James C. McCroskey; Virginia P. Richmond; Aino Sallinen; Joan M. Fayer; Robert A. Barraclough
Nonverbal immediacy of teachers has been demonstrated to be substantially associated with increased cognitive and affective learning in students. The assumption underlying the current research is that teacher communication behaviors that enhance student learning will also enhance positive evaluations of teachers by those students. This study sought to determine what specific teacher nonverbal immediacy behaviors are most associated with students'
Finn, Amber N.; Schrodt, Paul
This study examined students' perceived understanding as a mediator of the relationship between student perceptions of teacher clarity, nonverbal immediacy cues, and learner empowerment (i.e., meaningfulness, competence, and impact). Participants included 261 undergraduate students who completed survey instruments. Results of structural equation…
Previous research has indicated that nonverbal teacher behaviors such as smiling, vocal expressiveness, movement about the classroom, and relaxed body position are salient low?inference variables of a process which results in a product of increased cognitive and affective learning. This study identified a set of verbal teacher immediacy behaviors which similarly relate to increased student learning. Results indicated differentiated use
Conlee, Connie J.; And Others
Examines the relationship among four dimensions of patient satisfaction with physician care and nonverbal immediacy. Finds a significant positive correlation between nonverbal immediacy and overall patient satisfaction, with the strongest correlation to the attention/respect factor. (SR)
Jones, Susanne M.; Guerrero, Laura K.
Explores the combined influence of nonverbal immediacy and verbal person centeredness in the emotional support process. Tests three complementary models in an experiment with participants who disclosed an emotionally upsetting event to a confederate trained to display different levels of nonverbal immediacy and person centeredness. Suggests that…
Crump, Charla A.
A study investigated the impact of teachers' use of immediacy behaviors in the college classroom. Behavior patterns of teachers often affect the behavior patterns of students. Teacher immediacy has been found to positively impact student cognitive, affective, and behavioral learning. Subjects, 70 students, enrolled in a communication course in a…
Velez, Jonathan J.; Cano, Jamie
This descriptive correlation study sought to examine the relationships between verbal immediacy, nonverbal immediacy, self-efficacy and task value. Respondents assessed the verbal and nonverbal immediacy of their course instructor, and then assessed their personal self-efficacy and task value motivation. Results showed a significant positive…
Nixon, Sarah; Vickerman, Philip; Maynard, Carol
Using a qualitative approach drawing on the experiences of four HE lecturers, this study provides an exploration of and insights into a peer review of teaching (PRT) scheme, which focused on teacher immediacy and communication skills. Within the United Kingdom, limited research has been undertaken in relation to teacher immediacy even though…
Sanders, Judith A.; And Others
A study examined gender differences in the uses of uncertainty reduction strategies (self-disclosure, interrogative strategies, nonverbal immediacy, and other's self-disclosure) and their interrelationships with attributional confidence (uncertainty reduction). The subjects, 853 students from three western universities, participated in a survey…
This study utilize d direct observation to explore the relationship between nonverbal communication variables (immediacy and territoriality) and roommate satisfaction. Data were collected from 51 roommate pairs (N = 102) at a small liberal arts college. Participants were asked to engage in a discussion about a time they had to negotiate activities…
James C. McCroskey; Aino Sallinen; Joan M. Fayer; Virginia P. Richmond; Robert A. Barraclough
The current research was based on data drawn from the cultures of Australia, Finland, and Puerto Rico as well as the dominant United States culture. The direction of the relationship between immediacy and perceived cognitive learning did not differ among the cultures studied (a very positive relationship exists within each culture). However, the magnitude of the relationships varied substantially. The
The article covers the area of nonverbal (NV) behavior, especially the expressive behavior of instructors in higher education\\u000a and its effects on students. Two conceptualizations focusing on instructors’ expressive behavior are presented – “teacher\\u000a enthusiasm” and “teacher immediacy.” Their findings on the effects of instructors’ behavior on students’ affective (stronger\\u000a effects) and academic outcomes (weaker effects) are discussed, wondering about
Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Yun, Doshik; Kim, Wonsun
This study compared Korean students in South Korea and Korean students in the US regarding their perceptions of instructor decision authority and verbal and nonverbal immediacy. Korean students reported higher instructor decision authority and lower levels of instructor verbal and nonverbal immediacy in Korean classrooms than in US classrooms.…
Miller, Ann Neville; Katt, James A.; Brown, Tim; Sivo, Stephen A.
In this study, we examined the potential mediating role of instructor credibility in the relationship of instructor self-disclosure and nonverbal immediacy to student incivility in the college classroom. Four hundred thirty-eight students completed online questionnaires regarding the instructor of the class they attended prior to the one in which…
Robert J. Sidelinger; Brandi N. Frisby; Audra L. McMullen
Although romantic relationships are often an arena for positive interactions, they also provide a battlefield in which hurtful teasing may occur. This study examined reports of hurtful teasing in romantic relationships and the influence of perceived nonverbal immediacy and interpersonal solidarity on relationship satisfaction between romantic partners. Participants (N = 205) recalled and reported on teasing that elicited hurt. Results
Joan Gorham; Diane M. Christophel
This study investigated teachers' use of humor in relationship to immediacy and learning. The amount and type of humor recorded by 206 students as observations of things teachers did to show “a sense of humor” were analyzed and correlated with overall immediacy and perceived cognitive and affective learning outcomes. The results indicated that amount and type of humor influenced learning,
This paper discusses nonverbal communication and its implications and relevance for teachers. The first form of nonverbal language is proxemics, which describes the physical arrangement of space within a classroom and the space we allow between ourselves and others. The second form, coverbal behavior, describes physical movement, such as gestures,…
Willett, Tom H.
Assuming that teacher effectiveness and nonverbal communication are interrelated, an analysis of nonverbal communication and teacher assessment of nonverbal action is appropriate. A review of the literature indicates that nonverbal behaviors may be examined by the impressionistic and the quantitative methods. Each of these methods generates…
Ni, Shu-Fang; Aust, Ronald
This study used quantitative measures to gather data from online students to analyze the effects of perceptions about teacher verbal immediacy and classroom community on students' level of satisfaction, perceived learning, and online discussion frequency. Using convenience sampling, 214 students were recruited from undergraduate and graduate…
Hillison, John; Crunkilton, John R.
Teachers can use nonverbal forms of communication (facial expression, gestures, space, eye contact, body orientation, tone of voice, and head nod/head shake) to enhance the communication process with their handicapped students. (CL)
Instructor immediacy has been positively associated with many desirable academic outcomes including increased student learning. This study extends existing understanding of instructional immediacy behaviours in elearning by describing postgraduate nursing students' reflections on their own experience. An exploratory, descriptive survey design was used to collect qualitative data. Participants were asked what behaviours or activities help to create rapport or a positive interpersonal connection (immediacy) between students and their online teacher(s). Thematic analysis of the data revealed three main themes: acknowledging and affirming student's personal and professional responsibilities; providing clear and timely information; and utilising rich media. These findings give lecturers insight into instructional strategies they may adopt to increase immediacy in elearning and hence improve student learning outcomes. PMID:25632711
Jeff Kerssen-Griep; Paul L. Witt
During feedback interventions (FIs), instructors may feel torn between directing students’ learning or maintaining productive rapport with them. Existing research suggests how instructional communication can achieve both outcomes. This study examined how students’ motivation to learn and perceptions of fairness were enhanced or eroded via particular instructional behaviors. Actual face-threat mitigation (FTM) tactics and teacher nonverbal immediacy (TNI) cues were
Jiang-yuan, Zhou; Wei, Guo
This study investigated the effect of nonverbal mirroring on teacher-student rapport in one-on-one interactions. Nonverbal mirroring refers to the unconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partner in social interactions. In a within-subjects paradigm, students had four…
Berlin, Matthew Roberts, 1980-
As robots enter the social environments of our workplaces and homes, it will be important for them to be able to learn from natural human teaching behavior. My research seeks to identify simple, non-verbal cues that human ...
Suggestions are offered to help hearing teachers use effective nonverbal techniques in conjunction with signing when communicating information to hearing impaired students. Topics discussed include use of discourse markers, ways of maintaining eye contact, gaining/maintaining student attention, and effective turn-taking. (JW)
Williams, Amanda S.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…
Caudle, Lori A.; Jung, Min-Jung; Fouts, Hillary N.; Wallace, Heather S.
Observations of preservice teachers often lack information about specific strategies they use when guiding children's behavior. This study investigated how preservice teachers used verbal and non-verbal behavior modification techniques within structured and transition classroom contexts. Using an on-the-mark 20- second observe and 10-second…
Williams, Dottie S.
Previous research has demonstrated that a positive relationship between teacher and student improves student performance in school. However, less information is available regarding the verbal and nonverbal communications between the students with special needs and their teachers within this middle school subgroup. Personal attention and support…
Sherer, M; Rogers, R W
A therapist's nonverbal behavior may communicate emotion and feelings toward a client. Thus, skilled utilization of appropriate nonverbal cues should facilitate many nonbehavioral therapies. A 2 X 2 X 2 factorial experiment investigated the therapy-facilitating effects of three theoretical dimensions of nonverbal communication: Immediacy, potency or status, and responsivity. A reenacted client-centered therapy session was videotaped. Verbal content was held constant, but all combinations of the three nonverbal dimensions were portrayed. A total of 118 male and female nonparticipant observers rated the therapist's interpersonal skills (empathy, warmth, and genuineness) and effectiveness. The results disclosed that the nonverbal cues of immediacy (close therapist-client distance and eye contact) significantly improved ratings of the therapist's interpersonal skills and effectiveness. Thus, the study demonstrated that a therapist's nonverbal behavior is a basis for interpretations of empathy, warmth, genuiness, and effectiveness. These findings were interpreted in terms of the therapist's nonverbal cues communicating liking and acceptance of the client. PMID:7410567
This paper investigated teachers' verbal and non-verbal strategies for managing ADHD students in a classroom environment. It was found that effective verbal and non-verbal strategies included voice control, short phrases, repeated instructions, using students' names, and visual cues and verbal instructions combined. It has been found that…
Hans G. Klinzing; Bernadette Gerada Aloisio
As in traditional teacher preservice education, positive effects of the practice component in laboratory training approaches of laboratory training approaches is unclear, not only for the verbal but also for nonverbal aspects of communication and teaching. Therefore, based on a 3.5 day training program for the improvement of nonverbal skill two replicated experimental investigations were conducted to examine the potential
For over 30 years, instructional communication scholars have investigated the relationships between instructors' communicative behaviors and students' affective/cognitive learning, as well as student classroom motivation. More specifically, perceived teacher immediacy is positively related to student learning and motivation. Albert Mehrabian first…
Ligons, Claudette Merrell
This training package in nonverbal communication and the affective domain rests on the rationale that nonverbal communication is a support system for the verbal message that we convey and that it can be divided into two channels--the vocal and the kinetic. The vocal channel consists of the pitch of the voice, and the kinetic consists of postures,…
Creasey, Gary; Jarvis, Patricia; Gadke, Daniel
In the present research, associations between student attachment stances, verbal and nonverbal instructor immediacy, student-instructor relationships, and student achievement orientations were specified. It was predicted that positive student-instructor relationships would mediate associations between student attachment stances, instructor…
Wiener, Morton; And Others
Article summarizes suppositions implicit in approaches to body language" studies, stresses conceptual distinction between nonverbal behavior as communication and other non-verbal behavior and suggests criteria for nonverbal communication investigations. (Author/PD)
Klinzing, Hans Gerhard
The ability to express and decode nonverbal cues is assumed to be an essential quality in communication and teaching. To validate, generalize and expand upon earlier research on the importance of nonverbal competencies in communication and teaching, i.e., the relationship of nonverbal competencies (e.g., expressiveness/"charisma" and nonverbal…
Grove, Cornelius Lee
The anthropologist sees specific human non-verbal behavior as the medium through which relationships are maintained, regulated, and guided within culturally prescribed patterns. The spoken language, the use of space, eye-contact, smiling, and the use of the hand constitute unique patterns of behavior that are culturally specific and have wide…
Kurkul, Wen W.
This study explored nonverbal communication in one-to-one music performance instruction by investigating relationships among nonverbal sensitivity, nonverbal behaviors and lesson effectiveness. Subjects (N = 120) comprised 60 college teachers and 60 of their non-music major students. Using the Music Lesson Evaluation Form, lesson effectiveness was…
Rogers, Daniel T.
This study further examined the reliability and validity of the Learning Alliance Inventory (LAI), a self-report measure designed to assess the working alliance between a student and a teacher. The LAI was found to have good internal consistency and test--retest reliability, and it demonstrated the predicted convergence with measures of immediacy…
Sarah M. Ginsberg
In this qualitative study, college faculty who had good immediacy and clarity in their classroom communication shared the characteristics of being reflective and humanistic teachers. Most importantly, through their immediacy and clarity, this group of faculty conveyed to their students a sense of who they are as teachers, creating teacher transparency. Teacher transparency allowed students to develop an understanding of
Manarte, Joana; Lopes, Amélia; Pereira, Fátima
Pedagogical communication is an action wherein the body, being a part of a relational whole, performs a fundamental role. A bibliographical survey of studies on the interaction between teacher and student confirms that there is a strong correlation between the teacher's nonverbal behavior and the students' level of motivation and…
Effects of liking, interpersonal distance, and intimacy of topics on nonverbal behaviors were investigated in a setting simulating natural interaction, using a multichannel approach, which simultaneously took account of look, eye contact, body orientation, body lean, head orientation, and utterances. Twenty four male undergraduates interacted in pairs. Their interactions were video-taped. 1. Effects of liking were found on forward body lean, smile, head orientation, eye contact, and quantity of look. 2. Effects of interpersonal distance were found on forward body lean, eye contact, and body orientation. 3. In high liking, the smaller the interpersonal distance (or the greater the immediacy in terms of interpersonal distance), the greater the immediacy defined as a composite of other behaviors, and in low liking vice versa. PMID:3210461
. At run-time, the abstract gets concrete; variables refer to concrete objects and messages get bound to concrete methods. For example, profilers and back-in-time debuggers support exploration of a program's runImmediacy through Interactivity: Online Analysis of Run-time Behavior Michael Perscheid, Bastian
This activity uses video clips from a popular sitcom, "Friends," to help students grasp the relational, rule-governed, and culture-specific nature of nonverbal communication. It opens students' eyes to nonverbal behaviors that are happening on a daily basis so that they not only master the knowledge but are able to apply it. While other popular…
Grayman, Jesse Hession
After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground. PMID:24788052
The Center for Nonverbal Studies, a private, nonprofit research center located on the West Coast whose mission is to advance the study of human communication in all forms apart from language, offers online The Nonverbal Dictionary of Gestures, Signs, and Body Language Cues. Compiled by PhD David B. Givens and drawing on the work of anthropologists, archaeologists, biologists, linguists, psychiatrists, psychologists, semioticians, and others who study communication, this text is a fascinating compendium of brief essays on the way we say things without saying anything. From automobile grilles to folded arms to lawn ornaments to high heels, this text elucidates the language of nonverbal communication. New entries are added on a regular basis and featured at the Center's What's New page. The Website is affiliated with the Center for Ethnographic Research (CER) at the University of Missouri in Kansas City.
Klinzing, Hans Gerhard; And Others
A program was designed for training secondary school trainee teachers in expressive nonverbal behavior and for assessing the effect of various combinations of different training elements. The program was developed on the basis of nonverbal descriptors of "enthusiastic teaching": vocal delivery, eyes, facial expression, gestures, and eye contact…
Hayes, Gillian R.
Designing for Interaction Immediacy to Enhance Social Skills of Children with Autism Monica Tentori@ics.uci.edu ABSTRACT Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder often require therapeutic interventions to support immediacy, social compass, social skills, autism ACM Classification Keywords K.3.1 Computer Uses
Michaela Huber; Leaf Van Boven; A. Peter McGraw; Laura Johnson-Graham
People exhibit an immediacy bias when making judgments and decisions about humanitarian aid, perceiving as more deserving and donating disproportionately to humanitarian crises that happen to arouse immediate emotion. The immediacy bias produced different serial position effects, contingent on decision timing (Experiment 1). When making allocation decisions directly after viewing to four emotionally evocative films about four different humanitarian crises,
Foley, Gretchen N; Gentile, Julie P
The mental status examination is the objective portion of any comprehensive psychiatric assessment and has key diagnostic and treatment implications. This includes elements such as a patient's baseline general appearance and behavior, affect, eye contact, and psychomotor functioning. Changes in these parameters from session to session allow the psychiatrist to gather important information about the patient. In psychiatry, much emphasis is placed on not only listening to what patients communicate verbally but also observing their interactions with the environment and the psychiatrist. In a complimentary fashion, psychiatrists must be aware of their own nonverbal behaviors and communication, as these can serve to either facilitate or hinder the patient-physician interaction. In this article, clinical vignettes will be used to illustrate various aspects of nonverbal communication that may occur within the setting of psychotherapy. Being aware of these unspoken subtleties can offer a psychiatrist valuable information that a patient may be unwilling or unable to put into words. PMID:20622944
Watkins, Sherry; And Others
The article describes a pilot program to encourage independent communication in seven nonverbal children (ages 6-8) with orthopedic and/or neurological involvement or cerebral palsy. Transdisciplinary team members included the classroom teacher, speech clinician, instructional aide, computer resource person, occupational therapist, physical…
Curt, Carmen Judith Nine
The problem of Hispanic-Anglo conflicts in nonverbal communication is approached in this paper from the perspective of a teacher of English and Spanish as second languages, using largely anecdotal and often autobiographical data. Specific cross-cultural differences between Hispanics (Puerto Ricans, Dominicans and Cubans) and Anglos in the area of…
Battersby, Sharyn L.
Busy music teachers try to strike a balance between everything that they want to accomplish in a lesson and the constraints of their own teaching circumstances. What is sometimes overlooked in their efforts to fulfill their expectations is how their students really see them and what they are communicating to them with their bodies. Nonverbal…
Martino, Jacquelyn A
Approaches to shape computation and algorithmic art-making within the fields of shape grammars and computer graphics still do not consider the immediacy of the artist's mark in drawing and painting. This research examines ...
Selected Patterns of Interference in Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Between Black and White Middle Class Cultures. Reference Pamphlets on Intercultural Communication, No.2. Human Relations in Cultural Context, Series C: Teacher Training Materials.
Condon, E. C., Ed.; Freundlich, Joyce
Verbal and nonverbal patterns of communication found in the black community are discussed in this paper. They have been selected on the basis of their potential as interference factors in intergroup communication. A section on black language describes and explains the following categories: rapping, running it down, jiving, shucking, copping a…
Effective communication occurs with non-verbal and verbal tools. In this study the body language as non-verbal communication tool is taken to be examined, and teachers' opinions about the use and importance of body language in education are surveyed. Eight open-ended questions are asked to 100 teachers. As a result, it is shown that teachers…
Johnson, William L.
The potential of nonverbal communication as a field of inquiry for educators is explored in this paper. Following a brief introduction, the first section of the paper discusses basic concepts in nonverbal communication, beginning with two related definitions and a review of research. The functional significance of nonverbal communication is…
Key, Mary Ritchie
This volume discusses various aspects of nonverbal communication and provides an extensive bibliography of journal articles, listed by author, that are relevant to the topic. Commentary is divided into six sections: "Considerations in Nonverbal Communication," which examines the impact of motion and rhythm, the components of nonverbal…
Soudek, Miluse; Soudek, Lev I.
Discusses the role of non-verbal communication in learning a foreign language and culture. Discusses and gives examples of cultural specificity in interpretations of various forms of non-verbal behavior and its implications for language study. Makes specific suggestions of how to teach non-verbal communication to students of English as a second…
Mayotte-Blum, Jason; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle; Lehmann, Meaghan; Pesale, Frank; Becker-Matero, Nikaya; Hilsenroth, Mark
C. E. Hill (2004) recently developed the concept of therapist immediacy to capture discussion by the therapist about the therapeutic relationship that occurs in the here-and-now of a therapy session. This concept has been expanded to include discussion about the therapeutic relationship by both the client and therapist, captured by the term…
Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela
People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional…
Beekman, Susan J.
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of both sex of subject and sex of partner with respect to a wide variety of nonverbal behaviors. The subjects were 44 men and 44 women graduate professional students at the University of Chicago. The behaviors were coded from videotapes of 88 dyadic conversations where each subject participated in…
Carol W. Kennedy; Carl Camden
The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in selected nonverbal behaviors associated with interruptions. Six graduate student groups involving 18 female and 17 male subjects were videotaped. The data for the study were 140 cross-sex interruption sequences and a matched, randomly selected sample of noninterruption sequences. A category system using self-related activity, gestures, body lean, facial expression
DuBose, Rebecca F.
The sequence of prelinguistic patterns in the infant and young child is described and explained to aid in identifying the nonverbal child's level of signal and symbol communication. Child-object and child-adult interactions are grouped into the following levels (with sample characteristic behaviors in parentheses): sensation (ceasing crying upon…
Ferri-Bernardoni, Joseph M.
Participant observation and author introspection were used to collect data in this study of nonverbal communication among Italian Americans in three large American cities. Discussion is given to kinesics (gestures and signs), haptics (touch), proxemics (interiors of homes, exteriors of homes, and spatial arrangements at a wedding dinner), and…
Mary Ann Evans
This report describes research with 128 kindergarten children, the purpose of which was to assess the stability of verbal behavior and the relationship of verbal and nonverbal abilities and self-concept to talkativeness in the classroom. The children were divided into verbal and quiet groups on the basis of teacher rankings in the fall of kindergarten. Rankings in the spring term
Berg, Mark E.; Grace, Randolph C.
In Phase 1, 4 pigeons were trained on a three-component multiple concurrent-chains procedure in which components differed only in terms of relative terminal-link entry rate. The terminal links were variable-interval schedules and were varied across four conditions to produce immediacy ratios of 4:1, 1:4, 2:1, and 1:2. Relative terminal-link entry…
Susan Goldin-Meadow; San Kim; Melissa Singer
Does nonverbal behavior contribute to cognitive as well as affective components of teaching? We examine here one type of nonverbal behavior: spontaneous gestures that accompany talk. Eight teachers were asked to instruct 49 children individually on mathematical equivalence as it applies to addition. All teachers used gesture to convey problem-solving strategies. The gestured strategies either reinforced (matched) or differed from
Sadoski, Mark; Willson, Victor L.; Holcomb, Angelia; Boulware-Gooden, Regina
Verbal and nonverbal predictors of spelling performance in Grades 1-12 were investigated using the national norming data from a standardized spelling test. Verbal variables included number of letters, phonemes, syllables, digraphs, blends, silent markers, r-controlled vowels, and the proportion of grapheme-phoneme correspondence. The nonverbal…
Brody, Gene H.; Stoneman, Zolinda
Examines how parents use nonverbal behaviors in family situations. Results revealed that nonverbal behaviors which parents model for their children vary with the number of family members interacting, the gender of the offspring, and the gender of the parent. Results were discussed in terms of family dynamics. (Author)
Seddon, G. M.; Pedrosa, M. A.
Investigated the effects of nonverbal communication during oral examinations by testing two groups of British secondary students, one group in a face-to-face situation. Finds nonverbal effects increased the mean scores by two points but could not conclude that the increase was a result of student appearance and gestures. (CH)
Hamersma, Richard J.; Mark, Robert
Non-verbal communication is an important part of the total communication process. It is important for counselors to be aware of their own pattern of non-verbal communication, as well as being alert to the silent messages being communicated by the client. (Author)
The study of nonverbal communication continues to grow across the spectrum of research in many fields of study. Good textbooks and research studies are available to the scholar and the student, and courses about nonverbal behavior and communication are found in modern curricula. This book focuses on the complex, often hidden, processes that…
The Center for Non-Verbal Studies in Spokane, Washington, scientifically studies all modes of non-verbal communication including body movement, gesture, facial expression, and adornment to name a few. Visitors to the site should definitely take a look at the "Nonverbal Dictionary of Gestures, Signs, and Body Language Cues" link, which intriguingly covers everything from the "Adam's-Apple-Jump" to the "Zygomatic Smile." Some of the other entries include Fingertip Cue, Flashbulb Eyes, and Table-Slap. The topics on the left hand menu go more in-depth than the dictionary entries. The "Nonverbal Brain" link begins with a quote by Hippocrates: "Men ought to know that from the brain, and from the brain only, arise our pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, griefs and tears." Finally, visitors can also learn about the literature, evolution, and media approaches to the nonverbal brain.
Donald R. Bardill
The purpose of this article is to examine life-space diagrams as a form of nonverbal poetry. Family life-space diagrams, by their very nature, are a nonverbal blend of lyrical, narrative, and dramatic poetry. The life-space diagram taps personal feelings, tells a story, and characterizes a particular life situation. The human memory process, with its multilevel consciousness, provides the basis for
Ellis, Shari; Rogoff, Barbara
Children instruct primarily through demonstration and models, while their teachers show a greater reliance on verbal instruction. However, several authors have noted differences between the instructional styles used in classrooms and those used in nonacademic instruction. Nine-year-old teachers use more nonverbal than verbal instruction, and refer…
Steele, Natalie A.
This article discusses three characteristics that are often associated with successful music educators. The three characteristics discussed include nonverbal communication, teacher self-efficacy, and servant leadership. Although there is no magical combination of characteristics that will produce an effective music teacher, these three attributes…
Victoria L. Petti; Sylvia L. Voelker; Douglas L. Shore; Susan E. Hayman-Abello
The purpose of this study was to document deficits in the perception of nonverbal emotion cues that have been implicated as a cause of social maladjustment in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD). Thirty-three children between the ages of 9 and 14 identified as having NLD, verbal learning disabilities (VLD), or as nonlearning disabled psychiatric controls were administered the Diagnostic
D'Agostino, Thomas A; Bylund, Carma L
This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within health care interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as joint convergence, followed closely by asymmetrical-patient convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by joint convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as asymmetrical-physician convergence. Differences were predominantly nonsignificant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre- and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as joint convergence or asymmetrical-physician convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender-concordant and nonconcordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in health care communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective. PMID:24138223
A literature review notes how gender expectations lead to nonverbal communication differences in such behaviors as smiling, eye contact, kinesics, proximics, and decoding. The importance of the effective use of nonverbal communication in human resource development is emphasized. (SK)
in human sciences have shown that nonverbal communication is the main channel through which we express to automatically infer social signals from nonverbal behavioral cues detected through sensors? Â· Is it possiblSocial Signal Processing: Understanding Nonverbal Communication in Social Interactions Alessandro
DePaulo, Bella M.; Rosenthal, Robert
Middle class children and adults (n=632) from eight age levels (mean ages 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 17, 19 and 33 years) were tested with the Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity (the PONS test) to measure accuracy in decoding nonverbal cues. The prediction that nonverbal skills would increasingly differentiate over ages was confirmed. (RH)
Krohn, Franklin B.
The purpose of this article is to help determine whether the use of emoticons in computer mediated communication (CMC) are truly nonverbal cues. A review of the literature revealed that the traditional nonverbal theorists failed to predict the future employment of nonverbal cues in electronic CMC. A variety of emoticons are then described…
Walther, Sebastian; Stegmayer, Katharina; Sulzbacher, Jeanne; Vanbellingen, Tim; Müri, René; Strik, Werner; Bohlhalter, Stephan
Schizophrenia patients are severely impaired in nonverbal communication, including social perception and gesture production. However, the impact of nonverbal social perception on gestural behavior remains unknown, as is the contribution of negative symptoms, working memory, and abnormal motor behavior. Thus, the study tested whether poor nonverbal social perception was related to impaired gesture performance, gestural knowledge, or motor abnormalities. Forty-six patients with schizophrenia (80%), schizophreniform (15%), or schizoaffective disorder (5%) and 44 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and education were included. Participants completed 4 tasks on nonverbal communication including nonverbal social perception, gesture performance, gesture recognition, and tool use. In addition, they underwent comprehensive clinical and motor assessments. Patients presented impaired nonverbal communication in all tasks compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, performance in patients was highly correlated between tasks, not explained by supramodal cognitive deficits such as working memory. Schizophrenia patients with impaired gesture performance also demonstrated poor nonverbal social perception, gestural knowledge, and tool use. Importantly, motor/frontal abnormalities negatively mediated the strong association between nonverbal social perception and gesture performance. The factors negative symptoms and antipsychotic dosage were unrelated to the nonverbal tasks. The study confirmed a generalized nonverbal communication deficit in schizophrenia. Specifically, the findings suggested that nonverbal social perception in schizophrenia has a relevant impact on gestural impairment beyond the negative influence of motor/frontal abnormalities. PMID:25646526
Roweton, William E.; Spencer, Herbert L., Jr.
Numerous studies of verbal creativity indicate that idea originality increases progressively as more ideas are produced. The present study tested the effects of practice upon nonverbal creativity. Thirty-two fifth grade children were administered Form A and/or Form B of Torrance's picture completion task for 5 consecutive days. Figural originality…
Baird, John E., Jr.; Weiting, Gretchen K.
Stating that motivation is a product of the interaction between employer and employee, the authors discuss the "Pygmalion effect" (whereby the expectations of a manager influence the performance of subordinates), the importance of communication, and the components of nonverbal communication: environment, proxemics, postures, gestures,…
Albanese, Ottavia; De Stasio, Simona; Di Chiacchio, Carlo; Fiorilli, Caterina; Pons, Francisco
A substantial body of research has established that emotion understanding develops throughout early childhood and has identified three hierarchical developmental phases: external, mental, and reflexive. The authors analyzed nonverbal intelligence and its effect on children's improvement of emotion understanding and hypothesized that cognitive…
Murphy, Susan A.
;Why Do a SMART Design in a Treatment Study for Autism? 3 #12;4 Evidence Base for Autism Treatments weaker than IQ #12;5 Evidence Base for Autism Treatments.....most higher functioning Children excludedInnovative Communication Intervention for Older Nonverbal Children with Autism Connie Kasari
Rollman, Steven A.
Research has shown that nonverbal variables have a strong influence on classroom communication. This paper examines the way in which communication in the classroom is affected by the variables of distance, physical environment, facial expression, vocal cues, posture and gestures, touch, use of time, physical attractiveness, and dress. Each…
This article presents a critical review of the term and concept of nonverbal learning disability (NLD). After a brief historical introduction, the article focuses on the apparent rarity of NLD; the hypothesis of the frequent co-occurrence of emotional disorder, depression, and suicide in NLD; the white matter hypothesis as an explanation of the origin of NLD; and the question of
Riley, Jobie E.
This paper on the subject of smell in communication provides a brief survey of the subject, pulling together a wide variety of disparate ideas across many disciplines. The paper is comprised of a general introductory section and separate sections on the olfactory nonverbal communication of animals and human beings. The uses to which animals put…
Bardill, Donald R.
Examines life-space diagrams as a form of nonverbal poetry which taps personal feelings, tells a story, and characterizes a particular life situation, forming a useful therapy technique that provides a family the opportunity to examine its internal family relationships. Offers two case studies, discusses five levels of knowing and awareness, and…
Narvaez, Alice; Hertel, Paula T.
Memory for everyday conversational speech may be influenced by the nonverbally communicated emotion of the speaker. In order to investigate this premise, three videotaped scenes with bipolar emotional perspectives (joy/fear about going away to college, fear/anger about having been robbed, and disgust/interest regarding a friend's infidelity) were…
Isabel Huet; José Tavares; George Weir
Increasing attention to quality and innovation in Higher Education (HE) is enhancing the pedagogic knowledge of faculty members and thereby encouraging the academic success of their students. This aim requires, from the institution and teachers, a greater degree of involvement than was previously the case. This is certainly borne out by experience in Portuguese universities. The growing concern of engineers
Lee, Lauren A.; Sbarra, David A.; Mason, Ashley E.; Law, Rita W.
Marital separation and divorce increase risk for all-cause morbidity and mortality. Using a laboratory analogue paradigm, the present study examined attachment anxiety, language use, and blood pressure (BP) reactivity among 119 (n = 43 men, 76 women) recently separated adults who were asked to mentally reflect on their relationship history and separation experience. We created a language use composite of verbal immediacy from participants’ stream-of-consciousness recordings about their separation experience as a behavioral index of attachment-related hyperactivation. Verbal immediacy moderated the association between attachment anxiety and BP at the beginning of a divorce-specific activation task. Participants reporting high attachment anxiety who discussed their separation in a first-person, present-oriented and highly engaged manner evidenced the highest levels of BP at the start of the divorce-specific task. Results provide a deeper understanding of the association between marital dissolution and health and suggest that verbal immediacy may be a useful behavioral index of hyperactivating coping strategies. PMID:21647240
Argues that violence occurs each day in front of teachers, and examines how teachers explicitly and implicitly sanction verbal and nonverbal aggressive behavior in the schools. Asserts that educators must take the lead in finding constructive ways to respond to children and help them respond to one another. (SD)
Stader, Ellen; And Others
Four studies were conducted on how well teachers at various stages of development can decode a student's nonverbal behavior, particularly that which communicates a lack of comprehension. Participants in the studies were novice (n=9), advanced beginner (n=10), and expert (n=10) elementary school teachers. In the first study, the teachers viewed a…
Tschacher, Wolfgang; Rees, Georg M.; Ramseyer, Fabian
In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and ‘fun task’ conditions. We focused on the link between interactants’ affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants’ personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants’ body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology, and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.8 years). Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted 5 min. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation. PMID:25505435
Hoque, Mohammed Ehsan
Nonverbal behavior plays an integral part in a majority of social interaction scenarios. Being able to adjust nonverbal behavior and influence other's responses are considered valuable social skills. A deficiency in nonverbal ...
Feldman, Robert S.; Coats, Erik
This study examined the relationship of nonverbal encoding and decoding skills to the level of exposure to television. Subjects were children in second through sixth grade. Three nonverbal skills (decoding, spontaneous encoding, and posed encoding) were assessed for each of five emotions: anger, disgust, fear or surprise, happiness, and sadness.…
ORIGINAL PAPER Nonverbal Social Sensing in Action: Unobtrusive Recording and Extracting of Nonverbal Behavior in Social Interactions Illustrated with a Research Example Denise Frauendorfer Â· Marianne Schmid Mast Â· Laurent Nguyen Â· Daniel Gatica-Perez Ã? Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014
Chesley, Gayle L.; Gillett, Dodie A.; Wagner, William G.
The metaphor is typically viewed as a verbal form of expression in traditional talk therapies. However, this definition excludes nonverbal metaphors that children use when they express themselves through play. In this article, the authors examine the use of therapeutic metaphors, both verbal and nonverbal, with children. The roles of the child,…
La France, Marianne; Mayo, Clara
Review of literature on gender-linked aspects of nonverbal behavior reveals that the differences in nonverbal behavior are in line with societal expectations calling for women to be reactive and for men to be proactive. Communication between the sexes is discussed in terms of smiling, personal space, touch, and talk. (JMF)
Strube, Michael J.; Werner, Carol
A study investigated the use of nonverbal cues by male and female subjects during relatively pleasant and unpleasant interactions. Five nonverbal behaviors found to be effective in controlling both the quantity and the quality of interactions were examined: gaze, smiling, arm position, interpersonal distance, and personal space. It was expected…
Foa, Uriel G.; And Others
The search for syntactical rules which govern nonverbal communication and cues in humans has often been considered a problem separate from determining semantic rules. Departing from such a traditional approach was accomplished by employing the meaning of various nonverbal channels to study their interrelationship. It was proposed that the…
Almerigogna, Jehanne; Ost, James; Akehurst, Lucy; Fluck, Mike
We conducted two studies to examine how interviewers' nonverbal behaviors affect children's perceptions and suggestibility. In the first study, 42 8- to 10-year-olds watched video clips showing an interviewer displaying combinations of supportive and nonsupportive nonverbal behaviors and were asked to rate the interviewer on six attributes (e.g.,…
Lytle, Jayne S.
If nonverbal decoding skills are impaired by cultural expectations and training, the deaf person will be further isolated from social participation. To identify factors that might account for inaccurate nonverbal decoding of deaf subjects, a study compared the decoding abilities of three groups of deaf college students (N=76) using R. Rosenthal's…
Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa J.
This article discusses the use of nonverbal communication strategies for fostering social health in middle school students. It outlines a teaching technique designed to help students better understand nonverbal cues and their role in maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships. The technique begins with the card game "Slap What?" where the…
This paper studies meaning as a construct of human interaction. Basic to this approach is the concept of the act of communication, which may be realized verbally or non-verbally. In order to integrate non-verbal behaviors into descriptions of discourse and interaction, a series of functional, not anatomic, categories is needed. For the kinesic…
Harper, Vernon B., Jr.
Nonverbal communication is fundamental to any comprehensive examination of human interaction. This article presents an activity that can be easily applied by any instructor as a starting point for a discussion of nonverbal communication, or as a demonstration of learning points previously discussed. Instructors should have a slight background in…
Agaliotis, Ioannis; Kalyva, Efrosini
Many children with learning disabilities (LD) face problems in their nonverbal communication, which constitutes an important component of their social skills. This study explores the frequency of nonverbal initiations and responses of 36 children with LD and 36 children without LD matched for age and gender, who were observed for 40 min during the…
Weisbuch, Max; Ambady, Nalini
We examined the extent to which nonverbal behavior contributes to culturally-shared attitudes and beliefs. In Study 1, we demonstrated that slim women elicit especially positive nonverbal behaviors in popular television shows. In Study 2, we demonstrated that exposure to this nonverbal bias caused people to have especially slim cultural and personal ideals of female beauty and to have especially positive attitudes toward slim women. In Study 3, we demonstrated that individual differences in exposure to such nonverbal bias could account for substantial variance in pro-slim attitudes, anti-fat attitudes, and personal ideals of beauty, even after controlling for several third variables. In Study 4, we demonstrated that regional differences in exposure to nonverbal bias accounted for substantial variance in regional unhealthy dieting behaviors, even after controlling for several third variables. PMID:19469590
According to the NASPE beginning teacher standards, the ability to manage and motivate students is fundamental to effective teaching. To be truly effective at managing and motivating students, teachers need to monitor and react to class behavior and class feedback (verbal and nonverbal) while simultaneously giving instructions or feedback. This…
Barclay, Allen C.
On a national level, data indicate that about 40 percent of students in calculus courses finish with a grade of D or F, drop the course, or withdraw (Reinholz, 2009). This high failure rate has led to research studies investigating the teaching of calculus at the national level (House, 1995). Calculus courses have a history of high failure rates,…
Dirk Heylen; Anton Nijholt; Mannes Poel; A. Esposito; M. Faunder-Zanny; E. Keller; M. Marinaro
In the Sensitive Artificial Listener project research is performed with the aim to design an embodied agent that not only\\u000a generates the appropriate nonverbal behaviors that accompany speech, but that also displays verbal and nonverbal behaviors\\u000a during the production of speech by its conversational partner. Apart from many applications for embodied agents where natural\\u000a interaction between agent and human partner
Abigail A. Marsh; Henry H. Yu; Julia C. Schechter; R. J. R. Blair; Colin Allen
BackgroundSocial dominance and physical size are closely linked. Nonverbal dominance displays in many non-human species are known to increase the displayer's apparent size. Humans also employ a variety of nonverbal cues that increase apparent status, but it is not yet known whether these cues function via a similar mechanism: by increasing the displayer's apparent size.Methodology\\/Principal FindingWe generated stimuli in which
Marsh, Abigail A.; Yu, Henry H.; Schechter, Julia C.; Blair, R. J. R.
Background Social dominance and physical size are closely linked. Nonverbal dominance displays in many non-human species are known to increase the displayer's apparent size. Humans also employ a variety of nonverbal cues that increase apparent status, but it is not yet known whether these cues function via a similar mechanism: by increasing the displayer's apparent size. Methodology/Principal Finding We generated stimuli in which actors displayed high status, neutral, or low status cues that were drawn from the findings of a recent meta-analysis. We then conducted four studies that indicated that nonverbal cues that increase apparent status do so by increasing the perceived size of the displayer. Experiment 1 demonstrated that nonverbal status cues affect perceivers' judgments of physical size. The results of Experiment 2 showed that altering simple perceptual cues can affect judgments of both size and perceived status. Experiment 3 used objective measurements to demonstrate that status cues change targets' apparent size in the two-dimensional plane visible to a perceiver, and Experiment 4 showed that changes in perceived size mediate changes in perceived status, and that the cue most associated with this phenomenon is postural openness. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that nonverbal cues associated with social dominance also affect the perceived size of the displayer. This suggests that certain nonverbal dominance cues in humans may function as they do in other species: by creating the appearance of changes in physical size. PMID:19479082
Dohmen, Andrea; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny
Research in children with language problems has focussed on verbal deficits, and we have less understanding of children's deficits with nonverbal sociocognitive skills which have been proposed to be important for language acquisition. This study was designed to investigate elicited nonverbal imitation in children with specific language delay (SLD). It is argued that difficulties in nonverbal imitation, which do not involve the processing of structural aspects of language, may be indicative of sociocognitive deficits. Participants were German-speaking typically developing children (n=60) and children with SLD (n=45) aged 2-3 ½ years. A novel battery of tasks measured their ability to imitate a range of nonverbal target acts that to a greater or lesser extent involve sociocognitive skills (body movements, instrumental acts on objects, pretend acts). Significant group differences were found for all body movement and pretend act tasks, but not for the instrumental act tasks. The poorer imitative performance of the SLD sample was not explained by motor or nonverbal cognitive skills. Thus, it appeared that the nature of the task affected children's imitation performance. It is argued that the ability to establish a sense of connectedness with the demonstrator was at the core of children's imitation difficulty in the SLD sample. PMID:23896360
environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation. 6. Communication & Technology The teacher uses knowledge of effective verbal, nonverbal, and media communication of INTASC is guided by one basic premise: An effective teacher must be able to integrate content knowledge
of the Requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Abstract Nonverbal behavior plays an integral part in a majority of social interaction scenarios. Being able to adjust nonverbal behavior and influence other's responses are considered valuable social skills. A deficiency in nonverbal behavior can have detrimental
Cary R Savage; Lee Baer; Nancy J Keuthen; Halle D Brown; Scott L Rauch; Michael A Jenike
Background: Previous neuropsychological studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have indicated impaired executive functioning and nonverbal memory. The extent to which impaired executive functioning impacts nonverbal memory has not been established. The current study investigated the mediating effects of organizational strategies used when copying a figure on subsequent nonverbal memory for that figure.Methods: We examined neuropsychological performance in 20 unmedicated subjects
Dory A. Schachner; Phillip R. Shaver; Mario Mikulincer
Nonverbal behavior and sensitivity to a relationship partner’s nonverbal behavior importantly influence the quality of interpersonal interactions and relationships, including attachment relationships. The abilities to encode, or express, and to decode, or understand, nonverbal cues are crucial to effective communication of emotions and are associated with social adjustment and relationship satisfaction. One important social context for the development and use
Blahna, Loretta J.
Although the bulk of recent research on nonverbal communication has involved studies of the functions of nonverbal behavior (emotion conveying, regulation, and adaption), a few studies have focused on the differences in nonverbal communication variables between men and women. These differences have been found in vocal patterns, intensities, length…
Max Weisbuch; Nalini Ambady
Gesture and elaborate forms of nonverbal behaviour have been posited as necessary antecedents to language and shared con- ceptual understanding. Here we argue that subtle and largely unin- tentional nonverbal behaviours play a key role in building consensual beliefs within culture. Specifically, people extract a great deal of information from even brief exposure to subtle nonverbal behaviour and much, if
COM 4200 Nonverbal Communication Fall 2011 (M/W 1:25-2:50) Want to know how to make a good first Communication! Indeed, there are a number of other reasons why students should study nonverbal communication: 1. Up to 93% of the communication process in which human beings engage is nonverbal in nature. 2
Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Lease, A. Michele
This study examined the construct validity of nonverbal social aggression and the relation of nonverbal social aggression to dimensions of children's social status. Peer nominations of verbal social, nonverbal social, direct veral, and physical aggression, as well as social dominance, perceived popularity, and social acceptance, were collected…
Peery, J. Craig
There are essentially four types of non-verbal communication: touching, moving, gazing (these are the truly "non-verbal modalities"), and para-linguistic aspects of vocalizing. These types of non-verbal communication are measured in five different dimensions: (1) frequency, (2) duration, (3) magnitude, (4) rates-frequency per time, (5)…
Duggan, Ashley P.; Parrott, Roxanne L.
Considers how physicians' nonverbal communication is sometimes associated with patients' affective satisfaction. Examines the relationship between physicians' nonverbal rapport building and patients' disclosure of information related to the subjective component of illness. Considers implications for understanding the role of physicians' nonverbal…
Fowler, Thaddeus W.
This study was designed to investigate the nonverbal teacher behavior of wait-time. Wait-time is the silence in a conversation following a teacher or student utterance. The primary purpose of the investigation was to document some of the behavioral and cognitive effects of wait-time and to delineate the interrelationships between the various forms…
Roter, D. L.; Erby, L. H.; Hall, J. A.; Larson, S.; Ellington, L.; Dudley, W.
Purpose: This study aims to explore the role of interactants' nonverbal sensitivity, anxiety and sociodemographic characteristics in learning and satisfaction within the genetic counseling context. Design/methodology/approach: This is a combined simulation and analogue study. Simulations were videotaped with 152 prenatal and cancer genetic…
Robert L. Koegel; Mary C. O'Dell; Lynn Kern Koegel
The purpose of this study was to attempt to improve verbal language acquisition for nonverbal autistic children by manipulating traditional teaching techniques so they incorporated parameters of natural language interactions and motivational techniques. Within a multiple baseline design, treatment was conducted in a baseline condition with trials presented serially in a traditional analogue clinical format where the therapist presented instructions,
Presents the third and final report of an analysis of nonverbal communication. In this report, the phrase "touch wood" is investigated using the Bank of English Corpus. The first two phrases examined were "shrug" and "hold one's gaze." Each of these phrases relates to an aspect of communication that may hold particular difficulties for someone…
Dinesh Babu Jayagopi; Daniel Gatica-Perez
The automatic discovery of group conversational behavior is a relevant problem in social computing. In this paper, we present an approach to address this problem by defining a novel group descriptor called bag of group-nonverbal-patterns (NVPs) defined on brief observations of group interaction, and by using principled probabilistic topic models to discover topics. The proposed bag of group NVPs allows
Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.
Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…
Cohn, Jeffrey F.
@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT Depression is one of the most prevalent mental health disorders and a leading cause of disability to Depression Severity Jeffrey F Cohn University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15260 1-412-624-8825 jeffcohn worldwide. AVEC 2013 heralds the first systematic effort to detect presence of depression from nonverbal
A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…
Dungan, James; Saxe, Rebecca
Language has been shown to play a key role in the development of a child's theory of mind, but its role in adult belief reasoning remains unclear. One recent study used verbal and nonverbal interference during a false-belief task to show that accurate belief reasoning in adults necessarily requires language (Newton & de Villiers, 2007). The…
Communication skills are important for children with developmental disabilities to be functional and independent in their own lives. This study examined influences of different types of listener feedback or breakdowns on repair behaviors of nonverbal children with disabilities during semi-structured opportunities at snack time. Three preschool…
Argues that awareness of nonverbal elements of communication increase the reader's comprehension of literary works by authors who use these elements in character development. Focuses on regulators, affect displays, and adaptors (identified by Ekman and Friesen) and physical appearance, vocalics, touch, space, time, and artifacts (identified by…
Gregersen, Tammy S.
This observation study examined the nonverbal behavior of anxious and nonanxious foreign language learners during a videotaped oral foreign language exam. Focusing primarily on the kinesic signals found in facial expressions, gazing behavior, body movement and gesture, and posture, it was discovered that anxious learners manifested limited facial…
Hurley, Daniel Sean
After setting definitions of pragmatics, prosody, and nonverbal communication, this paper reviews politeness theories and research in these fields, discussing their implications for teaching. It is posited that learners whose first language and native culture are more similar to the target language (TL) and culture are more likely to experience TL…
Gladstein, Gerald A.
This article reviews the literature on non-verbal communication (NVC) as it pertains to the counseling/therapy process, although it also includes discussion of issues in the general NVC literature. Extensive appendixes are included (an alphabetical list and description of NVC references and examples of NVC classification and measuring systems).…
Clore, Gerald L.; And Others
Describes two experiments conducted to explore non-verbal behaviors and their capacity to convey attraction between men and women. Examines in particular the gain phenomenon which is the idea that people are more attracted to a person who is initially punishing and then rewarding than to one who is always rewarding. (Author/EJT)
Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Rogers, Sally J.
Objective: The study was to examine nonverbal communication in young children with autism. Methods: The participants were 23 young children with autism (mean CA = 32.79 months), 23 CA and MA-matched children with developmental delay and 22 18-20-month-old, and 22 13-15-month-old typically developing toddlers and infants. The abbreviated Early…
Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael
Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…
Safadi, Michaela; Valentine, Carol Ann
To achieve effective intercultural communication, participants must understand how behavioral differences may lead to miscommunication. Such behavioral differences can be illustrated by Arab and American nonverbal behavior. Individualism is the ideal for the American middle class, whereas Arabs are motivated by public opinion. Yet in the Arab…
Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael
A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus"). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in…
Shimoe, Yuta; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Nosu, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Koji
This paper describes the design guideline of webs that use avatars and pictograms to promote nonverbal communication smoothly in a virtual space. The shops for clothes, consumer electronic, and furniture are constructed in the virtual space. The web sites using the avatar and the pictogram for shopping were examined. To investigate the usability, three kinds of the web layered structures were examined. The screen layout evaluation by the eyeball movement measurement was also carried out.
Del-Monte, Jonathan; Raffard, Stéphane; Capdevielle, Delphine; Salesse, Robin N.; Schmidt, Richard C.; Varlet, Manuel; Bardy, Benoît G.; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Marin, Ludovic
Semantic priming tasks are classically used to influence and implicitly promote target behaviors. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that prosocial semantic priming modulated feelings of social affiliation. The main aim of this study was to determine whether inducing feelings of social affiliation using priming tasks could modulate nonverbal social behaviors in schizophrenia. We used the Scrambled Sentence Task to prime schizophrenia patients according to three priming group conditions: pro-social, non-social or anti-social. Forty-five schizophrenia patients, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR, were randomly assigned to one of the three priming groups of 15 participants. We evaluated nonverbal social behaviors using the Motor-Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale. Results showed that schizophrenia patients with pro-social priming had significantly more nonverbal behaviors than schizophrenia patients with anti-social and non-social priming conditions. Schizophrenia patient behaviors are affected by social priming. Our results have several clinical implications for the rehabilitation of social skills impairments frequently encountered among individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:25275522
Ramsden, Sue; Richardson, Fiona M.; Josse, Goulven; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Ellis, Caroline; Shakeshaft, Clare; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Price, Cathy J.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a standardized measure of intellectual ability that taps a wide range of cognitive skills1. Across life span, IQ is generally considered to be stable with scores at one time point used to predict educational achievement and employment prospects in later years1. Neuro-imaging allows us to test whether unexpected longitudinal fluctuations in measured IQ are related to brain development. Here we show that verbal and nonverbal IQ can rise or fall in the teenage years, with these changes in performance validated by their close correlation with changes in local brain structure. A combination of structural and functional imaging showed that verbal IQ changed with grey matter in an area that was activated by speech, while nonverbal IQ changed with grey matter in an area that was activated by finger movements. By using longitudinal assessments of the same individuals, we eschewed the many sources of variation in brain structure that confound cross sectional studies. This allowed us to dissociate neural markers for verbal and nonverbal IQ and to show that these general abilities are closely linked to the sensorimotor skills involved in learning. More generally, our results emphasize the possibility that an individual’s intellectual capacity relative to their peers can weaken or strengthen in the teenage years. This would be encouraging to those whose intellectual potential may improve; and a warning that early achievers may not maintain their potential. PMID:22012265
Catania, A. Charles; Matthews, Byron A.; Shimoff, Eliot
Undergraduate students' presses on left and right buttons occasionally made available points exchangeable for money. Blue lights over the buttons were correlated with multiple random-ratio random-interval components; usually, the random-ratio schedule was assigned to the left button and the random-interval to the right. During interruptions on the multiple schedule, students filled out sentence-completion guess sheets (e.g., The way to earn points with the left button is to...). For different groups, guesses were shaped with differential points also worth money (e.g., successive approximations to “press fast” for the left button), or were instructed (e.g., Write “press slowly” for the left button), or were simply collected. Control of rate of pressing by guesses was examined in individual cases by reversing shaped or instructed guesses, by instructing pressing rates, and/or by reversing multiple-schedule contingencies. Shaped guesses produced guess-consistent pressing even when guessed rates opposed those characteristic of the contingencies (e.g., slow random-ratio and fast random-interval rates), whereas guesses and rates of pressing rarely corresponded after unsuccessful shaping of guesses or when guessing had no differential consequences. Instructed guesses and pressing were inconsistently related. In other words, when verbal responses were shaped (contingency-governed), they controlled nonverbal responding. When they were instructed (rule-governed), their control of nonverbal responding was inconsistent: the verbal behavior sometimes controlled, sometimes was controlled by, and sometimes was independent of the nonverbal behavior. PMID:16812300
Sally D. FarleyAmie; Amie M. Ashcraft; Mark F. Stasson; Rebecca L. Nusbaum
The present research examined nonverbal reactions to conversational interruption (a status-organizing cue). We predicted that\\u000a the nonverbal reactions to interruption (versus a control condition) would show a different pattern of results than gender\\u000a differences. Participants (N = 150) were paired with one of four confederates and randomly assigned to either an interruption or control condition. Nine\\u000a nonverbal behavioral reactions were coded by
Silverman, Michael J.
This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed…
Garner, Patrick H.
Universals in nonverbal behavior represent an important issue in the study of the cross-cultural communication. Perhaps the most well-known research in nonverbal universals was conducted by Paul Ekman, who examined literate and preliterate cultures from various language groups and identified six universal facial expressions: happiness, sadness,…
Elsea, Ken; Ashley, Dennis
A study was designed to describe the nonverbal behaviors of two male/female couples as they initiated, maintained, and terminated their relationships. Over a five-month period, couple one met seven times and couple two met six times in a laboratory setting. During the meetings, observers coded the couples' nonverbal behaviors as eye gaze, smiles,…
Taute, Harry A.; Heiser, Robert S.; McArthur, David N.
Although salespeople have long been urged to recognize and adapt to customer needs and wants by observing communications style and other cues or signals by the buyer, nonverbal communications by the salesperson have received much less empirical scrutiny. However, nonverbal communications may be important in this context; research in several…
This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…
Gillam, Sandra Laing; Fargo, Jamison; Foley, Beth; Olszewski, Abbie
Purpose: The purpose of the project was to design a nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme deletion that may prove useful with individuals who demonstrate complex communication needs (CCN) and are unable to communicate using natural speech or who present with moderate-severe speech impairments. Method: A nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme…
Miller, Carol A.; Gilbert, Erin
Definitions of specific language impairment (SLI), for both research and clinical purposes, often state that nonverbal IQ scores must be within normal limits. This use of nonverbal IQ has been criticized on several grounds, including lack of equivalence between tests. In the current study, a sample of 204 adolescents with and without language…
Kelly, Spencer Dougan; Church, R. Breckinridge
Investigated children's' ability to detect and interpret another child's nonverbal, representational gestures. Found that in addition to being able to pick up general information such as affective or social information from nonverbal behavior, school-age children are also capable of abstracting specific information such as conceptual or…
Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael
Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greater…
Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.
In a longitudinal genetic study we explored which factors underlie stability in verbal and nonverbal abilities, and the extent to which the association between these abilities becomes stronger as children grow older. Measures of verbal and nonverbal IQ were collected in Dutch twin pairs at age 5, 7, 10, 12 and 18 years. The stability of both…
Judith A. Hall; Amy G. Halberstadt; Christopher E. O'Brien
We conducted a primary study and a meta-analysis on the relation of trait “subordination” measures to trait measures of sensitivity to nonverbal cues, in order to test the hypothesis that more subordinate individuals have enhanced ability to decode nonverbal cues. In the primary study, subordination measures included socioeconomic background, two dominance scales, a capacity for status scale, a control by
Max Weisbuch; Nalini Ambady; Asha L. Clarke; Shawn Achor; Jeremy Veenstra-Vander Weele
Extant research suggests that people seem deceitful and difficult to understand when their verbal behavior is inconsistent with their nonverbal behavior. Building on this literature, we examined the impact of behavioral coherence on impression formation: We expected people to be likeable to the extent that their verbal and nonverbal behavior was consistent (i.e., coherent). In two studies, participants were videotaped
Pascal Bécheiraz; Daniel Thalmann
This paper presents a model of nonverbal communication and interpersonal relationship between virtual actors. Nonverbal communication improves their believability. They react not only to the presence of the other actors but also to their postures. Furthermore, their interpersonal relationships are affected by the issue of social interactions. To avoid homogenous group behaviors, each actor is set with a different character
David B. Buller
In this paper, we examined physician-patient interactions in terms of the communicative functions accomplished during these encounters. Specifically, the nonverbal communicative exchanges of 38 physician-patient interactions in a family practice clinic were investigated. Two distinctive communicative “patterns” characterized these interactions. First, physicians nonverbally exerted greater dominance and control by employing longer speaking turns, more social touch, and more pauses while
Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry
Three-dimensional synthetic worlds introduce possibilities for nonverbal communication in computer-mediated language learning. This paper presents an original methodological framework for the study of multimodal communication in such worlds. It offers a classification of verbal and nonverbal communication acts in the synthetic world "Second Life"…
Haiman, Franklyn S.
Reviews court cases and current issues involving nonverbal communication and the First Amendment. Concludes that many modes of nonverbal expression have won a firm place under the umbrella of protection of the First Amendment but that some modes (flag and draft card burnings, economic boycotts, and coercive persuasion) still raise troublesome…
Improving Recognition and Identification of Facial Areas Involved in Non-verbal Communication selection approach for automatic NVC recognition based on sequential backward selection of facial shape,e.ong,n.pugeault,email@example.com Abstract--Meaningful Non-Verbal Communication (NVC) sig- nals can be recognised by facial deformations
Hartley, Sigan L.; Birgenheir, Denis G.
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID), yet little is known about depressive behaviors in an ID population. This study examined the nonverbal social skills of 18 adults with mild ID diagnosed with depression and a matched sample of adults with mild ID without depression. Nonverbal…
Stokes, DeVon R.; And Others
The purpose of this research was to investigate nonverbal communication through channel perception while observing any significant differences among race, sex, and social class background variables. In addition, differences and/or similarities in Afrocentric and Eurocentric world views in regard to nonverbal channel perception and cultural…
Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang
Objective: The authors quantified nonverbal synchrony--the coordination of patient's and therapist's movement--in a random sample of same-sex psychotherapy dyads. The authors contrasted nonverbal synchrony in these dyads with a control condition and assessed its association with session-level and overall psychotherapy outcome. Method: Using an…
Melson, Gail F.; Hulls, M. Johanna
This paper discusses several studies related to the interplay of verbal and nonverbal communication in young children and presents educational implications of this research. Two areas of nonverbal communication are considered: kinesics, or the use of body movements as displays of affection and emotion and as regulators of communication, and…
Black, J. J.
Maintaining that the nonverbal elements of communication are ultimately more significant than the verbal elements in determining the eventual success or failure of the journalistic interview, this paper attempts to assist journalists in understanding the complex and subtle nonverbal characteristics of the interview environment. Based on the…
An analysis of the kinds and uses of laughter in five adult introductory foreign language classes is presented. The importance of this form of nonverbal communication in the teaching situation is examined in the context of classroom ritual's effects on learners' nonverbal behavior. (MSE)
Noting that cross-cultural and language barriers pose formidable challenges to managers, a case study examined the application of selective nonverbal communication strategies (nonverbal cues, learning by observation, and the organization of learning) for management and training development efforts within diverse cultural environments. Source…
This study examined the relationship between characteristics of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) and nonverbal sensitivity, the ability to interpret nonverbal aspects of communication, in a non-clinical sample of college students. One hundred and two participants completed a self-report measure of the BAP, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and…
Sigan L. Hartley; Denis G. Birgenheir
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID), yet little is known about depressive behaviors in an ID population. This study examined the nonverbal social skills of 18 adults with mild ID diagnosed with depression and a matched sample of adults with mild ID without depression. Nonverbal social skills were coded from videotapes
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
not deeply know yet the functions of nonverbal cues that these communication technologies make available environments. 2.1. INTRODUCTION Communication technologies are more and more used in mediated human activitiesThe impact of nonverbal cues on mediated tutoring interaction: an experimental study Video
This document contains eight progress reports of a research project testing the assumption that communication at the nonverbal level affects a student's emotional involvement in the material he studies and this the learning process itself. The project attempted to establish the educational potential of nonverbal communication by measuring…
Barnhill, Gena P.; Cook, Katherine Tapscott; Tebbenkamp, Kelly; Myles, Brenda Smith
A study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-week social skills intervention targeting nonverbal communication for eight adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Although minimal nonverbal communication skills development was apparent, some social relationships were developed and the ability of some participants to read the nonverbal communication of…
Vanger, P; Summerfield, A B; Rosen, B K; Watson, J P
The Social Impression and Interpersonal Attraction of British depressed patients was rated by British and German subjects on the basis of the patients' video-recorded nonverbal behaviour. Depressives were rated negatively by all subjects. Males in both cultural groups agreed in their ratings of depressives but German females expressed a more negative attitude than British females. This is attributed to cultural differences in sex-appropriate interactive behaviour. The importance of studying the expression of depression and its meaning within a particular cultural context is indicated and the role of cultural differences in interactive behaviour is discussed with respect to intercultural assessment and treatment of depression. PMID:1743899
Matute, Esmeralda; Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Molina Del Rio, Jahaziel; López Elizalde, Ramiro; López, Manuel; Ontiveros, Angel
A 74-year-old, left-handed man presented with a rapidly evolving loss of strength in his right leg associated with difficulty in walking. MR images disclosed an extensive left hemisphere tumor. A neuropsychological examination revealed that language was broadly normal but that the patient presented with severe nonlinguistic abnormalities, including hemineglect (both somatic and spatial), constructional defects, and general spatial disturbances; symptoms were usually associated with right hemisphere pathologies. No ideomotor apraxia was found. The implications of crossed-brain representations of verbal and nonverbal functions are analyzed. PMID:25802778
To improve lecturing, teachers should target students' thinking and learning, asking such questions as What do they need to unlearn? What is commonly misunderstood? What is difficult to grasp? Teachers should be skilled in timing and reading nonverbal cues that indicate whether they are connecting with students. (SK)
Hall, Judith A; Coats, Erik J; LeBeau, Lavonia Smith
The vertical dimension of interpersonal relations (relating to dominance, power, and status) was examined in association with nonverbal behaviors that included facial behavior, gaze, interpersonal distance, body movement, touch, vocal behaviors, posed encoding skill, and others. Results were separately summarized for people's beliefs (perceptions) about the relation of verticality to nonverbal behavior and for actual relations between verticality and nonverbal behavior. Beliefs/perceptions were stronger and much more prevalent than were actual verticality effects. Perceived and actual relations were positively correlated across behaviors. Heterogeneity was great, suggesting that verticality is not a psychologically uniform construct in regard to nonverbal behavior. Finally, comparison of the verticality effects to those that have been documented for gender in relation to nonverbal behavior revealed only a limited degree of parallelism. PMID:16351328
Teacher2Teacher is published by MathForum and similar to Ask Dr. Math (See NSDL Scout Report for Math, Engineering, and Technology, February 15, 2002). The difference is, Teacher2Teacher is "a peer-mentored question-and-answer service" and intended to serve as "a resource for teachers and parents who have questions about teaching mathematics." Visitors to the website can search or browse the archived discussions by topic area or grade level, ask a question, discuss math education in the Teachers' Lounge, or look up some Frequently Asked Questions. When posting a message or question, you are asked to provide your name and email. Registration is not required, but will qualify you for a free copy of their newsletter via email. Questions are answered by Teacher2Teacher Associates. Anyone interested in becoming a Teacher2Teacher Associates can learn more about how to apply in the About T2T section.
Amsbary, J H; Powell, L
Two research questions were posed on the homophily theory of customer-vendor interactions: (a) do vendors show any nonverbal preference for Euro-American or African-American customers?; (b) do vendors demonstrate any nonverbal preference for customers with which they share racial homophily? The results supported the homophily theory for Euro-American customers in that there were significant interaction effects by race in facial expression (F = 5.33, p < .05), amount of speaking (F = 6.76, p < .01), tone of voice (F = 7.62, p < .01), and touching (F = 4.57, p < .05). Vendor behavior varied when the customer was Euro-American, with Euro-American vendors smiling more frequently (M = 4.05) than African-American vendors (M = 3.69), speaking more frequently (M = 3.57) than African-American vendors (M = 3.09), using a more friendly tone of voice (M = 3.59, and engaging in more touching behaviors (M = 1.81) than African-American vendors (M = 1.48). There was no significant difference in the behavior of Euro-American and African-American vendors when the customer was African-American. PMID:17566425
Sauter, Disa A; Eisner, Frank; Calder, Andrew J; Scott, Sophie K
Work on facial expressions of emotions (Calder, Burton, Miller, Young, & Akamatsu, ) and emotionally inflected speech (Banse & Scherer, ) has successfully delineated some of the physical properties that underlie emotion recognition. To identify the acoustic cues used in the perception of nonverbal emotional expressions like laugher and screams, an investigation was conducted into vocal expressions of emotion, using nonverbal vocal analogues of the "basic" emotions (anger, fear, disgust, sadness, and surprise; Ekman & Friesen, ; Scott et al., ), and of positive affective states (Ekman, , ; Sauter & Scott, ). First, the emotional stimuli were categorized and rated to establish that listeners could identify and rate the sounds reliably and to provide confusion matrices. A principal components analysis of the rating data yielded two underlying dimensions, correlating with the perceived valence and arousal of the sounds. Second, acoustic properties of the amplitude, pitch, and spectral profile of the stimuli were measured. A discriminant analysis procedure established that these acoustic measures provided sufficient discrimination between expressions of emotional categories to permit accurate statistical classification. Multiple linear regressions with participants' subjective ratings of the acoustic stimuli showed that all classes of emotional ratings could be predicted by some combination of acoustic measures and that most emotion ratings were predicted by different constellations of acoustic features. The results demonstrate that, similarly to affective signals in facial expressions and emotionally inflected speech, the perceived emotional character of affective vocalizations can be predicted on the basis of their physical features. PMID:20437296
Orland-Barak, Lily; Maskit, Ditza
Drawing on qualitative methodologies that integrate verbal and non-verbal texts, this study investigated novice teachers' attributions of their experiences of internship, as conveyed through a visual text. Novices were invited to design a visual text that represented their experience during internship, as part of a national call entitled…
Hendricks, Karin S.
Out of the mouth of babes (and even more nonverbal) has come perhaps the wisest music teacher education I have ever received. In this narrative I share my foibles as a young, over-confident, and naive music instructor who, through a great amount of error, eventually learned the value of letting a child lead his own music learning. Throughout this…
Basten, Maartje; van der Ende, Jan; Tiemeier, Henning; Althoff, Robert R; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Hudziak, James J; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya
Children meeting the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) suffer from high levels of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems. Little is known about the cognitive abilities of these children with CBCL-DP. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence. Parents of 6,131 children from a population-based birth cohort, aged 5 through 7 years, reported problem behavior on the CBCL/1.5-5. The CBCL-DP was derived using latent profile analysis on the CBCL/1.5-5 syndrome scales. Nonverbal intelligence was assessed using the Snijders Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test 2.5-7-Revised. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence using linear regression. Analyses were adjusted for parental intelligence, parental psychiatric symptoms, socio-economic status, and perinatal factors. In a subsample with diagnostic interview data, we tested if the results were independent of the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The results showed that children meeting the CBCL-DP (n = 110, 1.8%) had a 11.0 point lower nonverbal intelligence level than children without problems and 7.2-7.3 points lower nonverbal intelligence level than children meeting other profiles of problem behavior (all p values <0.001). After adjustment for covariates, children with CBCL-DP scored 8.3 points lower than children without problems (p < 0.001). The presence of ADHD or ASD did not account for the lower nonverbal intelligence in children with CBCL-DP. In conclusion, we found that children with CBCL-DP have a considerable lower nonverbal intelligence score. The CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence may share a common neurodevelopmental etiology. PMID:24802760
Plasek, Joseph M.; Pieczkiewicz, David S.; Mahnke, Andrea N.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Starren, Justin B.; Westra, Bonnie L.
Objective Nonverbal and verbal communication elements enhance and reinforce the consent form in the informed consent process and need to be transferred appropriately to multimedia formats using interaction design when re-designing the process. Methods Observational, question asking behavior, and content analyses were used to analyze nonverbal and verbal elements of an informed consent process. Results A variety of gestures, interruptions, and communication styles were observed. Conclusion In converting a verbal conversation about a textual document to multimedia formats, all aspects of the original process including verbal and nonverbal variation should be one part of an interaction community-centered design approach. PMID:23616873
This article examines why teachers should be evaluated, how teacher evaluation is perceived, and how teacher evaluation can be approached, focusing on the improvement of teacher competency rather than defining a teacher as "good" or "bad." Since the primary professional activity of a teacher is teaching, the major concern of teacher evaluation is…
Semak, M. R.; Dietz, R. D.; Pearson, R. H.; Willis, C. W.
We have administered both a commercial, nonverbal intelligence test (the GAMA) and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning to students in two introductory physics classes to determine if either test can successfully predict normalized gains on the Force Concept Inventory. Since gain on the FCI is known to be related to gender, we adopted a linear model with gain on the FCI as the dependent variable and gender and a test score as the independent variables. We found that the GAMA score did not predict a significant amount of variation beyond gender. Lawson's test, however, did predict a small but significant variation beyond gender. When simple linear regressions were run separately for males and females with the Lawson score as a predictor, we found that the Lawson score did not significantly predict gains for females but was a marginally significant predictor for males.
Weisbuch, Max; Pauker, Kristin
Social and policy interventions over the last half-century have achieved laudable reductions in blatant discrimination. Yet members of devalued social groups continue to face subtle discrimination. In this article, we argue that decades of anti-discrimination interventions have failed to eliminate intergroup bias because such bias is contagious. We present a model of bias contagion in which intergroup bias is subtly communicated through nonverbal behavior. Exposure to such nonverbal bias “infects” observers with intergroup bias. The model we present details two means by which nonverbal bias can be expressed—either as a veridical index of intergroup bias or as a symptom of worry about appearing biased. Exposure to this nonverbal bias can increase perceivers’ own intergroup biases through processes of implicit learning, informational influence, and normative influence. We identify critical moderators that may interfere with these processes and consequently propose several social and educational interventions based on these moderators. PMID:23997812
The purpose of this research is to examine parenting, child goal orientation, and child nonverbal intelligence as predictors of academic achievement among fifth grade Turkish children. The influence of intelligence, parenting style, and goal...
Milne, Jennifer S. (Jennifer Sarah)
Telepresence robots have emerged as a novel solution to meeting the social communication needs of nomadic workers. This thesis provides an overview of non-verbal communication cues for telepresence robot applications, and ...
This study examined the nonverbal, interaction quality and perceptual accuracy correlates of attachment style within two interactions groups; strangers and romantic couples. Twenty eight stranger dyads and twenty eight ...
Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias
The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.
Emily S. Kuschner; Loisa Bennetto; Kelley Yost
Previous research demonstrates an uneven pattern of cognitive abilities in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).\\u000a This study examined whether this uneven pattern exists within the nonverbal domain in young children. We hypothesized relative\\u000a strengths in perceptual abilities and weaknesses in nonverbal conceptual abilities in preschoolers with ASDs compared to groups\\u000a with non-autism developmental delays and typical development. Profiles were
She, Hsiao-Ching; Fisher, Darrell
In the study described in this article a questionnaire was employed that can be used to assess students' and teachers' perceptions of science teachers' interpersonal communication behaviors in their classroom learning environments. The Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ) has five scales: Challenging, Encouragement and Praise, Non-Verbal Support, Understanding and Friendly, and Controlling. The TCBQ was used with a large sample of secondary science students in Taiwan, which provided additional validation data for the TCBQ for use in Taiwan and cross-validation data for its use in English-speaking countries. Girls perceived their teachers as more understanding and friendly than did boys, and teachers in biological science classrooms exhibited more favorable behavior toward their students than did those in physical science classrooms. Differences were also noted between the perceptions of the students and their teachers. Positive relationships were found between students' perceptions of their teachers' communication behaviors and their attitudes toward science. Students' cognitive achievement scores were higher when students perceived their teacher as using more challenging questions, as giving more nonverbal support, and as being more understanding and friendly. The development of both teacher and student versions of the TCBQ enhances the possibility of the use of the instrument by teachers.
Jaywant, Abhishek; Musto, Giovanni; Neargarder, Sandy; Gilbert, Karina Stavitsky; Cronin-Golomb, Alice
Background Parkinson's disease (PD) leads to deficits in executive function, including verbal and nonverbal fluency, as a result of compromised fronto-striatal circuits. It is unknown whether deficits in verbal and nonverbal fluency in PD are driven by certain subgroups of patients, or how strategy use may facilitate performance. Participants Sixty-five non-demented individuals with PD, including 36 with right-body onset (RPD; 20 with tremor as their initial symptom, 16 non-tremor) and 29 with left-body onset (LPD; 14 with tremor as their initial symptom, 15 non-tremor), and 52 normal control participants (NC). Measurements Verbal fluency was assessed using the FAS and Animals tests. Nonverbal fluency was assessed using the Ruff Figural Fluency Test. Results Both RPD and LPD were impaired in generating words and in using clustering and switching strategies on phonemic verbal fluency, whereas different patterns of impairment were found on nonverbal fluency depending on the interaction of side of onset and initial motor symptom (tremor vs. non-tremor). Strategy use correlated with number of correct responses on verbal fluency in LPD, RPD, and NC. By contrast, on nonverbal fluency, strategy use correlated with correct responses for RPD and LPD, but not for NC. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering subgroups in PD and analyzing subcomponents of verbal and nonverbal fluency (correct responses, errors, and strategies), which may depend differently on the integrity of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. PMID:24533593
Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.
This study examined the effectiveness of enhancing humanagentinteraction through the use of nonverbal behaviors. Ataxonomy is described, which organizes nonverbal behaviorsinto functional categories and the manner in which they can beembodied (i.e. through gesture, posture, paralanguage, eyecontact and facial expression). Prototype computer characterswere created according to guidelines extracted from thetaxonomy and their efficacy was empirical evaluated. Theresults indicate that by including trusting nonverbal behaviors,the perceived credibility of a computer character was enhanced,although addition of trusting bodily nonverbal behaviorprovided little in addition to trusting facial nonverbal behavior.Perhaps more importantly, a character expressing non-trustingnonverbal behaviors was perceived to be the least credible of allcharacters examined (including a character that expressed nononverbal behavior). Participants that interacted with thispersona perceived the task to be more demanding, madesignificantly more errors, and rated their interaction lesspositively and more monotonous than those using trustingpersonas. They also rated this character to be less likable,accurate, and intelligent. Taken together, the results from thisstudy suggest that there may indeed be benefit to endowingcomputer characters with nonverbal trusting behaviors, as longas those behaviors are accurately and appropriately portrayed.Such behaviors may lead to a more trusting environment andpositive experience for users. Negative character behavior,however, such as non-trusting behavior, may squander theadvantages that embodiment brings.
Mandel, Scott M.
This website called Teachers Helping Teachers has been in operation since 1995 and is maintained by Dr. Scott Mandel, who is also Director of the a musical theater group and an author. The resources provided here are posted by teachers and available at no cost. During the school year the website is updated weekly. As of this report, they were soliciting contributions that relate a teachers favorite lessons from the year or lesson ideas for the end-of-the-year, Fathers' Day or graduation time. The teacher-created lesson plans are organized by subject area, such as math, science, social studies, language arts, special education and the arts. Separate sections discuss classroom management and provide book reviews. Each week a new lesson topic is highlighted and a teacher's suggested stress reduction strategy is posted. The Educational Resources Page provides links to a variety of other resources online.
Background Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Methods Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Results Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Subjects also had significant reductions in RR (P < 0.0001) and improved HRV (P < 0.05) with both tactile and non-tactile LKM. Conclusion It is possible to test the effects of LKM with tactile and non-tactile blinding strategies; even with blinding in this small preliminary study, subjects reported significant improvements in well-being which were reflected in objective physiologic measures of autonomic activity. Extending compassion is not only good care; it may also be good medicine. Trial registration number US National ClinicalTrials.gov registration number, NCT01428674 PMID:22185349
Li, Dawei; Cowan, Nelson; Saults, J. Scott
Working memory (WM) capacity limit has been extensively studied in the domains of visual and verbal stimuli. Previous studies have suggested a fixed WM capacity of typically about 3 or 4 items, based on the number of items in working memory reaching a plateau after several items as the set size increases. However, the fixed WM capacity estimate appears to rely on categorical information in the stimulus set (Olsson & Poom, 2005). We designed a series of experiments to investigate nonverbal auditory WM capacity and its dependence on categorical information. Experiments 1 and 2 used simple tones and revealed capacity limit of up to 2 tones following a 6-s retention interval. Importantly, performance was significantly higher at set sizes 2, 3, and 4 when the frequency difference between target and test tones was relatively large. In Experiment 3, we added categorical information to the simple tones, and the effect of tone change magnitude decreased. Maximal capacity for each individual was just over 3 sounds, in the range of typical visual procedures. We propose that two types of information, categorical and detailed acoustic information, are kept in WM, and that categorical information is critical for high WM performance. PMID:23143913
Konst, Matthew J; Matson, Johnny L; Goldin, Rachel L; Williams, Lindsey W
Emphasis on early identification of atypical development has increased as evidence supporting the efficacy of intervention has grown. These increases have also directly affected the availability of funding and providers of early intervention services. A majority of research has focused on interventions specific to an individual's primary diagnoses. For example, interventions for those with cerebral palsy (CP) have traditionally focused on physiological symptoms, while intervention for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) focus on socialization, communication, and restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. However deficits in areas other than those related to their primary diagnoses (e.g., communication, adaptive behaviors, and social skills) are prevalent in atypically developing populations and are significant predictors of quality of life. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine impairments in socialization and nonverbal communication in individuals with Down's syndrome (DS), CP, and those with CP and comorbid ASD. Individuals with comorbid CP and ASD exhibited significantly greater impairments than any diagnostic group alone. However, individuals with CP also exhibited significantly greater impairments than those with DS. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25200676
Slane, S; Dragan, W; Crandall, C J; Payne, P
Differences between repressors and sensitizers in nonverbal behavior were found in two studies of male and female undergraduates which manipulated the amount of stress present during an interaction between an S and a confederate (C). In Study I (N = 72), sensitizers used less eye contact and more personal space than measures of personal space and eye contact, intensified the stress manipulation, and added two distinct types of stressors (interpersonal and situational). Significant differences in the same direction as in Study I were again observed between repressors and sensitizers in the use of personal space. Level of eye contact for repression-sensitization was significantly different in the second half of the interaction, though opposite in direction to found in Study I. The reversal was explained by focusing on the information-gathering versus the emotional-communication functions of eye contact. Only interpersonal stress produced significant differences in the amount of eye contact used as well as interacting significantly with stress and repression-sensitization. PMID:7205702
Hyde, Daniel C; Wood, Justin N
Coordinated studies of adults, infants, and nonhuman animals provide evidence for two systems of nonverbal number representation: a "parallel individuation" system that represents individual items and a "numerical magnitude" system that represents the approximate cardinal value of a group. However, there is considerable debate about the nature and functions of these systems, due largely to the fact that some studies show a dissociation between small (1-3) and large (>3) number representation, whereas others do not. Using event-related potentials, we show that it is possible to determine which system will represent the numerical value of a small number set (1-3 items) by manipulating spatial attention. Specifically, when attention can select individual objects, an early brain response (N1) scales with the cardinal value of the display, the signature of parallel individuation. In contrast, when attention cannot select individual objects or is occupied by another task, a later brain response (P2p) scales with ratio, the signature of the approximate numerical magnitude system. These results provide neural evidence that small numbers can be represented as approximate numerical magnitudes. Further, they empirically demonstrate the importance of early attentional processes to number representation by showing that the way in which attention disperses across a scene determines which numerical system will deploy in a given context. PMID:20961170
Batten, Charles T.
“Psychosomatic medicine” does not demand that the general practitioner function as a psychiatrist; rather, it is a psychiatric orientation that can increase the effectiveness of purely medical treatment for such conditions as neuroses. The general practitioner to whom the patient turns may achieve permanent results with nonverbal techniques where formal psychotherapy would be impracticable or unacceptable. The first aim is to relieve pressure so that the patient can regain his mental balance and thereby his self-confidence. Arts, hobbies, sports, and the like can be prescribed rather specifically according to the patient's personality and needs. Nutrition can be improved simply at first by prescribing needed additions to diet rather than imposing restrictions. Vitamin deficiency may by itself be the cause of neurosis or more serious mental disease, whereas psychic stress by itself may create a need for additional vitamin intake. Hormone therapy may be extremely helpful but must be based on clear indication and limited to specific purposes. Since lack of sleep and rest quickly impairs mental function, it is important for neurotic persons to learn relaxation as a necessity for sleep. Sedatives may be used in a crisis but should be abandoned as soon as possible. With all drugs there are problems of excess and habituation. The least, the mildest, the shortest dosage is the ideal. The initial steps of psychotherapy are available to any physician: Establishing rapport, noting how complaints are stated, encouraging ventilation, winning confidence rather than immediate results. PMID:13638823
Tan, Lavinia; Grace, Randolph C
The nonverbal discrimination of relative and absolute number of sequential visual stimuli was investigated with humans in bisection, reproduction, and report tasks. Participants viewed a sequence of 40 red and black objects on each trial, randomly intermixed, and had to identify the number of red objects, which varied from 1 to 20. To prevent the use of a verbal-counting strategy, participants were required to name the objects as they appeared. The characteristics of human performance resembled those of pigeons in analogous procedures (Tan & Grace Learning and Behavior 38:408-417, 2010; Tan, Grace, Holland, & McLean Journal of Experimental Psychology 33:409-427, 2007): Average response number increased systematically with sample number, and bisection points were located at the arithmetic, not the geometric, mean. Additionally, in both the reproduction and report tasks, coefficients of variation decreased for values less than 6 but increased or remained constant for larger values, suggesting that different representations were used for small and large numbers. PMID:22038738
Troisi, A; Moles, A
Previous studies of gender differences in the phenomenology of depression have focused mostly on symptoms as measured by self-report questionnaires or clinician-rated scales. In this study, we examined gender differences in the interpersonal behavior of depressed patients by using ethological techniques which involve direct observation of behavior. The nonverbal behavior of 72 nondepressed volunteers and 68 patients with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of nonpsychotic unipolar depression was videorecorded during clinical interviews and scored according to an ethological scoring system including 37 behavior patterns, mostly facial expressions and hand movements. Both male and female depressed patients showed a global restriction of nonverbal expressiveness reflecting a tendency towards social withdrawal. Nonverbal expression of hostility was the only behavioral category on which depressed patients scored higher than nondepressed volunteers. Even though clinical status exerted marked effects on the ethological profile, depression did not obscure some important differences in the nonverbal behavior of males and females. As a group, depressed women showed more socially interactive behaviors than depressed men. Their modality of interacting included higher levels both of nonverbal hostility and of submissive and affiliative behaviors. These results are discussed in view of clinical data indicating a relationship between gender, style of social interaction and response to antidepressant drugs. PMID:10367990
Wan, Catherine Y; Marchina, Sarah; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried
Despite the fact that as many as 25% of the children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders are nonverbal, surprisingly little research has been conducted on this population. In particular, the mechanisms that underlie their absence of speech remain unknown. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we compared the structure of a language-related white matter tract (the arcuate fasciculus, AF) in five completely nonverbal children with autism to that of typically developing children. We found that, as a group, the nonverbal children did not show the expected left-right AF asymmetry--rather, four of the five nonverbal children actually showed the reversed pattern. It is possible that this unusual pattern of asymmetry may underlie some of the severe language deficits commonly found in autism, particularly in children whose speech fails to develop. Furthermore, novel interventions (such as auditory-motor mapping training) designed to engage brain regions that are connected via the AF may have important clinical potential for facilitating expressive language in nonverbal children with autism. PMID:22524376
Zerillo, Christine; Osterman, Karen F
This mixed-methods study examined elementary teachers' perceptions of teacher-student bullying. Grounded in previous research on peer bullying, the study posed several questions: to what extent did teachers perceive bullying of students by other teachers as a serious matter requiring intervention? Did they perceive teacher bullying as more serious…
Klinzing, Hans Gerhard; Aloisio, Bernadette Gerada
A research-based program was designed for the improvement of decoding and encoding nonverbal cues as they are important aspects of successful communication and teaching. To extend the scientific base of the program, six correlational studies (N=784) investigated relationships between nonverbal skill and personality dimensions. Low non-significant…
Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lamb, Michael E.; Atabaki, Armita; Spindler, Sabine
Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identify…
Sandiford, Givona A.; Mainess, Karen J.; Daher, Noha S.
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant…
John S. Seiter; Harry Weger Jr; Andrea Jensen; Harold J. Kinzer
This study examined the effects of background nonverbal behavior displayed with the purpose of undermining one's opponent in televised debates. Students watched one of four versions of a televised debate. In each, while the speaking debater appeared on the main screen, subscreens displayed her nonspeaking opponent's background nonverbal behavior. In one version, the non-speaking debater remained “stone faced” during her
Lohman, David F.; Korb, Katrina A.; Lakin, Joni M.
In this study, the authors compare the validity of three nonverbal tests for the purpose of identifying academically gifted English-language learners (ELLs). Participants were 1,198 elementary children (approximately 40% ELLs). All were administered the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (Raven), the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT), and…
Aguinis, H; Henle, C A
The authors extended a previous examination of the effects of nonverbal behavior on perceptions of a male employee's power bases (H. Aguinis, M. M. Simonsen, & C. A. Pierce, 1998) by examining the effects of nonverbal behavior on perceptions of a female employee's power bases. U.S. undergraduates read vignettes describing a female employee engaging in 3 types of nonverbal behavior (i.e., eye contact, facial expression, body posture) and rated their perceptions of the woman's power bases (i.e., reward, coercive, legitimate, referent, expert, credibility). As predicted, (a) direct eye contact increased perceptions of coercive power, and (b) a relaxed facial expression decreased perceptions of all 6 power bases. Also as predicted, the present results differed markedly from those of Aguinis et al. (1998) regarding a male employee. The authors discuss implications for theory, future research, and the advancement of female employees. PMID:11577851
Omer, H; Babayov, D; Menczel, J
A multimodal memory test was devised to investigate the differences between verbal and nonverbal memory in demented and normal older people (65 to 98 years of age). Recognition memory for faces, geometric designs, tactual fabrics, words, and sentences significantly differentiated between the two groups. Verbal memory was better than nonverbal memory in both groups. No differences in subtest profiles were found between groups. Findings suggest that the verbal-nonverbal dimension is of importance to rehabilitation programs. The relatively slow deterioration of verbal memory with age leads to the suggestion that verbal memory might be capitalized on for the creation of compensatory mechanisms. The similarity in subtest profiles is in agreement with the accelerated aging hypothesis of dementia. PMID:3997489
The present experiment sought to develop a reliable procedure for measuring visual acuity in non-verbal retarded children. Five non-verbal retarded children and two literate adults were examined. The two adults were included in the experiment so that verbal communication with them could validate certain assumptions regarding the experimental procedures. By utilizing a lever press as the criterion response signifying a visual discrimination and employing the Snellen “E” discriminanda, a reliable subjective measure was obtained, not unlike those measures taken from verbal adults. Contrary to several antecedent procedures, a relatively precise measurement of subjective acuity was shown to be obtainable from non-verbal retarded children. Additionally, the procedure was successful in evaluating the effectiveness of prosthetic lenses previously prescribed for two of the children. PMID:16795277
Le Storti, Anthony J.; And Others
The unit on nonverbal communication is designed for presentation to elementary, middle, and junior high school gifted students. An introductory section lists four unit objectives leading to awareness of the nonverbal communication transmitted by students themselves and by others; expression and understanding of the nonverbal messages of gestures,…
Gard, K A; Gard, G C; Dossett, D; Turone, R
66 students from a midwest junior college participated in an investigation of the effects of trait and state anxiety on accuracy in interpreting nonverbal communication. The students were asked in normal and stress-induced settings to decode facial emotions from a series of slides depicting 6 categories of facial expressions. Analysis indicated that low trait-anxious subjects were more accurate in interpreting nonverbal facial expressions in stressful situations, whereas high trait-anxious subjects were superior in nonstressful situations but showed a significant deterioration in accuracy when subjected to situational stress. PMID:7162909
Hackworth, Rhonda S.
This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…
Swearengen, Mary, Ed.
Teachers have always engaged in analysis of each student's learning responses. The simplest and most common example is the teacher's evaluation of a student's answer as being either correct or incorrect. Teachers also plan subsequent activities based upon this analysis. This analytic approach adapts the instruction or practice to match the…
St. Martin, Gail McAllister
In order to investigate the process of nonverbal communication of emotions in a simulated intercultural context, videotapes were made in which two white Americans (one male and one female) responded to paragraphs which evoked the following emotions: sadness, disgust, anger, surprise, happiness, and fear. These portrayals were then viewed by male…
This study examined the effects of an instructor's use of video casting as a nonverbal emotional cue in synchronous discussion sessions on students' social presence, satisfaction, and learning achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of video casting in a synchronous virtual classroom. The research setting…
Kim, Bryan S. K.; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Li, Lisa C.
Examination of counselor nonverbal behaviors revealed that European American counselors displayed significantly greater frequency of adaptors, postural shifts, and smiles than did Asian American counselors. The frequency of smiles was significantly positively correlated with client-rated session positivity and session arousal, and the frequency of…
Garcia-Perez, Rosa M.; Lee, Anthony; Hobson, R. Peter
Does autism involve a deficit in intersubjective engagement with other persons? We studied nonverbal communication in children and adolescents with and without autism (n = 12 per group), group-matched for chronological age and verbal mental age, during 3 min of a videotaped interview. In keeping with previous studies, there were only subtle but…
Andrea M. Halverson; Mark Hallahan; Allen J. Hart; Robert Rosenthal
This research hypothesized that using simpler jury instructions would reduce jurors’ reliance on judges’ nonverbal behavior. Mock jurors were given either standard or simplified jury instructions, heard actual trial testimony, and then saw a judge reading jury instructions (i.e., a judge who had an expectation or belief of either guilt or innocence for a defendant). This experiment was conducted twice,
Remmel-Gehm, Mary T.
This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated how visual media would affect the communication skills of a 13-year-old nonverbal girl with cerebral palsy and whether the use of visual media would provide documentation of higher cognitive functioning. For the study, the subject used three different tools to add visual information…
Ucles, Paulino; Mendez, Mario; Garay, Jose
We compared processing of non-verbal auditory stimuli by dyslexic and non-dyslexic children using electrophysiological methods. The study included 39 children (17 with dyslexia plus 22 controls) assessed via frontal, central, parietal, and temporal electrodes. As an extension of previous P300 event-related potential studies, we analysed variations…
von Raffler-Engel, Walburga
This paper postulates that the television media in the United States is reflecting the country's culture-at-large. To be marketable, photojournalists adjust their nonverbal behavior to the cultural changes of the time. To prove the point, documentation culled from the Vanderbilt University Television News Archive is provided from the three major…
Marie-louise Rinman; Anders Friberg; Bendik Bendiksen; Damien Cirotteau; Sofia Dahl; Ivar Kjellmo; Barbara Mazzarino; Antonio Camurri
The interactive game environment, Ghost in the Cave, presented in this short paper, is a work still in progress. The game involves participants in an activity using non-verbal emotional expressions. Two teams use expressive gestures in either voice or body movements to compete. Each team has an avatar controlled either by singing into a microphone or by moving in front
Franco, Jessica H.; Davis, Barbara L.; Davis, John L.
Purpose: Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Method: Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in…
Samaha, Nancy Vanderhey; De Lisi, Richard
Studied collaborative reasoning in 86 seventh-grade minority students in an urban low-income school. Students who collaborated had higher percentages of fully correct explanations on the posttest than those who worked alone. Collaborative experiences were beneficial for reasoning about unfamiliar, moderately difficult, nonverbal problems. (SLD)
Taylor, Harvey M.
Each culture has its own nonverbal as well as its verbal language. Movements, gestures and sounds have distinct and often conflicting interpretations in different countries. For Americans communicating with Japanese, misunderstandings are of two types: Japanese behavior which is completely new to the American, and Japanese behavior which is…
Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J.
Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n=69) and adults (n=77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R,…
The verbal and nonverbal strategies of rapport, their environments, and their consequences are identified. Interviews between two foreign student advisors and 16 foreign students (both native and non-native speakers of English) were videotaped, and playback sessions with students and advisors were audio-recorded. Rapport-building and…
Heintzman, Mark; And Others
Finds male supervisors can be effective in building rapport with subordinates solely by using certain nonverbal communicative behaviors. Shows that supervisors with such behaviors were more positively perceived than those without and that subordinates were more likely to comply with the requests of the high-rapport supervisor and to experience a…
Max, which focus on the effects of participants` gender, age and computer literacy. The results show agents, nonverbal behavior, user groups, gender, elderly users, computer literacy 1 Introduction Within with regard to the desired number of certain behaviours (e.g., the agent´s smiling or gaze). Inter
Amy G. Halberstadt; Martha B. Saitta
We evaluated Henley's (1973, 1977) and Goffman's (1976, 1979) theories about the relation between gender, nonverbal behavior, and perceived dominance in three studies. Our ratings of 1,106 media portrayals (Study 1) and observations of 1,257 people in public settings (Study 2) revealed few gender differences in frequency of head canting or body canting but some gender differences in frequency of
Van Beek, Yolanda; Van Dolderen, Marlies S. M.; Demon Dubas, Judith J. S.
Background: Individual differences in depressive symptoms have been linked with social skill deficits in adults and children, yet empirical studies on adolescents are lacking. The present research examines age and gender differences in nonverbal behaviour between mildly depressed and nondepressed (pre-) adolescents during conversations with an…
Studied three types of nonverbal intimacy cues (smiling behavior, eye contact, and synchronous leaning forward) in Black female, Black male, and White male dyads. Results indicated that combined effects of race and gender make it incorrect to generalize previous research on "Blacks" or on "women" to Black women. (GC)
Michael J. Cody; H. Dan OHair
This study investigates whether communicator characteristics (gender and communicator dominance) in nonverbal displays in truth?telling circumstances can be used to predict differences in deception cue leakage. Based on the arguments advanced by Hocking and Leathers in their 1980 article, it was argued that individuals who are more likely to exhibit a controllable behavior that is judged as stereotypical of liars
Paparella, Tanya; Goods, Kelly Stickles; Freeman, Stephanny; Kasari, Connie
Joint attention (JA) skills are deficient in children with autism; however, children with autism seem to vary in the degree to which they display joint attention. Joint attention skills refer to verbal and nonverbal skills used to share experiences with others. They include gestures such as pointing, coordinated looks between objects and people,…
Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Glass, Kimberly
The normal development of humor in children has been well documented with a predictable course that is tied to social, cognitive, and linguistic development in children. This study explored humor comprehension in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). Children with NVLD were compared with children with reading disabilities and a…
Introduction: The purpose of this article is to explore the effect of nonverbal information (gestures and facial expressions) provided in real time on the interpretation of utterances by people with total blindness. Methods: The article reports on an exploratory study performed on two groups of participants with visual impairments who were tested…
Galway, Tanya M.; Metsala, Jamie L.
The current study examined social cognitive skills in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) compared to normally achieving (NA) children. The relation between social cognitive skills and psychosocial adjustment was also investigated. There were no group differences on children's ability to represent orally presented social vignettes.…
Wong, Regine; Niu, Weihua
A total of 182 undergraduate students from China and the United States participated in a study examining the presence of stereotypical perceptions regarding creativity and deductive reasoning abilities, as well as the influence of stereotype on participants' performance on deductive reasoning and creativity in nonverbal form. The results showed…
Livingston, Samuel A.
The selection and development of six tests measuring the ability to receive and interpret nonverbal communications are described, as is an attempt to gather evidence of their value as predictors of success in two occupations requiring high levels of interpersonal skills-- psychology and counseling. The tests were: (1) Inter-Person Perception Test;…
Gordon, Kate; Pasco, Greg; McElduff, Fiona; Wade, Angie; Howlin, Pat; Charman, Tony
Objective: This article examines the form and function of spontaneous communication and outcome predictors in nonverbal children with autism following classroom-based intervention (Picture Exchange Communication System [PECS] training). Method: 84 children from 15 schools participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of PECS (P. Howlin, R.…
Van Duyne, H. John
The purpose of the study was (1) to examine the results from a two-association perceptual-motor task as to their implications for Luria's theory about the development of verbal control of non-verbal behavior; (2) to explore the effects of various learning experiences upon this development. The sample consisted of 20 randomly selected children in…
Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.
We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled…
This paper has as objective to investigate the nonverbal features used in beginners' EFL classroom in Morocco. It is based on a field research conducted in a junior high school in Sale, Morocco. The main sample is composed of 3rd form students in junior high school (their age ranges from 15 to 19), and the techniques for data collection are…
Park, Juyoung; Castellanos-Brown, Karen; Belcher, John
Objective: Pain assessment for nonverbal older adults with cognitive impairments or dementia presents many challenges, and it is important to determine which scales are most useful in assessing pain among this population. Method: In this review 11 observational scales for assessment of pain in older adults with dementia or cognitive impairments…
Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Puccinelli, Nancy M.
A study to investigate the preclinical and clinical consequences of 79 occupational-therapy students' emotional attributes found that, when interviews were conducted in pairs, their feelings and behavior were associated with attributes of negative emotionality and nonverbal expressiveness. Students who had a high degree of negative emotionality…
Nijman, E. E.; Scheirs, J. G. M.; Prinsen, M. J. H.; Abbink, C. D.; Blok, J. B.
Increases in the scores on IQ tests across generations have been called the Flynn effect (FE). One of the unresolved questions is whether the FE affects all subsamples of the intellectual ability distribution equally. The present study was aimed at determining the size of the FE in moderately mentally retarded individuals. A nonverbal intelligence…
Overman, William; Pierce, Allison; Watterson, Lucas; Coleman, Jennifer K.
Two hundred and twenty two children (104 females), 1-8 years of age and young adults, were tested for up to 25 days on five versions of a non-verbal, non-navigational landmark task that had previously been used for monkeys. In monkeys, performance on this task is severely impaired following damage to the parietal cortex. For the basic task, the…
Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy
Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…
Peterson, Robin T.
This article examines the potential effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication for sales representatives. The literature on this subject was reviewed, and a study using students as sales representatives was conducted to evaluate the potential of training in body language. The research results provide support for the proposition that such…
Vrij, Aldert; Akehurst, Lucy; Soukara, Stavroula; Bull, Ray
This experiment examined children's and undergraduates' verbal and nonverbal deceptive behavior, and the extent to which their truths and lies could be correctly classified by paying attention to these responses. Participants (N = 196) aged 5-6, 10-11, and 14-15, as well as university undergraduates, participated in an erasing the blackboard…
Aldert Vrij; Hayley Evans; Lucy Akehurst; Samantha Mann
SUMMARY In the present study it was investigated to what extent observers (i) could make rapid yet reliable and valid judgements of the frequency of verbal and nonverbal behaviours of interviewees (liars and truth tellers) and (ii) detect deceit after making these rapid judgements. Five observers watched 52 videoclips of 26 liars and 26 truth tellers. The findings revealed that
Samuel A. Livingston
Six tests of nonverbal communication skills were investigated in an attempt to improve prediction of success for psychologists and counselors. The sub jects were graduate students at two different schools; the criterion variables were faculty mem bers' judgments of the students' academic work, in terpersonal relations, personal characteristics, and \\
Pucel, Joanna; Stocker, Glenn
Although research in the area of communication apprehension (CA) has been extensive, little of it has attempted to identify the regularity and intensity of the nonverbal stress behaviors associated with CA. Additionally, most CA research has concentrated on the problem in North American settings. To extend the boundaries of CA research, a study…
Antshel, Kevin M.; Khan, Fahad M.
The cognitive and behavioral symptoms of nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have been described by previous investigators. Nevertheless, we know far less about the potential genetic contributions that may predispose a child to have NLD. An endophenotype model was investigated in 5 samples of children ages 9 to 15 years: NLD (n = 32); reading…
Bachmann, James K.
Nonverbal communication is important in foreign language teaching and learning because of its variation in form, meaning and distribution from one culture to another and because of its extensive use in the communicative process. Cross-cultural misunderstandings result from incorrect interpretations of the tone of voice, body motions, facial…
Smith-Hanen, Sandra S.
A sample of 40 college subjects were asked to rate counselor warmth and empathy after viewing videosegments of non-verbal body language. Arm and leg positions significantly affected the ratings of counselor warmth and empathy. The arms-crossed position was the least empathic position. (Author)
This annotated, selected bibliography of 21 monographs and articles on non-verbal communication is designed to help library personnel develop their perceptions of body language, thereby helping them respond more appropriately to user queries. Introductory material includes a brief literature review. (MBR)
Ciampa, Bartholomew J.
Skillful interpretation of nonverbal communication on the part of college administrators is pointed out as an important factor in the success or failure of educational enterprises. A method is presented of using such instruments as the Occupational Climate Description Questionnaire and the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire in assessing…
Focuses on nonverbal and extralinguistic activities as an aide to learning. Body language, movement, and action, simultaneously simple and omnipresent, are useful at the level of comprehension. These activities suggest images or result from verbal instigation. This visual imagery fills in the gaps between one's mother tongue and a foreign…
In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the…
Stamatis, Panagiotis J.
Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…
Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen
We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…
John E. Bates
In response to the need for more information about how children can affect their own social development through the effects they have on adults, the imitativeness of 2 13-yr-old male confederates in a basketball teaching situation was experimentally varied. The responses of 48 male undergraduates to this manipulation were measured on 21 verbal and nonverbal variables. The variables were factor
Jaramillo, James A.
The debate over whether primates can be taught visual language is examined, and evidence of use of nonverbal language in primate studies is compared with the language criteria of a number of linguistic researchers. Background information on language, visual language (including sign language), and the parameters of the studies is offered, including…
von Raffler-Engel, Walburga
Research was conducted on the age and sex differences in raters' evaluations of job applicants' nonverbal behaviors. A ten-minute videotape of five interviews was shown to 28 members (7 females and 21 males) of the Industrial Personnel Association who had varying years of experience in personnel work. The simulations depicted job applicants whose…
Okoro, Ephraim; Washington, Melvin
Economic and market globalization in the United States has engendered a multicultural learning environment that challenges both faculty and students. Diversity in the classroom is further complicated by nonverbal communication, which impacts on students' attitudes toward faculty members. Because today's classrooms are changing and undergoing rapid…
Casey, Joseph E.
Although many learning disability types are formally recognized in major classification systems such as "DSM-IV-TR" and ICD-10, Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NLD) is not despite over 40 years of literature addressing its theoretical and neuropsychological foundation, its major features, and the methods by which to assess and diagnose it. Currently,…
Eric Brunet; Yves Sarfati; Marie-Christine Hardy-Baylé; Jean Decety
Several authors have demonstrated that theory of mind is associated with a cerebral pattern of activity involving the medial prefrontal cortex. This study was designed to determine the cerebral regions activated during attribution of intention to others, a task which requires theory-of-mind skills. Eight healthy subjects performed three nonverbal tasks using comic strips while PET scanning was performed. One condition
Balboni, Giulia; Naglieri, Jack A.; Cubelli, Roberto
The concurrent and predictive validities of the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) and Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) were investigated in a large group of Italian third-and fifth-grade students with different sociocultural levels evaluated at the beginning and end of the school year. CPM and NNAT scores were related to math and…
The author comments on the article "The Primacy of Cognition in Schizophrenia," by R. W. Heinrichs and states that to the pursuit of schizophrenic/normal differences, there is no end. Heinrichs used meta-analyses to argue persuasively for the primacy of cognition for this role. His conclusion not only elicited agreement from both researchers and…
Rogers, Sally J; Hayden, D; Hepburn, S; Charlifue-Smith, R; Hall, T; Hayes, A
and language acquisition: Implications for children withThe acquisition of language skills by autistic children: Canlanguage, and social development, including acquisition of useful speech in previously Teaching young nonverbal children
Prusak, Keven A.; Vincent, Susan D.; Pangrazi, Robert P.
When young teachers stand in front of their classes for the first time, they are expected to be well prepared for the challenging task before them. Unfortunately, preparations for this moment rarely include lessons on the essential skill of "teacher talk"--the choice and use of words in a class. This skill is often overlooked in teacher…
Palmatier, Robert A., Ed.
This issue collects three articles concerning reading-teacher training. "Language, Failure, and Panda Bears" by Patricia M. Cunningham calls attention to dialect difficulties in the classroom and provides ideas for teacher training programs and for public schools to solve this problem. William H. Rupley, in "Improving Teacher Effectiveness in…
Procedures for hiring teachers for preschool cooperatives are described. Resources for finding suitable teachers are city or State councils of parent cooperative preschools, newspapers, personal contact, and announcements at local meetings. A teacher application form should be sent to the applicant and returned before the personal interview.…
Riess, Helen; Kraft-Todd, Gordon
There is a gap in the medical education literature on teaching nonverbal detection and expression of empathy. Many articles do not address nonverbal interactions, instead focusing on "what to say" rather than "how to be." This focus on verbal communication overlooks the essential role nonverbal signals play in the communication of emotions, which has significant effects on patient satisfaction, health outcomes, and malpractice claims. This gap is addressed with a novel teaching tool for assessing nonverbal behavior using the acronym E.M.P.A.T.H.Y.-E: eye contact; M: muscles of facial expression; P: posture; A: affect; T: tone of voice; H: hearing the whole patient; Y: your response. This acronym was the cornerstone of a randomized controlled trial of empathy training at Massachusetts General Hospital, 2010-2012. Used as an easy-to-remember checklist, the acronym orients medical professionals to key aspects of perceiving and responding to nonverbal emotional cues. An urgent need exists to teach nonverbal aspects of communication as medical practices must be reoriented to the increasing cultural diversity represented by patients presenting for care. Where language proficiency may be limited, nonverbal communication becomes more crucial for understanding patients' communications. Furthermore, even in the absence of cultural differences, many patients are reluctant to disagree with their clinicians, and subtle nonverbal cues may be the critical entry point for discussions leading to shared medical decisions. A detailed description of the E.M.P.A.T.H.Y. acronym and a brief summary of the literature that supports each component of the teaching tool are provided. PMID:24826853
Saez, Pedro A; Bender, Heidi Allison; Barr, William B; Rivera Mindt, Monica; Morrison, Chris E; Hassenstab, Jason; Rodriguez, Marivelisse; Vazquez, Blanca
The present study examined the relationship between various sociocultural factors (e.g., acculturation, education), neurological variables (e.g., epilepsy duration and seizure frequency) and nonverbal neuropsychological (NP) test performance in a sample of 305 Latino/a and Non-Latino/a White adults with and without epilepsy. All participants completed nonverbal NP measures of visuospatial skills, memory, executive functioning, and psychomotor speed. An acculturation scale was administered to Spanish-speaking epilepsy patients and controls. Education was strongly correlated with performance on all but one of the nonverbal measures across the entire sample. Among Spanish-speaking Latino/a patients with epilepsy, level of acculturation to U.S. culture was associated with a measure of behavioral inflexibility (p < .05) and with a composite measure of nonverbal NP test performance (p < .05). Finally, the results of hierarchical regression models showed that sociocultural factors accounted for a greater proportion of variance in nonverbal NP test performance than did neurological factors. These results provide further evidence that sociocultural factors are strong predictors of NP test performance in clinical populations, even on nonverbal tests. Assessment of acculturation may be as critical as assessment of disease factors in interpreting cognitive performance in Latino/a individuals. PMID:24826504
By putting teachers back into an intense learning and leadership environment, the National Science Foundation (NSF) is embarking on a major effort to improve the mathematics and science education of the nation’s youth. The three-year $5.5 million Teacher Institute project in Park City, Utah, involves middle and high school mathematics teachers from three school districts, including a small system in McAllen, Texas, and larger systems in Cincinnati, Ohio and Seattle, Washington. In summer resident sessions, the institute at Park City will train middle and secondary school teachers to become teacher-leaders.
Hawley, William B.; Vellanti, Joseph T.
Trainers of Teachers of Teachers (TTT) is primarily concerned with the preservice and inservice development of the trainers of teacher trainersand their students through a new pattern of graduate intern experience in a "school clinic" where representatives of the university, the schools, and the community meet in an urban secondary school complex…
Castelli, Luigi; De Dea, Cristina; Nesdale, Drew
White children show marked ingroup race preferences and a relative devaluation of Black people. The origin of these early interracial attitudes is to a large extent still unclear. The studies here test the possibility that preschool-aged children are particularly sensitive to the nonverbal behaviors performed by White adults during interracial interactions. In Study 1, children were shown a video displaying an interaction between a White and a Black adult. Across conditions, the White adult's verbal behaviors were either friendly or neutral, whereas his nonverbal behaviors showed either easiness (e.g., closeness, high eye contact) or uneasiness (e.g., distance, avoidance of eye contact). Results revealed that participants shaped their attitudes toward the Black target accordingly, independently from the White adults' verbal behaviors. Study 2 replicated the basic findings and demonstrated that the observed effects generalized to other Black targets. Results are discussed in relation to current approaches to understanding the formation of racial attitudes among children. PMID:18716043
Forgeard, Marie; Winner, Ellen; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried
Background In this study we investigated the association between instrumental music training in childhood and outcomes closely related to music training as well as those more distantly related. Methodology/Principal Findings Children who received at least three years (M?=?4.6 years) of instrumental music training outperformed their control counterparts on two outcomes closely related to music (auditory discrimination abilities and fine motor skills) and on two outcomes distantly related to music (vocabulary and nonverbal reasoning skills). Duration of training also predicted these outcomes. Contrary to previous research, instrumental music training was not associated with heightened spatial skills, phonemic awareness, or mathematical abilities. Conclusions/Significance While these results are correlational only, the strong predictive effect of training duration suggests that instrumental music training may enhance auditory discrimination, fine motor skills, vocabulary, and nonverbal reasoning. Alternative explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:18958177
Brookshire, B L; Butler, I J; Ewing-Cobbs, L; Fletcher, J M
In this study the neuropsychological characteristics of thirty-one 6 to 16-year-old children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) were compared to 20 normal siblings and 10 children with arithmetic disabilities (AD) who were comparable in age and socioeconomic status. Unlike the sibling group, neuropsychological profiles of the TS and AD groups were expected to reflect nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD). The three groups performed generally within the average range on academic and cognitive measures. Like the AD children, the TS group demonstrated poorer performance on written arithmetic tasks with comparatively better word reading and written word spelling. Unlike the AD group, who demonstrated generalized nonverbal deficiencies, children with TS demonstrated reduced performance on visual-motor and expressive language measures as well as measures of complex cognition. These results are suggestive of an "output" subtype of learning disability and support theories that implicate the mesocortical dopaminergic system in the pathophysiology of TS. PMID:8021315
Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen
We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of expressive tasks, but not for the aggregate score of receptive tasks. There was also a significant within-group difference among individuals with ASD for expressive vs. receptive performance. Our data indicate that adolescents with ASD can achieve receptive accuracy in non-verbal communication, but show significant qualitative deficits in expressive skills across a range of tasks, which may have a significant negative impact on their success as social communicators. PMID:22773928
Kuhlen, Anna K; Bogler, Carsten; Swerts, Marc; Haynes, John-Dylan
For successful communication, conversational partners need to estimate each other's current knowledge state. Nonverbal facial and bodily cues can reveal relevant information about how confident a speaker is about what they are saying. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we aimed to identify brain regions that encode how confident a speaker is perceived to be. Participants viewed videos of people answering general knowledge questions and judged each respondent's confidence in their answer. Our results suggest a distinct role of two neural networks known to support social inferences, the so-called mentalizing and the mirroring network. While activation in both networks underlies the processing of nonverbal cues, only activity in the mentalizing network, most notably the medial prefrontal cortex and the bilateral temporoparietal junction, is modulated by how confident the respondent is judged to be. Our results support an integrative account of the mirroring and mentalizing network, in which the two systems support each other in aiding pragmatic processing. PMID:25140046
Christopher M. Conway; Jennifer Karpicke; Esperanza M. Anaya; Shirley C. Henning; William G. Kronenberger; David B. Pisoni
We assessed profoundly deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) (N = 24) and age-matched normal-hearing children (N = 31) on several nonverbal cognition measures: motor sequencing, tactile discrimination, response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and visual-spatial processing. The results revealed that the children with CIs showed disturbances solely on motor sequencing and that performance on this task was significantly correlated with scores
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS? VERBAL AND NONVERBAL TEST SCORES WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF POVERTY A Dissertation by FATIH KAYA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Subject: Educational Psychology Copyright 2013 Fatih Kaya ABSTRACT The association between intelligence and achievement has been investigated by many researchers, and a moderate to strong correlation between the two has been repeatedly found. Few...
Elisha Babad; Dinah Avni-Babad; Robert Rosenthal
This study examined the power of judges' ratings of professors' nonverbal (NV) classroom behavior in content-free brief instances\\u000a (nine seconds) to predict actual end-of-course students' ratings of teaching (SRT). Professors in 67 courses were videotaped\\u000a in 4 instructional situations: First class session; Lecturing; Interacting with students; and Talking about the course. The\\u000a overall finding was that thin slices of professors'
Dag Sverre Syrdal; Kheng Lee Koay; Márta Gácsi; Michael L. Walters; Kerstin Dautenhahn
This paper presents results from a video human-robot interaction (VHRI) study in which participants viewed a video in which an appearance-constrained Pioneer robot used dog-inspired affective cues to communicate affinity and relationship with its owner and a guest using proxemics, body movement and orientation and camera orientation. The findings suggest that even with the limited modalities for non-verbal expression offered
Richard E. Tremblay; Serge Larivee; Jacques C. Gregoire
Based on Piaget's equilibration theory, father dogmatism and empathy was hypothesized to influence sons' cognitive development through non-verbal behavior in father-son interactions. Subjects were 52 pairs of fathers and their sons drawn from first-year high school students of bi-parental families. Fathers' dogmatism and empathy was assessed by questionnaire, sons' cognitive development with Piaget's permutation task using the clinical procedure, and
Nicole C. Krämer; Laura Hoffmann; Stefan Kopp
\\u000a Since embodied agents are considered as equally usable by all kinds of users, not much attention has been paid to the influence\\u000a of users´ attributes on the evaluation of agents in general and their (nonverbal) behaviour in particular. Here, we present\\u000a evidence from three empirical studies with the agent Max, which focus on the effects of participants‘ gender, age and
DePaulo, B M; Stone, J I; Lassiter, G D
Male and female "senders" described their opinions on four controversial issues to target persons. Each sender expressed sincere agreement with the target on one of the issues and sincere disagreement on another (truthful messages), and also pretended to agree with the partner on one of the issues (an ingratiating lie) and pretended to disagree on another (a noningratiating lie). Groups of judges then rated the sincerity of each message on the basis of information available from one of four different channels: verbal (words only, in transcript form), audio (audiotape only), visual (videotape with no sound), and audiovisual (videotape with sound). Results showed that (a) lies told by women were more readily detected than lies told by men, (b) lies told to opposite-sex targets were more easily detected than lies to same-sex targets, and (c) ingratiating lies were more successfully detected than were noningratiating lies, particularly when told to attractive targets. Furthermore, when senders talked to opposite-sex (relative to same-sex) targets, their lies were most easily detected from the three channels that included nonverbal cues. For ingratiating (relative to noningratiating) lies, detectability was greatest for the channels that included visual nonverbal cues. Senders addressing attractive targets were perceived as less sincere than senders addressing unattractive targets, both when lying and when telling the truth, and this difference in the degree of sincerity conveyed was especially pronounced in the channels that included nonverbal cues. Results are discussed in terms of the effects of motivation on verbal and nonverbal communicative success. PMID:3998987
M. Robin DiMatteo; Ron D. Hays; Louise M. Prince
A field study of 28 residents in family practice was conducted. Physicians’ self-reports of empathy, self-monitoring ability, and affective communication skill as well as their objectively measured nonverbal communication skills were examined as predictors of patient satisfaction, appointment noncompliance, and physician workload (schedule density). Physicians completed the Hogan Empathy Scale, Snyder Self-Monitoring Scale, Affective Communication Test, short form of the
Yolanda van Beek; Marlies S. M. van Dolderen; Judith J. S. Demon Dubas
Individual differences in depressive symptoms have been linked with social skill deficits\\u000ain adults and children, yet empirical studies on adolescents are lacking. The present research examines\\u000aage and gender differences in nonverbal behaviour between mildly depressed and nondepressed (pre-)\\u000aadolescents during conversations with an adult (study 1) and a same-aged peer (study 2). Both studies\\u000aalso examine whether conversation
Jonathan S. Gore
This experiment examined sex differences in responses to various combinations of verbal and nonverbal content during a same-sex\\u000a interaction. Fifty men and thirty women participated in a same-sex interview task with a confederate posing as another participant.\\u000a Confederates disclosed either superficial or emotional information, and they faced away from or toward the participant, when\\u000a answering questions. Results revealed that men
Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jansen, Pauline W; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
Executive function and intelligence are negatively associated with aggression, yet the role of executive function has rarely been examined in the context of school bullying. We studied whether different domains of executive function and non-verbal intelligence are associated with bullying involvement in early elementary school. The association was examined in a population-based sample of 1,377 children. At age 4 years we assessed problems in inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory and planning/organization, using a validated parental questionnaire (the BRIEF-P). Additionally, we determined child non-verbal IQ at age 6 years. Bullying involvement as a bully, victim or a bully-victim in grades 1-2 of elementary school (mean age 7.7 years) was measured using a peer-nomination procedure. Individual bullying scores were based on the ratings by multiple peers (on average 20 classmates). Analyses were adjusted for various child and maternal socio-demographic and psychosocial covariates. Child score for inhibition problems was associated with the risk of being a bully (OR per SD?=?1.35, 95%CI: 1.09-1.66), victim (OR per SD?=?1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.45) and a bully-victim (OR per SD?=?1.55, 95%CI: 1.10-2.17). Children with higher non-verbal IQ were less likely to be victims (OR?=?0.99, 95%CI: 0.98-1.00) and bully-victims (OR?=?95%CI: 0.93-0.98, respectively). In conclusion, our study showed that peer interactions may be to some extent influenced by children's executive function and non-verbal intelligence. Future studies should examine whether training executive function skills can reduce bullying involvement and improve the quality of peer relationships. PMID:24337736
Thomas S. Price; Thalia C. Eley; Philip S. Dale; Jim Stevenson; Kim Sandino; Robert Plomin
Despite cognitive neuroscience's emphasis on the modularity of cognitive processes, multivariate genetic re- search indicates that the same genetic factors largely affect diverse cognitive abilities, at least from middle childhood onward. We explored this issue for verbal and nonverbal cognitive development in infancy in a study of 1,937 pairs of same-sex 2-year-old twins born in England and Wales in 1994.
W. Joseph King
A series of experiments, exploring nonverbal behavior in human-computer systems, is presented. The first two experiments examine the rate and type of facial expressions exhibited across a variety of computer-based tasks. The third experiment focuses on users behavioral responses to agent-based systems, and the fourth experiment focuses on gaze responses in human- human, computer-mediated communication. From the results of these
Opitz, Bertram; Mecklinger, Axel; Friederici, Angela D.
There are several views about the organization of memory functions in the human prefrontal cortex. One view assumes a process-specific brain lateralization according to different memory subprocesses, that is, encoding and retrieval. An alternative view emphasizes content-specific lateralization of brain systems involved in memory processes. This study addresses this apparent inconsistency between process- and content-specific lateralization of brain activity by investigating the effects of verbal and nonverbal encoding on prefrontal activations during encoding and retrieval of environmental novel sounds using fMRI. An intentional memory task was applied in which subjects were required either to judge the sounds' loudness (nonverbal encoding task) or to indicate whether or not a sound can be verbally described (verbal encoding task). Retrieval processes were examined in a subsequent yes/no recognition test. In the study phase the right posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) was activated in both tasks. During verbal encoding additional activation of the left dorsolateral PFC was obtained. Retrieval-related fMRI activity varied as a function of encoding task: For the nonverbal task we detected an activation focus in the right posterior dorsolateral PFC whereas an activation in the left dorsolateral PFC was observed for the verbal task. These findings indicate that the right dorsolateral PFC is engaged in encoding of auditory information irrespective of encoding task. The lateralization of PFC activity during retrieval was shown to depend on the availability of verbal codes, with left hemispheric involvement for verbally and right hemispheric activation for nonverbally coded information. PMID:10753975
App, Betsy; McIntosh, Daniel N; Reed, Catherine L; Hertenstein, Matthew J
This study investigated the hypothesis that different emotions are most effectively conveyed through specific, nonverbal channels of communication: body, face, and touch. Experiment 1 assessed the production of emotion displays. Participants generated nonverbal displays of 11 emotions, with and without channel restrictions. For both actual production and stated preferences, participants favored the body for embarrassment, guilt, pride, and shame; the face for anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness; and touch for love and sympathy. When restricted to a single channel, participants were most confident about their communication when production was limited to the emotion's preferred channel. Experiment 2 examined the reception or identification of emotion displays. Participants viewed videos of emotions communicated in unrestricted and restricted conditions and identified the communicated emotions. Emotion identification in restricted conditions was most accurate when participants viewed emotions displayed via the emotion's preferred channel. This study provides converging evidence that some emotions are communicated predominantly through different nonverbal channels. Further analysis of these channel-emotion correspondences suggests that the social function of an emotion predicts its primary channel: The body channel promotes social-status emotions, the face channel supports survival emotions, and touch supports intimate emotions. PMID:21668111
Voglmaier, Martina M.; Seidman, Larry J.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.
Objective The authors contrasted verbal and nonverbal measures of attention and memory in patients with DSM-IV-defined schizotypal personality disorder in order to expand on their previous findings of verbal learning deficits in these patients and to understand better the neuropsychological profile of schizotypal personality disorder. Method Cognitive test performance was examined in 16 right-handed men who met diagnostic criteria for schizotypal personality disorder and 16 matched male comparison subjects. Neuropsychological measures included verbal and nonverbal tests of persistence, supraspan learning, and short- and long-term memory retention. Neuropsychological profiles were constructed by standardizing test scores based on the means and standard deviations of the comparison subject group. Results Subjects with schizotypal personality disorder showed a mild to moderate general reduction in performance on all measures. Verbal measures of persistence, short-term retention, and learning were more severely impaired than their nonverbal analogs. Performance on measures of memory retention was independent of modality. Conclusions The results are consistent with previous reports that have suggested a mild, general decrement in cognitive performance and proportionately greater involvement of the left hemisphere in patients with schizotypal personality disorder. The findings provide further support for a specific deficit in the early processing stages of verbal learning. PMID:10784473
Rinaldi, Romina; Trappeniers, Julie; Lefebvre, Laurent
Over the last few years, numerous studies have attempted to explain fluency impairments in people with schizophrenia, leading to heterogeneous results. This could notably be due to the fact that fluency is often used in its verbal form where semantic dimensions are implied. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of fluency deficits, a non-verbal fluency task - the Five-Point Test (5PT) - was proposed to 24 patients with schizophrenia and to 24 healthy subjects categorized in terms of age, gender and schooling. The 5PT involves producing as many abstract figures as possible within 1min by connecting points with straight lines. All subjects also completed the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) while those with schizophrenia were further assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results show that the 5PT evaluation differentiates patients from healthy subjects with regard to the number of figures produced. Patients? results also suggest that the number of figures produced is linked to the "overall executive functioning" and to some inhibition components. Although this study is a first step in the non-verbal efficiency research field, we believe that experimental psychopathology could benefit from the investigations on non-verbal fluency. PMID:24636246
Lupyan, Gary; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.
A major part of learning a language is learning to map spoken words onto objects in the environment. An open question is what are the consequences of this learning for cognition and perception? Here, we present a series of experiments that examine effects of verbal labels on the activation of conceptual information as measured through picture verification tasks. We find that verbal cues, such as the word “cat,” lead to faster and more accurate verification of congruent objects and rejection of incongruent objects than do either nonverbal cues, such as the sound of a cat meowing, or words that do not directly refer to the object, such as the word “meowing.” This label advantage does not arise from verbal labels being more familiar or easier to process than other cues, and it does extends to newly learned labels and sounds. Despite having equivalent facility in learning associations between novel objects and labels or sounds, conceptual information is activated more effectively through verbal means than through non-verbal means. Thus, rather than simply accessing nonverbal concepts, language activates aspects of a conceptual representation in a particularly effective way. We offer preliminary support that representations activated via verbal means are more categorical and show greater consistency between subjects. These results inform the understanding of how human cognition is shaped by language and hint at effects that different patterns of naming can have on conceptual structure. PMID:21928923
Georgescu, Alexandra L; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Santos, Natacha S; Tepest, Ralf; Bente, Gary; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Vogeley, Kai
Despite the fact that nonverbal dyadic social interactions are abundant in the environment, the neural mechanisms underlying their processing are not yet fully understood. Research in the field of social neuroscience has suggested that two neural networks appear to be involved in social understanding: (1) the action observation network (AON) and (2) the social neural network (SNN). The aim of this study was to determine the differential contributions of the AON and the SNN to the processing of nonverbal behavior as observed in dyadic social interactions. To this end, we used short computer animation sequences displaying dyadic social interactions between two virtual characters and systematically manipulated two key features of movement activity, which are known to influence the perception of meaning in nonverbal stimuli: (1) movement fluency and (2) contingency of movement patterns. A group of 21 male participants rated the "naturalness" of the observed scenes on a four-point scale while undergoing fMRI. Behavioral results showed that both fluency and contingency significantly influenced the "naturalness" experience of the presented animations. Neurally, the AON was preferentially engaged when processing contingent movement patterns, but did not discriminate between different degrees of movement fluency. In contrast, regions of the SNN were engaged more strongly when observing dyads with disturbed movement fluency. In conclusion, while the AON is involved in the general processing of contingent social actions, irrespective of their kinematic properties, the SNN is preferentially recruited when atypical kinematic properties prompt inferences about the agents' intentions. PMID:23813661
Wieser, Matthias J; Flaisch, Tobias; Pauli, Paul
Humans form impressions of others by associating persons (faces) with negative or positive social outcomes. This learning process has been referred to as social conditioning. In everyday life, affective nonverbal gestures may constitute important social signals cueing threat or safety, which therefore may support aforementioned learning processes. In conventional aversive conditioning, studies using electroencephalography to investigate visuocortical processing of visual stimuli paired with danger cues such as aversive noise have demonstrated facilitated processing and enhanced sensory gain in visual cortex. The present study aimed at extending this line of research to the field of social conditioning by pairing neutral face stimuli with affective nonverbal gestures. To this end, electro-cortical processing of faces serving as different conditioned stimuli was investigated in a differential social conditioning paradigm. Behavioral ratings and visually evoked steady-state potentials (ssVEP) were recorded in twenty healthy human participants, who underwent a differential conditioning procedure in which three neutral faces were paired with pictures of negative (raised middle finger), neutral (pointing), or positive (thumbs-up) gestures. As expected, faces associated with the aversive hand gesture (raised middle finger) elicited larger ssVEP amplitudes during conditioning. Moreover, theses faces were rated as to be more arousing and unpleasant. These results suggest that cortical engagement in response to faces aversively conditioned with nonverbal gestures is facilitated in order to establish persistent vigilance for social threat-related cues. This form of social conditioning allows to establish a predictive relationship between social stimuli and motivationally relevant outcomes. PMID:25054341
Bidet-Caulet, Aurelie; Ye, Xiao Lai; Bouchet, Patrick; Guénot, Marc; Fischer, Catherine; Bertrand, Olivier
For patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal epilepsy, unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) – i.e. the surgical resection of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the temporal pole and the most anterior part of the temporal gyri – is an efficient treatment. There is growing evidence that anterior regions of the temporal lobe are involved in the integration and short-term memorization of object-related sound properties. However, non-verbal auditory processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has raised little attention. To assess non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy both before and after unilateral ATL, we developed a set of non-verbal auditory tests, including environmental sounds. We could evaluate auditory semantic identification, acoustic and object-related short-term memory, and sound extraction from a sound mixture. The performances of 26 TLE patients before and/or after ATL were compared to those of 18 healthy subjects. Patients before and after ATL were found to present with similar deficits in pitch retention, and in identification and short-term memorisation of environmental sounds, whereas not being impaired in basic acoustic processing compared to healthy subjects. It is most likely that the deficits observed before and after ATL are related to epileptic neuropathological processes. Therefore, in patients with drug-resistant TLE, ATL seems to significantly improve seizure control without producing additional auditory deficits. PMID:20011222
Pioggia, Giovanni; Hanson, David; Dinelli, Serena; Di Francesco, Fabio; Francesconi, R.; De Rossi, Danilo
The nonverbal expression of the emotions, especially in the human face, has rapidly become an area of intense interest in computer science and robotics. Exploring the emotions as a link between external events and behavioural responses, artificial intelligence designers and psychologists are approaching a theoretical understanding of foundational principles which will be key to the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence. In fact, it has been well demonstrated that many important aspects of intelligence are grounded in intimate communication with the physical world- so-called embodied intelligence . It follows naturally, then, that recent advances in emotive artificial intelligence show clear and undeniable broadening in the capacities of biologically-inspired robots to survive and thrive in a social environment. The means by which AI may express its foundling emotions are clearly integral to such capacities. In effect: powerful facial expressions are critical to the development of intelligent, sociable robots. Following discussion the importance of the nonverbal expression of emotions in humans and robots, this paper describes methods used in robotically emulating nonverbal expressions using human-like robotic faces. Furthermore, it describes the potentially revolutionary impact of electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators as artificial muscles for such robotic devices.
Daza, María Teresa; Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Ruiz-Cuadra, María del Mar; López-López, Francisco
The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between language skills (vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness), nonverbal cognitive processes (attention, memory and executive functions) and reading comprehension in deaf children. Participants were thirty prelingually deaf children (10.7 ± 1.6 years old; 18 boys, 12 girls), who were classified as either good readers or poor readers by their scores on two reading comprehension tasks. The children were administered a rhyme judgment task and seven computerized neuropsychological tasks specifically designed and adapted for deaf children to evaluate vocabulary knowledge, attention, memory and executive functions in deaf children. A correlational approach was also used to assess the association between variables. Although the two groups did not show differences in phonological awareness, good readers showed better vocabulary and performed significantly better than poor readers on attention, memory and executive functions measures. Significant correlations were found between better scores in reading comprehension and better scores on tasks of vocabulary and non-verbal cognitive processes. The results suggest that in deaf children, vocabulary knowledge and nonverbal cognitive processes such as selective attention, visuo-spatial memory, abstract reasoning and sequential processing may be especially relevant for the development of reading comprehension. PMID:25240218
Diantha Lay is principal of an elementary school in Montgomery County, Maryland. When she wrote this chapter, she was just starting a new position for the county as a staff development teacher. Earlier she had been a second- and a fourth-grade teacher with a passion for science. When her county decided to establish the new position of staff development teacher in every school, Diantha embarked on a new adventure. In this chapter, she describes the formation of teacher study groups as she began to engage colleagues in developing a professional learning community in their school.
Andrew R. Brulle; Judith Ivarie
The Brigance Diagnostic Indicators of Early Development - teacher checklist subtests (DIED) and the California Preschool Social Competency Scale (CPSCS) were examined to determine their adequacy as reliable measures in the setting of appropriate programmatic goals for children. Testing the reliability of the DIED involved two teachers rating a sample of 20 children between the ages of 5 and 6
Dunn, Judy; And Others
A one-page introduction is followed by summaries of articles and documents on teacher competency testing. George F. Madaus argues that, although tests serve some useful functions, treating them as a major mechanism for reforming education is questionable. Peter A. Garcia examines the negative impact of testing on minority teachers and minorities…
This website has information and links to resources for ocean sciences teachers located in North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. The resources include professional development opportunities, student opportunities, teaching resources and lessons, and organizations and agencies to connect teachers with ocean science materials.
Delen, Erhan; Kaya, Fatih; Ritter, Nicola L.
This article presents a review of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2), a nonverbal intelligence test created to assess reasoning and problem solving of children and adults. The goal of the CTONI-2 is to minimize the influence of language ability on intelligence test scores. Oral or pantomime instructions can…
Ritter, Nicola; Kilinc, Emin; Navruz, Bilgin; Bae, Yunhee
This article reviews Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition (TONI-4), an individually administered instrument created to assess intelligence. The distinguishing characteristic of the TONI-4 is the nonverbal, motor-reduced format that assesses common elements of intelligence without the confounding effects of motor or linguistic skills. The…
Dickson, Esther; Burton, Neil
This small-scale study reports the findings from an investigation into non-verbal communication. It primarily seeks to analyse whether 9 and 13 year-olds can encode and decode non-verbal communication in the context of classroom behaviour management. This research showed that, in contrast to previous published research, there were no distinct…
Khan, Fahad Hanif; Hanif, Raheela; Tabassum, Rumina
Background. Nonverbal behaviors have a significant impact on patients during consultations. This study was undertaken to find out the attitudes and preferences of the patients regarding nonverbal communication during consultations with physicians, in a tertiary care hospital. Methods. A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was carried out at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, during the months of January to March 2012. All patients (>18 years of age) coming for consultancy in the family medicine clinics were approached; out of 133, 120 agreed to participate. The subjects were asked questions regarding physician's comforting touch and eye contact and their responses were noted. The data were analyzed using SPSS and chi-square test was used to identify corelations. Results. Overall, 120 patients were enrolled. About 58.3% were men and 41.7% were women with a mean age of 34.9 ± 10.9 years. 95.8% were Muslims and 57.6% had more than 12 years of education. Among females 74% wanted supportive touch from doctors, used to comfort the patient (45%) or to show respect (27.5%) or as healing (30%). 86.1% of the respondents believe that establishing eye contact with the patient shows that the doctor is attentive towards his/her patient. The eye contact should be brief but regular (54.1%) and prolonged staring (36.7%) makes them uncomfortable. Conclusion. Nonverbal communication helps to strengthen the doctor-patient relation as patients do appreciate positive touch and eye contact from their physicians. PMID:24977140
Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert
Background In their daily communication, bilinguals switch between two languages, a process that involves the selection of a target language and minimization of interference from a nontarget language. Previous studies have uncovered the neural structure in bilinguals and the activation patterns associated with performing verbal conflict tasks. One question that remains, however is whether this extra verbal switching affects brain function during nonverbal conflict tasks. Methods In this study, we have used fMRI to investigate the impact of bilingualism in children performing two nonverbal tasks involving stimulus–stimulus and stimulus–response conflicts. Three groups of 8–11-year-old children – bilinguals from birth (2L1), second language learners (L2L), and a control group of monolinguals (1L1) – were scanned while performing a color Simon and a numerical Stroop task. Reaction times and accuracy were logged. Results Compared to monolingual controls, bilingual children showed higher behavioral congruency effect of these tasks, which is matched by the recruitment of brain regions that are generally used in general cognitive control, language processing or to solve language conflict situations in bilinguals (caudate nucleus, posterior cingulate gyrus, STG, precuneus). Further, the activation of these areas was found to be higher in 2L1 compared to L2L. Conclusion The coupling of longer reaction times to the recruitment of extra language-related brain areas supports the hypothesis that when dealing with language conflicts the specialization of bilinguals hampers the way they can process with nonverbal conflicts, at least at early stages in life. PMID:25328840
Geerts, Erwin; van Os, Titus; Gerlsma, Coby
The role of parental bonding and nonverbal communication in the short-term treatment response was investigated in 104 depressed outpatients. At baseline patients completed the Parental Bonding Instrument. We registered the nonverbal involvement behaviour of patients and interviewers from video recordings of baseline clinical interviews and calculated the convergence between patient-interviewer behaviour over the interview. The course of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. As hypothesized, low maternal care and high paternal overprotection predicted a poor response to an 8-week treatment. Maternal care was positively correlated with nonverbal convergence. Moreover, convergence moderated the relationship between maternal care and the response to treatment: Lack of convergence between patients and interviewers turned out to annul the positive effects of maternal care on the treatment response. The findings link theories on early parenting to interpersonal theories of depression. PMID:19042029
Schwartz, Caroline; Dratsch, Thomas; Vogeley, Kai; Bente, Gary
Little is known about whether stereotypes influence social judgments of autistic individuals, in particular when they compete with tacit face-to-face cues. We compared impression formation of 17 subjects with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 17 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls. Information about the profession of a job applicant served as stereotype activating information. The target person's nonverbal behavior was presented as a computer animation showing two virtual characters in interaction. Contrary to our hypothesis, HFA participants were as sensitive to nonverbal cues as controls. Moreover, HFA showed a tendency to evaluate persons more positively. This might indicate a routine HFA apply in impression formation in order to compensate for their deficit in intuitive understanding of nonverbal communication cues. PMID:24362848
Koeda, T; Kohno, Y
A case of unusual Landau-Kleffner syndrome was reported. She was an 8 year-old girl and showed non-verbal agnosia, diffuse EEG abnormalities and convulsions. Her responses to both verbal and non-verbal sounds remained inconsistent and unstable. When a continuous spike-wave complexes on EEG was detected, she paid no attention to any sound in spite of her fair consciousness. Auditory brainstem response and magnetic resonance imaging of her brain were normal. Auditory agnosia was correlated well with EEG abnormalities, and valproic acid and clonazepam were effective for EEG improvement. After the EEG improvement, clinical responses to sounds recovered well; firstly she could pay attention to sounds and then she could distinguish between verbal and non-verbal sounds. Finally, she could speak a few words after the learning letters. PMID:1375480
Wallace, Gregory L.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth C.; Medland, Sarah E.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Clasen, Liv S.; Schmitt, James E.; Neale, Michael C.; Giedd, Jay N.
Twin studies indicate that both intelligence and brain structure are moderately to highly heritable. Recent bivariate studies of adult twins also suggest that intelligence and brain morphometry are influenced by shared genetic factors. The current study examines shared genetic and environmental factors between brain morphometry and intelligence in a sample of children and adolescents (twins, twin siblings, and singletons; n = 649, ages 4–19). To extend previous studies, brain morphometric data were parsed into subregions (lobar gray/white matter volumes, caudate nucleus, lateral ventricles) and intelligence into verbal and nonverbal skills (Wechsler Vocabulary and Block Design subtests). Phenotypic relationships between brain volumes and intelligence were small. Verbal skills shared unique environmental effects with gray matter volumes while nonverbal skills shared genetic effects with both global and regional gray and white matter. These results suggest that distinct mechanisms contribute to the small phenotypic relationships between brain volumes and verbal versus nonverbal intelligence. PMID:20112131
Ceschin, J S; Melaragno Filho, R; Brauer, M J; Parente, M A
Eight patients with cerebral vascular disease and aphasia were studied just after the stroke. The clinical, neuropsychiatric, EEG and neuro-radiological aspects were evaluated. The patients were submitted to the psychological and phonoaudiological studies. The authors correlated the neurological lesions to the structural alteration of the intelligence, to the praxic and estheognostic alterations and also to the language disturbances. The criterions adopted by the World Health Organization and the genetics classification of Jean Piaget were used for the intellectual level classification. The results suggest that the intelligence evaluated through Leither's non-verbal test is better preserved in some asphasics. PMID:533383
Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.
This article examines Finnish cooperating physics teachers' conceptions of teacher knowledge in physics. Six experienced teachers were interviewed. The data was analyzed to form categories concerning the basis of teacher knowledge, and the tradition of German Didaktik and Shulman's theory of teacher knowledge were used in order to understand the…
Find links for teachers below: (Please close all windows when done.) Garden City Schools Teacher Account - Use your current email ID as the google ID. Example schultn. Your initial password is "s12345678", and you will be required to change it when you first login. Example MRC Schedule Home - Garden City Public Schools Favorite Resources MI Star (Zangle) Aesoponline Discovery Education (United Streaming) Frontline Teacher Center (PBS) - FREE online videos, lesson plans, and Web-exclusive resources Freeology-Free Printable Graphic Organizers IT Requests -organization account number is ...
Lesson plans and exercises for teachers to use this site and the CD-ROM ?Atomic Archive: Enhanced Edition? in their classrooms. The exercises cover the following subjects: Arms Control, Atomic Physics, Delivery Systems, Fission, Fusion, History and Weapon Effects.
C. Jill Swango
Our lives are ones of uncertainty and surprise, yin and yang existences. Some things we can control and others we are powerless to command, even with the best intentions. Teachers are not exempt from emergencies, jury duty, and illness. Luckily, most schools plan for such incidents by having willing substitutes on hand. Teachers need to follow the Scout's motto to "be prepared" and keep the classroom running smoothly and efficiently for students and subs.
Vogeley, Kai; Bente, Gary
"Artificial humans", so-called "Embodied Conversational Agents" and humanoid robots, are assumed to facilitate human-technology interaction referring to the unique human capacities of interpersonal communication and social information processing. While early research and development in artificial intelligence (AI) focused on processing and production of natural language, the "new AI" has also taken into account the emotional and relational aspects of communication with an emphasis both on understanding and production of nonverbal behavior. This shift in attention in computer science and engineering is reflected in recent developments in psychology and social cognitive neuroscience. This article addresses key challenges which emerge from the goal to equip machines with socio-emotional intelligence and to enable them to interpret subtle nonverbal cues and to respond to social affordances with naturally appearing behavior from both perspectives. In particular, we propose that the creation of credible artificial humans not only defines the ultimate test for our understanding of human communication and social cognition but also provides a unique research tool to improve our knowledge about the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms. PMID:20620019
Liao, Diana A.; Kronemer, Sharif I.; Yau, Jeffrey M.; Desmond, John E.; Marvel, Cherie L.
Working memory (WM) involves the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in mind. Neuroimaging studies have shown that secondary motor areas activate during WM for verbal content (e.g., words or letters), in the absence of primary motor area activation. This activation pattern may reflect an inner speech mechanism supporting online phonological rehearsal. Here, we examined the causal relationship between motor system activity and WM processing by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to manipulate motor system activity during WM rehearsal. We tested WM performance for verbalizable (words and pseudowords) and non-verbalizable (Chinese characters) visual information. We predicted that disruption of motor circuits would specifically affect WM processing of verbalizable information. We found that TMS targeting motor cortex slowed response times (RTs) on verbal WM trials with high (pseudoword) vs. low (real word) phonological load. However, non-verbal WM trials were also significantly slowed with motor TMS. WM performance was unaffected by sham stimulation or TMS over visual cortex (VC). Self-reported use of motor strategy predicted the degree of motor stimulation disruption on WM performance. These results provide evidence of the motor system’s contributions to verbal and non-verbal WM processing. We speculate that the motor system supports WM by creating motor traces consistent with the type of information being rehearsed during maintenance. PMID:25309402
Mammarella, Irene C; Giofrè, David; Ferrara, Rosanna; Cornoldi, Cesare
Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and intuitive geometry were examined in two groups aged 11-13, one with children displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning disability (NLD; n?=?16), and the other, a control group without learning disabilities (n?=?16). The two groups were matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. The children were presented with simple storage and complex-span tasks involving VSWM and with the intuitive geometry task devised by Dehaene, Izard, Pica, and Spelke (2006 ). Results revealed that the two groups differed in the intuitive geometry task. Differences were particularly evident in Euclidean geometry and in geometrical transformations. Moreover, the performance of NLD children was worse than controls to a larger extent in complex-span than in simple storage tasks, and VSWM differences were able to account for group differences in geometry. Finally, a discriminant function analysis confirmed the crucial role of complex-span tasks involving VSWM in distinguishing between the two groups. Results are discussed with reference to the relationship between VSWM and mathematics difficulties in nonverbal learning disabilities. PMID:22375915
McGrath, P J; Rosmus, C; Canfield, C; Campbell, M A; Hennigar, A
To create a checklist of behaviours that caregivers could use to determine pain in non-verbal individuals with mental retardation, primary caregivers were recruited by the Division of Neurology and interviewed using a semistructured interview. Caregivers of 20 individuals were asked to recall two instances of short, sharp pain and two of longer-lasting pain and describe the individual's behaviour. Transcribed interviews were reviewed by two of the authors and sets of non-overlapping items were developed. Average age of the 20 individuals was 14.5 years (range 6 to 29 years) and language level averaged 10 months as scored by the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. All had mental retardation and 18 had epilepsy and spastic quadriplegia or hemiparesis. Thirty-one behaviours were extracted from the interviews. The specific behaviours were often different from one child to another but the classes of behaviours (Vocal, Eating/Sleeping, Social/Personality, Facial expression of pain, Activity, Body and limbs, and Physiological) were common to almost all children. Reliability of using the checklist on interviews was very good (kappa=0.77). The checklist has excellent content validity and will be useful for caregivers of cognitively-impaired, non-verbal individuals to report on pain behaviours. Further research is needed to additionally assess its validity and sensitivity. PMID:9630262
Tanaka, Kazuaki; Ozaki, Tomoaki; Abe, Norihiro; Taki, Horikazu
The interface environment of a computer still uses a mouse and a keyboard and it is hard for many users including aged person to use computers. The computer operation may become difficult with age even if a person can use a computer currently. Development of the interface system is desired that permits persons to talk to a computer in the same way as they communicate with other ones. Of course the development of such an interface system will be effective for all computer application users in addition to aged person. We developed in this study the man machine interface system that exploits virtual reality in order to bring a talk between a person and a machine close to that between persons. We aimed at realization of bi-directional verbal/nonverbal communication that permits both the user and an avatar rendered in virtual space can use a spoken language and nonverbal behavior such as gesture/a hand gesture. As the field of concrete application, the field of assembling/disassembly of mechanical part is selected. We produced an experimental assembly training system that helps a novice acquire a right assembling procedure of virtual machine. In the system, a user can ask an avatar to show the way to assemble/disassemble mechanical parts whenever he needs help.
Skhiri, Mustapha; Cerrato, Loredana
The referred study is based on the assumption that understanding how humans use nonverbal behavior in dialogues can be very useful in the design of more natural-looking animated talking heads. The goal of the study is twofold: (1) to explore how people use specific facial expressions and head movements to serve important dialogue functions, and (2) to show evidence that it is possible to measure and quantify the entity of these movements with the Qualisys MacReflex motion tracking system. Naturally elicited dialogues between humans have been analyzed with focus on the attention on those nonverbal behaviors that serve the very relevant functions of regulating the conversational flux (i.e., turn taking) and producing information about the state of communication (i.e., feedback). The results show that eyebrow raising, head nods, and head shakes are typical signals involved during the exchange of speaking turns, as well as in the production and elicitation of feedback. These movements can be easily measured and quantified, and this measure can be implemented in animated talking heads.
Freitas, Fabiana Ferraz Queiroga; Costa, Kátia Nêyla de Freitas Macêdo; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; Fernandes, Maria das Graças Melo; Lima, Joab de Oliveira
The aim is to analyze the nonverbal communication between nurses and the elderly in the nursing consultation based on the theory by Hall. The research concerns a descriptive exploratory study and it has a quantitative approach. It took place through filmings of the nursing consultations which happened in Health Basic Units in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, observed every minute, a total of 1.575 nonverbal interactions. The analysis has showed the predominance of the female nurses (90.63%) and the elderly (65.63) and a regular classification for most of the factors as a prevalence of a sitting set (80.09), opposite chairs (64.46%), personal distance (91.40%), calm facial expression (59.78%), touch was used for a technical procedure (53.33%), visual interaction for the manipulation of the objects (57.69) and no alteration in the voice volume (48.79%). These results reflect the necessity of the nurses to domain consciously their corporal and facial manifestations in order to improve the interaction with the elderly. PMID:25590883
Cha, Kyung Ryeol; Koo, Min-Seong; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Kim, Jang Woo; Oh, Wook-Jin; Suh, Ho Suk; Lee, Hong Shick
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder; nonetheless, most of the previous neuropsychological studies for assessing the involvement of memory dysfunction grouped together patients with different symptoms, thereby potentially accounting for the inconsistencies of results. The goals of this study were to compare the memory dysfunction of two main subtypes of OCD and to identify the type of memory dysfunction that is associated with the checking symptoms in OCD patients. The sample population comprised the cleaning-type OCD group (N=23), checking-type OCD group (N=24), and a control group of healthy volunteers (N=20). All the OCD patients were selected from the outpatient clinic. All the subjects underwent the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Test (RCFT) for the assessment of nonverbal memory function, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) for verbal memory function, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The immediate and delayed memory scores of RCFT were significantly lower in the checking-type OCD group; there were no significant differences in HVLT scores amongst the three groups. Our results indicate that the checking-type compulsion of OCD patients is associated with nonverbal memory deficits and not with verbal memory deficits. PMID:17932960
Brunet, E; Sarfati, Y; Hardy-Baylé, M C; Decety, J
Several authors have demonstrated that theory of mind is associated with a cerebral pattern of activity involving the medial prefrontal cortex. This study was designed to determine the cerebral regions activated during attribution of intention to others, a task which requires theory-of-mind skills. Eight healthy subjects performed three nonverbal tasks using comic strips while PET scanning was performed. One condition required subjects to attribute intentions to the characters of the comic strips. The other two conditions involved only physical logic and knowledge about objects' properties: one condition involved characters, whereas the other only represented objects. The comparison of the attribution of intention condition with the physical logic with characters condition was associated with rCBF increases in the right middle and medial prefrontal cortex including Brodmann's area (BA) 9, the right inferior prefrontal cortex (BA 47), the right inferior temporal gyrus (BA 20), the left superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), the left cerebellum, the bilateral anterior cingulate, and the middle temporal gyri (BA 21). The comparison of the physical logic with characters condition and the physical logic without characters condition showed the activation of the lingual gyri (BA 17, 18, 19), the fusiform gyri (BA 37), the middle (BA 21) and superior (BA 22, 38) temporal gyri on both sides, and the posterior cingulate. These data suggest that attribution of intentions to others is associated with a complex cerebral activity involving the right medial prefrontal cortex when a nonverbal task is used. The laterality of this function is discussed. PMID:10679187
Tuytens, Melissa; Devos, Geert
There is a general doubt on whether teacher evaluation can contribute to teachers' professional development. Recently, standards-based teacher evaluation has been introduced in many countries to improve teaching practice. This study wants to investigate which teacher evaluation procedural, leadership, and teacher characteristics can stimulate…
. When touched in the correct order (e.g. monkey flies), the child is rewarded by an animation depicting the event. The comprehension tests used ‘stills’ from the animations. Six male non-verbal children with autism aged 8-16, recruited from previous...
Valerie Manusov; Tema Milstein
Consistent with calls by O’Sullivan (1999) and Rogers (1999), we use mass communication theory to help understand what are often thought to be largely interpersonal communication processes. Specifically, we contend that investigating media frames found within metapragmatic discourse of nonverbal events can help organize and reveal more specific meanings that can be given to the cues. To provide evidence for
Eichorn, Naomi; Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Scheuer, Jessica
Background: Considerable evidence suggests that performance across a variety of cognitive tasks is effectively supported by the use of verbal and nonverbal strategies. Studies exploring the usefulness of such strategies in children with specific language impairment (SLI) are scarce and report inconsistent findings. Aims: To examine the effects of…
Giovanna Varni; Gualtiero Volpe; Antonio Camurri
This paper presents a multimodal system for real-time analysis of nonverbal affective social interaction in small groups of users. The focus is on two major aspects of affective social interaction: the synchronization of the affective behavior within a small group and the emergence of functional roles, such as leadership. A small group of users is modeled as a complex system
Geerts, Erwin; van Os, Titus; Ormel, Johan; Bouhuys, Netty
Unsatisfying interpersonal relationships are involved in the onset and course of depression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In this study we investigated the nonverbal communication between 101 patients with remitted depression and interviewers. We related the interaction between the patients' and interviewers' behavior to patients' satisfaction with the interview and to the risk of recurrence of depression. We registered the patients' and interviewers' nonverbal displays of involvement during a clinical interview and assessed the patients' satisfaction with the interview. Possible recurrence of depression was assessed within a 2-year follow-up. Based on findings in healthy people, we hypothesized that the more similar the levels of the patients' and interviewers' behavior became during the interview, the more satisfied the patients would turn out to be. Furthermore, we hypothesized that lack of similarity in the levels of the patients' and interviewers' involvement behavior would predict recurrence of depression. Our hypotheses were confirmed: The more the patients' and interviewers' behavior converged, the more satisfied the patients were with the interview and the lower the risk of recurrence of depression. Satisfaction did not mediate the association between convergence and risk of recurrence. Also, no gender effects were found. We conclude that nonverbal communication processes are involved in the risk of recurrence of depression. Remitted people's difficulties in reaching nonverbal convergence with others may hamper them in their interpersonal functioning and, as a consequence, may put them at risk for new episodes of depression. PMID:16528682
Doody, John P.; Bull, Peter
While most studies of emotion recognition in Asperger's Syndrome (AS) have focused solely on the verbal decoding of affective states, the current research employed the novel technique of using both nonverbal matching and verbal labeling tasks to examine the decoding of emotional body postures and facial expressions. AS participants performed…
Judith A. Hall; Lavonia Smith LeBeau; Jeannette Gordon Reinoso; Frank Thayer
Ninety-six male and female university employees (93% White, 6% African American, 1% Asian) were photographed in dyads while they conversed about working at their university (candid photographs) and again while they deliberately faced the camera (posed photographs). Eight nonverbal behaviors were coded from the photographs, and relative status was ascertained from a postexperimental questionnaire. Status differences were found for upward
Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Riedel, Andreas; Ackermann, Hermann
The Asperger syndrome (AS) includes impaired recognition of other people's mental states. Since language-based diagnostic procedures may be confounded by cognitive-linguistic compensation strategies, nonverbal test materials were created, including human affective and vegetative sounds. Depending on video context, each sound could be interpreted…
Minskoff, Esther H.
In Part 2 of a two-part article individual educational program objectives are applied to nonverbal communication areas as follows: proxemics, or the use of distance, spatial arrangements, and territories; vocalics, or the use of prosodic, paralinguistic, or nonlinguistic features; and artifactual cues involving clothing and cosmetics. (Author/SBH)
Lipina, Sebastián; Segretin, Soledad; Hermida, Julia; Prats, Lucía; Fracchia, Carolina; Camelo, Jorge López; Colombo, Jorge
Tests of attentional control, working memory, and planning were administered to compare the non-verbal executive control performance of healthy children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. In addition, mediations of several sociodemographic variables, identified in the literature as part of the experience of child poverty, between…
Banich, Marie T.
bearing on the Papez theory of emotion. Psy- chosomatic Medicine, 11, 338-353. Nitschke, J.B., Heller, W of emotion. New York; Oxford University Press. Nitschke, J.B., Heller, W., Palmieri, P.A., & Miller, G, Nl-MBPR I, FFBKl.'.XRY 1^98 ity in dichotic perception of vocal nonverbal . sounds. Canadian
Gligorovic, Milica; Vucinic, Vesna; Eskirovic, Branka; Jablan, Branka
This research was conducted in order to examine the influence of manifest strabismus and stereoscopic vision on non-verbal abilities of visually impaired children aged between 7 and 15. The sample included 55 visually impaired children from the 1st to the 6th grade of elementary schools for visually impaired children in Belgrade. RANDOT stereotest…
Symons, Frank J.; Harper, Vicki N.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Breau, Lynn M.; Bodfish, James W.
The role of pain in relation to self-injurious behavior (SIB) among individuals with intellectual disabilities is not well understood. Some models of SIB are based on altered endogenous opioid system activity which could result in elevated pain thresholds. In this study, non-verbal behavioral signs indicative of pain as measured by the…
KVARACEUS, WILLIAM C.
VALIDATION AND REFINEMENT WERE MADE OF A NONVERBAL GROUP MEASURE (KD PRONENESS SCALE) OF DELINQUENCY PRONENESS WHICH CAN BE USED WITH ALL CHILDREN INCLUDING NONREADERS, SLOW LEARNERS, AND THE MENTALLY RETARDED. BEFORE-AND-AFTER DATA WERE GATHERED ON A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL POPULATION, GRADES SEVEN TO NINE (N 2000) IN ONE CITY PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM AND…
Williams, B R; Sullivan, S K; Morra, L F; Williams, J R; Donovick, P J
Vulnerability to retroactive interference has been shown to increase with cognitive aging. Consistent with the findings of memory and aging literature, the authors of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) suggest that a non-verbal task be administered during the test's delay interval to minimize the effects of retroactive interference on delayed recall. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which retroactive interference caused by non-verbal and verbal intervening tasks affects recall of verbal information in non-demented, older adults. The effects of retroactive interference on recall of words during Long-Delay recall on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) were evaluated. Participants included 85 adults age 60 and older. During a 20-minute delay interval on the CVLT-II, participants received either a verbal (WAIS-III Vocabulary or Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB) or non-verbal (Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices or WAIS-III Block Design) intervening task. Similarly to previous research with young adults (Williams & Donovick, 2008), older adults recalled the same number of words across all groups, regardless of the type of intervening task. These findings suggest that the administration of verbal intervening tasks during the CVLT-II do not elicit more retroactive interference than non-verbal intervening tasks, and thus verbal tasks need not be avoided during the delay interval of the CVLT-II. PMID:24641093
Ebert, Kerry Danahy
Background: Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. Aims: To…
Georgescu, Alexandra Livia; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Roth, Daniel; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai
High-functioning autism (HFA) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is characterized by life-long socio-communicative impairments on the one hand and preserved verbal and general learning and memory abilities on the other. One of the areas where particular difficulties are observable is the understanding of non-verbal communication cues. Thus, investigating the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms of non-verbal communication in HFA allows a better understanding of this disorder, and potentially enables the development of more efficient forms of psychotherapy and trainings. However, the research on non-verbal information processing in HFA faces several methodological challenges. The use of virtual characters (VCs) helps to overcome such challenges by enabling an ecologically valid experience of social presence, and by providing an experimental platform that can be systematically and fully controlled. To make this field of research accessible to a broader audience, we elaborate in the first part of the review the validity of using VCs in non-verbal behavior research on HFA, and we review current relevant paradigms and findings from social-cognitive neuroscience. In the second part, we argue for the use of VCs as either agents or avatars in the context of “transformed social interactions.” This allows for the implementation of real-time social interaction in virtual experimental settings, which represents a more sensitive measure of socio-communicative impairments in HFA. Finally, we argue that VCs and environments are a valuable assistive, educational and therapeutic tool for HFA. PMID:25360098
Frank, Frederick P.
Included in a current genre of studies on dyadic interaction (i.e., communication involving only two people), the study reported herein focuses on dyadic verbal, nonverbal, and proxemic behaviors and their meanings. The study is inductive in nature and is, by intent, descriptive and analytic rather than predictive. The subjects for the study were…
The second in a series of manuals designed for instructor/coordinators of Richland College's cooperative education seminars, this volume contains two learning modules focusing on nonverbal communication and business writing. In addition to stating student objectives and listing additional resources, each module introduces basic concepts and…
Tuller, Betty; Jantzen, Kelly J.; Olvera, Dianne; Steinberg, Fred; Scott Kelso, J. A.
Teenagers with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have difficulty with fine-motor coordination, which may relate to the novelty of the task or the lack of "self-talk" to mediate action. In this study, we required two teenagers with NLD and two control group teenagers to touch the thumb of each hand firmly and accurately to the fingertips of the…
Yves Sarfati; Marie-Christine Hardy-Baylé; Chrystel Besche; Daniel Widlöcher
Several clinical and experimental data suggest that some people with schizophrenia have an impaired ability to attribute relevant mental states to other people. We tested this notion in 24 schizophrenic patients and two control groups, who performed a task devised to test understanding of the intentions of nonverbal comic strip characters. Only the schizophrenic subjects with thought and speech disorganization
Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina
This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…
van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.
Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…
Zaletel, Marija; Kovacev, Asja Nina; Sustersic, Olga; Kragelj, Lijana Zaletel
Aging of the population is a growing problem in all developed societies. The older people need more health and social services, and their life quality in there is getting more and more important. The study aimed at determining the characteristics of non-verbal communication of the older people living in old people's homes (OPH). The sample consisted of 267 residents of the OPH, aged 65-96 years, and 267 caregivers from randomly selected twenty-seven OPH. Three types of non-verbal communication were observed and analysed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In face expressions and head movements about 75% older people looked at the eyes of their caregivers, and about 60% were looking around, while laughing or pressing the lips together was rarely noticed. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among different age groups was observed in dropping the eyes (p = 0.004) and smiling (0.008). In hand gestures and trunk movements, majority of older people most often moved forwards and clenched fingers, while most rarely they stroked and caressed their caregivers. The differences between genders were statistically significant in leaning on the table (p = 0.001), and changing the position on the chair (0.013). Statistically significant differences among age groups were registered in leaning forwards (p = 0.006) and pointing to the others (p = 0.036). In different modes of speaking and paralinguistic signs almost 75% older people spoke normally, about 70% kept silent, while they rarely quarrelled. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among age groups was observed in persuasive speaking (p = 0.007). The present study showed that older people in OPH in Slovenia communicated significantly less frequently with hand gestures and trunk movements than with face expressions and head movements or different modes of speaking and paralinguistic signs. The caregivers should be aware of this and pay a lot of attention to these two groups of non-verbal expressions. Their importance should be constantly emphasized during the educational process of all kinds of health-care professionals as well. PMID:20977069
Historically, "teacher action research" and "teacher research" have been terms mostly used at the PK-12 level. Yet, embracing it fully and visibly in the teacher education realm is important because it raises awareness of the critical and transformative aspects of teaching and learning. It allows teacher research to be made visible and validated…
Barth, Roland S.
This booklet describes the work of teacher leaders. Section 1, "The Teacher Leaders," describes today's teacher leadership. Section 2, "What Is Teacher Leadership?" explains that all teachers have leadership potential, and when teachers lead, principals extend their own capacity, students live in a democratic community of learners, and schools…
Michels, D. J.; Pickert, S. M.; Montrose, C. J.; Thompson, J. L.
The Catholic University of America, in collaboration with the Solar Physics Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory and the Goddard Space Flight Center, has begun development of an experimental, inquiry-driven and standards-referenced physical science course for undergraduate, pre-service K-8 teachers. The course is team-taught by faculty from the University's Departments of Education and Physics and NRL solar physics research personnel. Basic physical science concepts are taught in the context of the Sun and Sun-Earth Connections, through direct observation, web-based solar data, and images and movies from ongoing space missions. The Sun can illuminate, in ways that cannot be duplicated with comparable clarity in the laboratory, the basics of magnetic and gravitational force fields, Newton's Laws, and light and optics. The immediacy of the connection to ongoing space research and live mission data serves as well to inspire student interest and curiosity. Teaching objectives include pedagogical methods, especially hands-on and observational experiences appropriate to the physics content and the K-8 classroom. The CUA Program, called TOPS! (Top Teachers of Physical Science!) has completed its first year of classroom experience; the first few batches of Program graduates should be in K-8 classrooms in time to capitalize on the motivational opportunities offered by the 2007-2008 IHY and IPY. We present data on the attitudinal and scientific progress of fifteen pre-service Early Childhood and Elementary Education majors as they experienced, many for the first time, the marvels of attractive and repulsive forces, live observations of solar system dynamics, access to real-time satellite data and NASA educational resources.
Pitcairn, T K; Clemie, S; Gray, J M; Pentland, B
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are seen as cold, withdrawn, unintelligent and moody, and appear to relate poorly to the interviewer (Pentland, Pitcairn, & Gray & Riddle, 1987). The cues responsible for this are shown to be related not only to the type of limb and body movements made, but also particularly to the facial expressions. The expressions seen are not only reduced in frequency but are also qualitatively different, particularly in the smiles which are seen to be 'false' smiles. The implications of this for a treatment regime are discussed in relation to the neurology of the disease. It would seem that non-verbal training methods may not produce the required effects because of the shift in neural pathway used from that which normally controls spontaneous expressive movements (via the basal ganglia) to that used in voluntary movements. PMID:2364195
Gilmore, Camilla; Attridge, Nina; Clayton, Sarah; Cragg, Lucy; Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Simms, Victoria; Inglis, Matthew
Given the well-documented failings in mathematics education in many Western societies, there has been an increased interest in understanding the cognitive underpinnings of mathematical achievement. Recent research has proposed the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) which allows individuals to represent and manipulate non-verbal numerical information. Evidence has shown that performance on a measure of the ANS (a dot comparison task) is related to mathematics achievement, which has led researchers to suggest that the ANS plays a critical role in mathematics learning. Here we show that, rather than being driven by the nature of underlying numerical representations, this relationship may in fact be an artefact of the inhibitory control demands of some trials of the dot comparison task. This suggests that recent work basing mathematics assessments and interventions around dot comparison tasks may be inappropriate. PMID:23785521
Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa
This study aimed to explore non-verbal executive processes in simultaneous interpreters. Simultaneous interpreters, bilinguals without any training in simultaneous interpreting, and control monolinguals performed the Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST; Experiment 1) and the Simon task (Experiment 2). Performance on WCST was thought to index cognitive flexibility while Simon task performance was considered an index of inhibitory processes. Simultaneous interpreters outperformed bilinguals and monolinguals on the WCST by showing reduced number of attempts to infer the rule, few errors, and few previous-category perseverations. However, simultaneous interpreters presented Simon effects similar to those found in bilinguals and monolinguals. Together, these results suggest that experience in interpreting is associated with changes in control processes required to perform interpreting tasks. PMID:22059084
Bishop, Somer L; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey
Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was examined in 84 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed from age 2 to 19. Most adults who scored in the range of intellectual disability also received scores below 70 as children, and the majority of adults with scores in the average range had scored in this range by age 3. However, within the lower ranges of ability, actual scores declined from age 2 to 19, likely due in part to limitations of appropriate tests. Use of Vineland-II daily living skills scores in place of NVIQ did not statistically improve the correspondence between age 2 and age 19 scores. Clinicians and researchers should use caution when making comparisons based on exact scores or specific ability ranges within or across individuals with ASD of different ages. PMID:25239176
McCann, Marcia V; Pongonis, Stephen J; Golomb, Meredith R; Edwards-Brown, Mary; Christensen, Celanie K; Sokol, Deborah K
Periventricular nodular heterotopia is a common malformation of cortical development in which the migration of developing neurons destined for the cerebral cortex is abbreviated. Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia is most commonly an X-linked disorder that involves mutations in the filamin A (FLNA) gene, but an autosomal recessive form and sporadic forms have been identified. To our knowledge, autosomal dominant transmission of isolated periventricular nodular heterotopia has not been reported. Periventricular nodular heterotopia has a heterogeneous phenotype, associated commonly with seizure disorder, and more recently with reading deficits and visual-spatial deficits in some patients. We present a father and son with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and similar visual-spatial learning deficits, consistent with nonverbal learning disability. PMID:18660478
Tracy, Jessica L; Robins, Richard W
The present research tests whether recognition for the nonverbal expression of pride generalizes across cultures. Study 1 provided the first evidence for cross-cultural recognition of pride, demonstrating that the expression generalizes across Italy and the United States. Study 2 found that the pride expression generalizes beyond Western cultures; individuals from a preliterate, highly isolated tribe in Burkina Faso, West Africa, reliably recognized pride, regardless of whether it was displayed by African or American targets. These Burkinabe participants were unlikely to have learned the pride expression through cross-cultural transmission, so their recognition suggests that pride may be a human universal. Studies 3 and 4 used drawn figures to systematically manipulate the ethnicity and gender of targets showing the expression, and demonstrated that pride recognition generalizes across male and female targets of African, Asian, and Caucasian descent. Discussion focuses on the implications of the findings for the universality of the pride expression. PMID:18284295
Csibra, Gergely; Shamsudheen, Rubeena
Human infants are involved in communicative interactions with others well before they start to speak or understand language. It is generally thought that this communication is useful for establishing interpersonal relations and supporting joint activities, but, in the absence of symbolic functions that language provides, these early communicative contexts do not allow infants to learn about the world. However, recent studies suggest that when someone demonstrates something using an object as the medium of instruction, infants can conceive the object as an exemplar of the whole class of objects of the same kind. Thus, an object, just like a word, can play the role of a symbol that stands for something else than itself, and infants can learn general knowledge about a kind of object from nonverbal communication about a single item of that kind. This rudimentary symbolic capacity may be one of the roots of the development of symbolic understanding in children. PMID:25251493
Müller, U.; Rowe, J.B.; Rittman, T.; Lewis, C.; Robbins, T.W.; Sahakian, B.J.
Background Modafinil, a putative cognitive enhancing drug, has previously been shown to improve performance of healthy volunteers as well as patients with attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia, mainly in tests of executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognitive functions in healthy volunteers, with a particular focus on variations of cognitive load, measures of motivational factors and the effects on creative problem-solving. Methods A double-blind placebo-controlled parallel design study evaluated the effect of 200 mg of modafinil (N = 32) or placebo (N = 32) in non-sleep deprived healthy volunteers. Non-verbal tests of divergent and convergent thinking were used to measure creativity. A new measure of task motivation was used, together with more levels of difficulty on neuropsychological tests from the CANTAB battery. Results Improvements under modafinil were seen on spatial working memory, planning and decision making at the most difficult levels, as well as visual pattern recognition memory following delay. Subjective ratings of enjoyment of task performance were significantly greater under modafinil compared with placebo, but mood ratings overall were not affected. The effects of modafinil on creativity were inconsistent and did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Modafinil reliably enhanced task enjoyment and performance on several cognitive tests of planning and working memory, but did not improve paired associates learning. The findings confirm that modafinil can enhance aspects of highly demanding cognitive performance in non-sleep deprived individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Cognitive Enhancers’. PMID:22820554
Kreifelts, Benjamin; Jacob, Heike; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Ethofer, Thomas; Wildgruber, Dirk
The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure. PMID:24146641
Ways in which teachers and principals respond to changing leadership roles and some practical steps that principals can take to support leadership are discussed in this article review. It focuses on five papers that explore educators' roles, offering advice on how to respond to changing expectations. "When is New: A Plan of Action" (A. W. Hart)…
Broderick, Patricia; Raymond, Allen
Reviews nine teaching aids: (1) "Our World" (Troll); (2) "Comprehensive School Health Education" (Meeks Heit Publishing); (3) "America at School" (Pleasant Company); (4) "Tomie, Tomie, Tomie" (Val Hornburg); (5) "Frog Pondering" (Frog Publications); (6) "TalentEd" (Teacher Ideas Press); (7) "Scholastic Voyages of Discovery" (Scholastic); (8) "Nose…
Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.
In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…
Children with no expressive language find it difficult to function within the world; hence, increasing the communication ability of a nonverbal child with autism can have a large impact on their daily life (Goldstein, ...
Resources for Preschool Teachers in the classroom. This link will have emotion faces and a tool to create a solution box for student use. Behavior This is the home page to Positive Behavior Intervention System PBIS Entering data for check points Creative Curriculum NAYEC national page along with the IA page NAEYC IA AEYC Dr. Jean's main page with some YouTube songs Dr. Jean ...
The Teacher Tools Web site is part of the National Science Center -- a partnership between the National Science Center, Inc. and the US Army. The tools include lesson plans, classroom activities, videos, distance learning, and backpack activities that are organized into eleven topics that include magnetism, chemistry, electricity, energy, sound, etc. The tools are all downloadable and offer excellent learning resources for those teaching science to students in grade 3 to 12.
From the National Park Service comes the Teachers Corner Web site on Badlands National Park. The lesson plans offered include erosion in a box, understanding rock layers, making dirt, muddying the waters, and more. Each lesson page gives a suggested grade range, key concepts, background, materials, procedure, results, and a why section that explains the scientific reasons behind the results. The pages are simple and easy to follow while containing good material that should help kids learn about geology and our national parks.
This educational website contains teacher materials for many subjects as well as books, professional resources, advice, and teaching tips for educators. Classroom materials include project ideas, activities such as web quests, unit ideas and lesson plans by grade level. Science topics covered include ecosystems, the solar system, the Sun, geography, seasons, weather, dinosaurs, life science and physical science. Links to additional information are also provided.
Brink, Beverly; Laguardia, Armando; Grisham, Dana L.; Granby, Cheryl; Peck, Charles A.
Evaluated the impact of student teachers on the public school teachers and students within the Professional Development Schools (PDS) in which they were placed. Data from observations, samples of student teacher and student work, and interviews with student teachers, mentor teachers, and principals indicated that the PDS-mediated collaborations…
Hargreaves, Andy, Ed.; Fullan, Michael G., Ed.
The 12 chapters in this book interpret teacher development in relation to self-development, teacher reflection, teacher biographies, cultures of teaching, teacher careers, teachers' work, gender identity, and classroom practice. The collection begins with an introductory chapter (Andy Hargreaves and Michael G. Fullan) and continues with 11…
Berl, Patricia Scallan
In this article, the author discusses the consequences of losing mature teachers due to voluntary separation or retirement and the mindset of a mature teacher that is different from younger teachers in a number of ways. Mature teachers are colleagues over 45 years of age possessing significant experience in the field. Future trends in teacher…
In "Teachers as Learners", a collection of landmark essays, noted teacher educator and scholar Sharon Feiman-Nemser shines a light on teacher learning. Arguing that serious and sustained teacher learning is a necessary condition for ambitious student learning, she examines closely how teachers acquire, generate, and use knowledge about teaching…
Iao, Lai-Sang; Leekam, Susan R
Understanding of false belief has long been considered to be a crucial aspect of "theory of mind" that can be explained by a domain-specific mechanism. We argue against this claim using new evidence from a nonverbal false representation task (false-sign task) with typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Experiments 1 and 2 showed that typically developing children (mean age=62.67months) were equivalent in their performance across nonverbal and verbal forms of both the false-belief and false-sign tasks. Results for these two misrepresentation tasks differed from the results of an outdated representation task ("false"-photograph task). Experiment 3 showed that children with ASD had difficulties with the false representation tasks, and this could not be explained by executive functioning or language impairments. These findings support the view that children with ASD might not have a specific theory-of-mind deficit. PMID:24508666
C. Leah Acoach; Lynne M. Webb
This study replicates and extends R. Buriel, W. Perez, T. L. De Ment, D. V. Chavez, and V. R. Moran's (1998) study to assess the influence of language brokering on acculturation, biculturalism, and nonverbal decoding in U.S. culture as well as the subsequent influence of these variables on academic self-efficacy and grade point average. Bilingual Hispanic teenagers attending U.S. public
In a face-to-face interaction, the addressee exploits both the verbal and nonverbal communication modes to infer the speaker’s\\u000a emotional state. Is such an informational content redundant? Is the amount of information conveyed by each communication mode\\u000a the same or is it different? How much information about the speaker’s emotional state is conveyed by each mode and is there\\u000a a preferential
Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang
Objective: The coordination of patient’s and therapist’s bodily movement – nonverbal synchrony – has been empirically shown to be associated with psychotherapy outcome. This finding was based on dynamic movement patterns of the whole body. The present paper is a new analysis of an existing dataset (Ramseyer and Tschacher, 2011), which extends previous findings by differentiating movements pertaining to head and upper-body regions. Method: In a sample of 70 patients (37 female, 33 male) treated at an outpatient psychotherapy clinic, we quantified nonverbal synchrony with an automated objective video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Head- and body-synchrony was quantified during the initial 15 min of video-recorded therapy sessions. Micro-outcome was assessed with self-report post-session questionnaires provided by patients and their therapists. Macro-outcome was measured with questionnaires that quantified attainment of treatment goals and changes in experiencing and behavior at the end of therapy. Results: The differentiation of head- and body-synchrony showed that these two facets of motor coordination were differentially associated with outcome. Head-synchrony predicted global outcome of therapy, while body-synchrony did not, and body-synchrony predicted session outcome, while head-synchrony did not. Conclusion: The results pose an important amendment to previous findings, which showed that nonverbal synchrony embodied both outcome and interpersonal variables of psychotherapy dyads. The separation of head- and body-synchrony suggested that distinct mechanisms may operate in these two regions: Head-synchrony embodied phenomena with a long temporal extension (overall therapy success), while body-synchrony embodied phenomena of a more immediate nature (session-level success). More explorations with fine-grained analyses of synchronized phenomena in nonverbal behavior may shed additional light on the embodiment of psychotherapy process. PMID:25249994
Iain Greenlees; Andrew Bradley; Tim Holder; Richard Thelwell
Objectives: One aspect of social cognition that has received little research attention in sport psychology is the impact of non-verbal behaviour on sporting encounters. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that opponents’ clothing and body language have on the way in which they are perceived.Method: Experienced table-tennis players (n=18) viewed videos of four models warming up
Social presence, the degree to which persons feel socially and emotionally connected, is an important factor for promoting Computer-Mediated Communication. Some interfaces to visualize non-verbal cues of social interactions within computer-mediated communication were proposed and later developed on a Bulletin Board System. These effects to enhance social presence and to promote communication were examined by analyzing the content of the
Miozzo, Michele; Rawlins, Kyle; Rapp, Brenda
We report on two individuals with acquired language impairment who made thematic role confusion errors in both comprehension and production. Their confusions were remarkably specific, affecting the roles associated with spatial prepositions ("The box is in the bag" confused with The bag is in the box) and adjectival comparatives ("The glove is darker than the hat" confused with The hat is darker than the glove) but not the roles associated with verbs (e.g., in The woman helps the man). Additional results showed that the confusions did not arise from spatial deficits, deficits affecting the semantics of spatial terms and adjectives, or difficulties with spatial and comparative relationships. Interestingly, the selective deficits are well-explained by linguistic theories that propose that non-verbal lexical categories, when used as predicates, depend on special mechanisms and structures for linking their thematic roles to syntactic argument structures. These are the first neuropsychological results to show that thematic role assignment is supported by distinct brain mechanisms for verbal and non-verbal lexical categories. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the linguistic knowledge associated with verbal vs. non-verbal word classes and of the conditions under which these forms of knowledge support sentence processing. PMID:25241311
Asano, Kohei; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta
Humans perceive textual and nontextual information in visual perception, and both depend on language. In childhood education, students exhibit diverse perceptual abilities, such that some students process textual information better and some process nontextual information better. These predispositions involve many factors, including cognitive ability and learning preference. However, the relationship between verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during visual perception has not yet been examined in children. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between nonverbal and verbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during nontextual visual perception in large numbers of children. A significant positive correlation was found between nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation in the right temporoparietal junction, which is thought to be related to attention reorienting. This significant positive correlation existed only in boys. These findings suggested that male brain activation differed from female brain activation, and that this depended on individual cognitive processes, even if there was no gender difference in behavioral performance. PMID:24937269
Mahon, Robert Lee
In this article, the author shares some tips for teachers. His tips are as follows: (1) a teacher should forget his or her education; (2) a teacher should forget the theory (3) a teacher should remember that he or she is a translator, not an originator; (4) a teacher should respect his or her students; (5) a teacher should be true to his or her…
Pimperton, Hannah; Nation, Kate
Differing etiological explanations have been proposed to account for poor comprehenders' difficulties with reading comprehension, with some researchers emphasizing working memory deficits and others arguing for oral language weaknesses playing a key causal role. The authors contrasted these two theoretical accounts using data obtained from direct measures of working memory and from teacher ratings of poor comprehenders' behavior in the classroom. At the group level, poor comprehenders showed weaknesses on verbal but not nonverbal working memory tasks, in keeping with the "language account." However, they also showed evidence of elevated levels of problem behaviors specifically associated with working memory deficits. Further analysis revealed that these group differences in working-memory-related problem behaviors were carried by a small subgroup of poor comprehenders who also displayed domain-general (verbal and nonverbal) working memory problems, argued to be reflective of "genuine" underlying working memory deficits. PMID:22907886
Morris, Lynnae Carol
The purpose of this research has been to determine the influence of verbal and nonverbal behavior on power and status within small groups. The interactions which took place within five small groups of students in a middle school spatial reasoning elective were analyzed. Verbal responses to requests for help were analyzed using sequential analysis techniques. Results indicated that the identity of the student asking a question or requesting help in some form or another is a better predictor of whether he/she will receive help than the type of questions he/she asks. Nonverbal behavior was analyzed for social gestures, body language, and shifts in possession of tools. Each nonverbal act was coded as either "positive" (encouraging participation) or "negative" (discouraging participation); and, the researchers found that in groups in which there was unequal participation and less "help" provided among peers (according to the verbal analysis results) there tended to be more "negative" nonverbal behavior demonstrated than in groups in which "shared talk time" and "helping behavior" were common characteristics of the norm. The combined results from the analyses of the verbal and nonverbal behavior of students within small groups were then reviewed through the conflict, power, status perspective of small group interactions in order to determine some common characteristics of high functioning (collaborative) and low functioning (non-collaborative) groups. Some common characteristics of the higher functioning groups include: few instances of conflict, shared "talk time" and decision making, inclusive leadership, frequent use of encouraging social gestures and body language, and more sharing of tools than seizing. Some shared traits among the lower functioning groups include: frequent occurrences of interpersonal conflict, a focus on process (rather than content), persuasive or alienating leadership, unequal participation and power, frequent use of discouraging social gestures and body language, and more seizing of tools than sharing. While "functionality" was easily defined, labeling groups according to this characteristic proved to be a more difficult task. Although there was clearly a "highest functioning" and a "lowest functioning" group among the five, the other three groups fell somewhere in between these two, along a continuum of group functioning.
The PBS (Public Broadcasting Service) Teachers web site provides access to thousands of lesson plans, teaching activities, videos, and interactive games and simulations for all levels of instruction, Pre-K to 12. These resources are correlated to state, national, and Canadian educational standards and are tied to PBS' on-air and online programming (NOVA, Nature, and others). They are organized by topic (math, science and technology, social studies, and others). Within each topic area the resources are searchable by grade level and subtopic. Other materials include links to blogs on educational topics, news articles and event announcements, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and information on PBS' professional development program, Teacherline.
Bellocchi, Alberto; Ritchie, Stephen M.; Tobin, Kenneth; Sandhu, Maryam; Sandhu, Satwant
Classroom emotional climates (ECs) are interrelated with students' engagement with university courses. Despite growing interest in emotions and EC research, little is known about the ways in which social interactions and different subject matter mediate ECs in preservice science teacher education classes. In this study we investigated the EC and associated classroom interactions in a preservice science teacher education class. We were interested in the ways in which salient classroom interactions were related to the EC during lessons centered on debates about science-based issues (e.g., nuclear energy alternatives). Participants used audience response technology to indicate their perceptions of the EC. Analysis of conversation for salient video clips and analysis of non-verbal conduct (acoustic parameters, body movements, and facial expressions) supplemented EC data. One key contribution that this study makes to preservice science teacher education is to identify the micro-processes of successful and unsuccessful class interactions that were associated with positive and neutral EC. The structure of these interactions can inform the practice of other science educators who wish to produce positive ECs in their classes. The study also extends and explicates the construct of intensity of EC.
Samson, Andrea C; Zysset, Stefan; Huber, Oswald
Although recent fMRI studies on humor have begun to elucidate cognitive and affective neural correlates, they weren't able to distinguish between different logical mechanisms or steps of humor processing, i.e., the detection of an incongruity and its resolution. This fMRI study aimed to focus in more detail on cognitive humor processing. In order to investigate pure incongruity resolution without preprocessing steps, nonverbal cartoons differing in their logical mechanisms were contrasted with nonhumorous pictures containing an irresolvable incongruity. The logical mechanisms were: (1) visual puns (visual resemblance, PUNs); (2) semantic cartoons (pure semantic relationships, SEMs); and (3) Theory of Mind cartoons (which require additionally mentalizing abilities, TOMs). Thirty cartoons from each condition were presented to 17 healthy subjects while acquiring fMR images. The results reveal a left-sided network involved in pure incongruity resolution: e.g., temporo-parietal junction, inferior frontal gyrus and ventromedian prefrontal cortex. These areas are also involved in processing of SEMs, whereas PUNs show more activation in the extrastriate cortex and TOMs show more activation in so-called mentalizing areas. Processing of pictures containing an irresolvable incongruity evokes activation in the rostral cingulate zone, which might reflect error processing. We conclude that cognitive processing of different logical mechanisms depends on separate neural networks. PMID:18633854
Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola
Virtual Reality technology offers great possibilities for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of fear of public speaking: Clients can be exposed to virtual fear-triggering stimuli (exposure) and are able to role-play in virtual environments, training social skills to overcome their fear. Usually, prototypical audience behavior (neutral, social and anti-social) serves as stimulus in virtual training sessions, although there is significant lack of theoretical basis on typical audience behavior. The study presented deals with the design of a realistic virtual presentation scenario. An audience (consisting of n=18 men and women) in an undergraduate seminar was observed during three frontal lecture sessions. Behavior frequency of four nonverbal dimensions (eye contact, facial expression, gesture, and posture) was rated by means of a quantitative content analysis. Results show audience behavior patterns which seem to be typical in frontal lecture contexts, like friendly and neutral face expressions. Additionally, combined and even synchronized behavioral patterns between participants who sit next to each other (like turning to the neighbor and start talking) were registered. The gathered data serve as empirical design basis for a virtual audience to be used in virtual training applications that stimulate the experiences of the participants in a realistic manner, thereby improving the experienced presence in the training application. PMID:22954859
Mammarella, Irene C.; Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Cornoldi, Cesare
The present study investigated the difficulties encountered by children with non-verbal learning disability (NLD) and reading disability (RD) when processing spatial information derived from descriptions, based on the assumption that both groups should find it more difficult than matched controls, but for different reasons, i.e., due to a memory encoding difficulty in cases of RD and to spatial information comprehension problems in cases of NLD. Spatial descriptions from both survey and route perspectives were presented to 9–12-year-old children divided into three groups: NLD (N = 12); RD (N = 12), and typically developing controls (TD; N = 15); then participants completed a sentence verification task and a memory for locations task. The sentence verification task was presented in two conditions: in one the children could refer to the text while answering the questions (i.e., text present condition), and in the other the text was withdrawn (i.e., text absent condition). Results showed that the RD group benefited from the text present condition, but was impaired to the same extent as the NLD group in the text absent condition, suggesting that the NLD children’s difficulty is due mainly to their poor comprehension of spatial descriptions, while the RD children’s difficulty is due more to a memory encoding problem. These results are discussed in terms of their implications in the neuropsychological profiles of children with NLD or RD, and the processes involved in spatial descriptions. PMID:25610417
Rommers, Joost; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk
During language comprehension, listeners often anticipate upcoming information. This can draw listeners' overt attention to visually presented objects before the objects are referred to. We investigated to what extent the anticipatory mechanisms involved in such language-mediated attention rely on specific verbal factors and on processes shared with other domains of cognition. Participants listened to sentences ending in a highly predictable word (e.g., "In 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon") while viewing displays containing three unrelated distractor objects and a critical object, which was either the target object (e.g., a moon), an object with a similar shape (e.g., a tomato), or an unrelated control object (e.g., rice). Language-mediated anticipatory eye movements were observed to targets and to shape competitors. Importantly, looks to the shape competitor were systematically related to individual differences in anticipatory attention, as indexed by a spatial cueing task: Participants whose responses were most strongly facilitated by predictive arrow cues also showed the strongest effects of predictive language input on their eye movements. By contrast, looks to the target were related to individual differences in vocabulary size and verbal fluency. The results suggest that verbal and nonverbal factors contribute to different types of language-mediated eye movements. The findings are consistent with multiple-mechanism accounts of predictive language processing. PMID:25795276
Bicho, Estela; Louro, Luís; Erlhagen, Wolfram
How do humans coordinate their intentions, goals and motor behaviors when performing joint action tasks? Recent experimental evidence suggests that resonance processes in the observer's motor system are crucially involved in our ability to understand actions of others’, to infer their goals and even to comprehend their action-related language. In this paper, we present a control architecture for human–robot collaboration that exploits this close perception-action linkage as a means to achieve more natural and efficient communication grounded in sensorimotor experiences. The architecture is formalized by a coupled system of dynamic neural fields representing a distributed network of neural populations that encode in their activation patterns goals, actions and shared task knowledge. We validate the verbal and nonverbal communication skills of the robot in a joint assembly task in which the human–robot team has to construct toy objects from their components. The experiments focus on the robot's capacity to anticipate the user's needs and to detect and communicate unexpected events that may occur during joint task execution. PMID:20725504
Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Shaoting; Yan, Zhennan; Yang, Fei; Huang, Junzhou; Dunbar, Norah E; Jensen, Matthew L; Burgoon, Judee K; Metaxas, Dimitris N
Detecting deception in interpersonal dialog is challenging since deceivers take advantage of the give-and-take of interaction to adapt to any sign of skepticism in an interlocutor's verbal and nonverbal feedback. Human detection accuracy is poor, often with no better than chance performance. In this investigation, we consider whether automated methods can produce better results and if emphasizing the possible disruption in interactional synchrony can signal whether an interactant is truthful or deceptive. We propose a data-driven and unobtrusive framework using visual cues that consists of face tracking, head movement detection, facial expression recognition, and interactional synchrony estimation. Analysis were conducted on 242 video samples from an experiment in which deceivers and truth-tellers interacted with professional interviewers either face-to-face or through computer mediation. Results revealed that the framework is able to automatically track head movements and expressions of both interlocutors to extract normalized meaningful synchrony features and to learn classification models for deception recognition. Further experiments show that these features reliably capture interactional synchrony and efficiently discriminate deception from truth. PMID:24988600
Mammarella, Irene C; Cornoldi, Cesare
Based on a review of the literature, the diagnostic criteria used for children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) were identified as follows: (a) low visuospatial intelligence; (b) discrepancy between verbal and visuospatial intelligence; (c) visuoconstructive and fine-motor coordination skills; (d) visuospatial memory tasks; (e) reading better than mathematical achievement; and (f) socioemotional skills. An analysis of the effect size was used to investigate the strength of criteria for diagnosing NLD considering 35 empirical studies published from January 1980 to February 2011. Overall, our results showed that the most important criteria for distinguishing children with NLD from controls were as follows: a low visuospatial intelligence with a relatively good verbal intelligence, visuoconstructive and fine-motor coordination impairments, good reading decoding together with low math performance. Deficits in visuospatial memory and social skills were also present. A preliminary set of criteria for diagnosing NLD was developed on these grounds. It was concluded, however, that-although some consensus is emerging-further research is needed to definitively establish shared diagnostic criteria for children with NLD. PMID:23705673
Mosca, C.; Zoubrinetzy, R.; Baciu, M.; Aguilar, L.; Minotti, L.; Kahane, P.; Perrone-Bertolotti, M.
We present a patient with epilepsy who underwent left anterior temporal cortex resection, sparing the hippocampus, to stop drug-refractory seizures. Given that one year after surgery the patient showed verbal memory difficulties, we proposed a short (twelve weeks) and intensive (two times a week) training based on visual imagery strategies as the nonverbal memory abilities were preserved. Neuropsychological and fMRI assessments were performed before and after rehabilitation to evaluate the cognitive progress and cerebral modifications induced by this rehabilitation program. Our results showed that the rehabilitation program improved both scores for verbal memory and the everyday quality of life. Changes in cerebral activity highlighted by fMRI suggest that the program might have facilitated the development of compensatory strategies, as reflected by the shift of activation from the anterior to the posterior cerebral network during a verbal memory task. One year after the rehabilitation program, the patient reported using mental imagery in everyday life for routine and professional activities. Although supplementary evidence is necessary to increase the robustness of these findings, this case report suggests that an efficient rehabilitation program is feasible and (a) should be based on the individual cognitive profile and on the preserved cognitive abilities, (b) can be short but intensive, (c) can be applied even months after the lesion occurrence, and (d) can induce a positive effect which may be sustainable over time. PMID:25667899
Watson, S.; Miller, T.; Davis, L.; Carter, P.
In this study, researchers qualitatively analyzed middle school teacher participant perceptions of qualities of teacher effectiveness across 3 years (2006-2009) through 66 focus group sessions by comparing the participants' identified qualities to Stronge's (2007) Teacher Skills Assessment Checklist. Surprisingly, a disproportionate number (42.6%)…
Willerman, Marvin; And Others
This book, a research-based text, describes peer observation and assistance (POA), a method designed to isolate behaviors and skills shown to raise student achievement levels and the process by which teachers can help their peers improve performance in these areas. The volume is organized into 10 chapters: (1) Teachers Helping Teachers: The…
MENC: The National Association for Music Education, 2004
Another new title addressing the issue of teacher retention, this practical guide is full of "real-life" strategies and suggestions for coping with the challenges facing teachers today. An excellent resource for beginning teachers, it includes chapters on classroom management, relationships with colleagues and students, setting goals, curriculum,…
Recent scholarship on teacher education has drawn a sharp contrast between “top–down” and “teacher-directed” approaches to instructional reform. However, this article suggests that all forms of teacher education share a common ground: they are all inescapably rhetorical in nature, aimed at the persuasion of teachers. While reformers may attempt to deny such intentions, they cannot help but employ rhetoric in
Many schools are trying new teacher evaluation designs, such as some Wyoming districts' 360-degree feedback model that elicits input from students, peer teachers, principals, parents, student achievement data, and teacher self-evaluations. Rochester schools have crafted a parent survey. Columbia, South Carolina, high school teachers are setting…
National Education Association, Washington, DC.
In this book, beginning teachers from around the country share their favorite chapters from the National Education Association's "Teacher-to-Teacher" books. Each story illustrates step-by-step how teachers tackle a specific restructuring challenge, describing what worked and what did not work in the process. Each chapter includes diagrams,…
Lauer, Patricia A.; Dean, Ceri B.
This Teacher Quality Toolkit aims to support the continuum of teacher learning by providing tools that institutions of higher education, districts, and schools can use to improve both preservice and inservice teacher education. The toolkit incorporates McREL?s accumulated knowledge and experience related to teacher quality and standards-based…
Cook, Jeremy A.
The allocation of quality teachers across schools is of interest because of both the importance and costliness of teachers as inputs in the education production process. Furthermore, because teachers have preferences over their workplace characteristics, this allocation across schools is nonrandom. This research examines teacher mobility within…
Compares many teacher inservice programs to the artificial insemination of cows--decisions are made without teacher participation, teachers do not get to join in the act, and no one has much fun. Suggests that teachers be allowed to set their own goals and control their own learning. (Author/WD)
Wolf, Dennie; Jones, Elizabeth
Contains four presentations on teacher professional and personal growth: "The Elephant's Child as Caregiver," (Elizabeth Jones) on the importance of curiosity; and interviews with several teachers--(1) "Teachers and Then Some: Profiles of Three Teachers"; (2) "Becoming Planners: Finding Time and Insight"; and (4) "Backing Away Helpfully: Some…
San José Cáceres, Antonia; Keren, Noa; Booth, Rhonda; Happé, Francesca
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and low intellectual/language abilities are often omitted from experimental studies because of the challenges of testing these individuals. It is vital to develop appropriate and accessible tasks so that this significant part of the spectrum is not neglected. The theory of mind (ToM) has been extensively assessed in ASD, predominantly in relatively high-functioning individuals with reasonable language skills. This study aims to assess the ToM abilities of a sample of 132 participants with intellectual disability (ID) with and without ASD, matched in verbal mental age (VMA) and chronological age, using a naturalistic and nonverbal deception task: the Penny Hiding Game (PHG). The relationship between performance on the PHG and everyday adaptation was also studied. The PHG proved accessible to most participants, suggesting its suitability for use with individuals with low cognitive skills, attentional problems, and limited language. The ASD + ID group showed significantly more PHG errors, and fewer tricks, than the ID group. PHG performance correlated with Vineland adaptation scores for both groups. VMA was a major predictor of passing the task in both groups, and participants with ASD + ID required, on average, 2 years higher VMA than those with ID only, to achieve the same level of PHG success. VMA moderated the association between PHG performance and real-life social skills for the ASD + ID more than the ID group, suggesting that severely impaired individuals with ASD may rely on verbal ability to overcome their social difficulties, whereas individuals with ID alone may use more intuitive social understanding both in the PHG and everyday situations. PMID:25258194
Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Shachar-Lavie, Iris
Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs) is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems (ABSs), based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are uniquely suited to rapid and effective conveyance of emotional, motivational, and trait information and that various channels are differentially effective in transmitting such information. First, we review studies on perception of NVSCs through face, voice, and body. We begin with studies that utilized information processing or imaging paradigms to assess NVSC perception. This research demonstrated that social anxiety is associated with biased attention to, and interpretation of, emotional facial expressions (EFEs) and emotional prosody. Findings regarding body and posture remain scarce. Next, we review studies on NVSC expression, which pinpointed links between social anxiety and disturbances in eye gaze, facial expressivity, and vocal properties of spontaneous and planned speech. Again, links between social anxiety and posture were understudied. Although cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary theories have described different pathways to social anxiety, all three models focus on interrelations among cognition, subjective experience, and social behavior. NVSC processing and production comprise the juncture where these theories intersect. In light of the conceptualizations emerging from the review, we highlight several directions for future research including focus on NVSCs as indexing reactions to changes in belongingness and social rank, the moderating role of gender, and the therapeutic opportunities offered by embodied cognition to treat social anxiety. PMID:24427129
Péron, Julie; Grandjean, Didier; Drapier, Sophie; Vérin, Marc
Background Parkinson's disease (PD) provides a model for investigating the involvement of the basal ganglia and mesolimbic dopaminergic system in the recognition of emotions from voices (i.e., emotional prosody). Although previous studies of emotional prosody recognition in PD have reported evidence of impairment, none of them compared PD patients at different stages of the disease, or ON and OFF dopamine replacement therapy, making it difficult to determine whether their impairment was due to general cognitive deterioration or to a more specific dopaminergic deficit. Methods We explored the involvement of the dopaminergic pathways in the recognition of nonverbal affect bursts (onomatopoeias) in 15 newly diagnosed PD patients in the early stages of the disease, 15 PD patients in the advanced stages of the disease and 15 healthy controls. The early PD group was studied in two conditions: ON and OFF dopaminergic therapy. Results Results showed that the early PD patients performed more poorly in the ON condition than in the OFF one, for overall emotion recognition, as well as for the recognition of anger, disgust and fear. Additionally, for anger, the early PD ON patients performed more poorly than controls. For overall emotion recognition, both advanced PD patients and early PD ON patients performed more poorly than controls. Analysis of continuous ratings on target and nontarget visual analog scales confirmed these patterns of results, showing a systematic emotional bias in both the advanced PD and early PD ON (but not OFF) patients compared with controls. Conclusions These results i) confirm the involvement of the dopaminergic pathways and basal ganglia in emotional prosody recognition, and ii) suggest a possibly deleterious effect of dopatherapy on affective abilities in the early stages of PD. PMID:24651759
Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Adams, Ashley M.
Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals on word learning and on inhibition tasks that require competition resolution. Yet the scope of such bilingual advantages remains underspecified. We compared bilinguals and monolinguals on nonverbal symbolic learning and on competition resolution while processing newly-learned material. Participants were trained on 12 tone-to-symbol mappings, combining timbre, pitch, and duration of tones. During subsequent processing, participants viewed a display with four symbols, and were instructed to identify the symbol that matched a simultaneously-presented tone. On competition trials, two symbols matched the tone in timbre and pitch, but only one matched the tone on timbre, pitch, and duration. No learning differences emerged between 27 Spanish-English bilinguals and 27 English monolinguals, and more successful learners performed better on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary task. During the processing task, competition trials yielded responses with lower accuracies and longer latencies than control trials. Further, in both groups, more successful learning of tone-to-symbol mappings was associated with more successful retrieval during processing. In monolinguals, English receptive vocabulary scores also influenced retrieval efficiency during processing, with English/Spanish vocabulary less related to the novel processing task in bilinguals. Finally, to examine inhibition of competing stimuli, priming probes were presented after each tone-symbol processing trial. These probes suggested that bilinguals, and to a lesser extent monolinguals, showed residual inhibition of competitors at 200 ms post-target identification. Together, findings suggest that learning of novel symbolic information may depend in part on previous linguistic knowledge (not bilingualism per se), and that, during processing of newly-learned material, subtle differences in retrieval and competition resolution may emerge between bilinguals and monolinguals. PMID:25360125
Unlike assistive technology for verbal communication, the brain-machine or brain-computer interface (BMI/BCI) has not been established as a non-verbal communication tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Face-to-face communication enables access to rich emotional information, but individuals suffering from neurological disorders, such as ALS and autism, may not express their emotions or communicate their negative feelings. Although emotions may be inferred by looking at facial expressions, emotional prediction for neutral faces necessitates advanced judgment. The process that underlies brain neuronal responses to neutral faces and causes emotional changes remains unknown. To address this problem, therefore, this study attempted to decode conditioned emotional reactions to neutral face stimuli. This direction was motivated by the assumption that if electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used to detect patients' emotional responses to specific inexpressive faces, the results could be incorporated into the design and development of BMI/BCI-based non-verbal communication tools. To these ends, this study investigated how a neutral face associated with a negative emotion modulates rapid central responses in face processing and then identified cortical activities. The conditioned neutral face-triggered event-related potentials that originated from the posterior temporal lobe statistically significantly changed during late face processing (600–700 ms) after stimulus, rather than in early face processing activities, such as P1 and N170 responses. Source localization revealed that the conditioned neutral faces increased activity in the right fusiform gyrus (FG). This study also developed an efficient method for detecting implicit negative emotional responses to specific faces by using EEG signals. A classification method based on a support vector machine enables the easy classification of neutral faces that trigger specific individual emotions. In accordance with this classification, a face on a computer morphs into a sad or displeased countenance. The proposed method could be incorporated as a part of non-verbal communication tools to enable emotional expression. PMID:25206321
Unlike assistive technology for verbal communication, the brain-machine or brain-computer interface (BMI/BCI) has not been established as a non-verbal communication tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Face-to-face communication enables access to rich emotional information, but individuals suffering from neurological disorders, such as ALS and autism, may not express their emotions or communicate their negative feelings. Although emotions may be inferred by looking at facial expressions, emotional prediction for neutral faces necessitates advanced judgment. The process that underlies brain neuronal responses to neutral faces and causes emotional changes remains unknown. To address this problem, therefore, this study attempted to decode conditioned emotional reactions to neutral face stimuli. This direction was motivated by the assumption that if electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used to detect patients' emotional responses to specific inexpressive faces, the results could be incorporated into the design and development of BMI/BCI-based non-verbal communication tools. To these ends, this study investigated how a neutral face associated with a negative emotion modulates rapid central responses in face processing and then identified cortical activities. The conditioned neutral face-triggered event-related potentials that originated from the posterior temporal lobe statistically significantly changed during late face processing (600-700 ms) after stimulus, rather than in early face processing activities, such as P1 and N170 responses. Source localization revealed that the conditioned neutral faces increased activity in the right fusiform gyrus (FG). This study also developed an efficient method for detecting implicit negative emotional responses to specific faces by using EEG signals. A classification method based on a support vector machine enables the easy classification of neutral faces that trigger specific individual emotions. In accordance with this classification, a face on a computer morphs into a sad or displeased countenance. The proposed method could be incorporated as a part of non-verbal communication tools to enable emotional expression. PMID:25206321
Research on HCI and multimedia systems for art and entertainment based on non-verbal, full-body, emotional and social interaction is the main topic of this paper. A short review of previous research projects in this area at our centre are presented, to introduce the main issues discussed in the paper. In particular, a case study based on novel paradigms of social active music listening is presented. Active music listening experience enables users to dynamically mould expressive performance of music and of audiovisual content. This research is partially supported by the 7FP EU-ICT Project SAME (Sound and Music for Everyone, Everyday, Everywhere, Every Way, www.sameproject.eu).
Sarfati, Y; Hardy-Baylé, M C; Besche, C; Widlöcher, D
Several clinical and experimental data suggest that some people with schizophrenia have an impaired ability to attribute relevant mental states to other people. We tested this notion in 24 schizophrenic patients and two control groups, who performed a task devised to test understanding of the intentions of nonverbal comic strip characters. Only the schizophrenic subjects with thought and speech disorganization had specific difficulties attributing mental states to others. The findings support cognitive models which postulate a link between planning process disorders and a deficit in mentalizing skills. The hypothesis that the more frequent an action is in everyday life, the more easily it is understood by schizophrenic subjects, is discussed. PMID:9264175
Scholars and teachers are increasingly realizing that language consists of more than the additive nature of learned morphological, syntactical, and lexical items. This paper describes the pragmatic implications of linguistic strings, based on research and interviews with native speakers of American English and standard German. (20 references)…
Affizal Ahmad; Rafidah Sahak
This study examines the relationship between teacher-student attachment and teachers' attitude towards work. We show that teacher-student attachment and teachers' attitudes towards work appear critical in promoting and maintaining positive teacher behaviours. Communication connects students with teachers, improving the classroom atmosphere. Teachers who communicate effectively with their students can give them appropriate and helpful feedback. Teacher-student interaction is extremely important
Schoch, Kelly; Harrell, Waverly; Hooper, Stephen R.; Ip, Edward H.; Saldana, Santiago; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Shashi, Vandana
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common microdeletion in humans. Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) has been used to describe the strengths and deficits of children with 22q11DS, but the applicability of the label for this population has seldom been systematically evaluated. The goal of the current study was to address how well the NLD diagnosis characterizes children and adolescents with 22q11DS. A total of 74 children and adolescents with 22q11DS were given neurocognitive, socioemotional, and academic assessments to measure aspects of NLD. Of the cohort, 20% met at least 7 of 9 assessed criteria for NLD; 25% showed verbal skills exceeding their nonverbal skills as assessed by an IQ test; and 24% showed the good rote verbal capacity commonly associated with NLD. Hypothesizing that if the entire cohort did not show consistent NLD characteristics, the descriptor might be more accurate for a distinct subgroup, the authors used latent class analysis to divide participants into three subgroups. However, the lines along which the groups broke out were more related to general functioning level than to NLD criteria. All three groups showed a heightened risk for psychiatric illness, highlighting the importance of careful mental health monitoring for all children with 22q11DS. PMID:22572413
Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; de Bleser, Ria; Ablinger, Irene; Ackermann, Hermann
The processing of nonverbal auditory stimuli has not yet been sufficiently investigated in patients with aphasia. On the basis of a duration discrimination task, we examined whether patients with left-sided cerebrovascular lesions were able to perceive time differences in the scale of approximately 150 ms. Further linguistic and memory-related tasks were used to characterize more exactly the relationships in the performances between auditory nonverbal task and selective linguistic or mnemonic disturbances. All examined conduction aphasics showed increased thresholds in the duration discrimination task. The low thresholds on this task were in a strong correlative relation to the reduced performances in repetition and working memory task. This was interpreted as an indication of a pronounced disturbance in integrating auditory verbal information into a long-term window (sampling disturbance) resulting in an additional load of working memory. In order to determine the lesion topography of patients with sampling disturbances, the anatomical and psychophysical data were correlated on the basis of a voxelwise statistical approach. It was found that tissue damage extending through the insula, the posterior superior temporal gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus causes impairments in sequencing of time-sensitive information. PMID:24679121
Salvia, Emilie; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E. G.; Kotz, Sonja A.; Rousselet, Guillaume A.; Pernet, Cyril R.; Gross, Joachim; Belin, Pascal
Magneto-encephalography (MEG) was used to examine the cerebral response to affective non-verbal vocalizations (ANVs) at the single-subject level. Stimuli consisted of non-verbal affect bursts from the Montreal Affective Voices morphed to parametrically vary acoustical structure and perceived emotional properties. Scalp magnetic fields were recorded in three participants while they performed a 3-alternative forced choice emotion categorization task (Anger, Fear, Pleasure). Each participant performed more than 6000 trials to allow single-subject level statistical analyses using a new toolbox which implements the general linear model (GLM) on stimulus-specific responses (LIMO-EEG). For each participant we estimated “simple” models [including just one affective regressor (Arousal or Valence)] as well as “combined” models (including acoustical regressors). Results from the “simple” models revealed in every participant the significant early effects (as early as ~100 ms after onset) of Valence and Arousal already reported at the group-level in previous work. However, the “combined” models showed that few effects of Arousal remained after removing the acoustically-explained variance, whereas significant effects of Valence remained especially at late stages. This study demonstrates (i) that single-subject analyses replicate the results observed at early stages by group-level studies and (ii) the feasibility of GLM-based analysis of MEG data. It also suggests that early modulation of MEG amplitude by affective stimuli partly reflects their acoustical properties. PMID:25565951
Ortner, Catherine N. M.; de Koning, Monica
Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task. PMID:23658647
Ortner, Catherine N M; de Koning, Monica
Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task. PMID:23658647
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Fission page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery and applications of fission.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Fusion page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery and applications of fusion.
Glatthorn, Allan A.; Holler, Richard L.
Calvert County School District, Maryland, has developed a differentiated teacher evaluation system that promotes collaboration among supervisors and administrators in rating teacher performance. Methods involve informal observation, rating observation, and nonrating observation. Implementation is accompanied by extensive formative evaluation by…
Gorham, Jonathan W.
This volume of teacher notes describes teaching methods to support the material presented in the background text and to elaborate on basic solar concepts. Included are objectives and quizzes, teacher notes and bibliographies, and selected student projects. (Author/RE)
In this video profile produced for Teachers' Domain, meet teacher Dustin Madden, an Iñupiaq who hopes to inspire students to take an active role in protecting the natural environment by giving them a foundation in math and science.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Neutron page includes resources for teaching students about neutrons.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Isotopes page includes resources for teaching students about the structure and uses of isotopes.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Electron page includes resources for teaching students about electrons.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Proton page includes resources for teaching students about protons.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Electronegativity page includes resources for teaching students about electronegativity.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Combustion page includes resources for teaching students about the chemistry behind combustion.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Titration page includes resources for teaching students about the theory and applications of titrations.
ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Stoichiometry page includes resources for teaching students about stoichiometry.
On this site you will find the resource needed to teach a German Level I Course. There are links below for lesson plans and a link to the student page. This page is an introductory page for the teacher. Below are four links that will provide teachers with additional resources to use in their classrooms. Teacher Page - Lesson Plans Teacher Page - Resources Student Page - Deutsch Klasse Student WebQuests ...
In this article, the authors draw on their experiences as science teacher-researches and present practical guidelines for science teachers who want to learn more about conducting teacher action research. They participated in a yearlong collaborative action research group that examined issues of gender equity, diversity, and accessibility in science education. Using results from their practical inquiries and collaborative conversations, they provide examples for science teachers to use when designing and enacting their own action plans.
TeachersFirst is a web resource for K-12 classroom teachers. It offers lessons and instructional units developed for TeachersFirst as well as reviewed, online resources, with tips for classroom use, for students at all levels. The content is organized alphabetically by subject and by grade level. It is also searchable by keyword. TeachersFirst is a division of Network for Instructional TV, Inc., a not-for-profit learning technologies corporation.
Heller, Daniel A.
Just as the pool of qualified teacher applicants is shrinking and attrition rates are soaring, new standards are making entry into the teaching profession more difficult. Teachers can make sure their school system doesn't get caught in the crunch by implementing the approach from this visionary guide. Daniel A. Heller describes a top-to-bottom…
Edwards, Sarah; McNamara, Karen; Carter, Kathy
This qualitative case study documents how one student teacher was able to enrich her understanding of what it means to work in a multicultural environment. The study examined what the student teacher considered to be culturally responsive teaching and how she described culturally responsive teaching. As part of a larger study, she read 12 teaching…
Tardif, Eric; Doudin, Pierre-André; Meylan, Nicolas
Many so-called brain-based educational approaches have been strongly criticized for their lack of empirical support and occasionally for their use of pseudoscientific concepts. As a result, several use the term neuromyths to refer to false beliefs or misinterpretations regarding neuroscientific facts. We surveyed both teachers and student teachers…
Mayher, John S.
This article presents the author's keynote address from the 2011 CEE Summer Conference at Fordham University in which he challenges educators to rethink what they do and how they do it. He talks about English teacher education as literacy teacher education. He tries to sketch a picture of the status quo and its limits, and an alternative picture…
Alnoor, A. G.; Yuanxiang, Guo; Abudhuim, F. S.
This paper aimed to identifying the professional efficiencies for the intermediate schools mathematics teachers and tries to know at what level the math teachers experience those competencies. The researcher used a descriptive research approach, the study data collected from specialist educators and teacher's experts and previous studies to…
Technology is a part of most teacher education programs, but once teachers are in the classroom, they often discover it is difficult to find time to learn new things. Technology changes so fast that it is hard to keep up. Especially for elementary-level teachers, this problem simply means that it is difficult or impossible to efficiently integrate…
Fruchter, Norm; Price, Janet
Illustrates how teacher action research can be the ammunition for teacher advocacy and the cornerstone of empowerment through the example of the New York City Accountability Project. The goal of the project is to support teachers' efforts to introduce better assessment strategies that support instruction. (SLD)
Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka
In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…
Munson, Patricia J.
This publication addresses the issue of mental health of teachers and staff as a key to education reform. Many teachers suffer from the crippling effects of isolation, cynicism, and discouragement. In order to be personally effective, teachers must demonstrate initiative, commitment, compassion, and dedication to children, positive characteristics…
Lataille, Louise M.
Teacher mentoring programs have existed for only about a generation, but they are making a difference in the lives of young, not so young, and beginning or transitioning teachers. The prevailing financial crunch, increasing student enrollments, and escalating rates of teacher retirements are among current challenges facing all school systems.…
Kahn, Esther B.; And Others
In August, 1967, the Bedford program for School and Community Participation in Sex and Family Living Education received a Title III grant to create a Center for the Study of Sex and Family Living Education. The center organized an inservice teacher education program for Bedford teachers grade one through twelve. The inservice teacher education…
Benson, Chris, Ed.
This theme issue on standards contains 11 articles written by teachers of English and language arts in Bread Loaf's primarily rural, teacher networks. These narratives describe how teachers in Alaska, South Carolina, Ohio, Massachusetts, Kentucky, Arizona, and New Mexico are implementing state content standards while honoring local contexts for…
Describes the cooperative teacher Program developed by the Salinas Union High School District (CA). Mentor teachers work with fifth-year graduate teaching students who are paid a minimal salary and receive credit for teaching two of the five classes assigned to the mentor teachers. (MD)
Flinders, David J.
Educational researchers and teacher educators are often concerned with immediate and practical questions. How can health teachers help youth avoid substance abuse? Should a high school biology teacher show Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth," or is that film too political for a science classroom? What sports should be included in a physical…
Goldhaber, Dan; Walch, Joe
The quality of the teacher workforce in the United States is of considerable concern to education stakeholders and policymakers. Numerous studies show that student academic success depends in no small part on access to high-quality teachers. Many pundits point to the fact that in the United States, teachers tend not to be drawn from the top of the…
Teacher preparation and preparedness have been the focus of much research connecting quality teaching and learning, retention, and teacher satisfaction (Halsey, 2005; Hayes, Mills, Christie, & Lingard, 2006; MCEETYA, 2006). The successful recruitment and retention of teachers to rural and remote schools Australia-wide has been problematic for…
This article briefly reviews research supporting the value of teacher mentoring programs for beginning and experienced teachers and reports on implementation efforts including Cincinnati's Peer Assistance and Evaluation Program, the Rhode Island Teachers & Technology Initiative, and programs at the University of Texas-El Paso and Iowa State…
Teachers' credentials cannot guarantee their classroom effectiveness. This article describes current teacher-education reform efforts, highlighting U.S. Secretary of Education Richard Riley's recent speech, the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education's agenda, the National Commission on Teaching & America's Future's proposal, and…
Kennedy, Mary M.
Teacher quality has become a hot topic. Everyone wants to measure it, reward it, or improve it. One reason for this interest is the evidence that teachers differ dramatically in their ability to raise student test scores. Another reason for the current interest in teacher quality is that recent No Child Left Behind requirements focus on highly…
During the past few years, interest in shifting at least a portion of what teachers are paid away from a reliance on a traditional salary schedule to one that incorporates a pay for performance component has reached a new high. Proponents of the approach view it as a way to improve teacher quality by both motivating teachers and--through higher…
The teacher's ultimate goal, like the leader's, is to help people become self-reliant by honing specific skills, acquiring knowledge, and cultivating attitudes. The qualities of the best teachers naturally reflect the characteristics of great leaders. Perhaps it is time to acknowledge these similar traits, and direct our training of future teachers and leaders accordingly.
As teachers, we are given quite a list of duties to fulfill. It is tempting to take the easy way and plan your lessons for next week during your planning period. However, to be a truly dynamic teacher you must do more. In science, dynamic teachers have an
There is a large body of literature on the types of questions asked by teachers. Questions are a way that teachers use to bring students around to the correct mathematical concepts and procedures through "the negotiation of meaning for necessary condition of learning" (Voigt, 1992, p. 43). Teachers ask many questions, but we are not sure what…
Podcasts for science teachers, by science teachers. In each five-minute episode, you will learn about hands-on activities, science facts, science history, pedagogy tips for new teachers, or other ideas for your science classroom. The clips are available for download as mp3 files.
Jacobo, Amber Leann
Prior research has shown that there is a correlation between teacher characteristics (e.g., pedagogical knowledge, teacher preparation/certification) and student achievement. Current political contexts call for the utilization of student achievement data to measure the effectiveness of our education systems. A solid research base of how teacher…
Grauer, Kit, Ed.
This journal issue provides a cogent look at general issues in art teacher education, specific teacher education programs and particular agendas as they are played out in a number of different countries. The topic is introduced in the Editorial, "The Education of Educators: Art Teacher Education around the World" (Kit Grauer). Articles that follow…
Brondyk, Susan; Stanulis, Randi
This is the story of a teacher leader who helped lead change in an urban elementary school by creating a new culture of support for beginning teachers. Specifically, she led focused, collaborative inquiry around discussion-based teaching to improve teaching effectiveness, and she created a school-wide coalition of support for beginning teachers to…
Britzman, Deborah P.
In this article, the author links the force of Eros to the teacher's world to suggest that, if the teacher is the keeper of the student's heart and mind, then a teacher's open-mindedness made from a willingness to be affected by the lives of others is the best pedagogical resource, and the most difficult to sustain. The author's thoughts on Eros…
Teacher quality is the most crucial component in promoting student learning. For all the controversy about No Child Left Behind, one underlying emphasis of the federal law that is irrefutable is the importance placed on teacher quality. Therefore, a school organization committed to excellence must recruit and select outstanding teachers. The Obama…
Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian
This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…
The trend in Scandinavia is to broaden teacher education and training for academic secondary school teachers in order to overcome excessive specialization. The context of apprenticeship of pre-school, primary teachers is changing toward a more academically oriented program. However, the affective part of the learning/teaching process is becoming…
Hill, Heather C.
The professional development "system" for teachers is, by all accounts, broken. Despite evidence that specific programs can improve teacher knowledge and practice and student outcomes, these programs seldom reach real teachers on a large scale. Typically, reformers address such perceptions of failure by discovering and celebrating new formats and…
Invargson, Lawrence; Greenway, Philip
A research approach describing the career biographies of individual teachers as a means for exploring the idea of professional development and the personal and contextual conditions affecting it is discussed. Implications for inservice teacher education policies and strategies are drawn, and teacher development models are advocated. (MSE)
Berns, Robert G.
A project created a framework for integrating school-to-work (STW) into the preservice curriculum for all new teachers in Ohio and conducted a professional development activity for college and university faculty involved with preparation of new teachers. A work team of teacher education faculty representing six public universities met to learn…
Teacher leadership represents a powerful approach to assert the true professionalism that educators have long been seeking. Opportunities abound for teachers to contribute to school reform by demonstrating their leadership skills. This article considers strategies to rebuild the portrait of teachers and thereby encourage strong professional…
Catherine Y. Wan; Loes Bazen; Rebecca Baars; Amanda Libenson; Lauryn Zipse; Jennifer Zuk; Andrea Norton; Gottfried Schlaug; Olivier Baud
Although up to 25% of children with autism are non-verbal, there are very few interventions that can reliably produce significant improvements in speech output. Recently, a novel intervention called Auditory-Motor Mapping Training (AMMT) has been developed, which aims to promote speech production directly by training the association between sounds and articulatory actions using intonation and bimanual motor activities. AMMT capitalizes
Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina
The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…
Watson, Joan L.
This practicum project was designed to improve communication in the kindergarten classroom between regular students and a mainstreamed nonverbal child with cerebral palsy. A target group of 24 pre-kindergartners was exposed to 12 weeks of the intervention which included such strategies as teaching the verbal students how to identify communication…
Wilhelm Hofmann; Tobias Gschwendner; Manfred Schmitt
To what extent can individuals gain insight into their own or another person's implicit dispositions? We investigated whether self-perceivers versus neutral observers can detect implicit dispositions from nonverbal behavioural cues contained in video feedback (cue validity) and whether these cues are in turn used as a valid basis for explicit dispositional inferences (cue utilization). Across three studies in the domains
Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse
It has been suggested that children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) or Asperger's Syndrome (AS) may show difficulties with executive functioning. There were 3 groups in this study who completed a neuropsychological battery of visual-spatial, executive functioning, and reasoning tasks; AS (n = 37), NLD (n = 31), and controls…
Plazewski, Joseph G.; Allen, Vernon L.
Twenty-four college students served as tutors in an examination of the use of paralanguage and nonverbal behavior in presenting a lesson intended for an adult of the tutor's age and for a child. Each subject was tape recorded twice while reading verbatim a lesson from a grade school textbook. Before each taping, the subject was told that the…
Brideau, Linda B.; Allen, Vernon L.
This study tested the hypothesis that physical attractiveness is related to social skills in nonverbal communication. The socialization environment of persons is assumed to differ as a function of their physical attractiveness. It was predicted that physically attractive individuals would have greater opportunity than physically unattractive…
Mammarella, Irene C.; Cornoldi, Cesare; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Toso, Cristina; Grimoldi, Mario; Vio, Claudio
The paper describes the performance of three children with specific visuospatial working memory (VSWM) impairments (Study 1) and three children with visuospatial (nonverbal) learning disabilities (Study 2) assessed with a battery of working memory (WM) tests and with a number of school achievement tasks. Overall, performance on WM tests provides…