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Clinical research informatics is the rapidly evolving sub-discipline within biomedical informatics that focuses on developing new informatics theories, tools, and solutions to accelerate the full translational continuum: basic research to clinical trials (T1), clinical trials to academic health center practice (T2), diffusion and implementation to community practice (T3), and ‘real world’ outcomes (T4). We present a conceptual model based on an informatics-enabled clinical research workflow, integration across heterogeneous data sources, and core informatics tools and platforms. We use this conceptual model to highlight 18 new articles in the JAMIA special issue on clinical research informatics.
BACKGROUND: Prior educational interventions to increase seeking evidence by medical students have been unsuccessful. METHODS: We report two quasirandomized controlled trials to increase seeking of medical evidence by third-year medical students. In the first trial (1997–1998), we placed computers in clinical locations and taught their use in a 6-hour course. Based on negative results, we created SUMSearch(TM), an Internet site
For the past decade, Stanford Medical Informatics has combined clinicalinformatics and bioinformatics research and training in an explicit way. The interest in applying informatics techniques to both clinical problems and problems in basic science can be traced to the Dendral project in the 1960s. Having bioinformatics and clinicalinformatics in the same academic unit is still somewhat unusual and
Nursing informatics has become a useful tool for worldwide patient care and management; however, its implementation greatly varies according to specialty, healthcare setting, and nation. The purpose of this study was to determine nursing informatics implementation in Qiqihar, China. Questionnaires evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of nursing informatics implementation and hospital information system knowledge were distributed among three hospitals in Qiqihar. A convenient sample of 50 nurses from each hospital (total N = 150) was selected to participate in this study. Responses indicated that despite a relatively brief training period, nursing informatics was adequately implemented, and nurses were knowledgeable about hospital information systems. Respondents identified several key advantages of nursing informatics implementation, particularly its usefulness in aiding patient care for data management. Finally, respondents identified hospital information system instability as a major obstacle to nursing informatics implementation. Our study results may help clinical nursing practitioners improve their technology skills and help nursing administrators improve information programs. These findings provide an important reference for both nursing informatics practice and further studies. PMID:23549042
Development of quantum informatics as a new field of computer science poses new challenges to teachers and students of computer science. Among others, very dynamic branches of quantum informatics are quantum programming languages and simulation of quantum systems. This article presents the program of the lecture: \\
Within health and health care, medical informatics and its subspecialties of biomedical, clinical, and public health informatics have emerged as a new discipline with increasing demands for its own work force. Knowledge and skills in medical informatics are widely acknowledged as crucial to future success in patient care, research relating to biomedicine, clinical care, and public health, as well as health policy design. The maturity of the domain and the demand on expertise necessitate standardized training and certification of professionals. The American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) embarked on a major effort to create professional level education and certification for physicians of various professions and specialties in informatics. This article focuses on the AMIA effort in the professional structure of medical specialization, e.g., the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) and the related Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). This report summarizes the current progress to create a recognized sub-certificate of competence in ClinicalInformatics and discusses likely near term (three to five year) implications on training, certification, and work force with an emphasis on clinical applied informatics. PMID:23616825
Detmer, Don E; Munger, Benson S; Lehmann, Christoph U
Background: Last year, our pathology informatics fellowship added informatics-based interactive case studies to its existing educational platform of operational and research rotations, clinical conferences, a common core curriculum with an accompanying didactic course, and national meetings. Methods: The structure of the informatics case studies was based on the traditional business school case study format. Three different formats were used, varying in length from short, 15-minute scenarios to more formal multiple hour-long case studies. Case studies were presented over the course of three retreats (Fall 2011, Winter 2012, and Spring 2012) and involved both local and visiting faculty and fellows. Results: Both faculty and fellows found the case studies and the retreats educational, valuable, and enjoyable. From this positive feedback, we plan to incorporate the retreats in future academic years as an educational component of our fellowship program. Conclusions: Interactive case studies appear to be valuable in teaching several aspects of pathology informatics that are difficult to teach in more traditional venues (rotations and didactic class sessions). Case studies have become an important component of our fellowship's educational platform.
Lee, Roy E.; McClintock, David S.; Balis, Ulysses J.; Baron, Jason M.; Becich, Michael J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Brodsky, Victor B.; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Haghighi, Mehrvash; Hipp, Jason D.; Henricks, Walter H.; Kim, Jiyeon Y.; Klepseis, Veronica E.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lane, William J.; Levy, Bruce P.; Onozato, Maristela L.; Park, Seung L.; Sinard, John H.; Tuthill, Mark J.; Gilbertson, John R.
Clinical Health Informatics (CHI), including integrated electronic medical records (EMR), is playing an increasingly important role in medical practice. It is widely felt that these tools have the potential to improve the quality of medical care and patient outcomes, while increasing efficiency and controlling overall health care costs. Studies have demonstrated the ability of CHI to have a significant impact
We have developed a lab exercise, which we have made available under open source license, designed to accompany a ten-hour “introduction to medical informatics” lecture module. The goal of this lab is to teach the students some basic Web application programming, to illustrate the challenges of building clinical systems, and to reinforce systems engineering material presented in a basic methodology course.
Healthcare has begun to flounder in the mounting flood of data available from automated monitoring equipment, microprocessor controlled life-support equipment, such as ventilators, ever more sophisticated laboratory tests, and the myriad of minor technological wonders that every hospital and clinic seem to collect. It is no longer enough to merely display the data in a large spreadsheet or on a complex, colorful time-sequence graph. The next generation of healthcare information systems must help the clinician to assimilate the myriad of data and to make fast and effective decisions. The following is a list of features that the next generation of computer systems will have to include if they are to have a significant impact on the quality of patient care: data acquisition, data storage, information display, data processing, and decision support. By automating or streamlining repetitive or complex tasks, correlating and presenting complex and potentially confusing data, and tracking patient outcomes, the computer can augment clinicians' skills to improve patient care.
This paper identifies the contribution of health and clinicalinformatics in the support of healthcare in the 21st century. Although little is known about the health and clinicalinformatics workforce, there is widespread recognition that the health informatics workforce will require significant expansion to support national eHealth work agendas. Workforce issues including discipline definition and self-identification, formal professionalisation, weaknesses in training and education, multidisciplinarity and interprofessional tensions, career structure, managerial support, and financial allocation play a critical role in facilitating or hindering the development of a workforce that is capable of realising the benefits to be gained from eHealth in general and clinicalinformatics in particular. As well as the national coordination of higher level policies, local support of training and allocation of sufficient position hours in appropriately defined roles by executive and clinical managers is essential to develop the health and clinicalinformatics workforce and achieve the anticipated results from evolving eHealth initiatives. PMID:21612722
Smith, Susan E; Drake, Lesley E; Harris, Julie-Gai B; Watson, Kay; Pohlner, Peter G
CLINT, which stands for ClinicalInformatics NeTwork, is one of the clinicalinformatics initiatives in development at McMaster University's Health Information Research Unit. CLINT is a microcomputer-based system of over 60 workstations providing 24 hour availability of a set of clinical information resources to clinicians throughout our teaching hospital. CLINT encompasses three domains: (1) a user adaptable clinician-computer interface, (2) unique evidence-based health care content, and (3) automated data collection and viewing tools. An objective of the CLINT project is to determine CLINT's impact on the practice of health care. Early analysis of our data has revealed that over the past year, there has been widespread use of CLINT by clinicians from all clinical domains. Our next task is to evaluate CLINT's usefulness.
Langton, K. B.; Horsman, J.; Hayward, R. S.; Ross, S. A.
|Clinical and Translational Science (CTS) rests largely on information flowing smoothly at multiple levels, in multiple directions, across multiple locations. Biomedical Informatics (BI) is seen as a backbone that helps to manage information flows for the translation of knowledge generated and stored in silos of basic science into bedside…
Clinical and translational science (CTS) rests largely on information flowing smoothly at multiple levels, in multiple directions, across multiple locations. Hence, Biomedical Informatics (BI) is seen as a backbone that can help to manage the information flows for the process of translation. However, the two concepts may end up being applied incongruently, if uncoordinated. This paper summarizes the objectives for
The purpose of this study is to identify the essential components for informatics literacy for clinical nurses working in Taiwanese hospitals. We developed a framework to explore the critical informatics literacy factors that clinical nurses should understand to be proficient in performing their professional duties. Survey methodology was used and the participants were senior administrators of nursing and other personnel in charge of implementing nursing information systems for 84 regional hospitals and medical centers. A total of 50 valid questionnaires was returned, with a 59.5% response rate. In summary, the results of the Taiwanese study are divided into three factors: informatics knowledge, informatics skills, and computer attitudes. A total of 58 questions was used for the measurement of initial nursing informatics literacy, and 49 items were considered to be the most required informatics literacy skills specifically for clinical nurses. PMID:18769184
Proteomics offers the most direct approach to understand disease and its molecular biomarkers. Biomarkers denote the biological states of tissues, cells, or body fluids that are useful for disease detection and classification. Clinical proteomics is used for early disease detection, molecular diagnosis of disease, identification and formulation of therapies, and disease monitoring and prognostics. Bioinformatics tools are essential for converting raw proteomics data into knowledge and subsequently into useful applications. These tools are used for the collection, processing, analysis, and interpretation of the vast amounts of proteomics data. Management, analysis, and interpretation of large quantities of raw and processed data require a combination of various informatics technologies such as databases, sequence comparison, predictive models, and statistical tools. We have demonstrated the utility of bioinformatics in clinical proteomics through the analysis of the cancer antigen survivin and its suitability as a target for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:17370257
Brusic, Vladimir; Marina, Ovidiu; Wu, Catherine J; Reinherz, Ellis L
ObjectiveClinicalinformatics intervention research suffers from a lack of attention to external validity in study design, implementation, evaluation, and reporting. This hampers the ability of others to assess the fit of a clinicalinformatics intervention with demonstrated efficacy in one setting for implementation in their setting. The objective of this model formulation paper is to demonstrate the applicability of the
Health care providers have a basic responsibility to protect patients from accidental harm. At the institutional level, creating safe health care organizations necessitates a systematic approach. Effective use of informatics to enhance safety requires the establishment and use of standards for concept definitions and for data exchange, development of acceptable models for knowledge representation, incentives for adoption of electronic health
Summary CGI is an essential informatics to support genomic medicine that is a medicine based on genome information. We believe that CGI domain must be a key technological field to establish the gene based medicine or pharmacogenomics. We analyzed the requirements to the social informational infrastructure in CGI domain and have developed the required technologies. In concrete terms, the coupling
The Delphi technique provides a means of assessing the judgments of groups of experts without the necessity of having these experts meet together. The technique has been used in health care since the mid-1970s, and has just recently become more common in clinicalinformatics research. As informatics develops as a specialty, it is logical to consider information technology solutions to research as well as clinical practice problems. The overall purpose of this methodology presentation is to compare a mailed vs. Internet application of the Delphi technique for clinicalinformatics research. Specifically, this presentation will provide: 1) an overview of the Delphi technique, and 2) a methodological comparison of two research applications of the Delphi technique. Results of the studies will be presented elsewhere.
Nursing homes have lagged in the development and use of technology and clinicalinformatics. This paper describes a practical model of translating clinicalinformatics research into practice. The Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessment data collected by nursing homes nationwide is translated into knowledge-based information that supports continuous quality improvement. It does so by providing timely Web-based reports alerting staff to
Christie Teigland; Richard Gardiner; Hailing Li; Colene Byrne
Medical students have been rating clinicalteaching in an obstetrics and gynecology clerkship at the University of Washington using an assessment form designed to reflect six factors of clinicalteaching effectiveness. High interrater reliability and the utility of the data for faculty development and advancement are discussed. (Author/JMD)
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Since its inception in 1997, the IW (Information Warehouse) at the Ohio State University Medical Center (OSUMC) has gradually transformed itself from a single purpose business decision support system to a comprehensive informatics platform supporting basic, clinical, and translational research. The IW today is the combination of four integrated components: a clinical data repository containing over a million patients; a research data repository housing various research specific data; an application development platform for building business and research enabling applications; a business intelligence environment assisting in reporting in all function areas. The IW is structured and encoded using standard terminologies such as SNOMED-CT, ICD, and CPT. The IW is an important component of OSUMC's Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) informatics program. PMID:21347019
Imaging has become a prevalent tool in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, providing a unique in vivo, multi-scale view of anatomic and physiologic processes. With the increased use of imaging and its progressive technical advances, the role of imaging informatics is now evolving-from one of managing images, to one of integrating the full scope of clinical information needed to contextualize and link observations across phenotypic and genotypic scales. Several challenges exist for imaging informatics, including the need for methods to transform clinical imaging studies and associated data into structured information that can be organized and analyzed. We examine some of these challenges in establishing imaging-based observational databases that can support the creation of comprehensive disease models. The development of these databases and ensuing models can aid in medical decision making and knowledge discovery and ultimately, transform the use of imaging to support individually-tailored patient care. PMID:23775172
Bui, Alex A T; Hsu, William; Arnold, Corey; El-Saden, Suzie; Aberle, Denise R; Taira, Ricky K
Integration of information literacy as a core component into a new online undergraduate nursing course proved to be a learning experience in course design and teaching. This article describes the framework for the course design that combined cultural competency, informatics, and information literacy and was grounded in informatics competencies for nurses at the beginning level, an informatics textbook, and the Neurnan Systems Model. The librarian's role in this process and the information literacy unit's content and written assignment are detailed, and challenges in the collaboration are also addressed. PMID:18844089
A goal of health information technology (HIT) is to help eliminate variation when it may compromise safety, efficiency, or quality of care. This study utilized direct observation and semi-structured interviews to examine variability in HIT use among four nurse practitioners and four physicians in an ambulatory diabetes clinic and to assess the impact of this variability on patient care. While use of informatics tools for information access and communication was similar among all users, variability existed in patterns of data entry into the EMR. The study provides direction for developing new functionality that may be needed in HIT and suggests changes to existing functionality. By designing tools that meet user needs and workflows, adoption of informatics applications may be enhanced and patient safety and user satisfaction improved.
This paper reviews clinical decision support systems (CDSS) literature, with a focus on evaluation. The literature indicates a general consensus that clinical decision support systems are thought to have the potential to improve care. Evidence is more equivocal for guidelines and for systems to aid physicians with diagnosis. There also is general consensus that a variety of systems are little
An integrated clinical tele-informatics based system that provides outpatient health care delivery, self-care services, clinical communications and information, and clinical practice management services. The system retrieves and analyzes sign and symptom data of patients according to a plurality of case management rules, generates a patient information and develops a therapeutic program in response to the information. The therapeutic program is regularly updated based upon system monitoring of the patient's condition. The system provides clinical management functional tools that alert a Personal Health Advisor when the data of at least one patient exceeds predefined medical parameters, triage clinical activity of volumes of patients based on the patient data, transform the data into clinical practice management information, and generate clinical practice management information reports of summarized text, numerical representations, and/or graphical representations.
Displaying the vast amount of clinical data that exist in electronic medical records without causing information overload or interfering with provider thought processes is a challenge. To support the transformation of data into information and knowledge, effective electronic displays must be flexible and guide physicians’ thought processes. Applying research from cognitive science and human factors engineering offers promise in improving the electronic display of clinical information. Objectives After completing this article, readers should be able to: Appreciate the importance of supporting provider thought processes during both data entry and data review. Recognize that information does not need to be displayed and reviewed in the same way the data are entered.
Palma, Jonathan P.; Brown, Patrick J.; Lehmann, Christoph U.; Longhurst, Christopher A.
Displaying the vast amount of clinical data that exist in electronic medical records without causing information overload or interfering with provider thought processes is a challenge. To support the transformation of data into information and knowledge, effective electronic displays must be flexible and guide physicians' thought processes. Applying research from cognitive science and human factors engineering offers promise in improving the electronic display of clinical information. OBJECTIVES: After completing this article, readers should be able to: Appreciate the importance of supporting provider thought processes during both data entry and data review.Recognize that information does not need to be displayed and reviewed in the same way the data are entered. PMID:22557935
Palma, Jonathan P; Brown, Patrick J; Lehmann, Christoph U; Longhurst, Christopher A
Background/Aims A widely-held vision arising from genomics research is to be able to use information on genomic variation to guide clinical prescriptions. This translational project is designed to test the concept that sequence information from a patient can be coupled with electronic medical records for use in personalized medicine. Methods Marshfield Clinic is a health care system in Wisconsin with 2 hospitals and 52 community care centers, a member of the HMORN, and partner of the Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, University of Wisconsin – Madison. Cattails, Marshfield Clinic’s internally developed outpatient EHR, has been in existence since the late 1980s. The full-feature EHR is deployed on laptop, tablet and PDA technology and supports a variety of clinical decision support (CDS) applications surrounding care management, prevention, radiology orders and medication prescribing. Much of the underlying infrastructure that supports these CDS applications will be used when integrating genomic information into clinical practice. The underlying development principles for this initiative emphasize the importance of clinical workflow, genetic result significance, and the ability to reconfigure the system as knowledge improves. Results A strategy of implementing an informatics system to satisfy the needs of pharmacogenetics from both research and clinical practice was tested. One in three of the 411,851 Marshfield Clinic patients in 2011 could benefit from a pharmacogenomic test. Implementing pharmacogenetics tests of three drugs (Warfarin, Clopidogrel, and Tamoxifen) at Marshfield Clinic could prevent potential adverse events that cost $11.3 million annually. Conclusions Such an informatics system will further enable comparative effectiveness research in pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics.
Background/Aims A widely-held vision arising from genomics research is to be able to use information on genomic variation to guide clinical prescriptions. This translational project is designed to test the concept that sequence information from a patient can be coupled with electronic medical records for use in personalized medicine. Methods Marshfield Clinic is a health care system in Wisconsin with 2 hospitals and 52 community care centers, a member of the HMORN, and partner of the Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, University of Wisconsin - Madison. Cattails, Marshfield Clinic's internally developed outpatient EHR, has been in existence since the late 1980s. The full-feature EHR is deployed on laptop, tablet and PDA technology and supports a variety of clinical decision support (CDS) applications surrounding care management, prevention, radiology orders and medication prescribing. Much of the underlying infrastructure that supports these CDS applications will be used when integrating genomic information into clinical practice. The underlying development principles for this initiative emphasize the importance of clinical workflow, genetic result significance, and the ability to reconfigure the system as knowledge improves. Results A strategy of implementing an informatics system to satisfy the needs of pharmacogenetics from both research and clinical practice was tested. One in three of the 411,851 Marshfield Clinic patients in 2011 could benefit from a pharmacogenomic test. Implementing pharmacogenetics tests of three drugs (Warfarin, Clopidogrel, and Tamoxifen) at Marshfield Clinic could prevent potential adverse events that cost $11.3 million annually. Conclusions Such an informatics system will further enable comparative effectiveness research in pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics. PMID:24085935
Background: The current generation of medical students are the Net Generation. However there is a dearth of data on their Internet use to inform universities' approaches to using the Internet, especially Web 2.0, most effectively in medical education .In particular, we have little information on students' skills base to use in planning to build greater informatics capacity in the Australian
Teachinginformatics takes place in schools for about 30 years. More and more developed countries discuss the basic necessity of compulsory courses in informatics at secondary level (at the age of 10 years) as precondition in working successful with informatics systems at all. A historical analysis is presented due to find out successful elements in teaching and learning informatics at
Teaching younger physicians the art of medicine should be an activity that engenders joy, satisfaction, and pride for the teacher. It is important to not that technical knowledge of medicine is complemented by special skills in facilitating reflective learning. Methods for teaching and learning the art of medicine are not easy but can be developed for such an important goal.
Background Selecting patient cohorts is a critical, iterative, and often time-consuming aspect of studies involving human subjects; informatics tools for helping streamline the process have been identified as important infrastructure components for enabling clinical and translational research. We describe the evaluation of a free and open source cohort selection tool from the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) group: the i2b2 hive. Methods Our evaluation included the usability and functionality of the i2b2 hive using several real world examples of research data requests received electronically at the University of Utah Health Sciences Center between 2006 - 2008. The hive server component and the visual query tool application were evaluated for their suitability as a cohort selection tool on the basis of the types of data elements requested, as well as the effort required to fulfill each research data request using the i2b2 hive alone. Results We found the i2b2 hive to be suitable for obtaining estimates of cohort sizes and generating research cohorts based on simple inclusion/exclusion criteria, which consisted of about 44% of the clinical research data requests sampled at our institution. Data requests that relied on post-coordinated clinical concepts, aggregate values of clinical findings, or temporal conditions in their inclusion/exclusion criteria could not be fulfilled using the i2b2 hive alone, and required one or more intermediate data steps in the form of pre- or post-processing, modifications to the hive metadata, etc. Conclusion The i2b2 hive was found to be a useful cohort-selection tool for fulfilling common types of requests for research data, and especially in the estimation of initial cohort sizes. For another institution that might want to use the i2b2 hive for clinical research, we recommend that the institution would need to have structured, coded clinical data and metadata available that can be transformed to fit the logical data models of the i2b2 hive, strategies for extracting relevant clinical data from source systems, and the ability to perform substantial pre- and post-processing of these data.
A new method has been developed for multimedia enhancement of electronic teaching files created by using the standard protocols and formats offered by the Medical Imaging Resource Center (MIRC) project of the Radiological Society of North America. The typical MIRC electronic teaching file consists of static pages only; with the new method, audio and visual content may be added to the MIRC electronic teaching file so that the entire image interpretation process can be recorded for teaching purposes. With an efficient system for encoding the audiovisual record of on-screen manipulation of radiologic images, the multimedia teaching files generated are small enough to be transmitted via the Internet with acceptable resolution. Students may respond with the addition of new audio and visual content and thereby participate in a discussion about a particular case. MIRC electronic teaching files with multimedia enhancement have the potential to augment the effectiveness of diagnostic radiology teaching. PMID:16284145
Yang, Guo Liang; Aziz, Aamer; Narayanaswami, Banukumar; Anand, Ananthasubramaniam; Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Nowinski, Wieslaw Lucjan
Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has the potential to transform the current healthcare delivery system by identifying the most effective medical and surgical treatments, diagnostic tests, disease prevention methods and ways to deliver care for specific clinical conditions. To be successful, such research requires the identification, capture, aggregation, integration, and analysis of disparate data sources held by different institutions with diverse representations of the relevant clinical events. In an effort to address these diverse demands, there have been multiple new designs and implementations of informatics platforms that provide access to electronic clinical data and the governance infrastructure required for inter-institutional CER. The goal of this manuscript is to help investigators understand why these informatics platforms are required and to compare and contrast six, large-scale, recently funded, CER-focused informatics platform development efforts. We utilized an 8-dimension, socio-technical model of health information technology use to help guide our work. We identified six generic steps that are necessary in any distributed, multi-institutional CER project: data identification, extraction, modeling, aggregation, analysis, and dissemination. We expect that over the next several years these projects will provide answers to many important, and heretofore unanswerable, clinical research questions.
Sittig, Dean F.; Hazlehurst, Brian L.; Brown, Jeffrey; Murphy, Shawn; Rosenman, Marc; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wilcox, Adam B.
This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating how Australian health professionals may be developing and deploying\\u000a essential clinicalinformatics capabilities in the first 5 years of their professional practice. It explores the experiences\\u000a of four professionals in applying what they have learned formally and informally during their university education and during\\u000a workplace learning and training. This study is based on
A literature search shows multiple uses for standardized patients for teaching and eval u- ating clinical skills. However, there is little written about the use of standardized patients for teachingclinical ethics. When the Standardized Patient Program was organized at the Medical College of Ohio at Toledo in 1991, the Ethics Program realized the potential for innovative and interactive learning
Walter Edinger; JoDee Robertson; Joy Skeel; Judith Schoonmaker
Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinicalinformatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams.
Background In recent years, there have been numerous initiatives undertaken to describe critical information needs related to the collection, management, analysis, and dissemination of data in support of biomedical research (J Investig Med 54:327-333, 2006); (J Am Med Inform Assoc 16:316–327, 2009); (Physiol Genomics 39:131-140, 2009); (J Am Med Inform Assoc 18:354–357, 2011). A common theme spanning such reports has been the importance of understanding and optimizing people, organizational, and leadership factors in order to achieve the promise of efficient and timely research (J Am Med Inform Assoc 15:283–289, 2008). With the emergence of clinical and translational science (CTS) as a national priority in the United States, and the corresponding growth in the scale and scope of CTS research programs, the acuity of such information needs continues to increase (JAMA 289:1278–1287, 2003); (N Engl J Med 353:1621–1623, 2005); (Sci Transl Med 3:90, 2011). At the same time, systematic evaluations of optimal people, organizational, and leadership factors that influence the provision of data, information, and knowledge management technologies and methods are notably lacking. Methods In response to the preceding gap in knowledge, we have conducted both: 1) a structured survey of domain experts at Academic Health Centers (AHCs); and 2) a subsequent thematic analysis of public-domain documentation provided by those same organizations. The results of these approaches were then used to identify critical factors that may influence access to informatics expertise and resources relevant to the CTS domain. Results A total of 31 domain experts, spanning the Biomedical Informatics (BMI), Computer Science (CS), Information Science (IS), and Information Technology (IT) disciplines participated in a structured surveyprocess. At a high level, respondents identified notable differences in theaccess to BMI, CS, and IT expertise and services depending on the establishment of a formal BMI academic unit and the perceived relationship between BMI, CS, IS, and IT leaders. Subsequent thematic analysis of the aforementioned public domain documents demonstrated a discordance between perceived and reported integration across and between BMI, CS, IS, and IT programs and leaders with relevance to the CTS domain. Conclusion Differences in people, organization, and leadership factors do influence the effectiveness of CTS programs, particularly with regard to the ability to access and leverage BMI, CS, IS, and IT expertise and resources. Based on this finding, we believe that the development of a better understanding of how optimal BMI, CS, IS, and IT organizational structures and leadership models are designed and implemented is critical to both the advancement of CTS and ultimately, to improvements in the quality, safety, and effectiveness of healthcare.
Biomedical informatics lacks a clear and theoretically-grounded definition. Many proposed definitions focus on data, information, and knowledge, but do not provide an adequate definition of these terms. Leveraging insights from the philosophy of information, we define informatics as the science of information, where information is data plus meaning. Biomedical informatics is the science of information as applied to or studied in the context of biomedicine. Defining the object of study of informatics as data plus meaning clearly distinguishes the field from related fields, such as computer science, statistics and biomedicine, which have different objects of study. The emphasis on data plus meaning also suggests that biomedical informatics problems tend to be difficult when they deal with concepts that are hard to capture using formal, computational definitions. In other words, problems where meaning must be considered are more difficult than problems where manipulating data without regard for meaning is sufficient. Furthermore, the definition implies that informatics research, teaching, and service should focus on biomedical information as data plus meaning rather than only computer applications in biomedicine. PMID:19683067
Background: The need for informatics and genomics training in pathology is critical, yet limited resources for such training are available. In this study we sought to critically test the hypothesis that the incorporation of a wiki (a collaborative writing and publication tool with roots in “Web 2.0”) in a combined informatics and genomics course could both (1) serve as an interactive, collaborative educational resource and reference and (2) actively engage trainees by requiring the creation and sharing of educational materials. Materials and Methods: A 2-week full-time course at our institution covering genomics, research, and pathology informatics (GRIP) was taught by 36 faculty to 18 second- and third-year pathology residents. The course content included didactic lectures and hands-on demonstrations of technology (e.g., whole-slide scanning, telepathology, and statistics software). Attendees were given pre- and posttests. Residents were trained to use wiki technology (MediaWiki) and requested to construct a wiki about the GRIP course by writing comprehensive online review articles on assigned lectures. To gauge effectiveness, pretest and posttest scores for our course were compared with scores from the previous 7 years from the predecessor course (limited to informatics) given at our institution that did not utilize wikis. Results: Residents constructed 59 peer-reviewed collaborative wiki articles. This group showed a 25% improvement (standard deviation 12%) in test scores, which was greater than the 16% delta recorded in the prior 7 years of our predecessor course (P = 0.006). Conclusions: Our use of wiki technology provided a wiki containing high-quality content that will form the basis of future pathology informatics and genomics courses and proved to be an effective teaching tool, as evidenced by the significant rise in our resident posttest scores. Data from this project provide support for the notion that active participation in content creation is an effective mechanism for mastery of content. Future residents taking this course will continue to build on this wiki, keeping content current, and thereby benefit from this collaborative teaching tool.
Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; MacPherson, Trevor; Pantanowitz, Liron
Health informatics is the development and assessment of methods and systems for the acquisition, processing and interpretation of patient data with the help of knowledge from scientific research. This definition implies that health informatics is not tied to the application of computers but more generally to the entire management of information in healthcare. The focus is the patient and the
The informatics moment is the moment when a person seeks help in using some digital technology that is new to him or her. This article examines the informatics moment in people's everyday lives as they sought help at a branch public library. Four types of literacy were involved: basic literacy (reading and writing), computer literacy (use of a…
IMM/Serve is a computer-based guideline that provides patient-specific recommendations regarding childhood immunization. IMM/Serve is currently installed at an estimated 75 sites within the US Indian Health Service (IHS), with plans to extend its use to roughly 150 additional sites nationwide by the end of the year 2000. The dissemination of IMM/Serve within the IHS provides a case study with concrete examples that illustrate the diverse informatics issues that arise in the widespread dissemination of a computer-based clinical guideline. PMID:11079950
Although digital teaching files are important to radiology education, there are no current satisfactory solutions for export of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images from picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) in desktop publishing format. A vendor-neutral digital teaching file, the Radiology Interesting Case Server (RadICS), offers an efficient tool for harvesting interesting cases from PACS without requiring modifications of the PACS configurations. Radiologists push imaging studies from PACS to RadICS via the standard DICOM Send process, and the RadICS server automatically converts the DICOM images into the Joint Photographic Experts Group format, a common desktop publishing format. They can then select key images and create an interesting case series at the PACS workstation. RadICS was tested successfully against multiple unmodified commercial PACS. Using RadICS, radiologists are able to harvest and author interesting cases at the point of clinical interpretation with minimal disruption in clinical work flow. PMID:17102058
Kamauu, Aaron W C; DuVall, Scott L; Robison, Reid J; Liimatta, Andrew P; Wiggins, Richard H; Avrin, David E
|Discusses museum informatics that studies how information science and technology affect the museum environment. Examines digital technology; information organization and access; digitization, personal computers, and the Internet; data sharing; standards; social impacts of new technologies; collaboration; consortia; multimedia exhibits; virtual…
Marty, Paul F.; Rayward, W. Boyd; Twidale, Michael B.
In the context of an existing first year, one-semester mandatory course of medical informatics (MI) for medical students, we tested an interactive teaching approach in parallel with the traditional academic program. After six semesters (at the beginning of the clinical stage) we collected feedback from the former students in the two parallel programs (with anonymous questionnaires comprising both subjectively-rated items
Diana Lungeanu; Rochelle E. Tractenberg; Otilia S. Bersan; George I. Mihalas
|The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class,…
The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class,…
|Provides a brief survey of informatics, defined as the application of information technology to various fields, with respect to its historical background, disciplinary identity, fundamental aspects, applications, and challenges. Highlights include biological, clinical, dental, environmental, geomatics, health, legal, management, medical, museum,…
Provides a brief survey of informatics, defined as the application of information technology to various fields, with respect to its historical background, disciplinary identity, fundamental aspects, applications, and challenges. Highlights include biological, clinical, dental, environmental, geomatics, health, legal, management, medical, museum,…
|This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds,…
This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…
The increasing ubiquity of digital technology, internet services and social media in our everyday lives allows for a seamless transitioning between the visible and the invisible infrastructure of cities: road systems, building complexes, information and communication technology, and people networks create a buzzing environment that is alive and exciting. Driven by curiosity, initiative and interdisciplinary exchange, the Urban Informatics Research
Marcus Foth; Jaz Hee-jeong Choi; Christine Satchell
ObjectiveTo explore the informatic requirements in the home care of chronically ill patients.DesignA number of strategies were deployed to help evoke a picture of home care informatics needs: A detailed questionnaire evaluating informational needs and assessing programmable technologies was distributed to a clinic population of parents of children with cancer. Open ended questionnaires were distributed to medical staff and parents
Background:? Keele Medical School's new curriculum includes a 5-week course to extend medical students' consultation skills beyond those historically required for competent inductive diagnosis. Context:? Clinical reasoning is a core skill for the practice of medicine, and is known to have implications for patient safety, yet historically it has not been explicitly taught. Rather, it has been assumed that these skills will be learned by accumulating a body of knowledge and by observing expert clinicians. This course aims to assist students to develop their own clinical reasoning skills and promote their greater understanding of, and potential to benefit from, the clinical reasoning skills of others. The course takes place in the fourth or penultimate year, and is integrated with students' clinical placements, giving them opportunities to practise and quickly embed their learning. Innovation:? This course emphasises that clinical reasoning extends beyond initial diagnosis into all other aspects of clinical practice, particularly clinical management. It offers students a variety of challenging and interesting opportunities to engage with clinical reasoning across a wide range of clinical practice. It addresses bias through metacognition and increased self-awareness, considers some of the complexities of prescribing and non-pharmacological interventions, and promotes pragmatic evidence-based practice, information management within the consultation and the maximising of patient adherence. This article describes clinical reasoning-based classroom and community teaching. Implications:? Early evaluation suggests that students value the course and benefit from it. PMID:24015736
Polymers are arguably the most important set of materials in common use. The increasing adoption of both combinatorial as well as high-throughput approaches, coupled with an increasing amount of interdisciplinarity, has wrought tremendous change in the field of polymer science. Yet the informatics tools required to support and further enhance these changes are almost completely absent. In the first part of the chapter, a critical analysis of the challenges facing modern polymer informatics is provided. It is argued, that most of the problems facing the field today are rooted in the current scholarly communication process and the way in which chemists and polymer scientists handle and publish data. Furthermore, the chapter reviews existing modes of representing and communicating polymer information and discusses the impact, which the emergence of semantic technologies will have on the way in which scientific and polymer data is published and transmitted. In the second part, a review of the use of informatics tools for the prediction of polymer properties and in silico design of polymers is offered.
Abstract: Faculty development,courses related to acquiring clinicalteaching skills in the health professions are limited. Conse- quently, the Department of Dental Hygiene at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio conducted a series of clinicalteaching workshops,to address clinicalteaching methodology. The goal of these workshops,was to promote a problem- solving learning atmosphere for dental hygiene faculty
Clinical nurse educators are facing a number of new challenges in pediatric acute care settings that necessitate revisions to their teaching approaches. In this paper, we present a theoretical discussion of a philosophy of nursing education based on a passion for teaching that, when implemented by clinical nursing faculty, promotes positive learning environments in which nursing students feel supported, valued,
The Biology of Addictive Diseases-Database (BiolAD-DB) system is a research bioinformatics system for archiving, analyzing, and processing of complex clinical and genetic data. The database schema employs design principles for handling complex clinical information, such as response items in genetic questionnaires. Data access and validation is provided by the BiolAD-DB client application, which features a data validation engine tightly coupled to a graphical user interface. Data integrity is provided by the password-protected BiolAD-DB SQL compliant server and database. BiolAD-DB tools further provide functionalities for generating customized reports and views. The BiolAD-DB system schema, client, and installation instructions are freely available at http://www.rockefeller.edu/biolad-db/. PMID:17286447
Nielsen, David A; Leidner, Marty; Haynes, Chad; Krauthammer, Michael; Kreek, Mary Jeanne
The Human Genome Project (HGP) provided the initial draft of mankind's DNA sequence in 2001. The HGP was produced by 23 collaborating laboratories using Sanger sequencing of mapped regions as well as shotgun sequencing techniques in a process that occupied 13 years at a cost of ~$3 billion. Today, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques represent the next phase in the evolution of DNA sequencing technology at dramatically reduced cost compared to traditional Sanger sequencing. A single laboratory today can sequence the entire human genome in a few days for a few thousand dollars in reagents and staff time. Routine whole exome or even whole genome sequencing of clinical patients is well within the realm of affordability for many academic institutions across the country. This paper reviews current sequencing technology methods and upcoming advancements in sequencing technology as well as challenges associated with data generation, data manipulation and data storage. Implementation of routine NGS data in cancer genomics is discussed along with potential pitfalls in the interpretation of the NGS data. The overarching importance of bioinformatics in the clinical implementation of NGS is emphasized. We also review the issue of physician education which also is an important consideration for the successful implementation of NGS in the clinical workplace. NGS technologies represent a golden opportunity for the next generation of pathologists to be at the leading edge of the personalized medicine approaches coming our way. Often under-emphasized issues of data access and control as well as potential ethical implications of whole genome NGS sequencing are also discussed. Despite some challenges, it's hard not to be optimistic about the future of personalized genome sequencing and its potential impact on patient care and the advancement of knowledge of human biology and disease in the near future. PMID:23248761
|This study analyzed 816 medical professors' perceptions of clinicalteaching, as measured with the online version of the ClinicalTeaching Perception Inventory, and examined difficulties that female professors faced in becoming the ideal clinical teacher. While describing themselves as a clinical teacher, female professors rated themselves lower…
Informatics is a popular topic in literature, in media, and in education. However, nursing professionals and even nursing faculty may not have a clear understanding of informatics. The authors conducted a small simulation study to examine how nursing students enrolled in a doctor of philosophy program-future nursing educators-perceived informatics and its core elements. Using an online collaboration tool, the students were asked to create a plan for integrating informatics into a simulated undergraduate nursing program. The results of the study provide lessons for nursing professionals and educators. Students identified only a handful of competencies believed important by informatics initiatives led by the American Nurses Association and the Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform. Although most students believed an undergraduate curriculum should teach computer skills, only a few participants identified information literacy skills, such as privacy and security of health information, as important for beginning nurses. Although limited, findings articulate the need for a universally accepted definition of informatics and a shared understanding of an informatics core curriculum. PMID:20304375
This article demonstrates that careful planning and management can help to ensure effective learning for pre-registration students during theory and practical skills teaching. It highlights two lesson plans with intended learning outcomes, one for a didactic teaching session and the other for a psychomotor clinical skills session. The article identifies a variety of teaching and learning strategies that could be adopted. PMID:15915956
To improve on-orbit clinical capabilities by developing and providing operational support for intelligent, robust, reliable, and secure, enterprise-wide and comprehensive health care and biomedical informatics systems with increasing levels of autonomy, f...
\\u000a The goal of infectious disease informatics is to optimize the clinical and public health management of infectious diseases\\u000a through improvements in the development and use of antimicrobials, the design of more effective vaccines, the identification\\u000a of biomarkers for life-threatening infections, a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and biosurveillance and\\u000a clinical decision support. Infectious disease informatics can lead to more targeted
Objectives: The objective is to highlight the important role that librarians have in teaching within a successful medical informatics program. Librarians regularly utilize skills that, although not technology dependent, are essential to conducting computer-based research. The Metropolis analogy is used to introduce the part librarians play as informatics partners. Science fiction is a modern mythology that, beyond a technical exterior, has lasting value in its ability to reflect the human condition. The teaching of medical informatics, an intersection of technology and knowledge, is also most relevant when it transcends the operation of databases and systems. Librarians can teach students to understand, research, and utilize information beyond specific technologies. Methods: A survey of twenty-six informatics programs was conducted during 2002, with specific emphasis on the role of the library service. Results: The survey demonstrated that librarians currently do have a central role in informatics instruction, and that library-focused skills form a significant part of the curriculum in many of those programs. In addition, librarians have creative opportunities to enhance their involvement in informatics training. As a sample program in the study, the development of the informatics course at the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences is included. Conclusions: Medical informatics training is a wonderful opportunity for librarians to collaborate with professionals from the sciences and other information disciplines. Librarians' unique combination of human research and technology skills provides a valuable contribution to any program.
The advent of healthcare reform and the rapid application of new technologies have resulted in a paradigm shift in medical practice. Integrating medical Informatics into the full spectrum of medical education is a viral step toward implementing this new instructional model, a step required for the understanding and practice of modern medicine. We have developed an informatics curriculum, a new educational paradigm, and an intranet-based teaching module which are designed to enhance adult-learning principles, life-long self education, and evidence-based critical thinking. Thirty two, fourth year medical students have participated in a one month, full time, independent study focused on but not limited to four topics: mastering the windows-based environment, understanding hospital based information management systems, developing competence in using the internet/intranet and world wide web/HTML, and experiencing distance communication and TeleVideo networks. Each student has completed a clinically relevant independent study project utilizing technology mastered during the course. This initial curriculum offering was developed in conjunction with faculty from the College of Medicine, College of Engineering, College of Education, College of Business, College of Public Health. Florida Center of Instructional Technology, James A. Haley Veterans Hospital, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa General Hospital, GTE, Westshore Walk-in Clinic (paperless office), and the Florida Engineering Education Delivery System. Our second step toward the distributive integration process was the introduction of Medical Informatics to first, second and third year medical students. To date, these efforts have focused on undergraduate medical education. Our next step is to offer workshops in Informatics to college of medicine faculty, to residents in post graduate training programs (GME), and ultimately as a method of distance learning in continuing medical education (CME). PMID:10168949
Accelerating the translation of new scientific discoveries to improve human health and disease management is the overall goal of a series of initiatives integrated in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) “Roadmap for Medical Research.” The Clinical and Translational Research Award (CTSA) program is, arguably, the most visible component of the NIH Roadmap providing resources to institutions to transform their clinical and translational research enterprises along the goals of the Roadmap. The CTSA program emphasizes biomedical informatics as a critical component for the accomplishment of the NIH’s translational objectives. To be optimally effective, emerging biomedical informatics programs must link with the information technology (IT) platforms of the enterprise clinical operations within academic health centers. This report details one academic health center’s transdisciplinary initiative to create an integrated academic discipline of biomedical informatics through the development of its infrastructure for clinical and translational science infrastructure and response to the CTSA mechanism. This approach required a detailed informatics strategy to accomplish these goals. This transdisciplinary initiative was the impetus for creation of a specialized biomedical informatics core, the Center for Biomedical Informatics (CBI). Development of the CBI codified the need to incorporate medical informatics including quality and safety informatics and enterprise clinical information systems within the CBI. This paper describes the steps taken to develop the biomedical informatics infrastructure, its integration with clinical systems at one academic health center, successes achieved, and barriers encountered during these efforts.
Fahy, Brenda G.; Balke, C. William; Umberger, Gloria H.; Talbert, Jeffery; Canales, Denise Niles; Steltenkamp, Carol L.; Conigliaro, Joseph
|Teachingclinic managers struggle to convert performance data into meaningful behavioral change in their trainees, and quality improvement measures in medicine have had modest results. This may be due to several factors including clinical performance being based more on team function than individual action, models of best practice that are…
Smith, C. Scott; Francovich, Chris; Morris, Magdalena; Hill, William; Langlois-Winkle, Francine; Rupper, Randall; Roth, Craig; Wheeler, Stephanie; Vo, Anthony
Health informatics education has evolved since the 1960s with a strong research foundation primarily in medical schools across the USA and Europe. By 1989 health informatics education was provided in some form by at least 20 countries representing five continents. This continues to progress, in Europe with the help of a number of special projects, via the integration of informatics into pre registration health professional courses, undergraduate and post graduate course work and research degree programs. Each program is unique in terms or content and structure reflecting the many foundation disciplines which contribute or are incorporated in the health informatics discipline. Nursing informatics education is not as widespread. Indeed the evidence suggests a poor uptake of informatics by this profession. Advances in computer based educational technologies are making innovative modes of educational delivery possible and are facilitating a shift towards learner centred, flexible and life long learning. Greater cooperation between Universities is recommended. PMID:10947666
BACKGROUND: Evidence based medicine (EBM) is considered an integral part of medical training, but integration of teaching various EBM steps in everyday clinical practice is uncommon. Currently EBM is predominantly taught through theoretical courses, workshops and e-learning. However, clinical teachers lack confidence in teaching EBM in workplace and are often unsure of the existing opportunities for teaching EBM in the
Shakila Thangaratinam; Gemma Barnfield; Susanne Weinbrenner; Berit Meyerrose; Theodoros N Arvanitis; Andrea R Horvath; Gianni Zanrei; Regina Kunz; Katja Suter; Jacek Walczak; Anna Kaleta; Katrien Oude Rengerink; Harry Gee; Ben WJ Mol; Khalid S Khan
Translational informatics (TI) is extremely important for the pharmaceutical industry, especially as the bar for regulatory approval of new medications is set higher and higher. This paper will explore three specific areas in the drug development lifecycle, from tools developed by precompetitive consortia to standardized clinical data collection to the effective delivery of medications using clinical decision support, in which TI has a major role to play. Advancing TI will require investment in new tools and algorithms, as well as ensuring that translational issues are addressed early in the design process of informatics projects, and also given higher weight in funding or publication decisions. Ultimately, the source of translational tools and differences between academia and industry are secondary, as long as they move towards the shared goal of improving health.
Clinical nurse educators are facing a number of new challenges in pediatric acute care settings that necessitate revisions to their teaching approaches. In this paper, we present a theoretical discussion of a philosophy of nursing education based on a passion for teaching that, when implemented by clinical nursing faculty, promotes positive learning environments in which nursing students feel supported, valued, and engaged. A revised leadership framework, as originally set out by Day (2004), is utilized to explore the essential philosophical underpinnings of passion that nurse educators may consider as they seek to promote positive student outcomes in clinical nursing education. Beatty et al. (2009) argued that there is a growing conviction that every teacher needs a carefully formulated teaching philosophy. Similarly, we contend that all clinical nurse educators critically evaluate their understanding of the meanings and experiences that motivate and frame their values of teaching. We suggest that teaching with passion promotes the development of a positive learning environment and lends itself to rewarding and successful learning experiences. PMID:20570213
Optimal medical care is critically dependent on clinicians' skills to make the right diagnosis and to recommend the most appropriate therapy, and acquiring such reasoning skills is a key requirement at every level of medical education. Teachingclinical reasoning is grounded in several fundamental principles of educational theory. Adult learning theory posits that learning is best accomplished by repeated, deliberate exposure to real cases, that case examples should be selected for their reflection of multiple aspects of clinical reasoning, and that the participation of a coach augments the value of an educational experience. The theory proposes that memory of clinical medicine and clinical reasoning strategies is enhanced when errors in information, judgment, and reasoning are immediately pointed out and discussed. Rather than using cases artificially constructed from memory, real cases are greatly preferred because they often reflect the false leads, the polymorphisms of actual clinical material, and the misleading test results encountered in everyday practice. These concepts foster the teaching and learning of the diagnostic process, the complex trade-offs between the benefits and risks of diagnostic tests and treatments, and cognitive errors in clinical reasoning. The teaching of clinical reasoning need not and should not be delayed until students gain a full understanding of anatomy and pathophysiology. Concepts such as hypothesis generation, pattern recognition, context formulation, diagnostic test interpretation, differential diagnosis, and diagnostic verification provide both the language and the methods of clinical problem solving. Expertise is attainable even though the precise mechanisms of achieving it are not known. PMID:20603909
Medical education emphasises the transmission of large amounts of short-lived medical information. Strategies must be developed\\u000a to generate in the students, attitudes towards the independent search for and critical appraisal of evidences. Two complementary\\u000a strategies are particularly well suited to promote these types of attitudes : clinical epidemiology and evidence-based clinical\\u000a practice. Clinical epidemiology (CE) has been defined as “the
Background Evidence based medicine (EBM) is considered an integral part of medical training, but integration of teaching various EBM steps in everyday clinical practice is uncommon. Currently EBM is predominantly taught through theoretical courses, workshops and e-learning. However, clinical teachers lack confidence in teaching EBM in workplace and are often unsure of the existing opportunities for teaching EBM in the clinical setting. There is a need for continuing professional development (CPD) courses that train clinical trainers to teach EBM through on-the-job training by demonstration of applied EBM real time in clinical practice. We developed such a course to encourage clinically relevant teaching of EBM in post-graduate education in various clinical environments. Methods We devised an e-learning course targeting trainers with EBM knowledge to impart educational methods needed to teach application of EBM teaching in commonly used clinical settings. The curriculum development group comprised experienced EBM teachers, clinical epidemiologists, clinicians and educationalists from institutions in seven European countries. The e-learning sessions were designed to allow participants (teachers) to undertake the course in the workplace during short breaks within clinical activities. An independent European steering committee provided input into the process. Results The curriculum defined specific learning objectives for teaching EBM by exploiting educational opportunities in six different clinical settings. The e-modules incorporated video clips that demonstrate practical and effective methods of EBM teaching in everyday clinical practice. The course encouraged focussed teaching activities embedded within a trainer's personal learning plan and documentation in a CPD portfolio for reflection. Conclusion This curriculum will help senior clinicians to identify and make the best use of available opportunities in everyday practice in clinical situations to teach various steps of EBM and demonstrate their applicability to clinical practice. Once fully implemented, the ultimate outcome of this pilot project will be a European qualification in teaching EBM, which will be used by doctors, hospitals, professional bodies responsible for postgraduate qualifications and continuing medical education.
Thangaratinam, Shakila; Barnfield, Gemma; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Meyerrose, Berit; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Horvath, Andrea R; Zanrei, Gianni; Kunz, Regina; Suter, Katja; Walczak, Jacek; Kaleta, Anna; Rengerink, Katrien Oude; Gee, Harry; Mol, Ben WJ; Khan, Khalid S
|Reviews literature related to health informatics and health information management. Provides examples covering types of information, library and information services outcomes, training of informatics professionals, areas of application, the impact of evidence based medicine, professional issues, integrated information systems, and the needs of…
|"Clinical Nutrition in an Interdisciplinary Setting" is a course designed to introduce basic nutrition knowledge and concepts of nutritional assessment, counseling, and intervention in the clinical care of patients. Provides a brief course overview and descriptions of its development, use, and preliminary evaluation of the patient simulation…
Learning how to "think like doctors" can be difficult for undergraduate medical students in their early clinical years. Our model of collaborative Integrated Case Learning (ICL) and simulated clinical reasoning aims to address these issues. Taking a socio-cultural perspective, this study investigates the reflective learning interactions and…
|Learning how to "think like doctors" can be difficult for undergraduate medical students in their early clinical years. Our model of collaborative Integrated Case Learning (ICL) and simulated clinical reasoning aims to address these issues. Taking a socio-cultural perspective, this study investigates the reflective learning interactions and…
Mathematical modeling was utilized in the planning and decision-making process involved in reorganizing a teachingclinic to effect continuity of care. The model interrelated physicians, time, and space, facilitating value judgments and decisions. The reorganization was successful and the outcomes remarkably similar to model predictions.…
|The Loma Linda University School of Dentistry's "study club" method of teaching operative dentistry involves a four-hour clinical operating session and an hour-long discussion immediately following. Videotape recordings of the operative procedures are used successfully in the discussion period to enhance observation and recall. (MSE)|
Requirements for information technology in pathology now extend well beyond the provision of purely analytical data. With the aim of achieving seamless integration of laboratory data into the total clinical pathway, 'informatics' - the art and science of turning data into useful information - is becoming increasingly important in laboratory medicine. Informatics is a powerful tool in pathology - whether
Duke University has a five-year history with high-quality and clinically oriented informatics web-based nursing informatics education. This paper highlights an overview of instructional methods used and pedagogical considerations for both students and faculty. To do the job well, faculty workload for web-based instruction has been more than double the time and effort required for teaching an on-campus course. Results suggest that virtual teamwork is difficult but possible for highly motivated students. Committed to excellence, Duke's program finds that most students do well in achieving their goals and achieving Duke's high standards of academic rigor, however some students are not successful with on-line courses.
BACKGROUND: Although residents commonly manage substance abuse disorders, optimal approaches to teaching these specialized interviewing\\u000a and intervention skills are unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: We developed a Substance Abuse Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) to teach addiction medicine competencies using immediate\\u000a feedback. In this study we evaluated OSCE performance, examined associations between performance and self-assessed interest\\u000a and competence in substance abuse, and assessed
Sharon J. Parish; Megha Ramaswamy; Melissa R. Stein; Elizabeth K. Kachur; Julia H. Arnsten
As a first step in the development of a competency-based clinical toxicology clerkship, a set of terminal behavioral objectives were developed that reflect the anticipated role that clinical pharmacists should play as part of the clinical toxicology team. The evaluation approaches used at the University of Utah are presented. (LBH)
|As a first step in the development of a competency-based clinical toxicology clerkship, a set of terminal behavioral objectives were developed that reflect the anticipated role that clinical pharmacists should play as part of the clinical toxicology team. The evaluation approaches used at the University of Utah are presented. (LBH)|
Objective The purpose of this study is to present radiograph utilization at a chiropractic college teachingclinic, the associated patient demographics, and the utilization rates by body region. Methods Data for outpatient services over a 3-year period were extracted from a college clinic administrative software program. Radiographic data were matched with patient demographic information providing the age, sex, and financial class for all patients. Results The overall radiograph utilization rate was 8%, with the highest frequency occurring in the spine in the order of lumbar, cervical, and then thoracic regions. Spinal radiographs made up 66% of the total radiographs taken. The utilization rate increased as the age of the patients increased. The average patient age was 46, and 48% were female. Conclusion The radiograph utilization rate at this teachingclinic was lower than previous studies. This study provides new information regarding overall and regional radiography rates and associated patient demographics from an American chiropractic college.
Medical informatics is a new knowledge domain of computer and information science, engineering and technology in all fields of health and medicine, including research, education and practice. Medical informatics has evolved over the past 30 years as medicine learned to exploit the extraordinary capabilities of the electronic digital computer to better meet its complex information needs. The first articles on this subject appeared in the 1950s, the number of publications rapidly increased in the 1960s and medical informatics was identified as a new specialty in the 1970s.
Medical genetics has moved from the study of rare conditions to the illumination of disorders that impact the entire spectrum of medical practice. While there have been a number of predictions and concerns about this impact, this article examines three areas where medical genetics is clearly an important tool in medical practice. First, a family history aids in risk assessment, even in common disorders that are multifactorial. Second, by elucidating molecular pathways, gene identification may lead to the development of more efficacious medications that have fewer side effects. Third, an awareness of population-based risk and the availability of genetic screening in these populations will help physicians assess an individual patient's risk. To fully benefit from genetically based medical approaches, physicians will need to master a new set of principles and clinical skills. However, genetics has traditionally been taught as a basic science, sometimes under the purview of cell biology or biochemistry. Often, then, genetics has little or no place in clinicalteaching. This article describes an effort at Harvard Medical School to integrate genetics into both the preclinical and the clinical curricula. The author looks at the underlying pedagogy, how basic science teaching in genetics is provided, and an approach currently being used to include genetics in clinicalteaching. PMID:12544485
As computer scientists, we have been trained in the methodology of natural science, which is analytic in its essence. Informatics, and particularly Artificial Intelligence, is not an analytic discipline. It is required to establish a constructive methodology.
Primary care informatics is an emerging academic discipline that remains undefined. The unique nature of primary care necessitates the development of its own informatics discipline. A definition of primary care informatics is proposed, which encompasses the distinctive nature of primary care. The core concepts and theory that should underpin it are described. Primary care informatics is defined as a science and as a subset of health informatics. The proposed definition is intended to focus the development of a generalizable core theory for this informatics subspecialty.
Nurse education has traditionally relied on clinical placements to provide nursing students with the 'hands-on' experience that is not possible to teach in a classroom setting. However, with changes to the NHS this is becoming increasingly difficult, with fewer resources available and issues of patient safety to consider. Hennman and Cunningham (2005) recognize there is a significant gulf between the theoretical component taught in the classroom and the complex realities of clinical practice. Cave (2005) has suggested the move into higher education has hindered rather than helped the linking of theory and practice in nurse education, because many nurse teachers are far removed from clinical practice and therefore no longer competent or clinically credible to be able to teach up-to-date clinical skills. In Scotland the Practice Education Facilitators role in integrating theory with practice is essential for both the NHS Trusts and higher education institutes. It would appear that these clinicians are the lynchpin between linking university work with the harsh realities of daily practice. If nurse education is to provide effective clinical skill simulation then it must also provide effective teachers who are up to date with current practice. In many cases this will not be the nurse teacher. PMID:19373181
Purpose: To retrospectively review patient files in two teachingclinics in the United States and to assess the documented attempts to deliver health promotion messages when a chart indicated a need for health promotion or a red-flag condition that could be helped with positive behavioral changes. Methods: Approximately 100 patient files were randomly selected from each of two separate chiropractic teachingclinics, for patients seen after January 2007. Files were assessed for pertinent family history of diseases, personal medical history, and red-flag conditions of patients that would warrant intervention with health promotion. Results: Health promotion advice on at least one occasion was noted in 108 (53.7%) patient charts. Only 7 of 98 overweight or obese patients and none of those with family history of obesity were advised on weight management. Among 23 hypertensive patients, only 5 were advised and 17 of the 97 patients with risk of cardiovascular disease were advised. Conclusion: Chiropractic teachingclinics should assess what they are doing to help Americans reach their health goals. There is an opportunity to shape future practitioners so they include primary prevention as a part of what they do if the profession cares to move in that direction. Future research should look at mechanisms of delivery for health promotion, including better tracking of patients who need it and how staff doctors are trained to deliver oversight to interns in the area of primary prevention.
Ndetan, Harrison; Evans, Marion Willard; Lo, Kaming; Walters, David; Ramcharan, Michael; Brandon, Patricia; Evans, Cathy; Rupert, Ronald
Vaccine informatics is an emerging research area that focuses on development and applications of bioinformatics methods that can be used to facilitate every aspect of the preclinical, clinical, and postlicensure vaccine enterprises. Many immunoinformatics algorithms and resources have been developed to predict T- and B-cell immune epitopes for epitope vaccine development and protective immunity analysis. Vaccine protein candidates are predictable in silico from genome sequences using reverse vaccinology. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression analyses facilitate rational vaccine design and identification of gene responses that are correlates of protection in vivo. Mathematical simulations have been used to model host-pathogen interactions and improve vaccine production and vaccination protocols. Computational methods have also been used for development of immunization registries or immunization information systems, assessment of vaccine safety and efficacy, and immunization modeling. Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO) has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning.
He, Yongqun; Rappuoli, Rino; De Groot, Anne S.; Chen, Robert T.
This article describes a course, Clinical Research in Psychotherapy, taught to PGY-3 residents at the New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical College. The course addresses existing research in outcome and process in psychotherapy, concepts important in research design, and assessment of results of psychotherapy research. It also explores how knowledge of research can enhance clinical practice. The authors believe that teaching psychotherapy research to residents will aid the development of a generation of clinicians who can best recognize the value of a psychodynamic approach for patients. PMID:23480165
Busch, Fredric N; Milrod, Barbara L; Thoma, Nathan C
The 2001 U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) Biomedical Informatics Roadmap Meeting was devoted to developing a strategic plan in four focus areas: Hospital and ClinicalInformatics, E-Health, Combat Health Informatics, and Bioinformatics and Biomedical Computation. The driving force of this Roadmap Meeting was the recent accelerated pace of change in biomedical informatics in which emerging technologies have the potential to affect significantly the Army research portfolio and investment strategy in these focus areas. The meeting was structured so that the first two days were devoted to presentations from experts in the field, including representatives from the three services, other government agencies, academia, and the private sector, and the morning of the last day was devoted to capturing specific biomedical informatics research needs in the four focus areas. This white paper summarizes the key findings and recommendations and should be a powerful tool for the crafting of future requests for proposals to help align USAMRMC new strategic research investments with new developments and emerging technologies.
Reifman, Jaques; Gilbert, Gary R.; Fagan, Lawrence; Satava, Richard
Clinical imaging plays an essential role in cancer care and research for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response assessment. Major advances in imaging informatics to support medical imaging have been made during the last several decades. More recent informatics advances focus on the special needs of oncologic imaging, yet gaps still remain. We review the current state, limitations, and future trends in imaging informatics for oncology care including clinical and clinical research systems. We review information systems to support cancer clinical workflows including oncologist ordering of radiology studies, radiologist review and reporting of image findings, and oncologist review and integration of imaging information for clinical decision making. We discuss informatics approaches to oncologic imaging including, but not limited to, controlled terminologies, image annotation, and image-processing algorithms. With the ongoing development of novel imaging modalities and imaging biomarkers, we expect these systems will continue to evolve and mature. PMID:21799326
The contention of the author is that an informatics infrastructure is essential for evidenced-based practice. Five building blocks of an informatics infrastructure for evidence-based practice are proposed: 1) standardized terminologies and structures, 2) digital sources of evidence, 3) standards that facilitate health care data exchange among heterogeneous systems, 4) informatics processes that support the acquisition and application of evidence to a specific clinical situation, and 5) informatics competencies. Selected examples illustrate how each of these building blocks supports the application of evidence to practice and the building of evidence from practice. Although a number of major challenges remain, medical informatics can provide solutions that have the potential to decrease unintended variation in practice and health care errors.
This article presents the utility and lessons learned regarding subscription to a database service for tracking nurse practitioner clinical education at the Indiana University School of Nursing. Initiatives and activities, such as the one described in this article, support the implementation of the Technology Informatics Guiding Educational Reform strategic agenda related to the transformation of nursing education through evidence and informatics. Descriptive reports of clinical database management are useful to conceptualize the evaluation of teaching and learning experiences as well as document the significance to students, faculty, future employers, and administration. The use of a database system for documentation of clinical experiences allows the student to practice and master informatics capabilities. Through data analysis, faculty can coordinate and assess students in the clinical environment and tailor learning experiences based on aggregated sets of patient encounters. Examination of the nature of patient encounters and clinical activities experienced permits an evidenced informed approach to student progress, curriculum development, and formative and summative evaluations. PMID:19940617
Cullen, Deborah; Stiffler, Deborah; Settles, Julie; Pesut, Daniel J
The future of neonatal informatics will be driven by the availability of increasingly vast amounts of clinical and genetic data. The field of translational bioinformatics is concerned with linking and learning from these data and applying new findings to clinical care to transform the data into proactive, predictive, preventive, and participatory health. As a result of advances in translational informatics, the care of neonates will become more data driven, evidence based, and personalized. PMID:22924023
Palma, Jonathan P; Benitz, William E; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Butte, Atul J; Longhurst, Christopher A
Background The Veterans Health Administration (VA) has invested significant resources in designing and implementing a comprehensive electronic health record (EHR) that supports clinical priorities. EHRs in general have been difficult to implement, with unclear cost-effectiveness. We describe VA clinical personnel interactions with and evaluations of the EHR. Methods As part of an evaluation of a quality improvement initiative, we interviewed 72 VA clinicians and managers using a semi-structured interview format. We conducted a qualitative analysis of interview transcripts, examining themes relating to participants' interactions with and evaluations of the VA EHR. Results Participants described their perceptions of the positive and negative effects of the EHR on their clinical workflow. Although they appreciated the speed and ease of documentation that the EHR afforded, they were concerned about the time cost of using the technology and the technology's potential for detracting from interpersonal interactions. Conclusions VA personnel value EHRs' contributions to supporting communication, education, and documentation. However, participants are concerned about EHRs' potential interference with other important aspects of healthcare, such as time for clinical care and interpersonal communication with patients and colleagues. We propose that initial implementation of an EHR is one step in an iterative process of ongoing quality improvement.
Reams of data pertaining directly to the core health services research mission are accumulating in large-scale organizational and clinical information systems. Health services researchers who grasp the structure of information systems and databases and the function of software applications can use existing data more effectively, assist in establishing new databases, and develop new tools to survey populations and collect data.
The need to develop nurses as managers and leaders is crucial to the retention of registered nurses at a time of work force shortages and an increasingly aging work force in most Western industrialized countries. This article describes a creative and collaborative educational initiative developed at a large regional teaching hospital in New South Wales, Australia, designed to address this need. Based on a competency assessment process designed around face-to-face education, resource materials, and individualized mentoring from nurse unit managers, the aim of this multifaceted educational program is to develop effective team leaders in the clinical setting as well as a new generation of nursing leaders. PMID:20000267
Quantitative assessments on images are crucial to clinical decision making, especially in cancer patients, in whom measurements of lesions are tracked over time. However, the potential value of quantitative approaches to imaging is impeded by the difficulty and time-intensive nature of compiling this information from prior studies and reporting corresponding information on current studies. The authors believe that the quantitative imaging work flow can be automated by making temporal data computationally accessible. In this article, they demonstrate the utility of the Annotation and Image Markup standard in a World Wide Web-based application that was developed to automatically summarize prior and current quantitative imaging measurements. The system calculates the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors metric, along with several alternative indicators of cancer treatment response, by using the data stored in the annotation files. The application also allows the user to overlay the recorded metrics on the original images for visual inspection. Clinical evaluation of the system demonstrates its potential utility in accelerating the standard radiology work flow and in providing a means to evaluate alternative response metrics that are difficult to compute by hand. The system, which illustrates the utility of capturing quantitative information in a standard format and linking it to the image from which it was derived, could enhance quantitative imaging in clinical practice without adversely affecting the current work flow. PMID:22745220
The objective of this project was to identify an effective methodology of approaching and implementing evidence- based principles in undergraduate teachingclinics to promote evidence-based dentistry in future clinical practice. A systematic review was undertaken to examine evidence-based clinicalteaching and faculty continuing education. Research published from 1996 to 2002 was retrieved by searching several databases and the Internet, along
Purpose: We compare patient populations attending chiropractors in the field to those in teachingclinics to allow educational institutions to determine if students are exposed to a similar case mix. The purpose of our study was to describe and compare descriptively the clinical case mix of a recently opened community-based teachingclinic to previously published practice data. Methods: A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using new patient records completed at a clinic. Data were extracted using a specifically designed abstraction form. Results: We manually abstracted 649 files. A total of 580 new patient files was included in the analysis, among which 57.7% included female patients with a mean age of 43 years (SD 18), and 42.1% presented with a chief complaint of more than one year in duration. The vast majority of patients complained of spinal pain (81.4%), most commonly low back pain. Almost 92% of the diagnoses were classified as simple (sprain/strain). The average number of visits per patient was 7.4 (SD 11.3); 54.7% received spinal manipulation on their first visit. The majority of patients were referred by the treating intern (64.8%) and about 24% of patients were local residents. Conclusions: Our study contributed to the few studies detailing patients attending chiropractic academic teachingclinics. It provided benchmark demographic and clinical data that may be used for operational planning. Our study suggested that the case mix of this teachingclinic provides interns with appropriate learning opportunities to achieve entry to practice competencies.
Interest in the teaching of communication skills in medical schools has increased since the early seventies but, despite this growing interest, relatively limited curricular time is spent on the teaching of communication skills. The limited attention to the teaching of these skills applies even more to the physicians' clinical years, when attention becomes highly focused on biomedical and technical competence.
R. L. Hulsman; W. J. G. Ros; J. A. M. Winnubst; J. M. Bensing
Effective teaching behaviors have been studied in various arenas in higher education. However, there is limited research documenting effective teaching behaviors in dentistry and dental hygiene. Our qualitative study attempts to define effective teaching in both the classroom and clinic for dentistry and dental hygiene students. A total of 175 dental and dental hygiene undergraduate students nominated a total of
Dieter J. Schönwetter; Salme Lavigne; Randy Mazurat; Orla Nazarko
Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well as exploit emerging information technologies. Under the surface, however, lie powerful resource, regulatory, and societal forces that helped shape our discipline into what it is today. In this monograph, for the first time in the history of our discipline, we collectively perform a global review of the field of pathology informatics. In doing so, we illustrate how general far-reaching trends such as the advent of computers, the Internet and digital imaging have affected pathology informatics in the world at large. Major drivers in the field included the need for pathologists to comply with national standards for health information technology and telepathology applications to meet the scarcity of pathology services and trained people in certain countries. Following trials by a multitude of investigators, not all of them successful, it is apparent that innovation alone did not assure the success of many informatics tools and solutions. Common, ongoing barriers to the widespread adoption of informatics devices include poor information technology infrastructure in undeveloped areas, the cost of technology, and regulatory issues. This review offers a deeper understanding of how pathology informatics historically developed and provides insights into what the promising future might hold.
In 2006, The American Association of Colleges of Nursing approved a new doctoral degree for clinical leaders, the Doctor of Nursing Practice. These new advanced practice leaders will need sophisticated skills in informatics to acquire and use data, information, and knowledge in their roles. This paper proposes a foundational course for all Doctor of Nursing Practice students and some strategies for integrating informatics throughout the curriculum.
Background The rational prescribing of drugs is an essential skill of medical doctors. Clinical pharmacologists play an important role\\u000a in the development of these skills by teachingclinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CP&T) to undergraduate medical students.\\u000a Although the approaches to teaching CP&T have undergone many changes over the last decennia, it is essential that the actual\\u000a teaching of CP&T continues to
Milan C. Richir; Jelle Tichelaar; Eric C. T. Geijteman; Theo P. G. M. de Vries
Background: Pathology Informatics is a new field; a field that is still defining itself even as it begins the formalization, accreditation, and board certification process. At the same time, Pathology itself is changing in a variety of ways that impact informatics, including subspecialization and an increased use of data analysis. In this paper, we examine how these changes impact both the structure of Pathology Informatics fellowship programs and the fellows’ goals within those programs. Materials and Methods: As part of our regular program review process, the fellows evaluated the value and effectiveness of our existing fellowship tracks (Research Informatics, Clinical Two-year Focused Informatics, Clinical One-year Focused Informatics, and Clinical 1 + 1 Subspecialty Pathology and Informatics). They compared their education, informatics background, and anticipated career paths and analyzed them for correlations between those parameters and the fellowship track chosen. All current and past fellows of the program were actively involved with the project. Results: Fellows’ anticipated career paths correlated very well with the specific tracks in the program. A small set of fellows (Clinical – one or two year – Focused Informatics tracks) anticipated clinical careers primarily focused in informatics (Director of Informatics). The majority of the fellows, however, anticipated a career practicing in a Pathology subspecialty, using their informatics training to enhance that practice (Clinical 1 + 1 Subspecialty Pathology and Informatics Track). Significantly, all fellows on this track reported they would not have considered a Clinical Two-year Focused Informatics track if it was the only track offered. The Research and the Clinical One-year Focused Informatics tracks each displayed unique value for different situations. Conclusions: It seems a “one size fits all” fellowship structure does not fit the needs of the majority of potential Pathology Informatics candidates. Increasingly, these fellowships must be able to accommodate the needs of candidates anticipating a wide range of Pathology Informatics career paths, be able to accommodate Pathology's increasingly subspecialized structure, and do this in a way that respects the multiple fellowships needed to become a subspecialty pathologist and informatician. This is further complicated as Pathology Informatics begins to look outward and takes its place in the growing, and still ill-defined, field of ClinicalInformatics, a field that is not confined to just one medical specialty, to one way of practicing medicine, or to one way of providing patient care.
Levy, Bruce P.; McClintock, David S.; Lee, Roy E.; Lane, William J.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Baron, Jason M.; Onozato, Maristela L.; Kim, JiYeon; Brodsky, Victor; Beckwith, Bruce; Kuo, Frank; Gilbertson, John R.
On-line learning is increasingly being used in nursing education. Nevertheless, there is still insufficient evidence to demonstrate: whether students respond positively when this form of learning is used to teach relatively practical or clinical subjects; whether it is effective; and whether it is fair to students with less access to, or familiarity with, computers and the internet. In 2003, an on-line Unit on clinical communication was developed for Australian undergraduate nurses in partnership between an Australian School of Nursing and the Department of Clinical Psychology. Students were overwhelmingly positive in their evaluation of the Unit although some regretted the lack of face-to-face contact with tutors and peers. The best aspects of the Unit included the content and structure being perceived as interesting, fun and informative, the relevance of the material for them as nurses, flexibility to work independently, promotion of critical thinking and gaining an understanding of client issues. Neither their evaluation nor their final grades were related to students' age or whether they preferred on-line or traditional learning. Students who had readily available computer access, however, had better final grades. Also, students' grades were correlated with how often they accessed the Unit. PMID:16935394
Farrell, Gerald A; Cubit, Katrina A; Bobrowski, Christina L; Salmon, Peter
In 1992, Informatics training was integrated into the medical residency program at Norwalk Hospital. The program objective was to familiarize the residents with clinical applications of information technology that could enhance their productivity in clinical practice. In its first year, the curriculum was theory oriented. Evaluation of the program at the end of the first year led to a significant restructuring of the program format and curriculum. The trainees did not find theory to be of immediate clinical value, in the second year the program emphasis was redirected toward the development of practical skills. Next year, in 1993, 'InformaticsClinics' were initiated to develop practical Informatics skills that would be useful in a clinical setting. This approach was more successful but did not offer a complete solution. The degree to which the concepts and methods learned are clinically utilized by residents will depend upon the degree of reinforcement provided in the clinical residency years. In addition, there is a need for the development of assessment standards for the evaluation of Informatics literacy levels. In the absence of assessment standards the level of Informatics literacy in medical graduates remains undetermined Consequently, it is difficult to determine whether the training received has transformed expectations into reality.
Moidu, K.; Leehy, M. A.; Steinberg, I.; Einreinhofer, S.; Falsone, J. J.; Cleary, J.; Nair, S.; Mazur, E.
There is an increased level of activity in the biomedical and health informatics world (e-prescribing, electronic health records, personal health records) that, in the near future, will yield a wealth of available data that we can exploit meaningfully to strengthen knowledge building and evidence creation, and ultimately improve clinical and preventive care. The American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) 2008 Health
The Primary Care Informatics Working Group of EFMI is working to help develop the core theory of primary care informatics (PCI). Codes, classifica- tions, terminologies and nomenclatures form an important part of the science of PCI, as they allow clinical information to be readily stored and pro- cessed in information systems. This article provides definitions and a history of the
Over the past decade there have been several attempts to rethink the basic strategies and scope of medical informatics. Meanwhile, bioinformatics has only recently experienced a similar debate about its scientific character. Both disciplines envision the development of novel diagnostic, therapeutic, and management tools, and products for patient care. A combination of the expertise of medical informatics in developing clinical applications and the focused principles that have guided bioinformatics could create a synergy between the two areas of application. Such interaction could have a great influence on future health research and the ultimate goal, namely continuity and individualization of health care. This article summarizes current activities related to facilitating synergy between medical informatics and bioinformatics, emphasizing activities in Europe while relating them to efforts in other parts of the world. The report provides examples of the analysis that European investigators are carrying out, aiming to propose new ideas for collaborations between medical informatics and bioinformatics researchers in a variety of areas. PMID:12198762
Maojo, V; Iakovidis, I; Martin-Sanchez, F; Crespo, J; Kulikowski, C
Background: Clinicalteaching at medical schools needs continual improvement. We used a new evaluation instrument to gather student ratings on a departmental level across all clinical rotations. The ratings were used to enable cross comparison of departmental clinicalteaching quality, official ranking and feedback as a method to improve teaching quality. This study was designed to evaluate whether these interventions increased the quality of clinicalteaching. Methods: A web-based questionnaire consisting of 10 questions (Likert scale 1-6) was introduced into all hospital departments at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. Specific feedback was given to participating departments based on the assessments collected. Action plans were created in order to address areas for departmental improvement. Questionnaire scores were used as a measure of clinicalteaching quality. Results: Mean follow-up time was 2.5 semesters. The student response rate was 70% (n?=?1981). The departments' median ratings (25th-75th percentile) for the baseline were 4.05 (3.80-4.30). At follow-up, the median rating had increased to 4.56 (4.29-4.72) (p?0.001). Conclusion: The introduction of a uniform clinicalteaching evaluation instrument enabled cross comparison between clinical departments. Specific feedback enabled the development of action plans in the departments. This caused a rapid and substantial increase in the quality of clinicalteaching. PMID:23796029
Lewisson, Niclas; Hellgren, Laila; Johansson, Jakob
The Latvian Education Informatization System LIIS project covers the whole information grid: education content, management, information services, infrastructure and user training at several levels – schools, school boards and Ministry of Education and Science. Informatization is the maintained process of creating the technical, economical and social conditions for fulfilment of information needs. The initiative started in 1997. The strategy for
Abstract Objective: To explore the informatic requirements in the home care of chronically ill patients. Design: A number of strategies were deployed to help evoke a picture of home care informatics needs: A detailed questionnaire evaluating informational needs and assessing programmable technologies was distributed to a clinic population of parents of children with cancer. Open ended questionnaires were distributed to medical staff and parents soliciting a list of questions asked of medical staff. Parent procedure training was observed to evaluate the training dialog, and parents were observed interacting with a prototype information and education computer offering. Results: Parents' concerns ranged from the details of managing day to day, to conceptual information about disease and treatment, to management of psychosocial problems. They sought information to solve problems and to provide emotional support, which may create conflicts of interest when the material is threatening. Whether they preferred to be informed by a doctor, nurse, or another parent depended on the nature of the information. Live interaction was preferred to video, which was preferred to text for all topics. Respondents used existing technologies in a straightforward way but were enthusiastic about the proposed use of computer technology to support home care. Multimedia solutions appear to complement user needs and preferences. Conclusion: Consumers appear positively disposed toward on-line solutions. On-line systems can offer breadth, depth and timeliness currently unattainable. Patients should be involved in the formation and development process in much the same way that users are involved in usercentered computer interface design. A generic framework for patient content is presented that could be applied across multiple disorders.
Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory.
To address the faculty shortage problem, schools of nursing are reexamining how they provide clinical education to undergraduate students to find ways to use faculty resources more efficiently and to maintain student enrollment. We describe a unique clinicalteaching model implemented at the New York University College of Nursing. The new model currently being evaluated shifts from the traditional clinical education model, in which all clinical education is in a hospital or agency setting, to a model that substitutes high-fidelity human patient simulation for up to half of the clinical education experience. This article describes the clinicalteaching model and its effects on nurse faculty capacity. PMID:22320176
Richardson, Hila; Gilmartin, Mattia J; Fulmer, Terry
ObjectiveThe European INFOBIOMED Network of Excellence1 recognized that a successful education program in biomedical informatics should include not only traditional teaching activities in the basic sciences but also the development of skills for working in multidisciplinary teams.DesignA carefully developed 3-year training program for biomedical informatics students addressed these educational aspects through the following four activities: (1) an internet course database
Erik M. van Mulligen; Montserrat Cases; Kristina M. Hettne; Eva Molero; Marc Weeber; Kevin A. Robertson; Baldomero Oliva; Guillermo de la Calle; Victor Maojo
This paper describes the design and integration of Third Space, an innovative computer mediated learning environment, in a couples therapy course for second year students in a MSW program. While most computer mediated teaching is used in distance education, we developed a web-based program to supplement the teaching of clinical skills in a traditional classroom. The Third Space web-based learning
Tazuko Shibusawa; David VanEsselstyn; Susan Oppenheim
The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) supports NCI research initiatives through sustaining a multidisciplinary community of biomedical researchers, informaticists, and developers dedicated to improving informatics practices in the study of cancer and the translation of that knowledge into improved clinical interventions.
This paper details the development of a Masters in Health Informatics (MHI) program. It traces the design from conception through environmental scanning and curriculum development and into survey validation. One of the underlying characteristics identified in the analysis of other programs was that there seemed to be two subgroups or themes in health informatics programs: clinical and health administrative foci.
The analysis of cancer genomes has benefited from the advances in technology that enable data to be generated on an unprecedented scale, describing a tumour genome's sequence and composition at increasingly high resolution and reducing cost. This progress is likely to increase further over the coming years as next-generation sequencing approaches are applied to the study of cancer genomes, in tandem with large-scale efforts such as the Cancer Genome Atlas and recently announced International Cancer Genome Consortium efforts to complement those already established such as the Sanger Institute Cancer Genome Project. This presents challenges for the cancer researcher and the research community in general, in terms of analysing the data generated in one's own projects and also in coordinating and interrogating data that are publicly available. This review aims to provide a brief overview of some of the main informatics resources currently available and their use, and some of the informatics approaches that may be applied in the study of cancer genomes. PMID:20238077
Objectives. To determine which teaching method in a drug-induced diseases and clinical toxicology course was preferred by students and whether their preference correlated with their learning of drug-induced diseases. Design. Three teaching methods incorporating active-learning exercises were implemented. A survey instrument was developed to analyze students' perceptions of the active-learning methods used and how they compared to the traditional teaching method (lecture). Examination performance was then correlated to students' perceptions of various teaching methods. Assessment. The majority of the 107 students who responded to the survey found traditional lecture significantly more helpful than active-learning methods (p=0.01 for all comparisons). None of the 3 active-learning methods were preferred over the others. No significant correlations were found between students' survey responses and examination performance. Conclusions. Students preferred traditional lecture to other instructional methods. Learning was not influenced by the teaching method or by preference for a teaching method. PMID:23966726
|A collaborative course was developed in 1980 for senior medical students and other professional school students by the faculties teaching ethics at the four medical schools in or near the District of Columbia. The course in bioethics is described. (MLW)|
|A method developed at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine for teaching modification of cavity design to large numbers of preclinical students in operative dentistry is reported. It standardizes the learning process for this complex problem-solving skill. (MLW)|
Clinical experience is the most important component of nursing education (Gaberson & Oermann, 2007; Walker, 2005). As part of the clinical learning environment, the clinicalteaching behaviors of nursing faculty have significant potential to influence students' learning. Nurse educators have a responsibility to provide nursing students with…
As part of our celebration of thirty years of clinical education at William Mitchell College of Law, I want to describe three clinical courses that I've had a hand in developing and teaching. When I joined the William Mitchell faculty in 1984, the clinical program was in full bloom, vigorous, and diverse. The courses I discuss in this short essay
|Clinical experience is the most important component of nursing education (Gaberson & Oermann, 2007; Walker, 2005). As part of the clinical learning environment, the clinicalteaching behaviors of nursing faculty have significant potential to influence students' learning. Nurse educators have a responsibility to provide nursing students with…
The “Think Aloud” seminar is a group teaching method to assist pediatric nurse practitioner students to develop critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills. Seminar proceedings simulate the iterative clinical reasoning process that occurs in an actual clinic or office visit. Students' requests for subjective and objective data must be followed by the rationale as to why the information was requested.
Background: The quality of the data generated from internally created faculty teaching instruments often draws skepticism. Strategies aimed at improving the reliability and validity of faculty teaching assessments tend to revolve around literature searches for a replacement instrument(s). Purpose: The purpose was to test this “search-and-apply” method and discuss our experiences with it within the context of observational assessment practice.
Elaine M. Zibrowski; Kathryn Myers; Geoff Norman; Mark A. Goldszmidt
Time of information in which the authors live resulted in the increase of the amount of the information exponential growth of the new kind of knowledge, flourishing of the familiar ones and the appearance of the new sciences. Medical (health) informatics occupies the central place in all the segments of modern medicine in the past 30 years--in practical work, education and scientific research. In all that, computers have taken over the most important role and are used intensively for the development of the health information systems. Following activities develop within the area of health informatics: health-documentation, health-statistics, health-informatics and bio-medical, scientific and professional information. The pioneer in the development of the health statistics and informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) was Dr Evgenije Sherstnew, who was the Chief of Health Statistics in the Ministry of Health of BiH from 1946-1952, and who founded and led, from 1952 to the end of his life, the Department of Medical Documentation and Health Statistics of the Central Health Institute of BiH, the core around which a group of experts for the development of this field have gathered. In the eighties computers were intensively used as a tool for the processing medical data and with them the development of health information systems at the level of the outpatient-clinics, hospitals, clinical centers, as well as the integral information system of health, health insurance and the social security system of BiH began. Finally, Society for Medical Informatics of BiH, which as a professional association gathers experts in the area of health informatics, actively propagates this profession in the Republic, was founded. With reform of the lectures and curriculum at the medical faculty in Sarajevo, the course in 'Medical Informatics' has been in 1992. into the second semester, since it was assumed that an early insight into the principles of information along with studies of so called basic pre-clinic sciences, especially basics of information, would make things easier for the students the more informative education is in the course of their medical studies. The medical faculty in Sarajevo also established and accepted a course of health informatics and economics of post-graduate studies in 1979, of which the main objective is education of experts for work informatics jobs in health care system and services, especially for needs of the future information systems in BiH. PMID:9726498
Health care leaders emphasize the need to include information technology and informatics concepts in formal education programs, yet integration of informatics into health educational programs has progressed slowly. The AMIA 1999 Spring Congress was held to address informatics educational issues across health professions, including the educational needs in the various health professions, goals for health informatics education, and implementation strategies to achieve these goals. This paper presents the results from AMIA work groups focused on informatics education for non-informatics health professionals. In the categories of informatics needs, goals, and strategies, conference attendees suggested elements in these areas: educational responsibilities for faculty and students, organizational responsibilities, core computer skills and informatics knowledge, how to learn informatics skills, and resources required to implement educational strategies.
Staggers, Nancy; Gassert, Carole A.; Skiba, Diane J.
The purpose of this pilot study was to describe intentions to adopt innovative teaching strategies in clinical educators who have participated in an online course focusing on the role of clinicalteaching (N = 71). Innovative teaching strategies were defined as those that embrace the tenets of sociocultural theory, a student-centered approach whereby the role of the nurse educator is to motivate and support the student and, in mutual process, to push students to reach toward their learning potential by using guiding techniques that can be erected or gradually reduced based on the individual student's learning needs. Participants stated that three factors proposed in the Rogers theory of diffusion of innovation (compatibility, trialability, and relative advantage) would be most influential in the adoption of innovative teaching strategies. Encouraging students to explore and apply new knowledge was described as the teaching strategy most likely to be adopted. Intent to adopt innovative teaching strategies may provide insight into the development of organizational climates in schools of nursing that could foster needed changes in clinicalteaching. PMID:20882862
Stanford's two decades of success in linking medical informatics and health services research in both training and investigational activities reflects advantageous geography and history as well as natural synergies in the two areas. Health services research and medical informatics at Stanford have long shared a quantitative, analytic orientation, along with linked administration, curriculum, and clinical activities. Both the medical informatics and the health services research curricula draw on diverse course offerings throughout the university, and both the training and research overlap in such areas as outcomes research, large database analysis, and decision analysis/decision support. The Stanford experience suggests that successful integration of programs in medical informatics and health services research requires areas of overlapping or synergistic interest and activity among the involved faculty and, hence, in time, among the students. This is enhanced by a mixture of casual and structured contact among students from both disciplines, including social interactions. The challenges to integration are how to overcome any geographic separation that may exist in a given institution; the proper management of relationships with those sub-areas of medical informatics that have less overlap with health services research; and the need to determine how best to exploit opportunities for collaboration that naturally occur.
In a recent brief to the Canadian Nurses Association's National Expert Commission on the Health of Our Nation, the Academy of Canadian Executive Nurses (ACEN) discussed leadership needs in the Canadian healthcare system, and promoted the pivotal role of nursing executives in transforming Canada's healthcare system into an integrated patient-centric system. Included among several recommendations was the need to develop innovative leadership competencies that enable nurse leaders to lead and advance transformative health system change. This paper focuses on an emerging "avant-garde executive leadership competency" recommended for today's health leaders to guide health system transformation. Specifically, this competency is articulated as "state of the art communication and technology savvy," and it implies linkages between nursing informatics competencies and transformational leadership roles for nurse executive. The authors of this paper propose that distinct nursing informatics competencies are required to augment traditional executive skills to support transformational outcomes of safe, integrated, high-quality care delivery through knowledge-driven care. International trends involving nursing informatics competencies and the evolution of new corporate informatics roles, such as chief nursing informatics officers (CNIOs), are demonstrating value and advanced transformational leadership as nursing executive roles that are informed by clinical data. PMID:23803423
A review of 287 patient visits to a teaching hospital polyclinic shows that most patients had multiple problems that required the help of subspecialists. However, the patients' needs for accessibility, comprehensiveness, coordination, and continuity are as great as those of patients receiving primary care. Implications for academic internal…
|The teaching of human anatomy has had to respond to significant changes in medical curricula, and it behooves anatomists to devise alternative strategies to effectively facilitate learning of the discipline by medical students in an integrated, applied, relevant, and contextual framework. In many medical schools, the lack of cadaver dissection as…
|A program during clerkships in internal medicine, pediatrics, and surgery at Ben-Gurion University emphasizes psychosocial conferences teaching to include tutorial guidance throughout the student's preparation of a case presentation in which psychological, sociological, and anthropological aspects of the patients' coping with illness and the…
Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) means different things to patients, health professionals, and health care systems. A broader perspective on this new and rapidly developing field will enable us to understand and better apply its advances. This article provides an overview of CHI discussing its evolution and driving forces, along with advanced applications such as Personal Health Records, Internet transmission of personal health data, clinical e-mail, online pharmacies, and shared decision-making tools. Consumer Health Informatics will become integrated with medical care, electronic medical records, and patient education to impact the whole process and business of health care. PMID:12238015
Whilst good health informatics can contribute directly to the delivery of effective patient care, bad informatics can kill. The UK is establishing a regulatory body to register health informatics specialists who can demonstrate that they meet agreed standards of professional practice: the UK Council for Health Informatics Professions (UKCHIP). UKCHIP will also manage the introduction of a Code of Conduct (based on the IMIA Code) and processes for continuous professional development, appeals, and removal from the Register. The challenge has been to design a process that provides a suitable structure for all informatics staff, including records, coding, audit, library and knowledge management, ICT, systems, information management and clinical management specialists. The contention is that this inclusive model of regulation has international applicability. PMID:15360944
Millen, Di; Lawton, Paul; Hayes, Glyn; Taylor, Chris
Learning to counsel patients in a teachingclinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of…
Spafford, Marlee M.; Schryer, Catherine F.; Creutz, Stefan
This paper discusses using human patient simulation (HPS) to expose students to complex dynamic patient cases that require clinical judgment, problem-solving skills, and teamwork skills for success. An example of an HPS exercise used to teach multifaceted clinical concepts in a therapeutics course also is provided.
Vyas, Deepti; Ottis, Erica J.; Caligiuri, Frank J.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a tuberculosis skin testing program in an outpatientobstetric teachingclinic. Study Design: This was a retrospective chart review and economic analysis. Medical records of all patients in the clinic (n = 1763) who were delivered of infants between 1993 and 1997 were reviewed. Fifty-fourpercent of the patients were Hispanic, and 38%
|Recurrent problems in medical teachingclinic are common and difficult to address because of complex interpersonal dynamics. To minimize this difficulty, we developed a conceptual model that simplifies problems and identifies the root cause of tension between groups in clinic. We used recursive analysis and modeling of the data from a larger…
Smith, C. Scott; Morris, Magdalena; Hill, William; Francovich, Chris; Christiano, Jennifer
|Basic and superior reasoning skills are woven into the clinical reasoning process just as they are used to solve any problem. As clinical reasoning is the central competence of medical education, development of these reasoning skills should occur throughout the undergraduate medical curriculum. The authors describe here a method of teaching…
Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Morales-Gomez, Jesus Alberto; Morquecho-Espinoza, Orlando; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Guzman-Lopez, Santos
Facilitating effective clinical learning for pediatric nursing students is becoming increasingly challenging and limited in opportunities. Hospital leaders are concerned about the critical thinking and prioritization skills of new graduates and believe that inpatient clinical experiences are the only way to develop these skills. This study sought to compare the effectiveness of three different clinicalteaching schedules in preparing nursing students to care for children and their families. Teaching methodology was randomly assigned to various amount of times in acute care inpatient settings. Student knowledge, clinical decision making, and student satisfaction and perception of learning were measured. No statistically significant differences among groups for either knowledge scores or clinical reasoning scores were noted. Student satisfaction results did not reveal differences among groups. Study findings will help educators to better plan clinical experiences and more effectively utilize an array of settings to optimize the clinical learning of pediatric nursing content. [J Nurs Educ. 2013;52(9):501-508.]. PMID:23952776
Kubin, Laura; Fogg, Niki; Wilson, Cecilia Elaine; Wilson, Jennifer
Until recently, standards to guide nursing education and practice in Vietnam were nonexistent. This paper describes the development and implementation of a clinicalteaching capacity building project piloted in Hanoi, Vietnam. The project was part of a multi-component capacity building program designed to improve nurse education in Vietnam. Objectives of the project were to develop a collaborative clinically-based teaching model that encourages evidence-based, student-centred clinical learning. The model incorporated strategies to promote development of nursing practice to meet national competency standards. Thirty nurse teachers from two organisations in Hanoi participated in the program. These participants attended three workshops, and completed applied assessments, where participants implemented concepts from each workshop. The assessment tasks were planning, implementing and evaluating clinicalteaching. On completion of the workshops, twenty participants undertook a study tour in Australia to refine the teaching model and develop an action plan for model implementation in both organisations, with an aim to disseminate the model across Vietnam. Significant changes accredited to this project have been noted on an individual and organisational level. Dissemination of this clinicalteaching model has commenced in Ho Chi Minh, with further plans for more in-depth dissemination to occur throughout the country. PMID:22381381
Objective The European INFOBIOMED Network of Excellence 1 recognized that a successful education program in biomedical informatics should include not only traditional teaching activities in the basic sciences but also the development of skills for working in multidisciplinary teams. Design A carefully developed 3-year training program for biomedical informatics students addressed these educational aspects through the following four activities: (1) an internet course database containing an overview of all Medical Informatics and BioInformatics courses, (2) a BioMedical Informatics Summer School, (3) a mobility program based on a ‘brokerage service’ which published demands and offers, including funding for research exchange projects, and (4) training challenges aimed at the development of multi-disciplinary skills. Measurements This paper focuses on experiences gained in the development of novel educational activities addressing work in multidisciplinary teams. The training challenges described here were evaluated by asking participants to fill out forms with Likert scale based questions. For the mobility program a needs assessment was carried out. Results The mobility program supported 20 exchanges which fostered new BMI research, resulted in a number of peer-reviewed publications and demonstrated the feasibility of this multidisciplinary BMI approach within the European Union. Students unanimously indicated that the training challenge experience had contributed to their understanding and appreciation of multidisciplinary teamwork. Conclusion The training activities undertaken in INFOBIOMED have contributed to a multi-disciplinary BMI approach. It is our hope that this work might provide an impetus for training efforts in Europe, and yield a new generation of biomedical informaticians.
van Mulligen, Erik M.; Cases, Montserrat; Hettne, Kristina; Molero, Eva; Weeber, Marc; Robertson, Kevin A.; Oliva, Baldomero; de la Calle, Guillermo; Maojo, Victor
Over the last twenty years there have been great advances in light microscopy with the result that multi-dimensional imaging has driven a revolution in modern biology. The development of new approaches of data acquisition are reportedly frequently, and yet the significant data management and analysis challenges presented by these new complex datasets remains largely unsolved. Like the well-developed field of genome bioinformatics, central repositories are and will be key resources, but there is a critical need for informatics tools in individual laboratories to help manage, share, visualize, and analyze image data. In this article we present the recent efforts by the bioimage informatics community to tackle these challenges and discuss our own vision for future development of bioimage informatics solution.
Swedlow, Jason R.; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.
\\u000a In the Biomedical Engineering domain, Clinical Engineering has a crucial role requiring specialization and training in the\\u000a clinical setting of hospitals and clinics, to gain real-world experience with respect to safe and effective application of\\u000a biomedical equipment, technologies and systems to result in efficacious and high quality patient care. The academic training\\u000a coupled with internship in a teaching hospital gives
Objective To understand the types of services provided by Iranian clinical pharmacists in nephrology and infectious disease wards,\\u000a the acceptance rate of clinical pharmacy services in these wards by physicians and the clinical significance of these services\\u000a in the main teaching hospital in Iran. Setting: Nephrology and infectious disease departments of a university hospital in\\u000a Iran. Methods During a 12-month
Simin Dashti-Khavidaki; Hossein Khalili; Hadi Hamishekar; Sheida Shahverdi
The prevailing view of medical informatics as a primarily subservient discipline in health care is challenged. Developments in both general informatics and medical informatics are described to identify desirable properties of modeling languages and tools needed to solve key problems in the application field. For progress in medical informatics, it is considered essential to develop far more formal modeling languages, modeling techniques, and tools. A major aim of this development should be to expel ambiguity from concepts essential to medicine, positioning medical informatics “at the heart of health care.”
van der Maas, Arnoud A.F.; Ten Hoopen, A. Johannes; Ter Hofstede, Arthur H.M.
Although preceptorship is the leading approach to the clinical education of senior undergraduate nursing students in the westernized world, few specific nursing preceptor-focused clinicalteaching techniques are reported in the literature. One promising preceptor-specific teaching strategy is the Five Step "Microskills" Model of ClinicalTeaching (J.O. Neher, K.C. Gordon, B. Meyer, & N. Stevens, 1992). This technique, also known as the One Minute Preceptor (OMP; J.O. Neher & N. Stevens, 2003), has been used for more than 15 years in clinical medical education. In this article, we trace the origins of the OMP and describe an adaptation to nursing education, referred to as the Five Minute Preceptor (5MP). The 5MP steps are the following: (1) get the student to take a stand, (2) probe for supporting evidence, (3) teach general rules, (4) reinforce the positives, and (5) correct errors or misinterpretations. In addition, we explore the relationship between the 5MP and experiential learning and provide a detailed example of the 5MP's use in undergraduate clinical nursing education. Recommendations are provided for the development of a 5MP educational package and the evaluation of the 5MP's use in baccalaureate nursing programs. PMID:21272834
Four factors of clinical decision making identified by medical students include quality of care, cost, ethics, and legal concerns. This paper argues that physicians have two responsibilities in the clinical decision-making model: to be the primary advocate for quality health care and to ensure balance among the four factors, working in partnership…
Objective To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of shared learning of clinical skills for medical and nursing students at the University of Manchester. Design Medical and nursing students learned clinical skills in either uniprofessional or multiprofessional groups. These groups rotated through skills stations taught by multiprofessional facilitators. The groups stayed together for a series of 3 sessions held at weekly
Kay Tucker; Ann Wakefield; Caroline Boggis; Mary Lawson; Trudie Roberts; Jane Gooch
A clinical practicum was successfully implemented for RN to BSN students to apply evidence-based practice to actual clinical problems affecting nursing practice. The author describes how this practicum was implemented and the requisite resources and support systems. This senior-level capstone course enabled students to understand and value a lifelong learning approach to evidence-based practice. PMID:16980821
Increased availability of large repositories of chemical compounds is creating new challenges and opportunities for the application of machine learning methods to problems in computational chemistry and chemical informatics. Because chemical compounds are often represented by the graph of their covalent bonds, machine learning methods in this domain must be capable of processing graphical structures with variable size. Here we
Liva Ralaivola; Sanjay Joshua Swamidass; Hiroto Saigo; Pierre Baldi
The emerging eld of Ecosystem Informatics applies meth- ods from computer science and mathematics to address fundamental and applied problems in the ecosystem sciences. The ecosystem sciences are in the midst of a revolution driven by a combination of emerging tech- nologies for improved sensing and the critical need for better science to help manage global climate change. This paper
Community informatics is a promising strategy for taking advantage of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to further goals of community development. It is important, however, that proponents of this approach recognize that it is based on the assumption that technology in itself can lead to positive social development. This \\
Biomedical informatics and technology are becoming important components of dental education. The tools and techniques now available have the potential for significant impact on teaching and research by improving the way information is acquired, stored, retrieved, and managed. However, a gap exists between those who create, introduce, or implement the technology applications and the faculty in dental schools faced with
|Illinois State University's teacher education program's professional sequence is organized around separate teaching skills, each of which relates to student outcomes in classrooms. Initially, a group of University High (U-High) Laboratory School supervisors was formed to develop clinical experiences which would enable prospective teachers to…
This article describes a teaching framework that combines culturally sensitive and culturally competent perspectives in preparing students for cross-cultural clinical social work. Both content and proven instructional methods are presented for the framework's three components: (a) an overview of social constructivism; (b) an exploration of culture and self, which encourages students to develop openness to cultural diversity; and (c) a
|A new computer-based approach for teaching counselors about predictive validity and how to use tests in clinical decision making was developed and tested. The approach is based on concepts similar to those used in inferential statistics, particularly statistical hypothesis testing. To implement this model, the counselor must: (1) determine the…
Registered nurses form the largest group of professional healthcare providers in any Nigerian teaching hospital. Despite their population size in clinical care, lesser attention has been paid to their library and information needs in medical librarianship literature, compared to extensive research works targeted at satisfying the information needs of physicians and medical students. This study aimed to determine the reading
This article describes a novel approach to teaching gross anatomy to medical students. The article explains an explorative learning approach that builds students analytical, reasoning and communication (written and oral). The methods used require students to develop a patient case based on clinical outcomes.
Dr. Christo T Philip (Mayo Clinic College of Medicine); Dr. Kenneth P Unruh (Mayo Clinic College of Medicine)
The authors present the case study of a 35-year informatics-based single subspecialty practice for the management of patients with chronic thyroid disease. This extensive experience provides a paradigm for the organization of longitudinal medical information by integrating individual patient care with clinical research and education. The kernel of the process is a set of worksheets easily completed by the physician during the patient encounter. It is a structured medical record that has been computerized since 1972, enabling analysis of different groups of patients to answer questions about chronic conditions and the effects of therapeutic interventions. The recording process and resulting studies severe as an important vehicle for medical education about the nuances of clinical practice. The authors suggest ways in which computerized medical records can become an integral part of medical practice, rather than a luxury or novelty.
ObjectiveTo investigate of the perspectives of ophthalmology patients involved in clinicalteaching.MethodsIn all, 26 patients attending a revision course for postgraduate Membership of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists examination were recruited. Every patient was examined by each of 36 residents who were present on this course making a total of 936 clinical examinations. Patient perspectives on their experience were investigated
|This paper takes as its starting point the well-known and extensively used process of clinical supervision and shows how what started over 30 years ago as a collaborative process has been harnessed into a sophisticated mechanism of teacher inspection and surveillance. It shows how this co-option has occurred historically through the progressive…
Community-based clinicalteaching/outreach programs using a variety of approaches have been established in many predoctoral dental schools around the world. The aim of this article is to report current trends in the teaching of community-based clinicalteaching/outreach teaching in dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland. In late 2010-early 2011, a questionnaire was distributed by e-mail to deans of the eighteen established dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The questionnaire included both open and closed questions relating to current and anticipated trends in community-based clinicalteaching. Fourteen responses were received (response rate=78 percent). All fourteen responding schools reported inclusion of a community-based clinicalteaching program. Ten schools indicated that their program was based on total patient (comprehensive) care including the treatment of child patients. In nine schools, the program is directed by a senior clinical academic in restorative dentistry. As well as student dentists, ten schools and seven schools include teaching of student dental therapists and student dental hygienists, respectively. There is a varied experience within the schools surveyed in terms of the extent, nature, and content of these programs. Overall, however, community-based clinicalteaching was seen as part of the future of dental school education in many schools as an ideal way of preparing graduates for Dental Foundation Training and subsequent independent practice. PMID:23658406
Lynch, Christopher D; Ash, Peter J; Chadwick, Barbara L
\\u000a The Internet is changing the way we live and do business. It offers a tremendous opportunity for libraries, governments, and\\u000a businesses to better deliver its contents and services and interact with its many constituents. After ten years of active\\u000a research, there appears to be a need towards advancing the science of “informatics” in digital library, especially in several\\u000a non-traditional but
Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to contribute to filling gaps in digitized biodiversity data; (b) assisting countries potentially in need (for example mega-diverse) to mobilize resources and collect data that could be used in decision-making; and (c) allowing identification of which biodiversity informatics-resourced countries could afford to assist countries lacking in biodiversity informatics capacity, and which data-rich countries should benefit most from such help.
Objectives In this paper we present a contemporary understanding of "nursing informatics" and relate it to applications in three specific contexts, hospitals, community health, and home dwelling, to illustrate achievements that contribute to the overall schema of health informatics. Methods We identified literature through database searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. Database searching was complemented by one author search and hand searches in six relevant journals. The literature review helped in conceptual clarification and elaborate on use that are supported by applications in different settings. Results Conceptual clarification of nursing data, information and knowledge has been expanded to include wisdom. Information systems and support for nursing practice benefits from conceptual clarification of nursing data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. We introduce three examples of information systems and point out core issues for information integration and practice development. Conclusions Exploring interplays of data, information, knowledge, and wisdom, nursing informatics takes a practice turn, accommodating to processes of application design and deployment for purposeful use by nurses in different settings. Collaborative efforts will be key to further achievements that support task shifting, mobility, and ubiquitous health care.
A growing number of health care professionals (e.g., physicians, nurses, librarians, and administrators) desire to enhance their skills and knowledge in medical informatics. These individuals are usually in established careers with limited time as well as inability to relocate to one of the small number of health science universities which offer informatics training. As a result of inquiries about distance learning in medical informatics and a market survey which documented and detailed such interest, a distance learning program was launched by the medical informatics program at Oregon Health Sciences University (OHSU). In the 1999-2000 academic year, two graduate-level medical informatics courses in the OHSU program have been taught by distance learning. In the 2000-2001 academic year, an eight-course certificate program will be launched. Further information can be found at: http://www. ohsu.edu/bicc-informatics/distance/
In recent years students have increasingly objected to laboratory exercises involving animal subjects. We have replaced the\\u000a valuable animal experiments with demonstrations using a full-scale human patient simulator. In small groups first-year medical\\u000a students observe realistic clinical situations such as opioid-induced hypoventilation, pneumothorax, and pulmonary edema.\\u000a Students obtain information through physical examination, arterial blood gas analysis and chest radiography. They
Clinical phenotypes are very complex and not well described. For instance, more than 100.000 biomedical concepts are needed to describe clinical properties of patients. At present, information systems dealing with clinical phenotype data are based on secret, heterogeneous and incompatible data models. This is the root cause for the well-known grand challenge of semantic interoperability in healthcare: data exchange and analysis of medical information systems has major limitations. This problem slows down medical progressand wastes time of health care professionals. A large-scale open metadata initiative can foster exchange, discussion and consensus regarding data models for clinical phenotypes. This would be an important contribution to improve information systems in healthcare and to solve the grand challenge of semantic interoperability. PMID:23920688
For the practicing physician, the behavioral implications of preventing, diagnosing, and treating cancer are many and varied. Fortunately, an enhanced capacity in informatics may help create a redesigned ecosystem in which applying evidence-based principles from behavioral medicine will become a routine part of care. Innovation to support this evolution will be spurred by the “meaningful use” criteria stipulated by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, and by focused research and development efforts within the broader health information ecosystem. The implications for how to better integrate evidence-based principles in behavioral medicine into oncology care through both spheres of development are discussed within the framework of the cancer control continuum. The promise of using the data collected through these tools to accelerate discovery in psycho-oncology is also discussed. If nurtured appropriately, these developments should help accelerate successes against cancer by altering the behavioral milieu.
PURPOSE Clinical protocols to standardize care may improve patient outcomes but worsen trainee education. Our objective was to determine the availability of clinical protocols in teaching medical ICUs. MATERIALS AND METHODS We administered an electronic questionnaire regarding protocol availability in five specific clinical areas. All directors of adult medical ICUs in US teaching hospitals were eligible to participate. RESULTS The response rate was 70%. 86% of ICU directors reported availability of protocols for ventilation liberation, 73% for sedation, 62% for sepsis resuscitation, 60% for lung-protective ventilation, and 48% for life support withdrawal. Ventilation liberation protocols are most often started and driven by respiratory therapists (40% and 90%); sedation started by residents (41%) and driven by nurses (95%); sepsis resuscitation started and driven by residents (49% and 46%); lung-protective ventilation started by attending physicians (39%) and driven by respiratory therapists (67%); and life support withdrawal started by attending physicians (93%) and driven by nurses (47%). CONCLUSIONS There is wide variation in clinical protocol availability among teaching hospitals. Further study of the effect of protocols on education is needed.
Prasad, Meeta; Christie, Jason D.; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Rubenfeld, Gordon D.; Kahn, Jeremy M.
OBJECTIVE To examine how to optimize teaching ambulatory care clinics performance with regard to access to care, access to teaching, and financial viability. DESIGN Optimization analysis using computer simulation. METHODS A discrete-event simulation model of the teaching ambulatory clinic setting was developed. This method captures flow time, waiting time, competition for resources, and the interdependency of events, providing insight into system dynamics. Sensitivity analyses were performed on staffing levels, room availability, patient characteristics such as “new” versus “established” status, and clinical complexity and pertinent probabilities. MAIN RESULTS In the base-case, 4 trainees:preceptor, patient flow time (registration to check out) was 148 minutes (SD 5), wait time was 20.6 minutes (SD 4.4), the wait for precepting was 6.2 minutes (SD 1.2), and average daily net clinic income was $1,413. Utilization rates were preceptors (59%), trainees (61%), medical assistants (64%), and room (68%). Flow time and the wait times remained relatively constant for strategies with trainee:preceptor ratios <4:1 but increased with number of trainees steadily thereafter. Maximum revenue occurred with 3 preceptors and 5 trainees per preceptor. The model was relatively insensitive to the proportion of patients presenting who were new, and relatively sensitive to average evaluation and management (E/M) level. Flow and wait times rose on average by 0.05 minutes and 0.01 minutes per percent new patient, respectively. For each increase in average E/M level, flow time increased 8.4 minutes, wait time 1.2 minutes, wait for precepting 0.8 minutes, and net income increased by $490. CONCLUSION Teaching ambulatory care clinics appear to operate optimally, minimizing flow time and waiting time while maximizing revenue, with trainee-to-preceptor ratios between 3 and 7 to 1.
Recent advances in Nanotechnology are slowly extending their influence in biomedical research and clinical practice (nanomedicine). The authors have recently been granted with an European Commission research project, Action-GRID. This initiative will review current developments in nanomedicine, and analyze the area of nanoinformatics. Its main outcome will be the identification of needs and the discussion of future challenges and priorities for Biomedical Informatics in terms of information processing in nanomedicine and regenerative medicine. PMID:18998944
A successful feature of the 4th-year curriculum in the Medical Faculty of the Queen's University, Belfast has been the development of interdisciplinary teaching in a three-week joint course to which several clinical departments contribute...Co-ordinated teaching of topics of common interest in small groups included, until the academic year 1987/88, a three-hour session on medical ethics. In the spring of 1987 the authors approached the Department of Philosophy at Queen's; subsequently proposals for a formal multidiscipinary course in medical ethics for 4th-year clinical students in the Medical Faculty, for the academic year 1987/88, were approved by the Education Committee of the Medical Faculty. PMID:11650820
Irwin, W G; McClelland, R J; Stout, R W; Stchedroff, M
The objective of this study was to develop a competency-based clinical skills teaching and assessment programme in China utilizing modern teaching techniques. Medical teachers from three schools agreed on items for inclusion in the complete physical examination of an asymptomatic adult, an outline for an adult and paediatric history, and important interviewing skills. Lesson plans, performance checklists, and written and videotape training materials were developed. Standardized patients were trained at one school to assist with the teaching at that school and with the assessment at all three schools. A national, a provincial, and a local medical school in China were used. Before beginning the new curriculum for students in their first year of clinical training, baseline data were collected on skills of students at various levels of training in the previous curriculum at all three schools. Although in the previous curriculum there was some improvement in clinical skills among advanced compared to more junior students, performance was lower than expected by staff. One year after implementation of the new curriculum, students were evaluated. These students significantly outperformed their counterparts as well as the more senior level students tested the previous year. This project has established a competency-based teaching and assessment programme in China that allows for rapid improvement in the clinical skills of students. Within a short time, a sophisticated group of medical educators has been formed, who now function as consultants to other educators in their own country. Many aspects of this programme are being adapted throughout China and are applicable to medical schools throughout the world. PMID:9231122
Stillman, P L; Wang, Y; Ouyang, Q; Zhang, S; Yang, Y; Sawyer, W D
This article discusses factors in the design, commissioning, project management, and intellectual property protection of developments within a new clinical anatomy facility. The project was aimed at creating cost-effective facilities that would address widespread concerns over anatomy teaching, and support research and community interaction. Discussed are the considerations made to develop a facility that comprises an engaging learning environment, modes to support a range of pedagogies appropriate to the needs of healthcare professionals at different stages of their careers.
In most U.S. and Canadian medical schools, pharmacology is taught during the preclinical year 2 of the 4-year-long curriculum. This is despite the fact that medical school graduates and residency directors have identified teaching rational therapeutics as a priority. Hence, we have developed a core curriculum in clinical pharmacology for 4th-year medical students that builds on the core principles of
David A. Flockhart; Sally Usdin Yasuda; John C. Pezzullo; Björn C. Knollmann
This study conducted at the PDM Dental College and Research Institute, Haryana, India, had the purpose of developing a teaching method based upon a five-step method for teachingclinical skills to students proposed by the American College of Surgeons. This five-step teaching method was used to place fissure sealants as an initial procedure by dental students in clinics. The sealant retention was used as an objective evaluation of the skill learnt by the students. The sealant retention was 92 percent at six- and twelve-month evaluations and 90 percent at the eighteen-month evaluation. These results indicate that simple methods can be devised for teachingclinical skills and achieve high success rates in clinical procedures requiring multiple steps. PMID:22058401
|Uses co-occurrence analysis of INSPEC classification codes and thesaurus terms assigned to medical informatics (biomedical information) journal articles and proceedings papers to reveal a more complete perspective of how information science and information technology (IS/IT) authors view medical informatics. Discusses results of cluster analysis…
Computing has developed slowly in British general medical practice, and the impact on patient care has yet to be fully evaluated. There is an acknowledged need for further training in informatics. This article describes a tool for assessing recommended medical informatics skills. The tool is based on self-scoring of 15 skills on a matrix questionnaire. A survey of 1 15
In 2003, a discussion about literacy in informatics was initiated in Germany. Its aim was to coin the literacy concept in the sense of OECD-PISA for the domain of informatics or computer science. To illustrate the intended concept, a few sample test items were published along with an explanation of which competencies they ask for. This proved to be a
The provision of informatics content in the basic education pro- grams for Canadian nurses has been limited to date. In previous years, efforts to engage nurse educators in discussions regard- ing the significance of informatics for tomorrow's nurses had been met with limited interest and understanding. There was an obvious need to heighten the awareness and active participation of nurse
Current status of rural informatization construction in China is analyzed, that is the relatively weak rural informatization, asymmetric market information, low level of information sharing, dispersedly allocated resources and no cross point among each other. The importance of information in rural logistic system is introduced: firstly, decision making of logistics system plan is based on information. Secondly, improvement of the
A valuable session for anyone whether student or not, interested in learning more about Biomedical Engineering and Health Informatics as a career choice for women. Prominent women within the domains Biomedical Engineering and Health Informatics will present their research and their humanitarian interests that motivate them. Utilise the fantastic networking opportunity that will conclude this session to build and establish
Informatics criminality represents the social phenomenon characterized by the committing of criminal offences in the field of informatics. This category includes very different criminal offences, some of them being incriminated in certain states of the world while others are not. The computer provides a new object and a new tool for criminals. Taking into account the complexity and variety of
The task of scheduling medical staff for evening rounds in the ClinicalTeaching Unit of the Ottawa Hospital is a long complicated task due to its complexity. Three main classifications of staff, combined with various rotations, skill sets, clinical teams and vacation periods have combined to create a difficult scheduling problem. As there were no commercial packages available to solve this particular task, a study was made of heuristic scheduling and optimization techniques and a program based on a variation of the tabu search heuristic was written and tested. This system is being used to schedule medical staff at the Ottawa Hospital.
The authors have developed a curriculum in medical informatics that focuses on practical problems in clinical medicine, rather than on the details of informatics technologies. Their development of this human-centered curriculum was guided by the identification of six key clinical challenges that must be addressed by practitioners in the near future and by an examination of the failures of past informatics efforts to make a significant difference in the everyday practice of clinical medicine. Principles of human factors engineering--the body of knowledge about those human abilities, limitations, and characteristics that are relevant to design--are an essential part of this curriculum. Human factors engineering also provides the necessary perspective, as well as the concrete knowledge and methods, that can enable practitioners to properly evaluate their clinical information needs, weight the merits of proposed technology-based solutions, and understand their own inherent performance limitations. PMID:9347710
In this report, the authors compare and contrast medical informatics (MI) and bioinformatics (BI) and provide a viewpoint on their complementarities and potential for collaboration in various subfields. The authors compare MI and BI along several dimensions, including: (1) historical development of the disciplines, (2) their scientific foundations, (3) data quality and analysis, (4) integration of knowledge and databases, (5) informatics tools to support practice, (6) informatics methods to support research (signal processing, imaging and vision, and computational modeling, (7) professional and patient continuing education, and (8) education and training. It is pointed out that, while the two disciplines differ in their histories, scientific foundations, and methodologic approaches to research in various areas, they nevertheless share methods and tools, which provides a basis for exchange of experience in their different applications. MI expertise in developing health care applications and the strength of BI in biological “discovery science” complement each other well. The new field of biomedical informatics (BMI) holds great promise for developing informatics methods that will be crucial in the development of genomic medicine. The future of BMI will be influenced strongly by whether significant advances in clinical practice and biomedical research come about from separate efforts in MI and BI, or from emerging, hybrid informatics subdisciplines at their interface.
In this report, the authors compare and contrast medical informatics (MI) and bioinformatics (BI) and provide a viewpoint on their complementarities and potential for collaboration in various subfields. The authors compare MI and BI along several dimensions, including: (1) historical development of the disciplines, (2) their scientific foundations, (3) data quality and analysis, (4) integration of knowledge and databases, (5) informatics tools to support practice, (6) informatics methods to support research (signal processing, imaging and vision, and computational modeling, (7) professional and patient continuing education, and (8) education and training. It is pointed out that, while the two disciplines differ in their histories, scientific foundations, and methodologic approaches to research in various areas, they nevertheless share methods and tools, which provides a basis for exchange of experience in their different applications. MI expertise in developing health care applications and the strength of BI in biological "discovery science" complement each other well. The new field of biomedical informatics (BMI) holds great promise for developing informatics methods that will be crucial in the development of genomic medicine. The future of BMI will be influenced strongly by whether significant advances in clinical practice and biomedical research come about from separate efforts in MI and BI, or from emerging, hybrid informatics subdisciplines at their interface. PMID:12925552
The Laboratory of Applied Informatics Research (LAIR ) at Indiana University, Bloomington (IUB) conducts research on information retrieval, machine learning, and human-computer interaction. The website provides links to information on various projects that address topics such as "agent-based information management, agent-user interaction, concept discovery and analysis, and information customization for effective online information delivery." Project descriptions, technical reports, and related resources are posted for each of the 10 projects currently supported through this laboratory. Some course syllabi and course materials are also posted in the Courses section of the website.
Nursing informatics education is undergoing dramatic change as nursing informatics skills and knowledge expand and roles in practice proliferate. In the United States, Federal government initiatives and the activities of national nursing organizations are moving nursing informatics forward in preparation for the new millennium. This paper presents a history of nursing informatics education in the US, as it has emerged
A commonly discussed yet infrequently addressed problem in the scientific community is the inadequate training our students receive in dealing with large data, a subject more popularly known as informatics. Yet as presented by the late Jim Gray, we now have a fourth paradigm for scientific research, namely data intensive science. Over the last few years, I have tried to address this educational deficiency at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Initially, I added relevant informatics content into the standard Astronomy curricula in order to increase the student's exposure to this new paradigm. Realizing that this was merely a band-aid solution, I next created and offered a new course, entitled Practical Informatics for the Physical Sciences that was warmly received by undergraduate and graduate students in several science and engineering disciplines. More recently, I have been tasked by the University with expanding this material into an online course to introduce informatics concepts and techniques to a wider audience. In this paper, I present my initial motivation for adopting informatics material into the Astronomy curricula, my thoughts and experiences in developing the Practical Informatics course, lessons learned from the entire process, and my progress in developing a new, online informatics course. I hope that others can make use of these lessons to more broadly improve the training of the next generation of scientists.
Introduction Simulation-based medical education (SBME) is increasingly being utilized for teachingclinical skills in undergraduate medical education. Studies have evaluated the impact of adding SBME to third- and fourth-year curriculum; however, very little research has assessed its efficacy for teachingclinical skills in pre-clerkship coursework. To measure the impact of a simulation exercise during a pre-clinical curriculum, a simulation session was added to a pre-clerkship course at our medical school where the clinical approach to altered mental status (AMS) is traditionally taught using a lecture and an interactive case-based session in a small group format. The objective was to measure simulation's impact on students’ knowledge acquisition, comfort, and perceived competence with regards to the AMS patient. Methods AMS simulation exercises were added to the lecture and small group case sessions in June 2010 and 2011. Simulation sessions consisted of two clinical cases using a high-fidelity full-body simulator followed by a faculty debriefing after each case. Student participation in a simulation session was voluntary. Students who did and did not participate in a simulation session completed a post-test to assess knowledge and a survey to understand comfort and perceived competence in their approach to AMS. Results A total of 154 students completed the post-test and survey and 65 (42%) attended a simulation session. Post-test scores were higher in students who attended a simulation session compared to those who did not (p<0.001). Students who participated in a simulation session were more comfortable in their overall approach to treating AMS patients (p=0.05). They were also more likely to state that they could articulate a differential diagnosis (p=0.03), know what initial diagnostic tests are needed (p=0.01), and understand what interventions are useful in the first few minutes (p=0.003). Students who participated in a simulation session were more likely to find the overall AMS curriculum useful (p<0.001). Conclusion Students who participated in a simulation exercise performed better on a knowledge-based test and reported increased comfort and perceived competence in their clinical approach to AMS. SBME shows significant promise for teachingclinical skills to medical students during pre-clinical curriculum.
As health care job opportunities continue to expand, a number of institutions have been developing online training materials to help support academic public health programs. One such program is the Michigan Informatics (MI-INFO) website, which contains a variety of tutorials that deal with health information and computer skills. All told, the site contains nine tutorials which include titles like "Evidence Based Public Health", "Finding Health Statistics Online", and "Searching the Public Health Literature". Each of the tutorials features key concept overviews, exercises, and case studies. Near the bottom of the site, visitors can find a user manual for the tutorials, and a place where they can offer their own feedback. The site is rounded out by the "Other Resources" area, which contains links to other relevant sites, such as the Michigan Public Health Training Center and the Greater Midwest Region of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine.
Communication skills and the psychosocial dimensions of patient care are increasingly taught in medical schools and generalist residency programs. Evidence suggests they are not reinforced or optimally implemented in clinical training. The authors present the product of an iterative process that was part of a national faculty development program and involved both experts and generalist teachers concerning teaching psychosocial medicine while precepting medical students and residents in clinical settings. Using scientific evidence, educational theory, and experience, the authors developed recommendations, presented them in workshops, and revised them based on input from other experts and teachers, who gave feedback and added suggestions. The results are practical, expert consensus recommendations for clinical preceptors on how to teach and reinforce learning in this area. General skills to use in preparing the trainee for improved psychosocial care are organized into the mnemonic "CAARE MORE": Connect personally with the trainee; Ask psychosocial questions and Assess the trainee's knowledge/attitudes/skills/behaviors; Role model desired attitudes/skills/behaviors; create a safe, supportive, enjoyable learning Environment; formulate specific Management strategies regarding psychosocial issues; Observe the trainee's affect and behavior; Reflect and provide feedback on doctor-patient and preceptor-trainee interactions; and provide Educational resources and best Evidence. The preceptor-trainee teaching skills that are recommended parallel good doctor-patient interaction skills. They can be used during both preceptor-trainee and preceptor-trainee-patient encounters. Important common psychosocial situations that need to be managed in patients include substance abuse, depression, anxiety, somatoform disorder, physical and sexual abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. For these problems, where high-level evidence exists, specific psychosocial questions for screening and case finding are provided. PMID:15618086
Kern, David E; Branch, William T; Jackson, Jeffrey L; Brady, Donald W; Feldman, Mitchell D; Levinson, Wendy; Lipkin, Mack
The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical cases that, by nature, are diverse, change over time, and respond in unique ways to therapeutic interventions. We developed a dynamic model using STELLA software that simulates normal and abnormal fluid and electrolyte balance in the dog. Students interact, not with the underlying model, but with a user interface that provides sufficient data (skin turgor, chemistry panel, etc.) for the clinical assessment of patients and an opportunity for treatment. Students administer fluids and supplements, and the model responds in "real time," requiring regular reassessment and, potentially, adaptation of the treatment strategy. The level of success is determined by clinical outcome, including improvement, deterioration, or death. We expected that the simulated cases could be used to teach both the clinical and basic science of fluid therapy. The simulation provides exposure to a realistic clinical environment, and students tend to focus on this aspect of the simulation while, for the most part, ignoring an exploration of the underlying physiological basis for patient responses. We discuss how the instructor's expertise can provide sufficient support, feedback, and scaffolding so that students can extract maximum understanding of the basic science in the context of assessing and treating at the clinical level.
Richard E. Rawson (Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine Department of Biomedical Sciences)
This paper presents a result of a new methodology of teaching and training students in building modern intelligent systems. The elective course in intelligent systems taught at Institute of Informatics in Skopje offers interesting and modern topics that include modeling the real world, data mining, mechanical robotics, bioinformatics among others. This paper covers the methodology used in teaching bioinformatics part
FEMI is a federation of 23 private not-for-profit health care organizations across Uruguay. It covers approximately 700 thousand people (20 percent of the Uruguayan population) and owns a tertiary center in Montevideo. Pressure from ongoing national changes in health funding and regulation have pushed FEMI to develop a project, in order to improve efficiency in health care through the use of information and communications technologies. In particular, a federal electronic health record and a strategic management system are pursued. This project is supported by the Inter American Development Bank. The project has four lines of action: Specification, construction and implementation of the systems; Alignment through the use of standards; Cultural change through training and prototype systems; and Infrastructure. Short term results include a federal balanced scorecard, federal identification and authorization services, a terminology service, telemedicine applications and massive training of interdisciplinary teams at the local level. The importance of collaboration at the regional level and the advantages of having a multi-institutional commitment are stressed. PMID:20841715
Context: Various consensus and position statements recommend a multifaceted approach when diagnosing a possible concussion. The effectiveness of these materials depends largely on their content being disseminated to educators and to those in the clinical setting. Objective: To identify the concussion management methods and guidelines currently taught in the athletic training classroom and clinical settings and to track the dissemination of the Vienna guidelines throughout the educational curriculum. Design: A 17-question Internet survey. Setting: A Web link was e-mailed to the program directors and certified athletic trainers holding educational positions in athletic training at 300 accredited programs in the United States. Patients or Other Participants: 513 program directors and athletic trainers. Main Outcome Measure(s): Survey questions addressed education level, years of certification, employment setting, concussion assessment and return-to-play guidelines used in the clinical setting and the classroom, and clinical and teaching preferences for existing position statements and concussion grading systems. The Vienna guidelines' “simple” and “complex” definitions of concussions were provided with the return-to-play stepwise approach. Results: The National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement was the most widely used method of assessing, managing (61%), and making return-to-play decisions (47%) among participants. More than half of participants (66%) had never heard of the Vienna guidelines. After reading the Vienna guidelines' definitions and return-to-play criteria, nearly three-fourths of participants agreed with them. In addition, 68% said that they would use them, and 84% reported that they would teach them to students. Conclusions: The majority of program directors and certified athletic trainers used a multidimensional approach to assess and manage a concussion. The National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement and Vienna guidelines were underused in both the classroom and clinical settings.
Covassin, Tracey; Elbin, Robert; Stiller-Ostrowski, Jennifer L
The First International Workshop on Juris-Informatics (ie: JURISIN workshop) was held on June 19, 2007 at World Convention\\u000a Center Summit in Miyazaki, Japan, as a part of the Twenty First Annual Conference of Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence\\u000a (JSAI-2007). This workshop was organized to study legal issues from the perspective of informatics. Law is one of the oldest\\u000a practical applications
Cardiac auscultation has been the central clinical tool for the diagnosis of valvular and other structural heart diseases for over a century. Physicians acquire competence in this technique through considerable training and experience. In Africa, however, we face a shortage of physicians and have the lowest health personnel-to-population ratio in the world. One of the proposed solutions for tackling this crisis is the adoption of health technologies and product innovations to support different cadres of health workers as part of task shifting. Computer-assisted auscultation (CAA) uses a digital stethoscope combined with acoustic neural networking to provide a visual display of heart sounds and murmurs, and analyses the recordings to distinguish between innocent and pathological murmurs. In so doing, CAA may serve as an objective tool for the screening of structural heart disease and facilitate the teaching of cardiac auscultation. This article reviews potential clinical applications of CAA. PMID:22358127
Child abuse is a highly significant public health issue with 4-16% of children being physically abused. The diagnosis is sensitive and challenging, with many radiologists dissatisfied with current levels of training and support. The literature shows a lack of prospective scientific research in this complex field. An ELEctronic knowledge base for Clinical care, Teaching and Research In Child Abuse (ELECTRICA) should solve many current problems. ELECTRICA will be populated with clinical information, radiographs and radiographic findings in children younger than 3 years of age presenting with injury (accidental or suspected abuse), to form a unique resource. This web-based tool will unify the investigative protocol in suspected abuse and support training and allow multicentre national and international collaborative research and provide robust evidence to support the legal process. PMID:21912969
Offiah, Amaka; Hume, Jessica; Bamsey, Ian; Jenkinson, Howard; Lings, Brian
Introduction The inefficacy of clinical skill education during the clerkship has been reported in several studies. The present study was conducted to evaluate the competency of medical students in performing several clinical skills through an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), aiming to evaluate the quality of the existing curriculum in the clerkship phase. Material and methods The cross sectional study was conducted at the end of the clerkship period, before the students had entered the internship. The OSCE exam was conducted in the morning (2 different tracts) and in the evening (2 similar tracts) and 86 students participated in the exam. Each tract consisted of seven stations. The students’ points in the stations assessing history taking and clinical skills were compared. Results The students gained the highest points in the history taking stations, whereas the procedure stations accounted for the lowest points; there was a significant difference between these stations (p < 0.001). The female students achieved higher scores in the OSCE exam compared to males (p = 0.004). Conclusions The OSCE exam revealed the inefficacy of the current medical curriculum in teaching the required clinical skill to undergraduate medical students during the clerkship.
During the last two decades, biomedical informatics (BMI) has become a critical component in biomedical research and health care delivery, as evidenced by two recent phenomena. One, as discussed in the article by Bernstam and colleagues in this issue, has been the introduction of Clinical and Translational Science Awards. Perhaps even more important has been the recent, arguably long overdue, emphasis on deployment of health information technology (IT) nationally. BMI utilizes IT and computer science as tools and methods for improving data acquisition, data management, data analysis, and knowledge generation, but it is driven by a focus on applications based in deep understanding of the science and practice, problems, interactions, culture, and milieu of biomedicine and health. Building from Bernstam and colleagues' distinction between BMI and other IT disciplines, the authors discuss the evolving role of BMI professionals as individuals uniquely positioned to work within the human and organizational context and culture in which the IT is being applied. The focus is not on the IT but on the combination--the interactions of IT systems, human beings, and organizations aimed at achieving a particular purpose. There has never been a time when the need for individuals well trained in BMI--those who understand the complexities of the human, social, and organizational milieu of biomedicine and health--has been more critical than it is now, as the nation seeks to develop a national infrastructure for biomedicine and health care, and as these fields seek to broadly deploy IT wisely and appropriately. PMID:19550167
A central focus of the NCIP mission is the provision of a wide array of informatics resources — applications, data collections, analytical algorithms, standards, and infrastructure components, to name only the most obvious — needed to sustain the broad cancer-research and biomedical-informatics community.
Any suboptimum treatment in the management of patients can lead to medication errors (MEs) that may increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized individuals. By establishing well-designed patient care activities within the managed care setting, clinical pharmacists can cooperate with other health care professionals to provide quality care and maximize safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and prevention of MEs by clinical pharmacists. This was a cross-sectional interventional study conducted in internal wards of a teaching hospital during a two-month period. During this period, patient records, and physician orders were reviewed by clinical pharmacists. Any prescription error identified was documented. Incorrect drug selection, dose, dosage form, frequency, or route of administration all were considered as medication errors. Then, the clinical pharmacist discuss about findings with the clinical fellows to change faulty orders. The frequency and types of MEs in different wards that were detected and prevented by clinical pharmacists was documented. During the study period, in 132 patients, 262 errors were detected (1.98 per each). Wrong frequency 71 (27%), forget to order 37 (14.1%), wrong selection 33 (12.5%), drug interactions 26 (9.9%), forget to discontinue 25 (9.5%) and inappropriate dose adjustment in renal impairment 25 (9.5%) were the most types of errors. Cardiovascular medications were the class with the highest detected errors (31.6%) followed by gastrointestinal agents (15.6%). Medication errors are common problems in medical wards that their frequency can be restricted by the intervention of clinical pharmacists. PMID:23945894
In order to explore whether and how Jewish teachings influence the attitudes of strictly-orthodox Jews to clinical trials, 10 strictly-orthodox Jews were purposively selected and interviewed, using a semi-structured schedule. Relevant literature was searched for similar studies and for publications covering relevant Jewish teachings. Thematic analysis was used to analyse transcribed interviews and explore relationships between attitudes and Jewish teachings identified in the review. Participants' attitudes were influenced in a variety of ways: by Jewish teachings on the over-riding importance of preserving life-the need to avoid risks affecting life and health, while taking risks to preserve life-and the religious obligation to help others, as well as by previous experience. Attitudes mirrored those in the general population, enabling many participants to reach conclusions that did not differ materially from those of the general population or research ethics committees. PMID:23268364
The volumes of current patient data as well as their complexity make clinical decision making more challenging than ever for physicians and other care givers. This situation calls for the use of biomedical informatics methods to process data and form recommendations and/or predictions to assist such decision makers. The design, implementation, and use of biomedical informatics systems in the form of computer-aided decision support have become essential and widely used over the last two decades. This paper provides a brief review of such systems, their application protocols and methodologies, and the future challenges and directions they suggest. PMID:23431259
The volumes of current patient data as well as their complexity make clinical decision making more challenging than ever for physicians and other care givers. This situation calls for the use of biomedical informatics methods to process data and form recommendations and/or predictions to assist such decision makers. The design, implementation, and use of biomedical informatics systems in the form of computer-aided decision support have become essential and widely used over the last two decades. This paper provides a brief review of such systems, their application protocols and methodologies, and the future challenges and directions they suggest.
Informatics can be defined as the discipline of structuring, storing, accessing, and distributing information describing complex systems. In the fields of Bioinformatics and Geoinformatics, specific tools have been developed through wide community requirements analysis and consensus. In Geoinformatics, the GIS toolset is nearly universal. In Bioinformatics, tools such as BLAST and FASTA are commonly used. One of the key enablers of these science research and analysis systems is a nearly universal acceptance (hence, standardization) of the basic data unit in each field. In Bioinformatics, the gene sequence is the basic data unit. In GIS, the basic unit is gridded data consisting of points, vectors, and polygons. We believe that the time has come for a robust Space Science Informatics field of research, parallel to that of Bioinformatics in the fields of Biology and Medicine, and to that of Geoinformatics in the fields of Geography and Earth Science. In particular, we are investigating the specific case of Astroinformatics as a new paradigm for science research in Astronomy. Any Space Science Informatics discipline must include common methods and standards for spatio-temporal data, metadata, taxonomies, ontologies, data structures, data integration, data cleansing and preparation, data transmission and handling, and more. The need for informatics is driven and motivated by the flood of data coming now and the avalanche of data coming soon within all of our science disciplines. The two traditional approaches to science research (experiment and theory) are making room now for this third stream of research - informatics - which is data-driven and information-centric. We discuss the modalities of space science data that form the basis of informatics: raster (images), spectroscopic, time series, distribution functions, and catalogs. We then discuss specific concepts for Astroinformatics. Finally, we present our emerging view of how a field of Space Science Informatics could grow to stature as a stand-alone subdiscipline.
Diabetes management continues to fall short of evidence-based goals of care. Population management represents a new approach to diabetes care for large numbers of patients with diabetes cared for within a single clinical system. This method is information intensive and generally requires an advanced informatics infrastructure. While Information Processing is a critical first step in population management, to have a
Richard W. Grant; William T. Lester; James B. Meigs; Henry C. Chueh
The Medical Informatics Network Tool (MINT) is a software system that supports the management of care for chronic illness. It is designed to improve clinical information, facilitate teamwork, and allow management of health care quality. MINT includes a browser interface for entry and organization of data and preparation of real-time reports. It includes personal computer–based applications that interact with clinicians.
Alexander S Young; Jim Mintz; Amy N Cohen; Matthew J Chinman
The CLINICAL REFERENCE LIBRARY, a subsystem of the Hewlett Packard 5600A Patient Data Management System, contains 20 information modules. Topics range from airway management and nutritional support to aspiration pneumonia and septic shock. The user is able to flip rapidly back and forth through any module or from one module to another, much as one would flip through a book. Using a classical non-randomized, pre-test-post-test, control-experimental research paradigm, medical students and residents exposed to the system “acquired” more knowledge than their counterparts who used conventional teaching methods (p<0.05). Medical students and nurses accessed the system for continuing medical education whereas residents used the system for problem-solving. Nurses had strong negative views about the use and feasibility of computerized patient data management.
Informatization process of the Croatian health care system started relatively early. Computer processing of data of persons not covered by health insurance started in 1968 in Zagreb. Remetinec Health Center served as a model of computer data processing (CDP) in primary health care and Sveti Duh General Hospital in inpatient CDP, whereas hospital administration and health service were first introduced to Zagreb University Hospital Center and Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital. At Varazdin Medical Center CDP for health care services started in 1970. Several registries of chronic diseases have been established: cancer, psychosis, alcoholism, and hospital registries as well as pilot registries of lung tuberculosis patients and diabetics. Health statistics reports on healthcare services, work accidents and sick-leaves as well as on hospital mortality started to be produced by CDP in 1977. Besides alphanumeric data, the modern information technology (IT) can give digital images and signals. Communication in health care system demands a standardized format of all information, especially for telemedicine. In 2000, Technical Committee for Standardization in Medical Informatics was founded in Croatia, in order to monitor the activities of the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and Comite Européen de Normalisation (CEN), and to implement their international standards in the Croatian standardization procedure. The HL7 Croatia has also been founded to monitor developments in the communication standard HL7. So far, the Republic of Croatia has a number of acts regulating informatization in general and consequently the informatization of the health care system (Act on Personal Data Confidentiality, Act on Digital Signature, Act of Standardization) enacted. The ethical aspect of data security and data protection has been covered by the Code of Ethics for medical informaticians. It has been established by the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), and the Croatian Society of Medical Informatics (CSMI) has translated it into Croatian and published it on its website. Based on a survey of medical staff attitudes toward health care system informatization, the Croatian health system appears to be ready for informatization. The only requirement is that the present and future health care providers have appropriate medical informatics education, proper computer equipment at their workplace, and an opportunity to participate in the development and/or improvement of the health information system. One of the EU health strategy priorities is the improvement of health information and knowledge. It means that integrated health information systems are required, i.e. systems able to provide key information on health and health care system to the politicians, health professionals and public in general. PMID:16095187
Materials informatics is a cross discipline combining materials science and information science. The concept of materials\\u000a informatics was introduced and expounded. The current status of research and application of materials informatics was analyzed.\\u000a And the main tasks and research areas of materials informatics were summarized. Then the foundation and significance of its\\u000a development in China was discussed. Lastly the development
End-user informatics applications are Internet data web management automation solutions. These are mass modeling and mass management collaborative communal consensus solutions. They are made and maintained by managerial, professional, technical and specialist end-users. In end-user informatics the end-users are always right. So it becomes necessary for information technology professionals to understand information and informatics from the end-user perspective. End-user informatics
There are many challenges for Biomedical Informatics (BMI) to meet the promises of Translational Medicine. Several of the challenges have to do with the re-use of clinical data to progress towards 4P Medicine (personalized, preventive, participatory and predictive) and using epidemiology and clinical research as well as the translation of data and knowledge obtained in the laboratory into useful information for the clinical setting. The INBIOMEDvision EU funded project tackled these challenges in a series of events with expert scientists in different related disciplines. As a result, some consensus ideas were reached about the BMI challenges in the research areas of Genotype-Phenotype integration, Translational Systems Biology and Re-use of Clinical information in the Electronic Health Records (EHR) for research and what is needed to meet them. PMID:23920716
López-Alonso, Victoria; Hermosilla-Gimeno, Isabel; López-Campos, Guillermo; Mayer, Miguel Angel
Early informatics contributions to the emergency planning and response agenda have focused largely on surveillance of threat detection. A broader assessment of possible informatics contributions unveils that informatics can also contribute to increasing the efficiency in disaster response as well as providing a tele-presence for remote medical caregivers. This presentation will explore current and future roles of informatics in emergency preparedness and response. Special challenges for data management occur with every emergency or disaster. Tracking of victims, electronic health records, and supply inventory are a few of the contributions that informatics can play during disasters. Modeling of response resources can provide the parameters for more effective decision making. Public relations reporting can be made more accurate if given the information in a timely fashion. Databases provide the infrastructure for reporting of data that can be used to manage volunteers or later be mined to determine the effectiveness of planning and response efforts. As informaticists, we have a moral obligation to contribute to the emergency response agenda worldwide. PMID:17911898
Recent advances in automated high-resolution fluorescence microscopy and robotic handling have made the systematic and cost effective study of diverse morphological changes within a large population of cells possible under a variety of perturbations, e.g., drugs, compounds, metal catalysts, RNA interference (RNAi). Cell population-based studies deviate from conventional microscopy studies on a few cells, and could provide stronger statistical power for drawing experimental observations and conclusions. However, it is challenging to manually extract and quantify phenotypic changes from the large amounts of complex image data generated. Thus, bioimage informatics approaches are needed to rapidly and objectively quantify and analyze the image data. This paper provides an overview of the bioimage informatics challenges and approaches in image-based studies for drug and target discovery. The concepts and capabilities of image-based screening are first illustrated by a few practical examples investigating different kinds of phenotypic changes caEditorsused by drugs, compounds, or RNAi. The bioimage analysis approaches, including object detection, segmentation, and tracking, are then described. Subsequently, the quantitative features, phenotype identification, and multidimensional profile analysis for profiling the effects of drugs and targets are summarized. Moreover, a number of publicly available software packages for bioimage informatics are listed for further reference. It is expected that this review will help readers, including those without bioimage informatics expertise, understand the capabilities, approaches, and tools of bioimage informatics and apply them to advance their own studies.
Li, Fuhai; Yin, Zheng; Jin, Guangxu; Zhao, Hong; Wong, Stephen T. C.
The mould industry, the basis of the domestic manufacturing industry, is introducing corporate informatization considering collaboration to secure international competitiveness in the 21st century. First, to introduce effective corporate informatization, it needs to correctly grasp the introduction status of the informatization infrastructure and information system as well as the level of use. And collaboration in the mould industry is an
This paper examines the historical definitions of Health (Biomedical) Informatics. It is clear that a majority of the definitions refer to Health Informatics as a discipline. Rather it can be argued that the maturation of Health Informatics is beginning to culminate in a distinct science. This progress need to be reflected in academic programs as well as our conferences and publications. PMID:19592917
Human patient simulation manikins (HPSMs) are being used extensively in the education of health professionals, but their effectiveness in the teaching of clinical reasoning skills to undergraduate nursing students is not clear. The aim of this systematic review is to identify the best available evidence for their effectiveness in this regard. The review included all English-language randomized controlled trials from
Samuel Lapkin; Tracy Levett-Jones; Helen Bellchambers; Ritin Fernandez
|In-service teachers are often lack sufficient teaching experience (Block et al., 2010) that leads to being psychologically unprepared to confront many challenges in teaching. Providing ample experiences for Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students in a pedagogical setting parallel to that which they will one day teach (Kirk &…
Digital optical microscopy, coupled with parallel processing and a large arsenal of labeling techniques, offers tremendous values to localize, identify, and characterize cells and molecules. This generates many image informatics challenges in requiring new algorithms and tools to extract, classify, correlate, and model image features and content from massive amounts of cellular and molecular images acquired. Image informatics aims to fill this gap. Coupling automated microscopy and image analysis with biostatistical and data mining techniques to provide a system biologic approach in studying the cells, the basic unit of life, potentially leads to many exciting applications in life and health sciences. In this presentation, we describe certain new system biology applications enabled by image informatics technology.
Advanced use of informatics within modern health care has become essential. Transplantation and transplant coordination, a high technically advanced and very specific niche within health care, is strongly depending on time management and exclusion of possible pitfalls within an acute organization at both the donor and the recipient sites. Based on the increased donor and transplant activity, we stratified two goals. The first goal was to improve working methods at the donor site. The second goal was to reduce administrative tasks and increase quality follow-up at the recipient side. For the donor process, we designed a Donor Database, that was created for donor registration and quality data reporting. A 24/24 h accessible website was created and was linked with clinical pathways and reports. For the liver transplant process, we built another database system in FileMaker pro, creating a quality follow-up and reporting methods. Based on a retrospective analysis and review of two executive time periods, we saw a clear improvement in the donor reporting method, and the quality of the procedure. Possible mistakes within the acute organization were easily detected based on clinical pathways provided by the website on one hand, and integrated within the database system on the other hand. We succeeded in bringing high-quality informatics to the floor of donor and transplant procedures and follow-up. Retrospective analysis showed a definite improvement, with a positive impact on data reporting, time management and administrative follow-up. PMID:18411567
This is the last Informatics Education column under the current editors. The outgoing co-editor identifies several key themes that describe the column during her tenure. The main theme discovered while reviewing the columns published over the last five years is technology. Technological changes and advances have affected the way in which librarians conduct instruction, such as incorporating e-learning with traditional workshops and in-class sessions. Technology plays a key role in all of the themes that emerged. The incoming editors imagine what the future themes will be for the Informatics Education column. PMID:23092421
Considering that neither captology nor agent-orientation, are applied in medical informatics, as they could be, the paper presents a broad-spectrum generic architectural framework to support developing adaptive medical applications, based on synergistic correlation between persuasive interfaces and intelligent agents. Their main features are adapted for medical informatics. Lying on this groundwork, the design space for agent-oriented persuasive applications is defined and several guidelines for its main dimensions are given. The approach is instantiated through an agent-based test-bench application, having the purpose to persuade to quit smoking. PMID:11187594
The increased availability of Web 2.0 tools, specifically social software, has changed how users interact on the web. Web 2.0 tools allow users to create, share and disseminate information and knowledge with relative ease. Web 2.0 tools, such as social writing, networking and bookmarking tools, are impacting not only how we educate students but also how nurses deliver patient care. This paper describes how an informatics education program is educating their students to use social software as learners as well as practicing informatics specialists. PMID:19592914
While there are several published statements of nursing informatics competencies needed for the Bachelor of Science in nursing (BSN) graduate, faculty at schools of nursing has little guidance on how to incorporate the teaching of such competencies into curricula that are already overloaded with required content. The authors present a framework for addressing nursing informatics content within teaching plans that already exist in virtually all BSN programs. The framework is based on an organization of curriculum content that moves the learner from elementary to complex nursing concepts and ideas as a means to level the content. Further, the framework is organized around four broad content areas included in all curricula: professional responsibility, care delivery, community and population-based nursing, and leadership/management. Examples of informatics content to be addressed at each level and content area are provided. Lastly a practice-appraisal tool, the UVIC Informatics Practice Appraisal - BSN is presented as a means to track student learning and outcomes across the four years of a BSN program. PMID:23388314
Introduction Despite the 1984 United Nations’s Convention Against Torture calling to train doctors to work with torture survivors, many physicians are unaware of their obligation and few are taught the requisite clinical skills. Aim To describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a curriculum to teach residents to work with torture survivors. Participants Medicine residents in New York City Program Description A 2-component curriculum consisting of a series of workshops and clinical experiences, which provide content, skills, and practices regarding the medical, psychological, ethical, and legal aspects of evaluating and caring for torture survivors. Curriculum Evaluation All 22 trainees received surveys before and after training. Surveys assessed residents’ relevant prior experience, beliefs, skills, and attitudes regarding working with torture survivors. At baseline, 23% of residents described previous human rights trainings and 17% had work experiences with torture survivors. Before the curriculum, 81% of residents reported doctors should know how to evaluate survivors, although only 5% routinely screened patients for torture. After the curriculum, residents reported significant improvements in 3 educational domains—general knowledge, sequelae, and self-efficacy to evaluate torture survivors. Discussion This curriculum addresses the disparity between doctors’ obligations, and training to work with torture survivors. It is likely to achieve its educational goals, and can potentially be adapted to other residencies.
A Usenet newsgroup, sci.med.informatics, has been created to serve as an international electronic forum for discussion of issues related to medical informatics. The creation process follows a set of administrative rules set out by the Usenet administration on the Internet and consists of five steps: 1) informal discussion, 2) request for formal discussion, 3) formal discussion, 4) voting, and 5) posting of results. The newsgroup can be accessed using any news reader via the Internet.
BACKGROUND We developed computer-based virtual patient (VP) cases to complement an interactive continuing medical education (CME) course that emphasizes skills practice using standardized patients (SP). Virtual patient simulations have the significant advantages of requiring fewer personnel and resources, being accessible at any time, and being highly standardized. Little is known about the educational effectiveness of these new resources. We conducted a randomized trial to assess the educational effectiveness of VPs and SPs in teachingclinical skills. OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness of VP cases when compared with live SP cases in improving clinical skills and knowledge. DESIGN Randomized trial. PARTICIPANTS Fifty-five health care providers (registered nurses 45%, physicians 15%, other provider types 40%) who attended a CME program. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomized to receive either 4 live cases (n = 32) or 2 live and 2 virtual cases (n = 23). Other aspects of the course were identical for both groups. RESULTS Participants in both groups were equivalent with respect to pre-post workshop improvement in comfort level (P = .66) and preparedness to respond (P = .61), to screen (P = .79), and to care (P = .055) for patients using the skills taught. There was no difference in subjective ratings of effectiveness of the VPs and SPs by participants who experienced both (P = .79). Improvement in diagnostic abilities were equivalent in groups who experienced cases either live or virtually. CONCLUSIONS Improvements in performance and diagnostic ability were equivalent between the groups and participants rated VP and SP cases equally. Including well-designed VPs has a potentially powerful and efficient place in clinical skills training for practicing health care workers.
Triola, M; Feldman, H; Kalet, AL; Zabar, S; Kachur, EK; Gillespie, C; Anderson, M; Griesser, C; Lipkin, M
Abstract Given the definition of nursing informatics it should be a core activity for all nurses, and seen as a tool to support ,high quality care giving. Three studies reported in this paper show that this is not the case. Qualified nurses are perceived as having poor skills and knowledge, and as being resistant to IT asit takes them away
In this article, we discussed the emerging informatics issues of high-throughput screening (HTS) using automated fluorescence microscopy technology, otherwise known as high-content screening (HCS) in the pharmaceutical industry. Optimal methods of scoring biomarkers and identifying candidate hits have been actively studied in academia and industry, with the exception of data modeling topics. To find candidate hits, we need to score
Behavior is increasingly recognized as a key component in business intelligence and problem-solving. Different from traditional behavior analysis, which mainly focus on implicit behavior and explicit business appearance as a result of business usage and customer demographics, this paper proposes the field of Behavior Informatics and Analytics (BIA), to support explicit behavior involvement through a conversion from transactional data to
The authors describe integration of nursing informatics concepts and computer-based instructional strategies in a financial management course for graduate level nursing administration students. Major components include: 1) computer-based instruction for financial management theory; 2) spreadsheet used for decision support; 3) utilization of forecasting software; and 4) evaluation of learning involving computer use. PMID:7585303
In order to provide secure healthcare informatics systems, three different security levels need to be considered: 1) secure healthcare applications to provide user authentication and access control mechanism to healthcare applications, components, and objects.; 2) secure database to provide the protection of the database against unauthorized disclosure, alteration, or distinction of healthcare information by legal personnel; and 3) secure communication
As academic health sciences libraries assume larger roles in informatics instruction within medical school curricula, librarians are challenged to develop useful and accurate measures for assessing the effectiveness of instructional approaches. The need for this evaluation has intensified as medical schools increase their emphasis on integration of curriculum content and shift to competency-based education and assessment of medical students. This
Jane L. Blumenthal; Brynn E. Mays; Jeffrey M. Weinfeld; Marcus A. Banks; Janette Shaffer
The association between consumption of fruits and vegetables and reduced chronic disease risk may be due in part to their flavonoid content. A food flavonoid database describes six flavonoid classes (anthocyanins, flavans, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavonoids) in fruits, vegetables and beverages. Developing a flavonoid database requires the use of informatics and involves nine steps. The steps include identifying all
Image informatics at the Communications Engineering Branch of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications (LHNCBC), an R&D division of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), includes document and biomedical images. In both domains, research into computer-assisted methods for information extraction, and the implementation of prototype systems incorporating such methods, is central to our mission. Current document image research
Objectives Health informatics programs usually are evaluated by national accreditation committees. Not always are the members of these committees well informed about the international level of (education in) health informatics. Therefore, when a program is accredited by a national accreditation committee, this does not always mean that the program is of an international level. The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) has expertise in the field of education. The IMIA Recommendations on Education in Biomedical and Health Informatics guide curricula development. The goal of this article is to show that IMIA can also play the role of accreditation agency and to present the IMIA accreditation protocol and experiences obtained with it. Methods The accreditation procedure used in the Netherlands and Belgium was taken as a template for the design of the IMIA accreditation protocol. In a trial period of one and a half year the protocol is tested out on six health informatics programs. Results An accreditation protocol was designed. For judging the curriculum of a program the IMIA Recommendations are used. The institution has to write a self-assessment report and a site visit committee visits the program and judges its quality, supported by the self-assessment report and discussions with all stakeholders of the program. Conclusions After having visited three programs it appears that the IMIA accreditation procedure works well. Only a few changes had to be introduced. Writing the self-assessment report already appears to be beneficial for the management of the program to obtain a better insight in the quality of their program.
Pediatric imaging has been at the forefront of radiology innovation since the days of Roentgen. In the past 2 decades, evolving computer technology and sophisticated software algorithms have rapidly advanced how pediatric radiologic examinations are acquired and displayed, interpreted and communicated, and stored and retrieved. Cost-effective use of this state of the art technology requires fundamental knowledge of the modalities, workstations, and informatics that guide advanced pediatric imaging in the current digital era. Equally important is an understanding of the advanced clinical applications and evidence supporting this use. In the first part of this review article, after a brief introduction and historical overview, technical principles are discussed. This is followed by a review of advanced clinical applications for fetal, cardiovascular, central nervous system, neck, thoracic, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, musculoskeletal, and virtual-autopsy imaging. PMID:20304324
Hellinger, Jeffrey C; Medina, L Santiago; Epelman, Monica
The computer is rapidly becoming an interactive workstation for medical research and for clinical decision-making and it has become a preferred instrument for communication and documentation throughout health care. However, when the attempt is made to use the rigid conventions of information processing to impose order on the characteristically volatile and unpredictable phenomena encountered in the clinical setting, deep seated logical issues are uncovered. This challenge has generated the new field of Medical Informatics, one major goal of which is to formulate computer logics that can properly relate the idealized descriptions of disease, the rules for medical practice and the general guidelines for health care to the intricate diversities encountered in the care of individual patients. The Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS) program of the National Library of Medicine provides the most ambitious environment for research in this new endeavor. PMID:2203687
Background Clinical governance (CG) is among the different frameworks proposed to improve the quality of healthcare. Iran, like many other countries, has put healthcare quality improvement in its top health policy priorities. In November 2009, implementation of CG became a task for all hospitals across the country. However, it has been a challenge to clarify the notion of CG and the way to implement it in Iran. The purpose of this action research study is to understand how CG can be defined and implemented in a selected teaching emergency department (ED). Methods/design We will use Soft Systems Methodology for both designing the study and inquiring into its content. As we considered a complex problem situation regarding the quality of care in the selected ED, we initially conceptualized CG as a cyclic set of purposeful activities designed to explore the situation and find relevant changes to improve the quality of care. Then, implementation of CG will conceptually be to carry out that set of purposeful activities. The activities will be about: understanding the situation and finding out relevant issues concerning the quality of care; exploring different stakeholders’ views and ideas about the situation and how it can be improved; and defining actions to improve the quality of care through structured debates and development of accommodations among stakeholders. We will flexibly use qualitative methods of data collection and analysis in the course of the study. To ensure the study rigor, we will use different strategies. Discussion Successful implementation of CG, like other quality improvement frameworks, requires special consideration of underlying complexities. We believe that addressing the complex situation and reflections on involvement in this action research will make it possible to understand the concept of CG and its implementation in the selected setting. By describing the context and executed flexible methods of implementation, the results of this study would contribute to the development of implementation science and be employed by boards and executives governing other clinical settings to facilitate CG implementation.
Learning to use the toilet is an important developmental step for a child's independence, health and dignity. It can be particularly difficult to teach continence skills to disabled children with aggressive or challenging behaviour. This study showed how Azrin & Foxx's (1971) basic toilet training procedure could be modified to teach a 13-year-old…
|Learning to use the toilet is an important developmental step for a child's independence, health and dignity. It can be particularly difficult to teach continence skills to disabled children with aggressive or challenging behaviour. This study showed how Azrin & Foxx's (1971) basic toilet training procedure could be modified to teach a…
Objectives This article seeks to describe the current state of informatics supported collaborative care and to point out areas of future research in this highly interdisciplinary field. Methods In this article, person-centered collaborative care is seen as a concept addressing both the provision of care over organizational borders between health and social care, and within care teams as well as the changed patient/client-care provider relationship characterized by increased patient/client involvement. Results From a health systems perspective, there are several attempts to describe the conceptual and theoretical basis for collaborative care indicating that agreement on core concepts and terminology is difficult. From an informatics perspective, focus is on standardization of clinical content models and terminology to achieve interoperability of information technology systems and to support standardized care pathways. Few examples look into how ad-hoc collaborative care processes can be supported using information technology and informatics standards. Nevertheless, promising examples do exist showing that integrational Information Communication Technology services can be supportive for collaborative care developments. However, the current landscape consists of many fragmented, often technology-driven eHealth solutions targeting specific diagnostic groups in geographically and/or organizationally restricted settings. Conclusions A systematic approach incorporating organizational, clinical, informatics and social science knowledge is needed to perform further research in areas such as virtual team partnerships, new paradigms of care delivery, data and knowledge management as well as its secure sharing. Also organizational and legal aspects need to be further researched in order to facilitate the coordinated provision of health and social care to citizens including self-management, utilizing informatics support in a societal context.
Summary This paper describes a unique educational project that is being implemented in the undergraduate study of Computer Science and Teacher Education. Since 2002, Norway's Nesna University College has been using the example of sexual abuse of children in the teaching of Social Informatics, and in the distance education course \\
Abraham Flexner persuaded the medical establishment of his time that teaching the sciences, from basic to clinical, should be a critical component of the medical student curriculum, thus giving rise to the \\
Abby L. Spencer; Teresa Brosenitsch; Arthur S. Levine; Steven L. Kanter
Objective: Magnesium level is known to decline during pregnancy. A suggested role for magnesium deficiency in conditions like pre-eclampsia and pre-term birth has prompted studies with conflicting evidence. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypomagnesemia in pregnancy, while the secondary objectives attempted to define maternal and fetal outcome due to hypomagnesemia. Subjects and Methods: A pilot study was performed to determine the mean serum magnesium level for the population of female patients attending the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The result of the pregnant population in the pilot study was used as a reference for hypomagnesemia in this study. Thereafter, a prospective cohort study of antenatal women recruited in the second trimester and followed-up till delivery and 1 week post-partum was done. Serum magnesium estimates were done with samples collected at recruitment and delivery. The magnesium levels determined at recruitment were used to divide the subjects into two groups of hypomagnesemic and normomagnesemic patients. Their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were used to generate a database for analysis. Results: The prevalence of magnesium deficiency was 16.25%. Hypomagnesemia was significantly correlated with the occurrence of pre-eclampsia ( P = 0.011), leg cramps ( P = 0.000) and pre-term birth ( P = 0.030). A logistic regression analysis showed that hypomagnesemia had an Odds ratio of 22 for pre-eclampsia. There was no maternal mortality or early neonatal death. Conclusion: Pre-eclampsia and pre-term birth are associated with hypomagnesemia in pregnancy; hence, magnesium supplementation or magnesium-rich diet consisting of green leafy vegetables, soy milk and legumes may improve outcome. PMID:23974737
Improving healthcare quality while simultaneously reducing cost has become a high priority of healthcare reform. Informatics is crucial in tackling this challenge. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 mandates adaptation and “meaningful use (MU)” of health information technology. In this review, we will highlight several areas in which informatics can make significant contributions, with a focus on radiology. We also discuss informatics related to the increasing imperatives of state and local regulations (such as radiation dose tracking) and quality initiatives.
The paper argues that community informatics research forms the basis for more integrated and participatory forms of heritage\\u000a tourism development. Principles of community informatics, and specifically virtual community networks and digital storytelling,\\u000a are reviewed and then discussed within the framework of a Web-based application developed for a small, rural community. The\\u000a case study illustrates how community informatics guided the design
\\u000a In this paper, we provide an overview of “Terrorism Informatics,” a new discipline that aims to study the terrorism phenomena\\u000a with a data-driven, quantitative, and computational approach. We first summarize several critical books that lay the foundation\\u000a for studying terrorism in the new Internet era. We then review important terrorism research centers and resources that are\\u000a of relevance to our
... 2003 NSF Speakers to Keynote Symposium on Intelligence and Security Informatics Like researchers in ... researchers, law enforcement and intelligence experts, and industry consultants and practitioners ...
INFOBIOMED is an European Network of Excellence (NoE) funded by the Information Society Directorate-General of the European Commission (EC). A consortium of European organizations from ten different countries is involved within the network. Four pilots, all related to linking clinical and genomic information, are being carried out. From an informatics perspective, various challenges, related to data integration and mining, are included.
Maojo, Victor; de la Calle, Guillermo; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Diaz, Carlos; Sanz, Ferran
INFOBIOMED is an European Network of Excellence (NoE) funded by the Information Society Directorate-General of the European Commission (EC). A consortium of European organizations from ten different countries is involved within the network. Four pilots, all related to linking clinical and genomic information, are being carried out. From an informatics perspective, various challenges, related to data integration and mining, are included. PMID:16779328
Maojo, Victor; de la Calle, Guillermo; Martín-Sánchez, Fernando; Díaz, Carlos; Sanz, Ferran
OBJECTIVE: To describe family physicians' perceived educational needs in computers and informatics. DESIGN: Mailed survey. SETTING: General or family practices in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Physicians (489 responded to a mailing sent to 2,500 physicians) who might attend sessions at the McGill Centre for CME. Two duplicate questionnaires were excluded from the analysis. METHOD: Four domains were addressed: practice profile, clinical CME needs, professional CME needs, and preferred learning formats. Data were entered on dBASE IV; analyses were performed on SPSS. MAIN FINDINGS: In the 487 questionnaires retained for analysis, "informatics and computers" was mentioned more than any other clinical diagnostic area, any other professional area, and all but three patient groups and service areas as a topic where improvement in knowledge and skills was needed in the coming year. Most physicians had no access to computer support for practice (62.6%); physicians caring for neonates, toddlers, or hospital inpatients were more likely to report some type of computer support. CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians selected knowledge and skills for computers and informatics as an area for improvement in the coming year more frequently than they selected most traditional clinical CME topics. This educational need is particularly great in small towns and in settings where some computerized hospital data are already available.
Healthcare faculty members have come to depend on the advantages of teaching with clinical simulation, but not all faculty are competent in their ability to manage students during the simulation experience. This federally funded proposal provided the opportunity for nursing faculty to participate in a synchronous learning event using the virtual reality world of Second Life (SL). Based on competencies, faculty participants were guided through the simulation process by a "Master Teacher." Participants then became the teacher and chose the settings, objectives, and clinical data to manage their own simulation using avatar role assignments. Feedback populated the participant informatics dashboard, so that progress towards their competencies was recorded. Another unique informatics application was the use of the Synthetic Derivative project to use de-identified patient data to promote better clinical realism. Additional evaluation activities regarding content, appropriate use of the technology, and design features were assessed. The development of the SL environment for this educational study provides the setting in which to pilot test the provision of actual clinical care that does not require "hands-on" interventions. PMID:20841760
The track entitled “Consumer Informatics Supporting Patients as Co-Producers of Quality” at the AMIA Spring 2000 Congress was devoted to examining the new field of consumer health informatics. This area is developing rapidly, as worldwide changes are occurring in the organization and delivery of health care and in the traditional roles of patient and provider. This paper describes the key
Lipid mediator informatics is an emerging area denoted to the identification of bioactive lipid mediators (LMs) and their biosynthetic profiles and pathways. LM informatics and proteomics applied to inflammation, systems tissues research provides a powerful means of uncovering key biomarkers for novel processes in health and disease. By incorporating them with system biology analysis, we review here our initial steps
Yan Lu; Song Hong; Katherine Gotlinger; Charles N. Serhan
Medical informatics, as a descriptive, scientific study, must be mathematically or theoretically described. Is it important to define a model for medical informatics? The answer is worth pursuing. The medical informatics profession stands to benefit three-fold: first, by clarifying the vagueness of the definition of medical informatics, secondly, by identifying the scope and content for educational programs, and, thirdly, by defining career opportunities for its graduates. Existing medical informatics curricula are not comparable. Consequently, the knowledge and skills of graduates from these programs are difficult to assess. The challenge is to promote academics that develops graduates for prospective employers to fulfill the criteria of the health care industry and, simultaneously, compete with computer science programs that produce information technology graduates. In order to meet this challenge, medical informatics programs must have unique curricula that distinguishes its graduates. The solution is to educate students in a comparable manner across the domain of medical informatics. This paper discusses a theoretical model for medical informatics. Images Figure
The goal of this paper is to discuss how data mining can be applied in materials informatics by using materials data. Firstly, general background and some critical concepts in materials informatics were summarized. Secondly, based on data warehouse techniques, we proposed a novel data integration solution among homogeneous materials databases. Lastly, we reviewed some recent works in the area of
Individuals are active audience members that use Internet-based social media technologies to create and negotiate social action in online spaces. Communicative informatics is the key to constructing, describing or critiquing social media. Communicative informatics is the discovery of the audience, text\\/image, technology, negotiated place relationships that create symbolic meaning. Four propositions focus on the communication of the audience: 1) the
Informatization is the process through which the new communication technologies are used as a means for furthering socioeconomic development as a nation becomes more and more an information society. The informatization strategy in very recent years has provided an alternative to previous strategies of development communication. India is an example of such a shift, as the New Economic Policy of
|Explains consumer health informatics and describes the technology advances, the computer programs that are currently available, and the basic research that addresses both the effectiveness of computer health informatics and its impact on the future direction of health care. Highlights include commercial computer products for consumers and…
The TMC History project documents the history of informatics in the Texas Medical Center (TMC) and present it as a Web-based information resource that can be an adjunct to the education of graduate students in the health informatics program.
High throughput parallel genomic sequencing (Next Generation Sequencing, NGS) shifts the bottleneck in sequencing processes from experimental data production to computationally intensive informatics-based data analysis. This manuscript introduces a biomedical informatics pipeline (BING) for the analysis of NGS data that offers several novel computational approaches to 1. image alignment, 2. signal correlation, compensation, separation, and pixel-based cluster registration, 3. signal
Jeffrey Kriseman; Christopher Busick; Szabolcs Szelinger; Valentin Dinu
Background Earlier studies have successfully demonstrated that medical students can achieve success in core clinical rotations with long term attachments in small groups to rural general / family practices. Methods In this study, three students from a class of 226 volunteered for this 1-year pilot program, conducted by the University of Queensland in 2004, for medical students in the 3rd year of a 4-year graduate entry medical course. Each student was based with a private solo general practitioner in a different rural town between 170 and 270 km from the nearest teaching hospital. Each was in a relatively isolated rural setting, rated 5 or 6 on the RRMA scale (Rural, Remote, Metropolitan Classification: capital city = 1, other metropolitan = 2, large regional city = 3, most remote community = 7). The rural towns had populations respectively of 500, 2000 and 10,000. One practice also had a General Practice registrar. Only one of the locations had doctors in the same town but outside the teaching practice, while all had other doctors within the same area. All 3 supervisors had hospital admitting rights to a hospital within their town. The core clinical rotations of medicine, surgery, mental health, general practice and rural health were primarily conducted within these rural communities, with the student based in their own consulting room at the general practitioner (GP) supervisor's surgery. The primary teacher was the GP supervisor, with additional learning opportunities provided by visiting specialists, teleconferences and university websites. At times, especially during medicine and surgery terms, each student would return to the teaching hospital for additional learning opportunities. Results All students successfully completed the year. There were no statistical differences in marks at summative assessment in each of the five core rotations between the students in this pilot and their peers at the metropolitan or rural hospital based clinical schools. Conclusion The results suggest that isolated rural general practice could provide a more substantial role in medical student education.
Margolis, Stephen A; Davies, Llewellyn M; Ypinazar, Valmae
Objective: To ascertain health professionals' per- ceptions of health informatics skills required in their roles. Design: A paper-based survey with a stratified random sample of Australian health professionals and a web-based survey open to all Australian health professionals were conducted. Measurement: A questionnaire on the health pro- fessionals' perceived degree of competency required for a total of 69 specific skills
Sebastian Garde; David Harrison; Mohammed Huque; Evelyn JS Hovenga
Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) is one of seven projects sponsored by the NIH Roadmap National Centers for Biomedical Computing (http:\\/\\/www.ncbcs.org). Its mission is to provide clinical investigators with the tools necessary to integrate medical record and clinical research data in the genomics age, a software suite to construct and integrate the modern clinical research chart. i2b2
Shawn N. Murphy; Griffin Weber; Michael Mendis; Vivian Gainer; Henry C. Chueh; Susanne Churchill; Isaac S. Kohane
Exponentially growing biological and bioinformatics data sets present a challenge and an opportunity for researchers to contribute to the understanding of the genetic basis of phenotypes. Due to breakthroughs in microarray technology, it is possible to simultaneously monitor the expressions of thousands of genes, and it is imperative that researchers have access to the clinical data to understand the genetics and proteomics of the diseased tissue. This technology could be a landmark in personalized medicine, which will provide storage for clinical and genetic data in electronic health records (EHRs). In this paper, we explore the computational and ethical challenges that emanate from the intersection of bioinformatics and healthcare informatics research. We describe the current situation of the EHR and its capabilities to store clinical and genetic data and then discuss the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. Finally, we posit that the synergy obtained from the collaborative efforts between the genomics, clinical, and healthcare disciplines has potential to enhance and promote faster and more advanced breakthroughs in healthcare.
We introduce the Applied Health Informatics Bootcamp. This is an intense, interactive on-site program, augmented by approximately 80 hours of online material. The Bootcamp is intended to introduce those with little or no knowledge of Health Informatics (HI) to the nature, key concepts, and applications of this discipline to addressing challenges in the health field. The focus of the program is on Applied Health Informatics (AHI), the discipline addressing the preparation for, and the procurement, deployment, implementation, resourcing, effective usage, and evaluation of informatics solutions in the health system. Although no program of this duration can cover all topics, we target the high profile areas of Health Informatics and point the participants in the direction of broader and deeper explorations.
The authors from China and the United States take medical informatics from theory to practice by improving its research, application, and dissemination and by expanding its educational potential. We built a theoretical model and discussed its definition, approach, foundation, principles, and structure. Medical informatics is the interdisciplinary study of information science applied to medicine and health care. Its developing approach is transplantation. The foundation of medical informatics has "building blocks" of knowledge. They are: information procedure models; information classification principles; information processing methodologies; and functional hierarchical principles of information systems. The structure of medical informatics includes the main knowledge branches and their logical relations. There are four big branches: computer tools and systems methods; engineering equipment and methods; medical fields information systems; and health care management systems. Based on the investigation of the professional status (its theory and application, and its forms and the contents) of medical informatics, it can be seen that this new discipline is becoming mature. PMID:8591423
|An inexpensive computer graphics systems (Commodore PET), used as a video aid for teaching students advanced case analysis, is described. The course provides students with the analytical tools for evaluating with graphical and statistical techniques and treating with lenses, prisms, and orthoptics various anomalies of binocular vision. (MLW)|
Nurse educators always encounter challenges when embracing new teaching methods or technology. This article describes a student's experience dealing with pediophobia, the fear of dolls, when working with VitalSim manikins in the simulation lab. This unexpected student reaction to a simulation manikin presents an opportunity to educate faculty about anxiety and panic disorders, and specifically phobias, that may arise in
The Didactics of Informatics research group at the University of Paderborn is involved in efforts to design, implement and evaluate a curriculum for Media education for prospective teachers at the secondary school level. One major issue is the question of whether it is necessary for future teachers to learn the basic concepts of informatics, and if so, which topics within
Background The number of households in the United States that are not proficient in the English language is growing and presenting a challenge to the health care system. Over nineteen percent of the US population speak a language other than English in the home. This increase in language discordance generates a greater need to find and implement accommodations in the clinical setting to insure accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment as well as provide for patient safety. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the percentage of patients accessing the chiropractic college teachingclinics who are not proficient in the English language and to what extent the colleges provide accommodations for that language disparity. Methods The clinic directors and deans of the Association of Chiropractic Colleges were surveyed via an on-line survey engine. The survey queried the percentage of the patient population that is not English language proficient, the accommodations the college currently has in place, if the college has a language specific consent to treat document and if the college has a written policy concerning patients without English proficiency. Results Fifty percent of the contacted chiropractic colleges responded to the survey. In the respondent college clinics 16.5% of the patient population is not proficient in English, with over 75% speaking Spanish. All but one of the respondents provide some level of accommodation for the language non-concordance. Forty five percent of the responding colleges employ a language specific consent to treat form. The implementation of accommodations and the use of a language specific consent to treat form is more prevalent at colleges with a higher percentage of non-English speaking patients. Conclusions The percentage of patients with limited English proficiency accessing services at the teachingclinics of the chiropractic colleges mirrors the numbers in the general population. There is a wide disparity in the accommodations that the individual colleges make to address this language discordance. There is a need to further develop accurate and meaningful accommodations to address language disparity in the chiropractic teachingclinics.
With the advancement both in the Web (e.g., semantic Web and human-level wisdom-Web computing) and in Brain Informatics (BI)\\u000a (e.g., advanced information technologies for brain science and non-invasive neuroimaging technologies, such as functional\\u000a magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)), several lines of BI research have been developed directly or indirectly related to Web\\u000a Intelligence (WI). Some of them can be treated as
HIPAA mandates the development of privacy and security standards, including the designation of a privacy officer responsible for the development and implementation of the policies and procedures. However, the rule does not give guidance as to the specific qualifications, job description, or details concerning policy and procedure development and implementation. The qualities and skills of informatics nurse specialists (INS), plus their commitment to patient advocacy and a professional code of ethics to ensure the privacy of confidential personal information, make the INS ideally suited to manage the processes necessary to achieve HIPAA compliance. PMID:12858598
The promise of health information technology (HIT) has led to call s for a larger and better trained wor k- force in medical informatics. University programs in applied health and biomedical informatics have been evolving in an effort to address the need for healt h- care professionals to be trained in informatics. One such evolution is the American Medical Informatics
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the emerging literature on community informatics as the backdrop for a model that can explain and predict the success prospects of community informatics projects. We start by presenting the major themes in the research on Community Informatics to date. The review highlights issues that have attracted most research efforts on community informatics.
The rapid emergence of programmes in health informatics, medical informatics and biomedical informatics implies a need for core curricula in these diverse disciplines. This study investigated the recommended competencies for health and medical informatics, aiming to develop a framework for use in curricular development. Current health and medical programmes around the world were analysed to assess how these competencies are
Health care leaders emphasize the need to include information technology and informatics concepts in formal education programs, yet integration of informatics into health educational programs has progressed slowly. The AMIA 1999 Spring Congress was held to address informatics educational issues across health professions, including the educational needs in the various health professions, goals for health informatics education, and implementation strategies
For German nurses it is difficult to join training in health informatics besides their professional activity. The authors have successfully established a German nursing informatics summer school in shape of a 5 day intensive curriculum which they offer to German nurses during the summer holidays. The summer school introduces nurses into health informatics and nursing informatics. It targets interested nursing staff, nurse executives, and nurse teachers. It promotes self learning abilities for continued self education of the participants. One of its goals is to enable participants to formulate their own requirements in health information processing and to influence system design and system introduction. The paper presents the curriculum, talks about first experiences, and demonstrates the results of an evaluation among the participants. Conclusions are drawn in a set of statements on informatics education of nurses. PMID:10725038
Schultze-Mosgau, S; Thorwarth, W M; Grabenbauer, G G; Amann, K; Zielinski, T; Lochner, J; Zenk, J
We studied the structure, process, and subjective meaning of "morning report," a time-honored, medical teaching conference attended by faculty, house officers, and students at a pediatric teaching hospital. Methods included participant observation, focused interviews, and content analyses. Results showed substantial variation by rank in behavior, perception, and participation based on a highly structured division of labor. The most frequent suggestion for improving morning report was to shorten it. Data indicate that morning report, at least at our study site, is out of step with current learner-centered models, seems perfunctory, and may be costly in the current climate of decreased revenues and downsizing. The persistence of morning report, despite these liabilities, attests to its significance as a cultural event. PMID:9191734
High-fidelity simulation using lifelike mannequins has been used to teach medical and aviation students, but little is known about using this method to educate nurses. The process and methods authors used to develop, implement, and evaluate high-fidelity simulation experiences in an acute/critical care elective for senior nursing students are described. Authors share their insight, experiences, and lessons learned, along with practical information and a framework, in developing simulations and debriefing. PMID:16030454
Research in oceanography - and other multidisciplinary sciences - proceeds along three major lines: field observation, field and laboratory experimentation, and modeling. Data management and informatics have been an after-thought - if considered at all. More recently, the need for comprehensive scientific understanding, which forms the foundation for ecosystem-based management, has required the integration of oceanographic, fisheries, and other marine environmental data, as well as the development of analysis and assessment tools. Exponential increase in data sources and the proliferation and distributed nature of databases have created a fourth new and important line of marine research. Data management and informatics is now on par with lines of oceanographic research. Research priorities in this new field include approaches to rapid and efficient data acquisition, enhanced data management, more effective data utilization and reuse, and improved data visualization. Also, barriers or structural impediments to the free and open dissemination of data and information must be eliminated wherever possible. A critical proximate goal is to foster data discovery through enhanced metadata and common vocabularies. An ultimate goal is to create a cyberinfrastructure for oceanography that enables open, transparent, interoperable access to data and information, regardless of their location.
Clinical skills program as a laboratory method is a valuable adjunct to other forms of undergraduate medical training. This article describes the process of developing a core curriculum in clinical skills based on the Dundee model for a clinical skills centre. The School of Medical Sciences, in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) has been provided with a well equipped skills centre. However, the PBL curriculum in the undergraduate medical program in the school needs to be integrated with a clinical skills lab program. This is to counter the general feeling that the contribution of PBL is insignificant in terms of building clinical competency in an integrated system such as that used in USM compared to the traditional curriculi of other medical teaching institutions in Malaysia. Integrating clinical skills laboratory training with the PBL curriculum will provide evidence of PBL as an effective and innovative method for teaching and learning in Malaysia.
Advances in informatics, particularly the implementation of electronic health records (EHR), in dentistry have facilitated the exchange of information. The majority of dental schools in North America use the same EHR system, providing an unprecedented opportunity to integrate these data into a repository that can be used for oral health education and research. In 2007, fourteen dental schools formed the Consortium for Oral Health-Related Informatics (COHRI). Since its inception, COHRI has established structural and operational processes, governance and bylaws, and a number of work groups organized in two divisions: one focused on research (data standardization, integration, and analysis), and one focused on education (performance evaluations, virtual standardized patients, and objective structured clinical examinations). To date, COHRI (which now includes twenty dental schools) has been successful in developing a data repository, pilot-testing data integration, and sharing EHR enhancements among the group. This consortium has collaborated on standardizing medical and dental histories, developing diagnostic terminology, and promoting the utilization of informatics in dental education. The consortium is in the process of assembling the largest oral health database ever created. This will be an invaluable resource for research and provide a foundation for evidence-based dentistry for years to come.
Stark, Paul C.; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; White, Joel M.; Walji, Muhammad F.; Stewart, Denice C.L.; Kimmes, Nicole; Meng, Thomas R.; Willis, George P.; DeVries, Ted; Chapman, Robert J.
In this paper, we review the results of BIOINFOMED, a study funded by the European Commission (EC) with the purpose to analyse the different issues and challenges in the area where Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics meet. Traditionally, Medical Informatics has been focused on the intersection between computer science and clinical medicine, whereas Bioinformatics have been predominantly centered on the intersection between computer science and biological research. Although researchers from both areas have occasionally collaborated, their training, objectives and interests have been quite different. The results of the Human Genome and related projects have attracted the interest of many professionals, and introduced new challenges that will transform biomedical research and health care. A characteristic of the 'post genomic' era will be to correlate essential genotypic information with expressed phenotypic information. In this context, Biomedical Informatics (BMI) has emerged to describe the technology that brings both disciplines (BI and MI) together to support genomic medicine. In recognition of the dynamic nature of BMI, institutions such as the EC have launched several initiatives in support of a research agenda, including the BIOINFOMED study. PMID:15016384
BACKGROUND: The clinical interactive role of medical microbiologists has been underestimated and the discipline is perceived as being confined to the laboratory. Previous studies have shown that most microbiology interaction takes place over the telephone. AIM: To determine the proportion of clinical ward based and laboratory based telephone interactions and specialties using a microbiology service. METHODS: Clinical microbiology activity that
S. L. Wooster; J. A. Sandoe; J. K. Struthers; K. W. Loudon; M. R. Howard
Susannah Tringe of the DOE Joint Genome Institute talks about the Program Overview and Program Informatics at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011
The theme chosen for the 2001 American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) Annual Symposium, which was the 25th anniversary of the Symposium, was 'AMIA 2001: A Medical Informatics Odyssey - Envisioning the Future, Lessons from the Past'. The Symposium ...
There were three schools of medicine in Mexico at the beginning of the Independence time where the doctors and surgeons could learn. In the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Mexico, the most ancient and traditional, the humoral model balance based on medieval knowledge and scholastic method was the rule. At the end of the XVIII century, the Nueva España enrollment in the Illustration movement, this led to an opening period and development of the scientific world. Botany was incorporated to curriculum in medicine school and the students could through the courses of the Surgery College approached to new medical theories and other teaching model without restrictions. PMID:20929619
Objectives: Constructing an answerable question and effectively searching the medical literature are key steps in practicing evidence-based medicine (EBM). This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of delivering a single workshop in EBM literature searching skills to medical students entering their first clinical years of study. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with third-year undergraduate medical students. Participants were randomized to participate in a formal workshop in EBM literature searching skills, with EBM literature searching skills and perceived competency in EBM measured at one-week post-intervention via the Fresno tool and Clinical Effectiveness and Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire. Results: A total of 121 participants were enrolled in the study, with 97 followed-up post-intervention. There was no statistical mean difference in EBM literature searching skills between the 2 groups (mean difference?=?0.007 (P?=?0.99)). Students attending the EBM workshop were significantly more confident in their ability to construct clinical questions and had greater perceived awareness of information resources. Conclusions: A single EBM workshop did not result in statistically significant changes in literature searching skills. Teaching and reinforcing EBM literature searching skills during both preclinical and clinical years may result in increased student confidence, which may facilitate student use of EBM skills as future clinicians.
Academic translational and clinical research in the US faces serious obstacles. Dickler and colleagues outline the Association of American Medical Colleges recommendations for overcoming those barriers.
In recent years nursing documentation has been one of the most important development areas of nursing informatics (NI) in Finland. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of the nurse educators' competences in nursing documentation during a project called eNNI. The eNNI project (2008-2010) was a cooperative project by nurse educators and working life experts. The goal of the project was to implement the national documentation model and thereby improve operational processes at workplaces. The study includes pre- and post-test questioning of NI applications with a web-based questionnaire (n=136). The data were analyzed with distribution, cross-tabulations and average tests and descriptive statistic multivariate method. According to the results, the ICT skills of the nurse educators were good at the end of the project, and they had good information literacy competence. On the other hand, their advanced NI skills left room for improvement. PMID:22874332
The purpose of this study was to compare academic performance between distance-learning and on-campus health informatics students. A quantitative causal-comparative research design was utilized, and academic performance was measured by final GPA scores and Registered Health Information Administrator certification exam scores. Differences in previous academic performance between the two groups were also determined by comparing overall admission GPA and math/science admission GPA. The researchers found no difference in academic performance between the two groups when final GPA scores and total certification scores were compared. However, there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in 4 of the 17 sub-domains of the certification examination, with the on-campus students scoring slightly higher than the distance students. Correlation studies were also performed, and the researchers found significant correlations between overall admission GPA, math/science admission GPA, final GPA, and certification scores. PMID:18458788
The purpose of this study was to compare academic performance between distance-learning and on-campus health informatics students. A quantitative causal-comparative research design was utilized, and academic performance was measured by final GPA scores and Registered Health Information Administrator certification exam scores. Differences in previous academic performance between the two groups were also determined by comparing overall admission GPA and math/science admission GPA. The researchers found no difference in academic performance between the two groups when final GPA scores and total certification scores were compared. However, there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in 4 of the 17 sub-domains of the certification examination, with the on-campus students scoring slightly higher than the distance students. Correlation studies were also performed, and the researchers found significant correlations between overall admission GPA, math/science admission GPA, final GPA, and certification scores.
Farm animal genomics is of interest to a wide audience of researchers because of the utility derived from understanding how genomics and proteomics function in various organisms. Applications such as xenotransplantation, increased livestock productivity, bioengineering new materials, products and even fabrics are several reasons for thriving farm animal genome activity. Currently mined in rapidly growing data warehouses, completed genomes of chicken, fish and cows are available but are largely stored in decentralized data repositories. In this paper, we provide an informatics primer on farm animal bioinformatics and genome project resources which drive attention to the most recent advances in the field. We hope to provide individuals in biotechnology and in the farming industry with information on resources and updates concerning farm animal genome projects.
Fadiel, Ahmed; Anidi, Ifeanyi; Eichenbaum, Kenneth D.
This article discusses the ongoing development of a health informatics capstone program in a Midwest university from the hiring of a program coordinator to the development of a capstone course, through initial student results. University health informatics programs require a strong academic program to be successful but also require a spirited program coordinator to manage resources and organize an effective capstone course. This is particularly true of health informatics master's programs that support health industry career fields, whereby employers can locate and work with a pool of qualified applicants. The analysis of students' logs confirms that students' areas of focus and concern are consistent with course objectives and company work requirements during the work-study portion of the student capstone project. The article further discusses lessons learned and future improvements to be made in the health informatics capstone course. PMID:22783150
Text Version... Dianne Weber Office of Business Informatics (OBI) Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Page 2. ... Page 6. Business Operations Qualifier ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess
Abstract People and organizational issues are critical in both implementing medical informatics systems and in dealing with the altered organizations that new systems often create. The people and organizational issues area—like medical informatics itself—is a blend of many disciplines. The academic disciplines of psychology, sociology, social psychology, social anthropology, organizational behavior and organizational development, management, and cognitive sciences are rich with research with significant potential to ease the introduction and on-going use of information technology in today's complex health systems. These academic areas contribute research data and core information for better understanding of such issues as the importance of and processes for creating future direction; managing a complex change process; effective strategies for involving individuals and groups in the informatics effort; and effectively managing the altered organization. This article reviews the behavioral and business referent disciplines that can potentially contribute to improved implementations and on-going management of change in the medical informatics arena.
Lorenzi, Nancy M.; Riley, Robert T.; Blyth, Andrew J. C.; Southon, Gray; Dixon, Bradley J.
This essay assesses the principal literature published on the theory of information science during 1971-1976. This literature is compared to the article, 'From Information Science to Informatics: A Terminological Investigation,' by Hans Wellisch. What has...
Background: Regular student evaluations at the Technical University Munich indicate the necessity for improvement of the clinical examination course. The aim of this study was to examine if targeted measures to restructure and improve a clinical examination course session lead to a higher level of student satisfaction as well as better self-assessment of the acquired techniques of clinical examination. Methods: At three medical departments of the Technical University Munich during the 2010 summer semester, the quantitative results of 49 student evaluations (ratings 1-6, German scholastic grading system) of the clinical examination course were compared for a course before and a course after structured measures for improvement. These measures included structured teaching instructions, handouts and additional material from the Internet. Results: 47 evaluations were completed before and 34 evaluations after the measures for improvement. The measures named above led to a significant improvement of the evaluative ratings in the following areas: short introduction to the topic of each clinical examination course (from 2.4±1.2 to1.7±1.0; p=0.0020) and to basic measures of hygiene (from 3.8±1.9 to 2.5±1.8; p=0.004), structured demonstration of each clinical examination step (from 2.9±1.5 to 1.8±1.0; p=0.001), sufficient practice of each clinical examination step (from 3.1±1.8 to 2.2±1.4; p=0.030) structured feedback on each clinical examination step (from 3.0±1.4 to 2.3±1.0; p=0.0070), use of handouts (from 5.2±1.4 to 1.8±1.4; p<0.001), advice on additional learning material (from 5.0±1.4 to 3.4±2.0; p<0.001), general learning experience (from 2.4±0.9 to 1.9±0.8; p=0.017), and self-assessment of the acquired techniques of clinical examination (from 3.5±1.3 to 2.5±1.1; p<0.01). Conclusion: Structured changes led to significant improvement in the evaluative ratings of a clinical examination course session concerning preparation of the tutors, structure of the course, and confidence in performing physical examinations.
|The course "Management of Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders" is an applied physiology course taught using lectures and paper-based cases. The course approaches fluid therapy from both basic science and clinical perspectives. While paper cases provide a basis for application of basic science concepts, they lack key components of genuine clinical…
Rawson, Richard E.; Dispensa, Marilyn E.; Goldstein, Richard E.; Nicholson, Kimberley W.; Vidal, Noni Korf
Presents the final report of a panel convened by the Association of American Medical College's Mission-based Management Program to examine use of metrics (i.e., measures) in assessing faculty and departmental contributions to clinical mission. Discusses methods of measuring and comparing clinical effort, commonly used metrics, development of…
D'Alessandri, Robert M.; Albertsen, Peter; Atkinson, Barbara F.; Dickler, Robert M.; Jones, Robert F.; Kirch, Darrell G.; Longnecker, David E.; McAnarney, Elizabeth R.; Parisi, Valerie M.; Selby, Stephen E.; Stapczynski, J. Stephen; Thompson, Jerome W.; Wasserman, Alan G.; Zuza, Karen L.
A methodology is presented for examining activities of medical students on multisite clinical clerkships in obstetrics and gynecology. Five variables are explored: distribution of student activities, type or class of clinical conditions encountered, degree of "esoterism" of those conditions, type of student role, and flexibility of student role.…
The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and the John A. Hartford Foundation published geriatrics competencies for medical students in 2008 defining specific knowledge and skills that medical students should be able to demonstrate before graduation. Medical schools, often with limited geriatrics faculty resources, face challenges in teaching and assessing these competencies. As an initial step to facilitate more-efficient implementation of the competencies, a 1-week geriatrics rotation was developed for the third year using clinical, community, and self-directed learning resources. The Wake Forest University School of Medicine Acute Care for the Elderly Unit serves as home base, and each student selects a half-day outpatient or long-term care experience. Students also perform a home-based falls-risk assessment with a Meals-on-Wheels client. The objectives for the rotation include 20 of the 26 individual AAMC competencies and specific measurable tracking tasks for seven individual competencies. In the evaluation phase, 118 students completed the rotation. Feedback was positive, with an average rating of 7.1 (1 = worst, 10 = best). Students completed a 23-item pre- and post-knowledge test, and average percentage correct improved by 15% (P < .001); this improvement persisted at graduation (2 years after the pretest). On a 12-item survey of attitudes toward older adults, improvement was observed immediately after the rotation that did not persist at graduation. Ninety-seven percent of students documented completion of the competency-based tasks. This article provides details of development, structure, evaluation, and lessons learned that will be useful for other institutions considering a brief, concentrated geriatrics experience in the third year of medical school. PMID:23710572
Atkinson, Hal H; Lambros, Ann; Davis, Brooke R; Lawlor, Janice S; Lovato, James; Sink, Kaycee M; Demons, Jamehl L; Lyles, Mary F; Watkins, Franklin S; Callahan, Kathryn E; Williamson, Jeff D
As new directions and priorities emerge in health care, nursing informatics leaders must prepare to guide the profession appropriately. To use an analogy, where a road bends or changes directions, guideposts indicate how drivers can stay on course. The AMIA Nursing Informatics Working Group (NIWG) produced this white paper as the product of a meeting convened: 1) to describe anticipated nationwide changes in demographics, health care quality, and health care informatics; 2) to assess the potential impact of genomic medicine and of new threats to society; 3) to align AMIA NIWG resources with emerging priorities; and 4) to identify guideposts in the form of an agenda to keep the NIWG on course in light of new opportunities. The anticipated societal changes provide opportunities for nursing informatics. Resources described below within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the National Committee for Health and Vital Statistics (NCVHS) can help to align AMIA NIWG with emerging priorities. The guideposts consist of priority areas for action in informatics, nursing education, and research. Nursing informatics professionals will collaborate as full participants in local, national, and international efforts related to the guideposts in order to make significant contributions that empower patients and providers for safer health care. PMID:17068358
|Objective: To compare simulator-based teaching with traditional instruction among clinical medical students. Methods: Randomized controlled trial with written pre-post testing. Third-year medical students (n = 38) received either a myocardial infarction (MI) simulation followed by a reactive airways disease (RAD) lecture, or a RAD simulation…
Gordon, James A.; Shaffer, David W.; Raemer, Daniel B.; Pawlowski, John; Hurford, William E.; Cooper, Jeffrey B.
Objective: To compare simulator-based teaching with traditional instruction among clinical medical students. Methods: Randomized controlled trial with written pre-post testing. Third-year medical students (n = 38) received either a myocardial infarction (MI) simulation followed by a reactive airways disease (RAD) lecture, or a RAD simulation…
Gordon, James A.; Shaffer, David W.; Raemer, Daniel B.; Pawlowski, John; Hurford, William E.; Cooper, Jeffrey B.
To identify ethical issues that interns encounter in their clinical education and thus build a more empirical basis for the required contents of the clinical ethics curriculum.\\u000aThe authors analyzed a total of 522 required case reports on ethical dilemmas experienced by interns from September 1995 to May 1999 at the medical school of Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. They identified
Marli Huijer; Leeuwen van Evert; Annette Boenink; Gerrit Kimsma
In the Region Vastra Gotaland (VGR), Sweden, sharing of data from 4 PACS system has been done through the Radiology Information Infrastructure that where deployed in 2007, and during 2008 and 2009 also including the information obtained from three different RIS systems installed in the region. The RIS information stored in the Radiology Information Infrastructure is Structured Reports (SR) objects that derivatives from the regional information model. In practice, the Enterprise solution now offers new ways of social collaboration through information sharing within a region. Interoperability was developed according to the IHE mission, i.e. applying standards such as digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) and Health Level 7 (HL7) to address specific clinical communication needs and support optimal patient care. Applying standards and information has shown to be suitable for interoperability, but not appropriate for implementing social collaboration i.e. first and second opinion, as there is no user services related to the standards. The need for social interaction leads to a common negotiated interface and in contrary with interoperability the approach will be a common defined semantic model. Radiology informatics is the glue between the technical standards, information models,semantics, social ruleworks and regulations used within radiology and their customers to share information and services.
Ontological engineering is one of the most challenging topics in biomedical informatics because of its key role in integrating the heterogeneous database used by biomedical information services. Ontology can translate concepts and their real-world relationships into expressions that can be processed by computer programs or web services, providing a unique taxonomic frame to describe a pathway for extracting, processing, storing, and retrieving information. In developing clinical functional neuroimaging, which requires the integration of heterogeneous information derived from multimodal measurement of the brain, these features will be indispensable. Neuroimaging ontology is remarkable in that it requires detailed description of the hypothesis, the paradigm employed, and a scheme for data generation. Neuroimaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroencephalography (EEG), and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), share similar application purposes, imaging protocol, analyzing methods, and data structure; semantic gaps that remain among the modalities will be bridged as ontology develops. High-performance, global resource information database (GRID) computing and the applications organized as service-oriented computing (SOC) will support the heavy processing to integrate the heterogeneous neuroimaging system. We have been developing such a distributed intelligent neuroimaging system for real-time fMRI analysis, called BAXGRID, and a neuroimaging database. The fMRI ontology of this system will be integrated with established medical ontologies, such as the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). PMID:18827457
Nakai, Toshiharu; Bagarinao, Epifanio; Tanaka, Yoshio; Matsuo, Kayako; Racoceanu, Daniel
OBJECTIVE: With the increased routine use of advanced imaging in clinical diagnosis and treatment, it has become imperative to provide patients with a means to view and understand their imaging studies. We illustrate the feasibility of a patient portal that automatically structures and integrates radiology reports with corresponding imaging studies according to several information orientations tailored for the layperson. METHODS: The imaging patient portal is composed of an image processing module for the creation of a timeline that illustrates the progression of disease, a natural language processing module to extract salient concepts from radiology reports (73% accuracy, F1 score of 0.67), and an interactive user interface navigable by an imaging findings list. The portal was developed as a Java-based web application and is demonstrated for patients with brain cancer. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The system was exhibited at an international radiology conference to solicit feedback from a diverse group of healthcare professionals. There was wide support for educating patients about their imaging studies, and an appreciation for the informatics tools used to simplify images and reports for consumer interpretation. Primary concerns included the possibility of patients misunderstanding their results, as well as worries regarding accidental improper disclosure of medical information. CONCLUSIONS: Radiologic imaging composes a significant amount of the evidence used to make diagnostic and treatment decisions, yet there are few tools for explaining this information to patients. The proposed radiology patient portal provides a framework for organizing radiologic results into several information orientations to support patient education. PMID:23739614
Arnold, Corey W; McNamara, Mary; El-Saden, Suzie; Chen, Shawn; Taira, Ricky K; Bui, Alex A T
Background Development of students' teaching skills is increasingly recognised as an important component of UK undergraduate medical curricula and, in consequence, there is renewed interest in the potential benefits of cross-year peer tutoring. Whilst several studies have described the use of cross-year peer tutoring in undergraduate medical courses, its use in the clinical setting is less well reported, particularly the effects of peer tutoring on volunteer tutors' views of teachers and teaching. This study explored the effects of participation in a cross-year peer tutoring programme in clinical examination skills ('OSCE tutor') on volunteer tutors' own skills and on their attitudes towards teachers and teaching. Methods Volunteer tutors were final year MBChB students who took part in the programme as part of a Student Selected Component (SSC). Tutees were year 3 MBChB students preparing for their end of year 'OSCE' examination. Pre and post participation questionnaires, including both Likert-type and open response questions, were used. Paired data was compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. All tests were two-tailed with 5% significance level. Results Tutors reflected their cohort in terms of gender but were drawn from among the more academically successful final year students. Most had previous teaching experience. They were influenced to participate in 'OSCE tutor' by a desire to improve their own teaching and associated generic skills and by contextual factors relating to the organisation or previous experience of the OSCE tutor programme. Issues relating to longer term career aspirations were less important. After the event, tutors felt that participation had enhanced their skills in various areas, including practical teaching skills, confidence in speaking to groups and communication skills; and that as a result of taking part, they were now more likely to undertake further teacher training and to make teaching a major part of their career. However, whilst a number of students reported that their views of teachers and teaching had changed as a result of participation, this did not translate into significant changes in responses to questions that explored their views of the roles and qualities required of a good clinical teacher. Conclusion Findings affirm the benefits to volunteer tutors of cross-year peer tutoring, particularly in terms of skills enhancement and reinforcement of positive attitudes towards future teaching responsibilities, and have implications for the design and organisation of such programmes.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a problem of major medical and socioeconomic significance, although the pathogenesis of its sequelae is not completely understood. As part of a large, multi-center project to study mild and moderate TBI, a database and informatics system to integrate a wide-range of clinical, biological, and imaging data is being developed. This database constitutes a systems-based approach to TBI with the goals of developing and validating biomarker panels that might be used to diagnose brain injury, predict clinical outcome, and eventually develop improved therapeutics. This paper presents the architecture for an informatics system that stores the disparate data types and permits easy access to the data for analysis.
Alaoui, Adil; Kim, Dongkyu; Levine, Betty; Cleary, Kevin; Federoff, Howard J.; Mhyre, Timothy
Background: Hypertension in Nigeria is a widespread problem of immense social and economic importance because of its high prevalence and the severity of its complications. Aim: To define the morbidity and mortality pattern of hypertension at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Method: Records of all patients admitted to the medical wards of the UPTH over a 5-year period with essential hypertension or any of its complications were retrieved from the ward and medical records and reviewed. Result: A total of 780 hypertensive patients were reviewed, constituting 28.2% of all medical admissions. Only 424 (15.2%) had complete records and were analyzed. Record keeping was poor. There were 173 (41%) males and 251 (59%) females with a male to female ratio of 1:1.5. The ages ranged from 18 years to 100 years with a mean of 56.5 ± 16.2. Stroke was responsible for 169 (39.9%) hypertensive complications. Heart failure occurred in 97 (22%) cases while renal failure and encephalopathy accounted for 40 (9.4%) and 7 (1.7%) hypertensive complications respectively. There were 99 deaths out of which 51 (51.5%) were due to stroke, 14 (14.12%) were due to heart failure, and 12 (12.1%) were due to renal failure. Conclusion: The contribution of systemic hypertension to the morbidity and mortality of adults at UPTH is quite significant.
The Vanderbilt University paper discusses how the Eskind Biomedical Library at Vanderbilt University Medical Center transitioned from a simplistic approach that linked resources to the institutional electronic medical record system, StarPanel, to a value-added service that is designed to deliver highly relevant information. Clinical teams formulate complex patient-specific questions via an evidence-based medicine literature request basket linked to individual patient records. The paper transitions into discussing how the StarPanel approach acted as a springboard for two additional projects that use highly trained knowledge management librarians with informatics expertise to integrate evidence into both order sets and a patient portal, MyHealth@Vanderbilt.
Giuse, Nunzia B; Williams, Annette M; Giuse, Dario A
Nurse educators are finding it increasingly more challenging to prepare undergraduate students for the ever-changing and more acute clinical environment. As an answer to this dilemma, the human patient simulator can provide students with the opportunity to enhance knowledge, to facilitate skill acquisition, to decrease anxiety, and to promote clinical judgment in a safe environment. These experiences assist the novice nursing student to progress to the advanced beginner stage of practice. This article describes how faculty used the human patient simulator in creating a case scenario that enhanced critical thinking in senior nursing students. PMID:16166827
BACKGROUND: Medical students are rarely taught how to integrate communication and clinical reasoning. Not understanding the relation\\u000a between these skills may lead students to undervalue the connection between psychosocial and biomedical aspects of patient\\u000a care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To improve medical students’ communication and clinical reasoning and their appreciation of how these skills interrelate\\u000a in medical practice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: In 2003, we conducted
Donna M. Windish; Eboni G. Price; Sarah L. Clever; Jeffrey L. Magaziner; Patricia A. Thomas
|Describes student-led research projects conducted at the University of Florida's General Clinical Research Center. First-year medical and M.D.-Ph.D. students collaborate on a hypothesis-driven experiment involving students as volunteer subjects and investigators. Feedback indicates students find the program useful and that it encourages pursuit…
Stacpoole, Peter W.; Fisher, Waldo R.; Flotte, Terence R.; Geiser, Edward A.; Theriaque, Douglas W.; Hutson, Alan D.
Little is known about the effectiveness of clinical courses as a learning environment. To accurately assess performance in these courses, equal conditions for all candidates are required. We investigated the influence of the proximity of the course to the students test taking, the students’ learning styles, and their self-motivation for learning in relation to performance success. One hundred and eleven
A. A. Dünne; S. Zapf; H. M. Hamer; B. J. Folz; G. Käuser; M. R. G. Fischer
A questionnaire was sent to 114 graduate schools with doctoral programs in clinical psychology to gain some measure of the perceived need and importance of pain as an area of training for psychologists and to assess current educational efforts in this area. Of the 59 programs responding to the questionnaire, 13 offered a course in pain management and 46 did
BACKGROUND: Deficits in clinical microbiology infrastructure exacerbate global infectious disease burdens. This paper examines how commodity computation, communication, and measurement products combined with open-source analysis and communication applications can be incorporated into laboratory medicine microbiology protocols. Those commodity components are all now sourceable globally. An informatics model is presented for guiding the use of low-cost commodity components and free software
National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Briefing to the 1st Joint NCAB/BSA Meeting George A. Komatsoulis, Ph.D. Director (interim) NCIP and the NCI Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (CBIIT) • Activities encompassed
Effective interpersonal communication skills are needed for pharmacists to deliver patient-centered care. To achieve this outcome with pharmacists, communication skills are emphasized in pharmacy school in required coursework, such as a clinical communication course. One important concept to include in communication coursework is content on perceptions because perceptions influence communication interactions. Specific emphasis should include a focus on self-perceptions and self-concept, because related empirical literature demonstrates that accurate academic self-concepts predict academic success. These results were extrapolated to a pharmacy clinical communications course where a lecture and laboratory series was designed to emphasize self-concept and facilitate communication skills improvement. The instructional design of this series promoted the advancement of students’ communication skills by using communication inventories, self-reflection activities, peer and class discussion, and lecture content. Class discussions, self-reflections, and baseline, and follow-up counseling activities throughout the semester provided evidence of improvements.
Between 1977 and 1981, 3089 patients attended the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Zaria, northern Nigeria. The male-to-female ratio of attenders was 6:1. Postpubertal gonorrhoea accounted for 28.1% of cases, non-specific genital infections for 22.4%, and syphilis for 1.2%. Illiteracy, polygamy, the purdah system, widespread prostitution, and inadequate facilities are factors aiding the spread of these diseases in northern
Public health surveillance is the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data regarding a health-related event for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health by effective response management and coordination. As new pressures for early detection of disease outbreaks have arisen, particularly for outbreaks of possible bioterrorism (BT) origin, and as electronic health data have become increasingly available, so has the demand for public health situation awareness systems. Although these systems are valuable for early warning of public health emergencies, there remains the cost of developing and managing such large and complex systems and of investigating inevitable false alarms. Whether these systems are dependable and cost effective enough and can demonstrate a significant and indispensable role in detection or prevention of mass casualty events of BT origin remains to be proven. This article will focus on the complexities of design, analysis, implementation and evaluation of public health surveillance and situation awareness systems and, in some cases, will discuss the key technologies being studied in Center for Biosecurity Informatics Research at University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston.
Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Smith, Jack W.; Madjid, Mohammad; Casscells, Samuel W.; Lillibridge, Scott R.
Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics is the academic discipline that informs rational prescribing of medicines. There is accumulating evidence that a significant minority of prescriptions in the UK National Health Service contain errors. This comes at a time when the approach to and success of undergraduate education in this area has been called into question. Various stakeholders are now in agreement that this challenging area of undergraduate education needs to be strengthened. The principles that should form the basis of future educational strategy include greater visibility of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics in the curriculum, clear learning outcomes that are consistent with national guidance, strong and enthusiastic leadership, a student formulary, opportunities to practice prescribing, a robust assessment of prescribing competencies and external quality control. Important new developments in the UK are Prescribe, a repository of e-learning materials to support education in clinical pharmacology and prescribing, and the Prescribing Skills Assessment, a national online assessment designed to allow medical students to demonstrate that they have achieved the core competencies required to begin postgraduate training.
Established in mid-2011 by the NCAB, the IWG is charged with providing strategic guidance and direction on NCI informatics investments that support the Institute’s scientific goals. The IWG provides a venue for identifying high-priority biomedical informatics needs, harmonizing ongoing and proposed informatics projects across NCI programs, both intramural and extramural, and reducing redundancies wherever possible.
In this article, changes in Mathematics for Informatics at the Faculty of Organisation and Informatics in the University of Zagreb are described, and correlated with students pass rates. Students at the Faculty work in an interdisciplinary field, studying Informatics within a business context. The main reason for introducing the changes in the curriculum and its delivery, reflecting internal pressures, was
Health informatics is one of the nation's largest growth industries. With the government's increasing interest in electronic health records and growing investment by healthcare organizations in technology, there is a large demand for a health informatics and health information technology workforce. To protect health information systems, it is highly important for health informatics professionals to be well educated and trained
With the rapid development of computer technology, informatization prominently has an increasing influence on the creativity of enterprises increasingly. But the great risks of informatization have not been effectively learnt or controlled. By analyzing the informationize process of a typical company in china, the author suggests an indicator system for identifying the boundaries of risks in informatization as well as
Informatics technologies have radically changed number of systems including health, entertainment, economics, business and education. Informatics technologies use is crucial especially in education. Internet and distance learning, two instances for informatics technologies in education. Preschool and primary school teachers believe that computer and related technologies are useful in the process of speedup the information retrieval and improve the recognition and
In this study, in order to improve the teaching effects in clinical medicine courses, multimedia teaching and traditional teaching were combined in operation programme in nursing major. One hundred and two undergraduates majoring in nursing were distributed randomly into two groups, i.e., the case group and the control group. The case group was administrated in traditional teaching method, while combined
Background: Tobacco addiction is an important public health issue. It is important for health professional to counsel the tobacco users for cessation. Aim: To enhance communication skills of MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery) students in counseling of tobacco users by using interactive teaching methods and examine it by using OSCE. Materials and Methods: It was a before and after comparison study. Communication skills of students were examined by standardized patients (investigators) by objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) method before and after intervention. All the students were trained to enhance the communication skills by role play, interactive session, anecdotes. Statistical analysis was done by using Paired t-test. Results: The difference in scores at all the 3 stations before and after the intervention and also global scores before and after the intervention was statistically highly significant (P = 0.0001). Conclusion and Recommendation: Communication skills of students in counseling tobacco users improved after they were given role play, interactive session, anecdotes. Similar model can be used to improve the communication/counseling skills in other important health hazards.
Fernandez, Kevin; Pandve, Harshal T.; Debnath, Dhrubajyoti J.
To develop a set of recommendations for authors of qualitative studies in the field of health informatics, we conducted an extensive literature search and also manually checked major journals in the field of biomedical informatics and qualitative research looking for papers, checklists, and guidelines pertaining to assessing and reporting of qualitative studies. We synthesized the found criteria to develop an initial set of reporting recommendations that are particularly relevant to qualitative studies of health information technology systems. This paper presents a preliminary version of these recommendations. We are planning to refine and revise this version using comments and suggestions of experts in evaluation of health informatics applications and publish a detailed set of recommendations. PMID:21893872
Niazkhani, Zahra; Pirnejad, Habibollah; Aarts, Jos; Adams, Samantha; Bal, Roland
Nurses need to be able to use information and communications technology not only to support their own practice, but also to help their patients make best use of it. This article argues that nurses are not currently adequately prepared to work with information and technology through their pre-registration education. Reflecting the lack of nursing informatics expertise, it is recommended that all pre-registration nursing programmes should have access to a nursing informatics specialist. A prescription to meet the informatics needs of the newly qualified nurse is proposed. This places the areas that need to be included in pre-registration education into broad groups that both articulate the competencies that nurses need to develop, and indicate why they are needed, rather than providing context-free checklists of skills. This is presented as a binary scatter chart with two axes, skill to knowledge and technology to information. PMID:19218312
As in other areas of society, the Internet and the World Wide Web are becoming important topics in medical informatics. This is evident from the recent American Medical Informatics Association's 1996 Annual Fall Symposium, where the theme was "Beyond the Superhighway: Exploiting the Internet with Medical Informatics." Of the over 330 papers and abstracts published in the Proceedings, one third dealt with the Internet and/or the Web. In some cases, system developers demonstrated how this technology can do old tasks in new ways. In other cases, researchers described new tasks that are now possible with this technology. Still others examined this technology to show how it can be evaluated and improved. This paper summarizes their accomplishments. PMID:9223034
BACKGROUND: Physicians receive little education about unhealthy alcohol use and as a result patients often do not receive efficacious interventions. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether a free web-based alcohol curriculum would be used by physician educators and whether in-person faculty development would increase its use, confidence in teaching and teaching itself. METHODS: Subjects were physician educators
Daniel P Alford; Jessica M Richardson; Sheila E Chapman; Catherine E Dubé; Robert W Schadt; Richard Saitz
The recently announced White House Materials Genome Initiative provides an exciting challenge to the materials science community. To meet that challenge one needs to address a critical question, namely what is the materials genome? Some guide on how to the answer this question can be gained by recognizing that a ``gene'' is a carrier of information. In the biological sciences, discovering how to manipulate these genes has generated exciting discoveries in fundamental molecular biology as well as significant advances in biotechnology. Scaling that up to molecular, cellular length scales and beyond, has spawned from genomics, fields such as proteomics, metabolomics and essentially systems biology. The ``omics'' approach requires that one needs to discover and track these ``carriers of information'' and then correlate that information to predict behavior. A similar challenge lies in materials science, where there is a diverse array of modalities of materials ``discovery'' ranging from new materials chemistries and molecular arrangements with novel properties, to the development and design of new micro- and mesoscale structures. Hence to meaningfully adapt the spirit of ``genomics'' style research in materials science, we need to first identify and map the ``genes'' across different materials science applications On the experimental side, combinatorial experiments have opened a new approach to generate data in a high throughput manner, but without a clear way to link that to models, the full value of that data is not realized. Hence along with experimental and computational materials science, we need to add a ``third leg'' to our toolkit to make the ``Materials Genome'' a reality, the science of Materials Informatics. In this presentation we provide an overview of how information science coupled to materials science can in fact achieve the goal of mapping the ``Materials Genome''.
The search and design of new materials can be significantly aided by combinatorial experiments. However the key to minimizing the search process in combinatorial experiments is to identify the key combinations that achieve the desired functionality in the class of materials being studied. The concept of virtual combinatorial experiments for materials selection and design strategy is useful to show how one may design combinatorial libraries a priori by integrating data mining techniques with physically robust multivariate data. In this thesis, using crystal chemistry of spinel nitrides as a framework for materials design, the methodology for integrating derived variables using newly proposed mixing rules based on statistical tools such as Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is described. Strategically selecting appropriate quantum mechanical and crystallographic data are used to predict and identify new alloy chemistries, modulus properties, and phase stabilities. This approach is unique in materials design because it overcomes problems of length scale by connecting the microscopic phenomena and macroscopic engineering properties. The integration of the physics based predictions with data mining predictions is used to propose new virtual compounds, especially with higher order or multicomponent chemistries. With the predicted target properties (bulk moduli and phase stabilities) by PLS, correlations between all variables in a created library of binary and ternary spinel nitrides is visualized in the dimensionally reduced structure maps created by PCA. Through these activities, materials informatics plays an important role in guiding the choice of the most promising chemistries that exhibit the desired functionality in the virtual combinatorial libraries of hypothetical materials.
BACKGROUND: Computer-aided diagnosis for screening utilizes computer-based analytical methodologies to process patient information. Glaucoma is the leading irreversible cause of blindness. Due to the lack of an effective and standard screening practice, more than 50% of the cases are undiagnosed, which prevents the early treatment of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To design an automatic glaucoma diagnosis architecture automatic glaucoma diagnosis through medical imaging informatics (AGLAIA-MII) that combines patient personal data, medical retinal fundus image, and patient's genome information for screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 2258 cases from a population study were used to evaluate the screening software. These cases were attributed with patient personal data, retinal images and quality controlled genome data. Utilizing the multiple kernel learning-based classifier, AGLAIA-MII, combined patient personal data, major image features, and important genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) features. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to compare AGLAIA-MII's performance with classifiers using patient personal data, images, and genome SNP separately. AGLAIA-MII was able to achieve an area under curve value of 0.866, better than 0.551, 0.722 and 0.810 by the individual personal data, image and genome information components, respectively. AGLAIA-MII also demonstrated a substantial improvement over the current glaucoma screening approach based on intraocular pressure. CONCLUSIONS: AGLAIA-MII demonstrates for the first time the capability of integrating patients' personal data, medical retinal image and genome information for automatic glaucoma diagnosis and screening in a large dataset from a population study. It paves the way for a holistic approach for automatic objective glaucoma diagnosis and screening. PMID:23538725
Objective To study the effects of using a population-based informatics system for osteoporosis screening and treatment in women aged 65 years or older. Design A population-based informatics system (PRECARES: PREventive CAre REminder System) was implemented to meet the needs of the workflow of a primary care practice. Patients treated in either of two sections of a primary care internal medicine department were selected for the intervention, and patients of a comparable third section served as the control group. PRECARES identified women in the intervention group who were due for osteoporosis screening on the basis of age and who had no record of previous screening in our clinical system. If these eligible patients did not have an upcoming outpatient appointment, appointment secretaries sent a letter requesting that they call to make an appointment for a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan. Measurements At baseline and 3?months after the letters were sent, a database was used to determine the rate of osteoporosis screening in the intervention and control groups. Results A total of 689 patients in the intervention group were sent the letter. Three?months after the letters were sent, the rate of osteoporosis screening was 76.4% (2409/3152) in the intervention group vs 69% (928/1344) in the control group (p<0.001). In the intervention group, 25% of the 689 patients responded to the letter and completed osteoporosis screening. Patients who had osteoporosis screening received appropriate treatment. Conclusion A population-based informatics system for primary care practice significantly improved the rate of osteoporosis screening.
Rahman, Ahmed S; Lin, Eleanor Y; Barnitt, Eric A; Chaudhry, Rajeev
The role of information systems and particularly that of expert systems in medicine is analysed in brief. It is pointed out that, unlike other branches of medicine, in mental sciences the role of expert systems has so far been more limited because of certain intrinsic problems of programming on the one hand, and the scientific models of the psychiatrist on the other. An improvement in information technology and programming languages and better empirical classification of mental disturbances could provide useful bases for the realisation of computerised consultancy systems in mental sciences. PMID:2336024
There are rapid changes occurring in the health care environment. Radiologists face new challenges but also new opportunities. The purpose of this report is to review how new informatics tools and developments can help the radiologist respond to the drive for safety, quality, and efficiency. These tools will be of assistance in conducting research and education. They not only provide greater efficiency in traditional operations but also open new pathways for the delivery of new services and imaging technologies. Our future as a specialty is dependent on integrating these informatics solutions into our daily practice. PMID:24029051
As a multidisciplinary field, medical informatics draws on a range of disciplines, such as computer science, information science, and the social and cognitive sciences. The cognitive sciences can provide important insights into the nature of the processes involved in human– computer interaction and help improve the design of medical information systems by providing insight into the roles that knowledge, memory, and strategies play in a variety of cognitive activities. In this paper, the authors survey literature on aspects of medical cognition and provide a set of claims that they consider to be important in medical informatics.
Patel, Vimla L.; Arocha, Jose F.; Kaufman, David R.
The value of mindfulness-based methods in an undergraduate field placement was investigated in relation to the acquisition of self-care and other basic clinical competencies. The participants were 22 students in an applied behavioral analysis course, which included a mindfulness-based training module, and 20 students enrolled in an experimental psychology course without mindfulness training. The Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale, the Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory, and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills were used as measurements before and after intervention. Mindfulness-trained participants kept records and were asked to share their personal experiences during supervision and an exit interview. Results demonstrated that training significantly increased mindfulness. Qualitative data indicated enhanced self-care, attention to well-being, self-awareness, active involvement acquiring skills, and empathy and compassion. The need to expand the utility of mindfulness to the realm of education and the importance of including comparison groups with other self-care modules for future studies were discussed. PMID:20524546
Often, baccalaureate nursing students initially approach a psychiatric mental health practicum with uncertainty, and even fear. They may feel unprepared for the myriad complex practice situations encountered. In addition, memories of personal painful life events may be vicariously evoked through learning about and listening to the experiences of those diagnosed with mental disorders. When faced with such challenging situations, nursing students often seek counsel from the clinical and/or classroom faculty. Pedagogic boundaries may begin to blur in the face of student distress. For the nurse educator, several questions arise: Should a nurse educator provide counseling to students? How does one best negotiate the boundaries between 'counselor', and 'caring educator'? What are the limits of a caring and professional pedagogic relation? What different knowledges provide guidance and to what differential consequences for ethical pedagogic relationships? This paper offers a comparative analysis of three philosophical stances to examine differences in key assumptions, pedagogic positioning, relationships of power/knowledge, and consequences for professional ethical pedagogic practices. While definitive answers are difficult, the authors pose several questions for consideration in discerning how best to proceed and under what particular conditions. PMID:17718751
This thesis addresses one of the fundamental questions in materials crystal chemistry, namely why do atoms arrange themselves in the way they do? The ability to broadly design and predict new phases [i.e. crystal structures] can be partly met using concepts that employ phase homologies. Homologous series of compounds are those that seem chemically diverse but can be expressed in terms of a mathematical formula that is capable of producing each chemical member in that crystal structure. A well-established strategy to help discover new compounds -- or at least to try to develop chemical design strategies for discovery -- is to search, organize and classify homologous compounds from known data. These classification schemes are developed with the hope that they can provide sufficient insight to help us forecast with some certainty, specific new phases or compounds. Yet, while the classification schemes (over a dozen have been reported in the last 50 years) have proved to be instructive, mostly in hindsight, but they have had limited impact, if at all, on the a priori design of materials chemistry. The aim of this research project is to develop a totally new approach to the study of chemical complexity in materials science using the tools of information theory and data science, which link diverse and high dimensional data derived from physical modeling and experiments. A very large scale binary AB2 crystallographic database is used as a data platform to develop a new data mining/informatics protocol based on high dimensional recursive partitioning schemes coupled to information theoretic measures to: (1) Identify which type of structure prototype is preferred over another for a given chemistry of compound; (2) discover new classification schemes of structure/chemistry/property relationships that classical homologies do not detect and finally we; (3) Extract and organize the underlying design rules for the formation of a given structure by quantitatively assessing the influence of multidimensional electronic structure attributes. Finally some applications of this new approach are demonstrated; including new ways for linking first principles calculations to crystal structure prediction and group theory to crystal structure transition.
Background: Introduction of the HPV vaccine is a forefront primary prevention method in reducing the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. The Malaysia government has implemented the National HPV immunisation programme since 2010, supplying HPV vaccine free to targeted 13 year olds. This study aimed to explore the level of knowledge among mothers on cervical cancer, HPV, HPV vaccine and National HPV (NHPV) immunisation programme since its' implementation. It also assessed acceptance of mothers towards HPV vaccine being administered to their daughter, son or themselves. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 155 respondents using self-administered questionnaires; conducted in December 2012 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic in a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Respondents were selected using a multistage sampling technique. Results: A response rate of 100% was obtained. Overall, 51.0% of mothers had good knowledge, with 55% having good knowledge of cervical cancer, 54.2% for both HPV and the National HPV immunisation programme and 51.0% for the HPV vaccine. Regression analyses showed that ethnicity was associated with knowledge on cervical cancer (p=0.003) while education was associated with knowledge on HPV (p=0.049). Three factors are associated with knowledge of the National HPV immunisation programme; ethnicity (p=0.017), mothers' education (p=0.0005) and number of children (p=0.020). The acceptance of HPV vaccine to be administered among daughter was the highest at 87.1%, followed by for mothers themselves at 73.5%, and the least is for sons 62.6%. Conclusions: This study found that the overall level of knowledge was moderate. Adequate information on cervical cancer, HPV, HPV vaccination and the National HPV immunisation programme should be provided to mothers in order to increase acceptance of the HPV vaccine which can reduce the disease burden in the future. PMID:23803068
Ezat, Sharifa Wan Puteh; Hod, Rozita; Mustafa, Jamsiah; Mohd Dali, Ahmad Zailani Hatta; Sulaiman, Aqmar Suraya; Azman, Azlin
Nurses need to be able to use information and communications technology not only to support their own practice, but also to help their patients make best use of it. This article argues that nurses are not currently adequately prepared to work with information and technology through their pre-registration education. Reflecting the lack of nursing informatics expertise, it is recommended that
Time of information in which the authors live resulted in the increase of the amount of the information exponential growth of the new kind of knowledge, flourishing of the familiar ones and the appearance of the new sciences. Medical (health) informatics occupies the central place in all the segments of modern medicine in the past 30 years—in practical work, education
The distributed medical informatics (DMI) is a unique suite of multimedia telemedicine applications developed by our team. The applications support real-time patients' data, image files, audio and video diagnosis annotation exchanges. The DMI enables joint collaboration between radiologists and physicians while they are at distant geographical locations. The DMI environment consists of heterogeneous, autonomous, and legacy resources. The Common Object
The Biomedical Informatics Research Network is wide breadth project sponsored by the American National Institutes of Health (NIH) to promote the use of modern telecommunication for data exchange and collaboration in brain research. The project is attempting to buid a database and network infrastructure in which neuroscientists will post, query, and analyze raw data, processed data, and the results of
In the early stage of artificial intelligence (AI), AI very closed to then modern cognitive psychology based on the recognition that both computer and human brain are information processing machines meeting the requirements to show intelligence. It seems that the similar trend appears again today between Web Intelligence (WI) and Brain Informatics (BI) based on the recognition that both World
How can community informatics initiatives be sustained? This paper argues that, in the fast moving area of ICT and on the constantly shifting ground of community-sector practice, sustainability depends upon adaptability. We develop the concept of 'learning communities' – as developed by a women's ICT project – to meet the need for democratic, inclusive and on-going innovation in women's organizations
Informatics infrastructure plays a crucial role in supporting different decision making activities related to pharmaceutical product development, pilot plant and commercial scale manufacturing by streamlining information gathering, data integration, model development and managing all these for easy and timely access and reuse. The foundation of such an infrastructure is the explicitly and formally modeled information. This foundation enables knowledge in
Venkat Venkatasubramanian; Chunhua Zhao; Girish Joglekar; Ankur Jain; Leaelaf Hailemariam; Pradeep Suresh; Pavankumar Akkisetty; Ken Morris; Gintaras V. Reklaitis
The life and activities of every man in the period of transition from the second into the third millennium have been marked by epochal changes which appear as the consequence of scientific and technological revolution dominated by highly developed information and communication technology. Informatics and information education based on information…
This paper explains why the microelectronics and computer revolution has become a subject of extraordinary importance for the developing countries, because of the rapidity of technological change and the resulting global impacts on production and consumption. It stresses that a computer and informatics strategy must be developed in the national context, rather than piecemeal, and offers a framework for policy
Today many organizations and University systems are adopting policies that require their professional staff or faculty to create technology-based educational opportunities. However, these individuals often lack the theoretical background to engage in such endeavors. Therefore, the primary goal of this paper is to showcase the most recent stage of an online research-based educational informatics project development guide prototype. This paper
Ann M. Shortridge; Toby De Loght; Benay Dara-Abrams
Ensuring the long-term usability of engineering informatics (EI) artifacts is a challenge, particularly for products with longer lifecycles than the computing hardware and software used for their design and manufacture. Addressing this challenge requires characterizing the nature of EI, defining metrics for EI sustainability, and developing methods for long-term EI curation. In this paper we highlight various issues related to
Objective: The article offers a current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship. Narrative: The authors: (1) discuss how definitions of medical informatics have changed in relation to health sciences librarianship and the broader domain of information science; (2) compare the missions of health sciences librarianship and health sciences informatics, reviewing the characteristics of both disciplines; (3) propose a new definition of health sciences informatics; (4) consider the research agendas of both disciplines and the possibility that they have merged; and (5) conclude with some comments about actions and roles for health sciences librarians to flourish in the biomedical information environment of today and tomorrow. Summary: Boundaries are disappearing between the sources and types of and uses for health information managed by informaticians and librarians. Definitions of the professional domains of each have been impacted by these changes in information. Evolving definitions reflect the increasingly overlapping research agendas of both disciplines. Professionals in these disciplines are increasingly functioning collaboratively as “boundary spanners,” incorporating human factors that unite technology with health care delivery.
The article describes the state and some trends in the development of medical informatics especially regarding the fields of scientific information, knowledge discovery in da- tabases, and the role of standards in data exchange. The ways of publication of scientific documents experienced dramatic changes with the development of the www, hence causing major changes in daily information practice. Con- temporary
Jure Dimec; Emil Hudomalj; Dimitar Hristovski; Gaj Vidmar
The main role of medical and healthcare informatics is the manipulation of medical information and the dissemination of knowledge. The advent of the Web increased the pervasiveness of medical information and attracted the interest of both practitioners and patients. Web 2.0 in its turn brings people together in a more dynamic, interactive space. With new services, applications and devices, it
It is the theme of this paper that for the meaningful application of informatics for developing countries an important pre-requisite is self-reliance. Quite often people cite the example of many countries where, with the help of foreign support and foreig...
As a multidisciplinary field, medical informatics draws on a range of disciplines, such as computer science, information science, and the social and cognitive sciences. The cognitive sciences can provide important insights into the nature of the processes involved in human– computer interaction and help improve the design of medical information systems by providing insight into the roles that knowledge, memory,
The last decade has seen a large explosion of health-related human centered computing research and practice focused on wellness (e.g., good nutrition and exercise promotion) with the intention of helping people avoid needing medical care. And while Health Informatics may appear to be the obvious home for these activities, it is a discipline that has focused on the design, development,
caBIG stands for the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid. It is an open-source, open-access, voluntary information network that will enable cancer researchers to share tools, standards, data, applications, and technologies according to agreed upon common standards and needs.
Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics are disciplines that up to now have followed separate development with few contacts and synergies between them in Europe. The elucidation of the human genome has however evidenced the need and the possibilities for a strong synergy between the two. Classical epidemiological and clinical research on the one hand, and genomic research on the other, separately considered, are no longer enough for advancing in the so-called genomic medicine, and a new integrative approach is required. Biomedical Informatics is the emerging discipline that aims to put these two worlds together so that the discovery and creation of novel diagnostic and therapeutic methods is fostered. On the basis of the results of the European Commission-funded BIOINFOMED Study, an INFOBIOMED Network of Excellence has been recently constituted with the main objective of setting a durable structure for the described collaborative approach at a European level. Initially formed by fifteen renowned European organisations, the main objective of the INFOBIOMED network is therefore to enable the reinforcement of European BMI as an integrative discipline. PMID:15360923
Sanz, Ferran; Diaz, Carlos; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Maojo, Victor
The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) initiative identified 6 competencies for the education of nurses (patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics) and the related knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) for each competency. The initial QSEN focus was on competency development during prelicensure nursing education, with subsequent attention on adapting the KSAs for graduate programs that prepare advanced practice nurses for clinical roles. Description of successful QSEN competency integration in Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs is limited. Although the ultimate goal is executing DNP programs where quality and safety is thoroughly integrated throughout the curricula, the focus of this article is on multimethod teaching strategies to integrate selected QSEN KSAs into an existing online post-master's DNP quality and safety course. PMID:21507440
The introduction of informatics into the national school curriculum in Japan requires changes to educational policy, curricula, methods, facilities, etc. Although the basic functions of the school--i.e., to transmit the culture and to cultivate competencies that will allow a future society to develop--remain unchanged, new technologies change the…
Given the definition of nursing informatics it should be a core activity for all nurses, and seen as a tool to support high quality care giving. Three studies reported in this paper show that this is not the case. Qualified nurses are perceived as having poor skills and knowledge, and as being resistant to IT as it takes them away
For more than twenty years, the Ruth Lilly Medical Library has been a traditional part of the Indiana University School of Medicine curriculum. Recently, following changes to the curriculum, the Library's role has evolved to include responsibility for developing and teaching a Medical Informatics rotation as part of the senior year clerkships. Heavy emphasis is placed on acquiring lifelong learning
Frances A. Brahmi; Susan K. London; Thomas W. Emmett; Allan R. Barclay; Kellie N. Kaneshiro
Background Two of the key steps in evidence based medicine (EBM) are being able to construct a clinical question and effectively search the literature to source relevant information. No evidence currently exists that informs whether such skills should be taught to medical students during their pre-clinical years, or delivered to include both the pre-clinical and clinical years of study. This is an important component of curriculum design as the level of clinical maturity of students can affect their perception of the importance and uptake of EBM principles in practice. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial will be conducted to identify the effectiveness of delivering a formal workshop in EBM literature searching skills to third year medical students entering their clinical years of study. The primary outcome of EBM competency in literature searching skills will be evaluated using the Fresno tool. Discussion This trial will provide novel information on the effectiveness of delivering a formal education workshop in evidence based medicine literature searching skills during the clinical years of study. The result of this study will also identify the impact of teaching EBM literature searching skills to medical students during the clinical years of study.
Purpose Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed genetic research and is poised to revolutionize clinical diagnosis. However, the vast amount of data and inevitable discovery of incidental findings require novel analytic approaches. We therefore implemented for the first time a strategy that utilizes an a priori structured framework and a conservative threshold for selecting clinically relevant incidental findings. Methods We categorized 2016 genes linked with Mendelian diseases into “bins” based on clinical utility and validity, and used a computational algorithm to analyze 80 whole genome sequences in order to explore the use of such an approach in a simulated real-world setting. Results The algorithm effectively reduced the number of variants requiring human review and identified incidental variants with likely clinical relevance. Incorporation of the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) improved the yield for missense mutations, but also revealed that a substantial proportion of purported disease-causing mutations were misleading. Conclusions This approach is adaptable to any clinically relevant bin structure, scalable to the demands of a clinical laboratory workflow, and flexible with respect to advances in genomics. We anticipate that application of this strategy will facilitate pre-test informed consent, laboratory analysis, and post-test return of results in a clinical context.
Berg, Jonathan S.; Adams, Michael; Nassar, Nassib; Bizon, Chris; Lee, Kristy; Schmitt, Charles P.; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.; Evans, James P.
The context for nursing informatics research has changed significantly since the National Institute of Nursing Research-funded Nursing Informatics Re- search Agenda was published in 1993 and the Delphi study of nursing informatics research priorities re- ported a decade ago. The authors focus on 3 specific aspects of context—genomic health care, shifting research paradigms, and social (Web 2.0) technolo- gies—that must
Suzanne Bakken; Patricia W. Stone; Elaine L. Larson
\\u000a Based on enterprise accounting Informatization, this paper focuses on internal control optimization. Firstly, the dialectical\\u000a relationship between accounting Informatization and internal control optimization is studied dialectically. Then, the author\\u000a makes further analysis on current problems about company internal control and proposes new ideas on optimizing internal control\\u000a environment based on accounting Informatization.
In this paper the experience of five years of medical informatics education at the university of Limburg is described. The university of Limburg uses the problem-directed educational system. This system is described. The blocks in Medical Informatics are then presented. Then several program packages that were developed by the department of Medical Informatics of this university are described. Finally the assessment by the students of this type of education is given.
Background: The need for informatics training as part of pathology training has never been so critical, but pathology informatics is a wide and complex field and very few programs currently have the resources to provide comprehensive educational pathology informatics experiences to their residents. In this article, we present the “pathology informatics curriculum wiki”, an open, on-line wiki that indexes the pathology informatics content in a larger public wiki, Wikipedia, (and other online content) and organizes it into educational modules based on the 2003 standard curriculum approved by the Association for Pathology Informatics (API). Methods and Results: In addition to implementing the curriculum wiki at http://pathinformatics.wikispaces.com, we have evaluated pathology informatics content in Wikipedia. Of the 199 non-duplicate terms in the API curriculum, 90% have at least one associated Wikipedia article. Furthermore, evaluation of articles on a five-point Likert scale showed high scores for comprehensiveness (4.05), quality (4.08), currency (4.18), and utility for the beginner (3.85) and advanced (3.93) learners. These results are compelling and support the thesis that Wikipedia articles can be used as the foundation for a basic curriculum in pathology informatics. Conclusions: The pathology informatics community now has the infrastructure needed to collaboratively and openly create, maintain and distribute the pathology informatics content worldwide (Wikipedia) and also the environment (the curriculum wiki) to draw upon its own resources to index and organize this content as a sustainable basic pathology informatics educational resource. The remaining challenges are numerous, but largest by far will be to convince the pathologists to take the time and effort required to build pathology informatics content in Wikipedia and to index and organize this content for education in the curriculum wiki.
Kim, Ji Yeon; Gudewicz, Thomas M.; Dighe, Anand S.; Gilbertson, John R.
\\u000a Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery.\\u000a However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides\\u000a a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care\\u000a delivery, (ii) identifies and
Regina Gyampoh-Vidogah; Robert Moreton; David Sallah
The creation of Faculty of Pharmacy at the University of Ibadan led to the downsizing as well as the relocation of more than 80% of pharmacy books and journals from the medical library to the main campus about 15 km away from the teaching hospital\\/College of Medicine library, where the books were initially housed. This study revealed the hardship and
|Much research has shown the benefits of additional anatomical learning and dissection beyond the first year of medical school human gross anatomy, all the way through postgraduate medical training. We have developed an interactive method for teaching eye and orbit anatomy to medical students in their ophthalmology rotation at Duke University…
Kivell, Tracy L.; Doyle, Sara K.; Madden, Richard H.; Mitchell, Terry L.; Sims, Ershela L.
|Discrete-trials teaching (DTT) is an evidence-based practice used in educational programs for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although there is strong demand for preparing teachers to effectively implement DTT, there is a scarcity of published research on such studies. A multiple baseline across participants design was utilized to…
Garland, Krista Vince; Vasquez, Eleazar, III; Pearl, Cynthia
There are over 40 open source projects in the field of radiology informatics. Because these are organized and written by volunteers, the development speed varies greatly from one project to the next. To keep track of updates, users must constantly check in on each project's Web page. Many projects remain dormant for years, and ad hoc checking becomes both an inefficient and unreliable means of determining when new versions are available. The result is that most end users track only a few projects and are unaware when others that may be more germane to their interests leapfrog in development. RSS feeds provide a machine readable XML format to track software project updates. Currently only 8 of the 40 projects provide RSS feeds for automatic propagation of news updates. We have a built a news aggregation engine around open source projects in radiology informatics.
Nagy, Paul; Daly, Mark; Warnock, Michael; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot
The Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries was established to meet a perceived need for Health Informaticians in developing countries to be able to share the results of their research in an affordable and easy-to-access online publication. The journal was developed using the open source platform "Open Journal System," and has now published 67 articles across 13 issues. A collaborative editorial approach has been established to address the problems of limited research budgets, difficulties with translating to English and other problems specific to authors from developing countries. The journal faces many challenges including ensuring future financial sustainability and inclusion in journal indexing systems. However, the continuing support of an international body of Associate Editors and Editorial Board Members has enabled a wide range of useful and informative health informatics research to be disseminated across the developing world. PMID:24155794
Over the last decades Nanotechnology has promised to advance science and technology in many areas. Within medicine, Nanomedicine promises to deliver new methods for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. As the amount of available information is rapidly growing, new Biomedical Informatics approaches have to be developed to satisfy the increasing demand on data and knowledge management. In 2007, a new sub-discipline, already named "Nanoinformatics", was created with support from the US National Science Foundation. In Europe, a project named ACTION-Grid was launched in 2008 with support from the European Commission to analyze the challenges and agenda for developing Nanoinformatics as a discipline related to Nanotechnology, Biomedicine and Informatics. For MIE 2009, members of this consortium proposed a workshop to discuss the scientific and strategic issues associated with this topic. Nanoinformatics aims to create a bridge between Nanomedicine and Information Technology applying computational methods to manage the information created in the nanomedical domain. PMID:19745461
De La Iglesia, Diana; Chiesa, Stefano; Kern, Josipa; Maojo, Victor; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Potamias, George; Moustakis, Vassilis; Mitchell, Joyce A
The Collaboratory for Multi-scale Chemical Science (CMCS) is developing a powerful informatics-based approach to synthesizing multi-scale information to support a systems-based research approach and is applying it in support of combustion research. An open source multi-scale informatics toolkit is being developed that addresses a number of issues core to the emerging concept of knowledge grids including provenance tracking and lightweight federation of data and application resources into cross-scale information flows. The CMCS portal is currently in use by a number of high-profile pilot groups and is playing a significant role in enabling their efforts to improve and extend community maintained chemical reference information.
Myers, James D.; Allison, Thomas C.; Bittner, Sandra J.; Didier, Brett T.; Frenklach, Michael; Green, William H.; Ho, Yen-Ling; Hewson, John; Koegler, Wendy S.; Lansing, Carina S.; Leahy, David; Lee, Michael; McCoy, Renata; Minkoff, Michael; Nijsure, Sandeep; von Laszewski, Gregor; Montoya, David; Oluwole, Luwi; Pancerella, Carmen M.; Pinzon, Reinhardt; Pitz, William; Rahn, Larry A.; Ruscic, Branko; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.; Wagner, Al; Windus, Theresa L.; Yang, Christine
Patient-centered care is an important aspect of high-quality care. Health informatics, particularly advances in technology, has the potential to facilitate, or detract from, patient-centered cancer care. Informatics can provide a mechanism for patients to provide their clinician(s) with critical information, and to share information with family, friends, and other patients. This information may enable patients to exert greater control over their own care. Clinicians may use information systems (e.g., electronic medical records) to coordinate care and share information with other clinicians. Patients and clinicians may use communication tools and information resources to interact with one another in new ways. Caution in using new information resources is warranted to avoid reliance on biased or inappropriate data, and clinicians may need to direct patients to appropriate information resources. Perhaps the greatest challenge for both patients and providers is identifying information that is high-quality and which enhances (and does not impede) their interactions.
Snyder, Claire F.; Wu, Albert W.; Miller, Robert S.; Jensen, Roxanne E.; Bantug, Elissa T.; Wolff, Antonio C.
I am going to talk about teaching legislation, a class I have taught several times at Georgetown University Law Center, as well as teaching a federal legislation clinic, which I founded ten years ago at the law school. Bill Eskridge has done a wonderful job laying out the different ways one can teach a course in legislation; you will see
A research consortium including Windber Research Institute (WRI), the US Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMDC), the Joyce Murtha Breast Care Center (JMBCC), and the Clinical Breast Care Project (CBCP) Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) has...
A research consortium including Windber Research Institute (WRI), the US Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMDC), the Joyce Murtha Breast Care Center (JMBCC), and the Clinical Breast Care Project (CBCP) Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) has...
A research consortium including Windber Research Institute (WRI), the US Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMDC), the Joyce Murtha Breast Cancer Care Center (JMBCC), and the Clinical Breast Care Project (CBCP) Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRA...
ObjectiveGiven the need for continuing education in medical informatics for mid-career professionals, the authors aimed to implement and evaluate distance learning courses in this area.DesignThe authors performed a needs assessment, content and technology planning, implementation, and student evaluation.MeasurementsThe needs assessment and student evaluations were assessed using a combination of Likert scale and free-form questions.ResultsThe needs assessment indicated much interest in
William R Hersh; Katherine Junium; Mark Mailhot; Patricia Tidmarsh
Major scientific achievements and practical results obtained by Prof. V.G. Meledin and his group at the Institute of Thermophysics\\u000a SB RAS in the field of physical experimental diagnostics and informatics of optoelectronic measurements are revewed. These\\u000a large-scale and productive results are successfully used in various fields of science and technology.\\u000a \\u000a This paper is divided into several sections. These are as
The design-informatics approach has been proposed for next-generation innovative design methodology. The multi- objective problem should be treated in a real-world engineering problem because of the various design requirements. When a multi-objective optimization is implemented, the obtained result is not a sole solution but a set of optimum solutions due to tradeoff relations among design requirements. Therefore, decision-making process is
We present here BIKMAS II - Biomedical Informatics Knowledge Management System- a system that allows to efficiently process and filter scientific information. The system aids and assists in some common tasks carried out in a Biomedical research unit. We have designed BIKMAS-II as a modular system that can be easily adapted to the different information sources and biomedical domains and that has been implemented with an algorithm to discard, to store and to select what to do with the information.
Lopez-Alonso, V.; Moreno, L.; Lopez-Campos, G.; Maojo, V.; Martin-Sanchez, F.
In the era of evidence based medicine documentation of clinical data is extremely important. The field of Health informatics is a discipline at the intersection of information science, computer science and health science. Current health informatics field is mainly catering to the general needs of hospital setups. Development of disease / organ/ specialty based computerized clinical data base is still in its infancy and there is a need for clinicians to actively involve in this field to generate authentic and analyzable clinical data. In this article we present our experience of computerized oncology clinical data base development. PMID:21811362
Concerned about evidence-based health informatics, the authors conducted a limited pilot survey attempting to determine how many IT evaluation studies in health care are never published, and why. A survey distributed to 722 academics had a low response rate, with 136 respondents giving instructive comments on 217 evaluation studies. Of those studies, half were published in international journals, and more than one-third were never published. Reasons for not publishing (with multiple reasons per study possible) included: “results not of interest for others” (1/3 of all studies), “publication in preparation” (1/3), “no time for publication” (1/5), “limited scientific quality of study” (1/6), “political or legal reasons” (1/7), and “study only conducted for internal use” (1/8). Those reasons for non-publication in health informatics resembled those reported in other fields. Publication bias (preference for positive studies) did not appear to be a major issue. The authors believe that widespread application of guidelines in conducting health informatics evaluation studies and utilization of a registry for evaluation study results could improve the evidence base of the field.
We describe a half-day workshop to teach third-year medical students three focused end-of-life care skills: breaking bad news,\\u000a discussing advance directives, and assessing and managing pain. Our workshop included a readers’ theater exercise and three\\u000a role-play exercises. In two of the workshops, faculty members played the role of patients. We used readers’ theater to engage\\u000a the students on an emotional
Alexia M. Torke; Tammie E. Quest; Kathy Kinlaw; J. William Eley; William T. Branch
Abraham Flexner persuaded the medical establishment of his time that teaching the sciences, from basic to clinical, should be a critical component of the medical student curriculum, thus giving rise to the "preclinical curriculum." However, students' retention of basic science material after the preclinical years is generally poor. The authors believe that revisiting the basic sciences in the fourth year can enhance understanding of clinical medicine and further students' understanding of how the two fields integrate. With this in mind, a return to the basic sciences during the fourth year of medical school may be highly beneficial. The purpose of this article is to (1) discuss efforts to integrate basic science into the clinical years of medical student education throughout the United States and Canada, and (2) describe the highly developed fourth-year basic science integration program at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. In their critical review of medical school curricula of 126 U.S. and 17 Canadian medical schools, the authors found that only 19% of U.S. medical schools and 24% of Canadian medical schools require basic science courses or experiences during the clinical years, a minor increase compared with 1985. Curricular methods ranged from simple lectures to integrated case studies with hands-on laboratory experience. The authors hope to advance the national discussion about the need to more fully integrate basic science teaching throughout all four years of the medical student curriculum by placing a curricular innovation in the context of similar efforts by other U.S. and Canadian medical schools. PMID:18580085
Spencer, Abby L; Brosenitsch, Teresa; Levine, Arthur S; Kanter, Steven L
The problem of quantum-like representation in economy cognitive science, and genetics / L. Accardi, A. Khrennikov and M. Ohya -- Chaotic behavior observed in linea dynamics / M. Asano, T. Yamamoto and Y. Togawa -- Complete m-level quantum teleportation based on Kossakowski-Ohya scheme / M. Asano, M. Ohya and Y. Tanaka -- Towards quantum cybernetics: optimal feedback control in quantum bio informatics / V. P. Belavkin -- Quantum entanglement and circulant states / D. Chru?ci?ski -- The compound Fock space and its application in brain models / K. -H. Fichtner and W. Freudenberg -- Characterisation of beam splitters / L. Fichtner and M. Gäbler -- Application of entropic chaos degree to a combined quantum baker's map / K. Inoue, M. Ohya and I. V. Volovich -- On quantum algorithm for multiple alignment of amino acid sequences / S. Iriyama and M. Ohya --Quantum-like models for decision making in psychology and cognitive science / A. Khrennikov -- On completely positive non-Markovian evolution of a d-level system / A. Kossakowski and R. Rebolledo -- Measures of entanglement - a Hilbert space approach / W. A. Majewski -- Some characterizations of PPT states and their relation / T. Matsuoka -- On the dynamics of entanglement and characterization ofentangling properties of quantum evolutions / M. Michalski -- Perspective from micro-macro duality - towards non-perturbative renormalization scheme / I. Ojima -- A simple symmetric algorithm using a likeness with Introns behavior in RNA sequences / M. Regoli -- Some aspects of quadratic generalized white noise functionals / Si Si and T. Hida -- Analysis of several social mobility data using measure of departure from symmetry / K. Tahata ... [et al.] -- Time in physics and life science / I. V. Volovich -- Note on entropies in quantum processes / N. Watanabe -- Basics of molecular simulation and its application to biomolecules / T. Ando and I. Yamato -- Theory of proton-induced superionic conduction in hydrogen-bonded systems / H. Kamimura -- Massive collection of full-length complementary DNA clones and microarray analyses: keys to rice transcriptome analysis / S. Kikuchi -- Changes of influenza A(H5) viruses by means of entropic chaos degree / K. Sato and M. Ohya -- Basics of genome sequence analysis in bioinformatics - its fundamental ideas and problems / T. Suzuki and S. Miyazaki -- A basic introduction to gene expression studies using microarray expression data analysis / D. Wanke and J. Kilian -- Integrating biological perspectives: a quantum leap for microarray expression analysis / D. Wanke ... [et al.].
Community informatics can be defined as a strategy or discipline that focuses on the use of information and communication technologies by territorial communities. This paper analyzes the emerging community informatics evaluation literature to develop an understanding of the indicators used to gauge project impacts in community networks and community technology centers. This study finds that community networks and community technology
A decision support system can be approached from two major disciplinary perspectives, those of information systems science (ISS) and artificial intelligence (AI). We present in this chapter an extended ontology for a decision support system in health informatics. The extended ontology is founded on related research in ISS and AI, and on performed case studies in health informatics. The ontology
This article describes how an Informatics subject has integrated information literacy skills into its curriculum assessment practice. The paper provides a background on the role information literacies have in student learning and explains the importance of ensuring the literacies are aligned with subject content and assessment practice. It describes the results of an informatics subject that has been developed through
|While interest and activity in health informatics continues to increase worldwide, concerns about the most appropriate educational preparation for practice also arise. Health informatics is an interdisciplinary field that pursues effective use of data, information and knowledge to support effective decision making; in the health field, those…
As the emphasis on individuals' active partnership in health care grows, so does the public's need for effective, comprehensible consumer health resources. Consumer health informatics has the potential to provide frameworks and strategies for designing effective health communication tools that empower users and improve their health decisions. This article presents an overview of the consumer health informatics field, discusses promising
Alla Keselman; Robert Logan; Catherine Arnott-Smith; Gondy Leroy; Qing Zeng-Treitler
As the emphasis on individuals' active partnership in health care grows, so does the public's need for effective, comprehensible consumer health resources. Consumer health informatics has the potential to provide frameworks and strategies for designing effective health communication tools that empower users and improve their health decisions. This article presents an overview of the consumer health informatics field, discusses promising
C. A. Smith; Alla Keselman; Q. Zeng-Treitler; R. Logan; Gondy Leroy
NCI created CBIIT to lead the coordination, development, and deployment of enterprise-wide digital capabilities (including biomedical informatics, scientific-management information systems, and computing resources) in support of the Institute's initiatives. Through CBIIT, NCI is helping to speed scientific discovery and facilitate translational research by using IT and informatics to address complex research challenges.
People and organizational issues are critical in both implementing medical informatics systems and in dealing with the altered organizations that new systems often create. The people and organizational issues area—like medical informatics itself—is a blend of many disciplines. The academic disciplines of psychology, sociology, social psychology, social anthropology, organizational behavior and organizational development, management, and cognitive sciences are rich with
Nancy M Lorenzi; Robert T Riley; Andrew J C Blyth; Gray Southon; Bradley J Dixon
The importance of informatics in healthcare is more than just a consequence of rapid information technology (IT) developments over the last couple of decades. Informatics-related activities are located at the very heart of healthcare and involve biomedical sciences, computer sciences and healthcare policy and management. Evidence based medicine (EBM) may be defined as the explicit and judicious use of current
|Both mathematics and informatics share common characteristics. Several didacticians propose therefore to define didactic situations permitting learners to "co-construct" knowledge of mathematics and informatics. In this document, the idea is resumed and a certain number of "functional structures" are proposed. These sets of problems take on a…
Information has long been an essential in conducting human affairs, but it is surprising that informatics (information science) has not been established as a field of study within education. This paper attempts to formalize educational informatics through a needs assessment approach and to outline a research agenda. The four needs considered are…
The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and the New Jersey Institute of Technology have combined their resources to offer a joint master of science degree program in biomedical informatics. An overview of biomedical informatics is given, and needs assessment data are discussed. The program goals and curriculum are discussed
Based on the special feature and the research and analysis to the higher education informatization evaluation, this paper take quantitative and qualitative methods as practice to construct the index system to the higher education informatization evaluation. And based on this index system, a multi-objective ranking is established for the analysis model via methods and formulas of AHP and DEA. And
Rob Kling, his research interests, and his advocacy were at the center of a movement in analytical inquiry and empirical research now known as 'social informatics'. His unexpected death in May, 2003 was a loss. Despite our loss, those of us who engage in social informatics research are finding unity by strengthening and furthering the conceptual perspective, analytical approaches, and
This paper outlines a didactic approach for computer science courses based on the concept of socio-technical Informatics Systems, demonstrating the linkage between computational issues and their manifold social contexts as well as their close relation to social and ethical issues. The analysis of the product–process relationship of software development as a major element of the construction of Informatics Systems leads
Eight Canadian universities partnered to establish a Collaborative Health Informatics PhD/Postdoc Strategic Training Program (CHPSTP). The 6-year goal was to increase research capacity in health informatics in Canada. Three cohorts of 20 trainees participated in the training, which included online Research Learning Experiences, annual face-to-face…
Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) is the feature of electronic medical record (EMR) implementation that arguably offers the greatest quality and patient safety benefits. The gains are potentially greater for critically ill neonates, but the effect of CPOE on quality and safety is dependent upon local implementation decisions. OBJECTIVES: After completing this article, readers should be able to: Define the basic aspects of CPOE and clinical decision support (CDS) systems.Describe the potential benefits of implementing CPOE associated with CDS in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). PMID:21804768
Palma, Jonathan P; Sharek, Paul J; Classen, David C; Longhurst, Christopher A
As the emphasis on individuals' active partnership in health care grows, so does the public's need for effective, comprehensible consumer health resources. Consumer health informatics has the potential to provide frameworks and strategies for designing effective health communication tools that empower users and improve their health decisions. This article presents an overview of the consumer health informatics field, discusses promising approaches to supporting health communication, and identifies challenges plus direction for future research and development. The authors' recommendations emphasize the need for drawing upon communication and social science theories of information behavior, reaching out to consumers via a range of traditional and novel formats, gaining better understanding of the public's health information needs, and developing informatics solutions for tailoring resources to users' needs and competencies. This article was written as a scholarly outreach and leadership project by members of the American Medical Informatics Association's Consumer Health Informatics Working Group.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Last two years, the health informatics profession celebrated five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: thirty years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data, twenty years from the establishment of Society for Medical Informatics BiH, fifteen years from the establishment of the Scientific and Professional Journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina „Acta Informatica Medica“, fifteen years on from the establishment of the first Cathedra for Medical Informatics on Biomedical Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and five years on from the introduction of the method of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. The author of this article are eager to mark the importance of the above mentioned Anniversaries in the development of Health informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and have attempted, very briefly, to present the most significant events and persons with essential roles throughout this period.
Over the past century, the library profession has collaborated with other interested groups to develop a variety of standards for the production, distribution, organization, and description of the published literature. Early successes in standardizing the content and format of bibliographic records gave the library community a firm basis for the creation of information standards for use in automated systems. The current array of relatively mature standards related to the published literature holds more than academic interest for those engaged in medical informatics research and development. In addition to their obvious utility for many applications involving access to the biomedical literature, some of the standards are also applicable to other types of biomedical information. Because bibliographic data share some of the complex characteristics of clinical data, a look at the types of standards that have emerged for the published literature can be helpful in identifying the range of standards to be considered for the clinical environment. An examination of the reasons for success in the development of bibliographic standards may also provide a useful perspective on efforts to develop information standards in other areas of concern to the medical informatics community.
This article defines and describes the rich variety of research designs found in librarianship and informatics practice. Familiarity with the range of methods and the ability to make distinctions between those specific methods can enable authors to label their research reports correctly. The author has compiled an inventory of methods from a variety of disciplines, but with attention to the relevant applications of a methodology to the field of librarianship. Each entry in the inventory includes a definition and description for the particular research method. Some entries include references to resource material and examples.
This article defines and describes the rich variety of research designs found in librarianship and informatics practice. Familiarity with the range of methods and the ability to make distinctions between those specific methods can enable authors to label their research reports correctly. The author has compiled an inventory of methods from a variety of disciplines, but with attention to the relevant applications of a methodology to the field of librarianship. Each entry in the inventory includes a definition and description for the particular research method. Some entries include references to resource material and examples. PMID:14762467
New applications for facility-based clinical practice continue to be the fastest growing area of interest in nursing informatics (Fig. 7.1). Although there are many technological advances discussed here, the areas of greatest interest are conceptual. Source data capture, the development and use of decision support and expert systems, and the development of a nursing minimum data set as they relate
Development of a computer program for simulation, diagnosis and informatics in Geographic Medicine and Clinical Microbiology. The GIDEON (Global Infectious Diseases and EpidemiOgy Network) software follows the status of all infectious diseases and pathogens in all countries; in addition to the pharmacology and use of all antiinfective agents and vaccines in the field.
Launched in 2001, the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN; http://www.nbirn.net) is an NIH – NCRR initiative that enables researchers to collaborate in an environment for biomedical research and clinical information management, focused particularly upon medical imaging. Although it supports a vast array of programs to transform and calculate upon medical images, three fundamental problems emerged that inhibited collaborations. The first was that the complexity of the programs, and at times legal restrictions, combined to prohibit these programs from being accessible to all members of the teams and indeed the general researcher, although this was a fundamental mission of the BIRN. Second, the calculations that needed to be performed were very complex, and required many steps that often needed to be performed by different groups. Third, many of the analysis programs were not interoperable. These problems combined to created tremendous logistical problems. The solution was to create a portal-based workflow application that allowed the complex, collaborative tasks to take place and enabled new kinds of calculations that had not previously been practical.
Murphy, Shawn N.; Mendis, Michael E.; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gollub, Randy L.; Kennedy, David; Rosen, Bruce R.
Incorporating complex content into a nursing curriculum presents students with the knowledge and thinking skills necessary to enter a career in nursing. A level 1 trauma center is a prefect environment to advance these thinking skills. Nurses act as professional role models and teachers as they clarify and explain their thinking to a student. When experienced nurses show invitational behaviors to students and share their knowledge with them, they ignite a strong desire within the student to progress. Caring, communication, and inclusion are key components that synergize the teaching/learning experience. The development of critical thinking is a continuous process that is best achieved through collaboration between the student, faculty, and professional, experienced nurses. PMID:18080576
Among 15 174 non-duplicated Enterobacteriaceae isolates, the prevalence of carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CNSE) was about 2.5% at a teaching hospital in Taiwan during 2010. Among 117 available isolates of CNSE, 8.6% carried genes encoding carbapenemases. Tigecycline and colistin were the most active agents against carbapenemase-producing and non-producing isolates. Patients infected with CNSE had an all-cause in-hospital mortality of 37.3%, and mortality was similar for infections from carbapenemase producers and non-producers (14-day mortality rates: 22.2% and 21.5%; 30-day mortality rates: 22.2% and 32.3%, respectively). Continuous surveillance of CNSE is recommended in Taiwan. PMID:24016614
This study shows how to integrate research-based teaching methods in reading comprehension with real classroom teaching activities. The performance of 30 male (n = 13; mean age = 11.51 years) and female (n = 17; mean age = 12.11 years) deaf and hard-of-hearing students from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was examined under three teaching conditions: the key word strategy, modified reciprocal teaching, and the basic reading approach. Analyses showed that the key word strategy and modified reciprocal teaching significantly enhanced students' overall performance in reading comprehension scores. Results revealed that any one of these three methods would be adequate for teaching factual information. However, results indicated that the key word strategy and modified reciprocal teaching would be better for teaching factual information, comprehension, and memorization skills than the basic reading approach. PMID:15448064
Context Palliation in patient care is under-utilized in part because many patients have insufficient knowledge about this management option. Information technology can improve awareness by providing access to numerous sources of trustworthy information. Evidence Acquisition To estimate what a patient interested in palliation might find online, online resources were searched in July 2010, using terms relevant to palliation. PubMed was searched for publications relevant to discussed topics. Evidence Synthesis Search engines returned vast numbers of hits, and identifying trustworthy sites was difficult. Products judged as trustworthy were classified as information, decision tool, or extended interaction tool. Sites with useful educational material were relatively plentiful; decision guides and interactive tools were much rarer. Available consumer informatics did not address well some terminal illnesses, and some subpopulations such as children, nor was there sufficient attention to literacy levels or principles of instructional design. Online or published information about usage numbers, effectiveness, and cost/benefit considerations was scant. Many sectors, including commercial, government, healthcare, research, and wellness/advocacy groups, have created consumer informatics for palliation. Conclusions Online information about palliation is available, although identifying trustworthy sources can be problematic. General information sites are relatively plentiful, but more tools for decision making, and interaction would increase value of web resources. More attention to literacy levels, instructional principles, and needs of special populations would improve products. Research to measure usage of such tools, ability to influence behavior, and cost/benefit issues is needed.
Corn, Milton; Gustafson, David H.; Harris, Linda M.; Kutner, Jean S.; McFarren, Ann E.; Shad, Aziza T.
The overarching informatics grand challenge facing society is the creation of knowledge management systems that can acquire, conserve, organize, retrieve, display, and distribute what is known today in a manner that informs and educates, facilitates the discovery and creation of new knowledge, and contributes to the health and welfare of the planet. At one time the private, national, and university libraries of the world collectively constituted the memory of society's intellectual history. In the future, these new digital knowledge management systems will constitute human memory in its entirety. The current model of multiple local collections of duplicated resources will give way to specialized sole-source servers. In this new environment all scholarly scientific knowledge should be public domain knowledge: managed by scientists, organized for the advancement of knowledge, and readily available to all. Over the next decade, the challenge for the field of medical informatics and for the libraries that serve as the continuous memory for the biomedical sciences will be to come together to form a new organization that will lead to the development of postmodern digital knowledge management systems for medicine. These systems will form a portion of the evolving world brain of the 21st century.
Public health surveillance has benefitted from, and has often pioneered, informatics analyses and solutions. However, the field of informatics also serves other facets of public health including emergency response, environmental health, nursing, and administration. Public health informatics has been defined as the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning. It is an interdisciplinary profession that applies mathematics, engineering, information science, and related social sciences (e.g., decision analysis) to important public health problems and processes. Public health informatics is a subdomain of the larger field known as biomedical or health informatics. Health informatics is not synonymous with the term health information technology (IT). Although the concept of health IT encompasses the use of technology in the field of health care, one can think of health informatics as defining the science, the how and why, behind health IT. For example, health IT professionals should be able to resolve infrastructure problems with a network connection, whereas trained public health informaticians should be able to support public health decisions by facilitating the availability of timely, relevant, and high-quality information. In other words, they should always be able to provide advice on methods for achieving a public health goal faster, better, or at a lower cost by leveraging computer science, information science, or technology. PMID:22832993
This panel responds to the December 2004 workshop on Eco-Informatics and Decision Making , which addressed how informatics tools can help with better management of natural resources and policy making. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the NSF, NBII, NASA, and EPA. Workshop participants recommended that informatics research in four IT areas be funded: modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. Additionally, they recommend that funding agencies provide infrastructure and some changes in funding habits to assure cycles of innovation in the domain were addressed. This panel brings issues raised in that workshop to the attention of digital government researchers.
Gushing, J. B.; Wilson, T.; Martin, F.; Schnase, J.; Spengler, S.; Sugarbaker, L.; Pardo, T.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions.
Subtitled "a professional development Website for teachers," Teaching Heritage is an impressive collection of information and resources for teaching Australian history and culture. There are eight main sections to the site: four offer teaching resources and four provide teaching units. The resource sections include an examination of different ways of defining heritage, an Australian heritage timeline, discussions of different approaches to teaching heritage through media, and outcomes-based approaches in teaching and assessing heritage coursework. The teaching units deal in depth with issues of citizenship, nationalism, Australian identities, and new cultural values. A Heritage Gallery features images of various culturally significant or representative places in Australia, such as New Italy, the Dundullimal Homestead, Australian Hall, Kelly's Bush, and many more. Obviously, teachers of Civics on the southern continent will find this site extremely useful, but the teaching units -- rich with texts and images -- also offer fascinating introductions for anyone interested in the issues of Australian nation-making.