
Larkin, Alecia S.
The paper describes assessment techniques, the process of aid selection, and therapy procedures with young nonverbal handicapped children. Assessment of such children requires an evaluation of the child's present means of communication, hearing, vision, receptive skills, and ability to use language (verbal, gestural, or graphic). Among factors to…
Antshel, Kevin M.; Khan, Fahad M.
The cognitive and behavioral symptoms of nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have been described by previous investigators. Nevertheless, we know far less about the potential genetic contributions that may predispose a child to have NLD. An endophenotype model was investigated in 5 samples of children ages 9 to 15 years: NLD (n = 32); reading…
Creedon, Margaret Procyk
Twenty-one nonverbal autistic children, 4- to 9-years-old, with language ages of 4- to 24-months, participated in the communication learning program from 1 to 3 years. Simultaneous verbal and manual signs were chosen as the communications mode. The children initially displayed infrequent, unrecognizable vocalizations (Screeches, or vocal…
Heger, Herbert K.
This paper reports the development of a classroom observation instrument designed to broaden and extend the power of existing tools to provide a balanced, reciprocal perspective of both verbal and nonverbal communication. An introductory section discusses developments in communication analysis. The Miniaturized Total Interaction Analysis System…
Bishop, Somer L.; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey
Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was examined in 84 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed from age 2 to 19. Most adults who scored in the range of intellectual disability also received scores below 70 as children, and the majority of adults with scores in the average range had scored in this range by age 3. However, within the lower ranges…
Amato, John, Jr.; Barrow, Meryl; Domingo, Robert
This preliminary study assessed differences in symbolic play behavior among 20 verbal and nonverbal children with autism, ages 2.5 to 3.6 years. Results indicated significant differences in symbolic play behavior with the verbal group demonstrating a higher order level of performance. Results underscore the importance of not considering all young…
McGonigle-Chalmers, Margaret; McSweeney, Meabh
15 School-aged high functioning children on the autistic spectrum were compared with a neurotypical cohort on the WISC-III and the KABC-II, to determine the impact of the relatively more strict timing criteria of the former test on the evaluation of nonverbal intelligence. Significant group effects, showing lower performance by the ASD group were…
Baglan, Thomas; Nelson, Doris
A study examined perceptions of the appropriateness of nonverbal behaviors in dyadic interactions. A questionnaire was constructed containing descriptions of nine touching, posture, and personal space behaviors likely to occur in normal dyadic interactions, such as entering a room without knocking, leaning back and putting one's feet on a desk,…
In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the…
Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.
Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine the…
Bachmann, James K.
Nonverbal communication is important in foreign language teaching and learning because of its variation in form, meaning and distribution from one culture to another and because of its extensive use in the communicative process. Cross-cultural misunderstandings result from incorrect interpretations of the tone of voice, body motions, facial…
Stamatis, Panagiotis J.
Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…
Lakin, Joni M.; Lai, Emily R.
For educators seeking to differentiate instruction, cognitive ability tests sampling multiple content domains, including verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal reasoning, provide superior information about student strengths and weaknesses compared with unidimensional reasoning measures. However, these ability tests have not been fully evaluated with…
Caldwell, Stratton F.
This report briefly describes the recent search for personal and interpersonal growth which has been termed the "Human Potential Movement," and the institutions or "growth centers" which have evolved as a result of this movement. It presents a list of body, nonverbal, and movement experiences derived from descriptive literature of the growth…
Naglieri, Jack A.; Ford, Donna Y.
This study examined the effectiveness of the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) in identifying gifted black and Hispanic students in a total population of 20,270 students (K-12). Analysis indicated that similar percentages of white (5.6%), black (5.1%), and Hispanic (4.4%) children earned an NNAT score in the 95th percentile rank. (Contains…
Humphries, Tom; Cardy, Janis O.; Worling, David E.; Peets, Kathleen
Nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) are characterized by weaknesses in narrative discourse. Thirty-three children (M age=11.7 years), 15 girls and 18 boys, listened to stories to evaluate their narrative comprehension and retelling abilities. Children with NLD (n=11) performed as poorly as children with verbal impairment (n=10) on all narrative…
Gordon, Kate; Pasco, Greg; McElduff, Fiona; Wade, Angie; Howlin, Pat; Charman, Tony
Objective: This article examines the form and function of spontaneous communication and outcome predictors in nonverbal children with autism following classroom-based intervention (Picture Exchange Communication System [PECS] training). Method: 84 children from 15 schools participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of PECS (P. Howlin, R.…
Teran, Rosemarie C.; Licata, Joseph W.
Reports findings of a study which revealed that selected school principal interactions, aspirations, and nonverbal behaviors are predictors of school administrator potential for promotion in an urban school district. Describes the administrator subculture as clanlike and guildlike and asserts that this pattern plays a crucial role in determining…
Israel Contador; Bernardino Fernández-Calvo; Jesús Cacho; Francisco Ramos; Alex Lopez-Rolon
We examined whether there are selective deficits in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 27) and in unipolar depression (UD; n = 17) patients on recall and recognition of spatial and visual components of nonverbal memory (NVM) and whether the two groups can be differentiated based on their performance on such tasks. We also investigated which NVM measures had the best discrimination power. We
Vrij, Aldert; Akehurst, Lucy; Soukara, Stavroula; Bull, Ray
This experiment examined children's and undergraduates' verbal and nonverbal deceptive behavior, and the extent to which their truths and lies could be correctly classified by paying attention to these responses. Participants (N = 196) aged 5-6, 10-11, and 14-15, as well as university undergraduates, participated in an erasing the blackboard…
Cummings, Alycia; Ceponiene, Rita
In an effort to clarify whether semantic integration is impaired in verbal and nonverbal auditory domains in children with developmental language impairment (a.k.a., LI and SLI), the present study obtained behavioral and neural responses to words and environmental sounds in children with language impairment and their typically developing…
Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Puccinelli, Nancy M.
A study to investigate the preclinical and clinical consequences of 79 occupational-therapy students' emotional attributes found that, when interviews were conducted in pairs, their feelings and behavior were associated with attributes of negative emotionality and nonverbal expressiveness. Students who had a high degree of negative emotionality…
Giovanni Pioggia; David Hanson; Serena Dinelli; Fabio Di Francesco; R. Francesconi; Danilo De Rossi
The nonverbal expression of the emotions, especially in the human face, has rapidly become an area of intense interest in computer science and robotics. Exploring the emotions as a link between external events and behavioural responses, artificial intelligence designers and psychologists are approaching a theoretical understanding of foundational principles which will be key to the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence.
You Are Known by How You Vlog: Personality Impressions and Nonverbal Behavior in YouTube Joan and still photos. In this paper, we analyze one facet of YouTube as a repository of brief behavioral slices vlog- gers' personality scores and the level of social attention that their videos received in YouTube
Okoro, Ephraim; Washington, Melvin
Economic and market globalization in the United States has engendered a multicultural learning environment that challenges both faculty and students. Diversity in the classroom is further complicated by nonverbal communication, which impacts on students' attitudes toward faculty members. Because today's classrooms are changing and undergoing rapid…
This paper has as objective to investigate the nonverbal features used in beginners' EFL classroom in Morocco. It is based on a field research conducted in a junior high school in Sale, Morocco. The main sample is composed of 3rd form students in junior high school (their age ranges from 15 to 19), and the techniques for data collection are…
Casey, Joseph E.
Although many learning disability types are formally recognized in major classification systems such as "DSM-IV-TR" and ICD-10, Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NLD) is not despite over 40 years of literature addressing its theoretical and neuropsychological foundation, its major features, and the methods by which to assess and diagnose it. Currently,…
Taylor, Harvey M.
Each culture has its own nonverbal as well as its verbal language. Movements, gestures and sounds have distinct and often conflicting interpretations in different countries. For Americans communicating with Japanese, misunderstandings are of two types: Japanese behavior which is completely new to the American, and Japanese behavior which is…
Van Beek, Yolanda; Van Dolderen, Marlies S. M.; Demon Dubas, Judith J. S.
Background: Individual differences in depressive symptoms have been linked with social skill deficits in adults and children, yet empirical studies on adolescents are lacking. The present research examines age and gender differences in nonverbal behaviour between mildly depressed and nondepressed (pre-) adolescents during conversations with an…
Background: Effective educational evaluations involve interviews, observations and nonverbal cue interpretations. Educators carry out these evaluative activities everyday as instructors, advisors or administrators, often relying on nothing but their intuition. These evaluations inform the future decisions. One must determine if students really…
Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.
We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled…
Karmos, Ann H.; Karmos, Joseph S.
The Sliding Person Test (SPERT) is a nonverbal measure of self-ideal discrepancy. The original test was a wooden manipulative which Joseph S. Karmos designed in order to pursue the 1962 conclusions of John Shlien, that even at a high level of abstraction, self-esteem is not without and it is more related to the unique and personal items which an…
Wong, Regine; Niu, Weihua
A total of 182 undergraduate students from China and the United States participated in a study examining the presence of stereotypical perceptions regarding creativity and deductive reasoning abilities, as well as the influence of stereotype on participants' performance on deductive reasoning and creativity in nonverbal form. The results showed…
Bazanova, O M; Aftanas, L I
The aim of the present work was to study correlational interactions between individual measures of alpha-activity in the baseline electroencephalogram (maximum peak frequency, range width, depth of alpha activity desynchronization reactions, structural characteristics of alpha spindles) and measures of non-verbal intellect ("Fluency," "Originality," "Flexibility") in the Torrance test in 98 healthy male subjects. These studies provided the first demonstration that individuals with high alpha-rhythm maximum peak frequency values and prolonged alpha spindles were generally characterized by more "fluent" non-verbal intellect. In turn, high levels of originality and intellectual plasticity showed a significant association with a wider range of alpha activity and variability of alpha spindle amplitude. The highest levels of originality in solving non-verbal tasks were seen in subjects with the lowest values for individual alpha-activity peak frequencies. These measures of the alpha rhythm can be regarded as individual markers of the productivity, plasticity, and originality of non-verbal intellect. PMID:18264769
Balboni, Giulia; Naglieri, Jack A.; Cubelli, Roberto
The concurrent and predictive validities of the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) and Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) were investigated in a large group of Italian third-and fifth-grade students with different sociocultural levels evaluated at the beginning and end of the school year. CPM and NNAT scores were related to math and…
Coleman-Martin, Mari Beth; Heller, Kathryn Wolff; Cihak, David F.; Irvine, Kathryn L.
This study determined if the use of computer-assisted instruction would be an effective method to promote word identification using the Nonverbal Reading Approach (NRA). Three students with severe speech impairments and concomitant physical disabilities or autism were provided decoding and word identification instruction using the NRA across three…
Van Strien, Jan W.
To investigate whether concurrent nonverbal sound sequences would affect visual-hemifield lexical processing, lexical-decision performance of 24 strongly right-handed students (12 men, 12 women) was measured in three conditions: baseline, concurrent neutral sound sequence, and concurrent emotional sound sequence. With the neutral sequence,…
Jaramillo, James A.
The debate over whether primates can be taught visual language is examined, and evidence of use of nonverbal language in primate studies is compared with the language criteria of a number of linguistic researchers. Background information on language, visual language (including sign language), and the parameters of the studies is offered, including…
This study examined the effects of an instructor's use of video casting as a nonverbal emotional cue in synchronous discussion sessions on students' social presence, satisfaction, and learning achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of video casting in a synchronous virtual classroom. The research setting…
Wohlwend, Karen E.
Young children often use actions rather than talk as they interact with objects and each other to strategically shape the social, material, and cultural environment. New dynamic research designs and methods are needed to capture the collaborative learning and social positioning achieved through children's non-verbal interactions. Mediated…
Overman, William; Pierce, Allison; Watterson, Lucas; Coleman, Jennifer K.
Two hundred and twenty two children (104 females), 1-8 years of age and young adults, were tested for up to 25 days on five versions of a non-verbal, non-navigational landmark task that had previously been used for monkeys. In monkeys, performance on this task is severely impaired following damage to the parietal cortex. For the basic task, the…
Galway, Tanya M.; Metsala, Jamie L.
The current study examined social cognitive skills in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) compared to normally achieving (NA) children. The relation between social cognitive skills and psychosocial adjustment was also investigated. There were no group differences on children's ability to represent orally presented social vignettes.…
Nijman, E. E.; Scheirs, J. G. M.; Prinsen, M. J. H.; Abbink, C. D.; Blok, J. B.
Increases in the scores on IQ tests across generations have been called the Flynn effect (FE). One of the unresolved questions is whether the FE affects all subsamples of the intellectual ability distribution equally. The present study was aimed at determining the size of the FE in moderately mentally retarded individuals. A nonverbal intelligence…
Pucel, Joanna; Stocker, Glenn
Although research in the area of communication apprehension (CA) has been extensive, little of it has attempted to identify the regularity and intensity of the nonverbal stress behaviors associated with CA. Additionally, most CA research has concentrated on the problem in North American settings. To extend the boundaries of CA research, a study…
Garcia-Perez, Rosa M.; Lee, Anthony; Hobson, R. Peter
Does autism involve a deficit in intersubjective engagement with other persons? We studied nonverbal communication in children and adolescents with and without autism (n = 12 per group), group-matched for chronological age and verbal mental age, during 3 min of a videotaped interview. In keeping with previous studies, there were only subtle but…
St. Martin, Gail McAllister
In order to investigate the process of nonverbal communication of emotions in a simulated intercultural context, videotapes were made in which two white Americans (one male and one female) responded to paragraphs which evoked the following emotions: sadness, disgust, anger, surprise, happiness, and fear. These portrayals were then viewed by male…
Hatano, Aya; Ueno, Taiji; Kitagami, Shinji; Kawaguchi, Jun
Verbal overshadowing refers to a phenomenon whereby verbalization of non-verbal stimuli (e.g., facial features) during the maintenance phase (after the target information is no longer available from the sensory inputs) impairs subsequent non-verbal recognition accuracy. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed for verbal overshadowing, namely the recoding interference hypothesis, and the transfer-inappropriate processing shift. The former assumes that verbalization renders non-verbal representations less accurate. In contrast, the latter assumes that verbalization shifts processing operations to a verbal mode and increases the chance of failing to return to non-verbal, face-specific processing operations (i.e., intact, yet inaccessible non-verbal representations). To date, certain psychological phenomena have been advocated as inconsistent with the recoding-interference hypothesis. These include a decline in non-verbal memory performance following verbalization of non-target faces, and occasional failures to detect a significant correlation between the accuracy of verbal descriptions and the non-verbal memory performance. Contrary to these arguments against the recoding interference hypothesis, however, the present computational model instantiated core processing principles of the recoding interference hypothesis to simulate face recognition, and nonetheless successfully reproduced these behavioral phenomena, as well as the standard verbal overshadowing. These results demonstrate the plausibility of the recoding interference hypothesis to account for verbal overshadowing, and suggest there is no need to implement separable mechanisms (e.g., operation-specific representations, different processing principles, etc.). In addition, detailed inspections of the internal processing of the model clarified how verbalization rendered internal representations less accurate and how such representations led to reduced recognition accuracy, thereby offering a computationally grounded explanation. Finally, the model also provided an explanation as to why some studies have failed to report verbal overshadowing. Thus, the present study suggests it is not constructive to discuss whether verbal overshadowing exists or not in an all-or-none manner, and instead suggests a better experimental paradigm to further explore this phenomenon. PMID:26061046
The numbers are in, and they are not rosy. According to the "Schools and Staffing Survey," 64,954 public schools reported vacancies during the 2003-04 school year. Projections suggest teacher attrition rates will continue to soar, while student enrollments climb. American schools have an urgent challenge: the retention of teachers. Teachers can do…
Logan, Laverne K.
This research project was designed to describe and analyze the verbal and non-verbal interactions of low achieving students during science lessons taught in two contrasting science instructional settings. (1) Teacher-centered, textbook-dominated instruction and (2) Student-centered, materials-dominated instruction. This study provided the unique opportunity to observe individual students under both sets of conditions. Systematic classroom observation, non-structured student interviews, and student documents were used in the analysis. Levels of behavioral involvement were found to be lower during student-centered, materials-dominated lessons, however, increased frequencies, more varied types, and higher cognitive levels of verbal interaction were observed. Teacher-centered, text-dominated lessons yielded increased levels of on-task behavior, however, incidences of verbal interaction were observed to be decreased, less varied, and lower in cognitive level. The findings of this study suggest that the levels of behavioral involvement of low achieving students may be enhanced by increased structuring of the science learning environment. The findings suggest that additional structure in the form of task-specific directions and specific, short time allotments would enable low achieving students to better define a researchable question, and plan and conduct an investigation to answer the question. Low achieving students appeared to lack small group interaction skills needed to complete activities in the materials-dominated format. Groups of four tended to splinter: pairs would break off or students just worked individually. If groups of four are desired, the evidence from this study would suggest clearly defined expectations and shorter work times and more structure are needed for more effective group work. Questions remain concerning the ability for elementary science teachers to monitor the learning environment and learning processes, particularly in less structured classroom settings. Finally, this study questions the depth and breadth of content presented in many textbooks and supplemental materials, particularly in light of current educational theory regarding conceptual understanding and transfer. Additional research is needed to identify types and amounts of structure to impose on the learning environment and to define processes to help low achieving students optimize conceptual understandings.
Riess, Helen; Kraft-Todd, Gordon
There is a gap in the medical education literature on teaching nonverbal detection and expression of empathy. Many articles do not address nonverbal interactions, instead focusing on "what to say" rather than "how to be." This focus on verbal communication overlooks the essential role nonverbal signals play in the communication of emotions, which has significant effects on patient satisfaction, health outcomes, and malpractice claims. This gap is addressed with a novel teaching tool for assessing nonverbal behavior using the acronym E.M.P.A.T.H.Y.-E: eye contact; M: muscles of facial expression; P: posture; A: affect; T: tone of voice; H: hearing the whole patient; Y: your response. This acronym was the cornerstone of a randomized controlled trial of empathy training at Massachusetts General Hospital, 2010-2012. Used as an easy-to-remember checklist, the acronym orients medical professionals to key aspects of perceiving and responding to nonverbal emotional cues. An urgent need exists to teach nonverbal aspects of communication as medical practices must be reoriented to the increasing cultural diversity represented by patients presenting for care. Where language proficiency may be limited, nonverbal communication becomes more crucial for understanding patients' communications. Furthermore, even in the absence of cultural differences, many patients are reluctant to disagree with their clinicians, and subtle nonverbal cues may be the critical entry point for discussions leading to shared medical decisions. A detailed description of the E.M.P.A.T.H.Y. acronym and a brief summary of the literature that supports each component of the teaching tool are provided. PMID:24826853
Fumie Nori; Afia Akhter Lipi; Yukiko Nakano
\\u000a As the basis of generating nonverbal expressions in animated agents, this paper proposes factors that account for cultural\\u000a difference in nonverbal behaviors in negotiation interaction. First, we introduce theories of negotiation and cultural characteristics.\\u000a Then, our analysis of human interaction in negotiation conversations in CUBE-G corpus is described. Finally, by integrating\\u000a cultural and negotiation parameters with empirical data obtained in
Mandel, Scott M.
This website called Teachers Helping Teachers has been in operation since 1995 and is maintained by Dr. Scott Mandel, who is also Director of the a musical theater group and an author. The resources provided here are posted by teachers and available at no cost. During the school year the website is updated weekly. As of this report, they were soliciting contributions that relate a teachers favorite lessons from the year or lesson ideas for the end-of-the-year, Fathers' Day or graduation time. The teacher-created lesson plans are organized by subject area, such as math, science, social studies, language arts, special education and the arts. Separate sections discuss classroom management and provide book reviews. Each week a new lesson topic is highlighted and a teacher's suggested stress reduction strategy is posted. The Educational Resources Page provides links to a variety of other resources online.
Brüne, Martin; Abdel-Hamid, Mona; Sonntag, Claudia; Lehmkämper, Caroline; Langdon, Robyn
Background Research has shown that patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) can be distinguished from controls on the basis of their non-verbal expression. For example, patients with SSD use facial expressions less than normals to invite and sustain social interaction. Here, we sought to examine whether non-verbal expressivity in patients corresponds with their impoverished social competence and neurocognition. Method Fifty patients with SSD were videotaped during interviews. Non-verbal expressivity was evaluated using the Ethological Coding System for Interviews (ECSI). Social competence was measured using the Social Behaviour Scale and psychopathology was rated using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Neurocognitive variables included measures of IQ, executive functioning, and two mentalising tasks, which tapped into the ability to appreciate mental states of story characters. Results Non-verbal expressivity was reduced in patients relative to controls. Lack of "prosocial" nonverbal signals was associated with poor social competence and, partially, with impaired understanding of others' minds, but not with non-social cognition or medication. Conclusion This is the first study to link deficits in non-verbal expressivity to levels of social skills and awareness of others' thoughts and intentions in patients with SSD. PMID:19166576
Lewis, V; Boucher, J; Lupton, L; Watson, S
It is well established that certain aspects of play in young children are related to their emerging linguistic skills. The present study examined the relationships between functional play, symbolic play, non-verbal ability, and expressive and receptive language in normally developing children aged between 1 and 6 years using standardized assessment procedures, including a recently developed Test of Pretend Play (ToPP). When effects of chronological age were partialled out, symbolic play remained significantly correlated with both expressive and receptive language, but not with functional play or non-verbal ability; and functional play was only correlated significantly with expressive language. It is concluded that ToPP will provide practitioners with a useful way of assessing symbolic ability in children between the ages of 1 and 6 years, and will contribute to the assessment and diagnosis of a number of communication difficulties, and have implications for intervention. PMID:10824228
Mundy, P; Sigman, M; Ungerer, J; Sherman, T
The aim of this study was to determine the social and cognitive correlates of language acquisition in autistic children. Functional and symbolic play skills were shown to be associated with language abilities in a sample of young autistic children (mean CA 54.5 months), thereby replicating previous findings. Certain types of nonverbal communication skills were also shown to be significant correlates of language development in this group of autistic children. These involved the ability to use gestures to coordinate visual attention between social partners with respect to objects or events. The play and nonverbal communication variables were not significantly correlated, suggesting that these variables reflect independent psychological factors associated with language development in young autistic children. PMID:3654487
Kuhlen, Anna K; Bogler, Carsten; Swerts, Marc; Haynes, John-Dylan
For successful communication, conversational partners need to estimate each other's current knowledge state. Nonverbal facial and bodily cues can reveal relevant information about how confident a speaker is about what they are saying. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we aimed to identify brain regions that encode how confident a speaker is perceived to be. Participants viewed videos of people answering general knowledge questions and judged each respondent's confidence in their answer. Our results suggest a distinct role of two neural networks known to support social inferences, the so-called mentalizing and the mirroring network. While activation in both networks underlies the processing of nonverbal cues, only activity in the mentalizing network, most notably the medial prefrontal cortex and the bilateral temporoparietal junction, is modulated by how confident the respondent is judged to be. Our results support an integrative account of the mirroring and mentalizing network, in which the two systems support each other in aiding pragmatic processing. PMID:25140046
Margaret Semrud-Clikeman; Kimberly Glass
The normal development of humor in children has been well documented with a predictable course that is tied to social, cognitive,\\u000a and linguistic development in children. This study explored humor comprehension in children with nonverbal learning disabilities\\u000a (NVLD). Children with NVLD were compared with children with reading disabilities and a comparison group of children with no\\u000a learning disabilities to assess
Jonathan S. Gore
This experiment examined sex differences in responses to various combinations of verbal and nonverbal content during a same-sex\\u000a interaction. Fifty men and thirty women participated in a same-sex interview task with a confederate posing as another participant.\\u000a Confederates disclosed either superficial or emotional information, and they faced away from or toward the participant, when\\u000a answering questions. Results revealed that men
Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jansen, Pauline W; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
Executive function and intelligence are negatively associated with aggression, yet the role of executive function has rarely been examined in the context of school bullying. We studied whether different domains of executive function and non-verbal intelligence are associated with bullying involvement in early elementary school. The association was examined in a population-based sample of 1,377 children. At age 4 years we assessed problems in inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory and planning/organization, using a validated parental questionnaire (the BRIEF-P). Additionally, we determined child non-verbal IQ at age 6 years. Bullying involvement as a bully, victim or a bully-victim in grades 1-2 of elementary school (mean age 7.7 years) was measured using a peer-nomination procedure. Individual bullying scores were based on the ratings by multiple peers (on average 20 classmates). Analyses were adjusted for various child and maternal socio-demographic and psychosocial covariates. Child score for inhibition problems was associated with the risk of being a bully (OR per SD?=?1.35, 95%CI: 1.09-1.66), victim (OR per SD?=?1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.45) and a bully-victim (OR per SD?=?1.55, 95%CI: 1.10-2.17). Children with higher non-verbal IQ were less likely to be victims (OR?=?0.99, 95%CI: 0.98-1.00) and bully-victims (OR?=?95%CI: 0.93-0.98, respectively). In conclusion, our study showed that peer interactions may be to some extent influenced by children's executive function and non-verbal intelligence. Future studies should examine whether training executive function skills can reduce bullying involvement and improve the quality of peer relationships. PMID:24337736
Bidet-Caulet, Aurelie; Ye, Xiao Lai; Bouchet, Patrick; Guénot, Marc; Fischer, Catherine; Bertrand, Olivier
For patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal epilepsy, unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) – i.e. the surgical resection of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the temporal pole and the most anterior part of the temporal gyri – is an efficient treatment. There is growing evidence that anterior regions of the temporal lobe are involved in the integration and short-term memorization of object-related sound properties. However, non-verbal auditory processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has raised little attention. To assess non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy both before and after unilateral ATL, we developed a set of non-verbal auditory tests, including environmental sounds. We could evaluate auditory semantic identification, acoustic and object-related short-term memory, and sound extraction from a sound mixture. The performances of 26 TLE patients before and/or after ATL were compared to those of 18 healthy subjects. Patients before and after ATL were found to present with similar deficits in pitch retention, and in identification and short-term memorisation of environmental sounds, whereas not being impaired in basic acoustic processing compared to healthy subjects. It is most likely that the deficits observed before and after ATL are related to epileptic neuropathological processes. Therefore, in patients with drug-resistant TLE, ATL seems to significantly improve seizure control without producing additional auditory deficits. PMID:20011222
Tyburski, Ernest; Soko?owski, Andrzej; Ch??, Magdalena; Pe?ka-Wysiecka, Justyna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka
This review paper provides analyses confirming correlation between various brain regions activity, particularly its prefrontal portions, and schizophrenia patients' performance in verbal fluency tests. Various factors modifying patients' performance in the aforementioned tasks were singled out and discussed. Systematically we have reviewed the results of non-verbal fluency tests conducted in the schizophrenic patients. The authors also summarizes findings of earlier studies stressing the role of semantic fluency as a predictor of first-episode psychosis. Verbal and non-verbal fluency tests engage complex cognitive processes and executive functions in patients. As a result, the interpretation of their results is often complicated and requires special competences. The tests are popular neuropsychological tools used for assessment of verbal memory, executive functions, visual-spatial abilities and psychomotor speed in patients with mental and neurological disorders. The aim of this paper is to discuss diagnostic tools used for measuring both types of fluency (verbal and non-verbal), test interpretation methods, as well as their usefulness in clinical diagnostics and scientific research. PMID:25634872
Moore, Emilee; Dooly, Melinda
This article discusses findings from ongoing research into plurilingual group work interaction in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) teacher training classroom at a university in Catalonia, Spain. We explore how participants make use of available verbal and non-verbal resources--for example, their multilingual verbal repertoires,…
Hackworth, Rhonda S.
This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…
Zerillo, Christine; Osterman, Karen F
This mixed-methods study examined elementary teachers' perceptions of teacher-student bullying. Grounded in previous research on peer bullying, the study posed several questions: to what extent did teachers perceive bullying of students by other teachers as a serious matter requiring intervention? Did they perceive teacher bullying as more serious…
Khan, Fahad Hanif; Hanif, Raheela; Tabassum, Rumina
Background. Nonverbal behaviors have a significant impact on patients during consultations. This study was undertaken to find out the attitudes and preferences of the patients regarding nonverbal communication during consultations with physicians, in a tertiary care hospital. Methods. A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was carried out at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, during the months of January to March 2012. All patients (>18 years of age) coming for consultancy in the family medicine clinics were approached; out of 133, 120 agreed to participate. The subjects were asked questions regarding physician's comforting touch and eye contact and their responses were noted. The data were analyzed using SPSS and chi-square test was used to identify corelations. Results. Overall, 120 patients were enrolled. About 58.3% were men and 41.7% were women with a mean age of 34.9 ± 10.9 years. 95.8% were Muslims and 57.6% had more than 12 years of education. Among females 74% wanted supportive touch from doctors, used to comfort the patient (45%) or to show respect (27.5%) or as healing (30%). 86.1% of the respondents believe that establishing eye contact with the patient shows that the doctor is attentive towards his/her patient. The eye contact should be brief but regular (54.1%) and prolonged staring (36.7%) makes them uncomfortable. Conclusion. Nonverbal communication helps to strengthen the doctor-patient relation as patients do appreciate positive touch and eye contact from their physicians. PMID:24977140
Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert
Background In their daily communication, bilinguals switch between two languages, a process that involves the selection of a target language and minimization of interference from a nontarget language. Previous studies have uncovered the neural structure in bilinguals and the activation patterns associated with performing verbal conflict tasks. One question that remains, however is whether this extra verbal switching affects brain function during nonverbal conflict tasks. Methods In this study, we have used fMRI to investigate the impact of bilingualism in children performing two nonverbal tasks involving stimulus–stimulus and stimulus–response conflicts. Three groups of 8–11-year-old children – bilinguals from birth (2L1), second language learners (L2L), and a control group of monolinguals (1L1) – were scanned while performing a color Simon and a numerical Stroop task. Reaction times and accuracy were logged. Results Compared to monolingual controls, bilingual children showed higher behavioral congruency effect of these tasks, which is matched by the recruitment of brain regions that are generally used in general cognitive control, language processing or to solve language conflict situations in bilinguals (caudate nucleus, posterior cingulate gyrus, STG, precuneus). Further, the activation of these areas was found to be higher in 2L1 compared to L2L. Conclusion The coupling of longer reaction times to the recruitment of extra language-related brain areas supports the hypothesis that when dealing with language conflicts the specialization of bilinguals hampers the way they can process with nonverbal conflicts, at least at early stages in life. PMID:25328840
Hillen, Marij A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Bijker, Nina; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M; Smets, Ellen M A
Trust in the oncologist is crucial for breast cancer patients. It reduces worry, enhances decision making, and stimulates adherence. Optimal nonverbal communication by the oncologist, particularly eye contact, body posture, and smiling, presumably benefits patients' trust. We were the first to experimentally examine (1) how the oncologist's nonverbal behavior influences trust, and (2) individual differences in breast cancer patients' trust. Analogue patients (APs) viewed one out of eight versions of a video vignette displaying a consultation about chemotherapy treatment. All eight versions varied only in the oncologist's amount of eye contact (consistent vs. inconsistent), body posture (forward leaning vs. varying), and smiling (occasional smiling vs. no smiling). Primary outcome was trust in the observed oncologist (Trust in Oncologist Scale). 214 APs participated. Consistent eye contact led to stronger trust (? = -.13, p = .04). This effect was largely explained by lower educated patients, for whom the effect of consistent eye contact was stronger than for higher educated patients (? = .18, p = .01). A forward leaning body posture did not influence trust, nor did smiling. However, if the oncologist smiled more, he was perceived as more friendly (r s = .31, p < .001) and caring (r s = .18, p = .01). Older (? = .17, p = .01) and lower educated APs (? = -.25, p < .001) were more trusting. Trust was weaker for more avoidantly attached APs (? = -.16, p = .03). We experimentally demonstrated the importance of maintaining consistent eye contact for breast cancer patients' trust, especially among lower educated patients. These findings need to be translated into training for oncologists in how to optimize their nonverbal communication with breast cancer patients while simultaneously managing increased time pressure and computer use during the consultation. PMID:26227472
Moran, Nikki; Hadley, Lauren V; Bader, Maria; Keller, Peter E
In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues ('back-channeling') by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched) duos from musicians' nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers' musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse) or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed). The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio) of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician ('back-channeler'). Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60) with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction. PMID:26086593
Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary
Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities within a normal developmental timeframe for language acquisition). A more direct, and therefore stronger, test of the hypothesis that the type and quality of language exposure impact working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM) and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition and reduced quality of language input compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6-11 years: hearing children (n = 28), deaf children who were native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n = 8), and deaf children who used BSL but who were not native signers (n = 19). We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and whether scores on language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two executive-loaded NVWM tasks included in our battery, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another). Multiple regression analysis revealed that scores on the vocabulary measure predicted scores on those two executive-loaded NVWM tasks (with age and non-verbal reasoning partialled out). Our results suggest that whatever the language modality-spoken or signed-rich language experience from birth, and the good language skills that result from this early age of acquisition, play a critical role in the development of NVWM and in performance on NVWM tasks. PMID:25999875
Ceschin, J S; Melaragno Filho, R; Brauer, M J; Parente, M A
Eight patients with cerebral vascular disease and aphasia were studied just after the stroke. The clinical, neuropsychiatric, EEG and neuro-radiological aspects were evaluated. The patients were submitted to the psychological and phonoaudiological studies. The authors correlated the neurological lesions to the structural alteration of the intelligence, to the praxic and estheognostic alterations and also to the language disturbances. The criterions adopted by the World Health Organization and the genetics classification of Jean Piaget were used for the intellectual level classification. The results suggest that the intelligence evaluated through Leither's non-verbal test is better preserved in some asphasics. PMID:533383
Conway, Christopher M.; Karpicke, Jennifer; Anaya, Esperanza M.; Henning, Shirley C.; Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.
We assessed profoundly deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) (N = 24) and age-matched normal-hearing children (N = 31) on several nonverbal cognition measures: motor sequencing, tactile discrimination, response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and visual-spatial processing. The results revealed that the children with CIs showed disturbances solely on motor sequencing and that performance on this task was significantly correlated with scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, 4th Edition (CELF–4). These findings suggest that a period of auditory deprivation before cochlear implantation affects motor sequencing skills, which in turn may mediate the language delays displayed by some deaf children with CIs. PMID:21347923
Delen, Erhan; Kaya, Fatih; Ritter, Nicola L.
This article presents a review of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2), a nonverbal intelligence test created to assess reasoning and problem solving of children and adults. The goal of the CTONI-2 is to minimize the influence of language ability on intelligence test scores. Oral or pantomime instructions can…
Ritter, Nicola; Kilinc, Emin; Navruz, Bilgin; Bae, Yunhee
This article reviews Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition (TONI-4), an individually administered instrument created to assess intelligence. The distinguishing characteristic of the TONI-4 is the nonverbal, motor-reduced format that assesses common elements of intelligence without the confounding effects of motor or linguistic skills. The…
Dickson, Esther; Burton, Neil
This small-scale study reports the findings from an investigation into non-verbal communication. It primarily seeks to analyse whether 9 and 13 year-olds can encode and decode non-verbal communication in the context of classroom behaviour management. This research showed that, in contrast to previous published research, there were no distinct…
Educational Service Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC. Administrative Leadership Service.
School districts should strive for a teacher evaluation system which is supportive of teachers' professional growth. Such a system should be designed to provide not only quantitative ratings for administrative purposes but also feedback which will enhance teacher improvement and development. A successful teacher evaluation system requires full…
Furley, Philip; Schweizer, Geoffrey
The goal of the present research was to test whether score-related changes in opponents' nonverbal behavior influence athletes' confidence in beating their opponents. In an experiment, 40 participants who were experienced basketball players watched brief video clips depicting athletes' nonverbal behavior. Video clips were not artificially created, but showed naturally occurring behavior. Participants indicated how confident they were in beating the presented athletes in a hypothetical scenario. Results indicated that participants' confidence estimations were influenced by opponents' score-related nonverbal behavior. Participants were less confident about beating a leading team and more confident about beating a trailing team, although they were unaware of the actual score during the depicted scenes. The present research is the first to show that in-game variations of naturally occurring nonverbal behavior can influence athletes' confidence. This finding highlights the importance of research into nonverbal behavior in sports, particularly in relation to athletes' confidence. PMID:24918314
Hoch, L; Tyler, M D; Tillmann, B
Humans have remarkable statistical learning abilities for verbal speech-like materials and for nonverbal music-like materials. Statistical learning has been shown with artificial languages (AL) that consist of the concatenation of nonsense word-like units into a continuous stream. These ALs contain no cues to unit boundaries other than the transitional probabilities between events, which are high within a unit and low between units. Most AL studies have used units of regular lengths. In the present study, the ALs were based on the same statistical structures but differed in unit length regularity (i.e., whether they were made out of units of regular vs. irregular lengths) and in materials (i.e., syllables vs. musical timbres), to allow us to investigate the influence of unit length regularity on domain-general statistical learning. In addition to better performance for verbal than for nonverbal materials, the findings revealed an effect of unit length regularity, with better performance for languages with regular- (vs. irregular-) length units. This unit length regularity effect suggests the influence of dynamic attentional processes (as proposed by the dynamic attending theory; Large & Jones (Psychological Review 106: 119-159, 1999)) on domain-general statistical learning. PMID:22890871
Fowler, Patrick J; McGrath, Lauren M; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael; Chavira, Dina; Taylor, Jeremy J; Day, Orin
This study investigates the influence of housing instability on verbal and nonverbal cognitive development among at-risk children and adolescents involved in the child welfare system. Frequent residential changes threaten child mental health, especially among low-income families. Little is known regarding disruptions to cognitive growth, specifically the impact on verbal and nonverbal abilities. The study tests whether developmental timing of housing mobility affects cognitive development beyond individual and family risks. A nationally representative study of families (n=2,442) susceptible to housing and family instability tracked children and adolescents aged 4-14 years (M=8.95 years) over 36 months following investigation by the child welfare system. Youth completed standardized cognitive assessments while caregivers reported on behavior problems and family risk at three time points. Latent growth models examined change in cognitive abilities over time. Housing mobility in the 12 months prior to baseline predicts lower verbal cognitive abilities that improve marginally. Similar effects emerge for all age groups; however, frequent moves in infancy diminish the influence of subsequent housing mobility on verbal tasks. Housing instability threatened cognitive development beyond child maltreatment, family changes, poverty, and other risks. Findings inform emerging research on environmental influences on neurocognitive development, as well as identify targets for early intervention. Systematic assessment of family housing problems, including through the child welfare system, provides opportunities for coordinated responses to prevent instability and cognitive threats. PMID:26184055
Freitas, Fabiana Ferraz Queiroga; Costa, Kátia Nêyla de Freitas Macêdo; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; Fernandes, Maria das Graças Melo; Lima, Joab de Oliveira
The aim is to analyze the nonverbal communication between nurses and the elderly in the nursing consultation based on the theory by Hall. The research concerns a descriptive exploratory study and it has a quantitative approach. It took place through filmings of the nursing consultations which happened in Health Basic Units in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, observed every minute, a total of 1.575 nonverbal interactions. The analysis has showed the predominance of the female nurses (90.63%) and the elderly (65.63) and a regular classification for most of the factors as a prevalence of a sitting set (80.09), opposite chairs (64.46%), personal distance (91.40%), calm facial expression (59.78%), touch was used for a technical procedure (53.33%), visual interaction for the manipulation of the objects (57.69) and no alteration in the voice volume (48.79%). These results reflect the necessity of the nurses to domain consciously their corporal and facial manifestations in order to improve the interaction with the elderly. PMID:25590883
Girard, Jeffrey M.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Mahoor, Mohammad H.; Mavadati, S. Mohammad; Hammal, Zakia; Rosenwald, Dean P.
The relationship between nonverbal behavior and severity of depression was investigated by following depressed participants over the course of treatment and video recording a series of clinical interviews. Facial expressions and head pose were analyzed from video using manual and automatic systems. Both systems were highly consistent for FACS action units (AUs) and showed similar effects for change over time in depression severity. When symptom severity was high, participants made fewer affiliative facial expressions (AUs 12 and 15) and more non-affiliative facial expressions (AU 14). Participants also exhibited diminished head motion (i.e., amplitude and velocity) when symptom severity was high. These results are consistent with the Social Withdrawal hypothesis: that depressed individuals use nonverbal behavior to maintain or increase interpersonal distance. As individuals recover, they send more signals indicating a willingness to affiliate. The finding that automatic facial expression analysis was both consistent with manual coding and revealed the same pattern of findings suggests that automatic facial expression analysis may be ready to relieve the burden of manual coding in behavioral and clinical science. PMID:25378765
Narayanan, Jwala; Duncan, Rod; Greene, John; Leach, John-Paul; Razvi, Saif; McLean, John; Evans, Jonathan J
Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often present with memory complaints despite performing within normal limits on standard memory tests. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF). The present study investigated material-specific ALF in patients with unilateral TLE and also examined whether ALF could be demonstrated on a novel, standardized anterograde autobiographical memory (ABM) task. Fourteen patients with TLE and 17 controls were administered verbal, nonverbal and ABM event memory tasks. The participants were tested for immediate recall, recall and recognition at 30-minute delay, and recall and recognition after four weeks. The extent of ALF was calculated based on the percentage decay of memory from the 30-minute delay trial to the four-week delay trial. Patients with left TLE showed significantly greater ALF for verbal material and a trend towards greater forgetting of ABM. Patients with right TLE showed a non-significant trend towards greater ALF for nonverbal material. Patients with unilateral hippocampal abnormalities showed greater ALF compared to patients without hippocampal abnormalities. Patients with seizures that generalize had more global memory deficits and greater ALF. We conclude that patients with unilateral TLE show material-specific ALF, which appears to be more pronounced with an abnormal hippocampus or seizures that secondarily generalize. PMID:23200623
Vogeley, Kai; Bente, Gary
"Artificial humans", so-called "Embodied Conversational Agents" and humanoid robots, are assumed to facilitate human-technology interaction referring to the unique human capacities of interpersonal communication and social information processing. While early research and development in artificial intelligence (AI) focused on processing and production of natural language, the "new AI" has also taken into account the emotional and relational aspects of communication with an emphasis both on understanding and production of nonverbal behavior. This shift in attention in computer science and engineering is reflected in recent developments in psychology and social cognitive neuroscience. This article addresses key challenges which emerge from the goal to equip machines with socio-emotional intelligence and to enable them to interpret subtle nonverbal cues and to respond to social affordances with naturally appearing behavior from both perspectives. In particular, we propose that the creation of credible artificial humans not only defines the ultimate test for our understanding of human communication and social cognition but also provides a unique research tool to improve our knowledge about the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms. PMID:20620019
Uclés, Paulino; Méndez, Mario; Garay, José
We compared processing of non-verbal auditory stimuli by dyslexic and non-dyslexic children using electrophysiological methods. The study included 39 children (17 with dyslexia plus 22 controls) assessed via frontal, central, parietal, and temporal electrodes. As an extension of previous P300 event-related potential studies, we analysed variations in the power values of 40-Hz oscillations (gamma-band oscillations involved in cognitive processing) during a specific time window in response to the auditory 'oddball' paradigm that entail target (random 2 kHz) and standard (frequent 1 kHz) stimuli. Dyslexic children differed significantly from controls (P<0.001) in the mean power of the wavelet-transformed 40-Hz oscillation in a time interval starting at 25 ms after stimulus onset up to 50 ms. This means defective processing of sounds. Within groups, standard and target tones elicited significantly different power values (P<0.001). Correlations of values between standard and target responses at each electrode position were not significant within either group, although dyslexics showed a lower correlation than controls. Significant differences in the mean power of these oscillations detected at very early stages of auditory processing in dyslexic children and the wide range of mean values reveal impairment in processing non-verbal sounds in dyslexia. Our results also support recent findings using behavioural and electrophysiological methods suggesting that dyslexia is a general auditory deficit instead of a speech-specific deficit. PMID:18324649
Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues
Accessing the meaning of words, objects, people and facts is a human ability, made possible thanks to semantic processing. Although studies concerning its cortical organization are proficient, the subcortical connectivity underlying this semantic network received less attention. We used intraoperative direct electrostimulation, which mimics a transient virtual lesion during brain surgery for glioma in eight awaken patients, to map the anatomical white matter substrate subserving the semantic system. Patients performed a picture naming task and a non-verbal semantic association test during the electrical mapping. Direct electrostimulation of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, a poorly known ventral association pathway which runs throughout the brain, induced in all cases semantic disturbances. These transient disorders were highly reproducible, and concerned verbal as well as non-verbal output. Our results highlight for the first time the essential role of the left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle in multimodal (and not only in verbal) semantic processing. On the basis of these original findings, and in the lights of phylogenetic considerations regarding this fascicle, we suggest its possible implication in the monitoring of the human level of consciousness related to semantic memory, namely noetic consciousness. PMID:23778263
Girard, Jeffrey M; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Mahoor, Mohammad H; Mavadati, S Mohammad; Hammal, Zakia; Rosenwald, Dean P
The relationship between nonverbal behavior and severity of depression was investigated by following depressed participants over the course of treatment and video recording a series of clinical interviews. Facial expressions and head pose were analyzed from video using manual and automatic systems. Both systems were highly consistent for FACS action units (AUs) and showed similar effects for change over time in depression severity. When symptom severity was high, participants made fewer affiliative facial expressions (AUs 12 and 15) and more non-affiliative facial expressions (AU 14). Participants also exhibited diminished head motion (i.e., amplitude and velocity) when symptom severity was high. These results are consistent with the Social Withdrawal hypothesis: that depressed individuals use nonverbal behavior to maintain or increase interpersonal distance. As individuals recover, they send more signals indicating a willingness to affiliate. The finding that automatic facial expression analysis was both consistent with manual coding and revealed the same pattern of findings suggests that automatic facial expression analysis may be ready to relieve the burden of manual coding in behavioral and clinical science. PMID:25378765
NEWEST, or NASA Educational Workshops for Elementary School Teachers, is a two-week honors program for teachers, sponsored by NASA, the National Science Teachers Association, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and the International Technology Education-Association. A total of 25 teachers from the United States and U.S. State Department schools in Europe are chosen to work with NASA and other federal agency science and engineering professionals. Pictured, participants make hot air balloons as part of their activities.
Can changes in teacher pay encourage more able individuals to enter the teaching profession? So far, studies of the impact of pay on the aptitude distribution of teachers have provided mixed evidence on the extent to which altering teacher salaries represents a feasible solution to the teacher quality problem. One possible reason is that these…
The numbers are in, and they are not rosy. According to the "Schools and Staffing Survey," 64,954 public schools reported vacancies during the 2003-04 school year. Even more alarming is the fact that projections suggest teacher attrition rates will continue to soar, while student enrollments climb, well into the 21st century. American schools have…
Tuller, Betty; Jantzen, Kelly J.; Olvera, Dianne; Steinberg, Fred; Scott Kelso, J. A.
Teenagers with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have difficulty with fine-motor coordination, which may relate to the novelty of the task or the lack of "self-talk" to mediate action. In this study, we required two teenagers with NLD and two control group teenagers to touch the thumb of each hand firmly and accurately to the fingertips of the…
Yoder, Paul; Watson, Linda R.; Lambert, Warren
Eighty-seven preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders who were initially nonverbal (under 6 words in language sample and under 21 parent-reported words said) were assessed at five time points over 16 months. Statistical models that accounted for the intercorrelation among nine theoretically- and empirically-motivated predictors, as well as two…
Symons, Frank J.; Harper, Vicki N.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Breau, Lynn M.; Bodfish, James W.
The role of pain in relation to self-injurious behavior (SIB) among individuals with intellectual disabilities is not well understood. Some models of SIB are based on altered endogenous opioid system activity which could result in elevated pain thresholds. In this study, non-verbal behavioral signs indicative of pain as measured by the…
Ebert, Kerry Danahy
Background: Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. Aims: To…
Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Riedel, Andreas; Ackermann, Hermann
The Asperger syndrome (AS) includes impaired recognition of other people's mental states. Since language-based diagnostic procedures may be confounded by cognitive-linguistic compensation strategies, nonverbal test materials were created, including human affective and vegetative sounds. Depending on video context, each sound could be interpreted…
Saigh, Philip A.
Moderate correlations were observed between the grade point average and nonverbal battery IQ scores of the Lorge Thorndike Intelligence Test administered to 27 elementary school students representing 12 countries during their first semester at a private American school overseas. Reasons are cited for additional research needs in the United States…
Stothers, M. E.; Cardy, J. Oram
Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) are developmental disorders in which linguistic ability is reported to be stronger than in disorders from which they must be distinguished for diagnosis. Children and adults with AS and NLD share pragmatic weaknesses, atypical social behaviours, and some cognitive features. To date,…
Georgescu, Alexandra Livia; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Roth, Daniel; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai
High-functioning autism (HFA) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is characterized by life-long socio-communicative impairments on the one hand and preserved verbal and general learning and memory abilities on the other. One of the areas where particular difficulties are observable is the understanding of non-verbal communication cues. Thus, investigating the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms of non-verbal communication in HFA allows a better understanding of this disorder, and potentially enables the development of more efficient forms of psychotherapy and trainings. However, the research on non-verbal information processing in HFA faces several methodological challenges. The use of virtual characters (VCs) helps to overcome such challenges by enabling an ecologically valid experience of social presence, and by providing an experimental platform that can be systematically and fully controlled. To make this field of research accessible to a broader audience, we elaborate in the first part of the review the validity of using VCs in non-verbal behavior research on HFA, and we review current relevant paradigms and findings from social-cognitive neuroscience. In the second part, we argue for the use of VCs as either agents or avatars in the context of “transformed social interactions.” This allows for the implementation of real-time social interaction in virtual experimental settings, which represents a more sensitive measure of socio-communicative impairments in HFA. Finally, we argue that VCs and environments are a valuable assistive, educational and therapeutic tool for HFA. PMID:25360098
Eichorn, Naomi; Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Scheuer, Jessica
Background: Considerable evidence suggests that performance across a variety of cognitive tasks is effectively supported by the use of verbal and nonverbal strategies. Studies exploring the usefulness of such strategies in children with specific language impairment (SLI) are scarce and report inconsistent findings. Aims: To examine the effects of…
Lipina, Sebastián; Segretin, Soledad; Hermida, Julia; Prats, Lucía; Fracchia, Carolina; Camelo, Jorge López; Colombo, Jorge
Tests of attentional control, working memory, and planning were administered to compare the non-verbal executive control performance of healthy children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. In addition, mediations of several sociodemographic variables, identified in the literature as part of the experience of child poverty, between…
DeVore-Chew, Marynelle; And Others
Describes an experiment that examined the effect of nonverbal communication conveyed by touch, forward lean, and smile combined with the effect of gender on patrons perceptions of the library, librarians, and themselves. Possible reasons for the lack of correlation among these factors are discussed and the questionnaire used is appended. (35…
Minskoff, Esther H.
In Part 2 of a two-part article individual educational program objectives are applied to nonverbal communication areas as follows: proxemics, or the use of distance, spatial arrangements, and territories; vocalics, or the use of prosodic, paralinguistic, or nonlinguistic features; and artifactual cues involving clothing and cosmetics. (Author/SBH)
Nyden, Agneta; Niklasson, Lena; Stahlberg, Ola; Anckarsater, Henrik; Dahlgren-Sandberg, Annika; Wentz, Elisabet; Rastam, Maria
Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) are both characterized by impairments in motor coordination, visuo-perceptual abilities, pragmatics and comprehension of language and social understanding. NLD is also defined as a learning disorder affecting functions in the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study investigates…
Oxman, Joel; And Others
The authors support the use of manual communication with the non-verbal autistic child and suggest that the exercise of manual communication may facilitate the functioning of spoken communication. Research is reviewed in the following areas: the marked peculiarities in the autistic child's perception of and attention to stimuli within or across…
Dane, Arif; Dane, Senol
Relationships among hand preference, nonverbal intelligence, and the monocular shifts of binocular focal point were studied in 33 men and 12 women university mathematics students. Ocular dominance was assessed with the Miles test. The monocular shift of binocular focal point for each eye was assessed with a modified Miles test. Hand preference was assessed on the Edinburg Handedness Inventory. Nonverbal intelligence was assessed with Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test. In a prior study, the percentage of left-eye preference had been reported to be greater for mathematics students than for nonmathematics students. In the present study there were positive correlations between hand preference and the sum of the monocular shifts of two eyes. In addition, there was a negative correlation between nonverbal intelligence and the sum of the monocular shifts of two eyes. As these resultssuggest that the sum of the monocular shifts of two eyes may be related to mathematical ability and nonverbal intelligence, further research with a larger sample including non-mathematics students is needed. PMID:15560339
This paper describes the current challenges facing nurses and other professionals who care for people with profound and multiple intellectual disabilities. This particularly vulnerable group of service users often rely on a repertoire of non-verbal behaviours to communicate their needs and wishes. These challenges include the requirements of…
Williams, B R; Sullivan, S K; Morra, L F; Williams, J R; Donovick, P J
Vulnerability to retroactive interference has been shown to increase with cognitive aging. Consistent with the findings of memory and aging literature, the authors of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) suggest that a non-verbal task be administered during the test's delay interval to minimize the effects of retroactive interference on delayed recall. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which retroactive interference caused by non-verbal and verbal intervening tasks affects recall of verbal information in non-demented, older adults. The effects of retroactive interference on recall of words during Long-Delay recall on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) were evaluated. Participants included 85 adults age 60 and older. During a 20-minute delay interval on the CVLT-II, participants received either a verbal (WAIS-III Vocabulary or Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB) or non-verbal (Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices or WAIS-III Block Design) intervening task. Similarly to previous research with young adults (Williams & Donovick, 2008), older adults recalled the same number of words across all groups, regardless of the type of intervening task. These findings suggest that the administration of verbal intervening tasks during the CVLT-II do not elicit more retroactive interference than non-verbal intervening tasks, and thus verbal tasks need not be avoided during the delay interval of the CVLT-II. PMID:24641093
schizophrenia and thus may allow a more sensitive assessment of cognitive or functional brain abnormalitiesNeural correlates of verbal and nonverbal working memory deficits in individuals with schizophrenia to schizophrenia. This study compared working memory and PFC activation in individuals with schizophrenia
Jordan, Kerry E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.
This study compared nonverbal numerical processing in 6-year-olds with that in nonhuman animals using a numerical bisection task. In the study, 16 children were trained on a delayed match-to-sample paradigm to match exemplars of two anchor numerosities. Children were then required to indicate whether a sample intermediate to the anchor values was…
Lewis, Joan D.; DeCamp-Fritson, Stephanie S.; Ramage, Jean C.; McFarland, Max A.; Archwamety, Teara
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices, the Naglieri Nonverbal Abilities Test (NNAT), and the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) in selecting for ethnically diverse students who may be gifted. The participants of the study were 175 students enrolled in Grades 3-5 and Grade 8 in a…
Using an anonymous, mailed survey, this study examined the perceptions of 404 mothers on the availability and the importance of various resources for their children With Asperger syndrome (AS) or a nonverbal learning disorder (NLD). A significant number of mothers (20% to 30%) reported that pragmatics training, social skills training, smaller classes, or a trained aide in the classroom Were
Justice, Laura M.; Pullen, Paige C.; Pence, Khara
How much do preschool children look at print within storybooks when adults read to them? This study sought to answer this question as well as to examine the effects of adult verbal and nonverbal references to print on children's visual attention to print during storybook reading. Forty-four preschool-aged children participated in this study…
Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna
Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3?years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9?months, were scored using Interest Level Scoring for Autism, quantifying toddlers' interest in toys, social routines, and activities that could serve as reinforcers in an intervention. Adaptive level and mental age were measured concurrently (Time 1) and again after a mean of 16.3?months of treatment (Time 2). Interest Level Scoring for Autism score, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule score, adaptive age equivalent, verbal and nonverbal mental age, and intensity of intervention were entered into regression models to predict rates of skill acquisition. Interest level at Time 1 predicted subsequent acquisition rate of adaptive skills (R(2)?=?0.36) and verbal mental age (R(2)?=?0.30), above and beyond the effects of Time 1 verbal and nonverbal mental ages and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. Interest level at Time 1 also contributed (R(2)?=?0.30), with treatment intensity, to variance in development of nonverbal mental age. PMID:25398893
Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina
This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…
Papaeliou, Christina F; Fryssira, Helen; Kodakos, Anastassios; Kaila, Maria; Benaveli, Evangelia; Michaelides, Konstantinos; Stroggilos, Vassilis; Vrettopoulou, Maria; Polemikos, Nikitas
This study investigated nonverbal communicative abilities, functional play, and symbolic play in 11 toddlers with Williams syndrome (WS) during spontaneous communication. The WS group was compared with a group of typically developing (TD) children matched for linguistic abilities. Results demonstrated that children with WS exhibited significantly less spontaneous functional play and imaginary play compared to TD children. On the other hand, children with WS showed significantly more showing and giving guided by their parents than TD children. In addition, it was shown that in both groups aspects of symbolic play are correlated with expressive as well as receptive language. These findings are interpreted through the Theory of Intersubjectivity, which contrasts with the Theory of Mind and suggests that shared arbitrary purposes regarding actions on objects constitute presuppositions for the development of language. PMID:21229406
Bishop, Somer L; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey
Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was examined in 84 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed from age 2 to 19. Most adults who scored in the range of intellectual disability also received scores below 70 as children, and the majority of adults with scores in the average range had scored in this range by age 3. However, within the lower ranges of ability, actual scores declined from age 2 to 19, likely due in part to limitations of appropriate tests. Use of Vineland-II daily living skills scores in place of NVIQ did not statistically improve the correspondence between age 2 and age 19 scores. Clinicians and researchers should use caution when making comparisons based on exact scores or specific ability ranges within or across individuals with ASD of different ages. PMID:25239176
Contador, Israel; Fernandez-Calvo, Bernardino; Cacho, Jesus; Ramos, Francisco; Lopez-Rolon, Alex
We examined whether there are selective deficits in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 27) and in unipolar depression (UD; n = 17) patients on recall and recognition of spatial and visual components of nonverbal memory (NVM) and whether the two groups can be differentiated based on their performance on such tasks. We also investigated which NVM measures had the best discrimination power. We tested spatial, visuospatial, and visuoconstructive abilities in AD and UD patients. AD patients' scores on NVM tasks were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects (HS; n = 30) and consistently lower than those of the UD group. Z-scores suggested that AD patients suffered from a generalized impairment. Clear differences between AD and UD patients were found on abstract design tasks. PMID:21154038
Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J.
Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n = 69) and adults (n = 77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R, and DSM-IV criteria, and a corresponding sample of typical child (n = 72) and adult controls (n = 107). At least one of the three primary components of the Wechsler pattern seen in NLD were found in 17–26% of the children and 20–32% of the adults with HFA. All three components occurred in slightly more than 5% of the children and adults with autism. Overall, the VIQ > PIQ profile seen in NLD occurred in 18% of the sample of individuals stringently diagnosed with HFA. Therefore, obtaining this IQ profile is not a valid clinical discriminator between NLD and HFA. PMID:18516234
Solodiuk, Jean; Curley, Martha A Q
Children's Hospital Boston began a major pain assessment and management initiative 3 years ago: Pain assessment and management are considered one of the institution's primary standards of care. The initiative included State of the Science meetings with internationally renowned nursing pain researchers and clinicians. These meetings generated nursing staff interest in specific applications of what is known about pain; how evidence-based knowledge can be used to ask population-specific clinical questions; and how an evidence-based approach can be applied to systematically develop, implement, and assess interventions that suit a population's clinical needs. This article is an example of an evidence-based pain assessment project at Children's Hospital Boston that focused on nonverbal children with cognitive impairments. After developing a clinical question, the authors did a literature review and a benchmarking analysis of best practice. The pilot of an adapted, existing pain assessment tool is described in this article. PMID:12923744
Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa
This study aimed to explore non-verbal executive processes in simultaneous interpreters. Simultaneous interpreters, bilinguals without any training in simultaneous interpreting, and control monolinguals performed the Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST; Experiment 1) and the Simon task (Experiment 2). Performance on WCST was thought to index cognitive flexibility while Simon task performance was considered an index of inhibitory processes. Simultaneous interpreters outperformed bilinguals and monolinguals on the WCST by showing reduced number of attempts to infer the rule, few errors, and few previous-category perseverations. However, simultaneous interpreters presented Simon effects similar to those found in bilinguals and monolinguals. Together, these results suggest that experience in interpreting is associated with changes in control processes required to perform interpreting tasks. PMID:22059084
Vadikolias, Konstantinos; Tsiakiri-Vatamidis, Anna; Tripsianis, Grigorios; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Serdari, Aspasia; Heliopoulos, John; Livaditis, Miltos; Piperidou, Charitomeni
We sought to longitudinally evaluate the potential association of educational level with performance on verbal and nonverbal tasks in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated patients with MCI, age >50 years, no medication intake, absent vascular risk factors, and no lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each patient underwent a clinical assessment packet and a series of neuropsychological tests of the language and constructional praxis subtests of Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMGOG) and the Boston naming test (BNT), at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Educational levels were defined taking into account the total years of education, the school level, and diplomas. MCI patients with low education level showed a stepwise reduction in scores of naming objects (NO; P = 0.009), definition (DF; P = 0.012), language (LT; P = 0.021), constructional praxis (CD; P = 0.022), confrontation naming skills (BXB; P = 0.033), phonemic help (BFB; P = 0.041), and BNT (P = 0.002). Analysis of covariance, controlling for baseline scores, showed that education was associated with NO score (P = 0.002), DF score (P = 0.005), LT (P = 0.008), CD score (P = 0.008), BXB score (44.36 ± 1.84, P = 0.0001), BFB (P = 0.022), and BNT (P = 0.004). Our findings indicate that education appeared to affect verbal and nonverbal task performance in MCI patients. Despite the fact that higher educated patients are more acquainted with the tasks, slower deterioration in consecutive follow-up examinations could be explained by the cognitive reserve theory. The potential association of this protective effect with delayed onset of symptoms deserves further investigation. PMID:23139907
Palmatier, Robert A., Ed.
This issue collects three articles concerning reading-teacher training. "Language, Failure, and Panda Bears" by Patricia M. Cunningham calls attention to dialect difficulties in the classroom and provides ideas for teacher training programs and for public schools to solve this problem. William H. Rupley, in "Improving Teacher Effectiveness in…
By putting teachers back into an intense learning and leadership environment, the National Science Foundation (NSF) is embarking on a major effort to improve the mathematics and science education of the nation’s youth. The three-year $5.5 million Teacher Institute project in Park City, Utah, involves middle and high school mathematics teachers from three school districts, including a small system in McAllen, Texas, and larger systems in Cincinnati, Ohio and Seattle, Washington. In summer resident sessions, the institute at Park City will train middle and secondary school teachers to become teacher-leaders.
Children with no expressive language find it difficult to function within the world; hence, increasing the communication ability of a nonverbal child with autism can have a large impact on their daily life (Goldstein, ...
Offir, Baruch; Lev, Yossi; Lev, Yael; Barth, Ingrid; Shteinbok, Arkadi
As increasing numbers of educational institutions implement distance learning (DL) programs, educators need to know how teaching and learning processes change when teachers and learners are no longer in the same place at the same time. Understanding the theoretical and practical implications of these changes can help teachers to compensate…
Frymier, Jack R., Ed.
Articles is this issue represent the substantive content of a series of 25 workshops sponsored by the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE). The four major articles discuss innovative models based on four approaches for improving teacher performance: (1) "Interaction Analysis" by Edmund J. Amidon, San Francisco State…
Kagoda, Alice Merab; Sentongo, John
Practicing teachers are partners in preparation of teacher trainees. However, little is known about their perceptions of the teacher trainees they receive every year in their schools. Ninety three practicing teachers from twenty schools participated in this study. The objectives were to find out the practicing teachers' perceptions of teacher…
Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang
Objective: The coordination of patient’s and therapist’s bodily movement – nonverbal synchrony – has been empirically shown to be associated with psychotherapy outcome. This finding was based on dynamic movement patterns of the whole body. The present paper is a new analysis of an existing dataset (Ramseyer and Tschacher, 2011), which extends previous findings by differentiating movements pertaining to head and upper-body regions. Method: In a sample of 70 patients (37 female, 33 male) treated at an outpatient psychotherapy clinic, we quantified nonverbal synchrony with an automated objective video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Head- and body-synchrony was quantified during the initial 15 min of video-recorded therapy sessions. Micro-outcome was assessed with self-report post-session questionnaires provided by patients and their therapists. Macro-outcome was measured with questionnaires that quantified attainment of treatment goals and changes in experiencing and behavior at the end of therapy. Results: The differentiation of head- and body-synchrony showed that these two facets of motor coordination were differentially associated with outcome. Head-synchrony predicted global outcome of therapy, while body-synchrony did not, and body-synchrony predicted session outcome, while head-synchrony did not. Conclusion: The results pose an important amendment to previous findings, which showed that nonverbal synchrony embodied both outcome and interpersonal variables of psychotherapy dyads. The separation of head- and body-synchrony suggested that distinct mechanisms may operate in these two regions: Head-synchrony embodied phenomena with a long temporal extension (overall therapy success), while body-synchrony embodied phenomena of a more immediate nature (session-level success). More explorations with fine-grained analyses of synchronized phenomena in nonverbal behavior may shed additional light on the embodiment of psychotherapy process. PMID:25249994
Chan, Lap Ki; Sharma, Neel
The one-minute preceptor (OMP) is a time-efficient, learner-centered teaching method used in a busy ambulatory care setting. This project evaluated the effects of training experienced anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory on students' perceived learning. Second-year medical students from a five-year, undergraduate-entry, system- and problem-based medical program were divided randomly into two groups of 76 students each. The groups took part in the same gross anatomy laboratory session on different dates, supervised by the same two teachers (both with over 25 years of teaching experience). The teachers attended a workshop on the use of the OMP between the two sessions. Students were given a questionnaire at the end of the two sessions to indicate their agreements to statements regarding their learning experiences. Semistructured interviews were conducted with the two teachers after the second session. Results showed that training experienced anatomy teachers in the use of the OMP did not result in improvement of student learning perception in the gross anatomy laboratory. The experienced teachers have developed their own approaches with elements similar to those in the OMP: being learner centered and adaptable to individual student's needs, providing feedback, and enhancing teacher immediacy. They do not have an explicit structure such as the OMP, and are thus flexible and adaptive. Confining the teachers' teaching behaviors to the OMP structure could limit their performance. Although there are theoretical advantages for novice teachers in adopting the OMP technique, these advantages still need to be supported by further studies. PMID:23864286
Ménoret, Mathilde; Varnet, Léo; Fargier, Raphaël; Cheylus, Anne; Curie, Aurore; des Portes, Vincent; Nazir, Tatjana A; Paulignan, Yves
Successful non-verbal social interaction between human beings requires dynamic and efficient encoding of others' gestures. Our study aimed at identifying neural markers of social interaction and goal variations in a non-verbal task. For this, we recorded simultaneously the electroencephalogram from two participants (dual-EEG), an actor and an observer, and their arm/hand kinematics in a real face-to-face paradigm. The observer watched "biological actions" performed by the human actor and "non-biological actions" performed by a robot. All actions occurred within an interactive or non-interactive context depending on whether the observer had to perform a complementary action or not (e.g., the actor presents a saucer and the observer either places the corresponding cup or does nothing). We analysed the EEG signals of both participants (i.e., beta (~20 Hz) oscillations as an index of cortical motor activity and motor related potentials (MRPs)). We identified markers of social interactions by synchronising EEG to the onset of the actor's movement. Movement kinematics did not differ in the two context conditions and the MRPs of the actor were similar in the two conditions. For the observer, however, an observation-related MRP was measured in all conditions but was more negative in the interactive context over fronto-central electrodes. Moreover, this feature was specific to biological actions. Concurrently, the suppression of beta oscillations was observed in the actor's EEG and the observer's EEG rapidly after the onset of the actor's movement. Critically, this suppression was stronger in the interactive than in the non-interactive context despite the fact that movement kinematics did not differ in the two context conditions. For the observer, this modulation was observed independently of whether the actor was a human or a robot. Our results suggest that acting in a social context induced analogous modulations of motor and sensorimotor regions in observer and actor. Sharing a common goal during an interaction seems thus to evoke a common representation of the global action that includes both actor and observer movements. PMID:24157538
Asano, Kohei; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta
Humans perceive textual and nontextual information in visual perception, and both depend on language. In childhood education, students exhibit diverse perceptual abilities, such that some students process textual information better and some process nontextual information better. These predispositions involve many factors, including cognitive ability and learning preference. However, the relationship between verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during visual perception has not yet been examined in children. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between nonverbal and verbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during nontextual visual perception in large numbers of children. A significant positive correlation was found between nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation in the right temporoparietal junction, which is thought to be related to attention reorienting. This significant positive correlation existed only in boys. These findings suggested that male brain activation differed from female brain activation, and that this depended on individual cognitive processes, even if there was no gender difference in behavioral performance. PMID:24937269
Ebert, Kerry Danahy
Background Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for Primary (or Specific) Language Impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but nonverbal memory has not yet been considered. Aims The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between a measure of nonverbal auditory working memory (NVWM) and sentence repetition performance in a sample of bilingual children with LI. Methods & Procedures Forty-seven school-aged Spanish-English bilingual children with LI completed sentence repetition and nonword repetition tasks in both Spanish and English as well as an NVWM task. Hierarchical multiple linear regression was used to predict sentence repetition in each language using age, nonword repetition, and NVWM. Outcomes & Results NVWM predicted unique variance in sentence repetition performance in both languages after accounting for chronological age and language-specific phonological memory, as measured by nonword repetition. Conclusions & Implications Domain-general memory resources play a unique role in sentence repetition performance in children with LI. Nonverbal working memory weaknesses may contribute to the poor performance of children with LI on sentence repetition tasks. PMID:24894308
Miozzo, Michele; Rawlins, Kyle; Rapp, Brenda
We report on two individuals with acquired language impairment who made thematic role confusion errors in both comprehension and production. Their confusions were remarkably specific, affecting the roles associated with spatial prepositions ("The box is in the bag" confused with The bag is in the box) and adjectival comparatives ("The glove is darker than the hat" confused with The hat is darker than the glove) but not the roles associated with verbs (e.g., in The woman helps the man). Additional results showed that the confusions did not arise from spatial deficits, deficits affecting the semantics of spatial terms and adjectives, or difficulties with spatial and comparative relationships. Interestingly, the selective deficits are well-explained by linguistic theories that propose that non-verbal lexical categories, when used as predicates, depend on special mechanisms and structures for linking their thematic roles to syntactic argument structures. These are the first neuropsychological results to show that thematic role assignment is supported by distinct brain mechanisms for verbal and non-verbal lexical categories. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the linguistic knowledge associated with verbal vs. non-verbal word classes and of the conditions under which these forms of knowledge support sentence processing. PMID:25241311
Bicho, Estela; Louro, Luís; Erlhagen, Wolfram
How do humans coordinate their intentions, goals and motor behaviors when performing joint action tasks? Recent experimental evidence suggests that resonance processes in the observer's motor system are crucially involved in our ability to understand actions of others’, to infer their goals and even to comprehend their action-related language. In this paper, we present a control architecture for human–robot collaboration that exploits this close perception-action linkage as a means to achieve more natural and efficient communication grounded in sensorimotor experiences. The architecture is formalized by a coupled system of dynamic neural fields representing a distributed network of neural populations that encode in their activation patterns goals, actions and shared task knowledge. We validate the verbal and nonverbal communication skills of the robot in a joint assembly task in which the human–robot team has to construct toy objects from their components. The experiments focus on the robot's capacity to anticipate the user's needs and to detect and communicate unexpected events that may occur during joint task execution. PMID:20725504
Mosca, C.; Zoubrinetzy, R.; Baciu, M.; Aguilar, L.; Minotti, L.; Kahane, P.; Perrone-Bertolotti, M.
We present a patient with epilepsy who underwent left anterior temporal cortex resection, sparing the hippocampus, to stop drug-refractory seizures. Given that one year after surgery the patient showed verbal memory difficulties, we proposed a short (twelve weeks) and intensive (two times a week) training based on visual imagery strategies as the nonverbal memory abilities were preserved. Neuropsychological and fMRI assessments were performed before and after rehabilitation to evaluate the cognitive progress and cerebral modifications induced by this rehabilitation program. Our results showed that the rehabilitation program improved both scores for verbal memory and the everyday quality of life. Changes in cerebral activity highlighted by fMRI suggest that the program might have facilitated the development of compensatory strategies, as reflected by the shift of activation from the anterior to the posterior cerebral network during a verbal memory task. One year after the rehabilitation program, the patient reported using mental imagery in everyday life for routine and professional activities. Although supplementary evidence is necessary to increase the robustness of these findings, this case report suggests that an efficient rehabilitation program is feasible and (a) should be based on the individual cognitive profile and on the preserved cognitive abilities, (b) can be short but intensive, (c) can be applied even months after the lesion occurrence, and (d) can induce a positive effect which may be sustainable over time. PMID:25667899
Mammarella, Irene C; Cornoldi, Cesare
Based on a review of the literature, the diagnostic criteria used for children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) were identified as follows: (a) low visuospatial intelligence; (b) discrepancy between verbal and visuospatial intelligence; (c) visuoconstructive and fine-motor coordination skills; (d) visuospatial memory tasks; (e) reading better than mathematical achievement; and (f) socioemotional skills. An analysis of the effect size was used to investigate the strength of criteria for diagnosing NLD considering 35 empirical studies published from January 1980 to February 2011. Overall, our results showed that the most important criteria for distinguishing children with NLD from controls were as follows: a low visuospatial intelligence with a relatively good verbal intelligence, visuoconstructive and fine-motor coordination impairments, good reading decoding together with low math performance. Deficits in visuospatial memory and social skills were also present. A preliminary set of criteria for diagnosing NLD was developed on these grounds. It was concluded, however, that-although some consensus is emerging-further research is needed to definitively establish shared diagnostic criteria for children with NLD. PMID:23705673
Mammarella, Irene C.; Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Cornoldi, Cesare
The present study investigated the difficulties encountered by children with non-verbal learning disability (NLD) and reading disability (RD) when processing spatial information derived from descriptions, based on the assumption that both groups should find it more difficult than matched controls, but for different reasons, i.e., due to a memory encoding difficulty in cases of RD and to spatial information comprehension problems in cases of NLD. Spatial descriptions from both survey and route perspectives were presented to 9–12-year-old children divided into three groups: NLD (N = 12); RD (N = 12), and typically developing controls (TD; N = 15); then participants completed a sentence verification task and a memory for locations task. The sentence verification task was presented in two conditions: in one the children could refer to the text while answering the questions (i.e., text present condition), and in the other the text was withdrawn (i.e., text absent condition). Results showed that the RD group benefited from the text present condition, but was impaired to the same extent as the NLD group in the text absent condition, suggesting that the NLD children’s difficulty is due mainly to their poor comprehension of spatial descriptions, while the RD children’s difficulty is due more to a memory encoding problem. These results are discussed in terms of their implications in the neuropsychological profiles of children with NLD or RD, and the processes involved in spatial descriptions. PMID:25610417
Tracy, Jessica L.; Matsumoto, David
The present research examined whether the recognizable nonverbal expressions associated with pride and shame may be biologically innate behavioral responses to success and failure. Specifically, we tested whether sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals across cultures spontaneously display pride and shame behaviors in response to the same success and failure situations—victory and defeat at the Olympic or Paralympic Games. Results showed that sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals from >30 nations displayed the behaviors associated with the prototypical pride expression in response to success. Sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals from most cultures also displayed behaviors associated with shame in response to failure. However, culture moderated the shame response among sighted athletes: it was less pronounced among individuals from highly individualistic, self-expression-valuing cultures, primarily in North America and West Eurasia. Given that congenitally blind individuals across cultures showed the shame response to failure, findings overall are consistent with the suggestion that the behavioral expressions associated with both shame and pride are likely to be innate, but the shame display may be intentionally inhibited by some sighted individuals in accordance with cultural norms. PMID:18695237
Tracy, Jessica L; Matsumoto, David
The present research examined whether the recognizable nonverbal expressions associated with pride and shame may be biologically innate behavioral responses to success and failure. Specifically, we tested whether sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals across cultures spontaneously display pride and shame behaviors in response to the same success and failure situations--victory and defeat at the Olympic or Paralympic Games. Results showed that sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals from >30 nations displayed the behaviors associated with the prototypical pride expression in response to success. Sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals from most cultures also displayed behaviors associated with shame in response to failure. However, culture moderated the shame response among sighted athletes: it was less pronounced among individuals from highly individualistic, self-expression-valuing cultures, primarily in North America and West Eurasia. Given that congenitally blind individuals across cultures showed the shame response to failure, findings overall are consistent with the suggestion that the behavioral expressions associated with both shame and pride are likely to be innate, but the shame display may be intentionally inhibited by some sighted individuals in accordance with cultural norms. PMID:18695237
Pixner, S; Moeller, K; Hermanova, V; Nuerk, H-C; Kaufmann, L
The unit-decade compatibility effect is interpreted to reflect processes of place value integration in two-digit number magnitude comparisons. The current study aimed at elucidating the influence of language properties on the compatibility effect of Arabic two-digit numbers in Austrian, Italian, and Czech first graders. The number word systems of the three countries differ with respect to their correspondence between name and place value systems; the German language is characterized by its inversion of the order of tens and units in number words as compared with digital notations, whereas Italian number words are generally not inverted and there are both forms for Czech number words. Interestingly, the German-speaking children showed the most pronounced compatibility effect with respect to both accuracy and speed. We interpret our results as evidence for a detrimental influence of an intransparent number word system place value processing. The data corroborate a weak Whorfian hypothesis in children, with even nonverbal Arabic number processing seeming to be influenced by linguistic properties in children. PMID:21035126
Diantha Lay is principal of an elementary school in Montgomery County, Maryland. When she wrote this chapter, she was just starting a new position for the county as a staff development teacher. Earlier she had been a second- and a fourth-grade teacher with a passion for science. When her county decided to establish the new position of staff development teacher in every school, Diantha embarked on a new adventure. In this chapter, she describes the formation of teacher study groups as she began to engage colleagues in developing a professional learning community in their school.
This website has information and links to resources for ocean sciences teachers located in North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. The resources include professional development opportunities, student opportunities, teaching resources and lessons, and organizations and agencies to connect teachers with ocean science materials.
Bramwell, Gillian; Reilly, Rosemary C.; Lilly, Frank R.; Kronish, Neomi; Chennabathni, Revathi
Good teaching is creative teaching, yet there is little research focusing on creative teachers themselves. In this article we report a synthesis of 13 qualitative case studies and 2 quantitative studies of teachers who demonstrated everyday or local creativity in their work. Themes and categories were identified through constant comparison and…
Noon, Elizabeth F.
An elementary school teacher, an independent free soul, stimulates his students toward a higher plateau of learning but also alienates his fellow teachers, including the school principal. Is it more important to conform or to motivate one's students? An elementary counselor attempts to solve the problem. (RK)
Pohl, James M.
Nationwide, there are several innovative approaches to substitute teacher staffing issues, including: increased substitute teacher pay and enlistment of local college students to substitute at least 3 days per week in exchange for tuition help and a guaranteed job after graduation. Incentive programs for low absenteeism rates are a good way to…
Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.
Minnesota state policy makers are concerned about teacher compensation because it constitutes a major category of state and local spending and can affect education results. This report examines compensation issues by describing the pay structure of Minnesota's K-12 public school teachers, making pay comparisons with other professionals, and…
Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.
This article examines Finnish cooperating physics teachers' conceptions of teacher knowledge in physics. Six experienced teachers were interviewed. The data was analyzed to form categories concerning the basis of teacher knowledge, and the tradition of German Didaktik and Shulman's theory of teacher knowledge were used in order to understand the…
Find links for teachers below: (Please close all windows when done.) Garden City Schools Teacher Account - Use your current email ID as the google ID. Example schultn. Your initial password is "s12345678", and you will be required to change it when you first login. Example MRC Schedule Home - Garden City Public Schools Favorite Resources MI Star (Zangle) Aesoponline Discovery Education (United Streaming) Frontline Teacher Center (PBS) - FREE online videos, lesson plans, and Web-exclusive resources Freeology-Free Printable Graphic Organizers IT Requests -organization account number is ...
Pechtel, Pia; Woodman, Ashley; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen
The relation between early mother-infant interaction and later socio-emotional development has been well established. The present study addresses the more recent interest in the impact of maternal caregiving on cognitive development and their role in decision-making in young adulthood. Using data from a prospective longitudinal study on attachment, prediction from early mother-infant interactions at age 18 months and from verbal and nonverbal cognitive skill at age 5 were examined as predictors of a substance use disorder (abuse/dependence) in young adulthood (age 20) on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Results reveal that the mother's withdrawal from interaction with the infant at age 18 months, coded using the AMBIANCE coding system (Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification), was associated with the child's lower nonverbal cognitive scores but not verbal cognitive scores at age 5. In addition, maternal withdrawal at 18 months predicted a clinical diagnosis of substance use disorder (alcohol/cannabis) at age 20. Finally, nonverbal reasoning at age 5 mediated the relationship between early maternal withdrawal and substance use disorder (alcohol/cannabis) in young adulthood. Findings indicate the need for further work examining how early maternal withdrawal affects nonverbal cognitive development by school entry, and how these nonverbal deficits further contribute to maladaptive coping strategies such as substance use by young adulthood. PMID:25473440
Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Shachar-Lavie, Iris
Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs) is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems (ABSs), based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are uniquely suited to rapid and effective conveyance of emotional, motivational, and trait information and that various channels are differentially effective in transmitting such information. First, we review studies on perception of NVSCs through face, voice, and body. We begin with studies that utilized information processing or imaging paradigms to assess NVSC perception. This research demonstrated that social anxiety is associated with biased attention to, and interpretation of, emotional facial expressions (EFEs) and emotional prosody. Findings regarding body and posture remain scarce. Next, we review studies on NVSC expression, which pinpointed links between social anxiety and disturbances in eye gaze, facial expressivity, and vocal properties of spontaneous and planned speech. Again, links between social anxiety and posture were understudied. Although cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary theories have described different pathways to social anxiety, all three models focus on interrelations among cognition, subjective experience, and social behavior. NVSC processing and production comprise the juncture where these theories intersect. In light of the conceptualizations emerging from the review, we highlight several directions for future research including focus on NVSCs as indexing reactions to changes in belongingness and social rank, the moderating role of gender, and the therapeutic opportunities offered by embodied cognition to treat social anxiety. PMID:24427129
Söderqvist, Stina; Nutley, Sissela B.; Ottersen, Jon; Grill, Katja M.; Klingberg, Torkel
Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in both reasoning ability and working memory (WM) that impact everyday functioning and academic achievement. In this study we investigated the feasibility of cognitive training for improving WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR) ability in children with intellectual disability. Participants were randomized to a 5-week adaptive training program (intervention group) or non-adaptive version of the program (active control group). Cognitive assessments were conducted prior to and directly after training and 1 year later to examine effects of the training. Improvements during training varied largely and amount of progress during training predicted transfer to WM and comprehension of instructions, with higher training progress being associated with greater transfer improvements. The strongest predictors for training progress were found to be gender, co-morbidity, and baseline capacity on verbal WM. In particular, females without an additional diagnosis and with higher baseline performance showed greater progress. No significant effects of training were observed at the 1-year follow-up, suggesting that training should be more intense or repeated in order for effects to persist in children with intellectual disabilities. A major finding of this study is that cognitive training is feasible in this clinical sample and can help improve their cognitive performance. However, a minimum cognitive capacity or training ability seems necessary for the training to be beneficial, with some individuals showing little improvement in performance. Future studies of cognitive training should take into consideration how inter-individual differences in training progress influence transfer effects and further investigate how baseline capacities predict training outcome. PMID:23060775
Lesson plans and exercises for teachers to use this site and the CD-ROM ?Atomic Archive: Enhanced Edition? in their classrooms. The exercises cover the following subjects: Arms Control, Atomic Physics, Delivery Systems, Fission, Fusion, History and Weapon Effects.
Noon, Elizabeth F.
Dan DuCote brought in his friend Mike Shane to be the sixth-grade team leader and introduce intraclass instruction. Mike did just that, without consulting the other three teachers. And the war was on! (Editor)
Blume, Christine; Lechinger, Julia; Del Giudice, Renata; Wislowska, Malgorzata; Heib, Dominik P J; Schabus, Manuel
The ability to attribute independent mental states (e.g. opinions, perceptions, beliefs) to oneself and others is termed Theory of Mind (ToM). Previous studies investigating ToM usually employed verbal paradigms and functional neuroimaging methods. Here, we studied oscillatory responses in the electroencephalogram (EEG) in a non-verbal social cognition task. The aim of this study was twofold: First, we wanted to investigate differences in oscillatory responses to animations differing with regard to the complexity of social "interactions". Secondly, we intended to evaluate the basic cognitive processes underlying social cognition. To this end, we analyzed theta, alpha, beta and gamma task-related de-/synchronization (TRD/TRS) during presentation of six non-verbal videos differing in the complexity of (social) "interactions" between two geometric shapes. Videos were adopted from Castelli et al. (2000)and belonged to three conditions: Videos designed to evoke attributions of mental states (ToM), interaction descriptions (goal-directed, GD) and videos in which the shapes moved randomly (R). Analyses revealed that only theta activity consistently varied as a function of social "interaction" complexity. Results suggest that ToM/GD videos attract more attention and working-memory resources and may have activated related memory contents. Alpha and beta results were less consistent. While alpha effects suggest that observation of social "interactions" may benefit from inhibition of self-centered processing, oscillatory responses in the beta range could be related to action observation. In summary, the results provide insight into basic cognitive processes involved in social cognition and render the paradigm attractive for the investigation of social cognitive processes in non-verbal populations. PMID:26111488
Hughes, Phillip, Ed.
This book is the first in a series on teachers and teaching, a result of the Australian Council for Educational Research program of research on teachers. The theme, teachers in society, has been constructed around three broad areas: the context of teaching, teacher education, and teachers' work. The book is divided into 8 chapters as follows: (l)…
Tuytens, Melissa; Devos, Geert
There is a general doubt on whether teacher evaluation can contribute to teachers' professional development. Recently, standards-based teacher evaluation has been introduced in many countries to improve teaching practice. This study wants to investigate which teacher evaluation procedural, leadership, and teacher characteristics can stimulate…
Research on HCI and multimedia systems for art and entertainment based on non-verbal, full-body, emotional and social interaction is the main topic of this paper. A short review of previous research projects in this area at our centre are presented, to introduce the main issues discussed in the paper. In particular, a case study based on novel paradigms of social active music listening is presented. Active music listening experience enables users to dynamically mould expressive performance of music and of audiovisual content. This research is partially supported by the 7FP EU-ICT Project SAME (Sound and Music for Everyone, Everyday, Everywhere, Every Way, www.sameproject.eu).
A serial recall task was used to compare performance of 15 normal and 15 learning disabled elementary school children matched on CA, IQ, and sex with two and three dimensional representations of nonverbal eight-point shapes. Two a priori assumptions were not supported: (a) no differences in recall were found between groups and (b) no differences in recall were found for either group using two or three dimensional stimuli. Three dimensional stimuli did facilitate visual rehearsal at the primacy position for both groups. Learning disabled children's performance was consistent with the mediation deficiency hypothesis found with normal children. PMID:702119
Salek, Charles Jerrold
For principals to help teachers improve the quality of their instructions, this author suggests that judgmental attitudes must be completely eradicated. In the place of evaluation, non-directive supervisory conferencing is suggested. This article describes the technique. (Editor)
Scholars and teachers are increasingly realizing that language consists of more than the additive nature of learned morphological, syntactical, and lexical items. This paper describes the pragmatic implications of linguistic strings, based on research and interviews with native speakers of American English and standard German. (20 references)…
Raschke, Donna B.; And Others
Identifies specific factors that elementary school teachers perceive as affecting job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Includes teachers' suggestions for improving school environment. Confidential questionnaires were completed by 230 public school teachers in the Midwest. (CB)
Minnesota, University of
TEACHER EDUCATION STUDENT HANDBOOK Teacher Education Unit University of Minnesota, Crookston October 2011 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS I. TEACHER EDUCATION OVERVIEW A. Introduction. PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS A. UMC Liberal Education Requirements....................................... 16 B
Ortner, Catherine N M; de Koning, Monica
Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task. PMID:23658647
Nelson, Jason M; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A
Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to college students without RD, up to 5 times as many college students with RD reported clinically significant test anxiety. College students with RD reported significantly higher cognitively based test anxiety than physically based test anxiety. Reading skills, verbal ability, and processing speed were not correlated with test anxiety. General intelligence, nonverbal ability, and working memory were negatively correlated with test anxiety, and the magnitude of these correlations was medium to large. When these three cognitive constructs were considered together in multiple regression analyses, only working memory and nonverbal ability emerged as significant predictors and varied based on the test anxiety measure. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. PMID:24153402
Schoch, Kelly; Harrell, Waverly; Hooper, Stephen R; Ip, Edward H; Saldana, Santiago; Kwapil, Thomas R; Shashi, Vandana
Chromosome 22qll.2 deletion syndrome (22qllDS) is the most common microdeletion in humans. Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) has been used to describe the strengths and deficits of children with 22q11DS, but the applicability of the label for this population has seldom been systematically evaluated. The goal of the current study was to address how well the NLD diagnosis characterizes children and adolescents with 22q11DS. A total of 74 children and adolescents with 22q11DS were given neurocognitive, socioemotional, and academic assessments to measure aspects of NLD. Of the cohort, 20% met at least 7 of 9 assessed criteria for NLD; 25% showed verbal skills exceeding their nonverbal skills as assessed by an IQ test; and 24% showed the good rote verbal capacity commonly associated with NLD. Hypothesizing that if the entire cohort did not show consistent NLD characteristics, the descriptor might be more accurate for a distinct subgroup, the authors used latent class analysis to divide participants into three subgroups. However, the lines along which the groups broke out were more related to general functioning level than to NLD criteria. All three groups showed a heightened risk for psychiatric illness, highlighting the importance of careful mental health monitoring for all children with 22qllDS. PMID:22572413
Frazier, Wendy M.; Sterling, Donna R.
The start of a new school year is a challenging and exciting time for any teacher--and a time when beginning teachers particularly need our support. Working with new science teachers in the New Science Teachers' Support Network (NSTSN) has shown the authors that veteran teachers have the greatest impact on beginning teacher's success. The NSTSN is…
This section of the Windows to the Universe web site provides information and resources for teachers including activities about astronomy, earth science, physical science, and NASA; educational links on such topics as biology, earth science, math, mythology, space science, and physics; and Share-a-thon, which allows users to share curriculum and activities with fellow teachers. Users can also search educational standards of Windows to the Universe content pages and access a teacher workbook for use with the Windows to the Universe website. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience.
Education specialists with the NASA Educator Resource Center conduct a wide variety of workshops throughout the year to aid teachers and educators in coming up with new ideas to inspire their students and also in aiding in the integration of technology into their classrooms.
Miranda, Maria Eugenia
Dr. Carole Berotte Joseph, the new president of Bronx Community College, or BCC, has been training to lead an institution of higher education since grade school, taking on the role of master teacher since she played on her parents' stoop with the neighborhood children in Brooklyn. Growing up, she didn't play with dolls much. She played with real…
This article is an investigation into G. E. M. Anscombe's suggestion that there can be cases where belief takes a personal object, through an examination of the role that the activity of teaching plays in Anscombe's discussion. By contrasting various kinds of "teachers" that feature in her discussion, it is argued that the best way of…
Linsky, Ronald B.; Schnitger, Ronald L.
This guide provides teachers with copies of the materials given to students participating in the oceanography program of the Orange County Floating Laboratory Program and provides information concerning colleges and universities offering courses in oceanography and marine science, source of films, and sources of publications concerning the Navy's…
Noon, Elizabeth F.
Norma Kuder's teaching career was in jeopardy. Her personal life had been a mess for a long time, and it affected her teaching. Her principal believed that Norma didn't belong in teaching, and he warned her that her contract might not be renewed. Discusses how intelligent action by the school counselor, the principal, and fellow teachers saved a…
Smith, Sandi W.; And Others
A study determined the prototypical features of outstanding professors from the undergraduate student perspective (including verbal and nonverbal behaviors of outstanding professors) and whether female students placed different ranks on the prototypical features of the outstanding professors. The prototypical features of outstanding, or ideal,…
Lohman, David F.
In a recent article in this journal, Naglieri and Ford (2003) claimed that Black and Hispanic students are as likely to earn high scores on the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT; Naglieri, 1997a) as White students. However, the sample that Naglieri and Ford used was not representative of the U.S. school population as a whole and was quite…
Gallinat, Erica; Spaulding, Tammie J.
Purpose: This study used meta-analysis to investigate the difference in nonverbal cognitive test performance of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. Method: The meta-analysis included studies (a) that were published between 1995 and 2012 of children with SLI who were age matched (and not…
Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse
It has been suggested that children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) or Asperger's Syndrome (AS) may show difficulties with executive functioning. There were 3 groups in this study who completed a neuropsychological battery of visual-spatial, executive functioning, and reasoning tasks; AS (n = 37), NLD (n = 31), and controls…
Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Minne, Elizabeth Portman
Understanding social interactions is crucial for development of social competence. The present study was one of the first to utilize direct and indirect measures of social perception to explore possible differences among children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), Asperger's Syndrome (AS), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined…
Harlow, Simone C.
Every widely used psychological assessment instrument is under scrutiny in terms of cultural fairness. The expectation of the reduced-language (Nonverbal) section of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5; Roid, 2003) is that language ought not to be a modifying factor in terms of final score. The purpose of the present study…
Scattone, Dorothy; Raggio, Donald J.; May, Warren
The concurrent validity of the KBIT-2 Nonverbal IQ and Leiter-R Brief IQ was evaluated for two groups of children: those with high functioning autism and those with language impairments without autism. Fifty-three children between the ages of 4 and 13 years of age participated in the study. The correlation between the scales was large (r = 0.62)…
Giessman, Jacob A.; Gambrell, James L.; Stebbins, Molly S.
The Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test, Second Edition (NNAT2), is used widely to screen students for possible inclusion in talent development programs. The NNAT2 claims to provide a more culturally neutral evaluation of general ability than tests such as Form 6 of the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT6), which has Verbal and Quantitative batteries in…
Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina
The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…
Since PreK-12 student achievement is the primary focus of schools, all teachers are called to serve as teachers leaders and improve learning on their campuses. Rather than waiting until they have gained experience, teachers can begin acquiring the knowledge, skills, and dispositions of teacher leaders during their preservice programs. Drawing upon…
Addi-Raccah, Audrey; Arviv-Elyashiv, Rinate
School decentralization, which has reshaped power relations in the educational system, has empowered teachers and parents. Taking Abbott's approach to professions, the authors examine teachers' perceptions of the implications of parents' empowerment for teacher--parent relations. In-depth interviews with homeroom teachers in affluent urban…
Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.
In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…
The thought of children barely old enough to read singling out and tormenting other youngsters is disturbing and uncomfortable to contemplate. Yet researchers have found that bullying begins among preschool children and peaks in grades six through eight. It is a reality of which elementary school teachers are acutely aware and one that no school…
Bellocchi, Alberto; Ritchie, Stephen M.; Tobin, Kenneth; Sandhu, Maryam; Sandhu, Satwant
Classroom emotional climates (ECs) are interrelated with students' engagement with university courses. Despite growing interest in emotions and EC research, little is known about the ways in which social interactions and different subject matter mediate ECs in preservice science teacher education classes. In this study we investigated the EC and associated classroom interactions in a preservice science teacher education class. We were interested in the ways in which salient classroom interactions were related to the EC during lessons centered on debates about science-based issues (e.g., nuclear energy alternatives). Participants used audience response technology to indicate their perceptions of the EC. Analysis of conversation for salient video clips and analysis of non-verbal conduct (acoustic parameters, body movements, and facial expressions) supplemented EC data. One key contribution that this study makes to preservice science teacher education is to identify the micro-processes of successful and unsuccessful class interactions that were associated with positive and neutral EC. The structure of these interactions can inform the practice of other science educators who wish to produce positive ECs in their classes. The study also extends and explicates the construct of intensity of EC.
Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Pancera, Arianna; Galera, Cesar; Cornoldi, Cesare
It has been hypothesized that learning disabled children meet short-term memory (STM) problems especially when they must bind different types of information, however the hypothesis has not been systematically tested. This study assessed visual STM for shapes and colors and the binding of shapes and colors, comparing a group of children (aged between 8 and 10 years) at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) with a control group of children matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. Results revealed that groups did not differ in retention of either shapes or colors, but children at risk of NLD were poorer than controls in memory for shape-color bindings. PMID:26301905
Fetner, Maggie; Cascio, Carissa J; Essick, Gregory
Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may have difficulty tolerating conventional dental treatment due to aberrant sensory responsiveness. The purpose of this report was to describe the successful treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a nonverbal 20-year-old male patient with ASD using a dental appliance. A series of appointments prepared the patient for the required treatment procedures and desensitized him for use of the final appliance. The final appliance improved outcomes of a post-treatment sleep study, indicating successful treatment of OSA. Understanding the specific challenges of patients with ASD and the patience and foresight of providers in approaching these challenges, in collaboration with caregivers, can contribute to improved health outcomes for these patients. PMID:25514080
The speed hypothesis of intelligence was tested in relation to median nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in right-handed subjects. In total, NCV did not significantly correlate with IQ (Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence test). The motor and sensory median NCVs correlated with IQ positively linearly in men and negatively linearly in women. These results supported the general, unqualified speed hypothesis of intelligence only for men. It was concluded that the conduction speed of the input-output channels of brain as an information processing unit may differentially contribute to nonverbal intelligence, depending upon sex. The male hormone, testosterone, was suggested to be the main factor responsible for sex-related differences in the IQ-NCV relationships. PMID:8799775
In "Teachers as Learners", a collection of landmark essays, noted teacher educator and scholar Sharon Feiman-Nemser shines a light on teacher learning. Arguing that serious and sustained teacher learning is a necessary condition for ambitious student learning, she examines closely how teachers acquire, generate, and use knowledge about teaching…
Harding, Edie; McLain, Barbara; Anderson, Sue
In 1998, the Board of Directors for the Washington State Institute for Public Policy directed staff to study teacher quality. The Institute examined three teacher preparation and development programs covering the early stages of teachers' careers: pre-service teacher preparation, beginning teacher assistance, and professional certification.…
Primas, Jan; Primas, Terry
The New Teachers Workshop assists Missouri's beginning teachers in the field of gifted education. The two-day workshop includes discussion sessions led by experienced teachers, panels of gifted students answering teacher questions, and take-home activities and projects teachers can implement in their new positions. (JDD)
Aspy, David N.
This article suggests four steps for interpersonal training for teachers. The four steps are: 1) establishing a common definition for the term "empathy"; 2) helping each teacher appreciate past empathic understanding; 3) helping teachers assess other teachers' levels of empathic understanding; and 4) helping teachers become fairly precise judges…
Schiff, Tamara W.
This publication contains two essays discussing the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) and a criticism of merit pay for teachers. Today's schools are larger, often overcrowded, and frequently staffed by temporary or inexperienced teachers. TAP was created in response to the need for teacher-quality reform. It addresses challenges of teacher quality…
This educational website contains teacher materials for many subjects as well as books, professional resources, advice, and teaching tips for educators. Classroom materials include project ideas, activities such as web quests, unit ideas and lesson plans by grade level. Science topics covered include ecosystems, the solar system, the Sun, geography, seasons, weather, dinosaurs, life science and physical science. Links to additional information are also provided.
Resources for Preschool Teachers in the classroom. This link will have emotion faces and a tool to create a solution box for student use. Behavior This is the home page to Positive Behavior Intervention System PBIS Entering data for check points Creative Curriculum NAYEC national page along with the IA page NAEYC IA AEYC Dr. Jean's main page with some YouTube songs Dr. Jean ...
Teacher Candidate Internship Handbook 2014-2015 #12;i Copyright @ 2008 Darden College of Education of Contents PART ONE- THE TEACHER CANDIDATE INTERNSHIP PROCEDURES: Introduction..............................................................................................................................2 Teacher Candidate Internship
Frechette, M. Casey
One important but under-researched area of instructional technology concerns the effects of animated pedagogical agents (APAs), or lifelike characters designed to enhance learning in computer-based environments. This research sought to broaden what is currently known about APAs' instructional value by investigating the effects of agents' visual presence and nonverbal communication. A theoretical framework based on APA literature published in the past decade guided the design of the study. This framework sets forth that APAs impact learning through their presence and communication. The communication displayed by an APA involves two distinct kinds of nonverbal cues: cognitive (hand and arm gestures) and affective (facial expressions). It was predicted that the presence of an agent would enhance learning and that nonverbal communication would amplify these effects. The research utilized a between-subjects experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment conditions in a controlled lab setting, and group means were compared with a MANCOVA. Participants received (1) a non-animated agent, (2) an agent with hand and arm gestures, (3) an agent with facial expressions, or (4) a fully animated agent. The agent appeared in a virtual learning environment focused on Kepler's laws of planetary motion. A control group did not receive the visual presence of an agent. Two effects were studied: participants' perceptions and their learning outcomes. Perceptions were measured with an attitudinal survey with five subscales. Learning outcomes were measured with an open-ended recall test, a multiple choice comprehension test, and an open-ended transfer test. Learners presented with an agent with affective nonverbal communication comprehended less than learners exposed to a non-animated agent. No significant differences were observed when a group exposed to a fully animated agent was compared to a group with a non-animated agent. Adding both nonverbal communication channels mitigated the disadvantages of adding just one kind of nonverbal cue. No statistically significant differences were observed on measures of recall or transfer, or on the attitudinal survey. The research supports the notion that invoking a human-like presence in a virtual learning environment prompts strong expectations about the character's realism. When these expectations are not met, learning is hindered.
Watson, S.; Miller, T.; Davis, L.; Carter, P.
In this study, researchers qualitatively analyzed middle school teacher participant perceptions of qualities of teacher effectiveness across 3 years (2006-2009) through 66 focus group sessions by comparing the participants' identified qualities to Stronge's (2007) Teacher Skills Assessment Checklist. Surprisingly, a disproportionate number (42.6%)…
Marchant, Gregory J.; David, Kristine A.; Rodgers, Deborah; German, Rachel L.
Current accountability trends suggest an increasing role in state mandates regarding teacher evaluation. With various evaluation models and components serving as the basis for quality teaching, teacher education programs need to recognize the role teacher evaluation plays and incorporate aspects where appropriate. This article makes that case and…
Meister, Denise G.; Melnick, Steven A.
Surveyed first- and second-year teachers nationwide regarding concerns in four areas: classroom management, time management, communication with parents, and academic preparation. Data on 273 teachers indicated that new teachers needed more direct experience in school settings and continued assistance in discipline, time management, and…
In this study, the Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT; Green, 2008) and the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM; Tombaugh, 1996) were given to a consecutive series of outpatients undergoing disability assessment. No cases of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) failed the easy NV-MSVT subtests or the TOMM. However, 26% of the mild TBI group failed the NV-MSVT
The utility of math difficulties, internalized psychopathology, and visual-spatial deficits to identify children with the nonverbal learning disability syndrome: evidence for a visualspatial disability.
Forrest, Bonny J
This study examined the criteria currently employed to identify children with the nonverbal learning disability syndrome (NVLD). The most widely accepted definition of NVLD relies on deficits in visual-spatial-organizational, tactile-perceptual, psychomotor, and nonverbal problem-solving skills. These deficits are believed to coexist with strengths in rote verbal learning, phoneme-grapheme matching, verbal output, and verbal classification. The combination of these assets and deficits has been hypothesized to lead to psychosocial and academic problems, including difficulties with mathematics and increased rates of psychopathology. This study compared performance of three groups of children: those with NVLD, those with verbal learning disabilities (VLD), and controls. The results show that the criteria currently employed to identify children with NVLD may not adequately differentiate them. In contrast to previous findings, the study reveals that children with NVLD can demonstrate good math abilities when performing certain types of math tasks, especially those that draw on their robust verbal skills. Also in contrast to most previous findings, in this study children with NVLD (and normal controls) demonstrated lower rates of psychopathology than children with VLD. Finally, for children with NVLD it appears that their visual-perceptual deficits may include a primary deficit in locating objects in space. Based in part on the findings of this study, it may be helpful for diagnostic and treatment purposes to reserve the term Nonverbal Learning Disability for children whose visual-spatial deficits are primary and severe enough to affect academic performance in subjects such as written mathematics. Given the integral nature of social relations in children's lives, a separate category (e.g., social processing disorder) could be created for children whose social skills deficits are primary and impair their social interactions. A broader nonverbal learning model or syndrome, as conceptualized by Rourke (1995), could be retained for describing a broader constellation of assets and deficits across disease types. PMID:15590491
Kinne, Lenore J.; Watson, Dwight C.
This article describes how the teacher work sample methodology of the Renaissance Partnership for Improving Teacher Quality was implemented within the teacher education program at a small liberal arts college. Resulting program improvements are described, as well as on-going challenges. The adapted teacher work sample prompt and scoring rubric are…
Compares many teacher inservice programs to the artificial insemination of cows--decisions are made without teacher participation, teachers do not get to join in the act, and no one has much fun. Suggests that teachers be allowed to set their own goals and control their own learning. (Author/WD)
Berridge, Gina G.; Goebel, Vella
The high teacher attrition and early-career exodus of beginning teachers suggest that traditional methods fall short of providing the support needed by beginning teachers. This qualitative study examined the challenges encountered by student teachers during their practicum experience. Findings suggest that the attrition rate may be at least…
National Education Association, Washington, DC.
In this book, beginning teachers from around the country share their favorite chapters from the National Education Association's "Teacher-to-Teacher" books. Each story illustrates step-by-step how teachers tackle a specific restructuring challenge, describing what worked and what did not work in the process. Each chapter includes diagrams,…
This paper explores the concept of instrumental/vocal learning when studying the same instrument or voice with more than one concurrent teacher. In this context, teachers may be working as a team, or one or both teachers may not know of the other's contribution to a student's learning. Qualitative data from music students and teachers at the…
Licata, Joseph W.
Two types of teacher behavior were elicited from student responses to the Pupil Control Behavior Form (PCB). Two custodial teacher types emerged from the data: the "screamer" type, described as a teacher who controlled pupil behavior with verbal methods that expressed anger or frustration; and the "cold fish" type, depicted as a teacher who…
Cook, Jeremy A.
The allocation of quality teachers across schools is of interest because of both the importance and costliness of teachers as inputs in the education production process. Furthermore, because teachers have preferences over their workplace characteristics, this allocation across schools is nonrandom. This research examines teacher mobility within…
Babkie, A.M.; Provost, M.C.
With new laws and increased accountability for teachers, conducting research as a teacher-researcher in one's own classroom is one means by which teachers can help increase student success and also document effective interventions. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the responsibilities and roles of a teacher-researcher and…
Recent scholarship on teacher education has drawn a sharp contrast between “top–down” and “teacher-directed” approaches to instructional reform. However, this article suggests that all forms of teacher education share a common ground: they are all inescapably rhetorical in nature, aimed at the persuasion of teachers. While reformers may attempt to deny such intentions, they cannot help but employ rhetoric in
Lauer, Patricia A.; Dean, Ceri B.
This Teacher Quality Toolkit aims to support the continuum of teacher learning by providing tools that institutions of higher education, districts, and schools can use to improve both preservice and inservice teacher education. The toolkit incorporates McREL?s accumulated knowledge and experience related to teacher quality and standards-based…
Because they focus on the quality of instruction, teacher evaluations can be powerful catalysts for teacher and school improvement. But today, the typical teacher evaluation consists of a single, fleeting classroom visit by an administrator untrained in evaluation. Often he or she wields a checklist of classroom conditions and teacher behaviors…
Joyce, Bruce R.; Weil, Marsha
This report reviews the literature that is pertinent to a broad understanding of the teacher center concept and to the specific problems of designing a teacher center. Emphasis is placed on the origins, themes, methods of operation, and future plans for teacher centers. The origins include the revolution in teacher training underway in England,…
Pina, Violeta; Fuentes, Luis J.; Castillo, Alejandro; Diamantopoulou, Sofia
It is assumed that children’s performance in mathematical abilities is influenced by several factors such as working memory (WM), verbal ability, intelligence, and socioeconomic status. The present study explored the contribution of those factors to mathematical performance taking a componential view of both WM and mathematics. We explored the existing relationship between different WM components (verbal and spatial) with tasks that make differential recruitment of the central executive, and simple and complex mathematical skills in a sample of 102 children in grades 4–6. The main findings point to a relationship between the verbal WM component and complex word arithmetic problems, whereas language and non-verbal intelligence were associated with knowledge of quantitative concepts and arithmetic ability. The spatial WM component was associated with the subtest Series, whereas the verbal component was with the subtest Concepts. The results also suggest a positive relationship between parental educational level and children’s performance on Quantitative Concepts. These findings suggest that specific cognitive skills might be trained in order to improve different aspects of mathematical ability. PMID:24847306
Nonverbal auditory and visual communication helps ensemble musicians predict each other’s intentions and coordinate their actions. When structural characteristics of the music make predicting co-performers’ intentions di?cult (e.g., following long pauses or during ritardandi), reliance on incoming auditory and visual signals may change. This study tested whether attention to visual cues during piano–piano and piano–violin duet performance increases in such situations. Pianists performed the secondo part to three duets, synchronizing with recordings of violinists or pianists playing the primo parts. Secondos’ access to incoming audio and visual signals and to their own auditory feedback was manipulated. Synchronization was most successful when primo audio was available, deteriorating when primo audio was removed and only cues from primo visual signals were available. Visual cues were used e?ectively following long pauses in the music, however, even in the absence of primo audio. Synchronization was una?ected by the removal of secondos’ own auditory feedback. Di?erences were observed in how successfully piano–piano and piano–violin duos synchronized, but these e?ects of instrument pairing were not consistent across pieces. Pianists’ success at synchronizing with violinists and other pianists is likely moderated by piece characteristics and individual di?erences in the clarity of cueing gestures used.
Erstenyuk, Valentyna; Swanson, Meghan R.; Siller, Michael
Measures of pupillary dilation provide a temporally sensitive, quantitative indicator of cognitive resource allocation. The current study included 39 typically developing children between 3 and 9 years of age. Children completed a free-viewing task designed to elicit gaze following, a core deficit of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Results revealed a negative association between children's pupil dilation and a standardized measure of nonverbal intelligence, suggesting that children with lower intelligence allocated more cognitive resources than children with higher intelligence. In addition, the results revealed a negative association between pupil dilation and a parent-report measure of sub-clinical symptoms of ASD, suggesting that children with fewer ASD-related symptoms allocated more cognitive resources than children who showed more sub-clinical symptoms of ASD. Both associations were independent of each other and could not be explained by variation in chronological age. These findings extend previous research demonstrating associations between basic aspects of visual processing and intelligence. In addition, these findings comport with recent theories of ASD that emphasize reduced sensitivity to the reward value of social situations. When confronted with social ambiguity, children with more ASD-related symptoms allocated fewer cognitive resources to resolving this ambiguity than children who showed fewer sub-clinical symptoms of ASD. PMID:25821516
Proposing a teacher-based approach to educational reform, the Teacher's Mind Resources site is built around a recently published study of education, entitled Teaching in Mind: How Teacher Thinking Shapes Education. While largely promotional, the site offers a great deal of perspective into the current analysis of reformist trends and initiatives to stand on its own as a valuable source of insight and inspiration to educators at every level. Philosophically, the site's author is convinced that popular efforts to apply "universal" educational standards are meaningless - if they fail to take into account what each teacher brings to the class as an individual. Thus, it focuses on the teacher's mind as a unique tool destined to interpret every mandated standard differently and uniquely. Offering forums, media, and recently published research in the area, the Teacher's Mind site looks both to inform and engage all users.
Mumthas, N. S.; Blessytha, Anwar
To be a great teacher, more than content knowledge, teacher also needs practical and technical knowledge that contribute to teacher effectiveness. A teacher with high tacit knowledge is usually considered an expert teacher. The purpose of this study is to find out whether teachers with high tacit knowledge give equal preference to the various…
Gordon E. Greenwood; Robert S. Soar
Explored the relationships between teacher morale, as measured by the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire, and verbal teacher behavior, as systematically observed using the Reciprocal Category System. Ss were 39 female elementary (kindergarten through 2nd grade) teachers in Follow Through classrooms in 6 states. Product-moment correlations indicate that (a) teacher morale was negatively related to percentage of teacher talk; (b) the percentage
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Neutron page includes resources for teaching students about neutrons.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Stoichiometry page includes resources for teaching students about stoichiometry.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Electron page includes resources for teaching students about electrons.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Fusion page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery and applications of fusion.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Titration page includes resources for teaching students about the theory and applications of titrations.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Electronegativity page includes resources for teaching students about electronegativity.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Fission page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery and applications of fission.
Toh, Kok-Aun; Tsoi, Mun-Fie
The dire need of some schools to boost the academic performance of their students inevitably rests with their ability to attract highly qualified teachers. As such, the UK has put in place the Advanced Skills Teacher (AST) scheme, while the US has set the ball rolling in laying down standards for the certification of the master science teacher, to distil the best teachers from this pool of highly qualified science teachers. This article examines some of the practices in the teaching-learning process one would associate with those of master science teachers. It argues for the master science teacher to have a well-developed pedagogical content knowledge rather than be an expert in content knowledge. It argues for the master science teacher to be someone who has moved 'from personal comprehension to preparing for the comprehension of others' (Shulman 1987 Harv. Educ. Rev. 75 1-22).
WGBH Educational Foundation
In this video profile produced for Teachers' Domain, meet teacher Dustin Madden, an Iñupiaq who hopes to inspire students to take an active role in protecting the natural environment by giving them a foundation in math and science.
Carbone, Peter F., Jr.
Teachers have a professional need for instruction in philosophy and philosophy of education that must be satisfied by teacher preparation institutions. Educational philosophers should devote some research effort to exploring philosophical contributions to the guidance of practice. (SK)
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Proton page includes resources for teaching students about protons.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Isotopes page includes resources for teaching students about the structure and uses of isotopes.
Summarized is Arnstein's "ladder of citizen participation" for environmental decision making which indicates the necessity for collaboration between teachers and planners. A ladder of "teacher-planner" collaboration is needed to precede Arnstein's. (DC)
Gorham, Jonathan W.
This volume of teacher notes describes teaching methods to support the material presented in the background text and to elaborate on basic solar concepts. Included are objectives and quizzes, teacher notes and bibliographies, and selected student projects. (Author/RE)
Stauffer, Russell G.
Suggests that directed reading-thinking activity, characterized by (1) inquiry, (2) selectively processing ideas, and (3) feedback, is more creative for both the teacher and pupils than the teacher-centered directed reading activity. References. (VJ)
Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Nydén, Agneta; Gillberg, Christopher
A specific overlap between Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning difficulties (NLD) has been proposed, based on the observation that, as a group, people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal IQ (VIQ) than performance IQ (PIQ), one of the core features of NLD. The primary aim was to assess the longer term outcome of NLD-broken down into persistent and transient forms. The present study of 68 individuals was performed in the context of a larger prospective longitudinal study to late adolescence/early adult life of 100 boys with AS. Using self- and parent-report measures, we studied the longer term outcome of the NLD (defined as VIQ > PIQ by 15 points) as regards social communication, repetitive behaviour, attention, and executive function (EF) was studied. Three subgroups were identified: (1) Persistent NLD (P-NLD), (2) Childhood "only" NLD (CO-NLD) and (3) Never NLD (NO-NLD). The P-NLD group had the worst outcome overall. The CO-NLD group had better reported EF scores than the two other AS subgroups. There were no differences between the subgroups regarding social communication, repetitive behaviour, or attentional skills. Low PIQ increased the risk of ADHD symptoms. In the context of AS in males, P-NLD carries a relatively poor outcome, particularly with regard to self-reported EF. However, CO-NLD appears to entail a significantly better outcome. The results underscore the importance of analysing the cognitive profile both at diagnosis and after several years, so as to be able to formulate a realistic prognosis. PMID:25399237
TeachersFirst is a web resource for K-12 classroom teachers. It offers lessons and instructional units developed for TeachersFirst as well as reviewed, online resources, with tips for classroom use, for students at all levels. The content is organized alphabetically by subject and by grade level. It is also searchable by keyword. TeachersFirst is a division of Network for Instructional TV, Inc., a not-for-profit learning technologies corporation.
Tardif, Eric; Doudin, Pierre-André; Meylan, Nicolas
Many so-called brain-based educational approaches have been strongly criticized for their lack of empirical support and occasionally for their use of pseudoscientific concepts. As a result, several use the term neuromyths to refer to false beliefs or misinterpretations regarding neuroscientific facts. We surveyed both teachers and student teachers…
Coe, Robert; Aloisi, Cesare; Higgins, Steve; Major, Lee Elliot
This document is a summary of the report "What Makes Great Teaching". It argues that improved teacher development will positively impact on pupil attainment, particular those from disadvantaged backgrounds. "Developing Teachers" presents five policy recommendations which have been signed by 17 of Britain's leading headteachers…
Heller, Daniel A.
Just as the pool of qualified teacher applicants is shrinking and attrition rates are soaring, new standards are making entry into the teaching profession more difficult. Teachers can make sure their school system doesn't get caught in the crunch by implementing the approach from this visionary guide. Daniel A. Heller describes a top-to-bottom…
Riley, Roberta D.; Mort, Ken
The intention of this article is to view specific means of meeting teacher needs through Maslow's multiple-factor theory of self-actualization. Under each of Maslow's five headings, a brief explanation of the use of the term and examples of teacher center services fitting under that heading are discussed. (Author)
Miller, S. J.
The article examines, through comparative case study method, how secondary-language-arts preservice student teachers' identities were constructed by spacetime configurations and what those identities meant to the individuals in the study. It reflects on the findings from two of the preservice secondary arts teachers for the study in two…
Zacharias, Nugrahenny T.
This study aims to explore students' attitudes toward teacher feedback. The study used a triangulation of participants and methods in which the practice of feedback was seen from the perspectives of students and teachers collected from the quantitative data (questionnaires) and qualitative data (open-ended items in questionnaires and interviews).…
Alnoor, A. G.; Yuanxiang, Guo; Abudhuim, F. S.
This paper aimed to identifying the professional efficiencies for the intermediate schools mathematics teachers and tries to know at what level the math teachers experience those competencies. The researcher used a descriptive research approach, the study data collected from specialist educators and teacher's experts and previous studies to…
Teachers working together in learning communities is a popular aspect of school reform projects in countries around the world. However, teacher communities vary greatly from one another. This article describes two communities whose purpose is to help teachers work for equity by focusing on questions that emerge from practice and from genuine…
Brondyk, Susan; Stanulis, Randi
This is the story of a teacher leader who helped lead change in an urban elementary school by creating a new culture of support for beginning teachers. Specifically, she led focused, collaborative inquiry around discussion-based teaching to improve teaching effectiveness, and she created a school-wide coalition of support for beginning teachers to…
There is a large body of literature on the types of questions asked by teachers. Questions are a way that teachers use to bring students around to the correct mathematical concepts and procedures through "the negotiation of meaning for necessary condition of learning" (Voigt, 1992, p. 43). Teachers ask many questions, but we are not sure what…
Teachers should know how people learn, how the human brain functions, how memory operates and how a brain develops with age and be able to apply this to teaching their subject. However, research indicates that teachers tend to teach the way they have been taught. This article describes the balance needed by future teachers between content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge.
A "NEW BREED" OF TEACHER IS NEEDED TO MEET URBAN SCHOOL REQUIREMENTS DEVELOPING AS A RESULT OF THE INCREASED NUMBERS OF CULTURALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN. ONE PROGRAM INSTITUTED TO TRAIN TEACHERS FOR THIS ROLE IS DESCRIBED. THE PROGRAM IS OPEN TO GRADUATES OF LIBERAL ARTS AND TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAMS WHO FEEL THEY HAVE THE…
Campbell, Milo K.
Describes Brigham Young University's elementary rural teacher training program which has successfully provided rural student teaching experiences for over 250 prospective teachers since 1973. Details live-in experience, financial structure, reciprocal benefits, and school district-university cooperation in teacher preparation. (NEC)
Toh, Kok-Aun; Tsoi, Mun-Fie
The dire need of some schools to boost the academic performance of their students inevitably rests with their ability to attract highly qualified teachers. As such, the UK has put in place the Advanced Skills Teacher (AST) scheme, while the US has set the ball rolling in laying down standards for the certification of the master science teacher, to…
Harris, Ben M.
This book proposes treating teacher evaluation as a set of processes aimed primarily at helping teachers develop professionally. The book opens with a review of current practices and problems in evaluation, then outlines basic theoretical concepts and describes some operational models. The Developmental Teacher Evaluation Kit (DeTEK) is introduced…
Applies the concepts of idealism, individualism, and pragmatism from the Association for Teacher Education in Europe's scenario model to Germany's teacher education. Discusses the current German teacher training system's scholarly approach to idealism; notes organizational problems; examines the special psychological demands on students made by…
Marcondes, Maria Ines
Discusses elementary teacher education in Brazil, examining problems teacher educators face (e.g., lack of direct communication between theoretical studies and the practical world and lack of inclusion of practical knowledge and expertise developed by successful teachers). Current educational policies are discussed, looking at: implementation of a…
Teachers.Net aims to be the ultimate instructor resource site by providing: a bulletin board, job center, and calendar of upcoming events; live meetings and chatrooms; web tools for teachers; lessons and curricula on a variety of academic subjects; gazette columns on teacher issues; and an online library including dictionaries, thesauri, maps, and calculators.
Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian
This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…
Sterling, Donna R.; Frazier, Wendy M.
New teachers, especially those who are not certified in education, need support to succeed at teaching and remain in the profession. Because there is a growing national shortage of science teachers, many school districts are forced to hire teachers who have science degrees but little training in education or experience teaching. Research shows…
Shea, Kathleen; Greenwood, Anita
Most experienced high school science teachers are asked at some point to serve as a mentor to a novice teacher. While mentor-training programs have been established in many states, they often only focus on how the mentor can help new science teachers understand and negotiate the school culture, such as how the school runs and where supplies are…
Stronge, James H.
This book synthesizes research to identify specific teacher behaviors that contribute to student achievement, focusing on what teachers can control (preparation, personality, and practices). Part 1 examines teacher effectiveness. Chapter 1 investigates prerequisites of effective teaching, particularly the influence of background and professional…
Kennedy, Mary M.
Teacher quality has become a hot topic. Everyone wants to measure it, reward it, or improve it. One reason for this interest is the evidence that teachers differ dramatically in their ability to raise student test scores. Another reason for the current interest in teacher quality is that recent No Child Left Behind requirements focus on highly…
As teachers, we are given quite a list of duties to fulfill. It is tempting to take the easy way and plan your lessons for next week during your planning period. However, to be a truly dynamic teacher you must do more. In science, dynamic teachers have an
The pace of change in today's society means that there is an ongoing need for teachers to learn, have new knowledge and use new pedagogical approaches to meet the needs of their pupils. For many teachers, this requires redefining their identity as teachers and what "teaching" means in 21st century learning environments. These…
Bass, Ronald E.
Peer and subordinate criticism directed at the beginning industrial arts teacher ultimately leads to teacher failure. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning is used as an analogy to explain how the beginning teacher is conditioned to the norms of teaching, resulting in the loss of his enthusiam and idealism. (DS)
Zaffini, Erin Dineen
While much discussion and research is focused on the importance of music teacher mentors for preservice teachers and novice in-service music educators, little discussion has been devoted to the topic of how we, as members of the music education profession, can support the role of music teacher mentors. This article explores some of the benefits…
Benson, Chris, Ed.
This serial issue contains eight articles all on the theme of "Becoming Teacher Researchers.""Becoming a Network of Teacher Researchers" (Scott Christian) discusses how portfolios of classroom work provide documentation and encourage more systematic teacher research involving established research techniques. "Identifying Features of Language:…
Veenman, Simon; de Laat, Hanneke; Staring, Corine
This study describes the effects of a program designed to train Dutch primary school teachers in skills needed to coach and act as mentors for beginning teachers. The study investigated whether mentors who participated in the training program would implement the target coaching skills and whether the beginning teachers coached by the mentors would…
Atkinson, Becky M.
This article presents findings from a study conducted with a teacher focus group asked to read and discuss their responses to selected published teacher narratives of reflective practice. The teachers challenged features of practitioner reflection presented in several of the reading selections as not representative of how they experienced…
Teacher preparation and preparedness have been the focus of much research connecting quality teaching and learning, retention, and teacher satisfaction (Halsey, 2005; Hayes, Mills, Christie, & Lingard, 2006; MCEETYA, 2006). The successful recruitment and retention of teachers to rural and remote schools Australia-wide has been problematic for…
Graves, Kathleen, Ed.
The collection of essays on teachers as course developers is designed to help teachers understand how to develop courses or modify existing ones using their own experience and the experiences and theories of others. It attempts to capture this process through the stories of six teachers who have developed courses. Each narrative focuses on a…
Flinders, David J.
Educational researchers and teacher educators are often concerned with immediate and practical questions. How can health teachers help youth avoid substance abuse? Should a high school biology teacher show Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth," or is that film too political for a science classroom? What sports should be included in a physical…
This document outlines a practical teacher evaluation system that avoids the fatal invalidities of present methods. The recommended approach treats teachers as responsible professionals undertaking to perform certain duties while retaining considerable autonomy in discharging them. While teachers acknowledge a need for accountability and…
Soderbergh, Peter A.
Teacher education is in a stage of upheaval, if not chaos, and shows no signs of immediate stabilization. Outlines three root causes of teacher education dilemma and some opinions on what is in store for the future of teacher education. (Author/RK)
Teacher leadership represents a powerful approach to assert the true professionalism that educators have long been seeking. Opportunities abound for teachers to contribute to school reform by demonstrating their leadership skills. This article considers strategies to rebuild the portrait of teachers and thereby encourage strong professional…
"Management engineered" teacher education is an instructional method designed to assist teachers in the acquisition, maintenence, and improvement of essential knowledge, skills, attributes, and professional competencies which are necessary to function effectively in varied professional roles. The system aims at improving teachers' performances as…
Laffey, James; Perkins, Phyllis
This handbook presents an orientation program for volunteer reading teachers. Four units covered include an overview of the volunteer tutoring program, the classroom teacher's public relations role in the program, implementation of the tutoring program, and the classroom teacher's administrative or managerial role in the volunteer tutoring…
Mishna, Faye; Scarcello, Iolanda; Pepler, Debra; Wiener, Judith
Using semi-structured interviews, we examined teachers' understanding of bullying of children in their classes. Although teachers' definitions of bullying included both direct and indirect behaviours, several factors influenced how they characterized and responded to incidents. These factors included whether the teachers viewed an incident as…
Teacher quality is the most crucial component in promoting student learning. For all the controversy about No Child Left Behind, one underlying emphasis of the federal law that is irrefutable is the importance placed on teacher quality. Therefore, a school organization committed to excellence must recruit and select outstanding teachers. The Obama…
Podcasts for science teachers, by science teachers. In each five-minute episode, you will learn about hands-on activities, science facts, science history, pedagogy tips for new teachers, or other ideas for your science classroom. The clips are available for download as mp3 files.
Britzman, Deborah P.
In this article, the author links the force of Eros to the teacher's world to suggest that, if the teacher is the keeper of the student's heart and mind, then a teacher's open-mindedness made from a willingness to be affected by the lives of others is the best pedagogical resource, and the most difficult to sustain. The author's thoughts on Eros…
Marx, Gary E.
The No Child Left Behind emphasis on teacher quality and its relationship to student achievement has made teacher evaluation an area of increased concern for today's high school principal. Numerous problems associated with the evaluation of teachers have been cited in the literature, including lack of agreement on what constitutes good teaching,…
Benson, Chris, Ed.
This theme issue on standards contains 11 articles written by teachers of English and language arts in Bread Loaf's primarily rural, teacher networks. These narratives describe how teachers in Alaska, South Carolina, Ohio, Massachusetts, Kentucky, Arizona, and New Mexico are implementing state content standards while honoring local contexts for…
Hill, Heather C.
The professional development "system" for teachers is, by all accounts, broken. Despite evidence that specific programs can improve teacher knowledge and practice and student outcomes, these programs seldom reach real teachers on a large scale. Typically, reformers address such perceptions of failure by discovering and celebrating new formats and…
Grauer, Kit, Ed.
This journal issue provides a cogent look at general issues in art teacher education, specific teacher education programs and particular agendas as they are played out in a number of different countries. The topic is introduced in the Editorial, "The Education of Educators: Art Teacher Education around the World" (Kit Grauer). Articles that follow…
This report is the second in a series of policy papers on the education of educators. It identifies several model teacher education programs, but also finds that the majority of the nation's teachers are prepared in programs that have low admission and graduation standards and cling to an outdated vision of teacher education. Both state…
Sosa, Alicia Salinas; Gonzales, Frank
A critical shortage of bilingual teachers exists in Texas. While the Hispanic population has grown at a 39% rate, the number of Hispanic teachers has declined. The Teachers Need Teachers program in San Antonio pairs about 75 new bilingual education teachers with experienced bilingual education teachers, who serve as mentors. Its purpose is to…
Bakker, Marta; Kaduk, Katharina; Elsner, Claudia; Juvrud, Joshua; Gustaf Gredebäck
This study investigated the neural basis of non-verbal communication. Event-related potentials were recorded while 29 nine-month-old infants were presented with a give-me gesture (experimental condition) and the same hand shape but rotated 90°, resulting in a non-communicative hand configuration (control condition). We found different responses in amplitude between the two conditions, captured in the P400 ERP component. Moreover, the size of this effect was modulated by participants’ sex, with girls generally demonstrating a larger relative difference between the two conditions than boys. PMID:25705196
Deborah L. Hanuscin
Beginning teachers have much to learn about teaching (Odell 1990), including navigating their own classrooms and learning new school procedures and policies. Mentors can assist beginning teachers in making the difficult transition from student to teacher. Smith and Ingersoll (2004) examined data from a national survey and found that beginning teachers who had the support of mentors and well-planned induction programs experienced increased job satisfaction and self-efficacy. This month's column describes how experienced teachers can be effective mentors and the benefits of a mentor-mentee relationship that can obtained as a result.
Every year, as the result of an Education Group initiative, the UK Institute of Physics honours a small number of practising teachers in both the primary and secondary sectors. Nominations come from a variety of sources: students, pupils, head teachers, colleagues, governors, advisers, Institute branches and parents. Selection is by a panel of teachers and former teachers, people fully aware of the real work and rewards of being a teacher. To qualify for a Teacher's Award there is one basic criterion: is this person an exceptional teacher? It is not a competition, merely a wish to spotlight and celebrate the work of physics teachers in the classroom. This year nine awards were made, one for primary science and the rest for teaching physics in secondary schools and colleges. This was a higher number than in previous years and reflects the increased number of nominations received. If you know of a teacher who deserves recognition then please tell us. We are looking for teachers who inspire in their students a love of science (at the primary level) or physics (at the secondary level). We would particularly welcome more nominations from the primary sector. If you, or any of your children or relatives, can think of such a teacher then please contact Steven Chapman (Steven.Chapman@iop.org) for more details or a nomination form.
Most experienced high school science teachers are asked at some point to serve as a mentor to a novice teacher. While mentor-training programs have been established in many states, they often only focus on how the mentor can help new science teachers understand and negotiate the school culture, such as how the school runs and where supplies are kept. Less attention is given to teaching mentors how to assist new science teachers to develop their content knowledge, general pedagogical knowledge, and science-specific pedagogical content knowledge. This article provides a checklist for mentor teachers to use when assessing the teaching skills and knowledge of new science teachers. This checklist helps prioritize what and how much assistance the new teacher needs.
von Frank, Valerie, Ed.
"Teachers Teaching Teachers" ("T3") focuses on coaches' role in the professional development of teachers, exploring challenges and rewards that teacher leaders encounter. This issue includes: (1) Call to Action: Landmark Study on Professional Learning Calls to Teacher Leaders (Joellen Killion); (2) Tools: Hone Your Understanding of Effective…
The development of a professional teacher educator identity has implications for how one negotiates the duties of a teacher, scholar, and learner. The research on teacher educator identity in the USA has been largely conducted on traditional teacher educators, or those who have started their careers as public school teachers and then went on to…
Siebert, Cathy J.; Clark, Amy; Kilbridge, Amy; Peterson, Heather
The activity of working with a preservice teacher during an internship is a complex and intensive one representing a huge investment on the part of mentor teachers. Given this, it is not surprising that the effects on mentor teachers when their preservice teachers struggle or fail would be complex. We began to question how preservice teacher…
Armstrong, Anthony, Ed.
"Teachers Teaching Teachers" ("T3") focuses on coaches' roles in the professional development of teachers. Each issue also explores the challenges and rewards that teacher leaders encounter. This issue includes: (1) Standing Up, Speaking Out: Teacher Voices Lift to Influence National Policy (Anthony Armstrong); (2) Tool: Develop a Relationship…
Crow, Tracy, Ed.
"Teachers Teaching Teachers" ("T3") focuses on coaches' roles in the professional development of teachers. Each issue also explores the challenges and rewards that teacher leaders encounter. This issue includes: (1) Building Bridges: Data Help Instructional Coach Make Vital Connections with Teachers (Theresa Long); (2) NSDC Tool: Instructional…
Gold, Milton J.; Pepin, Bernadette
Using retired teachers as mentors for beginning teachers in New York City has made real differences in the lives of the new teachers, their mentors, the students, and the supervisors in approximately 100 schools. In these schools more than 100 mentors have worked with 500 teachers over a three-year period. The New York City Mentor/New Teacher…
Shaw, Carla Cooper; Nederhouser, Deborah Dobbin
Movies with teachers as main characters provide a powerful medium of instruction in the teacher-education classroom. The authors describe a graduate course for practicing teachers, "The Portrayal of Teachers in Film," in which such movies stimulate the examination of trends in the portrayal of teachers and serve as springboards for the exploration…
von Frank, Valerie, Ed.
"Teachers Teaching Teachers" ("T3") focuses on coaches' roles in the professional development of teachers. Each issue also explores the challenges and rewards that teacher leaders encounter. This issue includes: (1) Districts Harness the Expertise of Classroom Teachers (Valerie von Frank); (2) Tool: Measuring Collaborative Norms; (3) Lessons from…
Armstrong, Anthony, Ed.
"Teachers Teaching Teachers" ("T3") focuses on coaches' roles in the professional development of teachers. Each issue also explores the challenges and rewards that teacher leaders encounter. This issue includes: (1) Collective Responsibility Makes All Teachers the Best (Stephanie Hirsh); (2) Tools: How Our School Measures up/Exploring Our…
Crow, Tracy, Ed.
"Teachers Teaching Teachers" ("T3") focuses on coaches' roles in the professional development of teachers. Each issue also explores the challenges and rewards that teacher leaders encounter. This issue includes: (1) Sharpening Skills for Our Century (Valerie von Frank); (2) Lessons from a Coach: First, I Assess How Teachers Learn (Julie…
Korur, Fikret; Eryilmaz, Ali
Problem Statement: What do teachers and students in Turkey perceive as the common characteristics of effective physics teachers? Purpose of Study: The first aim was to investigate the common characteristics of effective physics teachers by asking students and teachers about the effects of teacher characteristics on student physics achievement and…
Keilwitz, Heather A.
Teacher retention is a wide concern in education and in response school districts throughout the United States are developing more comprehensive teacher induction programs. Components of teacher induction programs that have assisted with successful teacher development include release time for teacher observation, assignment of a knowledgeable…
National Education Association, Washington, DC.
NEA Teacher-to-Teacher Books are designed to promote team building, to enhance collegial leadership, and to give all K-12 teachers ideas and strategies for improving student learning. This book describes the personal odysseys of six teachers who have used technology to transform their teaching. Each story illustrates step-by-step how the teachers…
Parkison, Paul T.
As challenges are handed down from state and federal governments to demonstrate utility and efficiency within teacher education programs, it is important to stop and consider the role of teacher education within schooling. Perhaps we should prepare new teachers by asking, "How should we prepare new teachers?" By framing teacher education within a…
Corbett, Faye; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon
Semantic cognition, which encompasses all conceptually based behavior, is dependent on the successful interaction of two key components: conceptual representations and regulatory control. Qualitatively distinct disorders of semantic knowledge follow damage to the different parts of this system. Previous studies have shown that patients with multimodal semantic impairment following CVA--a condition referred to as semantic aphasia (SA)--perform poorly on a range of conceptual tasks due to a failure of executive control following prefrontal and/or temporo-parietal infarction [Jefferies, E., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. Semantic impairment in stroke aphasia versus semantic dementia: A case-series comparison. Brain, 129, 2132-2147, 2006]. Although a deficit of core semantic control would be expected to impair all modalities in parallel, most research exploring this condition has focused on tasks in the verbal domain. In a novel exploration of semantic control in the nonverbal domain, therefore, we assessed eight patients with SA on two experiments that examined object use knowledge under different levels of task constraint. Patients exhibited three key characteristics of semantic deregulation: (a) difficulty using conceptual knowledge flexibly to support the noncanonical uses of everyday objects; (b) poor inhibition of semantically related distractor items; and (c) improved object use with the provision of more tightly constraining task conditions following verbal and pictorial cues. Our findings are consistent with the notion that a neural network incorporating the left inferior prefrontal and temporo-parietal areas (damaged in SA) underpins regulation of semantic activation across both verbal and nonverbal modalities. PMID:20809787
Hornung, Caroline; Schiltz, Christine; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain
Early number competence, grounded in number-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities, is theorized to lay the foundation for later math achievement. Few longitudinal studies have tested a comprehensive model for early math development. Using structural equation modeling and mediation analyses, the present work examined the influence of kindergarteners' nonverbal number sense and domain-general abilities (i.e., working memory, fluid intelligence, and receptive vocabulary) and their early number competence (i.e., symbolic number skills) on first grade math achievement (i.e., arithmetic, shape and space skills, and number line estimation) assessed 1 year later. Latent regression models revealed that nonverbal number sense and working memory are central building blocks for developing early number competence in kindergarten and that early number competence is key for first grade math achievement. After controlling for early number competence, fluid intelligence significantly predicted arithmetic and number line estimation while receptive vocabulary significantly predicted shape and space skills. In sum we suggest that early math achievement draws on different constellations of number-specific and domain-general mechanisms. PMID:24772098
Small, Jeff; Chan, Sing Mei; Drance, Elisabeth; Globerman, Judith; Hulko, Wendy; O'Connor, Deborah; Perry, JoAnn; Stern, Louise; Ho, Lorraine
Linguistic and ethnocultural diversity in long-term residential care is a growing trend in many urban settings. When long-term care staff and residents do not share the same language or ethnocultural background, the quality of their communication and care are jeopardized. There is very little research addressing how staff and residents communicate when they experience a mismatch in their language and ethnocultural backgrounds. Thus, the goals of the present study were to 1) document the verbal and nonverbal behaviours used by staff and residents in diverse interactions, and 2) identify and account for behaviours that either promoted or detracted from positive communication by drawing on principles from 'Communication Accommodation Theory'. Two long-term care facilities in British Columbia Canada were selected due to the diverse linguistic and ethnocultural backgrounds of their staff and residents. Twenty-seven staff and 27 residents consented to being video-recorded during routine activities (e.g., mealtimes, recreational activities). The recorded observations were transcribed, translated, and coded using qualitative descriptive and interpretive analyses. A number of verbal and nonverbal behaviours were identified and interpreted in relation to whether they promoted or detracted from positive communication. The findings point to considering a variety of proactive strategies that staff and administrators could employ to effectively accommodate to language and ethnocultural diversity in long-term care practice. PMID:26260486
The present review aimed to check two proposals alternative to the original version of the 'semantic hub' hypothesis, based on semantic dementia (SD) data, which assumed that left and right anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) store in a unitary, amodal format all kinds of semantic representations. The first alternative proposal is that the right ATL might subsume non-verbal representations and the left ATL lexical-semantic representations and that only in the advanced stages of SD, when atrophy affects the ATLs bilaterally, the semantic impairment becomes 'multi-modal'. The second alternative suggestion is that right and left ATLs might underlie two different domains of knowledge, because general conceptual knowledge might be supported by the left ATL, and social cognition by the right ATL. Results of the review substantially support the first proposal, showing that the right ATL subsumes non-verbal representations and the left ATL lexical-semantic representations. They are less conclusive about the second suggestion, because the right ATL seems to play a more important role in behavioral and emotional functions than in higher level social cognition. PMID:25697904
Last month we saw that the age distribution for high school physics teachers skewed older than that of all teachers. We also noted that, even though they are older, at least three-fourths of the high school physics teachers indicated that they planned to teach high school for at least six more years. The figure shows the age and years of teaching experience for high school physics teachers. We see that almost 12% of the teachers who are 50 years old or older have five years or fewer of teaching experience. Thus, these are likely second-career teachers. The typical age range for second-career teachers is 33 to 59. However, the younger second-career teachers are more difficult to isolate because the average duration of the previous career is one and one-half to three years. In the December issue, we will look at teaching activities physics teachers use in the classroom, Susan White is Research Manager in the Statistical Research Center at the American Institute of Physics; she directs the Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. If you have any questions, please contact Susan at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.
The Language Teacher Research Series aims to connect research and practice by highlighting the insights that teachers themselves describe after examining their own practices. This first volume of the five-volume series presents research conducted by language teachers at all levels, from high school English teachers to English language teacher…
Counts, George E.
The age of teachers is investigated as one factor demonstrating part of the cumulative effect of teacher turnover and as documentation of the inability of the public school system to retain senior teachers. Age data are analyzed for: (1) all teachers in the Missouri public school system for the 1976-1977 school year; (2) secondary school teachers…
Physics Teacher, 2012
There are two sides of the physics teacher turnover equation: teachers leaving and teachers entering. This month we will focus on teachers' future teaching plans. As seen in the figure, about 5% of the 27,000 teachers who taught physics in U.S. high schools in 2008-09 were in their first year of teaching physics (but not necessarily their first…